causes and effects
and the nature of
. Science can cover a lot of different
subjects, so depending on the type of science that you are studying, each one
will require a unique set of skills that you need to learn, and you will
also have to study areas of knowledge that are focused on a particular
is a person engaging in a
that describes and
. In a more
restricted sense, a scientist may refer to an individual who uses the
. The person may be an
in one or more areas of
is a person who uses scientific
knowledge to solve practical problems.
is a term used to describe the universal applicability of the scientific
method and approach, and the view that empirical science constitutes the
most authoritative worldview or the most valuable part of human
learning—to the exclusion of other viewpoints.
Outline of Science
is a systematic effort of acquiring knowledge—through
coupled with logic and
to find out what can be
proved or not proved—and the knowledge thus acquired. The word "science"
comes from the Latin word "scientia" meaning knowledge. A practitioner of
science is called a "scientist". Modern science respects objective logical
reasoning, and follows a set of core procedures
or rules in order to
determine the nature and underlying natural laws of the universe and
everything in it. Some scientists do not know of the rules themselves, but
follow them through research policies. These procedures are known as the
are statements that describe or predict a range
of phenomena behave as they appear to in nature. The term "law" has
diverse usage in many cases: approximate, accurate, broad or narrow
theories, in all natural scientific disciplines (physics, chemistry,
biology, geology, astronomy etc.). Scientific laws summarize and explain a
large collection of facts determined by experiment, and are tested based
on their ability to predict the results of future experiments. They are
developed either from facts or through mathematics, and are strongly
supported by empirical evidence. It is generally understood that they
reflect causal relationships fundamental to reality, and are discovered
rather than invented.
is an interdisciplinary field about
scientific methods, processes and systems to extract knowledge or insights
from data in various forms, either structured or unstructured, similar to
Knowledge Discovery in Databases (KDD). Data science is a "concept to
unify statistics, data analysis and their related methods" in order to
"understand and analyze actual phenomena" with data. It employs techniques
and theories drawn from many fields within the broad areas of mathematics,
statistics, information science, and computer science, in particular from
the subdomains of machine learning,
analysis, data mining,
is an inquiry in an established field of
study which departs significantly from mainstream theories in that field
and is considered to be questionable by the mainstream. Fringe science may
be either a questionable application of a scientific approach to a field
of study or an approach whose status as scientific is widely questioned.
are the academic disciplines of S
Branches of Science
- Over 550 Branches of Science so far.
is a major branch of science that tries to explain,
and predict, nature's phenomena
based on empirical evidence. In natural
science, hypothesis must be verified scientifically to be regarded as
scientific theory. Validity, accuracy, and social mechanisms ensuring
quality control, such as peer review and repeatability of findings, are
amongst the criteria and methods used for this purpose. Natural science
can be broken into 2 main branches: life science, and physical science.
Each of these branches, and all of their sub-branches, are referred to as
Natural Sciences Academy
is a branch of natural science that studies non-living
, in contrast to
. It in turn has many branches, each
referred to as a "physical science", together called the "physical
sciences". However, the term "physical" creates an unintended, somewhat
arbitrary distinction, since many branches of physical science also study
biological phenomena and branches of chemistry such as organic
Earth Science Outline
all-embracing term for the sciences related to
the planet Earth
. It is also known as
geoscience, the geosciences or the Earth sciences, and is arguably a
special case in
, the Earth being the only known life-bearing planet.
Earth science is a branch of the physical sciences which is a part of the
natural sciences. It in turn has many branches.
are branches of knowledge that are concerned with formal
systems, such as those under the branches of: logic, mathematics, computer
science, statistics, and some aspects of linguistics. Unlike other
sciences, the formal sciences are not concerned with the validity of
theories based on observations in the real world, but instead with the
properties of formal systems based on definitions and rules.
is the branch of science concerned with
society and human behaviors
is the branch of science that applies existing
scientific knowledge to develop more practical applications, including
inventions and other technological advancements. Science itself is the
systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of
testable explanations and predictions about the
is the science and practice
of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of
Clinical Science Journal
multi-disciplinary coverage and clinical perspectives to advance
is a highly
interdisciplinary field, the primary goal of which is to coalesce assets
of various natures within the individual pillars in order to improve the
global healthcare system significantly. The goal of translational medicine
is to combine disciplines, resources, expertise, and techniques within
these pillars to promote enhancements in prevention, diagnosis, and
therapies. The term translational refers to the "translation" of basic
scientific findings in a laboratory setting into potential treatments for
is the application of science to
criminal and civil laws
, mainly—on the criminal
side—during criminal investigation, as governed by the legal standards of
admissible evidence and criminal procedure. Forensic scientists collect,
preserve, and analyze scientific evidence during the course of an
investigation. While some forensic scientists travel to the scene of the
crime to collect the evidence themselves, others occupy a laboratory role,
performing analysis on objects brought to them by other individuals.
Philosophy of Science
is a branch of
concerned with the
foundations, methods, and implications of science. The central questions
of this study concern what qualifies as science, the reliability of
scientific theories, and the ultimate purpose of science. This discipline
overlaps with metaphysics, ontology, and epistemology, for example, when
it explores the relationship between science and truth.
is an approach
to research that emphasizes the study of complex
which aims to gain
understanding of systems by dividing them into smaller composing elements
and gaining understanding of the system through understanding their
is the movement to make scientific
research, data and dissemination accessible to all levels of an inquiring
society, amateur or professional. It encompasses practices such as
publishing open research
, campaigning for open access, encouraging
scientists to practice open notebook science, and generally making it
easier to publish and communicate scientific knowledge. The
European-funded project Facilitate Open Science Training for European
Research (FOSTER) has developed an open science taxonomy as an attempt to
map the open science field.Do it
is a systematic
. A search for
. Inquire into.
Gathering Knowledge about
Nature and Organizing
that Knowledge into
testable laws and theories.
Ability to produce
into questions posed by scientific
. Goals of Research
is research using empirical evidence. It
is a way of gaining knowledge by means of direct and indirect
or experience. Empiricism
values such research more than other kinds. Empirical evidence (the record
of one's direct observations or experiences) can be analyzed
quantitatively or qualitatively. Through quantifying the evidence or
making sense of it in qualitative form, a researcher can answer empirical
questions, which should be clearly defined and answerable with the
collected (usually called data). Research design varies by field
and by the question being investigated. Many researchers combine
qualitative and quantitative forms of analysis to better answer questions
which cannot be studied in laboratory settings, particularly in the social
sciences and in education.
is research conducted for a problem that has not
been clearly defined. It often occurs before we know enough to make
conceptual distinctions or to posit an explanatory relationship.
Exploratory research develops concepts more clearly, established
priorities, develops operational definitions and improve the final
research design. Exploratory research helps determine the best research
design, data-collection method and selection of subjects. It should draw
definitive conclusions only with extreme caution. Given its fundamental
nature, exploratory research often concludes that a perceived problem does
not actually exist.
is the collection of information outside a
laboratory, library or workplace setting. The approaches and methods used
in field research vary across disciplines. For example, biologists who
conduct field research may simply observe animals interacting with their
environments, whereas social scientists conducting field research may
interview or observe people in their natural environments to learn their
languages, folklore, and social structures.
is a document proposing a research
project, generally in the sciences or academia, and generally constitutes
a request for sponsorship of that research. Proposals are evaluated on the
cost and potential impact of the proposed research, and on the soundness
of the proposed plan for carrying it out. Research proposals generally
address several key points: What research question(s) will be addressed,
and how they will be addressed. What cost and time will be required for
the research. What prior research has been done on the topic. How the
results of the research will be evaluated. How the research will benefit
the sponsoring organization and other parties.
is scientific research aimed to improve scientific theories for improved
understanding or prediction
of natural or other phenomena. Applied
research, in turn, uses scientific theories to develop technology or
techniques to intervene and alter natural or other phenomena.
involves the collection of original
primary data by researchers. It is often undertaken after researchers have
gained some insight into an issue by reviewing secondary research or by
analyzing previously collected primary data. It can be accomplished
through various methods, including
and telephone interviews in market research, or
experiments and direct Observations
the physical sciences, amongst others. The distinction between primary
research and secondary research is crucial among market-research
is research conducted in the spirit of free and
. Much like open source schemes that are built around a source
code that is made public, the central theme of open research is to make
clear accounts of the methodology freely available via the internet, along
with any data or results extracted or derived from them. This permits a
massively distributed collaboration, and one in which anyone may
participate at any level of the project.
is the systematic empirical
phenomena via statistical
, mathematical or computational techniques. The
objective of quantitative research is to develop and employ mathematical
, theories and/or
pertaining to phenomena. The
is central to quantitative research because it provides the
fundamental connection between empirical observation
expression of quantitative relationships.
Research and Development
R & D
is a general term for activities in connection with corporate or
and development is a component of Innovation and is situated at the front
end of the Innovation life cycle. Innovation builds on R&D and includes
Prove it to be True.
Prove it to be False. How Necessary is it to Prove? What are your
we can deduce how something, anything works" (Victor
is a systematic determination of a subject's merit, worth and
significance, using criteria governed by a set of standards. It can assist
an organization, program, project or any other intervention or initiative
to assess any aim, realisable concept/proposal, or any alternative, to
help in decision-making; or to ascertain the degree of achievement or
value in regard to the aim and objectives and results of any such action
that has been completed. The primary purpose of evaluation, in addition to
gaining insight into prior or existing initiatives, is to enable
reflection and assist in the identification of future change.
is the identification of the nature and cause of a certain phenomenon.
is used in many different disciplines with variations in the use
of logic, analytics, and experience to determine "cause and effect". In
systems engineering and computer science, it is typically used to
determine the causes of symptoms, mitigations, and solutions.
is the dismembering of the body of a deceased animal or plant to study its
is used in pathology and forensic medicine to determine the cause of death
in humans. It is carried out by or demonstrated to biology and anatomy
students in high school and medical school. Less advanced courses
typically focus on smaller subjects, such as small formaldehyde-preserved
animals, while the more advanced courses normally use cadavers.
Consequently, dissection is typically conducted in a morgue or in an
carried out to support, refute, or
validate a hypothesis
. Experiments provide insight
into cause-and-effect by demonstrating what outcome occurs when a
particular factor is manipulated. Experiments vary greatly in goal and
scale, but always rely on repeatable procedure
of the results. There
also exists natural experimental studies.
are the experiments that allow the greatest reliability and validity of
statistical estimates of treatment effects. Randomization-based inference
is especially important in experimental design and in survey sampling.
is a small scale preliminary study
conducted in order to evaluate feasibility, time, cost, adverse events,
and effect size (statistical variability) in an attempt to predict an
appropriate sample size and improve upon the study design prior to
performance of a full-scale research project. Pilot studies, therefore,
may not be appropriate for case studies.
is an empirical study used to
the causal impact of an intervention on its target population
without random assignment. Quasi-experimental research shares similarities
with the traditional experimental design or randomized controlled trial,
but it specifically lacks the element of random assignment to treatment or
control. Instead, quasi-experimental designs typically allow the
researcher to control the assignment to the treatment condition, but using
some criterion other than random assignment (e.g., an eligibility cutoff
mark). Double Blind
Design of Experiments
is the design of any task that aims to describe or explain the variation
under conditions that are hypothesized to reflect the
. The term is generally associated with true experiments in which
the design introduces conditions that directly affect the variation, but
may also refer to the design of quasi-experiments, in which natural
conditions that influence the variation are selected for
that the way to
is through experiments and empiricism. It is also associated with
instrumentalism, the belief that truth should be evaluated based upon its
. Less formally, artists often pursue their visions
through trial and error
; this form of experimentalism has been practiced
in every field, from music to film and from literature to theatre.
considers some hypothesis
, theory, or
principle for the purpose
of thinking through its
. Given the
structure of the experiment, it may not be possible to perform it, and
even if it could be performed, there need not be an intention to perform
it. The common goal of a thought experiment is to explore the potential
consequences of the principle in
: "A thought
experiment is a device with which one performs an intentional, structured
of intellectual deliberation in order to
speculate, within a specifiable problem domain, about potential
consequents (or antecedents) for a designated antecedent (or
is a thought experiment structured to allow the thinker
to use their intuition to develop an answer to a problem.
theory that states that
comes only or primarily from
. One of several
views of epistemology, the study of human knowledge, along with
rationalism and skepticism, empiricism emphasizes the role of empirical
evidence in the formation of ideas, over the notion of innate ideas or
is a branch in philosophy of
science maintaining that scientific knowledge is constructed by the
scientific community, who seek to
and construct models of the natural world. Natural science therefore
consists of mental constructs that aim to explain sensory experience (and
is an experiment or
designed to minimize the
other than the independent variable. This increases the
reliability of the results, often through a
between control measurements and the other measurements.
Scientific controls are a part of the scientific method
is testimony from expert
is the knowledge or source of knowledge acquired by means of
by observation and experimentation.
is evidence which serves to either support or counter a
scientific theory or hypothesis
. Such evidence is expected to be empirical
evidence and interpretation in accordance with
. Standards for scientific evidence vary according to
the field of inquiry, but the strength of scientific evidence is generally
based on the results of statistical
and the strength of scientific controls.
is any material object that proves a fact in issue based on the object's
demonstrable physical characteristics.
encompasses the rules and
legal principles that govern the proof of facts in a legal proceeding
These rules determine what evidence must or must not be considered by the
trier of fact in reaching its decision
. The trier of fact is a judge in
bench trials, or the jury in any cases involving a
. The law of evidence is also concerned
with the quantum (amount), quality, and type of proof needed to prevail in
litigation. The rules vary depending upon whether the venue is a criminal
court, civil court, or family court, and they vary by jurisdiction.
collects, preserves, and analyzes
scientific evidence during the course of
. While some
forensic scientists travel to the scene of the crime to collect the
evidence themselves, others occupy a laboratory role, performing
on objects brought to
them by other individuals.
of past action including legal discourse—the primary
setting for the emergence
of rhetoric as a discipline and theory.
refers to samples of biological
as hair, tissue, bones, teeth, blood, semen, or other bodily fluids—or to
evidence items containing biological material (DNA
Initiative 2012). Health Questions
evidence collected in a casual or
informal manner and relying heavily or entirely on
supports the truth of an assertion (in criminal law,
an assertion of guilt or of innocence) directly, i.e., without an
. Circumstantial evidence, by contrast, consists of a
fact or set of facts
which, if proven, will support the creation of an
inference that the matter asserted is
is information created or obtained illegally, to sway
the verdict in a court case. Falsified evidence could be created by either
side in a case (including the police/prosecution in a criminal case), or
by someone sympathetic to either side. Misleading by suppressing evidence
can also be considered a form of false evidence (by omission), however, in
some cases, suppressed evidence is excluded because it cannot be proved
the accused was aware of the items found or of their location.
is any testimonial, documentary, or
tangible evidence that may be introduced to a
—usually a judge
or jury—to establish or to bolster a point put forth by a party to the
proceeding. For evidence to be admissible, it must be relevant, without
being unfairly prejudicial, and it must have some indicia of reliability.
The general rule in evidence is that all relevant evidence is admissible
and all irrelevant evidence is inadmissible.
is evidence that relies on an inference to
connect it to a conclusion of fact—like a fingerprint at the scene of a
crime. By contrast, direct evidence supports the truth of an assertion
directly—i.e., without need for any additional evidence or inference.
sufficient evidence or a sufficient
for the truth
evident without proof or argument.
shown to be valid beyond a reasonable doubt. Establish the validity of
something, as by an example, explanation or experiment. Brought about or
set up or accepted; especially long established. Conforming with accepted
standards. Set up or lay the groundwork for.
unsupported by other evidence
is a theoretical statement "inferred from
particular facts, applicable to a defined group or class of phenomena, and
expressible by the statement that a particular phenomenon always occurs if
certain conditions be present." Physical laws are typically conclusions
based on repeated scientific experiments and observations over many years
and which have become accepted universally within the scientific
community. The production of a summary description of our environment in
the form of such laws is a fundamental aim of science. These terms are not
used the same way by all authors. The distinction between natural law in
the political-legal sense and law of nature or physical law in the
scientific sense is a modern one, both concepts being equally derived from
physis, the Greek word (translated into Latin as natura) for nature.
is a way to compare two versions of a single
typically by testing a subject's response to variable A against variable
B, and determining which of the two variables is more effective. A
variants, A and B, which are the control and variation in the controlled
experiment. A/B testing is a form of statistical hypothesis testing with
two variants leading to the technical term, two-sample hypothesis testing,
used in the field of statistics
is hypothesis testing in the context of multivariate
is a wide group of analysis
techniques used in science and technology industry to evaluate the
properties of a material, component or system without causing damage.
is the process of using
qualitative methods) to evaluate consumer acceptance of a new product idea
prior to the introduction of a product to the market. It is important not
to confuse concept testing with advertising testing, brand testing and
packaging testing; as is sometimes done. Concept testing focuses on the
basic product idea, without the embellishments and puffery inherent in
is a kind of
performed to detect, diagnose, or monitor
, disease processes,
susceptibility, and determine a course of treatment. It is related to
clinical chemistry and molecular diagnostics, and the procedures are
typically performed in a medical laboratory.
Law of Large Numbers
is a theorem that describes the
result of performing the same experiment
a large number of times.
According to the law, the average of the results obtained from a large
number of trials should be close to the expected value, and will tend to
become closer as more Trials
is any type of calculation that follows a well-defined model understood
and expressed as, for example, an algorithm.
is a measure that is used to quantify the amount
of variation or dispersion of a set of data values. A low standard
deviation indicates that the data points tend to be close to the mean
(also called the expected value) of the set, while a high standard
deviation indicates that the data points are spread out over a wider range
is any characteristic that can help in defining or classifying a
particular system (meaning an event, project, object, situation, etc.).
That is, a parameter is an element of a system that is useful, or
critical, when identifying the system, or when evaluating its performance,
status, condition, etc.
Constructing a Multiple Baseline Graph using MS Excel and Word
Spreadsheets have 1,048,576 Rows)
is the visualization of
three-dimensional phenomena (architectural, meteorological, medical,
biological, etc.), where the emphasis is on realistic renderings of
volumes, surfaces, illumination sources, and so forth, perhaps with a
dynamic (time) component". It is also considered a subset of computer
graphics, a branch of computer science. The purpose of scientific
visualization is to graphically illustrate scientific data to enable
scientists to understand, illustrate, and glean insight from their data.
a means of displaying or
summarising a set of data in two-dimensional graphical form.
Scientific Poster Presentation Sample
is a scientific activity, the
aim of which is to make a particular part or feature of the world easier
to understand, define, quantify, visualize, or simulate by referencing it
to existing and usually commonly accepted knowledge. It requires selecting
and identifying relevant aspects of a situation in the real world and then
using different types of models for different aims, such as conceptual
models to better understand, operational models to operationalize,
mathematical models to quantify, and graphical models to visualize the
is an essential
and inseparable part of many scientific disciplines have their own ideas
about specific types of modelling. There is also an increasing attention
to scientific modelling in fields such as science education, philosophy of
science, systems theory, and knowledge visualization. There is growing
collection of methods, techniques and meta-theory about all kinds of
specialized scientific modelling.
(Define a Question)
Models of Scientific Inquiry
have two functions: first, to
provide a descriptive account of how scientific inquiry is carried out in
practice, and second, to provide an explanatory account of why scientific
inquiry succeeds as well as it appears to do in arriving at genuine
is directions for
making something. A representation of a substance using
for its constituent elements. A group of
symbols that make a mathematical statement
is a concise way of expressing information
as in a
mathematical or chemical formula.
Form an Explanatory
Orders of Approximation
is a statement that what an argument claims will induce or justify a
conclusion. In other words: a premise is an
that something is
, an argument requires a set of
(at least) two declarative sentences (or "propositions") known as the
premises or premisses along with another declarative sentence (or
"proposition") known as the conclusion. This structure of two premises and
one conclusion forms the basic argumentative structure. More complex
can use a series of rules to connect several premises to one
conclusion, or to derive a number of conclusions from the original
premises which then act as premises for additional conclusions. An example
of this is the use of the rules of inference found within symbolic logic.
a statement that is taken to be
, to serve as a premise or starting point for further
is the application of operationalization used
the terms of a process (or
set of validation tests) needed to determine the nature of an item or
phenomenon (e.g. a variable, term, or object) and its properties such as
duration, quantity, extension in space, chemical composition, etc. Since
the degree of operationalization can vary itself, it can result in a more
or less operational definition. The procedures included in definitions
should be repeatable by anyone or at least by peers.
is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon. For a
hypothesis to be a scientific hypothesis, the scientific method requires
that one can test it. Scientists generally base scientific hypotheses on
previous observations that cannot satisfactorily be explained with the
available scientific theories. Even though the words "hypothesis" and
"theory" are often used synonymously, a scientific hypothesis is not the
same as a scientific theory. A working hypothesis is a provisionally
accepted hypothesis proposed for further research.
is a hypothesis about the possible sizes of infinite sets.
It states: There is no set whose cardinality is strictly between that of
the integers and the real numbers.
Statistical Hypothesis Testing
is a hypothesis that is testable on the basis of observing a process that
is modeled via a set of random
contemplative and rational type of abstract or
thinking, or the
results of such thinking. Depending on the context, the results might for
example include generalized explanations of how
. The word has its roots in ancient Greek, but in modern
use it has taken on several different related meanings.
is a well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world
that is acquired through the scientific method and repeatedly tested and
confirmed, preferably using a written, predefined, protocol of
observations and experiments. Scientific theories are the most reliable,
rigorous, and comprehensive form of scientific knowledge.
Computational Complexity Theory
classifying computational problems according to their inherent difficulty,
and relating those classes to each other. A computational problem is
understood to be a task that is in principle amenable to being solved by a
computer, which is equivalent to stating that the problem may be solved by
mechanical application of mathematical steps, such as an
is when all things being equal, the
simplest explanation is probably the correct one. (Elegant Simplicity)
The Five W's and an H
Gather Information and Resources
is a systematic determination of a subject's merit, worth and
significance, using criteria governed by a set of standards.
is the active acquisition of information from a
comprises "creative work undertaken on a systematic
basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of
humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to
devise new applications.
the Hypothesis by Performing an
refers to data that was
collected by someone other than the user.
is the discovery,
, and communication
is a process of inspecting, cleaning,
transforming, and modeling Data
with the goal of discovering useful
information, suggesting conclusions, and supporting decision-making.
has multiple facets and approaches, encompassing diverse
techniques under a variety of names, in different business, science, and
social science domains.
is anything presented in support of an assertion.
is the body of proof or the strongest of rhetorical proofs.
Interpret the Data and Draw Conclusions that may serve as a
starting point for new Hypothesis.
(Feedback - Opinions)
is a type of literature review that collects and critically
analyzes multiple research studies or papers. A review of existing studies
is often quicker and cheaper than embarking on a new study. Researchers
use methods that are selected before one or more research questions are
formulated, and then they aim to find and analyze studies that relate to
and answer those questions. Systematic reviews of randomized controlled
trials are key in the practice of evidence-based medicine
is the act of checking factual assertions in
non-fictional text in order to determine the
and correctness of
the factual statements in the text. This may be done either before (ante
hoc) or after (post hoc) the text has been published or otherwise
Yes or No?
or test–retest reliability is the
variation in measurements
taken by a single person or
same item, under the same conditions, and in a short period of time. A
less-than-perfect test–retest reliability causes test–retest variability.
Such variability can be caused by, for example,
. A measurement may be said to be repeatable
when this variation is smaller than a pre-determined acceptance criterion.
is the ability of an entire experiment or study
to be duplicated, either by the same researcher or by someone else working
independently. Reproducing an experiment is called replicating it.
Reproducibility is one of the main principles of the scientific method.
is the need to be consistent with prior
acts and statements, as well as procedures.
that does not contain a contradiction
Orders of Approximation
Please note that scientific methods will vary depending on the
subject that you are analyzing.
The procedures, techniques and equipment used in testing and
verifying information will vary.
Depending on what you're testing, some methods are more
dependable then other methods,
so there could be several variables that need to be defined
is a body of techniques for investigating
phenomena, based on empirical or measurable evidence that is
subject to the principles of logic and reasoning. Acquiring new
knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge.
draws inferences about the possible
effect of a treatment on subjects, where the assignment of
subjects into a treated group versus a control group is outside
the control of the investigator.
Randomized Controlled Trial
is a type of scientific
experiment, often in the medical field, where the people being
studied are randomly allocated one of the different treatments.
is the idea that science increases its
problem-solving ability through the application of the scientific method.
Retrospective Cohort Study
is a longitudinal cohort study that studies a cohort of individuals that
share a common exposure factor to determine its influence on the
development of a disease, and are compared to another group of equivalent
individuals that were not exposed to that factor. Retrospective cohort
studies have existed for approximately as long as prospective cohort
Prospective Cohort Study
is a longitudinal cohort study that follows over time a group of similar
individuals (cohorts) who differ with respect to certain factors under
study, to determine how these factors affect rates of a certain
outcome. For example, one might follow a cohort of middle-aged truck
drivers who vary in terms of smoking habits, to test the hypothesis that
the 20-year incidence rate of lung cancer will be highest among heavy
smokers, followed by moderate smokers, and then nonsmokers.
is a statistical analysis that
combines the results of multiple scientific studies.
Instructions is describing how something should
be done. Giving directions on how to complete a task.
or technical communication
, is a means to convey scientific,
or other technical information
is an instructional book or booklet
that is supplied with almost all
consumer products such as vehicles, home
appliances and computer peripherals. Information contained in the owner's
manual typically includes
can be extensive, often including warnings
that are ill-advised for
or overall user
instructions; for products that arrive in pieces for easier
shipping. Installation instructions; for products that need to be
installed in a home or workplace. Setup instructions; for devices that
keep track of time
user accessible state. Instructions
for use. Programming instructions; for microprocessor controlled products
such as VCRs, programmable calculators, and synthesizers.
instructions; for when the product does
not work as expected. Service
locations; for when the product requires
repair by a factory authorized technician. Regulatory code
; for example with respect to safety or
. Product technical specifications. Warranty information;
sometimes provided as a separate sheet.
is a technical communication
document intended to give assistance to people using a particular
. It is usually
written by a technical writer, although user guides are written by
programmers, product or project managers, or other technical staff,
particularly in smaller companies.
is performing mathematical and
according to instructions or prescribed procedures
obtain the required
is a series
of interrelated tasks
inputs into outputs
. These tasks may be carried
out by people, nature or machines using various resources; an
process must be considered in the context of the agents carrying out the
tasks and the resource attributes involved.
a process made up of multiple threads of execution
that execute instructions at the same time or a
depending on the
is a basic step in a process. Unit operations
involve a physical change or chemical transformation such as separation,
crystallization, evaporation, filtration, polymerization, isomerization,
and other reactions
is constructing an
, reliable, repeatable model
of the real world
is a set of interrelated
activities that interact to achieve a
result. A particular course of action intended to achieve a result.
A mental process that you are not directly
of. Subject to a process
or treatment, with the aim of readying for some
remedying a condition. Deal with in
way. Perform mathematical and logical operations on (data)
according to programmed instructions
in order to obtain the required
information. Shape, form, or improve a material.
is the ability of the brain to
incoming stimuli of differing quality. With vision, the
it sees into four components: color, motion, shape, and depth. These are
individually analyzed and then compared to stored memories
, which helps
the brain identify what you are viewing. The brain then combines all of
these into the field of view
that you see and comprehend.
is a concise way of expressing information symbolically as in a
is a particular course of action intended to achieve a result. A process or
series of acts especially of a practical or mechanical nature involved in
a particular form of work. A set sequence of steps, part of larger
statement by which to determine a course of action. A guideline aims to
streamline particular processes according to a set
or sound practice.
is designed to describe
Who, What, Where, When, and Why
is a course of action intended to achieve a result in the
care of persons with health problems.
is a planned activity involving many people performing various
actions. A process or series of acts especially of a practical
or mechanical nature involved in a particular form of work.
(psychology) the performance of some composite cognitive
activity; an operation that affects mental contents.
is a compilation of routine procedures and operations that the system
administrator or operator carries out.
also known as
, subroutines, or
functions that contain a series of computational steps to be carried out.
is a predefined written procedural method in the
design and implementation of experiments. Protocols are written
whenever it is desirable to standardize a laboratory method to ensure
successful replication of results by others in the same laboratory or by
other laboratories. Detailed protocols also facilitate the assessment of
results through peer review. In addition to detailed procedures and lists
of required equipment and instruments, protocols often include information
on safety precautions, the calculation of results and reporting standards,
including statistical analysis and rules for predefining and documenting
excluded data to avoid bias. Protocols are employed in a wide range of
experimental fields, from social science to quantum mechanics. Written
protocols are also employed in manufacturing to ensure consistent quality.
are rules determining the
format and transmission of data. Code of
correct conduct and etiquette
is a predefined written procedural method in the
design and implementation of experiments.
is a plan
of action adopted by
an individual or social group
. A deliberate
system of principles
rational outcomes. A policy is a statement of intent, and is implemented
as a procedure or protocol. A line of
course of action
of a government.
available to applications that access a
relational database management
(RDBMS). Such procedures are stored in the database data
is the process of implementing and
developing technical standards.
International Organization for Standardization
American National Standards Institute
is an established norm or requirement in regard to technical
. A manner that strictly observes all
forms and ceremonies. A requirement of
is acting according to certain accepted standards.
is the analysis of how a task is accomplished,
including a detailed description of both manual and mental activities,
task and element durations, task frequency, task allocation, task
complexity, environmental conditions, necessary clothing and equipment,
and any other unique factors involved in or required for one or more
people to perform a given task. Task analysis emerged from research in
applied behavior analysis and still has considerable research in that
Standard Operating Procedure
procedures that are a set of step-by-step
achieve a predictable
, standardized, desired result, often
within the context of a longer overall process. Detailed,
written instructions to achieve uniformity of the performance of
a specific function. A document that generally lists the
involved in performing a task, what
is associated with the
. Standard Operating Procedure
is a set of step-by-step instructions compiled by an organization to help
workers carry out routine operations
SOPs aim to achieve efficiency, quality output and uniformity of
performance, while reducing miscommunication and failure to comply with
What is Science?
methods used for Learning. Using tools, skills,
, testing techniques,
accumulated knowledge and information
, has given humanity more knowledge
then any other time in human history
. Science is a way of
things in our world so that we can have a
of ourselves and the world around us.
The understanding that science gives us helps us
predict future outcomes
so that we
can make better
. Science is also used to create
in return gives us the ability to create even more complex tools
and create even more complex machines
, thus we learn even more.
Science is also a process for
, which everyone can benefit from.
But the greatest power of science is that anyone
can be a contributor to this valuable knowledge resource, as millions
have done in our past.
And millions of people can
also benefit from this knowledge, whether they're living in the present or people who will be living in our
future. So all this accumulated knowledge becomes the building
blocks of new discoveries and new understandings. Not just progressing our advances
in technologies, but progressing our understanding of ourselves,
so we can be more aware
and make better
choices and make better decisions. Another benefit from science
is that, if and when things do change, we can use our knowledge
and tools to react accordingly instead of just suffering from
the changes in our world, or suffer from the changes in ourselves. So science is also part
early warning system, but only if it is used effectively and
something doesn't guarantee that
you will understand it, or learn from it, or benefit from it.
That is why knowledge is so extremely important, because
knowledge helps us understand our experiences a lot better.
You have to see inward as well as see outward. Science helps us
to define Reality
define what is perceived to be real
Science also helps us define
cause and effect,
extremely important to everyone. And just because we know how
something works does not mean that we actually know "why" it
works, or do we fully understand the dangers, because we don't know
everything. But we are learning a lot more now and we are
also learning faster now. And we are also communicating more and we're
communicating faster. But we're not efficient or effective
enough in order to benefit from our increased speed. So science
needs to solve this problem before we waste this momentum and
miss our chance in creating a better world for everyone.
Sometimes if you're moving too fast you may fly past important
information that you need in order to understand something. But luckily,
Science doesn't only speed up our ability to learn, science can
also be used to slow us down, so that we can see more details
and become more and more aware, so that we can make better choices and make better decisions.
just like every tool in our world, tools can be misused. So
science must explain the proper uses
and the proper
uses of our accumulated knowledge. Science must also explain the dangers of misusing our tools by creating a
that anyone can understand. Remember, science does not know
everything, but what science does know is extremely important,
and extremely valuable.
Sometimes Progress is Slow
(1543) was the paradigm shift from the Ptolemaic
model of the heavens, which described the cosmos as having Earth
stationary at the center of the universe, to the heliocentric model with
the Sun at the center of the Solar System.
was the emergence of modern science during the
early modern period (1600), when developments in mathematics, physics,
astronomy, biology (including human anatomy) and chemistry transformed the
views of society about
Some Ideas take time to be
understood or excepted
reasons why things happen
knowing the reasons why certain things happen is the first step in
controlling these actions or adapting to these actions. That what science
"If we don't keep moving forward,
we'll end up having to
start all over
Why we need more Scientists
The internet has made us aware of all kinds of possibilities in
the science world. We have discovered so much. This is one of
the main reasons why we need more scientists. We need more
people researching all these new discoveries that we are making
everyday. So much more needs to be understood in order for us to
effectively utilized all this knowledge. It's a gold mine.
Science in the Classroom
Teachers Science Lesson Plans
is a not-for-profit educational
program whose goal is to "change the face of science" by encouraging
interest in science among students—especially girls and minorities—who
traditionally have not found effective career routes into scientific
Scientifically Literate Person
defined as one who has the capacity to understand
as well as basic scientific
facts and their meaning.
clearly using science.
Understands the fundamental concepts of
Knows how to find and assess scientifically credible information
Ask, find, or determine answers to
about everyday experiences.
Describes, explains, and predicts natural phenomena. Explains
phenomena scientifically – recognizes, offer and evaluate
explanations for a range of natural and technological phenomena.
Reads with Understanding
of articles about science in the
popular press, and engages in social conversation about the
of the conclusions. Interprets
scientifically – analyzes
and evaluates data, claims and
in a variety of representations and draw appropriate scientific
Identifies scientific issues underlying national and local
decisions and expresses positions that are scientifically and
Evaluates the quality of scientific information on the basis of
its source and the methods used to generate it. Evaluates and
designs scientific inquiry – describes and appraises scientific
and proposes ways of addressing
Poses and evaluates arguments based on evidence and to applies conclusions from such arguments appropriately.
Next Generation Science Standards
We have discovered
in our universe, but that does not say that order is
present everywhere or that
is always a
, so we must always proceed with
caution and care.
Do not Accept or Reject claims at
Face Value, but withhold Judgment until Sufficient Evidence is
available to make a decision, if time is allowed.
is the knowledge or source of knowledge acquired by means of the
, particularly by
observation and experimentation. Reality
Science Research Fraud and Corruption
You don't have to be a
in order to use Scientific Methods.
These skills are very useful for anyone who cares about
improving themselves or improving their surroundings. Science
will also increase a persons awareness about themselves and the
world, exposing a sea of possibilities.
Scientists should stop trying to impress people with
knowledge, they should just give people the facts. One of the favorite
lines that scientists like to use is "You are made of the same elements as
. You are star dust". No, I'm much more
then just star dust. Just because I share many of the same genes as a
monkey, this does not make me a monkey. And just because my body is 90
percent microbes this does not make me a microbe. Scientist should tell
people more about the elements and the percentages, after that, then they
can share how wonderful it is to have
things in common
. We want to inspire
learning, not just impress people with wonder.
"Science may not have all the answers, but
it will help you to understand things a little better, so that
maybe you will find the answers that you need. This is what we
found to be true, but every situation is different, so it might
not be true for you."
A Language all its own
, but my other
is an unspoken language, it's called
. I use symbols and characters to
communicate instructions to computerized machines. But they are
more then just machines. Computers are one of the most
incredible tools that man has ever made,
. Computers provide us with more
processing abilities and more memory capacities then any other
time in human history. These computerized machines are humans
analytical partner that aids us in understanding ourselves, and
our world. Humans quest for knowledge now has a powerful tool, a
tool that gives us endless potential. And with the
, we can now for the first time combine the collective
wisdom, knowledge and experiences of millions of people from all
over the world. We no longer need to depend on one country, or
on one leader, or on one government. Because we now have the
collective strength of each other. And together we will create a
better world for everyone. So, what does your language do? Zero's and
Ones, On or Off
If I learned how to speak Spanish I could speak to 518 million
more people then I do now. Knowing how to speak Computer Language
I can now communicate with 2 billion personal computers and
"When you can
, you can do almost anything, like communicate to
We connect to each other through particles
. Calls and texts ride
flecks of light, Web sites and photographs load on electrons. All
communication is, essentially, physical. Information is recorded and
broadcast on actual objects, even those we cannot see.
Are you sure that the instruments that
you're using are calibrated? And do you know that the
calibration may not be part of the equation?
is a reference point. So the reference needs to
be defined. So the first question is "What is this in reference
to?" "Don't forget to
Calibrate the Calibrator."
in measurement technology and
is the comparison of measurement
values delivered by a device under test with those of a calibration
standard of known accuracy. Such a standard could be another measurement
device of known accuracy, a device generating the quantity to be measured
such as a voltage, or a physical artifact, such as a meter ruler.
Feynman: The Pleasure Of Finding Things Out
Story Of Science Power, Proof And Passion
What is One Degree?
(youtube) - Temperature
BBC Horizon (youtube)
Award Winning Teen Age Science in Action
(video) this is
why teaching science is important
Laura Snyder; The Philosophical Breakfast Club
Einstein's Big Idea
(PBS) - Atoms
TROM - 1.1
E. O. Wilson: Advice to Young Scientists
Tal Golesworthy: How I Repaired my own Heart
Aortic Root Support
+ Amy O'Toole: Science is for everyone, kids included
Science • Liquid Nitrogen Under Vacuum • ChefSteps
The Geek Group
Janet Iwasa: How Animations can help Scientists Test a
Engineer Guy Video
optical technique that allows us to see small changes
in the index of refraction
Pure Science Specials
Scientific Method: Steps, Terms and Examples
In a Nutshell – Kurzgesagt
The Journal of
Jove is a database of more than four
thousand videos, with about eighty more added each month. They
are usually between ten and fifteen minutes long, and they range
in subject from biology and chemistry to neuroscience and
Videos should not be confusing
Turbo Encabulator Version 2
: The original machine had a base-plate
of prefabulated amulite, surmounted by a
malleable logarithmic casing in such a way that the two spurving
bearings were in a direct line with the pentametric fan. The
main winding was of the normal lotus-o-delta type placed in
panendermic semi-boloid slots in the stator, every seventh
conductor being connected by a nonreversible trem'e pipe to the
differential girdlespring on the 'up' end of the grammeters.
Unilateral Phase Detractor.
Alan Alda Center for Communicating Science
Online Education Sources
Science PhotosScience Resources
Science Tools - Science Equipment
is an instrument used for scientific
purposes. Most are measuring instruments. They may be specifically
designed, constructed and refined for the purpose. Over time, instruments
have become more accurate and precise. Scientific instruments are part
of laboratory equipment, but are considered more sophisticated and more
specialized than other measuring instruments as scales, rulers,
chronometers, thermometers or even waveform generators. They are
increasingly based upon the integration of computers to improve and
simplify control, enhance and extend instrumental functions, conditions,
parameter adjustments and data sampling, collection, resolution, analysis
(both during and post-process), storage and retrieval.
Equipment Types List
Devices Science Kits
Tools and Science Equipment
has 60 modules and growing. Every module works with every other
in millions of combinations
is a handy, pocket sized card of meltable
bio-plastic that can be used to make things and fix things.
Lab Sciences Tools
Human to Human Interface
Science for Students
Science Tools and Parts
Learn to Code
Modules for Prototyping and Play
using plastic bottle caps to make
Kate Stone: DJ Decks made of Paper
Games and Toys for Learning
DIY Kit for the Connected Life
is useful content & resources for
Instrumentation engineers and professionals.
Science Toys for Learning
Using Toys to Teach Physics
P-Tech, Pathways in Technology
Microscopes - Seeing Small Things
or light microscope, is a type of
microscope which uses visible light
and a system of lenses to magnify
images of small samples
is a variation of a traditional
optical microscope that uses optics and a digital camera to output an
image to a monitor, sometimes by means of software running on a computer.
is to enlargement of an object in
an image. To increase in size, volume or significance.
is an instrument made of
convex glass, used to magnify. Loupe
a magnifying glass, usually mounted in an eyepiece, often used by
jewellers and watchmakers.
Underwater microscopy for in situ studies of benthic ecosystems
is the technical field of using microscopes to
view objects and areas of
objects that cannot be seen
with the naked eye.
is an apparatus to measure a spectrum
that shows intensity as a function of wavelength, of frequency, of energy,
of momentum, or of mass.
SCiO: Molecular Sensor, Optical Sensor, Spectrometer
is a light-controlled variable resistor.
or photo eye, is an equipment
used to discover the distance, absence, or presence of an object by using
a light transmitter, often infrared, and a photoelectric receiver.
is any device that permits position
is a chain of member-based workshops that lets
people of all skill levels come in and use industrial tools and
equipment to build their own projects.
a room or building which provides both the
area and tools (or machinery) that may be required for the
manufacture or repair of manufactured goods.
- Science Space
Rulof Italian Maker
Cesar Harada: How I teach kids to love science
National Lab Network
Open Design City
Experience LearningCollaboration Knowledge
Fairs - Museums - Festivals
Science Fair Ideas
Science Fair Projects
Science Fair Project
Science Fair Poster
Project Display Board
Science Made Simple
Media Learning Competition
of Creators and inventors
Google Science Fair
Scientist Challenge 2013: Peyton Robertson
Young Scientist Challenge
Project; The Importance of "Organic"
competition for K-12 students.
Solve Puzzles for
okay to be Smart
Jove: Journal of
Society for Science
Intel International Science and Engineering Fair
(IEDM) is the world’s preeminent forum for reporting
technological breakthroughs in the areas of semiconductor and electronic
device technology, design, manufacturing, physics, and modeling. IEDM is
the flagship conference for nanometer-scale CMOS transistor technology,
advanced memory, displays,
MEMS devices, novel quantum and
devices and phenomenology,
devices for power and energy harvesting, high-speed devices, as well as
process technology and device modeling and simulation.
ARDX Arduino Starter Kit
Experimentation Kit for Arduino (Uno R3) - v1.3 ,
Tackle 13 Different Projects w/ This Fully-Stocked Beginner's Toolkit.
Evive: Electronic Prototyping Platform
Learn & build your projects
easily, debug them smartly. #Arduino #Robotics #IoT #Embedded #STEM.
MATRIX Creator: IoT Computer Vision Dev Board #Pi
AI on a Pi. Build
your own Amazon Echo + endless IoT apps with a dev board for Raspberry Pi.
Learn, Teach and Make with the Tinusaur
Small microcontroller board
that could run Arduino and help you learn, teach others and make things.
RoboHERO by TTRobotix
is a Arduino-based Intelligent, Interactive and
Programmable Humanoid Robot for Kids
Makers & Educators.
Tinylab: Prototype easier than ever
PC Boards Components
WSU physicists write with light into a crystal to create an electrical
, opening up the possibility of transparent, three-dimensional
electronics that, like an Etch A Sketch, can be erased and reconfigured.
Education Games and ToysRobotic Building Kits