Robots - Robotics - Autonomous Machines
Advancements in Robotics and Robots
is a device consisting of a piece of
; has moving
parts that perform some function. A
that can be
is a moving
made in imitation of a human being. A machine that performs a function
according to a predetermined set of coded instructions
, especially one
capable of a range of programmed responses to different circumstances.
, or a
mechanism designed to follow automatically a predetermined sequence of
operations, or respond to predetermined instructions. Some automata, such
as bellstrikers in mechanical clocks, are designed to give the
to the casual observer that they are operating under their own
a constructed replication of something that uses Robotics for the purpose
of mimicking something else or achieving a task. Robots can be guided by
an external control device or the control may be embedded within. Robots
may be constructed to take on human form but most robots are machines
designed to perform a task with no regard to how they look.
Half Man Half
Health Industry Robotics
uses robotic systems to aid in
Robotically-assisted surgery was developed to overcome the limitations of
pre-existing minimally-invasive surgical procedures and to enhance the
capabilities of surgeons performing open surgery.
with Virtual Reality
surgical concept and set of methods, that use computer technology for
surgical planning, and for guiding or performing surgical interventions.
CAS is also known as computer-aided surgery, computer-assisted
intervention, image-guided surgery and surgical navigation, but these are
terms that are more or less synonymous with CAS. CAS has been a leading
factor in the development of robotic surgery.
Da Vinci Surgical Robot
is a robotic
surgical system made by the American company Intuitive Surgical. Approved
by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2000, it is designed to
facilitate complex surgery using a minimally invasive approach, and is
controlled by a surgeon
from a console. The system is commonly used for
prostatectomies, and increasingly for cardiac valve repair and gynecologic
is the use of telecommunication and information technology to provide
clinical health care from a distance. It helps eliminate distance barriers
and can improve access to medical services that would often not be
consistently available in distant rural communities. It is also used to
save lives in critical care and emergency situations.
Virtual Patient is used to describe
simulations used in health care education. The special focus is
targeted on the simulation of clinical processes with virtual patients.
Virtual patients combine scientific excellence, modern technologies and
the innovative concept of game-based learning. Virtual patients allow the
learner to take the role of a health care professional and develop
clinical skills such as making diagnoses and therapeutic decisions.
Virtual patients have also been considered computer-based simulations
designed to complement clinical training. The use of virtual patient
programmes is increasing in healthcare, partly in response to increasing
demands on health care professionals and education of students but also
because they allow opportunity for students to practice in a safe
environment There are many different formats a virtual patient may take.
However the overarching principle is that of interactivity - a virtual
patient will have mechanisms for the learner to interact with the case and
material or information is made available to the learner as they complete
a range of learning activities. The interactivity is non-sequential.Telepresence Robots
Robotic Arm for Extremity Amputations
How Augmented Reality could change the future of Surgery - Nadine Hachach-Haram
at TED Women 2017
(video and text)
Lifelike simulations that make real-life surgery safer: Peter Weinstock
(video and interactive text)
patient's pre-procedural CT scans into
radiologist can virtually move and examine while wearing virtual
reality-type glasses. By allowing the operator to manipulate routine,
two-dimensional images in an open three-dimensional space, VR provides a
look into a patients' organs and tissues that had not been possible
outside of the human body, until now. As a result, the operator is armed
with a deeper and intuitive understanding of spatial relationships, such
as between an aneurysm and the surrounding arteries.
Robotic Implants spur Tissue Regeneration inside the Body
pull stimulates stunted hollow organs to grow, which could help treat
defects like esophageal atresia and short bowel syndrome. An implanted,
programmable medical robot can gradually lengthen tubular organs by
applying traction forces -- stimulating tissue growth in stunted organs
without interfering with organ function or causing apparent discomfort. (mechanostimulation).
Robot therapist Manipulative Massage Automation a single,
6-axis robotic arm capable of highly articulated movements
Disaster Relief Robots
is a robot that has been designed for the purpose of rescuing people.
Common situations that employ rescue robots are mining accidents,
, hostage situations, and explosions. The benefits of rescue
robots to these operations include reduced personnel requirements, reduced
fatigue, and access to otherwise unreachable areas. Rescue robots in
development are being made with abilities such as searching,
reconnaissance and mapping, removing or shoring up rubble,
, medical treatment, and evacuation of casualties. Even with all
these ideas coming about there are still some technical challenges that
remain. Robin Murphy, a professor of computer science and engineering,
says that “Real disasters are infrequent, and every one is different. The
robots never get used exactly the way you think they will, and they keep
uncovering new bottlenecks and problems. So it’s an emerging technology.”
There are three main levels of challenges. First, the information
processing of the robot. Second, the mobility of the robot. Third, the
manipulation of the robot. Bringing these robots into real-world use and
being able to utilize them in all situations is so close to becoming a
reality. “We're just inches away” Murphy says, “a lot of software is just
waiting for the hardware to catch up”.
Rescue Robot League
is an international competition
for urban search and rescue robots, in
which robots compete to find victims in a simulated earthquake
environment. The rescue robot league is run alongside Robocup Rescue
Simulation, as part of the RoboCup robot competition. Robots perform 20
minute search and rescue missions in a test arena measuring approximately
10m by 6m, which features a number of obstacle zones designed to challenge
autonomous operation, mobility during tele-operation, and object
manipulation. Points are allocated based on the number of victims found,
the detail with which victims were detected, and the quality with which
the arena has been mapped.
The Robotics Challenge
Robots for Humanity
4WD 100mm Mecanum
Wheel Learning Arduino Kit C009
Robot Can Move In Every Direction
Without Turning Its Wheel.
Flying Machines - Drones
(types, rules and regulations)
Drone n Base: Race & Battle Drones at Home
Eyes in the Sky
(Environmental Monitoring using Drones)
the area of robotics concerned with the control of semi-autonomous robots
from a distance, chiefly using Wireless network (like Wi-Fi, Bluetooth,
the Deep Space Network, and similar) or tethered connections. It is a
combination of two major subfields, teleoperation and telepresence.
Underwater Inspection Robots
Robotic Ultra-Precise Weed Control
(youtube) You can turn weed
killing and pest control into a video game that anyone can play from
around the world.
is a robot system used for
Industrial robots are automated, programmable and capable of movement on
two or more axes. Typical applications of robots include welding,
painting, assembly, pick and place for printed circuit boards, packaging
and labeling, palletizing, product inspection, and testing; all
accomplished with high endurance, speed, and precision. They can help in
material handling and provide
is the act of using robots in biology or chemistry labs. For example,
pharmaceutical companies employ robots to move biological or chemical
samples around to synthesize novel chemical entities or to test
pharmaceutical value of existing chemical matter. Advanced laboratory
robotics can be used to completely automate the process of science, as in
fields of cybernetics, bionics and even genetic engineering as a
is used for exploring regulatory systems—their structures,
constraints, and possibilities. Norbert Wiener defined cybernetics in 1948
as "the scientific study of control and communication in the animal and
Collision Avoidance Using the Reflexxes Motion Libraries
Artificial Robot Nervous System to Teach Robots How to Feel Pain
Madeline the Robot Tamer
is a gesture-based control software that gives industrial robots
basic spatial behaviors for interacting closely with people.
How to Tame Your Robot
Robotnik Summit XL
OMNI - Mecanum Wheels | Омни боты
Get a Grip with
(youtube) Soft Robotic Gripper
- Berkeley's leaping robot (youtube)
sorts 200,000 packages a day in Chinese warehouse. (youtube)
Artificial Muscles give soft Robots Superpowers
muscles are both soft and strong, and can be made for less than $1.
Origami-inspired artificial muscles are capable of lifting up to 1,000
times their own weight, simply by applying air or water pressure powered
by a vacuum. They can generate about six times more force per unit area
than mammalian skeletal muscle can and are also incredibly lightweight
(water-soluble polymer PVA); a 2.6-gram muscle can lift a 3-kilogram
object, muscles is that they're programmable and soft actuators are highly
Robots don't take Jobs
is the application of
and systems found in nature to the study and design
of engineering systems
and modern technology.Touch Bionics
is a wearable mobile machine that is powered by a system
of electric motors, pneumatics, levers, hydraulics, or a combination of
technologies that allow for limb movement with increased strength and
Hybrid Assistive Limb
is a powered exoskeleton suit designed
to support and expand the physical capabilities of its users, particularly
people with physical disabilities. There are two primary versions of the
system: HAL 3, which only provides leg function, and HAL 5, which is a
full-body exoskeleton for the arms, legs, and torso.
is the specific subfield of robotics dealing with
constructing robots from highly compliant materials, similar to those
found in living organisms. Soft robotics draws heavily from the way in
which living organisms move and adapt to their surroundings. In contrast
to robots built from rigid materials, soft robots allow for increased
flexibility and adaptability for accomplishing tasks, as well as improved
safety when working around humans. These characteristics allow for its
potential use in the fields of medicine and manufacturing.
Soft Robotic Muscles Created by CU Engineering Researchers
Liquefied Soft Artificial Muscle Electrically Activated to Mimic the
Expansion and Contraction of Natural Muscles.
Peano-HASEL actuators: Muscle-mimetic, electrohydraulic transducers that
linearly contract on activation
Self-Healing Electrostatic (HASEL)
Allen Zderad, uses bionic eye to see
Patient controls Prosthesis with own Thoughts
. Radboud university
medical center connects first click-on arm prosthesis to nerves.
Amputees can learn to Control a Robotic arm with their Minds through
Electrodes Implanted in the Brain.
The Force is Strong: Amputee Controls Individual Prosthetic Fingers
Luke Skywalker’s bionic hand made possible by ultrasound technology.
Mobility for Stroke Victims.
Brain Computer Interfaces
(implants) - Hearing Aids
is a combined study of
and artificial intelligence
Artificial Skin with Solar Cells could Power Prosthetics
creates graphene skin that's more sensitive than our own.
The Six Million Dollar Man
is an American science fiction
series in 1973
about a former astronaut who was given superhuman strength
due to bionic implants. A spin-off television series,
The Bionic Woman
, featuring the lead female character
ran from 1976 to 1978.
Advanced Artificial Limbs Mapped in the Brain
. Neuroprosthetics have
used functional MRI to show how the brain re-maps motor and sensory
pathways following targeted motor and sensory reinnervation (TMSR), a
neuroprosthetic approach where residual limb nerves are rerouted towards
intact muscles and skin regions to control a robotic limb.
or neural prostheses, are sometimes contrasted with a
brain–computer interface, which connects
the brain to a computer
rather than a device meant to replace missing biological functionality.
Neural prostheses are a series of devices that can substitute a motor,
modality that might have been damaged as a result of an injury or a
is an artificial device that replaces a missing body part,
which may be lost through trauma, disease, or congenital conditions.
externally applied device used to modify the structural and
functional characteristics of the neuromuscular and skeletal system. An
orthosis may be used to Control, guide, limit and/or immobilize an
extremity, joint or body segment for a particular reason, Restrict
movement in a given direction. Assist movement generally. Reduce weight
bearing forces for a particular purpose. Aid rehabilitation from fractures
after the removal of a cast. Otherwise correct the shape and/or function
of the body, to provide easier movement capability or reduce pain
Artificial Muscles power up with new Gel-Based Robotics
Wearable Computing Ring Allows Users to Write Words and Numbers with Thumb
Technology provides eyes-free way to interact with smart devices.
UCLA scientists make Cells that enable the Sense of Touch
are the first to create sensory
Virtual Reality Reduces Phantom Pain in Paraplegics
is a person who designs
robots. Since robotics is a highly interdisciplinary field, roboticists
often have backgrounds in a number of disciplines including
, mechanical engineering
, electrical engineering,
and interaction design. Roboticists often work
for university, industry, and government research labs, but may also work
for startup companies and other entrepreneurial firms. Amateur Robotics is
also a growing hobby all over the world.
covers the fields of cybernetics, bionics and even genetic engineering.
is something that has an appearance resembling a human being.Humanoid Robot
is a robot with its body shape built to resemble the human body. The
design may be for functional purposes, such as interacting with human
tools and environments, for experimental purposes, such as the study of
, or for other purposes. In general, humanoid robots
have a torso, a head, two arms, and two legs, though some forms of
humanoid robots may model only part of the body, for example, from the
waist up. Some humanoid robots also have heads designed to replicate human
facial features such as eyes and mouths. Androids are humanoid robots
built to aesthetically resemble humans.
we support the development, distribution, and adoption of open software
and hardware for use in robotics research, education, and product
Locorobo-Master Programming Robotics
µTug: Micro robot pulls
2000 times its
weight on glass
Robotics design Kit.
that is also a programming platform.
and Automation (ICRA 2014)
Another great reason why we need to improve education
is to make sure that students learn about
relationships and interactions that we have with machines,
Grade-school students teach a robot to help themselves learn geometry
The Media Equation
is a general communication theory that claims that
people tend to treat computers and other media as if they were either real
people or real places. The effects of this phenomenon on people
experiencing these media are often profound, leading them to behave and to
respond to these experiences in unexpected ways, most of which they are
Lost in Space STS-117 B9 Robot Presentation Video
(rock-paper-scissors) Robot with 100% winning rate
(body smart)Engineering Machines
Technology Apps and Accessories
The Robotics Challenge
MIT Zero Robotics
Robot Hall of Fame
Robot Building Kits
Robot Building Kits
Robotics Electronic Kits
Science Kits and Tools
Antbo: An Insect Robot Anyone Can Build
DRONOID Modular Drone for Kids & Adults
Tinkerbots Robotics Wheeler Set
Personal Home Robots
Jibo: The World's First Family Robot
Buddy: Family's Companion Robot
Leka Robotic Toy
for Exceptional Children with motor, cognitive, social, and emotional disorders.
Could Robots have the same
beneficial qualities as owning a Pet
Aido: Next Gen Home Robot
Robit - The World's Most Affordable Home Robot
Human Operating System
Saffir Autonomous Humanoid
Alpha 2, the First Humanoid Robot for the Family!
Riley Mobile Companion
- multi-camera home security robot Moving Monitor.
type of robot has its own neural network Takashi Ikegami (University of
Robotic Suitcase, Autonomous Navigation, High-tech
Security. There are probably more
this technology besides just a suitcase.
. A self-contained soft actuator three times stronger
than natural muscle, without the need of externals, signals a breakthrough
in Soft Robotics
FenSens Smart Wireless Parking Sensor
- Installs in less than 5 min,
no wires, and hands-free App .
wave-propelled that can swim, climb and crawl. 3D printed wave producing
Let's all Pull
: Team of µTug Microrobots Pulls a Car (microTug
Everybot RS500 Robotic Spin Mop
Peeqo - The
that Can Snatch Fish Right Up (youtube)
Now you can "build your own" bio-bot
Building a Sex Robot | Robotica | The New York Times
will replace most
could be used for practice and education.
biological machines powered by skeletal
Engineers have designed a microfluidic device they call a
which mimics the pumping mechanism of trees and
plants. The more sugar there is in the phloem, the more water flows from
xylem to phloem to balance out the sugar-to-water gradient, in a passive
process known as osmosis. The resulting water flow flushes nutrients down
to the roots. Trees and plants are thought to maintain this pumping
process as more water is drawn up from their roots. engineers have
previously attempted to design tree-inspired microfluidic pumps,
fabricating parts that mimic xylem and phloem. Hosoi envisions that the
tree-on-a-chip pump may be built into a small robot to produce
hydraulically powered motions, without requiring active pumps or parts.
Physicists take first step toward Cell-Sized Robots
electricity-conducting, environment-sensing, shape-changing machine the
size of a human cell. A robot exoskeleton that can rapidly change its
shape upon sensing chemical or thermal changes in its environment. And,
they claim, these
– equipped with electronic, photonic and chemical
payloads – could become a powerful platform for robotics at the size scale
of biological microorganisms, with the computational power of the
spaceship Voyager onto an object the size of a cell. The machines move
using a motor called a bimorph. A bimorph is an assembly of two materials
– in this case, graphene
and glass – that bends when driven by a stimulus like heat, a chemical
reaction or an applied voltage. The shape change happens because, in the
case of heat, two materials with different thermal responses expand by
different amounts over the same temperature change.
is a cantilever used for actuation or sensing which consists of two active
layers. It can also have a passive layer between the two active layers. In
contrast, a piezoelectric unimorph has only one active (i.e.
) layer and one
passive (i.e. non-piezoelectric) layer. The term is most commonly used
with piezoelectric bimorphs. In actuator applications, one active layer
contracts and the other expands if voltage is applied, thus the bimorph
bends. In sensing applications, bending the bimorph produces voltage which
can for example be used to measure displacement or acceleration. This mode
can also be used for energy harvesting. A bimetal could be regarded as a
thermally activated bimorph. The first theory about the bending of
thermally activated bimorphs was given by Stoney. Newer developments also
enabled electrostatically activated bimorphs for the use in