Facebook Twiter Goole Plus Linked In YouTube Blogger

Science


Boy with Magnifying Glass Science is establishing Facts through investigations and research. Understanding causes and effects and the nature of Reality. Science can cover a lot of different subjects, so depending on the type of science that you are studying, each one will require a unique set of skills that you need to learn, and you will also have to study areas of knowledge that are focused on a particular subject.

Previous SubjectNext Subject

What is Science?

Science Rocks Scientist is a person engaging in a systematic activity to acquire knowledge that describes and predicts the natural world. In a more restricted sense, a scientist may refer to an individual who uses the scientific method. The person may be an expert in one or more areas of science. Technologist is a person who uses scientific knowledge to solve practical problems.
Scientism is a term used to describe the universal applicability of the scientific method and approach, and the view that empirical science constitutes the most authoritative worldview or the most valuable part of human learning—to the exclusion of other viewpoints.
Outline of Science is a systematic effort of acquiring knowledge—through observation and experimentation coupled with logic and Reasoning to find out what can be proved or not proved—and the knowledge thus acquired. The word "science" comes from the Latin word "scientia" meaning knowledge. A practitioner of science is called a "scientist". Modern science respects objective logical reasoning, and follows a set of core procedures or rules in order to determine the nature and underlying natural laws of the universe and everything in it. Some scientists do not know of the rules themselves, but follow them through research policies. These procedures are known as the scientific method.
Laws of Science are statements that describe or predict a range of phenomena behave as they appear to in nature. The term "law" has diverse usage in many cases: approximate, accurate, broad or narrow theories, in all natural scientific disciplines (physics, chemistry, biology, geology, astronomy etc.). Scientific laws summarize and explain a large collection of facts determined by experiment, and are tested based on their ability to predict the results of future experiments. They are developed either from facts or through mathematics, and are strongly supported by empirical evidence. It is generally understood that they reflect causal relationships fundamental to reality, and are discovered rather than invented.
Data Driven Science is an interdisciplinary field about scientific methods, processes and systems to extract knowledge or insights from data in various forms, either structured or unstructured, similar to Knowledge Discovery in Databases (KDD). Data science is a "concept to unify statistics, data analysis and their related methods" in order to "understand and analyze actual phenomena" with data. It employs techniques and theories drawn from many fields within the broad areas of mathematics, statistics, information science, and computer science, in particular from the subdomains of machine learning, classification, cluster analysis, data mining, databases, and visualization.
Fringe Science is an inquiry in an established field of study which departs significantly from mainstream theories in that field and is considered to be questionable by the mainstream. Fringe science may be either a questionable application of a scientific approach to a field of study or an approach whose status as scientific is widely questioned.

STEM Fields are the academic disciplines of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics.

Science Tools
Science Films
Science News
Science Resources


Science Types


Branches of Science (PDF) - Over 550 Branches of Science so far.

Branches of Science Natural Science Outline is a major branch of science that tries to explain, and predict, nature's phenomena based on empirical evidence. In natural science, hypothesis must be verified scientifically to be regarded as scientific theory. Validity, accuracy, and social mechanisms ensuring quality control, such as peer review and repeatability of findings, are amongst the criteria and methods used for this purpose. Natural science can be broken into 2 main branches: life science, and physical science. Each of these branches, and all of their sub-branches, are referred to as natural sciences.
Natural Sciences Academy
Naturalist
Physical Science Outline is a branch of natural science that studies non-living systems, in contrast to Life Science. It in turn has many branches, each referred to as a "physical science", together called the "physical sciences". However, the term "physical" creates an unintended, somewhat arbitrary distinction, since many branches of physical science also study biological phenomena and branches of chemistry such as organic chemistry.
Earth Science Outline all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth. It is also known as geoscience, the geosciences or the Earth sciences, and is arguably a special case in planetary science, the Earth being the only known life-bearing planet. Earth science is a branch of the physical sciences which is a part of the natural sciences. It in turn has many branches.
Formal Science Outline are branches of knowledge that are concerned with formal systems, such as those under the branches of: logic, mathematics, computer science, statistics, and some aspects of linguistics. Unlike other sciences, the formal sciences are not concerned with the validity of theories based on observations in the real world, but instead with the properties of formal systems based on definitions and rules.
Social Science Outline is the branch of science concerned with society and human behaviors.
Applied Science Outline is the branch of science that applies existing scientific knowledge to develop more practical applications, including inventions and other technological advancements. Science itself is the systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe.

Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
Clinical Science Journal offers multi-disciplinary coverage and clinical perspectives to advance human health.
Translational Science is a highly interdisciplinary field, the primary goal of which is to coalesce assets of various natures within the individual pillars in order to improve the global healthcare system significantly. The goal of translational medicine is to combine disciplines, resources, expertise, and techniques within these pillars to promote enhancements in prevention, diagnosis, and therapies.The term translational refers to the "translation" of basic scientific findings in a laboratory setting into potential treatments for disease.
Forensic Science is the application of science to criminal and civil laws, mainly—on the criminal side—during criminal investigation, as governed by the legal standards of admissible evidence and criminal procedure. Forensic scientists collect, preserve, and analyze scientific evidence during the course of an investigation. While some forensic scientists travel to the scene of the crime to collect the evidence themselves, others occupy a laboratory role, performing analysis on objects brought to them by other individuals. Blackstone Discovery

Philosophy of Science is a branch of philosophy concerned with the foundations, methods, and implications of science. The central questions of this study concern what qualifies as science, the reliability of scientific theories, and the ultimate purpose of science. This discipline overlaps with metaphysics, ontology, and epistemology, for example, when it explores the relationship between science and truth.
Holism Science is an approach to research that emphasizes the study of complex systems which aims to gain understanding of systems by dividing them into smaller composing elements and gaining understanding of the system through understanding their elemental properties.

Open Science is the movement to make scientific research, data and dissemination accessible to all levels of an inquiring society, amateur or professional. It encompasses practices such as publishing open research, campaigning for open access, encouraging scientists to practice open notebook science, and generally making it easier to publish and communicate scientific knowledge. The European-funded project Facilitate Open Science Training for European Research (FOSTER) has developed an open science taxonomy as an attempt to map the open science field.
Do it Yourself Science (DIY)

Energy

Internal Pages
Chemistry
Electricity
Computers
Technology Education
Math
Engineering
Physics
Nano
Biology
Innovation
Evolution
Collaboration
Observations
Hypothesis
Problem Solving
Reasoning
Decision Making
Planning
Information Literacy
Knowledge Management
Management


Research


Step A then Step B then Result Research is a systematic Investigation to establish Facts. A search for Knowledge. Inquire into. Questioning. Gathering Knowledge about Nature and Organizing and Condensing that Knowledge into testable laws and theories. Ability to produce Solutions in some Problem Domain. Research into questions posed by scientific Theories and HypothesesGoals of Research (PDF)

Empirical Research is research using empirical evidence. It is a way of gaining knowledge by means of direct and indirect Observation or experience. Empiricism values such research more than other kinds. Empirical evidence (the record of one's direct observations or experiences) can be analyzed quantitatively or qualitatively. Through quantifying the evidence or making sense of it in qualitative form, a researcher can answer empirical questions, which should be clearly defined and answerable with the evidence collected (usually called data). Research design varies by field and by the question being investigated. Many researchers combine qualitative and quantitative forms of analysis to better answer questions which cannot be studied in laboratory settings, particularly in the social sciences and in education.

Exploratory Research is research conducted for a problem that has not been clearly defined. It often occurs before we know enough to make conceptual distinctions or to posit an explanatory relationship. Exploratory research develops concepts more clearly, established priorities, develops operational definitions and improve the final research design. Exploratory research helps determine the best research design, data-collection method and selection of subjects. It should draw definitive conclusions only with extreme caution. Given its fundamental nature, exploratory research often concludes that a perceived problem does not actually exist.

Field Research is the collection of information outside a laboratory, library or workplace setting. The approaches and methods used in field research vary across disciplines. For example, biologists who conduct field research may simply observe animals interacting with their environments, whereas social scientists conducting field research may interview or observe people in their natural environments to learn their languages, folklore, and social structures. Drug Research

Research Proposal is a document proposing a research project, generally in the sciences or academia, and generally constitutes a request for sponsorship of that research. Proposals are evaluated on the cost and potential impact of the proposed research, and on the soundness of the proposed plan for carrying it out. Research proposals generally address several key points: What research question(s) will be addressed, and how they will be addressed. What cost and time will be required for the research. What prior research has been done on the topic. How the results of the research will be evaluated. How the research will benefit the sponsoring organization and other parties.

Basic Research is scientific research aimed to improve scientific theories for improved understanding or prediction of natural or other phenomena. Applied research, in turn, uses scientific theories to develop technology or techniques to intervene and alter natural or other phenomena.
Primary Research involves the collection of original primary data by researchers. It is often undertaken after researchers have gained some insight into an issue by reviewing secondary research or by analyzing previously collected primary data. It can be accomplished through various methods, including questionnaires and telephone interviews in market research, or experiments and direct Observations in the physical sciences, amongst others. The distinction between primary research and secondary research is crucial among market-research professionals.
Open Research is research conducted in the spirit of free and open source software. Much like open source schemes that are built around a source code that is made public, the central theme of open research is to make clear accounts of the methodology freely available via the internet, along with any data or results extracted or derived from them. This permits a massively distributed collaboration, and one in which anyone may participate at any level of the project.

Quantitative Research is the systematic empirical investigation of observable phenomena via statistical, mathematical or computational techniques. The objective of quantitative research is to develop and employ mathematical models, theories and/or hypotheses pertaining to phenomena. The process of measurement is central to quantitative research because it provides the fundamental connection between empirical observation and mathematical expression of quantitative relationships.
Research and Development or R & D is a general term for activities in connection with corporate or governmental innovation. Research and development is a component of Innovation and is situated at the front end of the Innovation life cycle. Innovation builds on R&D and includes commercialization phases.

Prove it to be True. Prove it to be False. How Necessary is it to Prove? What are your Priorities?

"By observation we can deduce how something, anything works" (Victor Scauberger)

Evaluation is a systematic determination of a subject's merit, worth and significance, using criteria governed by a set of standards. It can assist an organization, program, project or any other intervention or initiative to assess any aim, realisable concept/proposal, or any alternative, to help in decision-making; or to ascertain the degree of achievement or value in regard to the aim and objectives and results of any such action that has been completed. The primary purpose of evaluation, in addition to gaining insight into prior or existing initiatives, is to enable reflection and assist in the identification of future change.
Diagnosis is the identification of the nature and cause of a certain phenomenon. Diagnosis is used in many different disciplines with variations in the use of logic, analytics, and experience to determine "cause and effect". In systems engineering and computer science, it is typically used to determine the causes of symptoms, mitigations, and solutions.
Dissection is the dismembering of the body of a deceased animal or plant to study its anatomical structure. Autopsy is used in pathology and forensic medicine to determine the cause of death in humans. It is carried out by or demonstrated to biology and anatomy students in high school and medical school. Less advanced courses typically focus on smaller subjects, such as small formaldehyde-preserved animals, while the more advanced courses normally use cadavers. Consequently, dissection is typically conducted in a morgue or in an anatomy lab.
Predictions
Baseline

Experiment is a procedure carried out to support, refute, or validate a hypothesis. Experiments provide insight into cause-and-effect by demonstrating what outcome occurs when a particular factor is manipulated. Experiments vary greatly in goal and scale, but always rely on repeatable procedure and logical analysis of the results. There also exists natural experimental studies.
Randomized Experiment are the experiments that allow the greatest reliability and validity of statistical estimates of treatment effects. Randomization-based inference is especially important in experimental design and in survey sampling.
Pilot Experiment is a small scale preliminary study conducted in order to evaluate feasibility, time, cost, adverse events, and effect size (statistical variability) in an attempt to predict an appropriate sample size and improve upon the study design prior to performance of a full-scale research project. Pilot studies, therefore, may not be appropriate for case studies.
Quasi-Experiment is an empirical study used to estimate the causal impact of an intervention on its target population without random assignment. Quasi-experimental research shares similarities with the traditional experimental design or randomized controlled trial, but it specifically lacks the element of random assignment to treatment or control. Instead, quasi-experimental designs typically allow the researcher to control the assignment to the treatment condition, but using some criterion other than random assignment (e.g., an eligibility cutoff mark). Double Blind
Design of Experiments is the design of any task that aims to describe or explain the variation of information under conditions that are hypothesized to reflect the variation. The term is generally associated with true experiments in which the design introduces conditions that directly affect the variation, but may also refer to the design of quasi-experiments, in which natural conditions that influence the variation are selected for observation.
Experimentalist is the philosophical belief that the way to truth is through experiments and empiricism. It is also associated with instrumentalism, the belief that truth should be evaluated based upon its demonstrated usefulness. Less formally, artists often pursue their visions through trial and error; this form of experimentalism has been practiced in every field, from music to film and from literature to theatre.
Empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from Sensory Experience. One of several views of epistemology, the study of human knowledge, along with rationalism and skepticism, empiricism emphasizes the role of empirical evidence in the formation of ideas, over the notion of innate ideas or traditions.
Constructivist Epistemology is a branch in philosophy of science maintaining that scientific knowledge is constructed by the scientific community, who seek to Measure and construct models of the natural world. Natural science therefore consists of mental constructs that aim to explain sensory experience (and measurements).
Scientific Control is an experiment or observation designed to minimize the effects of variables other than the independent variable. This increases the reliability of the results, often through a comparison between control measurements and the other measurements. Scientific controls are a part of the scientific method.

Types-of-Scientific-Evidence Evidence is testimony from expert witnesses, documentary evidence, and physical evidence. Measurements
Empirical Evidence is the knowledge or source of knowledge acquired by means of the senses, particularly by observation and experimentation. Consensus
Scientific Evidence is evidence which serves to either support or counter a scientific theory or hypothesis. Such evidence is expected to be empirical evidence and interpretation in accordance with scientific method. Standards for scientific evidence vary according to the field of inquiry, but the strength of scientific evidence is generally based on the results of statistical analysis and the strength of scientific controls.
Real Evidence is any material object that proves a fact in issue based on the object's demonstrable physical characteristics.
Evidence (law) encompasses the rules and legal principles that govern the proof of facts in a legal proceeding. These rules determine what evidence must or must not be considered by the trier of fact in reaching its decision. The trier of fact is a judge in bench trials, or the jury in any cases involving a jury. The law of evidence is also concerned with the quantum (amount), quality, and type of proof needed to prevail in litigation. The rules vary depending upon whether the venue is a criminal court, civil court, or family court, and they vary by jurisdiction.
Forensic Science collects, preserves, and analyzes scientific evidence during the course of an investigation. While some forensic scientists travel to the scene of the crime to collect the evidence themselves, others occupy a laboratory role, performing Analysis on objects brought to them by other individuals.
Forensic Rhetoric encompasses any discussion of past action including legal discourse—the primary setting for the emergence
of rhetoric as a discipline and theory.
Biological Evidence refers to samples of biological material—such as hair, tissue, bones, teeth, blood, semen, or other bodily fluids—or to evidence items containing biological material (DNA Initiative 2012). Health Questions
Anecdotal Evidence evidence collected in a casual or informal manner and relying heavily or entirely on personal testimony.
Direct Evidence supports the truth of an assertion (in criminal law, an assertion of guilt or of innocence) directly, i.e., without an intervening inference. Circumstantial evidence, by contrast, consists of a fact or set of facts which, if proven, will support the creation of an inference that the matter asserted is true.
False Evidence is information created or obtained illegally, to sway the verdict in a court case. Falsified evidence could be created by either side in a case (including the police/prosecution in a criminal case), or by someone sympathetic to either side. Misleading by suppressing evidence can also be considered a form of false evidence (by omission), however, in some cases, suppressed evidence is excluded because it cannot be proved the accused was aware of the items found or of their location.
Admissible Evidence is any testimonial, documentary, or tangible evidence that may be introduced to a factfinder—usually a judge or jury—to establish or to bolster a point put forth by a party to the proceeding. For evidence to be admissible, it must be relevant, without being unfairly prejudicial, and it must have some indicia of reliability. The general rule in evidence is that all relevant evidence is admissible and all irrelevant evidence is inadmissible. Investigation
Circumstantial Evidence is evidence that relies on an inference to connect it to a conclusion of fact—like a fingerprint at the scene of a crime. By contrast, direct evidence supports the truth of an assertion directly—i.e., without need for any additional evidence or inference.
Proof is sufficient evidence or a sufficient argument for the truth of a proposition.
Established is something shown to be valid beyond a reasonable doubt. Establish the validity of something, as by an example, explanation or experiment. Brought about or set up or accepted; especially long established. Conforming with accepted standards. Set up or lay the groundwork for.1859 book On the Origin of Species.
Unsubstantiated is unsupported by other evidence.
Validity

Physical Law is a theoretical statement "inferred from particular facts, applicable to a defined group or class of phenomena, and expressible by the statement that a particular phenomenon always occurs if certain conditions be present." Physical laws are typically conclusions based on repeated scientific experiments and observations over many years and which have become accepted universally within the scientific community. The production of a summary description of our environment in the form of such laws is a fundamental aim of science. These terms are not used the same way by all authors. The distinction between natural law in the political-legal sense and law of nature or physical law in the scientific sense is a modern one, both concepts being equally derived from physis, the Greek word (translated into Latin as natura) for nature.

A/B Testing is a way to compare two versions of a single Variable typically by testing a subject's response to variable A against variable B, and determining which of the two variables is more effective. A randomized experiment with two variants, A and B, which are the control and variation in the controlled experiment. A/B testing is a form of statistical hypothesis testing with two variants leading to the technical term, two-sample hypothesis testing, used in the field of statistics.

Multivariate Testing
Nondestructive Testing

Diagnostic Test is a kind of medical procedure performed to detect, diagnose, or monitor diseases, disease processes, susceptibility, and determine a course of treatment. It is related to clinical chemistry and molecular diagnostics, and the procedures are typically performed in a medical laboratory.
Testing Flaws
Calibration

Law of Large Numbers is a theorem that describes the result of performing the same experiment a large number of times. According to the law, the average of the results obtained from a large number of trials should be close to the expected value, and will tend to become closer as more Trials are performed.

Computation is any type of calculation that follows a well-defined model understood and expressed as, for example, an algorithm.
Standard Deviation is a measure that is used to quantify the amount of variation or dispersion of a set of data values. A low standard deviation indicates that the data points tend to be close to the mean (also called the expected value) of the set, while a high standard deviation indicates that the data points are spread out over a wider range of values.
Parameters is any characteristic that can help in defining or classifying a particular system (meaning an event, project, object, situation, etc.). That is, a parameter is an element of a system that is useful, or critical, when identifying the system, or when evaluating its performance, status, condition, etc.

Constructing a Multiple Baseline Graph using MS Excel and Word (youtube)
(Standard Excel Spreadsheets have 1,048,576 Rows)

Scientific Visualization is the visualization of three-dimensional phenomena (architectural, meteorological, medical, biological, etc.), where the emphasis is on realistic renderings of volumes, surfaces, illumination sources, and so forth, perhaps with a dynamic (time) component". It is also considered a subset of computer graphics, a branch of computer science. The purpose of scientific visualization is to graphically illustrate scientific data to enable scientists to understand, illustrate, and glean insight from their data.
Correspondence Analysis a means of displaying or summarising a set of data in two-dimensional graphical form.
Scientific Poster Presentation Sample (image)

Scientific Modeling is a scientific activity, the aim of which is to make a particular part or feature of the world easier to understand, define, quantify, visualize, or simulate by referencing it to existing and usually commonly accepted knowledge. It requires selecting and identifying relevant aspects of a situation in the real world and then using different types of models for different aims, such as conceptual models to better understand, operational models to operationalize, mathematical models to quantify, and graphical models to visualize the subject. Modelling is an essential and inseparable part of many scientific disciplines have their own ideas about specific types of modelling. There is also an increasing attention to scientific modelling in fields such as science education, philosophy of science, systems theory, and knowledge visualization. There is growing collection of methods, techniques and meta-theory about all kinds of specialized scientific modelling.
Mind Maps - Visual Reorientations


Scientific Procedure  (Define a Question)

Models of Scientific Inquiry have two functions: first, to provide a descriptive account of how scientific inquiry is carried out in practice, and second, to provide an explanatory account of why scientific inquiry succeeds as well as it appears to do in arriving at genuine knowledge.

Premise is a statement that what an argument claims will induce or justify a conclusion. In other words: a premise is an assumption that something is true. In logic, an argument requires a set of (at least) two declarative sentences (or "propositions") known as the premises or premisses along with another declarative sentence (or "proposition") known as the conclusion. This structure of two premises and one conclusion forms the basic argumentative structure. More complex arguments can use a series of rules to connect several premises to one conclusion, or to derive a number of conclusions from the original premises which then act as premises for additional conclusions. An example of this is the use of the rules of inference found within symbolic logic. Statistics
Axiom is a statement that is taken to be true, to serve as a premise or starting point for further reasoning and arguments. The word comes from the Greek axíōma (ἀξίωμα) 'that which is thought worthy or fit' or 'that which commends itself as evident.

Operational Definition is the application of operationalization used in defining the terms of a process (or set of validation tests) needed to determine the nature of an item or phenomenon (e.g. a variable, term, or object) and its properties such as duration, quantity, extension in space, chemical composition, etc. Since the degree of operationalization can vary itself, it can result in a more or less operational definition. The procedures included in definitions should be repeatable by anyone or at least by peers.
 
Hypothesis is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon. For a hypothesis to be a scientific hypothesis, the scientific method requires that one can test it. Scientists generally base scientific hypotheses on previous observations that cannot satisfactorily be explained with the available scientific theories. Even though the words "hypothesis" and "theory" are often used synonymously, a scientific hypothesis is not the same as a scientific theory. A working hypothesis is a provisionally accepted hypothesis proposed for further research.
Continuum Hypothesis is a hypothesis about the possible sizes of infinite sets. It states: There is no set whose cardinality is strictly between that of the integers and the real numbers.
Statistical Hypothesis Testing is a hypothesis that is testable on the basis of observing a process that is modeled via a set of random variables.

Theory is a contemplative and rational type of abstract or generalizing thinking, or the results of such thinking. Depending on the context, the results might for example include generalized explanations of how nature works. The word has its roots in ancient Greek, but in modern use it has taken on several different related meanings.
Scientific Theory is a well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world that is acquired through the scientific method and repeatedly tested and confirmed, preferably using a written, predefined, protocol of observations and experiments. Scientific theories are the most reliable, rigorous, and comprehensive form of scientific knowledge.
Computational Complexity Theory focuses on classifying computational problems according to their inherent difficulty, and relating those classes to each other. A computational problem is understood to be a task that is in principle amenable to being solved by a computer, which is equivalent to stating that the problem may be solved by mechanical application of mathematical steps, such as an algorithm.

Coincidence
Doubt
Anomaly
Errors
Odds - Probability
Propensity Probability
Statistics

Occam's Razor is when all things being equal, the simplest explanation is probably the correct one. (Elegant Simplicity)

The Five W's and an H

Gather Information and Resources
Evaluation is a systematic determination of a subject's merit, worth and significance, using criteria governed by a set of standards.
Observation is the active acquisition of information from a primary source.
Research comprises "creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications.
Formulate is a concise way of expressing information symbolically as in a mathematical or chemical formula.
Form an Explanatory Hypothesis  (Construct)  Formulate
Prediction
Orders of Approximation
Test the Hypothesis by Performing an Experiment and Collecting Data in a Reproducible Manner.
Analyze the Data and Results.
Secondary Data refers to data that was collected by someone other than the user.
Analytics is the discovery, interpretation, and communication of meaningful patterns in data.
Data Analysis is a process of inspecting, cleaning, transforming, and modeling Data with the goal of discovering useful information, suggesting conclusions, and supporting decision-making. Data analysis has multiple facets and approaches, encompassing diverse techniques under a variety of names, in different business, science, and social science domains.
Evidence is anything presented in support of an assertion. 
Proof Reading
Enthymeme is the body of proof or the strongest of rhetorical proofs.
Meanings
Interpret the Data and Draw Conclusions that may serve as a starting point for new Hypothesis.
Publish Results (Feedback - Opinions)
Peer Review
Systematic Review is a type of literature review that collects and critically analyzes multiple research studies or papers. A review of existing studies is often quicker and cheaper than embarking on a new study. Researchers use methods that are selected before one or more research questions are formulated, and then they aim to find and analyze studies that relate to and answer those questions. Systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials are key in the practice of evidence-based medicine
Fact Checker is the act of checking factual assertions in non-fictional text in order to determine the veracity and correctness of the factual statements in the text. This may be done either before (ante hoc) or after (post hoc) the text has been published or otherwise disseminated.
Retest (Confirm Hypothesis) Yes or No?
Repeatability or test–retest reliability is the variation in measurements taken by a single person or instrument on the same item, under the same conditions, and in a short period of time. A less-than-perfect test–retest reliability causes test–retest variability. Such variability can be caused by, for example, intra-individual variability and intra-observer variability. A measurement may be said to be repeatable when this variation is smaller than a pre-determined acceptance criterion.
Replication is the ability of an entire experiment or study to be duplicated, either by the same researcher or by someone else working independently. Reproducing an experiment is called replicating it. Reproducibility is one of the main principles of the scientific method.
Consistency (negotiation) is the need to be consistent with prior acts and statements, as well as procedures.
Consistency is one that does not contain a contradiction.
Orders of Approximation
Falsifiability
Simplicity 
Trends (statistics)

Please note that scientific methods will vary depending on the subject that you are analyzing. The procedures, techniques and equipment used in testing and verifying information will vary. Depending on what you're testing, some methods are more dependable then other methods, so there could be several variables that need to be defined first.

Scientific Study
Scientific Method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, based on empirical or measurable evidence that is subject to the principles of logic and reasoning. Acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge.
Observational Study draws inferences about the possible effect of a treatment on subjects, where the assignment of subjects into a treated group versus a control group is outside the control of the investigator.
Randomized Controlled Trial is a type of scientific experiment, often in the medical field, where the people being studied are randomly allocated one of the different treatments.
Scientific Progress is the idea that science increases its problem-solving ability through the application of the scientific method.
Retrospective Cohort Study is a longitudinal cohort study that studies a cohort of individuals that share a common exposure factor to determine its influence on the development of a disease, and are compared to another group of equivalent individuals that were not exposed to that factor. Retrospective cohort studies have existed for approximately as long as prospective cohort studies.
Prospective Cohort Study is a longitudinal cohort study that follows over time a group of similar individuals (cohorts) who differ with respect to certain factors under study, to determine how these factors affect rates of a certain outcome.[1] For example, one might follow a cohort of middle-aged truck drivers who vary in terms of smoking habits, to test the hypothesis that the 20-year incidence rate of lung cancer will be highest among heavy smokers, followed by moderate smokers, and then nonsmokers.
Meta-Analysis is a statistical analysis that combines the results of multiple scientific studies.

Problem Solving Methods
Planning
Reasoning
Communication
Train - Instruct
Independent Learning
Creativity
Investigation
Questioning
Develop
Development Meaning
Development Processes

Instructions


Describing how something should be done. Giving directions on how to complete a task.

Operators Manuals or technical communication, is a means to convey scientific, engineering, or other technical information.
Instruction Manuals is an instructional book or booklet that is supplied with almost all technologically advanced consumer products such as vehicles, home appliances and computer peripherals. Information contained in the owner's manual typically includes Safety instructions; for liability reasons these can be extensive, often including warnings against performing operations that are ill-advised for product longevity or overall user safety reasons. Assembly instructions; for products that arrive in pieces for easier shipping. Installation instructions; for products that need to be installed in a home or workplace. Setup instructions; for devices that keep track of time or which maintain user accessible state. Instructions for use. Programming instructions; for microprocessor controlled products such as VCRs, programmable calculators, and synthesizers. Maintenance instructions. Troubleshooting instructions; for when the product does not work as expected. Service locations; for when the product requires repair by a factory authorized technician. Regulatory code compliance information; for example with respect to safety or electromagnetic interference. Product technical specifications. Warranty information; sometimes provided as a separate sheet.
User Guide is a technical communication document intended to give assistance to people using a particular system. It is usually written by a technical writer, although user guides are written by programmers, product or project managers, or other technical staff, particularly in smaller companies.
Operating System

Processing is performing mathematical and logical operations on Data according to instructions or prescribed procedures in order to obtain the required information.
Process (engineering) is a series of interrelated tasks that, together, transform inputs into outputs. These tasks may be carried out by people, nature or machines using various resources; an engineering process must be considered in the context of the agents carrying out the tasks and the resource attributes involved.
Process (computing) a process made up of multiple threads of execution that execute instructions at the same time or a different times depending on the program.
Unit Operation is a basic step in a process. Unit operations involve a physical change or chemical transformation such as separation, crystallization, evaporation, filtration, polymerization, isomerization, and other reactions.
Process constructing an accurate, reliable, repeatable model of the real world.
Process is a set of interrelated activities that interact to achieve a result. A particular course of action intended to achieve a result. A mental process that you are not directly aware of. Subject to a process or treatment, with the aim of readying for some purpose, improving, or remedying a condition. Deal with in a routine way. Perform mathematical and logical operations on (data) according to programmed instructions in order to obtain the required information. Shape, form, or improve a material.
Parallel Processing is the ability of the brain to simultaneously process incoming stimuli of differing quality. With vision, the brain divides what it sees into four components: color, motion, shape, and depth. These are individually analyzed and then compared to stored memories, which helps the brain identify what you are viewing. The brain then combines all of these into the field of view that you see and comprehend.
Formulas is a concise way of expressing information symbolically as in a mathematical or chemical formula.
Processer
Processing

Procedure


A particular course of action intended to achieve a result. A process or series of acts especially of a practical or mechanical nature involved in a particular form of work. A set sequence of steps, part of larger computer program.
Procedure (term) is designed to describe Who, What, Where, When, and Why?
Medical Procedure is a course of action intended to achieve a result in the care of persons with health problems.
Runbook is a compilation of routine procedures and operations that the system administrator or operator carries out.
Procedural Programming also known as routines, subroutines, or functions that contain a series of computational steps to be carried out.
Protocol (science) is a predefined written procedural method in the design and implementation of experiments. Protocols are
written whenever it is desirable to standardize a laboratory method to ensure successful replication of results by others in the same laboratory or by other laboratories. Detailed protocols also facilitate the assessment of results through peer review. In addition to detailed procedures and lists of required equipment and instruments, protocols often include information on safety precautions, the calculation of results and reporting standards, including statistical analysis and rules for predefining and documenting excluded data to avoid bias. Protocols are employed in a wide range of experimental fields, from social science to quantum mechanics. Written protocols are also employed in manufacturing to ensure consistent quality.
Protocol are rules determining the format and transmission of data. Code of correct conduct and etiquette. Diplomacy
Stored Procedure
Protocol is a predefined written procedural method in the design and implementation of experiments.
Programming
Standardization is the process of implementing and developing technical standards.
Technical Standard is an established norm or requirement in regard to technical systems.
Task Analysis is the analysis of how a task is accomplished, including a detailed description of both manual and mental activities, task and element durations, task frequency, task allocation, task complexity, environmental conditions, necessary clothing and equipment, and any other unique factors involved in or required for one or more people to perform a given task. Task analysis emerged from research in applied behavior analysis and still has considerable research in that area.
Procedure Format (image)

Standard Operating Procedure are procedures that are a set of step-by-step instructions to achieve a predictable, standardized, desired result, often within the context of a longer overall process. Detailed, written instructions to achieve uniformity of the performance of a specific function. A document that generally lists the associated hazards involved in performing a task, what Risk Score is associated with the HazardsStandard Operating Procedure is a set of step-by-step instructions compiled by an organization to help workers carry out routine operations. SOPs aim to achieve efficiency, quality output and uniformity of performance, while reducing miscommunication and failure to comply with industry regulations.
Systems


What is Science?


Science are various methods used for Learning. Using tools, skills, processes, procedures, testing techniques, experiences and accumulated knowledge and information, has given humanity more knowledge then any other time in human history. Science is a way of examining and analyzing things in our world so that we can have a better understanding of ourselves and the world around us. The understanding that science gives us helps us predict future outcomes so that we can make better decisions. Science is also used to create complex tools, which in return gives us the ability to create even more complex tools and create even more complex machines, thus we learn even more. Science is also a process for discovering, which everyone can benefit from. But the greatest power of science is that anyone can be a contributor to this valuable knowledge resource, as millions have done in our past. And millions of people can also benefit from this knowledge, whether they're living in the present or people who will be living in our future. So all this accumulated knowledge becomes the building blocks of new discoveries and new understandings. Not just progressing our advances in technologies, but progressing our understanding of ourselves, so we can be more aware and make better choices and make better decisions. Another benefit from science is that, if and when things do change, we can use our knowledge and tools to react accordingly instead of just suffering from the changes in our world, or suffer from the changes in ourselves. So science is also part early warning system, but only if it is used effectively and efficiently. Just experiencing something doesn't guarantee that you will understand it, or learn from it, or benefit from it. That is why knowledge is so extremely important, because knowledge helps us understand our experiences a lot better. You have to see inward as well as see outward. Science helps us to define Reality or define what is perceived to be real. Science also helps us define cause and effect, which is extremely important to everyone. And just because we know how something works does not mean that we actually know "why" it works, or do we fully understand the dangers, because we don't know everything. But we are learning a lot more now and we are also learning faster now. And we are also communicating more and we're communicating faster. But we're not efficient or effective enough in order to benefit from our increased speed. So science needs to solve this problem before we waste this momentum and miss our chance in creating a better world for everyone. Sometimes if you're moving too fast you may fly past important information that you need in order to understand something. But luckily, Science doesn't only speed up our ability to learn, science can also be used to slow us down, so that we can see more details and become more and more aware, so that we can make better choices and make better decisions. But just like every tool in our world, tools can be misused. So science must explain the proper uses of our technologies and the proper uses of our accumulated knowledge. Science must also explain the dangers of misusing our tools by creating a good Operators Manuals and good Instruction Manuals that anyone can understand. Remember, science does not know everything, but what science does know is extremely important, and extremely valuable.

Sometimes Progress is Slow
Copernican Revolution (1543) was the paradigm shift from the Ptolemaic model of the heavens, which described the cosmos as having Earth stationary at the center of the universe, to the heliocentric model with the Sun at the center of the Solar System.
Scientific Revolution was the emergence of modern science during the early modern period (1600), when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology (including human anatomy) and chemistry transformed the views of society about
nature.  Some Ideas take time to be understood or excepted

"There are reasons why things happen, and knowing the reasons why certain things happen is the first step in controlling these actions or adapting to these actions. That what science does."

"If we don't keep moving forward, we'll end up having to start all over, again."

Why we need more Scientists
The internet has made us aware of all kinds of possibilities in the science world. We have discovered so much. This is one of the main reasons why we need more scientists. We need more people researching all these new discoveries that we are making everyday. So much more needs to be understood in order for us to effectively utilized all this knowledge. It's a gold mine.
Science in the Classroom
Teachers Science Lesson Plans
Project Exploration is a not-for-profit educational program whose goal is to "change the face of science" by encouraging interest in science among students—especially girls and minorities—who traditionally have not found effective career routes into scientific disciplines.

Scientifically Literate Person is defined as one who has the capacity to understand experiment and reasoning as well as basic scientific facts and their meaning. Makes informed decisions and Communicates clearly using science. Understands the fundamental concepts of Earth’s many systems, environmental and social issues. Knows how to find and assess scientifically credible information about Earth. Ask, find, or determine answers to questions derived from curiosity about everyday experiences. Describe, explain, and predict natural phenomena. Explain phenomena scientifically – recognize, offer and evaluate explanations for a range of natural and technological phenomena.
Read with Understanding articles about science in the popular press and to engage in social conversation about the validity of the conclusions. Interpret data and evidence scientifically – analyze and evaluate data, claims and arguments in a variety of representations and draw appropriate scientific conclusions. Media Literacy  Identify scientific issues underlying national and local decisions and express positions that are scientifically and technologically informed. Evaluate the quality of scientific information on the basis of its source and the methods used to generate it. Evaluate and design scientific inquiry – describe and appraise scientific investigations and propose ways of addressing questions scientifically. Pose and evaluate arguments based on evidence and to apply conclusions from such arguments appropriately. Intelligence

Next Generation Science Standards

We have discovered Order in our universe, but that does not say that order is present everywhere or that Order is always a Constant, so we must always proceed with caution and care.

Do not Accept or Reject claims at Face Value, but withhold Judgment until Sufficient Evidence is available to make a decision, if time is allowed.  

Validity - Accuracy
Reasoning
Empirical is the knowledge or source of knowledge acquired by means of the senses, particularly by observation and experimentation. Reality

Skepticism - Questioning
Science Research Fraud and Corruption
Beliefs

You don't have to be a Physicist or a Rocket Scientist in order to use Scientific Methods. These skills are very useful for anyone who cares about improving themselves or improving their surroundings. Science will also increase a persons awareness about themselves and the world, exposing a sea of possibilities.

"Science may not have all the answers, but it will help you to understand things a little better, so that maybe you will find the answers that you need. This is what we found to be true, but every situation is different, so it might not be true for you."


I'm Bilingual, but my other Language is an unspoken language, it's called Computer Programming Language. I use symbols and characters to communicate instructions to computerized machines. But they are more then just machines. Computers are one of the most incredible tools that man has ever made, besides language. computers are an extension of human intelligence. Computers provide us with more processing abilities and more memory capacities then any other time in human history. These computerized machines are humans analytical partner that aids us in understanding ourselves, and our world. Humans quest for knowledge now has a powerful tool, a tool that gives us endless potential. And with the internet, we can now for the first time combine the collective wisdom, knowledge and experiences of millions of people from all over the world. We no longer need to depend on one country, or on one leader, or on one government. Because we now have the collective strength of each other. And together we will create a better world for everyone. So, what does your language do?   
Zero's and Ones, On or Off.

If I learned how to speak Spanish I could speak to 518 million more people then I do now. Knowing how to speak Computer Language I can now communicate with 2 billion personal computers and 3 billion internet users.   Communication

"When you can Convert Atoms into a Language, you can do almost anything, like communicate to the Universe."

Are you sure that the instruments that you're using are calibrated? And do you know that the calibration may not be part of the equation? Calibration is a reference point. So the reference needs to be defined. So the first question is "What is this in reference to?"   "Don't forget to Calibrate the Calibrator."

Calibration in measurement technology and metrology is the comparison of measurement values delivered by a device under test with those of a calibration standard of known accuracy. Such a standard could be another measurement device of known accuracy, a device generating the quantity to be measured such as a voltage, or a physical artifact, such as a meter ruler.


Science Films


Film Symbol BBC The Story Of Science Power, Proof And Passion (youtube)  Cells   Universe
Richard Feynman: The Pleasure Of Finding Things Out (video)
Sci-Show (youtube channel)
What is One Degree? (youtube)
Absolute Zero
Race for Absolute Zero (youtube)   Kelvin
Nottingham Science (youtube)
Science Under Attack BBC Horizon (youtube)
Tyler DeWitt (youtube)
The Genius of Britain (youtube)
Sixty Symbols (youtube)
K-12 Science (youtube) 
Award Winning Teen Age Science in Action (video) this is why teaching science is important
Laura Snyder; The Philosophical Breakfast Club (video)
E=Mc2 Einstein's Big Idea (youtube) 
Sixty Symbols (youtube)
The Atom Smashers (PBS)  Atoms
Sap Science  (youtube)
TROM - 1.1 Science (youtube)
E. O. Wilson: Advice to Young Scientists (video)
Proto G (youtube)
Tal Golesworthy: How I Repaired my own Heart (video)   Exstent   Aortic Root Support 
Beau Lotto + Amy O'Toole: Science is for everyone, kids included (youtube)  
Food Science • Liquid Nitrogen Under Vacuum • ChefSteps (youtube)
Asap Science (youtube)
Thought (youtube)
The Geek Group (youtube)
Veritasium (youtube)
Science Channel (youtube)
Kreosan (youtube)
Janet Iwasa: How Animations can help Scientists Test a Hypothesis (video)
Engineer Guy Video (youtube)
Schlieren Optics optical technique that allows us to see small changes in the index of refraction in air.
Schlieren Photography (wiki)
DNews Channel (youtube)
Pure Science Specials (youtube)
The Scientific Method: Steps, Terms and Examples (youtube)
In a Nutshell – Kurzgesagt (youtube)
Physics Woman (youtube)
Science Online (youtube)

The Journal of Visualized Experiments Jove is a database of more than four thousand videos, with about eighty more added each month. They are usually between ten and fifteen minutes long, and they range in subject from biology and chemistry to neuroscience and medicine.

Sci-Show Science Videos should not be confusing
Rockwell Turbo Encabulator Version 2 (youtube)
Turboencabulator  The original machine had a base-plate of prefabulated amulite, surmounted by a malleable logarithmic casing in such a way that the two spurving bearings were in a direct line with the pentametric fan. The main winding was of the normal lotus-o-delta type placed in panendermic semi-boloid slots in the stator, every seventh conductor being connected by a nonreversible trem'e pipe to the differential girdlespring on the 'up' end of the grammeters. Unilateral Phase Detractor.
Alan Alda Center for Communicating Science

Science News
Documentaries
Online Education Sources
Science Photo Library
Science Photos
Science Resources and Tools


Science Resources




Science Tools - Science Equipment


Work Station Electronic Equipment for Data Monitoring Scientific Instrument is an instrument used for scientific purposes. Most are measuring instruments. They may be specifically designed, constructed and refined for the purpose. Over time, instruments have become more accurate and precise.
Scientific instruments are part of laboratory equipment, but are considered more sophisticated and more specialized than other measuring instruments as scales, rulers, chronometers, thermometers or even waveform generators. They are increasingly based upon the integration of computers to improve and simplify control, enhance and extend instrumental functions, conditions, parameter adjustments and data sampling, collection, resolution, analysis (both during and post-process), storage and retrieval.
Equipment Types List (wiki)
Little Devices Science Kits
Science Tools and Science Equipment
Arduino
Little Bits has 60 modules and growing. Every module works with every other in millions of combinations
FORMcard is a handy, pocket sized card of meltable bio-plastic that can be used to make things and fix things.
Curious Minds
Keysight
Analog
Lab Sciences Tools
Engineering Tools
Prototypes - Drawings
Home Training Tools
Backyard Brains
Neuroscience
Experiment kits,
Human to Human Interface
Interfaces
Scientifics Online
Science for Students
Poly Science
Science Kits
3D Printing
Science Tools and Parts
Radio Shack DIY
Kinoma Create
Learn to Code
Electronic Modules for Prototyping and Play
Makey Makey
Clip-it using plastic bottle caps to make molecules
Conductive Ink (wiki)
Bare Conductive
Kate Stone: DJ Decks made of Paper (video)
Cannybots
Infento Rides
Games and Toys for Learning
DIY Kit for the Connected Life
Elemental Scientific
E Science Labs
Science Buddies
Lab Tests
Chemistry

Science Toys for Learning
Using Toys to Teach Physics
Educational Toys

Surplus Center - Spare Parts
Apex Electronic
Norton Sales Inc
Computer Components
Technology News
Science Education
P-Tech, Pathways in Technology

Microscopes - Seeing Small Things


Microscope Optical Microscope or light microscope, is a type of microscope which uses visible light and a system of lenses to magnify images of small samples.
Digital Microscope is a variation of a traditional optical microscope that uses optics and a digital camera to output an image to a monitor, sometimes by means of software running on a computer.
Underwater microscopy for in situ studies of benthic ecosystems (youtube)
Benthic Ecosystems
Microscopy is the technical field of using microscopes to view objects and areas of objects that cannot be seen with the naked eye.
SCiO: Molecular Sensor, Optical Sensor, Spectrometer
Spectrometer is an apparatus to measure a spectrum that shows intensity as a function of wavelength, of frequency, of energy, of momentum, or of mass.
Photoresistor is a light-controlled variable resistor.
Photoelectric Sensor or photo eye, is an equipment used to discover the distance, absence, or presence of an object by using a light transmitter, often infrared, and a photoelectric receiver. Sensors
Position Sensor is any device that permits position measurement.
Eppendorf Tubes
Turn Your Smartphone Into a Digital Microscope (youtube)
Electron Microscope
Size (nano)
Atomic Force Microscopy
Scanning Probe Microscopy
Scanning Tunneling Microscope
LatticeLight-Sheet Microscopy  Video
Light Sheet Fluorescence Microscopy is a fluorescence microscopy technique with an intermediate optical resolution, but good optical sectioning capabilities and high speed.

Telescopes

Ideas - Innovation


Work Shops


Hackerspace Workshop Tech Shop
TechShop is a chain of member-based workshops that lets people of all skill levels come in and use industrial tools and equipment to build their own projects.
Nextfab
Hackerspace - Science Space
Makerspace
Maker Faire
Rulof Italian Maker (youtube)
Cesar Harada: How I teach kids to love science (video)
Generator Vermont
Frederickswerken
Hub Space
Workshop a room or building which provides both the area and tools (or machinery) that may be required for the manufacture or repair of manufactured goods.
National Lab Network
Thrill Laboratory
Open Design City
Lighthouse Creativity Lab
Creative Learning Systems
Experience Learning
Collaboration Knowledge


Fairs - Museums - Festivals


Science Fair Poster Board Display Science Fair Ideas
Science Fair Projects
Science Fair Project
Science Fair Poster Boards (youtube)
Project Display Board  - Display Boards
Science Made Simple
Create Research Teams
Digital Media Learning Competition
Technology Challenge Programs
Ecosystem of Creators and inventors
Google Science Fair
Robotics - Robots
Young Scientist Challenge 2013: Peyton Robertson (youtube)
Young Scientist Challenge
My Potato Project; The Importance of "Organic" (youtube)
Chlorpropham (wiki)
EPA Factsheet (pdf)
Science Festivals
Science Museum
Exploratorium
Exploravision competition for K-12 students.
Children's Museums
Think Zone
Solve Puzzles for Science
Visual Science
Its okay to be Smart
Jove: Journal of Visualized Experiments
Elsevier
Interactive Simulations
Society for Science
Intel International Science and Engineering Fair
International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) is the world’s preeminent forum for reporting technological breakthroughs in the areas of semiconductor and electronic device technology, design, manufacturing, physics, and modeling. IEDM is the flagship conference for nanometer-scale CMOS transistor technology, advanced memory, displays, sensors, MEMS devices, novel quantum and nano-scale devices and phenomenology, optoelectronics, devices for power and energy harvesting, high-speed devices, as well as process technology and device modeling and simulation.
Chemistry



Arduino Starter Kit

ARDX Arduino Starter Kit
Experimentation Kit for Arduino (Uno R3) - v1.3 , Tackle 13 Different Projects w/ This Fully-Stocked Beginner's Toolkit.

Evive: Electronic Prototyping Platform Learn & build your projects easily, debug them smartly. #Arduino #Robotics #IoT #Embedded #STEM.

MATRIX Creator: IoT Computer Vision Dev Board #Pi AI on a Pi. Build your own Amazon Echo + endless IoT apps with a dev board for Raspberry Pi.

Learn, Teach and Make with the Tinusaur Small microcontroller board that could run Arduino and help you learn, teach others and make things.

Tinylab: Prototype easier than ever
Play Piper
PC Boards Components
Building Blocks



The Thinker Man