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Robots - Robotics - Autonomous Machines

Advancements in Robotics and Robots

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Robot Photo Robotics is a device consisting of a piece of machinery; has moving parts that perform some function. A mechanism that can be programed to move automatically. (Ai)

Automaton is a moving mechanical device made in imitation of a human being. A machine that performs a function according to a predetermined set of coded instructions, especially one capable of a range of programmed responses to different circumstances. Automaton is a self-operating machine, or a machine or control mechanism designed to follow automatically a predetermined sequence of operations, or respond to predetermined instructions. Some automata, such as bellstrikers in mechanical clocks, are designed to give the illusion to the casual observer that they are operating under their own power.

Robot is a constructed replication of something that uses Robotics for the purpose of mimicking something else or achieving a task. Robots can be guided by an external control device or the control may be embedded within. Robots may be constructed to take on human form but most robots are machines designed to perform a task with no regard to how they look. Half Man Half Robot

Health Industry Robotics

Minimally Invasive Surgery by Robots Robot-Assisted Surgery uses robotic systems to aid in surgical procedures. Robotically-assisted surgery was developed to overcome the limitations of pre-existing minimally-invasive surgical procedures and to enhance the capabilities of surgeons performing open surgery. Operating Robots with Virtual Reality (youtube)

Computer-Assisted Surgery represents a surgical concept and set of methods, that use computer technology for surgical planning, and for guiding or performing surgical interventions. CAS is also known as computer-aided surgery, computer-assisted intervention, image-guided surgery and surgical navigation, but these are terms that are more or less synonymous with CAS. CAS has been a leading factor in the development of robotic surgery. Augmented Reality

Da Vinci Surgical Robot is a robotic surgical system made by the American company Intuitive Surgical. Approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2000, it is designed to facilitate complex surgery using a minimally invasive approach, and is controlled by a surgeon from a console. The system is commonly used for prostatectomies, and increasingly for cardiac valve repair and gynecologic surgical procedures.

Telemedicine is the use of telecommunication and information technology to provide clinical health care from a distance. It helps eliminate distance barriers and can improve access to medical services that would often not be consistently available in distant rural communities. It is also used to save lives in critical care and emergency situations.

Virtual Patient is used to describe interactive computer simulations used in health care education. The special focus is targeted on the simulation of clinical processes with virtual patients. Virtual patients combine scientific excellence, modern technologies and the innovative concept of game-based learning. Virtual patients allow the learner to take the role of a health care professional and develop clinical skills such as making diagnoses and therapeutic decisions. Virtual patients have also been considered computer-based simulations designed to complement clinical training. The use of virtual patient programmes is increasing in healthcare, partly in response to increasing demands on health care professionals and education of students but also because they allow opportunity for students to practice in a safe environment There are many different formats a virtual patient may take. However the overarching principle is that of interactivity - a virtual patient will have mechanisms for the learner to interact with the case and material or information is made available to the learner as they complete a range of learning activities. The interactivity is non-sequential.

Telepresence Robots

Robotic Arm for Extremity Amputations

Tele-Doctors (house calls anywhere)

How Augmented Reality could change the future of Surgery - Nadine Hachach-Haram at TED Women 2017 (video and text)
Lifelike simulations that make real-life surgery safer: Peter Weinstock (video and interactive text)

Virtual Reality turns a patient's pre-procedural CT scans into 3-D images that the radiologist can virtually move and examine while wearing virtual reality-type glasses. By allowing the operator to manipulate routine, two-dimensional images in an open three-dimensional space, VR provides a look into a patients' organs and tissues that had not been possible outside of the human body, until now. As a result, the operator is armed with a deeper and intuitive understanding of spatial relationships, such as between an aneurysm and the surrounding arteries.

Robotic Implants spur Tissue Regeneration inside the Body. Mechanical pull stimulates stunted hollow organs to grow, which could help treat defects like esophageal atresia and short bowel syndrome. An implanted, programmable medical robot can gradually lengthen tubular organs by applying traction forces -- stimulating tissue growth in stunted organs without interfering with organ function or causing apparent discomfort. (mechanostimulation).

Robot therapist Manipulative Massage Automation a single, 6-axis robotic arm capable of highly articulated movements
Flexdex - Minimally Invasive Surgery.

Disaster Relief Robots

Disaster Relief Robots Rescue Robot is a robot that has been designed for the purpose of rescuing people. Common situations that employ rescue robots are mining accidents, urban disasters, hostage situations, and explosions. The benefits of rescue robots to these operations include reduced personnel requirements, reduced fatigue, and access to otherwise unreachable areas. Rescue robots in development are being made with abilities such as searching, reconnaissance and mapping, removing or shoring up rubble, delivery of supplies, medical treatment, and evacuation of casualties. Even with all these ideas coming about there are still some technical challenges that remain. Robin Murphy, a professor of computer science and engineering, says that “Real disasters are infrequent, and every one is different. The robots never get used exactly the way you think they will, and they keep uncovering new bottlenecks and problems. So it’s an emerging technology.” There are three main levels of challenges. First, the information processing of the robot. Second, the mobility of the robot. Third, the manipulation of the robot. Bringing these robots into real-world use and being able to utilize them in all situations is so close to becoming a reality. “We're just inches away” Murphy says, “a lot of software is just waiting for the hardware to catch up”.

Rescue Robot League is an international competition for urban search and rescue robots, in which robots compete to find victims in a simulated earthquake environment. The rescue robot league is run alongside Robocup Rescue Simulation, as part of the RoboCup robot competition. Robots perform 20 minute search and rescue missions in a test arena measuring approximately 10m by 6m, which features a number of obstacle zones designed to challenge autonomous operation, mobility during tele-operation, and object manipulation. Points are allocated based on the number of victims found, the detail with which victims were detected, and the quality with which the arena has been mapped.

The Robotics Challenge
Robots for Humanity (video)
4WD 100mm Mecanum Wheel Learning Arduino Kit C009 Robot Can Move In Every Direction Without Turning Its Wheel.

Flying Machines - Drones

Drones (types, rules and regulations)

Drone n Base: Race & Battle Drones at Home

Eyes in the Sky (Environmental Monitoring using Drones)

Telerobotics is the area of robotics concerned with the control of semi-autonomous robots from a distance, chiefly using Wireless network (like Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, the Deep Space Network, and similar) or tethered connections. It is a combination of two major subfields, teleoperation and telepresence.

Radio Controlled - Remote Control

Underwater Inspection Robots

2 Grobotics
Inspector Bots

Submarines (scuba)

Deepfield Robotics Robotic Ultra-Precise Weed Control (youtube) You can turn weed killing and pest control into a video game that anyone can play from around the world.

Underwater Drones

Manufacturing Robots

Manufacturing Robotic Arms Industrial Robot is a robot system used for manufacturing. Industrial robots are automated, programmable and capable of movement on two or more axes. Typical applications of robots include welding, painting, assembly, pick and place for printed circuit boards, packaging and labeling, palletizing, product inspection, and testing; all accomplished with high endurance, speed, and precision. They can help in material handling and provide interfaces.

Laboratory Robotics is the act of using robots in biology or chemistry labs. For example, pharmaceutical companies employ robots to move biological or chemical samples around to synthesize novel chemical entities or to test pharmaceutical value of existing chemical matter. Advanced laboratory robotics can be used to completely automate the process of science, as in the Robot Scientist project.

Engineering Machines
3D Printing

Biorobotics covers the fields of cybernetics, bionics and even genetic engineering as a collective study.

Cybernetics is used for exploring regulatory systems—their structures, constraints, and possibilities. Norbert Wiener defined cybernetics in 1948 as "the scientific study of control and communication in the animal and the machine.
Universal Robots

Collision Avoidance Using the Reflexxes Motion Libraries (youtube)
Artificial Robot Nervous System to Teach Robots How to Feel Pain (youtube)
Madeline the Robot Tamer (vimeo)
Quipt is a gesture-based control software that gives industrial robots basic spatial behaviors for interacting closely with people.
How to Tame Your Robot
Robotnik Summit XL OMNI - Mecanum Wheels | Омни боты (youtube)
Get a Grip with Soft Electronics (youtube) Soft Robotic Gripper Electroadhesion
SALTO - Berkeley's leaping robot (youtube)
Robots Sorting System sorts 200,000 packages a day in Chinese warehouse. (youtube)

Artificial Muscles give soft Robots Superpowers. Origami-inspired muscles are both soft and strong, and can be made for less than $1. Origami-inspired artificial muscles are capable of lifting up to 1,000 times their own weight, simply by applying air or water pressure powered by a vacuum. They can generate about six times more force per unit area than mammalian skeletal muscle can and are also incredibly lightweight (water-soluble polymer PVA); a 2.6-gram muscle can lift a 3-kilogram object, muscles is that they're programmable and soft actuators are highly scalable.

Association for Computing Machinery

Robots don't take Jobs


Bionic Arm Prosthetic Bionics is the application of biological methods and systems found in nature to the study and design of engineering systems and modern technology.
Touch Bionics - Sensors

Powered Exoskeleton is a wearable mobile machine that is powered by a system of electric motors, pneumatics, levers, hydraulics, or a combination of technologies that allow for limb movement with increased strength and endurance.

Hybrid Assistive Limb is a powered exoskeleton suit designed to support and expand the physical capabilities of its users, particularly people with physical disabilities. There are two primary versions of the system: HAL 3, which only provides leg function, and HAL 5, which is a full-body exoskeleton for the arms, legs, and torso.

Soft Robotics is the specific subfield of robotics dealing with constructing robots from highly compliant materials, similar to those found in living organisms. Soft robotics draws heavily from the way in which living organisms move and adapt to their surroundings. In contrast to robots built from rigid materials, soft robots allow for increased flexibility and adaptability for accomplishing tasks, as well as improved safety when working around humans. These characteristics allow for its potential use in the fields of medicine and manufacturing. Lifelike Robots.

Soft Robotic Muscles Created by CU Engineering Researchers.
Liquefied Soft Artificial Muscle Electrically Activated to Mimic the Expansion and Contraction of Natural Muscles.
Peano-HASEL actuators: Muscle-mimetic, electrohydraulic transducers that linearly contract on activation
Hydraulically Amplified Self-Healing Electrostatic (HASEL)

Allen Zderad, uses bionic eye to see (youtube)
Body Builders Bionics (youtube)

Patient controls Prosthesis with own Thoughts. Radboud university medical center connects first click-on arm prosthesis to nerves.

Amputees can learn to Control a Robotic arm with their Minds through Electrodes Implanted in the Brain.

The Force is Strong: Amputee Controls Individual Prosthetic Fingers. Luke Skywalker’s bionic hand made possible by ultrasound technology.

Rewalk Robotics Mobility for Stroke Victims.

Brain Computer Interfaces (implants) - Hearing Aids

Neurorobotics is a combined study of neuroscience, robotics, and artificial intelligence.

Artificial Skin with Solar Cells could Power Prosthetics. Scientist creates graphene skin that's more sensitive than our own.

The Six Million Dollar Man is an American science fiction television series in 1973 about a former astronaut who was given superhuman strength due to bionic implants. A spin-off television series, The Bionic Woman, featuring the lead female character Jaime Sommers, ran from 1976 to 1978.

Advanced Artificial Limbs Mapped in the Brain. Neuroprosthetics have used functional MRI to show how the brain re-maps motor and sensory pathways following targeted motor and sensory reinnervation (TMSR), a neuroprosthetic approach where residual limb nerves are rerouted towards intact muscles and skin regions to control a robotic limb.

Neuroprosthetics or neural prostheses, are sometimes contrasted with a brain–computer interface, which connects
the brain to a computer rather than a device meant to replace missing biological functionality. Neural prostheses are a series of devices that can substitute a motor, sensory or cognitive modality that might have been damaged as a result of an injury or a

Prosthesis is an artificial device that replaces a missing body part, which may be lost through trauma, disease, or congenital conditions.

Orthotics externally applied device used to modify the structural and functional characteristics of the neuromuscular and skeletal system. An orthosis may be used to Control, guide, limit and/or immobilize an extremity, joint or body segment for a particular reason, Restrict movement in a given direction. Assist movement generally. Reduce weight bearing forces for a particular purpose. Aid rehabilitation from fractures after the removal of a cast. Otherwise correct the shape and/or function of the body, to provide easier movement capability or reduce pain

Artificial Muscles power up with new Gel-Based Robotics

Wearable Computing Ring Allows Users to Write Words and Numbers with Thumb. Technology provides eyes-free way to interact with smart devices.

UCLA scientists make Cells that enable the Sense of Touch. Researchers are the first to create sensory interneurons from stem cells.

Virtual Reality Reduces Phantom Pain in Paraplegics - Body Smart

Robotics Education

Robotics Education Roboticist is a person who designs, builds, programs, and experiments with robots. Since robotics is a highly interdisciplinary field, roboticists often have backgrounds in a number of disciplines including computer science, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, physics, human–computer interaction and interaction design. Roboticists often work for university, industry, and government research labs, but may also work for startup companies and other entrepreneurial firms. Amateur Robotics is also a growing hobby all over the world.

Biorobotics covers the fields of cybernetics, bionics and even genetic engineering.

Robotics Education

Humanoid is something that has an appearance resembling a human being.

Humanoid Robot is a robot with its body shape built to resemble the human body. The design may be for functional purposes, such as interacting with human tools and environments, for experimental purposes, such as the study of bipedal locomotion, or for other purposes. In general, humanoid robots have a torso, a head, two arms, and two legs, though some forms of humanoid robots may model only part of the body, for example, from the waist up. Some humanoid robots also have heads designed to replicate human facial features such as eyes and mouths. Androids are humanoid robots built to aesthetically resemble humans.

Open Robotics we support the development, distribution, and adoption of open software and hardware for use in robotics research, education, and product development.

Locorobo-Master Programming Robotics
Robotics Trends
Cloud Robotics
Boston Dynamics
µTug: Micro robot pulls 2000 times its weight on glass (youtube)
Revolve Robotics
Festo Automation
Kiva Systems
KOOV: all-in-one Coding & Robotics design Kit.
Anki toy robot that is also a programming platform.
Fect Robotics Toys
Robotics and Automation (ICRA 2014)
Petman, Atlas (youtube)
Robot Restaurant

Another great reason why we need to improve education is to make sure that students learn about human relationships and the relationships and interactions that we have with machines, technology and robots. Techno-Stress

Grade-school students teach a robot to help themselves learn geometry

The Media Equation is a general communication theory that claims that people tend to treat computers and other media as if they were either real people or real places. The effects of this phenomenon on people experiencing these media are often profound, leading them to behave and to respond to these experiences in unexpected ways, most of which they are completely unaware.

Lost in Space Robot Lost in Space STS-117 B9 Robot Presentation Video (youtube)
Janken (rock-paper-scissors) Robot with 100% winning rate (youtube)

Learning Code
Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence (body smart)
Engineering Machines
Information Stations
Artificial Intelligence
3D Printing
Software - Hardware
Technology News
Technology Apps and Accessories
Virtual Reality

Science Kits

Robot Competitions

The Robotics Challenge
Robot Events
Robo Games
MIT Zero Robotics
Robot Hall of Fame
Robot Festival
Vacation Ideas

Robot Building Kits

Robot Building Kits
Robotics Electronic Kits
Robotics Parts
Science Kits and Tools
Antbo: An Insect Robot Anyone Can Build
DRONOID Modular Drone for Kids & Adults
Tinkerbots Robotics Wheeler Set

Personal Home Robots

Jibo: The World's First Family Robot
Buddy: Family's Companion Robot
Leka Robotic Toy for Exceptional Children with motor, cognitive, social, and emotional disorders.
Could Robots have the same beneficial qualities as owning a Pet?
Musio Robot
Baxter Robot (wiki)
Baxter Robot Video
Aido: Next Gen Home Robot
Voice-Activated Assistants
Charli-2 (youtube)
Robit - The World's Most Affordable Home Robot
Human Operating System
Saffir Autonomous Humanoid
i robot
Tamaggo Panoramic Videos
Rp-7i Robot
Cobot (wiki)
irobot Virtual Robots
Alpha 2, the First Humanoid Robot for the Family!
Riley Mobile Companion
Zenbo Asus
Nao Robot (wiki)
Robelf - multi-camera home security robot Moving Monitor.

Home Monitoring

Robot News

Alter: a new type of robot has its own neural network Takashi Ikegami (University of Tokyo) (youtube)

COWAROBOT R1: Robotic Suitcase, Autonomous Navigation, High-tech Security. There are probably more practicable uses for this technology besides just a suitcase.

Lifelike Robots. A self-contained soft actuator three times stronger than natural muscle, without the need of externals, signals a breakthrough in Soft Robotics.

FenSens Smart Wireless Parking Sensor - Installs in less than 5 min, no wires, and hands-free App .

3D-Printed Robot wave-propelled that can swim, climb and crawl. 3D printed wave producing robot (SAW).

Let's all Pull Together: Team of µTug Microrobots Pulls a Car (microTug microrobots).

Everybot RS500 Robotic Spin Mop

Peeqo - The GIF Bot (youtube)

Transparent Gel Robot that Can Snatch Fish Right Up (youtube)

Now you can "build your own" bio-bot Optogenetic skeletal muscle-powered adaptive biological machines.

Uncanny Lover: Building a Sex Robot | Robotica | The New York Times (youtube)
Sex Dolls with AI will replace most prostitutes. RealDoll could be used for practice and education.

Three-dimensionally printed biological machines powered by skeletal muscle.

Engineers have designed a microfluidic device they call a "tree-on-a-chip," which mimics the pumping mechanism of trees and plants. The more sugar there is in the phloem, the more water flows from xylem to phloem to balance out the sugar-to-water gradient, in a passive process known as osmosis. The resulting water flow flushes nutrients down to the roots. Trees and plants are thought to maintain this pumping process as more water is drawn up from their roots. engineers have previously attempted to design tree-inspired microfluidic pumps, fabricating parts that mimic xylem and phloem. Hosoi envisions that the tree-on-a-chip pump may be built into a small robot to produce hydraulically powered motions, without requiring active pumps or parts.

Physicists take first step toward Cell-Sized Robots. An electricity-conducting, environment-sensing, shape-changing machine the size of a human cell. A robot exoskeleton that can rapidly change its shape upon sensing chemical or thermal changes in its environment. And, they claim, these microscale machines – equipped with electronic, photonic and chemical payloads – could become a powerful platform for robotics at the size scale of biological microorganisms, with the computational power of the spaceship Voyager onto an object the size of a cell. The machines move using a motor called a bimorph. A bimorph is an assembly of two materials – in this case, graphene and glass – that bends when driven by a stimulus like heat, a chemical reaction or an applied voltage. The shape change happens because, in the case of heat, two materials with different thermal responses expand by different amounts over the same temperature change.

Bimorph is a cantilever used for actuation or sensing which consists of two active layers. It can also have a passive layer between the two active layers. In contrast, a piezoelectric unimorph has only one active (i.e. piezoelectric) layer and one passive (i.e. non-piezoelectric) layer. The term is most commonly used with piezoelectric bimorphs. In actuator applications, one active layer contracts and the other expands if voltage is applied, thus the bimorph bends. In sensing applications, bending the bimorph produces voltage which can for example be used to measure displacement or acceleration. This mode can also be used for energy harvesting. A bimetal could be regarded as a thermally activated bimorph. The first theory about the bending of thermally activated bimorphs was given by Stoney. Newer developments also enabled electrostatically activated bimorphs for the use in Microelectromechanical systems

The Thinker Man