A smart person
is someone who is
always educating themselves
always asking questions
always investigating things
smart person does not like to make assumptions
or pretend to know
A smart person will always provide proof
that accurately explains
and explains their
, even when they make
A smart person is someone who is fully aware
of the fact
that there are
many things that they still don't know
about themselves and the world around
them. A smart person is never satisfied with what they know,
because new information
anything you thought you knew. A smart
person understands the power of knowledge, and not for the love of
or for the love of knowledge
, but for
of the endless
that knowledge brings.
Words that Describe Intelligence
Types of Intelligence
Human Operating System
of millions of people.
will not guarantee that someone will be intelligent
only sure way to foster
is to give someone
access to a good education
, especially an education that
. You also have
to provide a healthy environment
that does not
impede learning in any way. You also have to have
responsible media outlets
of deforming people
You also have to make public knowledge and information available 24 hours
a day. If we can accomplish this, then everyone could be intelligent. But
first we have to define what intelligence is and what it is not.
To be intelligent
you first have to know what being
you also have to know what being ignorant is. Ignorant
is just another word
". But not knowing is not always
. That's because
is not fully understood. The
more you learn the more you should realize
what you didn't know. And if
you learn things that do not make you realize how much you didn't know
and if learning doesn't make you realize how much you still need to know,
then you did not learn anything valuable
or relevant. Wisdom does not come with age
, wisdom comes from learning.
And if learning does not increase your understanding of yourself and the
world around you, then that's not learning, that's just
. Ten people can
the same thing but
not learn the same thing. This is because
varies from person to
person. So this will need to be the next big advancement in education.
Where every student will know what to learn, when to learn,
how to learn
where to learn and why to learn. And then every student will know how to
and monitor their own progress in their own time, and at
their own pace. But you still need to be
for your entire life.
There is no short cut to being smart
have to define what makes a person intelligent and then you need to have an
accurate way of
if this intelligence is correctly understood
Just because you have abilities
, this does not guarantee that you will
know how to use your abilities correctly or effectively. And just what is
and just what is effective
? These are words that we need to
define if we are ever going to know exactly what being
intelligent really means. First we need to define the actions and the
that are proven to produce the most positive
results that are based on a particular set of circumstances. And
these intelligent actions and thought processes have to be
and used by society today so that everyone can see the
improvements and see the positive outcomes and benefits that come
from these particular intelligent actions. This way everyone
can understand why these particular actions and thought
processes are viewed as being intelligent. Because what good is
having intelligence if you never use the intelligence in
to solve real problems
. An IQ test
only confirms a small
percentage of what is considered to be intelligence. So the only
way to truly measure a persons intelligence is to have them
solve real life problems and then have them explain their
methods clearly enough so that others can
repeat the process
. Welcome to Defining Intelligence.
- Pretending to Know
If a person does not have the necessary information and
knowledge that is needed to correctly analyze a problem, it is
nearly impossible for that person to understand how to calculate
the correct actions that are needed in order to solve that
problem. Even if a problem is right in front of a person it is
very unlikely that they will be able to comprehend that a
particular problem is even there without necessary information
and knowledge. Then a person will still have to understand that
particular information and knowledge in order to use it
effectively. So how will a person be able to recognize that
there is necessary information and knowledge missing from their education? How do you convince a
person to see that there is a void of missing information and
knowledge when they don't have the necessary information and
knowledge in order for them to see that there is even a void?
This is why it is so extremely important to teach students early
and completely, especially the logic that is behind learning these
techniques, tools and skills that are needed to acquire necessary
. So what is this
necessary information and knowledge? What are the techniques,
tools and skills that are needed? That is exactly what we are
going to find out, and exactly what we are going to teach.
that saying "The
Buck Stops Here
", that should be changed to "The
Ignorance Stops Here". Defining the extreme degrees of
ignorance. If everyone around you
is stupid then how will you
know how stupid you are? Being surrounded by stupidity often
That Does Not Compute
When we say that someone is smart, people just assume
they know what smart means. Most people think that being smart is how good
a person is at making decisions and solving particular types of problems.
But very few people understand the processes of decision making and
problem solving. So most people don't have a clue what smart is.
given a lot of things they don't know how to use effectively or
. And people can't use their brain effectively or
efficiently unless they are given the right knowledge and information at
the right time. If there were no ignorant people, would know what being
ignorant is? If everyone was smart, would you know what smart is? Yes, you
would have to know what smart is and know what not
being smart is
There is not one human alive today who is at their full
potential of intelligence or abilities. That's because
we just got public internet around 20 years ago
in 1998, which gave us
access to more knowledge and information then any other time in human
history. We are just starting to figuring out the enormous potential and
intelligence that every human being has on this planet. But the transfer
of knowledge and information is still none existent for more then 90
percent of humans on the planet, and the other 10 percent are still not
using the Internet
effectively or efficiently
enough. We are living on only 10 percent of our full potential, and yet we
still have done a lot of amazing things, which clearly shows our actual
potential. But all these great technologies are no comparison, or are in
no way equivalent to the incredible advancements that awaits the human
race on that special day when all people eventually have access to
valuable knowledge and information. The Great Awaking is Coming
When we finally have more intelligent people in the world, life
will become more relaxed
and a lot more enjoyable. We will have a lot less
to worry about, and we will also know more and be more in control, and
have a much better awareness of ourselves and the world around us. Life is
going to be beautiful for everyone in the future. Knowledge and
information naturally seeks harmony
, and we
have this amazing privilege to go along for the ride.
Gifted - Having the Right Stuff
Do Gifted Children become Successful
You could say that the odds
are better for
a child is more educated and has the ability to learn
efficiently. But good grades
not a guarantee
, or a guarantee for
, or a guarantee for
. There are many things that can determine success in life.
The Study of
Mathematically Precocious Youth
proposes the following eight tips to
encourage both achievement and happiness later in life. Expose children to
. When a child exhibits
them. Support both intellectual and
. Help children to develop a ‘growth mindset
’ by praising
effort, not ability. Encourage children to take intellectual risks and to
be open to failures
help them learn. Beware of labels
identified as gifted can be an emotional burden. There can also be a lot
of unneeded pressure on kids when they're told that they're gifted and
they carry around a brain-load of excellence. Work with teachers to meet
your child’s needs. Have your child’s abilities tested.
These tips are good
, but are totally
inadequate and they also do not explain how to implement these tips in the
most effective and efficient way possible. And we cannot ignore
as a factor
for success. A healthy home life can definitely
calibration of a child's talents, just as long as they have the freedom to
choose their careers, and the freedom to choose the things that
them, instead of being forced into things that they don't find interesting. We must not underestimate the
importance of nurturing
Advanced Precocious Learners
and the importance of allowing
fast learners to skip grades in school. We know what happens to children
when they are not given a good education and a good home life.
Register Of Health Service Psychologists
points out that various
studies have found links between childhood giftedness and adult
depression, anxiety, relationship issues.
The National Association for Gifted Children
identifies some potential
serious issues, like anxiety,
, stress, issues with peer relationships, and concerns
with identity and fitting in
gifted adults may become frustrated with slower peers and find the
ignorance of others irritating. They may also ask too many questions and
get bored quickly. So there are many things to be aware of. Kids who test
in the top one percent may become successful and do great things in life,
but just testing
in the top one percent will not determine what type of
person you will end up being, morally
When a child is labeled
labeled as being a Prodigy
, most parents and teachers are not qualified
experienced enough to know what having a child with
means. Or do they know what
in order to not waste these enhanced abilities on tedious or
irrelevant actions, like memorizing things that do not benefit
. It's like having a very powerful and fast
computer, but it's being wasted because you are only using it to
play video games. Intelligence should not be seen as a
or side show. We are the only species on the planet that can
be distracted by our own stupidity. Intelligent species? Not
yet. Remember, enhanced abilities does not guarantee incredible
achievements, it only implies that there's a potential
, which we
all have, that's if we all get the special attention that we
need. The more I study education, the more I see what's needed. The more you learn, the more you
should also learn what you still do not know. Education needs to be everyone's special attention.
(IQ) - Trick Questions
- Human Brain Knowledge
- VideosThe Right Stuff is
having the necessary qualities for a given task or job.
If Something is Beneath You, it means that
something is not challenging enough for you and is not utilizing your
skills or your intelligence. The task may be a waste of your potential and
your abilities. But that doesn't mean that you should not do that
particular task, it just means that if better options are available, you
should not waste time doing something that will not benefit you,
especially when you are more valuable doing something else.
People say they are educated because they went to
college, which is a lie and an ignorant observation, because
there is no definition of what
being educated is
, just like with intelligence. Just because you have a
does not mean that you're intelligent. It just
means that the possibility of becoming intelligent is greater with a high
IQ than a Low IQ.
towards and the mistrust of
intellect, intellectuals, and intellectual pursuits, usually expressed as
disrespect of education, philosophy,
literature, art, and science, as impractical and contemptible.
is a person who engages in works by intellect including
critical thinking and reading, research, writing, and human
self-reflection about society.
person who is thought to be overly intellectual, who likes activities that
are generally either highly technical, abstract, or relating to topics of
science fiction or fantasy.
Revenge of the Nerds
is a 1984 film that chronicles a group of nerds
at the fictional Adams College trying to stop the ongoing harassment by
the jock fraternity, the Alpha Betas, in addition to the latter's sister
sorority, Pi Delta Pi.
slang term originally used to describes an expert or enthusiast obsessed
with a hobby or intellectual pursuit.
is an exceptionally intelligent person. Someone who has
exceptional intellectual ability and originality.
Being smart can
sometimes cause ignorant people to criticize
you and bully
you. So you
have to be smarter than those types of people and not let them distract
you or cause you to feel embarrassed in any way. Because you spend a lot
of time learning, you may not have the
that other people have. And you might be more
So being smart is a responsibility
and you will also need more than just
to be intelligent, so you have to
about yourself and
the world around you. There's a big difference between school smart and
, and you need both types of
smart if you want to be confident
life will test you in many ways. And remember, you need
in your life, but it's also
good to have good friendships
a good neighborhood
and a good
life. So you will need to
work on your home life more than just do your
"There is a cult of ignorance in the United States, and there
always has been. The strain of anti-intellectualism has been a constant
thread winding its way through our political and cultural life, nurtured
by the false notion that democracy means that my ignorance is just as good as your knowledge."
, (written January 21st, 1980).
Ignorant people sometimes don't like people who are
perceived to be smarter than them.
That's what the Experts say
Crazy things happen when
ignorant people speak
about intelligence. You have to wonder
where in the hell are these people getting their information from? How
could you perceive and understand other peoples ignorance or intelligence when you are not
even aware of your own ignorance, or even understand why you are
ignorant? I understand the mistrust of certain people, because some
people pretend to be intelligent
, when in fact they're criminals. But what
I don't understand is the lack of reasoning
that a person is supposed to have.
You can't create your own quasi reality
other people for
not understanding you. You have to learn how to
and stop the
. The problem is
that people don't understand things far enough or deep enough. If you
can't see the whole picture
you don't see the connections
everything related to
cause and effect
, then everything you think you know will be based on
, which means
that you are only seeing the surface while you are ignoring the fact there
are many things below the surface, and that you have not answered any
questions that would explain the reality of a situation. You can't
things or be vague
about things. You should be asking questions instead of
pretending to know the answers
Ignorance - Not Knowing Any Better
because of the
from the lack of
Ignorant is someone who is
in general or devoid of good sense
, or someone with a poor ability
or unable to benefit from
Ignorant is someone who's unable to reason
accurately or effectively, which is usually from the lack of
valuable knowledge and information. Ignorant is someone who's
in the fundamentals of a given art or branch of learning. You
can be ignorant in one way
but not ignorant in another way. You can be
ignorant about some things but not ignorant about other things. So
ignorance is relative
depending on what you're ignorant about, will most likely determine the
degree of your ignorance and also the
that comes from having a particular type of ignorance. Being smart or
successful in one area of your life does not make you smart or successful
in other areas of your life. The potential to be smart is there, its just
that you have no proof
. Unverified confidence
or a misplaced belief
can give you a false sense of intelligence and control, which is one of
the reasons why ignorance can be so extremely dangerous, and why being in
an information bubble
not knowing enough about yourself in order to
accurately understand yourself
Ignorance is not knowing enough about other people in order to
accurately understand other
. Ignorance is not knowing enough about the world in order to
accurately understand the world
Most people are unaware of their ignorance and
some even deny that they're ignorant
, which is the worst type of
ignorance. You don't know something until someone teaches you something
or until you learn something. Until then, you
don't know what you don't know,
so now you
Ignorance can be totally invisible to a person
Ignorance is like a dormant virus, and you're the silent carrier with
asymptomatic symptoms. It's like when you're not aware that you have a
computer virus or a
. The only time that you know that you have a virus is
when it shows itself, and that can be too late. The only time time that
you're aware that you are infected with the ignorant virus is when you say
ignorant things or do ignorant things, which means that you're infected by
the ignorance virus. And you will not know that you're ignorant unless
someone explains to you why your words or your actions are ignorant, or,
that you educate yourself about a particular subject that you were
pretending to understand. The cure for ignorance is available. You first
admit that you're ignorant about something, and then educate yourself. You
will never realize what you don't know until you learn what you don't
know. Your bodies immune system can't fight a virus unless the immune
system has information that can identify the virus and stop it. Once you
finally realize how many things you don't know, and when you realize how
much knowledge and information you don't have, that's the
that will change your life. Invisible
something impossible to see or nearly impossible to
. Something that is not readily
and is imperceptible
by the eye. Something that you have no knowledge of
You don't outgrow ignorance, you
can only overcome your ignorance by deliberately learning
is kind of like being blind, because the things that you never learned are
invisible to you.
is also kind of like being under the influence of drugs
where your thinking is impaired
all the time. And the only way to come down
and recover from this drug effect, is to educate yourself
Some people have lives that are complex and very demanding. And you would
never know that unless you inquire and ask a lot of questions and listen
those kind of conversations
rarely happen. There are very few real conversations happening in the
.There are many ways to be smart
many ways to be stupid
order to progress and to develop you need to increase the number of ways
that are known to be smart and decrease the number
of ways that are known to be stupid
. But just being smart does not
cancel out stupid or automatically remove stupid behavior. You have to
learn how to be smart and you have to learn how not be be stupid. And when
you stop doing stupid things, this does not make you smart. Smart is to
continue to stop doing stupid things, while at the same time,
replacing stupid things with smart things
especially replacing stupid
thoughts with smart thoughts
I wouldn't just
say that someone is
or say that someone doesn't know how to use their brain, because a
could never effectively
describe the inner workings of someone's brain. In order to have a more
accurate description of someone's thinking, you would have to define the
information and the evidence that controls their
, and also controls the output of that particular persons
. Could the person
confirm that their interpretation
of the information is accurate? Could the person describe the sequence of
thought processes that were used to determine their
? And does the person know the difference between having
an answer and having an opinion? If all schools taught students about the
and how it works and all its
capabilities, then every student could easily answer these questions, just
as long as their vocabulary is large enough and that the person has all
the skills necessary to use their language
effectively and efficiently. A genius who can't
tie their own shoes
is the state of being bewildered or unclear in one’s mind about something.
is failure to
understand; unable to think with clarity or act intelligently. Being perplexed by many
situations or statements; filled
with bewilderment. Unable to think clearly, without order or sense. Make unclear,
indistinct, or blurred. Not clearly defined or easy to perceive
or understand. Disturbance of normal functioning.
not having a lot of knowledge especially about
current news and events
Someone lacking adequate or proper knowledge or information. Someone who
that are not
based on facts
is a view or
that is incorrect
because it's based on
or a misunderstanding. An
conception or an
incorrect abstract or general idea inferred or derived from specific
are commonly held beliefs about science that
have no basis
in actual scientific fact.
Scientific misconceptions can also refer to
based on religious and cultural
scientific misconceptions occur because of
faulty teaching styles
the sometimes distancing nature of true scientific texts.
view of the world is shallow and narrow minded. No one sees the whole
picture or understands enough about the world, or knows enough about any
particular subject in order to be considered an
education systems are not educating people enough, or is the media
enough, but that does stop people from pretending
what's going on. Everyone is a know it all until they have to
explain what they know. That's when they realize that their bullsht is
bogus, or they just deny
their bullshit is bogus, after all, they're full of shit.
is something fraudulent or having a
to speak insincerely or without regard for facts or truths. Informal
statements or beliefs that are untrue or make no sense.
is lacking sense or clear, sound reasoning. Lack of
continuity. Disconnected. Not Logical
is being devoid of good sense or
. Having or revealing stupidity.
Not the same as being
rash, ill-judged and having or showing little sense. Being reckless,
flighty, giddy or rash. A heedless person having a brain like a hare's.
is marked by defiant disregard for
danger or consequences. Imprudently incurring risk. A series of unexpected
and unpleasant occurrences.Ill-Judged
is not giving careful consideration.
is the lack of wisdom
and failing to make proper
. In this sense, it differs from stupidity, which is the
lack of intelligence. An act of foolishness is called folly.
is called stultiloquence. Risk
is a person of
is having a
to understand or to profit from experience.
defiant disregard for danger or consequences
is a lack of intelligence, understanding, reason, wit or
sense. Stupidity may be innate, assumed
or reactive – a defense against
grief or trauma.
is having or showing a lack of intelligence or
. "I'm not saying that you're stupid, I'm just
saying that you have bad luck when it comes to thinking." "I'm
not saying that I'm smarter than you
, it's just that you're really
is taking more than
usual time to learn or understand; lacking
. Devoid of good sense or judgment.Unintelligent
someone who has or shows a low level of intelligence.
indicating a lack of maturity. Of or relating to infants or infancy.
Being, befitting or characteristic of an infant.Imbecile
is a stupid
person. A person of subnormal intelligence. Having a mental age of three
to seven years.
is someone who is unable to make intelligent decisions
or judgments. Lacking in sense or clear direction. Having less than
average intelligence. Feral
is a stupid person or a person
of questionable intelligence. The term is in reference to the size of the
brain being given relative size of a human knuckle. Similar to pinhead,
which is something very small or insignificant or a very dull or stupid
person or a fool.Absurd
inconsistent with reason, logic or common sense. Incongruous; inviting
ridicule. A situation in which life seems irrational and meaningless.Wisdom does not come with age
wisdom comes from learning
I type every day but after many years I'm still a slow typer. I spell
words every day but I still miss spell words. Learning needs to be
deliberate and learning also needs to have effective methods that shows
results and measurable progress. If you want to be good at something, just doing it
is not enough, you have to learn
in the right way
that continually makes you improve over time.
If not, then you will not be as skilled as you can be or ever be as wise as you
can be. To Know or Not to Know
"A Fool thinks of himself as being wise
Wiseman knows himself to be a fool
"Real knowledge is to know the extent of one's own ignorance."
(551 BC – 479 BC).
"Your fear of looking stupid is making you look stupid."
Ignorantia juris non excusat
is a legal principle holding that a
person who is unaware of a law may not
escape liability for violating that law
merely because one was unaware
of its content. (Latin for "Ignorance of the Law
excuses not").I wasn't Thinking
I wasn't Thinking Straight
is to say that
you were not thinking
enough in order to be aware
all your choices
, so you did not use
good judgment in your planning. And now you have to
or apologize for
your lack of thinking. People have good working brains, it's just that
they have very little knowledge and information to work with. It's like
having a powerful computer and you just use it to play video games. This
wasted potential is what's causing most of our problems. Going no where
fast is just as bad as not knowing where you're going, especially when you
could be going the wrong way and you don't even know it. No purpose, no
awareness, no life.
are implicational relationships between
statements. The assertion that one statement is a necessary and sufficient
condition of another means that the former statement is true if and only
if the latter is true. That is, the two statements must be either
simultaneously true or simultaneously false. Fallacy
is an ignorant person.
Degrees of Ignorance
is a dull stupid fatuous person. Jerk
can also mean to pull or move with a abrupt sudden movement.
is showing a lack of intelligence
or thought. Someone who acts stupid and silly.
is the study of culturally induced ignorance
particularly the publication of inaccurate or
having no knowledge
understanding, or ability.Messed Up
is being confused or disturbed or screwed up.
is a state of confusion and
disorderliness. Informal term for a difficult situation.Obfuscation
is confusion resulting from failure to understand. The activity of
obscuring people's understanding, leaving them baffled or bewildered.
Darkening or obscuring the sight of something.Confound
is something confusing or
perplexing and causes you to be unable to think clearly. To mistake one
thing for another.Unfathomable
something difficult to understand or measure.
is a state of extreme confusion and disorder.
is confusion resulting
from failure to understand.
is to be thrown into great
confusion or disorder. Disturb in mind or make uneasy or cause to be
is to confuse someone and
cause them to be unable to think clearly because something lacks clarity
of meaning. Something bewildering or perplexing.
is to be confused or perplexed and
unable to think clearly. To be uncertain about something and not fully
understand something and unable to decide.
Every person who is a scumbag
also ignorant, but not every ignorant person is a scumbag. Not knowing
enough and not having enough knowledge does not make you a bad person,
because all people are
makes a person bad is when they pretend that they know enough
and then force their ignorance on other people.
is refraining from acquiring knowledge when the
educating oneself on an issue exceeds the potential benefit that the
knowledge would provide. But how would you know that
Proof by Contradiction
is a form of proof, and more specifically a
form of indirect proof, that establishes the
of a proposition. It
starts by assuming that the opposite proposition is true, and then shows
that such an assumption leads to a contradiction.
Law of Noncontradiction
statements cannot both be true in the same sense at the
same time, e.g. the two propositions "A is B " and "A is not B " are
mutually exclusive. It is the second of the three classic
laws of thought
Law of Excluded Middle
states that for any proposition, either that
proposition is true or its negation is true. It is the third of the
three classic laws of thought
Ignorance of the Law
. "ignorance of the law excuses not",
"ignorance of law excuses no one",
Ignorantia juris non excusat
is a legal principle holding that a
person who is unaware of a law may not escape
for violating that law
merely because one was unaware of its content.
become the basis of exculpation
makes being ignorant illegal. Pretending not to
is just as bad as pretending that you do know.
can only take you so
Ignorance is similar to not understanding a
you are Easily Fooled
Test for Ignorance
. There should be a
test for ignorance. An ignorance test should have easy questions, like, "did
for Donald Trump?" if you answer is yes, then you are
ignorant. But that's only one thing a person may be ignorant about. So you
would have to ask many questions. And a test requirement should be that the person
should write what they
know as fact, things that can be proven. The person would also have to write
some of their
opinions and personal beliefs, things that they know shapes and influences their world
view, and, also controls their decision making. And of course,
no vague answers
will be excepted. So what
happens when a person realizes how ignorant they are? Luckily there's a
cure, it's called educating yourself. To protect yourself from ignorance
you need to be
with knowledge. A low IQ
may confirm a
lack of cognitive abilities, but it will not confirm how ignorant you are
about certain things. An ignorance test will help you determine the areas
of knowledge that you lack. So no blame, no shame, and no pain, just feed
the brain, if not, you may go insane or wane down the drain. Knowledge is
the cane that keeps you steady and the chain that keeps you connected and
linked. So stay on the learning train and let the knowledge rain. No one wants
to be ignorant, but when you stop educating yourself, you are then
choosing to stay ignorant
for the rest of your life. So you are
ignorant by consent
means that you give up most of your rights and freedoms
, and at the same
time, cause other people give up most of their rights and freedoms
Lack of Knowledge
is where loopholes
exists, inside the void
where knowledge should be.
is being near-sightedness or
short-sightedness. (you can't see what is right in front of your face).
- Make Minds Deficient. -
- Resulting from an Inadequate Education.
is being disorganized
and lacking in concentration
. Flighty, thoughtless,
absent-minded, forgetful, distractable.
is being deprive of strength or efficiency; make useless or worthless.
Having inaccurate beliefs can cripple the mind.
is someone who is
unintelligent and stupid. Stubborn
is someone who is
unintelligent and foolish.Half-witted
is someone who is foolish or stupid.
is something or someone who is very stupid.
Dead in the Head
is a phrase that describes
a person who never seeks knowledge or learns anything new and valuable. So
they are dead in the head because their brain can
never progress or
into a living intelligent mind. A person who
, stops living.
is a person of subnormal
intelligence or a child secretly exchanged for another in infancy.
7 Degrees of Stupid
- First Degree of Stupid.
Stupid is a person whose actions are counterproductive to themselves and
to others. They do things for no apparent reason and those things are
damaging to other people, while bringing no benefit to the person
themselves. The Stupid person does not do stupid things deliberately or
maliciously. He is not deliberately trying to create disorder, but the
essence of his being is to generate disorder all around him. He often
appears to do things independently without talking to other people, and
does things for no apparent reason. He is not even trying to generate a
beneficial outcome, and when confronted often has difficulty explaining
why he did a certain thing. Second Degree of
The Stupid Person always breaks things. Understand that
“things” can be physical objects, organizations, systems, software,
processes or relationships. The core competency of the Stupid Person is to
bring disorder to all things around him. A smart person constantly brings
order to the things around him, but the Stupid Person brings disorder. The
stupid person is not trying to bring disorder, but it is just the
fundamental output of all his actions. Third
Degree of Stupid.
The stupid person will always Maximize Disorder.
It is not enough to just create disorder, he will always Maximize
Disorder. That means that he will always break something at the worst
possible place at the worst possible time. This characteristic is what
allows him to always Maximize the Disorder around him. Again, there is no
particular reason the Stupid Person did the damaging thing they did. They
do them without talking to people first, and for no apparent reason.
Fourth Degree of Stupid
. Let us define a
function I(x) which is the overall impact that results from a person’s
actions. Consider it, if you will, the ripples that are generated from a
person’s actions. Fourth Degree of Stupid states that: I(Stupid) >>
10*I(Genius). In words, this is saying that the negative impact of one
Stupid Person greatly outweighs the positive impact of 10 Geniuses. The
disorder brought by one Stupid Person in an organization can easily
eliminate the positive impact of many very smart people.
Fifth Degree of Stupid.
A Stupid Person has
an uncanny knack of convincing other people that their way of doing things
is right. The smart person knows that the Stupid Person is suggesting
something that is wrong and will bring disorder, but some peculiar aspect
of the Stupid Person’s nature is that he can convince people that his
ideas should become the Standard Operating Procedure for the organization.
The smart person will warn that the Stupid Person’s idea will bring utter
disorder to the organization, yet the Stupid Person’s way is always
adopted. Then when utter disaster occurs, the smart person is blamed,
since his negativity, unwillingness to support the new direction, and
argumentativeness must have been the reason for the disorder.
Sixth Degree of Stupid
. Not only will a
Stupid Person never have a good idea, but the Stupid Person is not able to
recognize a good idea when it is put in front of him. He has an ability to
ignore facts, data and logic to continue to believe that his way is right,
despite the disorder it is bringing to the organization. It is almost
impossible to force a Stupid Person to do things the right way. On some
occasions, he might be forced to do things the right way, but he will
always go back to doing things the Stupid Way at the worst possible place
and the worst possible time. Again, this ensures that he continues to
maximize disorder in the organization around him.
Seventh Degree of Stupid.
The Geographical Extent of the actions of
a Stupid Person will always be much greater than the Geographical Extent
of the actions of a Smart Person. A smart person will come to work and
face a set of tasks he must do. He realizes that by grouping the tasks in
a certain order, he will not have to retool as often, and hence can
complete his work most efficiently (High Degree of Order). His Smart
Actions have limited geographical impact. The impact is usually limited to
his immediate cubicle, or potentially to people in adjacent cubicle.
You need knowledge, because if you don't have much knowledge, you can't think
much, or do much, or be much. But if you have money, you can be a very
popular moron, but you still can't think much. Even If you use money to
buy access to
, it won't guarantee that you'll learn anything valuable or
important and become intelligent. Because access to knowledge is not the
same as acquiring knowledge or learning. You can pay someone to learn for
you, but you will still be a moron who can't think much or be much. So you
will never be anyone of value or importance, just someone with money, and
sadly for some idiots, money is enough, at least
they think it is
, because they can't think much.Mutilation
that causes disfigurement
you of an important body part or
Years of Potential Life Lost
is also related to the years
that are lost from being ignorant, or doing ignorant things.
The Disability-Adjusted Life Year or
is a measure of overall
, with the disease being
in this case.
Dissonance - Contradictory Beliefs
experienced by an individual who holds two or more
ideas, or values at the same time; performs an action that is
contradictory to one or more beliefs, ideas, or values; or is confronted
by new information that conflicts with existing beliefs
, ideas, or values.
The discomfort is triggered by a situation in which a
clashes with new evidence
introduced to that person. To reduce the
psychological discomfort, the person either changes their mind to restore
mental balance and emotional harmony, or the person makes up illogical
excuses and ignores information that they don't agree with
refers to the tendency for beliefs
or sets of beliefs to endure once
formed. In particular, cognitive inertia describes the human inclination
to rely on familiar assumptions
and exhibit a reluctance and/or inability to revise those
, even when the
supporting them no
longer exists or when other evidence would question their accuracy.
are exaggerated or
that are believed to perpetuate the effects of psychopathological
states, especially depression and anxiety.Distorted
is to make
by mutilation or
by addition like with propaganda
Having an intended meaning altered
is a conflict of people's
, actions or characters. Dissonance is also a musical term that
means a lack of harmony among musical notes, but can also mean a tension
or clash that results from disharmonious or
auditory experience of sound that lacks musical quality; sound that is a
disagreeable auditory experience. Disagreeable sounds.
is a cognitive
their own qualities and abilities, relative to others.
Dunning Kruger Effect
is a cognitive
low-ability individuals suffer from illusory superiority
assessing their ability as much higher than it really is. Dunning and
Kruger attributed this bias to a metacognitive inability of those of low
ability to recognize their ineptitude
accurately. Pretending you know
Suspension of Disbelief
or willing suspension of disbelief
has been defined as a willingness to suspend one's critical
believe the unbelievable; sacrifice of realism and logic for the
sake of enjoyment.
in psychology is an unconscious aspect of the personality which the
identify in itself. Because one tends to reject or remain ignorant of the
least desirable aspects of one's personality, the shadow is largely
negative, or the entirety of the unconscious, i.e., everything of which a
person is not fully conscious.
humans defend themselves against their own
unconscious impulses or qualities (both positive and negative) by denying
their existence in themselves while attributing them to others. For
example, a person who is habitually rude may constantly accuse other
people of being rude. It incorporates
is more than the basic definition
our understanding becomes distorted.
The Emperor Wears No Clothes
or The Emperor
Has No Clothes, is often used in political and social contexts for any
obvious truth denied by the majority despite the evidence of their eyes,
especially when proclaimed by the government.
The Emperor's New Clothes
is used in
reference to a situation in which people believe or
pretend to believe
in the worth or importance
of something that is worthless, or fear to point out an obvious truth that
is counter to prevailing opinion.
Cart before the Horse
used to suggest something is done
to a conventional or
culturally expected order or relationship. A cart is a vehicle which is
ordinarily pulled by a horse, so to put the cart before the horse is an
analogy for doing things in the wrong order
The figure of speech means doing things the wrong way round or with the
wrong emphasis. The idiom is about confusing cause and effect. The meaning
of the phrase is based on the common knowledge that a horse usually pulls
Why Most Adults don't want to Learn
Even the Scarecrow
had no idea what to do if he had a brain, so
don't feel bad. If
I Only Had a Brain - The Wizard of Oz (1939)
(youtube) - I could while
away the hours, Conferrin' with the flowers, Consulting with the rain; And
my head I'd be a scratchin', While my thoughts are busy hatchin', If I only had a brain.
Fallacies - You Could Be Wrong
is knowing that human beings could be wrong
, or their understanding
of the world.
is a mistaken belief
, especially one based on
. It's an incorrect
undermines an argument's logical
is a misconception
resulting from incorrect reasoning
(PDF) - Memory
"Some people may react to hearing a fallacy by simplify
Bullshit!" But of course you have to explain what the bullshit is, or you
end up looking like an idiot, because you just responded to a fallacy
using another fallacy. So your bullshit
is bullshit." Misleading Information
like having a fantasy
believe that your reasoning
is accurate, but the reality
is you're just
fantasizing. So you are either
to yourself or
others, or just
pretending that you know
, because you have no
proof. It's OK to have fantasies, just don't try to convince other people
that your fantasy is real.
Flawed Reasoning Fallacy
is a pattern of reasoning
invalid by a flaw
in its logical
structure that can neatly be expressed in a standard logic system, for
example propositional logic. An
that is formally
always considered wrong. A formal fallacy is contrasted with an informal
fallacy, which may have a valid logical form and yet be unsound because
one or more premises are false. Generalizing
is a logical fallacy in which
arguments appear to be logically equivalent
when in fact they are not.
Creates more questions then
is a statement, hypothesis, or theory with the inherent possibility that
it can be proved false
is doing something that is intended to deceive. Based on an incorrect or
misleading notion or information. Based on a fallacy.Anecdotal fallacy
is using a
or an isolated example instead of sound
is a pattern of reasoning rendered invalid by a flaw
in its logical
structure that can neatly be expressed in a standard logic system. An
argument that is formally fallacious is always considered wrong. A formal
fallacy is contrasted with an informal fallacy, which may have a valid
logical form and yet be unsound because one or more premises are
occurs when the contents of an argument'
s stated premises
its proposed conclusion.
a type of informal fallacy in which something is falsely claimed
to be an
"either/or" situation, when in fact there is at least one additional
option. Neither Yes or No
asserts, by irrelevant association
often by appeal to emotion, that qualities of one thing are inherently
qualities of another. Two types of association fallacies are sometimes
referred to as guilt by association
and honor by association.
Fallacy of Composition
arises when one infers that
is true of the whole
from the fact that it is
true of some part
whole (or even of every proper part). For example: "This fragment of metal
cannot be fractured with a hammer, therefore the machine of which it is a
part cannot be fractured with a hammer." This is clearly fallacious,
because many machines can be broken apart, without any of those parts
being able to be fractured.
is an informal fallacy closely related to
the sorites paradox, or paradox of the heap. The fallacy causes one to
erroneously reject a vague claim simply because it is not as precise as
one would like it to be. Vagueness
alone does not necessarily imply
are commonly held scientific beliefs that
have no basis in actual scientific fact
is a belief
that is held with strong conviction despite superior
is a cognition of mistrust in which a person doubts the
honesty of another person or believes another person to be guilty of some
type of wrongdoing or crime, but without sure proof. Suspicion can also be
aroused in response to objects that negatively differ from an expected
states that if individuals reflect on values that are personally relevant
to them, they are less likely to experience distress and react defensively
when confronted with information that contradicts or threatens their sense of self.
is the unwillingness
to a wrongdoing
Refusing to move or to change one's opinion; obstinate; firmly resisting,
even when present with facts that prove they are wrong.
is the indirect expression of hostility,
such as through procrastination, stubbornness, sullen behavior, or
deliberate or repeated failure to accomplish requested tasks for which one
is (often explicitly) responsible.
of ones own
is the unknown dark side of your own personality.
People fail to see themselves
is a kind of logical argument that
applies deductive reasoning to arrive at a conclusion based on two or more
propositions that are asserted or assumed
to be true.
ErrorsAppeal to the stone
is dismissing a claim as absurd without demonstrating proof for its
: Cutting people with knives is a crime.
Surgeons cut people with knives. Surgeons are criminals.
List of Common Misconceptions
corrects erroneous beliefs
that are currently widely held about notable topics. Each misconception
and the corresponding facts have been discussed in published literature.
Note that each entry is formatted as a correction; the misconceptions
themselves are implied rather than stated.
Base Rate Fallacy
is a formal fallacy. If presented with related base
rate information (i.e. generic, general information) and specific
information (information only pertaining to a certain case), the mind
tends to ignore the former and focus on the latter. Base rate neglect is a
specific form of the more general Extension neglect.
is the height of ignorance." ~
is an example of cognitive bias
, in which
people react to a particular choice in different ways depending on how it
is presented; e.g. as a loss or as a gain. People tend to avoid risk when
a positive frame is presented but seek risks when a negative frame is
presented. Gain and loss are defined in the scenario as descriptions of
outcomes (e.g. lives lost or saved, disease patients treated and not
treated, lives saved and lost during accidents, etc.)
are a piece of horse tack that prevent the horse
the rear and, in some cases, to the side.
causes distant objects to be blurry while close
objects appear normal.
is hostility towards and mistrust of
intellect, intellectuals, and intellectual pursuits, usually expressed as
the derision of education, philosophy, literature, art, and science, as
impractical and contemptible.
is the idea that when individuals make decisions, their rationality is
limited by the available information, the tractability of the decision
problem, the cognitive limitations of their minds, and the time available
to make the decision. Decision-makers in this view act as satisficers,
seeking a satisfactory solution rather than an optimal one.
occurs in learning when there is an
interaction between the new material and transfer effects of past learned
behavior, memories or thoughts that have a negative influence in
comprehending the new material. Bringing to memory old knowledge has
the effect of impairing both the speed of learning and memory performance.
There are two main kinds of interference: proactive interference (see
Proactive learning), retroactive interference (see Retroactive learning).
The main assumption of interference theory is that the stored memory is
intact but unable to be retrieved due to competition created by newly
acquired information. Error
is the tendency not to notice and
more quickly forget stimuli that cause emotional discomfort and contradict
our prior beliefs.
is a delusional state that concerns
only one particular topic.
is a decision-making strategy or cognitive heuristic that entails
searching through the available alternatives until an acceptability
threshold is met.
The Problems with trying to Teach Adults
is the Worlds Largest Killer
- Knowledge Gap
“A Foolish Faith In Authority Is The Worst Enemy Of The
Ignorant people can be easily
Fooled by the
and other sources of Propaganda. (Twisted Logic).
Ignorant people are more susceptible to Mental Health Problems,
Physical Health Problems, Anger and Crime
is the notion that species can revert into more "primitive" forms over
in psychology is when a person covers up, consciously or
unconsciously, weaknesses, frustrations, desires, or feelings of
inadequacy or incompetence in one life area through the
gratification or drive towards excellence in another area.
Generalizing - Not Providing Enough Information
is when you are being vague
the specifics or the necessary details
that are needed in order to clarify
of what you are
. Not being
leads to meaningless chatter
If I have to ask several
in order to
what a person is saying and what
their statement or comment means
the person giving that statement or comment either
knows very little
about what they are saying or they're trying to
, like they do with most
reaching an inductive generalization
based on insufficient evidence
. Making a
considering all of the variables.
- Invalid Arguments
is a conclusion about all or many
instances of a phenomenon that has been reached on the basis of just one
or just a few instances of that phenomenon. It is an example of
jumping to conclusions
Generalizing or just being General is when you are not specifying anything in particular.
is something that is not clear or understood.
Pretending to know things
is the tendency to accept certain information as true,
such as character assessments or horoscopes, even when the
so vague and general
that it could apply to almost anyone.
is a brief snippet of recorded speech or a short clip of speech
or music extracted from a longer piece of audio, usually used in the
context of news reporting or often used to promote or exemplify the full
length piece. In the context of journalism, a sound bite is characterized
by a short phrase or sentence that captures the essence of what the
speaker was trying to say, and is used to
and entice the reader or viewer, or to force people to guess or
what the meaning of the snippet of
information is. Due to its brevity, a sound bite can often
overshadow the broader
in which it was spoken, and can be
or inaccurate. The
insertion of sound bites into news broadcasts or documentaries is open to
manipulation, leading to conflict over
. Out of Context
is saying something that is
and does not put an end to
Doubt or Question
statement that dose not explain enough in order to define the actions
that are needed to come to a particular
understanding. When there is no follow up, or rebuttal
, then the amount of
mistakes will increase. Witness
is a neatly short
expression using just a few words when writing or speaking.
Something's cannot be accurately explained using just a
is an indirect suggestion
a slight suggestion or vague
understanding.You can say almost anything about anything
until you specify something or define something, and also give a
that explains what you are trying to say, then you're not saying
anything, and basically you're just making assumptions and
accusations. You have to learn how to complete a sentence in order to
express an idea fully. You also have to learn how to ask
questions and stop pretending that you understand things. If things are
, then make it
is a mental shortcut that relies on
immediate examples that come to a given person's mind when evaluating a
specific topic, concept, method or decision. Bias
Using just Labels
can also be
Generalizing because things and words can have
more them one meaning
statements are too general they can be easily
, like when people interpret
religious text so that they can exploit its meaning and pretend supports
an extremist view
is to manipulate something to one's
is to alter
something in a fraudulent
manner for the
purpose of deception
falsely or secretively
, or dishonestly and
shrewdly or deviously
the meaning of something.To Say the Least
means that more can be said about something, but was not.
Needless to Say
means of course or that
something goes without saying.
"If you can't explain it simply
then you don't understand it well enough." -
Media News Language Distortions
In a Nutshell
means to say something in a few words
without going into much needed
, like a description of
a movie or a book. A
Assuming - Jumping to Conclusions
is to take something to be the case or to be true without
or proof. Accepting
something without any evidence
. Arrogant or Presumptuous.
Make a Pretense of. Take liberties or act with
too much Confidence
something. Used for the purpose of argument to indicate a
on which a statement can be based.
is another word for assuming. Pretending
something to be
true without verification or proof. To take liberties or act without
permission with too much confidence
someone hears a word and pretends to know
what it means by associating the word with something negative without
having any proof, evidence or verification. Making an illogical
an ignorant belief or assumption.
is to take something
for granted or as a given. To suppose beforehand. To Guess.
is an implicit assumption about the world or background
belief relating to an utterance whose truth is taken for granted in
is the act of
giving a false appearance
is a message
expressing an opinion
on incomplete evidence. A hypothesis
that is taken for granted.
something to be the case or to be true
. A message expressing an
based on incomplete evidence.
is to suggest a possibility that
something is true. Express or state indirectly.
is something implied though
not directly expressed
; inherent in
the nature of something. Implicit
is something the speaker suggests or implies with an
utterance, even though it is not literally expressed. Implicatures can aid
in communicating more efficiently than by explicitly saying everything we
want to communicate. This phenomenon is part of pragmatics, a
subdiscipline of linguistics.
is being accused of having done something wrong or illegal but
. Declared but not proved. Doubtful or suspect.
Someone who is under suspicion.
The act or an instance of suspecting something
on little or no evidence.
Some people take information and just run with it
, without ever stopping to
think it through. Learning the wrong thing
at the wrong time
can be dangerous. Assuming is a normal human
response, it's just when you assume things, what things you assume, and
why you assume things that makes all the difference.
Barking up the Wrong Tree
pursue a mistaken or misguided line of thought or course of action.
when someone believes that if "P implies Q and P is asserted to be true,
therefore Q must be true?"
Association is not Always True
(false evidence) -
Correlation does not
Not all assumptions are bad, because we need
to make theories
. But if your theory has
no goal, or if you have no proof other than a theory, then that is the
worst kind of assumption to make. Having an assumption that has no
benefit, no goal, no purpose, and if your assumption does more harm than
good, then you're just making things up, like a liar.
Expectation in epistemic
is the belief that something will happen without
considering the possibilities
will not happen, thus being
when the expected reality does not happen like you thought it would.
is an unshakable belief in something without need for proof or
is an expression of strong disapproval; pronouncing as wrong or
- Smart One Way
is the belief
one event causes another without any natural process linking the two
jump to conclusions
, they incriminate, they judge, and
all without any hard evidence
, or confirmed information, or
anything that is remotely
that would help them prove
that their reasoning
. Blowing hot air, a
, just another ignorant remark from the
, a waste of human language, and time.
Jumping to Conclusions
is when someone judges
something without having all the facts. To reach
Don't Jump the Gun
means to not start
something before it is permissible, appropriate, or advisable. The phrase
comes from starting to run in a foot race before the starting gun goes
off, which causes you start the race over or be disqualified.
List of Common Misconceptions
is any of several hypothetical phenomena or
processes that reverse causality, allowing an effect to occur before its
is a warning or an
assumption of specific stipulations, conditions, or limitations. A
statement that limits or restricts some claim. Caveat in law is a formal
notice filed with a court or officer to suspend a proceeding until filer
is given a hearing, or that certain actions may not be taken without
informing the person who gave the notice.
When people assume, they make up stories
and pretend they know
the facts, and they make other people
this pretend made up story, even when they have
very little facts. This behavior is idiotic. People should focus
more on each other and learn how to
and learn to fully understand ourselves and other people.
to learn how to stop assuming
that they know more than someone
else. We have to stop pretending
to have conversations that
never happened. Talking to yourself is not the same thing as
talking to the actual person. The art of conversation is the opportunity
to make a connection, to work together in mind. We have to stop wasting
time and energy, and life. We have this incredible ability to communicate
and use language, but we don't even teach this, why?
phenomenon studied in cognitive science and
social psychology. This term describes the role of motivation in
cognitive processes such as decision-making and attitude change
in a number of paradigms, including: Cognitive dissonance
reduction, Beliefs about others on whom one's own outcomes
depend, Evaluation of evidence related to one's own outcomes.
Bias - Favoring in Advance
something in advance that prevents
consideration of an issue
or situation. Judging
in a way that is
where a person favors one
over others without considering the
pros and cons
. An inclination to favor one group or
over alternatives with any
. A predisposition to
without fully understanding why. An inclination beforehand to
in a particular way, but not necessarily in the most accurate
way. A disposition in advance to react
particular way. The state of being
and easily affected
A natural or acquired habit
or characteristic tendency in a
person or thing. A characteristic likelihood of or
toward a certain condition or character or effect. A
. Consider as the
. Promote over another.
to one over another.
Pretending to Understand
Cherry Picking Data
- Information Bubble
Don't Judge a Book by
, and don't
judge information totally by its source
Don't use barriers when receiving information, use
that are based on
and not based on preconceived
. Putting up
will lower your
chances of learning things that may be extremely important, which will
decrease your odds for success and lower your chances in life, and you
only have so many chances in life, so don't waste them on a foolish
. You need to
that you have learned enough
People sometimes only believe the things that they
think are true
, and don't believe the things that they think are
false, and they do this without facts or evidence. Some people only like
to agree with information that they
feel comfortable with
they don't like to agree with information that they don't feel comfortable
with. Bias is an ignorant
or lazy persons way of
pretending to understand the meaning of certain information. Some people
just don't want to take the time to learn something, which means that they
have no facts
or evidence, and
they only have assumptions
based on feelings. If you
can't explain what you mean or explain what you think you understand, then
you don't know what you mean and you don't understand. Pretending to
understand is dangerous. Asking questions and learning the truth is what
people should do, because it's the only sure way to understand. Your not
doing anyone any good living in a fantasy world. You're most likely
hurting yourself and hurting other people around you.
is a predisposition to
inclination to favor one group
or view or opinion over
advance to react
particular way. An inclination beforehand to interpret statements in a
particular way. Inclination
attitude of mind
you favor one
over others. A
characteristic likelihood of or natural disposition toward a certain
condition or character or effect. A person's natural tendency or urge to
act or feel in a particular way. Disposition or usual mood. Propensity or
behave in a certain way. Not
to be confused with Intuition
is having a strong liking or a predisposition in favor of something.
Liking for one alternative
in psychology is a group of
that shape experience by making people especially
sensitive to specific kinds of information. A perceptual set, also called
, is a predisposition
to perceive things in a certain way.
A new study found that people given accurate statistics on a controversial
issue tended to misremember those numbers to fit commonly held beliefs
is not an excuse for your behavior
, bias is a word that describes
with your thinking.
People's motivations bias how they gather information
. A new study
suggests people stop gathering evidence earlier when the data supports
their desired conclusion than when it supports the conclusion they wish
was false. Dichotomize
is to regard
or represent something as
or opposed. To divide into two opposing groups or kinds.
is based on or subject to
individual discretion or preference or sometimes impulse or caprice or a
sudden desire. (technical) having any value or form, of any degree or
Everyone is biased to a certain degree, but it is
the things that people are biased against that makes certain biases so
damaging, illogical and wrong.
It's never just an opinion
is a psychological phenomenon by which
people tend to develop a preference for things merely because they are
familiar with them
. In social psychology, this effect is sometimes called
the familiarity principle. The effect has been demonstrated with many
kinds of things, including words, Chinese characters, paintings, pictures
of faces, geometric figures, and sounds. In studies of interpersonal
attraction, the more often a person is seen by someone, the more pleasing
and likeable that person appears to be.
refers to a systematic pattern of deviation
from norm or rationality in judgment, whereby inferences about other
people and situations may be drawn in an illogical fashion
create their own "subjective social reality" from their
input. An individual's construction of social reality, not the objective
input, may dictate their behaviour in the social world. Thus, cognitive
biases may sometimes lead to perceptual distortion, inaccurate judgment,
illogical interpretation, or what is broadly called irrationality.
List of Cognitive Biases
Cognitive Bias Mitigation
is the prevention and reduction of the
negative effects of cognitive biases – unconscious, automatic influences
on human judgment and decision making that reliably produce
is a cognitive bias that refers to the systematic errors made
when people evaluate or try to find reasons for their own and others'
behaviors. People constantly make attributions regarding the cause of
their own and others' behaviors; however, attributions do not always
accurately mirror reality. Rather than operating as
people are prone to perceptual errors that lead to biased interpretations
of their social world. Attributions
assigning some quality or character to a person or thing. Assigning to a
cause or source.
is when an uncertain quantity is the probability
distribution that would express one's beliefs about this quantity before
some evidence is taken into account.
Cherry Picking Data
is a cognitive bias
by which a person will consider a
statement or another piece of information to be correct if it has any
personal meaning or significance to them. In other words, a person whose
opinion is affected by subjective
validation will perceive two unrelated
events (i.e., a coincidence) to be related because their personal belief
demands that they be related. Closely related to the Forer effect,
is an important element in cold reading. It is
considered to be the main reason behind most reports of
also called survey bias
, is the
tendency of a person to answer questions on a survey untruthfully or
misleadingly. For example, they may feel pressure to give answers that are
socially acceptable. A general term for a wide range of cognitive biases
that influence the responses of participants away from an accurate or
truthful response. These biases are most prevalent in the types of studies
and research that involve participant self-report, such as structured
interviews or surveys. Response biases can have a large impact on the
validity of questionnaires or
is the observation
that individuals will give high accuracy ratings to
descriptions of their personality that supposedly are tailored
specifically for them but are, in fact, vague
enough to apply
to a wide range of people. This effect can provide a partial explanation
for the widespread acceptance of some beliefs and practices, such as
astrology, fortune telling
, graphology, aura reading and some types of
Insensitivity to Sample Size
is a cognitive bias that occurs when
people judge the probability of obtaining a sample statistic without respect to the sample size.
Confirmation Bias - False Consensus
is a cognitive bias
in which a person
overestimates his or
and predict accurately the outcome when analyzing
a set of data, in particular when the data analyzed
show a very consistent
pattern—that is, when the data "tell" a coherent story. This effect
persists even when the person is aware of all the factors that limit the
accuracy of his or her predictions, that is when the data and/or methods
used to judge them lead to highly fallible predictions.
is the phenomenon of perceiving a relationship between
variables (typically people, events, or behaviors) even when no such
Group Decision Making
- Information Bubble
is a tendency to interpret
new information in a way that
your pre-existing beliefs
. People have the tendency to search for, interpret, favor, and recall
information in a way that confirms one's preexisting beliefs or
hypotheses, while giving disproportionately less consideration to
We tend to seek out and listen to information that confirms what we
already believe. Not only do we disregard contrary ideas, but we also
interpret ambiguous ones to fit our beliefs. Confirming our preconceptions
feels good. We like to be right. In reality, we can become blind to the
truth. Popularity can
is a cognitive bias
people tend to overestimate the extent to which their opinions, beliefs,
preferences, values, and habits are normal and typical of those of others
because others also think the same way that they do. This cognitive bias
tends to lead to the perception of a
that does not exist, a "false consensus
Argumentum ad populum
is a fallacious argument
that concludes that a proposition must be true because many or most people
believe it, often concisely encapsulated as: "If many believe so, it is
so". Other names for the fallacy include common belief fallacy or appeal
to (common) belief, appeal to the majority, appeal to the masses, appeal
to popularity, argument from consensus, authority of the many,
consensus gentium (Latin for "agreement of the people"), democratic
fallacy, and mob appeal.
is that which is generally agreed to be
based on a consensus view.
Truth by Consensus
is the process of taking statements to be true
simply because people generally agree upon them.
Consensus Theory of Truth
is the process of taking statements to be
true simply because people generally agree upon them.
is a phenomenon in which a
becomes more extreme as the
evidence on the issue. It is one of the effects of confirmation bias which
tendency of people to search for and interpret evidence selectively
reinforce their current beliefs or attitudes. When people encounter
ambiguous evidence, this bias can potentially result in each of them
it as in support of their existing attitudes, widening rather
than narrowing the disagreement between them.
sometimes known as in-group–out-group bias,
, is a
pattern of favoring members
of one's in-group over out-group members. This
can be expressed in evaluation of others, in allocation of resources, and
in many other way.
Gender Bias sways how we Perceive Competence in Faces
held by a
person toward a proposition or a statement
proposing an idea
that can be true or false.
Inference-Observation Confusion. Unwarranted Conclusions
Judges or decides something without having all the facts.
Listening is a Skill
- Invalid Arguments
Cultural Consensus Theory
is an approach to
or aggregation and data fusion, which supports
a framework for the measurement and evaluation of beliefs as cultural;
shared to some extent by a group of individuals. Cultural consensus models
guide the aggregation of responses from individuals to estimate (1) the
culturally appropriate answers to a series of related questions (when the
answers are unknown) and (2) individual competence (cultural competence)
in answering those questions. The theory is applicable when there is
sufficient agreement across people to assume that a single set of answers
exists. The agreement between pairs of individuals is used to estimate
individual cultural competence. Answers are estimated by weighting
responses of individuals by their competence and then combining responses.
is the quality of being inclined to accept and act on the suggestions of
; where false but plausible information is given and one fills in
the gaps in certain memories with false
when recalling a scenario or moment. Suggestibility uses
cues to distort recollection after persistently being told something
pertaining to a past event, one's memory of the event conforms to what
they've been told
by Pace Art + Technology
getting a second opinion is important when you're trying to understand
something and also when you're trying to make a good decision. But when
you're understanding of something is not totally correct from the
beginning, and then when you receive
opinion that is also inaccurate, then you could incorrectly assume that
your understanding is right because others have said the same thing.
That's when people make mistakes and that's when people believe things
that are false.
Types of Biases
involves individuals being more likely to be
selected for study than others, biasing the sample. This can
also be termed Berksonian bias.
evaluating diagnostic tests
patient samples, leading to an overestimate of the sensitivity
and specificity of the test.
is a feature of a
or of its results whereby the
value of the results
differs from the true underlying quantitative parameter being estimated.
The bias of an estimator of a parameter should not be confused with its
degree of precision as the degree of precision is a measure of the
sampling error. Sampling Bias
Bias of an Estimator
is the difference between an
and the true value of the parameter
Bias of an Estimator
of an estimator is the difference between this
value and the
of the parameter being
estimated. An estimator or decision rule with zero bias is called
unbiased. Otherwise the estimator is said to be biased. In
, bias is an objective
statement about a function, and while not a desired property, it is not
pejorative, unlike the ordinary English use of the term bias.
is the bias that appears in estimates of
parameters in a regression analysis when the assumed
specification omits an independent variable that should be in
Statistical Hypothesis Testing
is a test that is said to be
unbiased when the probability of committing a
type I error
is less than the significance level, and that of
getting a true positive (rejecting the null hypothesis when the
alternative hypothesis is true) is at least that of the
significance level. (false positive
occurs when a phenomenon is more likely to be
for a particular set of study subjects. For instance,
the syndemic involving obesity and diabetes may mean doctors are
more likely to look for diabetes in obese patients than in
thinner patients, leading to an inflation in diabetes among
obese patients because of skewed detection efforts.
may lead to selection of outcomes, test samples, or
test procedures that favor a study's
involves a skew in the availability of data, such
of a certain kind are more likely to be
we judge a decision based on its outcome rather than how exactly the
decision was made in the moment. Just because you win a lottery doesn't
mean that buying a lottery ticket was a smart decision. Here you are
deciding the value of decision after you have seen the outcome.
arise due to the way that the results are
arise due to the systematic exclusion of certain
individuals from the study
arises due to a loss of participants e.g. loss to
follow up during a study.
arises due to differences in the accuracy or
completeness of participant recollections of past events
. e.g. a
patient cannot recall how many cigarettes they smoked last week
exactly, leading to over-estimation or under-estimation.
arises when the researcher
influences the experiment due to cognitive bias where judgment
may alter how an experiment is carried out / how results are
recorded.Bias Blind Spot
when people tend to think themselves as less biased than other people. It
means that by default we remain blind to our own cognitive biases.
What if your bias was based on lies or inaccurate information?
There are no Quick Fixes
when it comes to repairing our biases. It takes
years to learn how to overcome biases, and you have to have discipline and
awareness. But even then, there are no guarantees that you will always be
accurate. People need to be on a learning journey, and be reminded that
this journey should never end. Learning must be part of our daily
responsibilities, like eating healthy, drinking clean water, sleeping
enough, exercising, and learning something new that will increase your
understanding of yourself and the world around you. And remember, there is
no finish line or graduation day, only a continuation, something that adds
to life and extends life for the better. Live, Learn, Love and Progress.
is a cognitive bias in which people
they have direct insight into the origins of their mental
states, while treating others' introspections as unreliable. In certain
situations, this illusion leads people to make confident but false
explanations of their own behavior (called "causal theories") or
inaccurate predictions of their future mental states.
is how individuals adapt to information or experiences
threatening to their self-concept.
Bias could also be
a way of looking at
using a particular set of parameters or properties. But you
can't use the same parameters for everything.
Trick Questions - Don't Answer That - No Easy Answer
one that implies that a certain answer
should be given in response, or
in the question as accepted fact. Such a
question distorts the memory
tricking the person
into answering in
a specific way that might or might not be true or consistent with their
actual feelings, and can be deliberate or unintentional. For example, the
phrasing "Don't you think this was wrong?
" is more suggestive than "Do you
think this was wrong?
" despite the difference of only one word. The former
may subtly pressure
the respondent into responding "yes," whereas the
latter is far more direct. Repeated questions
can make people think their
first answer is wrong and lead them to change their answer, or it can
cause people to continuously answer until the
gets the exact
response that they desire. The diction used by the interviewer can also be
an influencing factor
to the response given by the interrogated
individual. Some questions
can't be answered with a
or a no
A yes or no question sometimes needs an explanation, because a simple yes
or no answer could be easily
. Marketing Tricks
Leading the Witness
is the method of questioning a
by which the witness is directed
to answer the questions in the way that is expected by the attorney. The
query suggests to the witness how it is to be answered or
puts words into the mouth of the witness
If the questions are
, and if the
questions are intentionally
designed not to reveal facts
then you will not get the
answers that you need
, or receive the answers that you require that
would help you to understand the
more accurately. And then there are the people who will
refuse to give you a straight answer
because they know it will incriminate themselves and reveal their
incompetence or their guilt, or it reveal their corrupt abuse of power. If
they plead the 5th
, then they will reveal
their ignorance, or reveal that there is
corruption in the justice system
is one stage in the process of adducing evidence
from witnesses in a court of law. Direct examination is the questioning of
a witness by the party who called him or her, in a trial. Direct
examination is usually performed to elicit evidence in support of facts
which will satisfy a required element of a party's claim or defense. In
direct examination, one is generally prohibited from asking leading
questions. This prevents a lawyer from feeding answers to a favorable
witness. An exception to this rule occurs if one side has called a
witness, but it is either understood, or becomes clear, that the witness
is hostile to the questioner's side of the controversy. The lawyer may
then ask the court to declare the person he or she has called to the stand
a hostile witness. If the court does so, the lawyer may thereafter ask
witness leading questions during direct examination. The techniques of
direct examination are taught in courses on trial advocacy. Each direct
examination is integrated with the overall case strategy through either a
theme and theory or, with more advanced strategies, a line of effort.
is the interrogation of a
called by one's opponent. Redirect
examination, performed by the attorney or pro se individual who performed
the direct examination, clarifies the witness' testimony provided during
cross-examination including any subject matter raised during
cross-examination but not discussed during direct examination. Recross
examination addresses the witness' testimony discussed in redirect by the
opponent. Depending on the judge's discretion, opponents are allowed
multiple opportunities to redirect and recross examine witnesses (may vary
is a question that contains a controversial or
, like the presumption of
Yes or No Question
is a question whose expected answer is either "yes"
or "no". Contradictions
is a question that cannot be answered with a "yes
" response, or with a static response. Open-ended questions are
phrased as a statement which requires a response. The response can be
compared to information that is already known to the questioner. (Is
there a God
refers to any question for which a researcher provides
research participants with options from which to choose a response.
Open-ended questions are sometimes phrased as a statement which requires a
You have the Right to Remain Silent
because there are some questions that you shouldn't answer, this is
because sometimes you don't know how to
answer a question accurately
enough so that you're not misunderstood
. That is when you are better
off not answering a question. You can try to have the person
define the question more
, or you can have them give you a clear real life
of the question so that
. But that is only if you have time and a
place. Silence is Golden
just as long as you're not being passive
is a formal protest
raised in court
during a trial to disallow a witness's testimony or other
evidence which would be in violation of the rules of evidence or other
List of Objections
as commonly employed by law
enforcement officers, military personnel, and intelligence agencies with
the goal of eliciting useful information. Interrogation
may involve a
diverse array of techniques, ranging from developing a rapport with the
subject, to outright torture
is a confession
obtained by a suspect or a
under means of torture
(including enhanced interrogation techniques) or other forms of
Depending on the level of coercion
used, a forced confession is not
in revealing the truth
. The person being interrogated may agree to the
story presented to him or even make up falsehoods himself in order to
satisfy the interrogator and discontinue his
is an admission of guilt for a
for which the confessor is
not responsible. False confessions can be induced through coercion or by
the mental disorder or incompetency of the accused. Research demonstrates
that false confessions occur on a regular basis in
, which is one reason why
has established a series of rules—called "confession
rules"—to detect, and subsequently reject, false confessions. Plea
agreements typically require the defendant to stipulate to a set of facts
establishing that he/she is guilty of the offense; in the United States
federal system, before entering judgment on a guilty plea, the court must
determine that there is a factual basis for the plea
when someone asks a
upon more than one issue, yet allows only for one answer
. This may result
in inaccuracies in the attitudes being measured for the question, as the
respondent can answer only one of the two questions, and cannot indicate
which one is being answered.
is a question that has a presupposition
complex. The presupposition is a proposition that is presumed to be
acceptable to the respondent when the question is asked.
is a figure of speech in the form of a question
that is asked to make a point rather than to elicit an answer. Though a
rhetorical question does not require a direct answer, in many cases it may
be intended to start a discussion
or at least draw an acknowledgement that the listener understands the
intended message. A common example is the question "Can't
you do anything right?
" This question, when posed, is intended
not to ask about the listener's ability, but rather to insinuate the
listener's lack of ability. Although sometimes amusing and even humorous,
rhetorical questions are rarely meant for pure, comedic effect.
in law involves the taking of sworn, out-of-court oral
testimony of a
that may be reduced to a written
transcript for later use in court or for discovery purposes. They are
almost always conducted outside court by the lawyers themselves, with no
judge present to supervise the examination. Depositions are a part of the
discovery process in which litigants gather information in preparation for
trial. In nations that do not provide for depositions, testimony is
usually preserved for future use by way of live testimony in the
courtroom, or by way of written affidavit. Some jurisdictions recognize an
affidavit as a form of deposition, sometimes called a "deposition upon
written questions." While in common law jurisdictions such as England and
Wales, Australia, and New Zealand recording the oral evidence of
supporting witnesses ('obtaining a statement') is routine during
pre-litigation investigations, having the right to pose oral questions to
the opposing party's witnesses before trial is not.
in law is a pre-trial procedure in a lawsuit in which each
party, through the law of civil procedure, can obtain
from the other party or
parties by means of discovery devices such as interrogatories, requests
for production of documents, requests for admissions and depositions.
Discovery can be obtained from non-parties using subpoenas. When a
discovery request is objected to, the requesting party may seek the
assistance of the court by filing a motion to compel discovery.
You sometimes have to help and guide people to ask
the right questions
because some people don't know the right
questions to ask and when to ask them. Asking a question is not just
innate, asking a question
is a skill
, which many lawyers and judges will tell you. It's not just
understanding the question, it's understanding that there is not always
just one answer. And this ability to understand beyond the question and
see beyond the answer is something that is learned from knowledge and
information. Having knowledge allows you to see deeper, allows you to see
more layers, allows you to see the
, allows you to be more in control and be more focused.
Some people need an intervention
when it comes to learning
, because they may
not always learn it on
. It takes more than just
A man and his son were in an automobile accident. The man died
on the way to the hospital, but the boy was rushed into surgery.
The emergency room surgeon said "I can't operate, that's my
son!" How is this possible? Answer:
The surgeon was
The worst thing about assuming
that people ask a
when what they are really doing is making an
accusation and a judgment in the form of a question, because they assume
that they know the answer. So it's not a question, but an accusation and a
judgment without a trial, or without debate. Presumptuous questions can
either be balanced or unbalanced. Unbalanced questions ask questions only
from the point of view of one side of an argument. For example, an
interrogator might ask “’Do you favor the death penalty for persons
convicted of murder?”’ This question assumes that the person’s only point
of view in the situation is that a person who is convicted must either get
the death penalty
The second type of presumptuous question is balanced question. This is
when the interrogator uses opposite questions to make the witness believe
that the question is balanced when the reality is that it is not. For
example, the interrogator would ask, “’Do you favor life in prison,
without the possibility of parole?” This type of question may seem
balanced when in reality it is still influencing the person to discuss
life in prison and no other choice. Seeing
the Whole Picture
Effects of misleading questions and hypnotic memory suggestion
on memory reports: a signal-detection analysis.
In 2002, the first author and colleagues reported data
indicating that both
and misleading questions decreased
the accuracy of
and decreased "don't know
" response rates, that the
effects of misleading questions were significantly greater than those of
hypnosis, and that the two effects were additive. Using a sample of 194
undergraduate students, the present study replicated the findings that
misleading questions reduce accuracy and "don't know" responding but
failed to replicate the negative effect of hypnosis on memory reports.
Signal detection analysis indicated that misleading questioning produced
decreased sensitivity accompanied by higher response bias, though
affecting sensitivity more than producing a criterion shift.
National Criminal Justice Reference Service
It's Not Unusual Not to Understand Something
It's not unusual for someone not to understand something the first time
that they look at it
But if you don't understand something, why would you make
and jump to conclusions and
pretend to know something
? Is it that people forget?
Do people forget that it's not
unusual for someone not to understand something the first time
that they look at it? You should know enough about things in
order to filter information
effectively, because lying to yourself and pretending to know something
will only keep you in the dark, and ignorance is a dark and empty place.
But ignorance is not a lonely place, because there are plenty of other
ignorant people around who will make you believe that your ignorance is
normal. A false consensus
can be more
damaging than the ignorance itself.
can be as deadly as cancer, and slowly eat away
everything that is human and leave an empty shell where nothing can live.
I'm not always be smart
, but at least
I don't pretend to know things
I ask questions
keep my mind open
Most people are not aware of how much they still don't know. Most
people know very little about themselves and the world around them. And
they don't even know this because they never learned the knowledge that's
needed to understand just how much they still don't understand. If a
person never educates themself, then they will never be aware of how much
they still don't know. And they will continue to
live in a fantasy world
were they pretend that they know enough and
believe that they have enough knowledge. So they rule their imaginary
world as if it were real. Never realizing
knowledge and information that they are missing in their life. This is why
knowledge and information needs to be accessible, and easy to consume. If
knowledge and information tasted good and also made you feel good and look
good, then every person in the world would find it extremely easy to be
in love with learning
. So a
is all a human
needs. Something that would motivate them and inspire them to learn
something valuable and beneficial. A reward based Knowledge that produces
immediate results. But this can only be accomplished when you provide the
necessary knowledge and information that would help people to understand
what incentives and rewards
are used for. People need to understand the
things that will help them to understand. People cannot utilize
knowledge and information if they never learned how to
knowledge and information
. So what exactly is knowledge and
information. knowledge and information is the
that is in every human being. But in order to have access to
, you have to learn the right things at the right
time. And you also have to have access to the world most
valuable knowledge and information that the world has to offer,
and you have to be shown how to effectively and efficiently use
knowledge and information, so that you would receive the maximum
benefits from knowledge and information, and increase your
awareness about yourself and the world around you, and also have
more control, more freedom, more power, more potential, and
are not stupid
, people just don't
have enough knowledge and information in order to accurately
understand themselves and the world around them. To say someone
one is stupid because they did not learn something that you know, is
stupid. To expect people to know something that you know, is stupid. You
cannot assume to understand someone's thinking, you should just
Ask a question as if you are talking to a Machine
It's really difficult when there are
so many ignorant people, mentally challenged but
. So they can appear to be normal, but they are
far from normal, they cause more harm then good, because they
can only act functional temporally, the rest of the time they
are causing damage. But the damage goes unnoticeable to most
people, so the damage continues, which is extremely crazy. We
need to remove these people from their
and replace them with more competent people, while
at the same time, get these nonfunctioning people the help that
I have to stop being surprised and
irritated by peoples ignorance
, no one is to blame for their own
stupidity, because we know where the problem lie's, and that is
our education. We need to drastically improve education, and the
media, so that all citizens are completely educated and
informed. Otherwise this ignorance will continue to kill us
cause us problems till the day we die, and that my friend is the
future that I'm trying to stop from ever happening, and not just
for me, but for the trillions of people who will have to live
after me. If life is a cycle, then you better get on this bike
with me, because we have a lot of peddling to do.
Knowledge Peddler's Unite
In order to become intelligent, the first thing that you need to do is
to realize how ignorant you are. You can read all
the best books in the world
and go to the best colleges
, but if you are not educating yourself on the
things that make you ignorant, and if you're not taking the necessary
steps to reduce ignorant actions and thoughts, then you will always
be ignorant, even though you are very knowledgeable
Being smart is more then not being stupid.
It's a combination of many different skills
acquiring specialized knowledge over many years.
Ignorance in itself has an unusual
side effect of blinding the person from their own ignorance
So how does a person realize that they are ignorant when it’s
the ignorance itself that keeps them from realizing that they
are ignorant? Think
about when you see a doctor and the doctor tells you that you
have been diagnosed with a disease, a lot of people would say
that they never knew that they were sick.
Anton Babinski Syndrome
So there has to be a
way to diagnose
. We need some way to communicate or a test that
will say to that person that their thinking is not accurate
without saying that they are stupid, because
I don’t think that
anyone is stupid
, it's just that some of us are not thinking
correctly. There's a big difference between being stupid, and
doing stupid things. Most people have some level of
intelligence, it's just that most people are not always using
their intelligence at the right time or in the right way. We have to understand that people are not born bad,
they are simply brought up badly and thus become a bad person.
That's why most people in
have very little education as
well as very poor reading and writing skills. So people are not
born ignorant, they are just
brought up ignorantly
become an ignorant person. Now ignorant does not mean that you
are stupid. You can have a
(Intelligence Quotient) and
still be ignorant
explain this lets first define ignorance. Though the definition
of ignorance is usually defined a ‘ person who is ‘Uneducated in
general, lacking knowledge or sophistication, Unaware because of
a lack of relevant information or knowledge’. That is the more
common definition that I do not totally agree with. I would like
to define ignorance as a ‘ person who lacks a common sense that
keeps oneself from
separating opinion from fact
, a person who
dismisses information solely based on preference, a person who
assumes without questioning, and a person who has difficulty
formulating information in order to obtain a logical answer.
This to me is a more accurate meaning of the word ignorance. I
wonder if I could have the dictionary updated to include this
definition or just replace the old definition with the one above, unless
of course there is a better word in the dictionary for what is described above. Now some of you are still wondering how
can you have a high IQ and still be ignorant. To me an IQ test
is not a measure of intelligence but more of a test to measure
ones brain function. If a persons IQ is high then their ability
to process information and access their memory is exceptional,
thus their brain is functioning properly. A person with a high
IQ should be nurtured very carefully so that their ability is
not stifled and at the same time their brain is not overwhelmed
. A person with a low IQ will be treated
the same way, but they will need extra special attention to get
their brain functioning like a person with a high IQ. So if you
use my definition of ignorance you will find that there are
people with high IQ’s who are ignorant. They can process
information, but they still have trouble with separating opinion
from fact and sometimes can still dismiss information solely
based on preference. I have not yet met an intelligent person. I
have met some really smart people but I would not consider them
First, you have to admit that
you can be wrong about things.
Second, you have to
admit that you
don't know enough
about yourself and the world around you. Then and Only
then will you be able to effectively learn to increase your understanding
about yourself and the world around you. There is one extremely important
thing that you need to commit to, and that is learning. Otherwise, you
will be ignorant till the day you die.
If you don't know how
ignorant you are every day, then that's another day that you didn't learn
anything. And those days can easily and quickly turn into years.
Too many people just pretend that they know enough
about themselves and the world. That means that millions of people are
living in a fantasy world
of make believe.
Almost totally oblivious of the reality of this world, or the impact that
they have on themselves and other people. And the only way for people to
escape this quasi reality
, is to learn what
things in life are reality. Things that have been proven, things that have
been experienced. And one of the most important things that a person needs
to do first is to admit how ignorant they are about themselves, and how
ignorant they are about the world around them. And the only way to know
how ignorant you are, is to learn and study knowledge that would reveal
how ignorant you are, because ignorance does not reveal itself. They say
that being stupid doesn't hurt, like ignorance is bliss. That's a lie,
because being stupid does hurt, you just don't know it because you're
stupid. And the only way to know how much you're hurting yourself and
other people, is to learn why. And one of the best ways to learn is by
reading. But you can't read just anything because that would also be
stupid. You have to seek out the exact knowledge that you need that would
help increase your understanding of yourself and the world around you. You
have to take learning seriously, because everything depends on it,
When it comes to
, I look at them
as being normal and everyone else being abnormal or just not
aware of their potential, just yet. It’s really hard to
because to me intelligence must be proven in many
ways that would clearly define a person as being intelligent.
People have estimated that there are
over 3 million academically gifted students
in the United
States alone, which is an ignorant observation, because everyone
has the potential to be so called gifted. The single largest
disability that every child has is not having a school that
understands knowledge and intelligence. This goes beyond
. The U.S. is not just Neglecting Its
Smartest Kids, but all kids. Todays schools produce more
Intellectual Disabilities then they do Intellectual abilities,
and the reason that you don't know this is because you have an
. When smart kids do poorly in school, that proves
schools are flawed
Young females limit their own progress based on what
they believe about their intelligence called the "bright
". Growth mindset
describes the underlying beliefs that people have about learning and
intelligence. When students believe they can get smarter, they understand
that effort makes them stronger.
areas of intelligence
intelligence, math intelligence, music intelligence, spatial intelligence,
self intelligence and so on.
Take any person from any continent on
this planet, and everyone will say that they would prefer to be
strong then weak. It's a
humans natural instinct
t to be strong,
humans would never choose to be weak, but that is exactly what
we have done with our education system. We have a very weak
education, which creates weak minds. And a weak mind doesn't
know its weak, because it is to weak to figure it out.
"Knowledge will forever govern ignorance
; and a people who mean
to be their own governors must
arm themselves with the power which
(the fourth president of the
United States from 1809 to 1817).
Father of the Constitution
"The only way to
become intelligent is to first admit that you are ignorant in
some ways, and then and only then, does the journey towards intelligence
begin...It's impossible to know all the answers, especially when
you don't even know the questions."
"The fool doth think he is wise, but the wise man knows himself to be a fool". - (Act V, Scene I).
As You Like It
"You don't know what
you do not know, until you know what you did not know."
Collins - Both Sides
is not a destination, Intelligence is a path that you take, and
staying on this path is to be intelligent."
"Intelligence is being aware of all the things that you still
don't know but making the effort to know them, while using all
the things that you do know, effectively as possible. Humans
need to feed
as well as their stomachs, we need to be hunters
and gatherers of knowledge. And we need to
preserve all the valuable knowledge
that we find and create.
We certainly don't want to end up like
, dead and gone with very little records to
"I wouldn't call people ignorant or
incompetent, people just lack the intelligence and the necessary
skills that are needed to run their life or to do their job
effectively or efficiently. Improving education and training
will help solve this problem."
just revealing how ignorant someone's behavior is, not all behaviors are
bad, just the behaviors that cause damage and suffering. Some people take
offense to having their ignorance revealed, like they feel bad for finding
out that they were wrong about something, or having someone find out about
a horrible secret they have been hiding, something embarrassing, something
shameful. So Why do some people see learning as something negative and
tedious?I didn't want to be the one to tell you this
, but since no one
else has, I guess I'm stuck with this job of having to inform you. Don't
blame the messenger, because no one is to blame, until tomorrow that is.
Maybe you will forget what you have learned today, so maybe I will have to
remind you again tomorrow, I hope not. I hope we keep learning. A better
world is waiting for us, but it will not wait forever. And this is not
just about our time, our flash in the pan, this is about all time, and the
time that trillions upon trillions of future generations who will either
have to endure life or have the pleasure to enjoy life, this choice is
ours now, and tomorrow. I choose enjoy. No one should ever have to suffer
and endure from other peoples behavior. No one. Learning needs to be the
new fad, the new relish. There is tremendous amount of pleasure that comes
from learning. Everyone should be benefiting from learning. But when some
people can't learn because they don't have access, or they refuse to
learn, then they haven't learned the most important thing about learning,
which is, you learn everyday, if not, you will struggle, and in that
struggle is when people make most of their mistakes, mistakes that do most
"I work around a lot of things,
especially my own ignorance, because if you can't get passed
your own ignorance, you're screwed."
"I have experienced things and learned
from them even before I knew what they were. Meaning that, you
do not necessarily have to have a language to explain something
in order to learn from something, that is the brilliant design
of the brain. Just like having
Your brain is like an
8 cylinder engine
. When your brain finally starts to run on
6 cylinders, you then realize that your brain has been only
running on 2 cylinders for several years. And now that you're
running on 6 cylinders, you can now improve and progress so that
you will eventually be running on all 8 cylinders, meaning that
you will eventually have full access to the power of the human mind.
I'm Still an Idiot Sometimes, but not as much as I used to be
I'm still an idiot sometimes
way less stupid than I used to be because
I'm always learning
, so I have made a lot of
I still have many more improvements to make
I'm always discovering more ways to do what is right, but I first had to
realize what I was doing wrong
. I can be smart
most of the time, but I can still be
. My goal
is to be smart most of the time and only be
stupid once in a while. In the past I tried my best to do my best, but I
was not always successful. But I kept learning and I kept educating
myself. So now I am more successful
at being my best, but I still make
, so I'm
far from perfect
. But at least
now I know how to learn from my mistakes, and I also know now that I still
have a lot more to learn. So
is not so
far off. Once you start the process of
, you are starting
an amazing journey. Making a commitment to
about yourself and the world
around you is something that everyone needs to do. But you need to avoid being
consumed by all the
, and being
consumed by all the advancements
. You need
You need to live,
learn, love and progress
. But what is
? Thinking has bought you here and has made your life
possible, but can you understand the importance? The fact that you have
the most amazing thing called the brain, should be enough to explore its
inner workings. You live because of the environment that you
grew into, it helped you to live. Now its time to find out where
this love is coming from. When things go bad it's not about
hate, its about information going bad. That is why we have
correcting data error software
, which is another word for
learning, where we learn that
, so we
need to correct them. You can't be aware of everything
, but you can increase your odds of success by
continually learning and
paying attention to change
, and the
evidence of changes to come. The one major advantage that humans
have is that we can see the future. This is what life needs to
have in order to survive. And seeing the future has nothing to
do with sight or sound, only the
learned from sight and
sound, which do not have to be experienced, only learned or read.
That is the human advantage. If I did not tell you to turn left instead of
turning right, you would have made a wrong turn and gone down a dead end road or
driven off a cliff.
is more then just
saving people time
, it's also
about reducing mistakes
enough about intelligence to know that I'm not intelligent yet
I also know enough about intelligence to know that no one else is
intelligent either. Intelligence is a destination that I'm working on, and
I hope that intelligence would be everyone's destination too, because I
don't want to be intelligent all by myself, because that wouldn't be
intelligent. I'm not smart, I only look smart
because most everyone else is not smart. So I would never say that I'm
smart just because I'm compared to other people who may not be as smart as
me. Comparison is not an accurate measurement of
In 2008, when I started to do research on ways to improve
education, I discovered that education needs a lot of improving. And as I
dug deeper into this research, I realized that I was part of the research
and have also become patient zero. As I found ways to improve education, I
simultaneously found ways to improve myself, and I am more aware of the
many improvements that I still need to make in myself. I was infected with
the disease called ignorance
know my immunity to ignorance has become a lot stronger, which does not
mean that I am safe from being re-infected by ignorance, it means that I
have better protections from ignorance, more then the general public. I am
living proof that certain knowledge and information can have incredible
benefits. But explaining this is extremely difficult, but not impossible,
after all, knowledge makes the impossible possible. I could say that the
research speaks for itself, but research does not speak for itself,
research needs a speaker and an interpreter. Then research needs is an
educated listener, one who can comprehend the research and put the
research into action.
Before 2008, I was ignorant about a lot of things, and a lot of
times I had no control over my own ignorance. I'm still ignorant about
certain things, but I'm more in control now, not total control, but more
in control now than I was before, and will be more in control in the
future, and also be less ignorant. I thought I knew enough at 48
, but I was
I was an
nd the only reason that I knew that I was wrong was because I started
to educate myself in a new and different way. I focused on the most
valuable knowledge and information that I could find, and then I used all
this knowledge and information
in the most effective ways possible. And I'm just beginning.
more educated I become, the more ignorance I see in others and in myself.
Noticing my own ignorance is a good thing. I can correct my own ignorance,
but correcting the ignorance of others is difficult, especially when the
person doesn't think that they're ignorant. If we can't educate people to
understand how ignorant they are, then we are not educating people. If a
person can't tell fact from fiction, they will never effectively
understand themselves or the world around them.
A Genius who can't Tie his own Shoes
"The common curse of
mankind, - folly and ignorance". - (Act II, Scene III).
Troilus and Cressida
I was the idiot who
didn't know any better
, but I wanted to know better, but
I didn't know how. So I'm sorry it took so long, after all, I was an
idiot, but now I'm less of an idiot, which means I can continually improve
and become even smarter then I am now.
I'm not a Genius
is definitely influencing me. Things are
happening in this world that are just too incredible to be happening all
on their own. There is a driving force beyond our comprehension and beyond
our earthbound abilities. There are millions of instructions encoded in
everyone's DNA. And you don't have to tell your DNA what to do because the
have already been written along with the exact moments that
these instructions are supposed to be activated and put into effect. So if
knowledge and information is already imbedded inside our DNA, then what
would be the knowledge and information we should have stored in your
brain? Everyone is born with
, but we are not born with knowledge
and information in our brains. But we are born with a brain that stores
and processes enormous amounts of knowledge and information. And where is
the operating system
the programs that the brain needs to operate effectively and efficiently?
Everyone is infected
with some form of ignorance,
. But it's the level of ignorance
and the amount of
ignorance that a person has that will ultimately determine the
amount of damage that a person will do to themselves, or to
others, or to the world.
Ignorance kills more people than all
causes of death combined
, and the reason why we hardly ever hear
anything about the worlds biggest killer is because the
want to make us aware of this fact. So
when we finally do realize how ignorant we all are, that's when
finally become extremely important and a lot more meaningful then ever
before. It's an epiphany
and the great awakening all rolled up into one.
What are the smartest
countries in the world, the answer is none. People who do
are incredibly ignorant and criminal, especially
when they use math and science
as a predictor of
good outcomes. Ignorant people cannot measure intelligence, especially
when they can't even measure their own ignorance.
A Genius Who Can't Tie His Own Shoes
Everyone is capable of being a genius
who can't tie their own shoes. People can be smart
in one way, but not so smart in other ways. People can be
in one way, but not so ignorant in other
ways. Being a genius in one or two areas in your life does
not necessarily mean that you're a genius in other areas of your
life. You've learned certain things, but you did not learn other
things. Anyone is capable of a
genius action, but that doesn't make someone a
. Just because someone
has more knowledge than you, or has more schooling than you,
this does not guarantee that this particular person is smarter than you
. There are lots of ways that a person can be
. Everyone is lacking some quantity of knowledge and information
about a particular subject that they never studied or learned about. So
there are different degrees of ignorance and other ways of being stupid.
You can be smart about one thing but not so smart about the other thing.
A person can be smart in one way, but be ignorant in another way. I
know that most people have good qualities and can be smart in more ways
than one. But we have to understand where ignorance originates from. Ignorance starts with an
, inadequate parenting and
inadequate media outlets
that misinforms people more than it informs people. So I forgive people
for being ignorant, it's not their fault. But there's particular types of
ignorance, or the way that someone is ignorant, that can have negative
effects. When your ignorant belief effects my life and effects other
people lives, then that's more than just ignorance, that's being abusive
and destructive. The worst part is when people deny that they're ignorant
or fail to see their own ignorance. For a lot of people, it's easier to
live in a fantasy world
about reality than it is to educate themselves about the facts and know the
truth. Reality takes work. You have to continually educate yourself, and
you have to do some research and investigate things if you want to
accurately understand things. There's no easy way to be smart, but some
people just prefer to live in a fantasy world instead of being a
human being. It's
convenient for some people to ignore how ignorant they are just so they
can continue to be ignorant. It takes no effort to remain ignorant,
because you never have to do any learning, researching or work, you can
just sit around and pretend to understand yourself and pretend to
understand the world around you. If people are too lazy to educate
themselves, then we have to make learning easy and easily accessible. Then
eventually people will run out of excuses why they don't want to learn and
become more knowledgeable. People who make
to know things
are not helping anyone or solving any problems.
Everything that everyone has is from people who did the work that was
needed in order to learn the reality of our world, so they could make
improvements. No problems have ever been solved and no progress has ever
been made by people pretending to know things. Ignorance is the source of
most of our problems. And if people were given the chance to educate
themselves, I know they would. No one in their right mind would
deliberately be ignorant if they didn't have to be, that is
are an intelligent species for a reason, we have the potential. But
potential must be fostered and then used wisely. A mind is a terrible
thing to waste.If you get a
wrong answer on a test
, that doesn't meant that the test is
criticizing you or judging you, the test is just telling you that a
particular answer to a question is wrong. To prove something to be correct
or incorrect, you need evidence. Every known calculation has a formula and
method that is proven to produce a correct answer that is consistent. This
is the reason why humans can engineer and build advanced machines and
create technologies that solve all kinds of problems.
It's impossible to know everything
, but it is possible to know
most of the important things. When smart people don't know
something, they usually have enough knowledge and skills to learn what they
need to learn, thus they are good at solving problems and good
at making the right decisions. Being intelligent means that you seek to understand what you
think you know, and seek to understand the way things
work. Being smart is also having a
good bullshit detector
, or being
able to tell when someone is lying
and being able to distinguish sense from nonsense. But you still may be
falling into certain traps of falsehood or mind manipulation, so
don't let your guard down
Being smart is being able to control energy and use
accomplish certain goals. Being smart is having extensive knowledge of the mind
and of the body, and knowing how to use mind and body functions to achieve
goals, like being able to live for several days without food, or surviving extreme cold
or extreme heat without dying. You need to have the right
information at the right time, and you need to know for sure that what you're doing
isn't doing more harm than good. So don't ever
underestimate the value of learning, and don't ever
underestimate your value as a person. The more you know,
the better your odds will be at making good decisions. So
choose very wisely what you need to learn and when to learn it.
Choosing the healthiest food to eat everyday has many benefits, and choosing
what to learn everyday has even more benefits.Specialized knowledge
is knowledge that is time and place
specific, meaning that you don't really need that particular
knowledge and information until a special set of
arises. So this type of knowledge will only benefit you when you
need to perform a particular function, like surgery, or farming,
or driving a truck, and so on. Almost every school on the planet
offers this type of knowledge. This is the main reason why
people are ignorant about a lot of things. Because they have been denied knowledge and
information that would give them intelligence and awareness. So
most people are just educated enough to be mindless slaves who
are easily manipulated and controlled. Though many people will immediately
say this is false, they will have a very difficult time explaining why
they believe this is false. And this is when the realization happens, or,
this is when they enter a state of denial. So what valuable knowledge and
information is missing from education, and what knowledge and information
is missing from the news and from our media outlets. These institutions are supposedly paid to
inform us of our reality, but they're not doing this
effectively or efficiently. In fact, they're
doing the opposite
most of the time. Not everything in life can be
intelligent. But many things are still
something's may appear to be not intelligent at first, but when you look at
all the facts, it may be intelligent after all.
Having more valuable knowledge that gives a greater
understanding does not mean that you will stop making mistakes,
but mistakes will be less frequently.
I'm not ahead of my
time, it's just that most people are behind the times. I'm
still an idiot sometimes
Ahead of Ones Time
is having new ideas a
long time before other people start to think in the same way. To be
innovative and radical by the standards of the time; more characteristic
of a later age. Behind the Times
being not aware of or using the latest ideas or techniques
; out of date.
Can't Be Aware of Everything
High Functioning Idiot
because an insane person shows signs of genius, this does not mean
that there is a connection or a correlation between genius and
insanity. That's like saying that because a person did something
genius, they must also be insane. One does not imply the other,
because they are two separate things. Two things are not
necessarily connected just because they share the same space.
don't necessarily mean
. And just because someone is suffering from
, this does not make that person crazy or broken. We have to be
very careful with our
. When we narrowly define things, we never see the
whole picture. So we never fully understand, or, do we know the
correct actions to take. So a label is just a starting point,
because it doesn't fully explain the contents. When we give a
label or use a label, we must also give the instructions and the
reasons, otherwise, a label could be more dangerous then
helpful. Don't judge a book by it's cover is also an incomplete
sentence. What book? Who's cover? Why this book?=
over many months
or even years as you learn more. And as you learn more, you
increase your understanding
of yourself and the world around
you. So you become more aware, and have more potential, and have
more abilities and more skills. Though specialized knowledge
shares the same function as
knowledge is limited to a specific need. Everyone needs a
foundation of knowledge
and information that provides them
with a full understanding of themselves and the world around
them. Intelligence is the goal.
BK101 is not everything there is to know
, but it will help you to
know more about things in life then you ever thought possible.
Reading every encyclopedia wont make
you smart. Having a great
you smart either. Remembering mundane details might get you on a
meaningless game show like Jeopardy, but it does not mean that
you are smart or intelligent
. It's not how much knowledge and
information you have, it's how effective and efficient you are
in using that knowledge and information to improve life. That is
truly what makes a person intelligent. So it's not what you
have, or how much you have, it's how you use what you have that
ends up being the most important aspect. That should be the top
priority of every educational institution on the planet, but
it's not. But for BK101, this is the top priority. This website
may have some of the worlds most valuable knowledge and
information, but if you never learn how to formulate knowledge
and information correctly, and use it effectively and
efficiently, then the benefits from knowledge and information
will never materialize. If you are not
then you are most likely adding to the problems that we have.
Being smart is that ability to have good relationships, to
listen well, to treat people fairly with honestly. Being smart
is that ability to control emotions, to make good decisions, to
have good awareness.
more people than all causes of death combined,
and ignorance is preventable just like
" I still love you, even knowing that you only have a
half a brain.
But I would love you a lot more if you had a whole brain that
was full of valuable knowledge and information. Then when we are
together, we would have more potential, more options, more
control, more power, more freedom, and more
possibilities...Well, that's what whole brain people do any way, just sayin.
How would you explain intelligence to someone who isn't
"I have neither the time nor the crayons to explain it to you."
"I can explain it to you, but I can't understand it for you."
"You couldn't pour the water out of a boot if the instructions were written on the heel."
Smart or intelligent should not be the only word used to describe a person
unless you explain why, because intelligence
is relative. Smart and intelligent only describes a
particular action, an action that is known to be logical. That
was a smart thing to do, that was an intelligent thing to do. So
to say "That Person is Smart", you have to say why? Did they do
a smart thing, or is it they can do particular things that
require specialized knowledge? So in order to be smart or
intelligent you have to perform intelligent actions. So only
that particular action is smart and not necessarily the person
performing the action. But if you would like to be considered
smart then you would have to be known as the person who
performed the most intelligent actions. And to prove that you
would have to be extremely intelligent." Good luck...it's not a problem, it's a challenge...
To Know, or Not to Know?
Is that even a Question?
Know is to be
aware of something through
observation or by information or
and to understand
something with certainty. To be
aware of a
fact or a specific piece of
information. To possess
knowledge or information about something.
of states, situations, emotions, or sensations. To Know the nature or character
of something. To be able to
recognize something as being
different. To be
aware of how to do something or
perform something. To be familiar
or acquainted with a person or an object. To truly
know someone you have to spend
time with them and develop a relationship through meetings and
conversations so as to become familiar or friendly with them on a personal
level. The same thing goes for knowledge. If you don't time with
knowledge, you will not know knowledge well enough to call knowledge a
close friend of yours or have knowledge to be
someone you can depend on.
Losing touch with knowledge is like
losing touch with friends. To keep in touch with knowledge or friends
you have to have meaningful
conversations every now and then.
Apprehend is to fully understand
or grasp the meaning of something.
To be Known.
Cognizant is having
understanding or realization or
On the Ball is when you are alert to new
ideas, methods, and trends. Indicating competence, alertness, or
intelligence. Keep your Eye on the
It's better to know than not to know. And when someone says "I wish I
didn't know that or I didn't need to know that", what they're really saying is, "I wish I knew more
about that thing that I wish I didn't know about, because not
understanding something makes me really uncomfortable and confused". It's
better to know than not to know. Do you understand the
question? It's not just about you.
is a sudden revelation or a moment of sudden
is a scientific breakthrough that allows a problem or situation to be
understood from a new and deeper perspective. Having a
knowledge is required to allow the leap of understanding.
- Revolution of the Mind. Every time you have an epiphany,
a new neuron is born.
Enlightenment is education that results in
understanding and the spread of knowledge. Enlightenment is
that feeling you get when you
finally release a particular false truth or belief that you have been holding on to.
The process of letting go of
your assumptions. A relief from not knowing to a realization of knowing.
Enlightenment refers to the full
comprehension of a situation.
Enlightenment can also mean a movement in Europe from about 1650 until
1800 that advocated the use of reason and individualism instead of
tradition and established doctrine. Enlightening is the process of
understanding while reducing ones own ignorance.
Revelation is a surprising and previously
unknown fact that is made known in a dramatic way. An enlightening or
astonishing disclosure of an
Realize is to be fully
aware or cognizant of something
important. To perceive an idea or situation mentally.
Realization is coming to understand something clearly and distinctly. Making
something real or giving the appearance of
Game Changer is an event, idea, or
procedure that effects a significant shift in the current manner of doing
or thinking about something. A newly introduced element or factor that
changes an existing situation or activity in a significant way. When
something is a Game Changer it means that something
has changed in such a degree that it alters your previous perceptions and
affects your future decisions.
Acknowledge is to admit the existence
of something or to declare the reality or
truth of something. Expressing
recognition of the presence or the existence of something. Accept
something as legally binding and
Recognition is the state or quality of
being recognized or acknowledged. Coming to understand something clearly
and distinctly. Approval.
Dawned On Me is to suddenly understand
something or realize something that was not so apparent before or was not
clearly revealed to the mind or the senses.
Inoculate is to introduce an idea or
attitude into the mind of someone. To produce immunity or to
build up defenses and
vulnerabilities in order to protect oneself against future threats.
Familiar is something or someone well
known or easily recognized. To be
well informed about
something that is a normal everyday experience, something common or
ordinary and not strange. A friend.
Fruition is something that is made
or concrete to the point at which a plan or project is realized. Fruition
can also mean the enjoyment derived from use or possession. The state or
action of producing fruit.
Perspicacity is a penetrating
discernment and a clarity of vision or intellect which provides a
deep understanding and insight.
Discernment is the
cognitive condition of someone who understands. The mental ability to
understand and discriminate between relations. The trait of
judging wisely and
Dialed-in means to be very
proficient at a given
activity. Dial it in is used to mean that something is working well,
efficiently, or is well coordinated.
Figured it Out is to finally
understand something or someone, or
find the solution to a problem after a
lot of thinking.
Wrap your Head around it means to come to a
good understanding of something.
is to become more aware and more informed and more intelligent.
Thing or Two is to be knowledgeable about something. The phrase is
usually used to indicate that one knows more about something than someone
thinks because they've seen a thing or two. know enough to come in out of
the rain. know what's what. know which end is up. know which way is up.
Finger on it is to know or understand something.
Mind-Blowing Experience is when
someone's mind is affected very strongly by something new, exciting,
unusual or impressive. Something that changes you, or something that you
will never forget.
Blow Your Mind -
The Big Bang -
The Big Idea.
Wow is to be impressed greatly and
surprised, sometimes with admiration. I can't freaking believe it! Wow!
God or OMG, or oh my gosh, or omigosh, or oh my goodness is a way of
expressing surprise, astonishment, excitement, shock or awe. It can also
mean a way of expressing disbelief, frustration, dismay or anger.
Holy F*cking Sh*t is a common reaction to
something that is either amazing or traumatic.
WTF is an acronym for What the F*ck, which
means that something stupid or disturbing is happening, and you're asking
Oh Shit is a moment is when you
realize that you have been doing something wrong, or it means that
something wrong is about to happen.
refers to the common human experience of suddenly
understanding a previously incomprehensible problem or concept.
Some research describes the Aha! effect, or
also known as insight or epiphany, as a memory advantage, though it is
difficult to predict under what circumstances one can predict an Aha!
moment. Insight is a
psychological term that attempts to describe the process in problem
solving when a previously unsolvable puzzle becomes suddenly clear and
obvious. Often this transition from not understanding to
spontaneous comprehension is
accompanied by an exclamation of joy or satisfaction, an Aha! moment. A
person utilizing insight to solve a problem is able to give accurate,
discrete, all-or-nothing type responses, whereas individuals not using the
insight process are more likely to produce partial, incomplete responses.
A recent theoretical account of the Aha! moment started with four defining
attributes of this experience. First, the Aha! moment appears suddenly;
second, the solution to a problem can be processed smoothly, or fluently;
third, the Aha! moment elicits positive affect; fourth, a person
experiencing the Aha! moment is convinced that a solution is true. These
four attributes are not separate but can be combined because the
experience of processing fluency, especially when it occurs surprisingly
(for example, because it is sudden), elicits both positive affect and
judged truth. Insight can be conceptualized as a two phase process. The
first phase of an Aha! experience requires the problem solver to come upon
an impasse, where they become stuck and even though they may seemingly
have explored all the possibilities, are still unable to retrieve or
generate a solution. The second phase occurs suddenly and unexpectedly.
After a break in mental fixation or re-evaluating the problem, the answer
is retrieved. Some research suggest that insight problems are difficult to
solve because of our mental fixation on the inappropriate aspects of the
problem content. In order to solve insight problems, one must "think
outside the box". It is this elaborate rehearsal that may cause people to
have better memory for Aha! moments. Insight is believed to occur with a
break in mental fixation, allowing the solution to appear transparent and
Putting things in Perspective is to
compare something with a
similar thing to give
a clearer, more accurate description of
a problem. To see something from an
look at what is most important and
what is the priority.
Reactions can be
relative, so the
meaning may change depending on the
person and the event.
Paradigm Shift is when someone sees the same information in an
entirely new and different way from what was the generally accepted
perspective or typical standard, leading to fundamental changes in basic
concepts and assumptions.
is a period of time in history or a person's life, typically one marked by
notable events or particular characteristics. A period marked by
distinctive character or reckoned from a fixed point or event. A unit of
geological time that is a subdivision of a period and is itself divided
into ages. Epochal is a highly significant
or important especially bringing about or marking the beginning of a new
development or era.
Scientific Revolution is a series of events that marked the emergence
of modern science during the early modern
period, when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology
(including human anatomy) and chemistry transformed the views of society
Enlightenment was an intellectual and
philosophical movement which
dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the
18th century. The
Enlightenment included a range of ideas centered on reason as the primary
source of authority and legitimacy, and came to advance ideals like
constitutional government, and
separation of church and state.
Rationalism is the epistemological view that "regards
reason as the chief source and test of knowledge"
or "any view appealing to reason as a source of
knowledge or justification". More formally, rationalism is defined as a
methodology or a theory "in which the criterion of the truth is not
sensory but intellectual and deductive". Rationalism is a philosophical
movement which gathered momentum during the Age of
Reason of the 17th Century. It is
usually associated with the introduction of mathematical methods into
philosophy during this period
by the major rationalist figures, Descartes, Leibniz and Spinoza.
The Great Awakening is the period in
Human Civilization when the value of Knowledge and Information is fully
Realized. Making Human intelligence accessible to every human on the
planet. Which in turn utilizes the potential energy of every person on the
planet. Making humans feel more connected to each other, more connected to
the earth, and more connected to life itself. Creating a global awareness
of monumental proportions. It will be like experiencing life for the very
first time on levels that were never imagined. Consciousness Raising.
The Human Race has fallen asleep at the wheel,
time to wake up.
Wake Up is to
woke to the
In order to Wake People Up you first have to
convince people that they are
not fully awake,
which is just as hard as convincing people that they were
fooled or that they
understand a lot of things that are happening in the world. If you don't
know what to do, you will not do what needs to be done. If you don't know
how to do something, then you will most likely not do something that needs
to be done. Wake Up
America — We Are Better Than This! | Elijah Cummings | TEDxMidAtlantic
Wakeup Call is a phrase
that is used to alert a person to a problem,
danger, or need. A sign or
warning that alerts one to
negative or dangerous behavior or circumstances. Wakeup Call can also mean
a service provided by most lodging establishments, similar to an alarm
clock via a telephone.
a person's view, opinion, or judgment. To perceive or think about
something in a particular way. To believe or expect something to be true
or deem to be. To judge something to be probable. To have faith or
confidence in some belief. The action or process of calculating or
estimating something. Problem solving that involves numbers or quantities.
A bill or account, or its settlement.
Advent is an arrival that has been awaited, especially of something momentous.
Revolution of the Mind. There is a
revolution coming, a revolution like no other
revolution before, a revolution of the mind.
See the Light is to gain an
of something that was previously not understood, especially in a
sudden insight. LiFi.
It Opened My Eyes or
That was an Eye Opener means that something
was so informative that it caused you to understand something a lot better
then you did before or see something more clearer then you did before.
Insight is the
of a specific cause and effect within a specific
context. The term insight can have
several related meanings such as the act or result of understanding the
inner nature of things or of seeing
noesis in Greek. An
power of acute observation and
deduction, discernment, and perception, called intellection or noesis. An
cause and effect based on identification of relationships and
behaviors within a model, context, or
Things Begin to Click or
Something Clicks means that you
finally understand something more clearly now, and everything falls into
place or clicks into place, and you suddenly understand how different
pieces of information are connected and now everything becomes clearer
than before when it was puzzling. If something clicks, the something can
click back or click forward. The brain has
the ability to change and adapt how information is being processed.
When a person trains to learn something new, they create new connections,
but they also change or modify old connections. Sometimes these changes
are not noticed, or understood, like with
all Cylinders means that you are functioning or operating at the
most desirable or greatest possible level of efficiency, speed, or
Monkey Effect is a hypothetical phenomenon in which a new behavior or
idea is claimed to spread rapidly by unexplained means from one group
to all related groups once a critical number of members of one group
exhibit the new behavior or acknowledge the new idea.
Tipping Point in sociology is a point in time
when a group—or a large number of group members—rapidly and dramatically
changes its behavior by widely adopting a previously rare practice, like
Knowledge is a term used to describe
core concepts or
threshold concepts that when
understood helps to
perception of a given subject, phenomenon, or experience. It's the
amount of knowledge one needs
in order to understand something clearly. There are
certain concepts, or certain learning experiences, which resemble
passing through a portal, from which a new
perspective opens up, allowing things formerly not perceived to come into
view. This permits a new and previously inaccessible way of thinking about
something. It represents a transformed way of understanding, or
interpreting, or viewing something, without which the learner cannot
progress, and results in a
reformulation of the learners’
meaning. The thresholds approach also emphasizes the importance of
disciplinary contexts. As a consequence of
comprehending a threshold
concept there may thus be a transformed internal view of subject matter,
subject landscape, or even world view.
We are on the verge of an incredible breakthrough.
We have learned more in the last 50 years
than we have in the last 100,000 years. We have accumulated more knowledge
and information in just the last 100 years then we have in all the
millions of years that humans have existed on earth, and we are just
getting started. We are on the verge of some of the most incredible
advancements in human intelligence. It will be like waking up for the very
first time and experiencing life as if you were just born. It will be amazing.
On the Verge or On
is something close in time and about to occur that is within reach. An
imminent event that is about to happen that will change the current
condition and create a new situation.
Brink is to come close to a region marking a boundary. The edge of
a steep place or extreme edge of land before a steep or vertical slope.
The limit beyond which something happens or changes.
is a sudden, dramatic, and important
development. An instance of
achieving success in a particular sphere or activity.
Different Tune is to change the way one talks about something and
to have a different opinion about something.
Age are the outstanding and significant changes in the Mind, Body and
Spirit. A term applied to a range of spiritual or religious beliefs and
practices that developed in Western nations during the 1970s.
Ages of History.
It was the best of times,
it was the worst of times,
it was the age of
it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it
was the epoch of incredulity, it was the season of Light, it was the
season of Darkness, it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of
despair, we had everything before us, we had nothing before us, we were
all going direct to Heaven, we were all going direct the other way—in
short, the period was so far like the present period, that some of its
noisiest authorities insisted on its being received, for good or for evil,
in the superlative degree of comparison only
Passage is a ceremony of the passage which occurs when an individual
leaves one group to enter another. It involves a significant change of
status in society. Rites of passage have three phases: separation,
Again refers to a
spiritual rebirth or a regeneration of the human spirit from the Holy
Spirit, contrasted with physical birth.
is a Buddhist doctrine that enlightenment can be attained through direct
Transformation constitutes a change in the meaning system that a
person holds as a basis for self-definition, the interpretation of life,
and overarching purposes and ultimate concerns. a fundamental change in
the place of the sacred or the character of the sacred in the life of the
Salvation is being saved or protected from harm or being saved or
delivered from a dire situation, through
Mysticism refers to the attainment of insight in ultimate or hidden
truths, and to human transformation supported by various practices and
experiences. A kind of ecstasy or altered state of
consciousness which is
given a religious or spiritual meaning. Mysticism is the practice of
religious ecstasies religious experiences during alternate states of
consciousness, together with whatever ideologies, ethics, rites, myths,
legends, and magic may be related to them.
Critical Point in mathematics of a differentiable function of a real or
variable, is any value in its domain where its derivative is 0. Some
authors include in the critical points the limit points where the function
may be prolongated by continuity and where the derivative is not defined.
For a differentiable function of
several real variables, a critical point is a value in its domain where
all partial derivatives are zero. The value of the function at a critical
point is a critical value.
Inflection Point is a point of a curve at which a change in the
direction of curvature occurs. A
point on a curve at which the curve changes from being concave
(concave downward) to convex (concave upward), or vice versa. A point
where the curvature vanishes but does not change sign is sometimes called
a point of undulation or undulation point. Inflection point in business is
a time of significant change in a situation or a
Detect is to
discover or to determine
the existence, presence, or fact of something.
Detection is the extraction
of particular information from a larger stream of information, or the
action or process of identifying the presence of something concealed.
wisdom that is recondite and abstruse and profound. Intellectual depth
or penetrating knowledge or a keen insight. The intellectual ability
to penetrate deeply into ideas. The quality of being physically deep.
Profound is showing intellectual
penetration or emotional depth of the greatest intensity. Complete
far-reaching and thoroughgoing in effect, especially on the nature of
something. Coming from deep within one.
Abstruse or Recondite is something
difficult to penetrate or incomprehensible to one of ordinary
understanding or knowledge.
Spanky's Story in the Little Rascals (1922 to 1944) (youtube)
Open-Mindedness is receptiveness to new ideas.
to the way in which people approach the views and knowledge of others, and
"incorporate the beliefs that others should be free to express their views
and that the value of others’ knowledge should be recognized." There are
various scales for the measurement of open-mindedness.
Relativism is the belief that
all criteria of judgment are relative to the
individuals and situations involved, but this is being narrow-mined and
Broaden your Horizons is to expand one's range of interests, activities, and
is the range of interest or activity that can be anticipated.
The line at which the sky
and Earth appear to meet. The great circle on the
celestial sphere whose
plane passes through the sensible horizon and the center of the Earth.
Self-Directed Learning -
Serendipity is the unexpected and fortunate discoveries, usually happening when
looking for something unrelated. Finding something nice while
looking for something else.
Luck is an unknown and unpredictable phenomenon that leads to a
Matter of Fact, in the
Human sense, is
the type of knowledge that can be characterized as arising out of one's
interaction with and experience in the external world (as compared to a
Relation of Ideas). In a Kantian framework, it is equivalent to the
synthetic a posteriori. Examples:-The sun will come out tomorrow. (Not
reason but habitual)-There are people outside the room. (One cannot know
what is outside one's own experience) How We Know:-It is impossible to
"know everything."-Depend upon The Principles of Induction and The
Uniformity of Nature. -Denying these do not lead to a contradiction.
Pretending to Know
"It aint what you don't know
that gets you into trouble, it's what you think you know for sure that
just aint so." ~
can be more damaging than having no knowledge at all. It's not just what
you don't know, but it's also what you think you know is true when in
reality it isn't true, that's what does most of the damage.
Know Enough or do you just Pretend that you Know Enough? How would you
Know? God Complex (ego).
"A fool thinks himself to be wise, but a wise man knows himself to be a fool."
“The most difficult subjects can
be explained to the most slow-witted man if he has not formed any idea of
them already; but the simplest thing cannot be made clear to the most
intelligent man if he is firmly persuaded that he knows already, without a
shadow of doubt, what is laid before him.”
Dunning Kruger Effect
- Most people live in a make believe world
where they pretend to know things.
“What we know
is a drop, what we don't know is an ocean.”―
Newton (1642-1727). - "What we know now is a lake, what we still don't
know is still an ocean." (2018). - You don't know
the Half of It.
People who pretend to know things, also
pretend to say things when they talk. If what
you know is vague, then what you say will also
be vague. If you talk vaguely and don't say anything definitive, this
means that your knowledge is vague and your thinking is vague. And think
all you want, but if you never educate yourself and learn about specific
subjects, as well as do some research and investigate things, you will
always be vague, and your life will be meaningless. If you don't know what
you mean, then you will never mean what you say. If you avoid asking the
right questions, then you will never have the right answers.
You can sense something is bad or wrong
before you even understand it or before you can even explain it, which
could be either bad or good. The only effective way for you to confirm
whether something is bad or good, is to learn why that something is bad or
good. Understanding something is a lot better than guessing what something
is or pretending to know what something is.
believe the lies that you tell yourself, you will never know the
truth. The only way to know
the truth is first admit that you don't know the whole truth. And then you
have to admit that you only know what you think you understand, which
becomes truth only when you have
verified with others who also think they know what they understand.
And we do this together with the understanding that this is only
what we know so far, and not what is
truly known, only what is known so far because we
admit that we still have a lot
more to learn. "Pretending that you're sick is just as bad as
that you're well." Making Up Stories
- Pretending is a
Defense Mechanism - Blame
People remain ignorant because people give
stupid excuses in a lame attempt that pretends to explain why they act so
stupid or think stupid things. All this does is encourage them to stay
ignorant. If you always pretend that you're right and pretend to be
correct, without proof or evidence, then you will never know when you're
wrong, which is extremely
risky behavior that makes you
all kinds of mistakes.
Too many people have no idea what's happening in their own
neighborhood or their own community. Too many people also don't know
what's happening in their own city, or their own state or in their own
country. And some people have no idea what's happening in their own family
or know their friends well enough to understand them on a personal level.
But this does not stop people from pretending to know things or stop them
form assuming things. People are pretending to know what's happening in
other countries without even understanding what's happening in their own
country. People say all kinds of things that they can't prove or confirm.
People have opinions on things that they don't understand or know well
enough. People don't have real
conversations or do people do any learning or research on their own.
People talk about scenarios that could happen but never explain them or
explain the fact that in order for that scenario to happen it would have
to have other things happening, things that they can't confirm or explain.
People don't want to listen, people don't want to learn, people don't want
to ask questions that would help them learn. What people want to do is to
pretend to know things that they don't understand. People want jump to
conclusions and make assumptions and have the illusion that they're smart
and that they're learning things. Asymptomatic
ignorance is when you are unaware of your ignorance, and you spread
your ignorance around so that you infect others with your ignorance who
have not been inoculated from ignorance.
Most people are unaware and have no idea just how
much they don't know about themselves and the world around them. And
people don't know that they don't know. And people will never understand
this if people keep pretending to know things and keep pretending to
understand things. And on top of that, too many people don't feel like
learning, and too many people don't feel the need to learn or
understand how important learning is.
This is one of the most serious problems that humans have. This is why
ancient civilizations have collapsed throughout human history and left
very little evidence on why they failed. And this time is no different. We
are in a mass extinction, and we can see it happening. Except this time we
have a chance to solve this problem. But only if everyone takes the
responsibility to learn what they need to do, and also learn about making
better choices. If our choices are made together and collectively, we can
restore and repair the damage that has been done and start rebuilding our
cites to prepare ourselves for the reality that is upon us and on future
Why do some people think they're smart?
One reason that people believe that they're smart is that people compare themselves
to other people who are not as
they are, which is
basically making a blind comparison. Since there's
measurement for intelligence, or a universal
definition for intelligence, the only accurate way to know how
intelligent you are, is to prove it yourself. And since
most intelligence tests only measure your potential to do smart things, you
will still have to do smart things,
and then prove why they're smart. And when that happens, we can confidently say that
you are definitely smart in that particular way, but only in that way, as far as we
know, because we don't want to make any
assumptions about how smart we think you really are.
We need an accurate way to measure
what people actually know, like the words and definitions of words in
their vocabulary and the physical laws of nature and so on. We need an
accurate way to measure what people think they know, like things they
believe are true but in reality they are not true or accurate or even
proven. We also need an accurate way to measure all the things that people
still don't know, things that will give them a better understanding of
themselves and a better understanding of the world around them. When we
accomplish this, people will no longer live in a
fantasy world and people will understand reality more accurately and
thus make better decisions and have better relationships.
Stranger is someone not personally known or
an individual that who you are not acquainted with or have never met
before. Anyone who does not belong in the environment in which they are
found. Being definitely out of the ordinary and unexpected; slightly odd
or even a bit weird. Relating to or originating in or characteristic of
another place or part of the world.
If you claim to have enough
knowledge, then you're admitting that you're ignorant, but you
will not know that you're ignorant. An
intelligent person would never claim to have enough knowledge, only state
the knowledge they have and say what they know. This is why intelligent
people always seek more knowledge and always learn as much as they can
about a particular subject or problem. In order to make good decisions
and understand things clearly enough, you always have to seek out more
knowledge and always learn as much as you can. Pretending to know enough
is a dangerous game. And the losers of this ignorant game are buried by
the thousands every single day. Over
150,000 People Die Everyday as the result of some form of ignorance.
Not many people die of old age anymore.
Know it All is someone who believes that they've got all the
answers to every question, even if the question hasn't been asked, or if
they really don't have the answer, but of course they believe they do.
This is not a shy individual, but rather someone whose ego is over flowing
primarily through their mouth, but seems to have come from the other end
of their digestive system.
Knowing it All is Impossible -
Knowing Something is Possible.
Mr. Know It All -
Kelly Clarkson (youtube) - Mr Know It All, Well ya think you know it
all, But ya don't know a thing at all, Ain't it something y'all, When
somebody tells you something bout you, Think that they know you more than
you do, So you take it down another pill to swallow.
Too Smart for your own Good is someone who
overconfident or cocky and believes that they know everything to the
point to where it can harm themselves or work against them. They believe
that they know something when they really don't, which could get them into
trouble. Too big for your britches.
Too many books are
fiction, too many TV shows are fiction,
too much news is fiction and too
many religions are fiction. Most people are not living in
reality, and they don't even know it. Too many
people find it easier to live in a fantasy
than in reality. When you live in a fantasy you don't have to listen to
anyone, you don't have to learn anything new, you don't have to
investigate or do any research. Too many people only have
vague ideas about themselves and the world. It seems that
pretending to know things is easier than
learning what the truth is. In a
fantasy, people can choose what they hear and only see things that agree
with their beliefs. They cherry pick
information that fits into their fantasy so they don't have to admit
that they are wrong, which makes them
feel good about
themselves in a vulnerable kind of way. They escape reality so much that they never truly live in
real life, which is a total waste of human life.
What's worse than pretending to
know something, is never having to educate yourself about the things that you're
not sure of. But even when you seek out information, you have to use
multiple sources, because there is nothing worse than learning the wrong
things. People can either mislead you, lie to you, or not tell you the
whole story. So educating yourself is not without risk. But staying
ignorant is the most riskiest thing that you can do to yourself and to the people
around you. So educating yourself is definitely worth the risk. If people
did not educate themselves throughout history, you would not be here, and
humans would not exist.
Fearing the Unknown
is a Contradiction. You can't be afraid of a possible anticipated
event that you have never defined. Unless you identify something and have
compared it to other possible events, it's not unknown anymore, it's just
one of a few possibilities that may or may not have greater odds of
happening. Besides that, being afraid of something that might happen is
not going to prepare you for when it does not happen. And pretending to
know what will happen will never prepare you for when something doesn't
happen, which means that something else happened, and what was that?
Something unknown? Or maybe something that you didn't care about or pay
attention to, because you're an idiot, which is not bad, it's just
something else that you need to consider. What if you're wrong? Are you
prepared to do what is right? And if being right is worse than being
wrong, then how can you be sure you're right? And how would you know?
These things need to be discussed.
People pretend to know something
because looking stupid is really
embarrassing for them. But the most
embarrassing thing is that a person will
stigmatize themselves just
because of their own ignorance, which is really ignorant. People should
just ask questions and stop
to a life of ignorance. Just say "I don't know, or say I need more
Out of Touch is
lacking knowledge or information concerning current events and
developments. Lacking in awareness or sympathy.
Losing Touch With Reality is when someone
sees things or hears things that are not really there, or understands
things that are not true.
To determine how
dysfunctional you are you first have to determine how functional
you are. That's like trying to figure out
how smart you are, which is not easy because intelligence is not totally defined
yet, with too much of your understanding being determined by your
own perception. The only way to determine intelligence is to
have an exact list of questions and problems that test your skills and
knowledge. How much intelligence does the IQ test really
determine? Very little because it's an overall test of skills and
knowledge and not an exact test of what makes a person
intelligent. Define intelligence, then define the test.
Harvard Takes the 1964 Louisiana Literacy Test (youtube) -
Page 1 -
Page 2 -
Page 3 - (The test was a
test in itself).
In one ear and out the other. Knowledge and
information is mostly abstract,
and if a person is unable to understand the message or unable to translate
the information being transmitted, then it will be like the message was
never sent, all because the receiver did not have the knowledge and skills
that are needed to decipher and detect that message. The person needs to
be able understand the message that the information is sending. Humans
have made amazing tools that allowed us to make incredible advancements
and increase our knowledge of the world. But the one tool we neglected was
the most incredible tool in the world, the human brain. No data can be
accurate when the
measuring devices can not be calibrated.
The human brain must be calibrated, so a standard of intelligence is
needed, something to compare ourselves
It Feels like I'm Talking to the Wall.
Education Sayings and Quotes.
It's not that unusual not to
understand something. Everyone is unaware of something in their life.
There's always some area of knowledge that a person lacks that will keep
them from understanding something in their life. People can't make changes
or make improvements in their life if they are not even aware that changes
can be made, or know how to make changes. People can suffer for years
before they realize that changes or improvements
need to happen, and many people will die never knowing that they could
have made a difference.
I thought for sure that I would make it,
but I guess I didn't plan it that well - I thought that I was aware
enough, but I guess I wasn't - I thought that I knew enough, but it turned
out that I didn't - I almost thought for a second that it would work out,
but then I realized how little I knew.
Not knowing that you don't
know something is when you're the most vulnerable to making deadly
mistakes. Not knowing that you know something is still not knowing.
Knowing that you don't know certain things is less vulnerable, but only
when you actively learn what you don't
know. Knowing that you know certain things is also less vulnerable, but
only when you actively learn and confirm what you think you know.
Remember that things are
can be transformative but certain knowledge can
also be toxic, especially when someone learns the wrong things at the
wrong time, or, does not learn enough in order to understand certain
knowledge effectively, which may lead to confusion and making mistakes.
Most people know words, but most people
don't fully understand the meaning of words
or the meaning of context. People might
know the definitions of words, but they can't fully comprehend the
layers of meaning within the
context of their message, which means that most people are not totally
aware of what they're saying or how other people understand what they're
saying. People need
to learn more about what they know and stop pretending what they think they know.
People have to stop assuming that they know what they're saying and stop
assuming that they understand a subject clearly enough in order to voice
an opinion, especially an opinion that may be misleading and confusing
instead of being informative. Everyone wants to look smart, but most
people don't want to be smart, because that would mean that people would
have to educate themselves and learn more, which is too much work for a
person to do. So it's easier to stay stupid, just as long nobody knows how
stupid you are. That's not human and that's not intelligent, that's
ignorance. Most people
mean well, it's just
that sometimes people don't know what they mean.
people only see the shadows on the walls and never see what makes the
Allegory of the Cave describes a group of people who have lived
chained to the wall of a cave all of their lives, facing a blank wall. The
people watch shadows projected on the wall from objects passing in front
of a fire behind them, and give names to these shadows. The shadows are
the prisoners' reality. There is a whole other world that people don't
see, and most are not even aware of this bigger reality. You have to be
able to see the whole picture
in order to see the whole of reality. But if
you never leave the cave, that prison for
your mind will keep you blind for life.
Observation Errors -
Knowledge Illusion: We are largely unaware of how little we
understand. We live with the belief that we understand more than we do.
When we know about something, we find it hard to imagine that someone else
doesn’t know it. We confuse the knowledge in our heads with the knowledge
we have access to. We live in a community of
knowledge and we fail to distinguish the knowledge that is in our
heads from the knowledge outside of it. We think the knowledge we have
about how things work sits inside our skulls when in fact we’re
drawing a lot of it from the environment and from other people. most of
what is in our heads is quite
What is it that fools people into believing that
they know enough about a particular subject? Is it that people don't even ask what's missing? If it
were easy for people to measure their intelligence level and skills level,
then people would be more aware of their potential, and more aware of what
they know and what they don't know. "You don't feel a brain full of
knowledge, it just works better. But you also don't feel a brain that is
lacking knowledge, and you don't realize whether your brain is working
good or not working good".
How are you supposed to know what you don't know? If things that
you don't know are invisible to you, then how are you supposed to see what
you don't know? You can't, until you learn what you don't know. But you have to
learn deliberately. You have to have an
idea of what you're looking for, and you have to have a plan, and you have to
have a goal. And the only way to know something, is to learn about
it. But the only way that you can learn about something is when you have
access to knowledge and information, along with the abilities and skills
to understand, and you also have to
learn the right things at the right time.
Intellectual Humility involves recognizing and owning our intellectual
limitations in the service of pursuing deeper knowledge, truth, and
understanding. often described as an intellectual virtue, along with other
perceived virtues such as open-mindedness, intellectual courage and
integrity, and in contrast to proposed intellectual vices, such as
pride and arrogance.
There are people who are very knowledgeable and who also know how
to use the English language fairly well. But they still don't know a lot
of things, and they don't even know it, especially the knowledge that
would give them the ability to understand themselves more accurately and
the ability to understand the world around them more effectively. If
people knew the knowledge that they were missing, they would definitely
want to learn those things, especially if they knew how valuable the
knowledge was and how damaging it is for them not to have certain
knowledge. When you're a teenager you can't wait to learn how to drive a
car, so you practice driving and you read and learn the rules of the road
so that you can pass the test to get your
drivers license. Now you can
drive a car all by yourself to almost anywhere you want. Well the same
thing goes for learning how to use the human brain, which also gives you
the freedom and the ability to go anywhere in life that you want, just as
long as you learn everything that you need to know,
so that you can pass the test for the human brain drivers
license, which will prove that you know enough to operate the most
powerful machine in the world, effectively and efficiently.
I wish I
knew then what I know now. Just to say that implies that you have
learned something recently that you wish you could have learned when you
were younger. If only you were more knowledgeable in your youth, you could
have made better decisions and not made so many mistakes. So what did you
learn? And what was the knowledge and information that you didn't have?
Was it not available? Was it that you did not have access to this
knowledge and information? So now that you have this knowledge and
information, how do you plan to pass it forward, or in this case, how do
you pass it backwards, meaning, how do you get this important knowledge
and information in the hands of young people? Everything that you have in
life and everything that you are in life, comes from the process of
transmitting information. So it seems
Ooh La La - The
Faces (Without A Paddle Soundtrack) (youtube) - I wish that I knew
what I know now, When I was younger, I wish that I knew what I know now,
When I was stronger.
Hindsight Bias, also known as the
knew-it-all-along effect or creeping determinism, is the
inclination, after an event has occurred, to see the event as having been
predictable, despite there having been little or no
objective basis for
understanding the nature of an event after it has happened.
Bounded Rationality is when the
decision-making of individuals
is limited by the information they have and by the cognitive limitations
of their minds, and the finite amount of time they have to make a
When you finally stop denying that
you're ignorant, that will be one of the best things that will ever happen
in your life, but also it will be one the worst things that will happen in your life,
because you now will realize how little you know about yourself and the
world around you, and you will also realize all the mistakes that you made
and all the time that you wasted. But at least now you're doing something about your ignorance.
So don't ignore the activity of learning, it is the holy grail.
Why don't you know what you've got Till it's gone?
Tending is to care for and
to look after
something important, and to manage the work of providing treatment.
care that is provided to
improve a situation by following procedures or applications that are
intended to relieve illness or injury.
Just don't think, Know. It's not what
you think, it's what you know. It's what you know for sure, and not what
you think you know. Know. "I almost learned something today." If
Ignorance of the Law is No Excuse, then ignorance of life is also no excuse.
You don't have to know everything,
but you do need to know the important stuff. There are good things that
you need to know, so you should know them. you don't have to know
everything, only know the things that matter most.
What you don't know is an abstract barrier where you're boxed in
and you can't see what's over the wall. But most people will not even try
to get out of the box, this is because they have no idea that they are in
a box. You will not know what anything is until you start asking
questions. Stop pretending to know and start tending to know what is
known. Tending is your responsibility to learn and progress.
"I am so clever that sometimes I don't understand a single word of what I am saying."
"You're smart, it's just that your understanding of the world is not totally accurate, or complete."
"There are known knowns; there are things we know we
know. We also know there are known unknowns; that is to say we know there
are some things we do not know. But there are also unknown unknowns — the
ones we don't know we don't know." This was quoted by
Donald Rumsfeld when he was coming up with lame excuses for why mistakes
where made, basically saying "you can't handle the truth", especially
when it exposes incompetence,
corruption, so here's
some gibberish instead.
Congressional Hearings where people testify are mostly for show.
questions are never asked and most answers are never given. They just play
dumb go through it. This is not
Just about following orders, this is
human behavior at its worst and an blatant attack on
Blatant is doing something without any
attempt at concealment and doing something completely obvious and
"Be careful who you call an
Intellectual because intellectuals are not always
intelligent, they have mostly been schooled, thus they are most
likely to be still ignorant and very vulnerable to corruption."
Intellectual Dark Web?
"All concepts are dependent on
consciousness to know them."
"What is essential is invisible to the eye."
Antoine de Saint-Exupery.
What is that?
When something is unidentified to you, you need more
Unidentified is something unknown or
unnamed or unfamiliar where you are unable to use previous knowledge and
information to correlate any connection with something that is new to you.
Unfamiliar is something not known or
Foreign or Alien is
something not belonging to that in which it is contained and introduced
from an outside source.
something out of the ordinary and unexpected and slightly odd or even a
bit weird. Something that is not known before and
does not seem to be
originating or characteristic of this place or part of the world that you
You can't understand something when
you don't have the knowledge and information that's needed to understand
it. Things will only exist in your mind when you have the knowledge that
proves something exists. There for, things will not exist or be known
to you until you learn about its existence. If people cannot understand
the importance of learning, then people will never learn anything
important, and they will never know that because that knowledge does not
exist in their mind. You don't know what you don't know, so you will never
know what you don't know, or know what you can know. So remember, you
can't know what you don't know until you learn what you don't know. The
Key is learning.
How do you get people to know what they don't
know? By using all communication technologies effectively and
efficiently. We are only using 10%.
Do you know enough about yourself? Do you
know enough about the
What do you know? And, is it
enough? I know enough to get buy, but what is enough? And what
is getting buy mean? You can't even get buy these questions, so how
could you know enough? Can you explain what you know? And if so,
how could it be enough? Some people just don't want to
Learn, so they
pretend that they know enough, or, they did not know enough to
begin with, so they don't even know what they don't know. I
know. I know that I don't know everything.
But the more I know,
the more of everything is possible. "I almost know a lot of
things." Keep Reading.
Do you know the Basics?
Do you know enough about a particular subject in order to perform a
particular task? Do you know what
Do you know what
What is there to
Do you understand what Learning
is? Do you know what Living in
Denial is? Do you know why there's a
Could you know too much?
You need to Have an Open
Mind. And you need to be able to Expand your Mind
and Broaden your Horizons.
Curse of Knowledge is the inability of
more informed individual to think about the problems from the perspective
of lesser informed individuals.
"Don't believe everything you
"Get Rid of Everything that you Think you Know."
"I wouldn't say that there is Limits to
Knowledge, what I would say is that there is definitely limits
to the Lack of Knowledge."
Absolute Idealism asserts that in order for the thinking subject
(human reason or consciousness) to be able to know its object (the world)
at all, there must be in some sense an identity of thought and being.
Otherwise, the subject would never have access to the object and we would
have no certainty about any of our knowledge of the world. To account for
the differences between thought and being, however, as well as the
richness and diversity of each, the unity of thought and being cannot be
expressed as the abstract identity "A=A". Absolute idealism is the attempt
to demonstrate this unity using a new "speculative" philosophical method,
which requires new concepts and rules of logic.
Freedom begins when one says with Socrates that he knows that he knows
nothing, and then goes on to add: Do you know what you don’t know and
therefore what you should know? If your answer is affirmative and humble,
then you are your own teacher, you are making your own assignment, and you
will be your own best critic. You will not need externally imposed
courses, nor marks, nor diplomas, nor a nod from your boss . . . in
business or in politics." -
Scott Buchanan (wiki).
People Need to Stop
Pretending that they Know and stop pretending that they understand certain things. This
people from learning. But it doesn't stop people from expressing their
opinions that do more harm then good. Believing that you know something that isn't true
can do a lot of
damage. Pretending that you
understand something is one of the most damaging things that you can do to
yourself. It's more then just wrong and illogical, it's a self
inflicted learning disability. Not only will you will suffer from your own
assumptions, but other people will suffer as well.
Once you stop learning, you stop living. So instead of accelerating
towards life, you accelerate towards death, like a cancer. You have to
first admit that your ignorant in order to start the process of
Assumptions - Biased -
Don't Know the Half of It." "Do you know how the
Stop Pretending you Know. If you never realize your own
ignorance and never admit how much you still don't know and how much you
still need to learn and understand, then you will be ignorant for the rest
of your life, and that is a complete waste of human intelligence, which is
also a complete waste of human potential and human energy.
you call it thinking when you never ask
questions and never seek
answers and never confirm the things you think you know, that's not
thinking, that's rumination,
which is like a
hamster wheel,, your moving, but you're not getting anywhere.
Every person on earth makes the same mistake of
believing that they have learned enough, and that the knowledge they have
gives them full understanding of themselves and the world around them. But
trying to figure out what you don't know is not that easy. And you must
have access to the knowledge that you need, and some guidance to navigate
through the worlds accumulated knowledge that has been collected in the
last 2,000 years or so. People naively believe that they are learning
enough because they watch the news and do some reading. Well your wrong,
you are not learning enough. Read BK101 and you will begin to learn
Everybody Knows - Leonard Cohen (youtube) - sadly the fact is,
everyone doesn't know.
need to see the light and free yourself from the darkness of ignorance.
Intelligence is just a natural progression. To embrace Intelligence is to
Not understanding someone
is worse than being deaf. You know that the person is speaking
words, but you have no idea what the words mean. It's as if someone was
speaking a different language. If you don't have the necessary knowledge,
information and skills that's needed to understand something, you will not
understand it. Ignorance causes a deafening silence in the brain, and you
will not even notice the silence. The only way to be aware of this silence
is to admit that you do not know something.
And the only way to understand something, is to learn about what that
something is. The worst thing that you can do, is to pretend that you know
something. The second worst thing that you can do is not wanting to learn.
can say that you don't know how to speak a particular language. And you
can confirm this by trying to speak a language that you never learned how
to speak. You can also say that you don't know enough about yourself and
the world around you. But you don't know what you are supposed to know.
And that is where all human problems begin and persist. But what if you
had access to knowledge and information that you are supposed to know?
Would you want to know things that would give you a better understanding
of yourself and the world around you? Most people would. And now most
people can. BK101.
The best thing that you can do
is to keep asking questions and stop pretending that you have all the
answers. Knowing that you are a moron is a good thing, because now you
have the ability to educate yourself, and thus stop being a moron and
start becoming more intelligent.
What if your goal
is to learn how to be intelligent? Then you would
have learn what being intelligence is. Then you would have to
learn what learning is. Then you would have learn what
knowledge is. And then learn what
information is. And then you would have
learn what language is. And so on and so on. But you
have to start learning, and you have to stay
faithful and devoted to learning.
If finding out that you were
ignorant about something makes you feel bad, then that's a good thing,
because ignorance should never feel good. The only time that ignorance
should feel good is when you finally learned to over come it.
Every person alive today carries the ignorance of
their generation, and that is a sad fact. Education needs to be
about correcting all our ignorance instead of perpetuating our ignorance.
Ignorance is making reincarnation look like a bad thing, like it's just
another death sentence. Human life is incredibly amazing, and if everyone
were intelligent, then human life would be a million times better.
Intelligence is a natural progression, so we can't allow ignorance to slow
it down. Ignorance is not natural like
disease, and we can cure diseases, so we can cure ignorance, which
would cure all diseases.
We use only 10% of
our Brains, the other 90% of our brain power is not utilized
effectively, that's because humans don't have the necessary knowledge and
information that would help them utilize the human brains full power and
capabilities. And the reason why humans don't have the necessary knowledge
and information is because our
Schools, Universities only teach students 10% of what is known in the
world, the other 90% of what is known is not being transmitted. This is
why people use only 10%
of communication technology effectively, the other 90% is used for
entertainment, advertising and
propaganda. When we have schools that teach students 99% of the human
knowledge that is known, then humans will use 99% of their brain power,
and also use technologies 99% more effectively.
"I have a
question that I'm not
going to ask you. I am just going to pretend that you don't know the
answer to that question that I never asked you so that I can continue to
pretend to know something that you don't."
"knowing what to do is
just as important as knowing what not to do."
"Most people do not have enough
information and knowledge in order to be fully aware of
themselves or the world around them. So people never fully
understand the options or the choices that they have, or what
better decisions they could be making."
"People don't think stuff
through far enough to fully understand." "Think Twice"
"You don't know what
you don't know until you know what you did not know."
"If there's one thing
that I have learned, it's that I still have a lot to learn."
"The most damaging lies
are the ones we tell ourselves."
"One of the most important things
that a person should know is that there will always be more that they
still don't know. knowing that you don't know everything will always be
better then believing that you know everything. You will never get through
a locked door unless you have a key, and the key is knowledge."
"Know one could have all the answers, but the more answers you do have, the better off you will be."
"There is more information in your
DNA in just one tiny microscopic
cell in your body, then you have in your entire brain. But not for long. (BK101).
Some people are not smarter then you, some
people just learned a little more about certain things then you. Things that you
can also learn. So people who have more knowledge and
information then you are not smarter then you, they just seem
smarter, only because you stopped learning or you didn't have
access to the knowledge and information that you need in order
to better understand yourself and the world around you. Just
keep learning a little each day.
How will you add yesterdays learning to
today? And how will you add todays learning to the future?
Learning needs progression, if knowledge becomes
fragmented, then it becomes less
You can't be any more than
what you know,
but you can definitely be less than what you know, because you
may have forgotten important things that you have learned.
the more you know the better. But you have to choose your
knowledge wisely, and you have to learn something new everyday,
if not, then you will have wasted a day. And if you miss too
many days, your development and progress will almost come to a
complete stop. You have to understand the potential that
knowledge gives you, but you also have to understand that
potential energy comes from action, and that action is called
learning. But you have to know what to learn
and when to learn it, otherwise, information and knowledge
becomes fragmented, and unable to be utilized collectively. So
you will not know enough to piece together a full understanding
of yourself, or the world.
"You can be more then what you know,
but not knowing that you are more then what you know, will never
be as good as knowing that you are more then what you know."
"What I think and what I know are two different things."
The More I See The Less I Know means that
the more you examine and observe the world, the more you will realize how
little you know about the world. Even though you learn more about the
world and become more knowledgeable, you will also at the same time,
realize how much you still don't know about the world. The good news is,
you know more, and you also know that there is a lot more to learn. So the
most important thing that you learned is that you will
stop assuming and stop pretending to know
things that you know little about.
Stupid Girl -
Garbage (youtube January 22, 1996) - You pretend you're high, Pretend
you're bored, Pretend you're anything, Just to be adored, And what you
need, Is what you get.
that you are educated does not mean that you are
competent, intelligence or even
fully aware of yourself and the world around you. Being educated just
means that you went to some type of school or institution. The only way to
measure if you are competent, intelligence and aware, is to have a test
that proves that you have these abilities. A test that can't be faked or
manipulated. No multiple choice or yes or no answers. The test will have
written or verbal explanations with witnesses present during the test.
Practice testing will be available so that you can study and prepare for
the test. The final test will be a confirmation that accurately measures
your abilities and that you fully understand yourself and the world around
you. And in doing so,
you are ready to take on the world.
Videos About Intelligent People
My Brilliant Brain - Make Me a Genius (Episode 1) (video).
Science Specials - Beautiful Minds (youtube)
Season 1 Episode 86 | Aired on 01/28/2015 | TV-G | 2 hr. 17 min.
The Genius in All of Us, David Shenk (video)
(not fora tv).
you Teach Multiple Intelligences (youtube).
NatGeo "My Brilliant Brain" featuring Susan Polgar (youtube)
Phenomenon (film, 1996) - On his birthday, mechanic George Malley (John
Travolta) sees a flash of light and proceeds to exhibit extraordinary
mental abilities. He becomes a genius, even showing an ability to move
objects with his mind. George wishes to help people, but the government
wants to take him in for observation.
recruited by Georgia Tech (youtube) - Caleb Anderson - the young
Marietta, Georgia genius, who by nine months knew sign language; was
reading at age one; and at age two, knew how to do fractions - has toured
Georgia Tech with his parents, visited the labs and met the school’s
president, Ángel Cabrera. 12 years old, has already been studying
aero-space engineering for a year, and now an elite engineering school is
enthusiastically recruiting him.
Related Subjects -
Problem Solving -
Self-Directed Learning -
Knowledge Management -
Information Literacy -
Parallel Computing -
(light) - Global Brain -
Swarm Intelligence (collective) -
Measuring Intelligence Potential - Brain Function
Intelligence Tests and
Aptitude Tests will vary depending on the skills that you
need to have assessed or measured. Most tests
are intended to assess a variety of mental abilities,
skills and someone's understanding
of basic principles.
Types of Intelligence - Words that
describe Intelligence - IQ Test
Intelligence tests are more about measuring your
ability to be intelligent than they are about measuring
intelligence. That's because many things contribute to being
Intelligence tests are more about measuring your
ability to be intelligent than they are about measuring
intelligence. That's because many things contribute to being intelligent.
The only real intelligence test so far is life itself, which is measured
in many different ways, like how good of a person you are, your
accomplishments, your impact on the world, the choices you made, how well
you lived your life, your input to output ratio based on how much you took
from the world and how much you gave back to the world, and so on and so on. This is
why tests should have real life examples. This way people could actually
apply the skills that they learned to real life situations and see and
experience the benefits for themselves. This would help reaffirm the
accuracy of the tests, and also help update the tests if the feedback
reveals any errors in the test that need to be improved.
If you're going to measure a persons ability to see
then a person should be able to recognize patterns of corruption, patterns
of abuse, patterns of behavior, patterns of propaganda, and not just patterns of shapes.
Knowing how to count doesn't matter if you never
count the things that matter.
High IQ might say that you can
learn most things faster and that you can be easily trained, but it
does not say that you will learn the right things at the right time, or
that you will become good at doing something that is measurably valuable
and beneficial to the world. You have potential like everyone else, it
will be how you use that potential that will determine how intelligent you
Self-Test of Intelligence is a
psychological test that someone can
take to measure one's own intelligence. A self-test of intelligence
normally consists of a series of verbal and non-verbal intellectual tasks
and puzzles. These tests usually give the taker instructions on how to
complete the tasks and offer a performance score after the test has been
completed. These self-tests can be performed in various ways that are
quick, easy, and can be done at home or on the go. Web sites on the
internet, apps for mobile devices, and one or more books are popular
choices for taking these tests. There are two ways that one can look at
intelligence: either as an innate,
intrinsic, static characteristic of a
person; or as a characteristic that is acquired which can be influenced by
the environment and that can be improved on. These opposing points of view
are part of a more general nature vs. nurture (or hereditarianism vs.
environmentalist) debate that dates back to Ancient Greeks like Plato and
Aristotle. Implicit theories of intelligence can be at the basis of the
chosen point of view, and whether or not the results of a self-test of
intelligence are considered definitive or can be improved upon may depend
on this. Self-tests of intelligence can contribute to the self-assessed
intelligence (SAI) of a person, where SAI can be defined as people's
estimates of their cognitive abilities in relation to the overall
population. Words that Describe Intelligence.
Neuro-Psychological Test are specifically designed tasks used to
measure a psychological function known to be linked to a particular brain
structure or pathway. Tests are used for research into brain function and
in a clinical setting for the diagnosis of deficits. They usually involve
the systematic administration of clearly defined procedures in a formal
environment. Neuropsychological tests are typically administered to a
single person working with an examiner in a quiet office environment, free
from distractions. As such, it can be argued that neuropsychological tests
at times offer an estimate of a person's peak level of cognitive
performance. Neuropsychological tests are a core component of the process
of conducting neuropsychological assessment, along with personal,
interpersonal and contextual factors. Most neuropsychological tests in
current use are based on traditional psychometric theory. In this model, a
person's raw score on a test is compared to a large general population
normative sample, that should ideally be drawn from a comparable
population to the person being examined. Normative studies frequently
provide data stratified by age, level of education, and/or ethnicity,
where such factors have been shown by research to affect performance on a
particular test. This allows for a person's performance to be compared to
a suitable control group, and thus provide a fair assessment of their
current cognitive function.
Trail Making Test is a neuropsychological test of visual attention and
task switching. It consists of two parts in which the subject is
instructed to connect a set of 25 dots as quickly as possible while still
maintaining accuracy. The test can provide information about visual search
speed, scanning, speed of processing, mental flexibility, as well as
Mensa Brain Test -
Thurstone Test of Mental Alertness
Implicit Association Test is a measure within social
psychology designed to detect the strength of a person's automatic
association between mental representations of objects (concepts) in
General Knowledge Test or Bochum Knowledge Test is comprised of over
300 questions from various fields of knowledge such as art and
architecture or biology and chemistry.
IQ Test - Intelligence Quotient
IQ = MA/CA x 100
Mental Age (MA) to
Chronological Age (CA) multiplied by 100). (Score/Age
Quotient is the ratio of two quantities to be
Quotient is a total score derived from several
designed to assess skills like
recognition and analogies that
are mathematical, verbal, spatial
and visual. Scores from intelligence tests are
estimates of intelligence and cannot prove that a person can
interpret patterns that happen in
The number of questions in an
IQ test varies. Some IQ tests contains several hundred questions
and takes between 60 and 90 minutes to complete.
The Wechsler Suite of
Instruments consists of 15 different subtests; there are 3 different
Wechsler scales: one for pre-schoolers, one for children and one for
adults. Each subtest measures a different cognitive ability. Some subtests
are relatively short with about 10 items (questions) and some are rather
long at 25 items. One of the longest subtests with about 50 items is
speeded which means that there’s a short time limit (2 minutes) where
hardly anyone gets finished when the time is called.
Admissions Test is actually two tests. Scoring at or above 98 percent
on either or both tests qualifies for admission. The first test consists
of 50 questions and test-takers are given 12 minutes to complete as many
questions as they can. The second test consists of seven sections. (68% of
people get within 15 points of 100 IQ).
The types of questions that might be found on an
IQ test are: Analogies (mathematical and verbal), Pattern driven
(spatial and mathematical), Classification, Visual, Spatial and Logical.
(Verbal Reasoning Skills, Working Memory Skills, Visual Spatial skills)
Intelligence - Competence -
School Exams (entry test)
- Competency Evaluations
Advanced IQ Test (PDF) -
Intelligence Exercise Tests-Philip Carter (PDF)
A 7 year old
has an IQ of 170. A 27 year old has an IQ of 160. Is the 7 year old more
intelligent than the 27 year old?
IQ is just a measure of your
become intelligent. Lets say that you have an IQ of 150, that means you
have a 75% chance of becoming intelligent. An IQ of 100 would mean that
you have 50% chance of becoming intelligent. And if you keep education
yourself, then your potential and your IQ will always increase.
Classification is the practice by IQ test publishers of
labeling IQ score ranges with category names such as "superior" or
"average". There are several publishers of tests of cognitive abilities.
No two publishers use exactly the same classification labels, which have
changed from time to time since the beginning of intelligence testing in
the early twentieth century.
IQ Research (PDF).
is the substantial and long-sustained increase in both fluid and
crystallized intelligence test scores measured in many parts of the world
from roughly 1930 to the present day. When intelligence
quotient (IQ) tests are initially standardized using a sample of
test-takers, by convention the average of the test results is set to 100
and their standard deviation is set to 15 or 16 IQ points. When IQ tests
are revised, they are again standardized using a new sample of
test-takers, usually born more recently than the first. Again, the average
result is set to 100. However, when the new test subjects take the older
tests, in almost every case their average scores are significantly above
Ragnar Frisch Center for Economic Research in Norway did a survey of
Norwegian men born between 1962 and 1991. They found that for those who
were born between 1962 and 1975, IQ scores gained nearly three percentage
points each decade. However, the IQs of those born
after 1975 declined. "The causes in IQ increases over time and now
the decline is due to environmental factors. A person's
eating habits, changes in the
education system, and
Toxins in the Environment,
lowered a persons IQ more than
genetics. There was not only a considerable variance in IQ between
parents and their offspring, but also a variance in siblings born to the
Flynn effect and its reversal are both environmentally caused.
Mental Age looks at how a specific child, at a specific
age performs intellectually, compared to average
intellectual performance for that physical age, measured in years. The
physical age of the child is compared to the intellectual performance of
the child, based on performance in tests and live assessments by a
psychologist. Scores achieved by the child in question are compared to
scores in the middle of a bell curve for children of the same age.
However, mental age varies according to what kind of intelligence is
measured. A child's intellectual age can be average for his physical age
but the same child's emotional intelligence can be immature for his
physical age. In this psychologists often remark girls are more
emotionally mature than boys in the tween years. Also, a six-year-old
child intellectually gifted in Piaget terms can remain a three-year-old
child in terms of emotional maturity. Mental age was once considered a
Mental Chronometry is the use of response time in perceptual-motor
tasks to infer the content, duration, and temporal sequencing of cognitive
Educational Quotient is a score designed to assess a subject's
of general education. Though related to intelligence quotient, there is no
direct correlation between the two. A person of high IQ, may have a low EQ,
and vice versa. A person's EQ is generally found by dividing the results
of their Wide Range Achievement Test by their IQ and multiplying by 100,
or by dividing their Education Age by their Chronological Age and
multiplying by 100.
Cognition - Mental Abilities
is defined as the ability of an individual to perform the various mental
activities most closely associated with learning and
Examples include verbal,
ability. Cognition mainly refers to things like memory, the ability to
learn new information, speech,
understanding of written material.
Cognition is the mental action or
process of acquiring
knowledge and understanding through thought,
experience, and the
It encompasses processes such as knowledge,
attention, memory and
memory, judgment and evaluation,
reasoning and "computation",
solving and decision making,
comprehension and production of
Neuroscience - Thinking -
Executive Functions - Psychological Evaluation
Cognitive Abilities -
Researchers Develop New Tool to Assess Individual’s Level of Wisdom.
Cognizant is having or showing
knowledge or understanding
or having a realization or having
How cognitive intelligence is a whole brain phenomenon. Intelligence
not only involves grey matter, but
also white matter, the brain's wiring
Revolution was an intellectual movement that began in the 1950's as an
interdisciplinary study of the mind and its processes, which became known
collectively as cognitive
science. The relevant areas of interchange were between the fields
of psychology, anthropology, and
linguistics using approaches
developed within the then-nascent fields of artificial intelligence,
computer science, and neuroscience. A key goal of early cognitive
psychology was to apply the scientific method to the study of human
cognition by designing experiments that used computational models of
intelligence to systematically test theories about human mental
processes in a controlled laboratory setting.
Faculty is one of the inherent
cognitive or perceptual
powers of the mind.
Psychology is the study of mental processes such as "attention,
language use, memory,
thinking". Much of the work
derived from cognitive psychology has been integrated into various other
modern disciplines of psychological study, including
developmental psychology, and
People can pass a cognitive
test and prove that they can recognize shapes
But the test does not prove if person knows right from
wrong or understands what's
good and what's bad. You
can prove that a person can count, but you're not proving if they can
count the things that matter. You can
prove that a person can recognize things, but you can't prove if they make
up their own interpretation of what
those things are or what they mean, or know how to
use them effectively and efficiently.
Flexibility as been described as the mental ability to switch between
thinking about two different concepts, and to think about
simultaneously. Cognitive flexibility is usually described as one of
Executive Functions. Two subcategories of cognitive flexibility are
task switching and cognitive shifting, depending on whether the change
happens unconsciously or consciously, respectively.
Can’t Switch Your Focus? Your Brain Might Not Be Wired for It.
Cognitive Fluidity is combining different ways of processing knowledge
and using tools to create a modern civilization. Arriving at
original thoughts that are often
highly creative and rely on metaphors
and analogies. Cognitive fluidity is a key element of the human
Cognitive Shifting is the mental process of consciously
one's attention from one fixation
to another. In contrast, if this process happened unconsciously, then it
is referred to as task switching. Both are forms of cognitive flexibility.
Task Switching in psychology is an executive function that involves
the ability to unconsciously shift attention between one task and another.
In contrast, cognitive shifting is a very similar executive function, but
it involves conscious (not unconscious) change in attention. Together,
these two functions are subcategories of the broader cognitive flexibility
concept. Task switching allows a person to rapidly and efficiently adapt
to different situations. It is often studied by cognitive and experimental
psychologists, and can be tested experimentally using tasks like the
Wisconsin Card Sorting Test.
Quick thinking? It's all down to timing. New insights into neuronal
behavior in the brain may pave way to identifying learning disabilities.
Synaptic plasticity, which underlies
learning and memory, involves the strengthening and weakening of synapses.
This process is affected by the relative timing of spikes in electrical
activity in the pre- and postsynaptic neurons. Researchers have now found
that, when both spikes occur simultaneously (or within tens of
milliseconds of each other), the synapses were strengthened for up to 4
hours. These findings could impact research in conditions with impaired
learning and memory.
Embodied cognitive science is an interdisciplinary field of research,
the aim of which is to explain the mechanisms underlying intelligent
behavior. It comprises three main methodologies: 1) the modeling of
psychological and biological systems in a
holistic manner that
considers the mind and
body as a single entity, 2) the
formation of a common set of general principles of intelligent behavior,
and 3) the experimental use of robotic agents in controlled environments.
Embodied cognition is the theory that many features of cognition,
whether human or otherwise, are shaped by
aspects of the entire body of
the organism. Abstract -
Body effects the Mind.
Cognitive Tests are assessments of the cognitive capabilities of
humans and other animals. Tests administered to humans include various
forms of IQ tests; those administered to animals include the mirror test
(a test of visual self-awareness) and the T maze test (which tests
learning ability). Such study is important to research concerning the
philosophy of mind and psychology, as well as determination of human and
Abilities Test intended to estimate students' learned reasoning and
problem solving abilities through a battery of verbal, quantitative, and
nonverbal test items.
Monitoring Cognitive Functioning: Psychometric Properties of the Brief
Test of Adult Cognition by Telephone (BTACT). Assessment of cognitive
functioning is an important component of telephone surveys of health.
Previous cognitive telephone batteries have been limited in scope with a
primary focus on dementia screening. The Brief
Test of Adult Cognition by Telephone assesses multiple dimensions
central for effective functioning across adulthood: episodic memory,
working memory, reasoning, verbal fluency, and executive function. The
BTACT is the first instrument which includes measures of processing speed,
reaction time, and task switching/inhibitory control for use over the
telephone. Variety and consistency are essential to keep the mind healthy.
The well-known adage 'use it or lose it' is
just as important in your 30's as it is in older adults. But it's how you
stay active that most impacts cognitive decline. cognitive functioning was
assessed using the Brief Test of Adult Cognition by Telephone (BTACT)
battery, which measures multiple dimensions of cognition, including
working memory span, verbal fluency, attention, speed of processing,
reasoning and verbal memory. Previous studies have examined how activity
variety and frequency impact cognition. This is the first study to prove
activity consistency is also essential, regardless of age.
Mild Cognitive Impairment is a
neurological disorder that occurs in older adults which involves
cognitive impairments with minimal impairment in instrumental activities
of daily living. MCI involves the onset and evolution of cognitive
impairments beyond those expected based on an individual's age and
education, but which are
not significant enough to interfere with her or his daily activities. It
may occur as a transitional stage between normal aging and
dementia. The specific etiology
of the disorder remains unclear, as well as its prevention and treatment.
(also known as incipient dementia and isolated memory impairment).
scientifically based tool to measure and improve cognitive performance.
G Factor in Psychometrics is a construct developed in psychometric
investigations of cognitive abilities and human intelligence. It is a
variable that summarizes positive correlations among different cognitive
tasks, reflecting the fact that an individual's performance on one type of
cognitive task tends to be comparable to that person's performance on
other kinds of cognitive tasks. The g factor typically accounts for 40 to
50 percent of the between-individual performance differences on a given
cognitive test, and composite scores ("IQ scores") based on many tests are
frequently regarded as estimates of individuals' standing on the g factor.
The terms IQ, general intelligence, general cognitive ability, general
mental ability, or simply intelligence are often used interchangeably to
refer to this common core shared by cognitive tests. The g factor targets
a particular measure of general intelligence. (also known as general
intelligence, general mental ability or general intelligence factor).
Cognitive Tests -
Cognitive Abilities - Cognitive Failures
Light Labs quantify speech and language patterns to help
monitor cognitive and mental diseases.
Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities is a set of intelligence
tests administered to children from age two right up to the oldest adults
(with norms utilizing individuals in their 90s).
Numerical Reasoning: Quantitative Reasoning, Participants must
determine numerical sequences and determine a two-dimensional numerical
pattern. Concept Formation: Induction,
Participants must identify rules that make up geometric figures after
being exposed to concepts. Analysis Synthesis:
General Sequential Reasoning, Participants must analyze the structure of
an incomplete logic puzzle and solve the missing parts.
Block Rotation: Mental rotation,
Visualization, Participants must choose geometric designs that match
another design which have been physically rotated to a different position.
Spatial Relations: Participants must select
the component parts of whole shape. Pattern
Recognition: Visual Memory, Participants must study five images,
remember them and recognize them in a larger set of other arranged images.
Visual Matching: Perceptual Speed,
Participants must quickly find and circle two identical numbers in a row
of six numbers in 3 minutes. Decision Speed:
Mental Comparison Speed, Participants must quickly analyze a row of images
and mark two images that are the most closely related in 3 minutes.
Cross out: Perceptual Speed & Rate of Test
Taking, Participants must mark drawings that are identical to the first
drawing in the row in 3 mins. Rapid Picture
Naming: Naming Facility, Participants must quickly name a series of
pictures as fast as possible. Retrieval Fluency:
Ideational Fluency, Participants must state as many words from specified
categories as possible in 1 minute. Visual
Auditory Learning: Delayed, Associative Memory, Participants must
recall and relearn (after a 30-minute to 8-day delay) symbols presented in
Visual-Auditory Learning. Memory For Names:
Associative Memory, Participants must remember an increasingly large
number of names of novel cartoon characters. Sound
Blending: Phonetic Coding Synthesis, Participants must listen to a
series of individual syllables, individual phonemes, or both that form
words and name the complete words. Incomplete
Words: Phonetic Coding Analysis, Participants must listen to words
with one or more phonemes missing and name the complete words.
Sound Patterns: Speech Sound
Discrimination, Participants must indicate whether pairs of complex sound
patterns are the same or different. The patterns may differ in pitch,
rhythm, or sound content. Auditory Working Memory:
Working Memory, Participants must listen to a mixed series of words and
digits and then to rearrange them by first saying the words in order and
then the numbers. Numbers Reversed: Working
Memory, Participants must repeat a series of random numbers backward.
Memory For Words: Memory Span, Participants
must repeat lists of unrelated words in the correct sequence.
Memory For Sentences: Memory Span,
Participants must repeat complete sentences.
Picture Vocabulary: Lexical Knowledge, Participants must name
familiar and unfamiliar pictured objects. Verbal
Comprehension: Language Development & Lexical Knowledge,
Participants must name familiar and unfamiliar pictured objects and then
say words similar in meaning to word presented, say words that are
opposites in meaning to the word presented, and complete phrases with
words that complete analogies. General
Information: Participants must provide characteristics of objects
by responding to questions, such as “Where you would find . . .?” and
“What you would do with . . .? Academic Knowledge:
General Information, Participants must provide information about
biological and physical sciences, history, geography, government,
economics, art, music, and literature. Oral
Comprehension: Listening Ability, Participants must listen to a
short passage and orally supply the word missing at the end of the
passage. Story Recall: Listening Ability,
Participants must listen to a short passage and describe the details.
Verbal attention: Working memory capacity,
Participants must listen to a series of numbers and animal words mixed
together and answer questions regarding the sequence.
Number series: Quantitative reasoning,
Participants have to identify the correct number in a series of number
that correctly completed the series. Ex. (2,4,?,8,10.....).
Letter-Pattern Matching: Perceptual speed,
Participants must quickly find and circle identical letters and patterns.
Visualization: Mental rotation,
Visualization, Participants must identify two sets of 2D pieces that form
a specific shape. Participants must also identify two sets of 3D rotated
blocks that match another shape. Phonological
Processing: Phonetic coding, Word fluency, Participants must name
words that beings with a certain sound. Participants must also use parts
of words to create new ones. Nonword Repetition:
Phonetic coding, Participants must listen to a nonsense word and repeat
the word exactly. Segmentation: Phonetic
coding, Participants must listen to words and break it into syllables and
Four Stages of Competence is the process of progressing from
incompetence to competence in a skill.
Unconscious Incompetence: The individual does not understand or
know how to do something and does not necessarily recognize the deficit.
They may deny the usefulness of the skill. The individual must recognize
their own incompetence, and the value of the new skill, before moving on
to the next stage. The length of time an individual spends in this stage
depends on the strength of the stimulus to learn.
Conscious Incompetence: Though the
individual does not understand or know how to do something, he or she does
recognize the deficit, as well as the value of a new skill in addressing
the deficit. The making of mistakes can be integral to the learning
process at this stage.
Conscious Competence: The individual understands or knows how to do something. However,
demonstrating the skill or knowledge requires concentration. It may be
broken down into steps, and there is heavy conscious involvement in
executing the new skill.
Unconscious Competence: The individual has had so much practice with a skill that it has become
"second nature" and can be performed easily. As a result, the skill can be
performed while executing another task. The individual may be able to
teach it to others, depending upon how and when it was learned.
Competence (employment skills)
Army Alpha a systematic method of evaluating the intellectual and
emotional functioning of soldiers. The test measured "verbal ability,
numerical ability, ability to follow directions, and knowledge of
information". Scores on the Army Alpha were used to determine a soldier's
capability of serving, his job classification, and his potential for a
leadership position. Soldiers who were illiterate or foreign speaking
would take the Army Beta, the nonverbal equivalent of the exam.
Wonderlic Test is a popular group intelligence test used to assess the
aptitude of prospective employees for learning and problem-solving in a
range of occupations. The Wonderlic is available in 12 different languages
and is often used in college, entry level jobs, and team-making efforts.
It consists of 50 multiple choice questions to be answered in 12 minutes.
The test was developed by Eldon F. Wonderlic. The score is calculated as
the number of correct answers given in the allotted time. A score of 20 is
intended to indicate average intelligence (corresponding to an
intelligence quotient of 100). Wonderlic, Inc. claims a score of 10 points
or more suggests a person is literate. A new version was released in
January 2007 called the Wonderlic Contemporary Cognitive Ability Test
(formerly known as the Wonderlic Personnel Test – Revised), containing
questions more appropriate to the 21st century; it is available both
online and in printed form, whereas the original test is only available on
paper. The Wonderlic test was based on another test called the Otis
Self-Administering Test of Mental Ability.
is a student whose mental capacities develop ahead of chronological
Mini Mental State Examination
is a 30-point questionnaire that is used extensively in clinical and
research settings to measure cognitive impairment. -
Mental Health Assessments -
Personality Tests -
Assessment Flaws -
Observer Effects -
Executive Functions -
Attentional Network Task (ANT)
Attention Networks Test
Delis–Kaplan Executive Function System
50 things everyone should know how to do
Test assessment of human intelligence. It is thought to tap
ability and motor skill.
The test-taker uses hand movements to rearrange
have various color patterns on different sides to match a pattern. The
items in a block design test can be scored both by accuracy in matching
the pattern and by speed in completing each item.
Brain Games -
Knox Cubes a
nonverbal intelligence test
Design Test is a performance test designed to be an IQ test. The test
taker must, using 16 colored cubes, replicate the patterns displayed on a
series of test cards. The design of the test was motivated by a belief
that the test could easily be administered to persons with language or
Jensen Box a
standard apparatus for measuring choice reaction time, especially in
relationship to differences in intelligence.
Odd Man Out Test
box is normally used for measuring choice reaction times in which the
participant in the experiment is tested on their ability to recognize
which of the eight lights of the Jensen box is illuminated, as quickly as
possible. However, in the Odd Man Out RT test, there are three lights that
are “illuminated on each trial, two that are relatively close together and
one that is further apart." The individual in the experiment is
responsible to identify the stimulus that is the “Odd-Man-Out” in the
scenario. The Odd-Man-Out RT test correlates with “Intelligent Quotients
(IQ) in the range of 0.30 to 0.60, a reliable and substantial effect.”
This correlation range is typically higher than the correlations to IQ
found among Reaction Time Tests.
Rotations Test is a test of
Test s designed to measure psychological planning capacity and
foresight. It is a nonverbal test of intelligence. The test consists of a
set of mazes for the subject to solve. The mazes are of varying
complexity. The test runs for 15–60 minutes, allowing the subject to solve
as many mazes as possible. The test serves as a supplementary subtest of
Wechsler intelligence scale.
Bracken School Readiness Assessment test assesses six basic skills:
Colors: Student must identify common colors
by name. Letters: Students must identify
upper-case and lower-case letters. Numbers and
Counting: Student must identify single- and double-digit numerals,
and must count objects. Sizes: Student must
demonstrate knowledge of words used to depict size (e.g., tall, wide,
etc.) Comparisons: Student must match or
differentiate objects based on a specific characteristic.
Shapes: Student must identify basic shapes
McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities is a psychological test given
to young children. "the McCarthy scales present a carefully constructed
individual test of human ability. In the General Cognitive Index (CGI):
Verbal Scale: Pictorial Memory, Word
Knowledge, Verbal Memory I, Verbal Memory II, Verbal Fluency, Opposite
Analogies. Perceptual-performance: Block
Building, Puzzle Solving, Tapping Sequence, Right-Left Orientation,
Draw-a-design, Draw-a-child, Conceptual Grouping.
Quantitative: Number Questions, Numerical Memory I, Numerical
Memory II, Counting and Sorting in the Additional Scales.
Memory: Pictorial Memory, Tapping Sequence,
Verbal Memory I and II, Numerical Memory I and II.
Motor: Leg Coordination, Arm Coordination, Imitative Action,
Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children is a clinical instrument
(psychological diagnostic test) for assessing cognitive development.
Simultaneous/Gv. Triangles: the child
assembles several foam triangles to match a picture.
Face Recognition: the child looks a photographs of one or two faces
for 5 seconds and then selects the correct face/faces shown in a
difference pose from a selection. Block Counting:
The child counts the number of blocks in a picture of a stack of blocks,
some of the blocks are partially hidden.
Conceptual Thinking: The child selects one picture from a set of 4
or 5 which does not belong with the set. Rover:
The child moves a toy dog to a bone on a grid that contains several
obstacles trying to find the quickest path to the bone.
Gestalt Closure: The child mentally fills
in the gaps in a partially completed inkblot drawing and names or
describes the object/action depicted in the drawing. Pattern Reasoning
(ages 5 and 6). Story Completion (ages 5 and 6). Sequential/Gsm.
Word Order: The assessor reads the names of
common objects, the child the touches a series of silhouettes of these
objects in the same order they were read out in.
Number Recall: The assessor reads a string of numbers and the child
repeats the string in the same order. The strings range from 2 to 9
digits. Hand Movements: the child copies a
series of taps the examiner makes on the table with the fist, palm or side
of the hand. Planning/Gf. Pattern Reasoning
(ages 7–18): the child is shown a series of stimulus that form a logical
linear pattern with one stimulus missing. The child selects the missing
stimulus from several options. Story Completion
(ages 7–18): the child is shown a row of pictures that tell a story, some
pictures are missing. The child selects several pictures from a selection
that are needed to complete the story and places them in the correct
location. Learning/Glr. Atlantis: the
assessor teaches the child nonsense names for pictures of fish, shells and
plants. The child then has to point to the correct picture when read out
the nonsense name. Atlantis Delayed: the
child repeats the Atlantis subtest 15–25 minutes later to demonstrate
delayed recall. Rebus: the assessor teaches
the child the word or concept associated with a rebus (drawing) and the
child reads aloud phrases and sentences composed of these rebuses.
Rebus Delayed: the child repeats the Rebus
subtest 15–25 minutes later to demonstrate delayed recall of paired
associates. Knowledge(Gc) included in the CHC model only.
Riddles: the examiner says several
characteristics of a concrete or abstract verbal concept, and the child
has to point to it or name it. Expressive
Vocabulary: measures the Childs ability to say the correct names of
objects and Verbal Knowledge: the child
selects from an array for 6 pictures the one that corresponds to a
vocabulary word or answers a general information question.
Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test s an untimed test of receptive
vocabulary for Standard American English and is intended to provide a
quick estimate of verbal ability and scholastic aptitude. The test is
given verbally and takes from twenty to thirty minutes to complete. No
reading is required by the individual, and scoring is rapid. For its
administration, the examiner presents a series of pictures to each person.
There are four pictures to a page, and each is numbered. The examiner
speaks a word describing one of the pictures and asks the individual to
point to or say the number of the picture that the word describes. Item
responses can also be made by multiple choice selection depending on the
age of the person being tested. The total score can be converted to a
percentile rank, mental age, or a standard deviation IQ score. Although
desirable, no special training is required to properly administer and
score the PPVT-IV. The test publisher recommends that anyone interpreting
or explaining the test scores should have knowledge in psychological
testing and statistics.
Ammons Quick Test help assess premorbid intelligence. It is a passive
response picture-vocabulary test. The Quick Test (QT) can be administered
to the physically handicapped as well as individuals with attention span
deficits. The QT results correlate well with the Wechsler Adult
Intelligence Scale (WAIS) Full Scale IQ. The Quick Test raw score of 46
translates to a WAIS IQ score of 110, which is in the high average range
of intellectual functioning for an adult.
Otis-Lennon School Ability Test is a test of abstract thinking and
reasoning ability of children pre-K to 18. The Otis-Lennon is a
group-administered (except preschool), multiple choice, taken with pencil
and paper, measures verbal, quantitative, and spatial reasoning ability.
The test yields verbal and nonverbal scores, from which a total score is
derived, called a School Ability Index (SAI). The SAI is a normalized
standard score with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 16. With the
exception of pre-K, the test is administered in groups.
Raven's Progressive Matrices is a nonverbal group test typically used
in educational settings. It is usually a 60-item test used in measuring
abstract reasoning and regarded as a non-verbal estimate of
fluid intelligence. All of the questions on the Raven's progressives
consist of visual geometric design with a missing piece. The test taker is
given six to eight choices to pick from and fill in the missing piece.
Leiter International Performance Scale is an intelligence test in the
form of a strict performance scale. It was designed for children and
adolescents ages 2 to 18, although it can yield an intelligence quotient
(IQ) and a measure of logical ability for all ages.The Leiter contains 10
subtests organized into four domains: Fluid Intelligence, Visualization,
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children provides five
primary index scores (i.e., Verbal Comprehension Index, Visual Spatial
Index, Fluid Reasoning Index, Working Memory Index, and Processing Speed
Index) that represent a child's abilities in more discrete cognitive
domains. Five ancillary composite scores can be derived from various
combinations of primary or primary and secondary subtests.
Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) is a very short form
of estimating intellectual functioning.
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale is an IQ test designed to measure
intelligence and cognitive ability in adults and older adolescents.
Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence is an
intelligence test designed for children ages 2 years 6 months to 7 years 7
months provides subtest and composite scores that represent intellectual
functioning in verbal and performance cognitive domains, as well as
providing a composite score that represents a child’s general intellectual
ability (i.e., Full Scale IQ).
intelligence tests appropriate for children and adults from two and a half
to forty years old. The tests are called nonverbal because they can be
administered without having to use written or spoken language. The manuals
also contain verbal instructions, but the spoken text does not contain
extra information compared to the non-verbal instructions. The way the
tests are administered is adjusted to the communicative abilities of the
subject in order to create a natural test situation. The tests provide an
intelligence score that indicates how someone performs in comparison with
other persons from the same age.
Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale is an individually administered
cognitive ability and intelligence test that is used to diagnose
developmental or intellectual deficiencies in young children. The test
measures five weighted factors and consists of both verbal and nonverbal
subtests. The five factors being tested are knowledge, quantitative
reasoning, visual-spatial processing, working memory, and fluid reasoning.
"Le Regard", Prehension Provoked by a Tactile Stimulus, Prehension
Provoked by a Visual Perception, Recognition of Food, Quest of Food
Complicated by a Slight Mechanical Difficulty, Execution of Simple
Commands and Imitation of Simple Gestures, Verbal Knowledge of Objects,
Verbal Knowledge of Pictures, Naming of Designated Objects, Immediate
Comparison of Two Lines of Unequal Lengths, Repetition of Three Figures,
Comparison of Two Weights, Suggestibility, Verbal Definition of Known
Objects, Repetition of Sentences of Fifteen Words, Comparison of Known
Objects from Memory, Exercise of Memory on Pictures, Drawing a Design from
Memory, Immediate Repetition of Figures, Resemblances of Several Known
Objects Given from Memory, Comparison of Lengths, Five Weights to be
Placed in Order, Gap in Weights, Exercise upon Rhymes, Verbal Gaps to be
Filled, Synthesis of Three Words in One Sentence, Reply to an Abstract
Question, Reversal of the Hands of a Clock, Paper Cutting, Definitions of
Intelligence Analysis is the application of individual and collective
cognitive methods to weigh data and test
hypotheses within a secret socio-cultural context. The analyst must
correlate the similarities among
deceptions and extract a
(youtube) - Documentary is about IQ testing and Testing for
Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales is an individually
administered test of intelligence that includes a co-normed, supplemental
measure of memory. It is appropriate for individuals ages 3–94. Guess
What: Participants are given around two to four clues to solve the concept
or the object being described. Verbal Reasoning:
Participants must complete propositional statements that essentially forms
a verbal analogy. This section measures verbal-analytical reasoning
ability. Odd item out: Participants must
choose which picture does not belong in a set of five to seven pictures.
It's a form of non-verbal analogy that measures spatial ability, visual
imagery and other non-verbal skills. What's
Missing: Participants must figure out the missing element in an
incomplete picture. Verbal memory:
Participants have to listen to, memorize and repeat back a series of
sentences and stories that are read to them. Measures encoding, storing
and recalling aspects of memory. Non-verbal
memory: Participants are shown a picture for five seconds and then
must identify the same picture among a series of different set of
pictures. Measures encoding, storing and recognition of visual stimuli.
High School Diploma,
College Degree does not confirm intelligence, then what does it confirm?
College Entry Tests.
Miller Analogies Test is a standardized test used both for graduate
school admissions in the United States and entrance to high I.Q.
societies. The MAT consists of 120 questions in 60 minutes (formerly 100
questions in 50 minutes). Unlike other graduate school admissions exams
such as the GRE, the Miller Analogies Test is verbal or computer based.
The test aims to measure an individual's logical and analytical reasoning
through the use of partial analogies. A sample test question might be
Bach : Composing :: Monet : a. painting, b.
composing, c. writing, d. orating. This should be read as "Bach is to (:)
Composing as (::) Monet is to (:) _______." The answer would be a.
painting because just as Bach is most known for composing music, Monet is
most known for his painting. The open slot may appear in any of the four
positions. Unlike analogies found on past editions of the GRE and the SAT,
the MAT's analogies demand a broad knowledge of Western culture, testing
subjects such as science, music, literature, philosophy, mathematics, art,
and history. Thus, exemplary success on the MAT requires more than a
nuanced and cultivated vocabulary.
Multidimensional Aptitude Battery II is a group-administered
intelligence test that is supposed to measure Verbal, Performance and Full
Scale IQ. The battery consists of 10 subtests and is used for various
professional, medical, military, government, law enforcement and
employment settings. The test-retest reliability based on timed
performance correlates with values of 0.95 for the verbal section, 0.96
for the performance section and 0.97 for the full scale.
Information: Assess general knowledge about
diverse topics. Comprehension: Assess the
ability to analyze social situations, identify appropriate behavior, and
explain why certain laws and customs are practiced.
Arithmetic: Assess the ability to solve
numerical problems, reasoning and problem solving abilities.
Similarities: Assess the ability to
recognize, compare and reason the likeness and differences between
individual objects. Vocabulary: Assess the
learned words, verbal concepts and ability to store, categorize and
retrieve information appropriately. Digit symbol:
Assess ability to learn new coding system and using it in context.
Picture completion: Assess ability to
identify and solve missing elements in picture.
Spatial: Assess ability to visualize abstract objects in different
positions within 2 dimensional space. Picture
arrangement: Ability to identify a meaningful sequence from a
random sequence. Object assembly: Ability
to identify an object by solving left-to right sequences of disarranged
Aptitude requires a person to recognize which mechanical principle is
suggested by a test item. The underlying concepts measured by these items
include sounds and heat conduction, velocity, gravity, and force. A number
of tests of mechanical comprehension and mechanical aptitude have been
developed and are predictive of performance in
and technical type jobs, for instance.
New Brain Mapping Technique highlights relationship between Connectivity
and IQ. Using these morphometric similarity networks (MSNs), the
researchers were able to build up a map showing how well connected the
'hubs' -- the major connection points between different regions of the
brain network -- were. They found a link
between the connectivity in the MSNs in brain regions linked to higher
order functions -- such as problem solving and language -- and
IQ scores are predictive in measuring the ability of a person to
have more occupational success, higher income, and better
physical and mental health. But higher IQ scores do not
determine the value of success, it only determines the increased
chances of success. But you have to
define success, and
an iq test does not define success. This is more then just
getting a job, it's knowing that the work you do is valuable.
It's not about how much money you made, it's how you impacted
the world. Did you use and abuse the world and make everyone pay
for it? Or did you improve the world that produced measurable
benefits for other people? Once you accurately measure the
inputs and outputs of a persons life, it paints a much clearer
picture about what real success is.
There is too much
propaganda in these tests, just like in our
Tests. Just remembering ignorant facts is not a test.
Testing Failures -
Optional Testing (pdf)
"I would not say that "Wisdom comes with
Age", because knowledge comes from
continually learning and seeking out facts. Though older
people may have more experiences, they don't always learn from
those experiences the way they should. If you stop seeking
knowledge and stop learning, then wisdom and old age will never meet."
Intelligent characteristics you should also have these
added qualities. A person who has common sense, a person who
separates opinion from fact, a person who does not dismiss
information solely based on preference, a person who does not
questions, a person who can formulate information in
order to obtain a logical answer. A person who can
a person who is knowledgeable
of the human brain and
a person who possesses
self-control, a person who knows
bad and right
from wrong and lives buy it,
a person who is not corruptible, a
never stops learning, a person who knows that being a
great teacher and a
great leader are the two greatest
responsibilities of an intelligent person, a person who is
constantly striving to always possess and honor the qualities of
intelligence, a person who teaches the qualities of
intelligence, a person who knows they will still
but now will learn from them and move on. So the next time you
want to call someone intelligent remember these qualities. You
should never call a child intelligent or gifted. You should
instead tell them that they have the abilities to be intelligent
or gifted. This way they will know that to be intelligent or
gifted is a life long process that is much more then a label
that someone gives you. If you find someone who considers
themselves to be intelligent then show them these definitions.
They should be able to prove these qualities, but a truly
intelligent person should say that they are constantly striving
to acquire all these qualities in order to one day possess them
all and even add some new ones. I look at these qualities as the
foundation of a good person.
Equation for Intelligence:
a force to maximize future options and future
action, and to avoid
future confinement. Knowing when to
the correct action at the correct time.
(F = T upside-down triangle or
Machine Learning -
Education Purpose -
“The key to attaining a higher level of intelligence is to make your years
of study qualitatively rich. We don't simply absorb information
- we internalize it and make it our own by finding some way to
put this knowledge to practical use.”
gradually and finally understanding just how incredibly
important knowledge and information is to a human."
Being intelligent is being able to
approach intellectual road blocks from new angles. Being
intelligent is the ability to borrow tools from one discipline
to solve problems in another. Being intelligent is having many
different hobbies that can lead to creative breakthroughs. Being
intelligent is being able to slow down multitasking, having one
project take center stage for a series of hours or days. Leaving
the other projects to linger in the margins of consciousness,
but still being able to take ideas from the projects at the
margins. Being intelligent is being able to think outside the
box, letting the mind wander and dream, processing new
information, making new connections, and developing new thinking strategies.
Life Skills are the abilities for
positive behavior that
enables a person to effectively
with the demands and challenges of everyday life. Life skills is having
thinking, lateral thinking,
and having resilience
and the skills to cope with
Set (PDF) - Mind Set -
Understanding Value -
Soft Skills are a combination of interpersonal people
skills, social skills, communication skills, character traits, attitudes,
career attributes and emotional intelligence quotient
that enables someone to effectively navigate their environment,
with others, perform well, and achieve their
goals with complementing hard
Life Skills-Based Education are abilities for adaptive and
positive behavior that enable individuals to deal effectively with the
demands and challenges of everyday life.
Words and Definitions
Evolution of Human Intelligence is closely tied to the
evolution of the
and to the origin of language. The timeline of human evolution spans
approximately 7 million years, from the separation of the Pan genus until
the emergence of behavioral modernity by 50,000 years ago. The first 3
million years of this timeline concern Sahelanthropus, the following 2
million concern Australopithecus and the final 2 million span the history
of actual human genus in the Paleolithic era. Many traits of human
intelligence, such as empathy, theory of mind, mourning, ritual, and the
use of symbols and tools, are apparent in great apes although in less
sophisticated forms than found in humans, such as great ape language.
Outline of Human Intelligence (wiki) -
has been defined in many different ways including one's capacity
for logic, abstract thought, understanding, self-awareness,
communication, learning, emotional knowledge,
creativity and problem solving. It can be more generally
described as the ability to perceive information, and retain it
as knowledge to be applied towards adaptive behaviors within an
Quantitative Reasoning is the ability to
comprehend quantitative concepts and relationships and to manipulate
numerical symbols. (Gq)
Crystallized Intelligence refers to
accumulated knowledge. Includes the breadth and depth of a
person's acquired knowledge, the ability to communicate one's knowledge,
and the ability to reason using previously learned experiences or
procedures. There are the pathways that encode prior knowledge and
experience, which we call crystallized intelligence. Crystallized intelligence involves
robust connections, the result of months or years of neural traffic on
well-worn pathways. Crystallized
Intelligence includes the breadth and depth of a person's
acquired knowledge, the ability to communicate one's knowledge, and the
ability to reason using previously learned experiences or procedures. (Gc).
Fluid Intelligence is the
ability to learn and
information. The ability to reason, form concepts, and
problems using unfamiliar information or novel procedures.
Fluid intelligence is a measure of one's ability to
adapt to new situations
and solve never-before-seen problems. Fluid intelligence involves weaker, more
transient pathways and connections
that are formed when the brain tackles unique or unusual problems. Fluid
intelligence are adaptive reasoning and problem-solving skills that are
imaging the brain, scientists can predict a person's aptitude for
cognitive training. People with specific brain attributes are more
likely than others to benefit from targeted cognitive interventions
designed to enhance fluid intelligence. Cognitive Fluidity.
Fluid Intelligence includes
the broad ability to reason, form concepts, and
solve problems using
unfamiliar information or novel procedures. (Gf).
intelligence requires both the ability to flexibly reach nearby,
easy-to-access states -- to support crystallized intelligence -- but also
the ability to adapt and reach difficult-to-access states -- to support
General intelligence does not originate from a single
brain region or network. Emerging
neuroscience evidence instead suggests that intelligence reflects the
ability to flexibly transition between network states.
Reading and Writing Ability includes basic reading and
Short-Term Memory is the ability to apprehend and
hold information in immediate awareness, and then use it within a few
Long-Term Storage and Retrieval is the ability to
information and fluently retrieve it later in the
process of thinking. (Glr)
Visual processing is the ability to perceive, analyze, synthesize,
and think with visual patterns, including the ability to store and recall
visual representations. (Gv)
Auditory Processing is the ability to
analyze, synthesize, and discriminate auditory stimuli, including the
ability to process and discriminate speech sounds that may be presented
under distorted conditions. (Ga)
Speed is the ability to
perform automatic cognitive tasks, particularly when measured under
pressure to maintain focused attention. (Gs)
Decision - Reaction Time - Speed
reflects the immediacy with which an individual can react to
stimuli or a
task (typically measured in seconds or fractions of seconds; it is not to
be confused with Gs, which typically is measured in intervals of 2–3
minutes). (Gt) - Brain
Mental chronometry is the use of response time in
perceptual-motor tasks to infer the content, duration, and temporal
sequencing of cognitive operations.
Multiple Intelligences are eight abilities,
musical–rhythmic, visual–spatial, verbal–linguistic, logical–mathematical,
bodily–kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalistic.
Six Intellects: Logical Intelligence - Empathetic ‘Social’
Intelligence - Creative ‘Abstract’ Intelligence - Artistic ‘Sensory’
Intelligence - Mnemonic Intelligence - Parallel ‘Active’ Intelligence.
Triarchic Theory of Intelligence is how well an individual
deals with environmental changes throughout their lifespan. Componential,
experiential, and practical. Mental activity directed toward purposive
adaptation to, selection and shaping of, real-world environments relevant
to one's life. Metacomponents are executive processes used in problem
solving and decision making that involve the majority of managing our
mind. They tell the mind how to act. Metacomponents are also sometimes
referred to as a homunculus. A homunculus is a fictitious or metaphorical
"person" inside our head that controls our actions, and which is often
seen to invite an infinite regress of homunculi controlling each other
(Sternberg, 1985). Sternberg's next set of components, performance
components, are the processes that actually carry out the actions the
metacomponents dictate. These are the basic processes that allow us to do
tasks, such as perceiving problems in our long-term memory, perceiving
relations between objects, and applying relations to another set of terms
(Sternberg, 1997). The last set of components, knowledge-acquisition
components, are used in obtaining new information. These components
complete tasks that involve selectively choosing relevant information from
a mix of information, some of it relevant and some of it irrelevant. These
components can also be used to selectively combine the various pieces of
information they have gathered. Gifted individuals are proficient in using
these components because they are able to learn new information at a
greater rate (Sternberg, 1997).
Howard Gardner Spatial Intelligence (youtube)
Smart Types -
People Smart -
Collaboration Smart -
Nature Smart -
Survival Smart -
Number Smart - Word Smart
Wits - Five W's -
Body Smart - Emotional Intelligence -
10,000 Hours - Music Smart -
Scientifically Literate -
- Frame of Reference.
Spiritual Intelligence is a term used by some philosophers,
psychologists, and developmental theorists to indicate spiritual parallels
with IQ (Intelligence Quotient) and EQ (Emotional Quotient).
Intuitive Intelligence (youtube)
Cognition Testing (examinations)
Intelligence, Creativity, Synthesized
Improving fluid intelligence with training on working
memory, The ability to reason and to solve new problems
independently of previously acquired knowledge.
Five-Percent Nation is a movement founded in 1964 in the Harlem
section of the borough of Manhattan, New York City, with the concept that
ten percent of the people in the world know the truth of existence, and
those elites and agents opt to keep eighty-five percent of the world in
ignorance and under their controlling thumb; the remaining five percent
are those who know the truth and are determined to enlighten the rest.
(sometimes referred to as the Nation of Gods and Earths). Gods and Earths
sometimes refer to themselves as scientists, implying their search for
knowledge and proof.
Seven Levels of Intelligence and Three types of Genius -
Link between Sensory Discriminations and Intelligence
Switching skills on by turning off part of the Brain
Brain Stimulation makes the impossible problem solvable
Levels of Thinking
Functions are a set of cognitive processes – including
control, inhibitory control, working
memory, and cognitive flexibility, as well as
reasoning, problem solving,
and planning – that are necessary for the cognitive control of behavior:
selecting and successfully monitoring behaviors that facilitate the
attainment of chosen goals. Executive functions gradually develop and
change across the lifespan of an individual and can be improved at any
time over the course of a person's life. Similarly, these cognitive
processes can be adversely affected by a variety of events which affect an individual.
Intelligent Words - Words that Describe Intelligence
Intelligent is having the capacity for
thought and reason to a high degree.
Intelligence is possessing sound
knowledge. Intelligence is showing good judgment
and having a good
understanding of things. Intelligence is having a high
to quickly comprehend things. Intelligence is
the mental activity directed towards a positive
purpose, followed by a physical
activity directed towards a positive
Intelligence is making
good decisions and
very carefully. Intelligence is always learning.
Intelligence is doing the right thing at
the right time in a verity of different environments and
circumstances, and always with a
goal in mind, and always with the understanding
that there is no guarantee that things will be correct, because
change, and things that worked before may no longer work now and may no
longer be relevant, so one must
learning is just as important as the
process of doing.
Sentience Intelligence -
Effectiveness - Efficiency
Intelligent has been defined in many different ways
including one's capacity for logic, understanding,
learning, emotional knowledge,
creativity and problem solving.
It can be more generally described as the ability to
and retain it as
knowledge to be applied towards
adaptive behaviors within
an environment or context. Intelligence is not a place or a destination.
Intelligence is an incredible journey through the mind that never stops
being amazing. There are levels of intelligence, but the levels are
Intelligent Types -
Skills - Understanding
Value - Conscience
is a person who uses intelligence rather than
person who uses the mind creatively. Having the capacity for rational thought or
inference or discrimination.
Intellect is having knowledge and
intellectual ability and the capacity for
rational thought or inference or discrimination. A person who uses the
Brainiac is someone who has exceptional
intellectual ability and originality. Exceptionally intelligent person.
"Intelligence is not a level of
achievement, it is a way of life. And the levels are just temporary steps that
lead to greater and even larger steps, some of which have not yet been
is someone who has exceptional intellectual ability and
originality. Unusual mental ability. Someone who is dazzlingly
Skilled in any field. Exceptional
Creative ability. A
is a person who is creative and
productive universality in
genres or originality, typically to
a degree that is associated with the achievement of new
advances in a
domain of knowledge. Most
great works of
Genius happen between the ages of 30 and 40 years of age.
Savant Syndrome -
Executive Functions are a set of cognitive processes that are necessary for the cognitive control of
working memory, cognitive flexibility,
problem solving and planning.
Polymath is a person whose
expertise spans a significant
number of different subject areas and can
use complex bodies of knowledge and information to solve specific problems. Self-Directed Learning.
Erudition is the depth, polish and breadth that education
confers. The Latin word educāre means to bring out or
train; hence an
educated person has come to think critically and logically. An erudite
person has both deep and broad familiarity with general subjects and is
usually knowledgeable in a particular subject, by virtue of study and
extensive reading of the subject's literature.
Phronesis a type of wisdom relevant to practical things,
requiring an ability to discern how or why to act
virtuously and encourage
practical virtue, excellence of character, in others.
is someone who shows excellent
mental alertness along with
quickness and ease in Learning and with
Calculations. Smart is being
actions and having
resourcefulness. Smart is the ability to figure things out. But being
smart does not say that you know enough about
yourself and the world around you, it only says that you the ability to know
and learn everything that there is to know. Being smart is understanding
how much you still don't know and that you still have a lot to
learn. Smart is using the knowledge and information that you have effectively and efficiently.
Street Smart is a person who has a lot of
common sense and knows some things about what's going on in the world. This person knows
what every type of person has to deal with daily and
groups of people and how to act around them. This person also knows all
the current sh*t going on in the streets and in the ghetto and almost everywhere
else, and knows how to make their own right decisions, and knows how to deal with
different situations and has their own
independent state of mind. A
street smart person isn't stubborn,
listen and try to
Savvy is the ability to make good
judgments. Savvy is shrewdness and practical
knowledge and having common sense and good judgment. know or understand.
Common Sense is a
basic ability to perceive,
understand, and judge things that are shared by ("common
to") nearly all people and can reasonably be expected of nearly all
people without need for debate.
Sensible is showing reason or sound
judgment. Able to
perceived by the senses. Aware
intellectually of something sensed.
is being free from vanity, conceit or
Restrained is avoiding excessive or extreme
behaviors and showing appropriate manners and
Prudent is being careful and sensible and
having good sound judgment. Prudent
is the ability to govern and discipline oneself by the use of reason.
Bright is being full of promise and
Brilliant is having or marked by unusual and
intelligence. Surpassing excellence.
is having effective and efficient memory, focus, concentration, and
A Sharp Mind is
someone who learns fast and understands things
fast and remembers things easy and effortlessly.
A sharp mind is able to stay focused
on achieving goals, while at the same time, quick to
adapt to changes and
quick to notice when a change is necessary. A sharp mind is a mind that
keeps learning and is always
learning new knowledge and updating information, this helps to keep the
mind sharp and ready to cut through any of life's challenges.
sharpened pencil is ready to write and prepared to communicate, just like
a sharp mind."
The Brains of
the Organization is a term used to describe an exceptionally
intelligent person with excellent intellectual capacity. A clever
person who supplies the ideas and plans for a group of people. The brains
can also mean an electronic device with
functions comparable to those of the
Maturity in psychological is the ability to
respond to the environment
in an appropriate manner. This response is generally learned rather than
instinctive. Maturity also encompasses being aware of the correct time and
place to behave and knowing when to act, according to the circumstances
and the culture of the society one lives in. Adult development and
maturity theories include the purpose in life concept, in which maturity
emphasizes a clear comprehension of life's purpose, directedness, and
intentionality, which contributes to the feeling that life is meaningful.
Focus - Awareness
Alertness is being mentally
What is Mindset?
Attentiveness is the trait of being
considerate and thoughtful
of others. The trait of being observant and
Wise is marked by the exercise of good judgment or common sense
in practical matters. Having or prompted by
Wisdom is accumulated
knowledge or erudition or enlightenment.
The trait of utilizing knowledge and
experience with common
sense and insight. Ability to apply knowledge or
experience or understanding or common sense and insight.
The quality of being prudent and sensible. Knowing the
is the ability to think and act using knowledge, experience,
understanding, common sense, and insight.
Conventional Wisdom is the body of ideas or explanations
generally accepted as true by the public or by experts in a field.
Crazy Wisdom (wiki) - Assumptions
Infinite Wisdom is having no limits or
boundaries in time, space, extent, or magnitude.
Wiseman is a wise and
Wise Beyond your Years -
Old Soul: Those who are wise beyond their years and have the wisdom of
someone with an old soul are smarter and more intelligent than other
people their age and are as wise as older people. These kind of people
love to learn and are always seeking wisdom, knowledge and truth. They are
thinkers and like to think things through and see if there's another way
to do things. They see the bigger picture. They travel an independent
path. They love the simple things in life, they don't get caught up in
trends and they are not materialistic. They want the things they do to
have meaning. They focus on irreplaceable things that bring them lasting
fulfillment and joy, not just temporary pleasure. They have an
appreciation for old literature and love the classics. They love to meet
new people and they value relationships and value deep connections. They
are great listeners. They stay calm under pressure and see no need in
being unnecessarily stressed. They are generous and truly understand what
it means to give. They give good advice and are responsible.
Wisdom does not
come with age, wisdom only comes from learning. And learning only
comes from having access to valuable knowledge and information that
increases your understanding of yourself and the world around you, and
then learning how to use knowledge and information effectively and
is having deep insight and a great depth of
knowledge or thought. Wisdom that is profound and sometimes
depth or penetrating knowledge
with keen insight. The intellectual ability to penetrate deeply into
ideas. Having a deeper understanding.
The quality of being physically deep.
having clear or deep
perception and understanding of a situation,
grasping the inner nature of things intuitively.
Profound is showing intellectual
penetration or emotional depth. Far-reaching and thoroughgoing in effect
especially on the nature of something. Coming from deep within one.
Sage is someone who has attained the wisdom which a
Oracle was a person or agency considered to provide wise and
insightful counsel or prophetic predictions or precognition of the future,
inspired by the gods.
is a philosophical concept regarding wisdom.
Solomonic is exhibiting or requiring the exercise
of great wisdom, especially in making difficult decisions. Antonym:
is having worldly knowledge and refinement and Social skill. Ahead
in development; complex or intricate; Intellectually appealing.
Cleverness is the power of creative imagination. Intelligence as
manifested in being quick and witty. Mentally quick and resourceful. Showing inventiveness and skill.
Ingenuity - Imaginative
Knowingness is the state or quality of
being knowing or intelligent; shrewdness; skillfulness.
Rationality is a logical formulation of a problem. When the goal or
problem involves making a decision, rationality factors in all information
that is available (e.g. complete or incomplete knowledge). Collectively,
the formulation and background assumptions are the model within which
rationality applies. Rationality is relative: if one accepts a model in
which benefitting oneself is optimal, then rationality is equated with
behavior that is self-interested to the point of being selfish; whereas if
one accepts a model in which benefiting the group is optimal, then purely
selfish behavior is deemed irrational. It is thus meaningless to assert
rationality without also specifying the background model assumptions
describing how the problem is framed and formulated. Rationality
optimization is decision-making as a fully rational process of finding an
optimal choice given the information available.
Rational is being
consistent in reasoning,
and being guided by the intellect and facts instead of emotions.
Irrational is something that is not
consistent with facts or reality, or using reason.
is acting in a way that maximizes utility.
Resourcefulness is the quality of being
able to cope with a difficult
situation. The ability to deal resourcefully with
Advanced is being at a higher level in training or knowledge or skill; Ahead in
development; complex or intricate. Farther along in physical or
mental development; Ahead of the times. (of societies) highly
developed especially in technology or industry. Contribute to
the progress or growth of; Develop in a positive way; Move
Better is to be wise enough, experienced enough, or well
not to have done something wrong. To be wise enough to behave in
a more responsible or acceptable way. You can know better, but,
if you don't apply the right information at the right time, then
knowing better will not help you, so you will most likely make
the same mistakes again and again.
a Process, a Procedure.
Experience is the
accumulation of knowledge or skill that results from
participation in events or activities.
Experience is the
mastery of an event or
subject gained through involvement in
learning or traing or exposure to it. The content of direct observation or participation in an event. To
go through or to live through an event. To have firsthand knowledge of states,
situations, emotions, or sensations. To go through mental or physical states or experiences
or undergo an
emotional sensation or be in a particular state of mind.
- Expert -Skill
Discernment is the cognitive condition of someone who understands.
Delicate discrimination (especially of esthetic values)
Perception of that which is obscure. The mental
ability to understand and discriminate between relations.
The trait of judging wisely and objectively.
Sagacious is acutely insightful and wise. Skillful in
statecraft or management.
to gain knowledge of an area not known or experienced before by drawing
from specific cases for more general cases. Estimating the value of
something. Seeing all the
Extrapolation is the process of estimating,
original observation range, the value
of a variable
on the basis of its relationship with
another variable. It is similar to
interpolation, which produces estimates
between known observations, but
extrapolation is subject to greater uncertainty and a higher
risk of producing
meaningless results. Extrapolation may also mean extension of a method,
assuming similar methods will be applicable. Extrapolation may also apply
to human experience to
project, extend, or expand
known experience into an area not known or previously experienced so
as to arrive at a (usually conjectural) knowledge of the unknown.
Extrapolation is an inference
about the future, or about some
hypothetical situation based on known
observations. A calculation of the
value of a function outside the
range of known values.
Interior Reconstruction is a technique to correct truncation artifacts
caused by limiting image data to a small field of view. The reconstruction
focuses on an area known as the region of interest (ROI). Although
interior reconstruction can be applied to dental or cardiac CT images, the
concept is not limited to CT. It is applied with one of several methods.
Missing Data occurs when no data value is stored for the variable in
an observation. Missing data are a common occurrence and can have a
significant effect on the conclusions that can be drawn from the data.
Logic - Logical
and good reasonable judgment. The
principles that guide reasoning within a
given field or
The branch of philosophy that analyzes
The system of operations performed by a computer that underlies
the machine's representation of
logical operations. Efficient
Logic is generally held to consist of the systematic study
of the form of arguments. A valid argument is one where there is a
specific relation of logical support between the assumptions of the
argument and its conclusion.
Logical is being capable of or reflecting the
capability for correct and
Based on known statements or events or conditions.
Marked by an orderly, logical, and aesthetically consistent
relation of parts. Capable of thinking and expressing yourself in a clear and
Illogical is something lacking
Modal Logic classical propositional and predicate logic to include operators expressing
is a kind of non-classical logic requiring the antecedent and consequent
of implications to be relevantly related. They may be viewed as a family
of sub-structural or modal logics.
is a person, such as a philosopher or a mathematician, whose
topic of scholarly study is logic.
are simple, first-order logic knowledge representations of natural
language sentences formed by the conjunction of concept predicates related
through shared arguments.
First-Order Logic is a collection of formal systems used in
mathematics, philosophy, linguistics, and computer science.
Interpretation Logic is an assignment of meaning to the
symbols of a formal language.
Classical Logic identifies a class of formal logics that
have been most intensively studied and most widely used.
Logical Form of a syntactic expression is a precisely-specified
semantic version of that expression in a formal system. Informally, the
logical form attempts to formalize a possibly ambiguous statement into a
statement with a precise, unambiguous logical interpretation with respect
to a formal system. In an ideal formal language, the meaning of a logical
form can be determined unambiguously from syntax alone. Logical forms are
semantic, not syntactic constructs; therefore, there may be more than one
string that represents the same logical form in a given language. The
logical form of an argument is called the argument form of the argument.
Logical Truth is a statement which is true regardless of the truth or
falsity of its constituent propositions. In other words, a logical truth
is a statement which is not only true, but one which is true under all
interpretations of its logical components (other than its logical
constants). Thus, logical truths such as "if p, then p" can be considered
tautologies. Logical truths are thought to be the simplest case of
statements which are analytically true (or in other words, true by
definition). All of philosophical logic can be thought of as providing
accounts of the nature of logical truth, as well as logical consequence.
Logical truths are generally considered to be necessarily true. This is to
say that they are such that no situation could arise in which they could
fail to be true. The view that logical statements are necessarily true is
sometimes treated as equivalent to saying that logical truths are true in
all possible worlds. However, the question of whether any statements are
necessarily true remains the subject of continued debate. Treating logical
truths, analytic truths, and necessary truths as equivalent, logical
truths can be contrasted with facts (which can also be called contingent
claims or synthetic claims). Contingent truths are true in this world, but
could have turned out otherwise (in other words, they are false in at
least one possible world). Logically true propositions such as "If p and
q, then p" and "All married people are married" are logical truths because
they are true due to their internal structure and not because of any facts
of the world (whereas "All married people are happy", even if it were
true, could not be true solely in virtue of its logical structure).
Rationalist philosophers have suggested that the existence of logical
truths cannot be explained by empiricism, because they hold that it is
impossible to account for our knowledge of logical truths on empiricist
grounds. Empiricists commonly respond to this objection by arguing that
logical truths (which they usually deem to be mere tautologies), are
analytic and thus do not purport to describe the world. The latter view
was notably defended by the logical positivists in the early 20th century.
Resolution Logic is a rule of inference leading to a
refutation theorem-proving technique for sentences in propositional logic
and first-order logic. In other words, iteratively applying the resolution
rule in a suitable way allows for telling whether a propositional formula
is satisfiable and for proving that a first-order formula is unsatisfiable.
Attempting to prove a satisfiable first-order formula as unsatisfiable may
result in a nonterminating computation; this problem doesn't occur in
Substructural Logic is a logic lacking one of the usual
structural rules (e.g. of classical and intuitionistic logic), such as
weakening, contraction, exchange or associativity. Two of the more
significant substructural logics are relevant logic and linear logic.
Positivism asserted that only statements
verifiable through empirical
observation are cognitively meaningful.
Computational Logic -
Subjective Logic is a type of probabilistic logic that
explicitly takes uncertainty and belief ownership into account.
Logical Fallacy is a pattern of reasoning rendered
by a flaw in its logical structure that can neatly be expressed in a
standard logic system, for example propositional logic.
Pretzel Logic is fallible, twisted or
circular reasoning that when dissected is wrong, does not make sense or
does not explain the situation rationally.
Paralogical thinking. Logical thinking says that light is either a
wave or particles. It can't be both.
Paralogical thinking says that light can be both a wave and particles,
because life is inherently paradoxical. Niels Bohr explains: There are
trivial truths and there are great truths.
Race Condition is the behavior of an electronic, software or
other system where the output is dependent on the sequence or timing of
other uncontrollable events. It becomes a bug when events do not happen in
the order the programmer intended.
Reasoning - Reasons
thinking that is
coherent and logical
so as to come to an accurate conclusion.
Good Examples of Reasoning can be found in
Court Case Decisions or Rulings in Law Books.
Reason is a rational
motive for a belief or action. An
explanation of the
cause of some
phenomenon. The capacity for
rational thought or inference or
discrimination. The state of having
good sense and
A justification for something existing or happening. A
logically justifies some premise or
Show to be right by providing justification or
explain, clear away, or make excuses for by reasoning.
Decide by reasoning; draw or come to a conclusion. Think
logically. Knowing the difference between
is the capacity for consciously
making sense of things, applying
logic, establishing and verifying facts, and changing or
practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information.
Knowing what is the point of
Justification is a
proves that an action was reasonable or
explanation of some action or belief.
The act of defending,
explaining or making excuses for by
Justification is the reason that someone holds a rationally admissible
belief. To describe beliefs that one has good reason for holding.
epistemology are the
ideas of warrant a proper justification for
holding a belief, knowledge,
rationality, and probability, among others.
Notable theories of justification include:
Foundationalism – Basic beliefs justify other, non-basic beliefs.
Epistemic coherentism – Beliefs are justified if they cohere with
other beliefs a person holds, each belief is justified if it coheres with
the overall system of beliefs.
Infinitism – Beliefs are justified by infinite chains of reasons.
Foundherentism – A combination of foundationalism and epistemic
coherentism, proposed by Susan Haack.
Internalism – The believer must be able to justify a belief through
Externalism – Outside sources of knowledge can be used to justify a
Reformed epistemology – Beliefs are warranted by
proper cognitive function, proposed by Alvin Plantinga.
Epistemic skepticism – A variety of viewpoints questioning the
possibility of knowledge.
Evidentialism – Beliefs depend solely on the evidence for them.
Reliabilism - A belief is justified if it is the result of a
Justification can use empiricism or the
evidence of the
senses, or the authoritative
testimony or the appeal to criteria and
authority, or logical deduction.
Rationality is the quality or state of being reasonable, based on
facts or reason. Rationality implies the conformity of one's beliefs with
one's reasons to believe, or of one's actions with one's reasons for
action. "Rationality" has different specialized meanings in economics,
sociology, psychology, evolutionary biology, and political science.
Rational is using reason guided by the
Rationalism is the view that "regards reason as the chief
source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source
of knowledge or justification". More formally, rationalism is defined as a
methodology or a theory "in which the criterion of the truth is not
sensory but intellectual and deductive".
Rational Choice Theory -
Intelligent Agent -
Explanation is a statement that makes
something comprehensible by
describing the relevant structure or operation or circumstances etc.
Evidence (law) -
Fallacy - False Consensus -
No Rhyme or Reason is
emphasizing that there is no logical reason or
justifiable explanation for something.
We have made formulas and
rules so that we can reduce errors and avoid costly mistakes. 2+2=4, but
if someone said that 2+2=13, then things would not work and people could
Deductive Reasoning determines whether the
truth of a
conclusion can be determined for that rule, based solely on the truth of
the premises. (deductive logic, logical deduction, bottom up logic).
Reasoning from the general to the particular (or from
cause to effect).
Precedent (law) -
Deduction is reasoning from the
the particular, or from
cause to effect. Something that is inferred
deduced or entailed or implied. Deduction can also mean the act of
subtracting something or removing a part from the whole.
Deduce is to reason by deduction or
establish by deduction.
Conclude by reasoning in logic.
Test is a form of abductive reasoning. If it looks like a duck, swims
like a duck, and quacks like a duck, then it probably is a duck. The test
implies that a person can identify an unknown subject by observing that
subject's habitual characteristics. It is sometimes used to counter
abstruse arguments that something is not what it appears to be.
Philosophical Razor is a principle or rule of thumb that allows one to
eliminate unlikely explanations for a phenomenon.
of Elimination -
describes the psychological outcome of a conscious mind reasoning about a
specific subject; the subject is internalized, and the consideration of
the subject is internal.
Transitive Inference is a form of
deductive reasoning that allows one to derive a relation between items
that have not been explicitly compared before. In a general form, TI is
the ability to deduce that if Item B is related to Item C and Item C is
related to Item D, then Item B must be related to Item D.
Syllogism is deductive reasoning in which a
conclusion is derived from two premises.
Reasoning is a method of reasoning in which
the premises are viewed as supplying some
evidence, but not full assurance, for the truth of the conclusion. It
is also described as a method where one's experiences and observations,
including what are learned from others, are synthesized to come up with a
general truth. Many dictionaries define inductive reasoning as the
derivation of general principles from specific observations (arguing from
specific to general), although there are many inductive arguments that do
not have that form. Inductive reasoning is distinct from deductive
reasoning. While the conclusion of a deductive argument is certain, the
truth of the conclusion of an inductive argument is probable, based upon
the evidence given. Inductive Reasoning attempts to support a
determination of the rule.
Inductive Reasoning attempts to support a determination of the rule.
hypothesizes a rule after numerous
examples are taken to be a conclusion
that follows from a precondition in terms of such a rule.
Example: "The grass got wet numerous times when it rained, therefore: the
grass always gets wet when it rains." While they may be persuasive, these
arguments are not deductively valid, see the problem of induction. Science
is associated with this type of reasoning.
Problem of Induction is the philosophical question of
whether inductive reasoning leads to knowledge understood in the classic
philosophical sense, since it focuses on the alleged lack of
for either: Generalizing about the properties of a class of objects based
on some number of observations of particular instances of that class
(e.g., the inference that "all swans we have seen are white, and,
therefore, all swans are white", before the discovery of black swans) or
Presupposing that a sequence of events in the future will occur as it
always has in the past (e.g., that the laws of physics will hold as they
have always been observed to hold). Hume called this the principle of
uniformity of nature.
Mathematical Induction is a mathematical proof technique
used to prove a given statement about any well-ordered set. Most commonly,
it is used to establish statements for the set of all natural numbers.
Abductive Reasoning is a form of logical inference which goes from an
observation to a
theory which accounts for the observation, ideally
seeking to find the simplest and most likely explanation. In abductive
reasoning, unlike in deductive reasoning, the premises do not guarantee
the conclusion. One can understand abductive reasoning as "inference to
the best explanation".
Abductive Reasoning is inference to the best explanation, selects
a cogent set of preconditions. Given a true conclusion and a rule, it
attempts to select some possible premises that, if true also, can support
the conclusion, though not uniquely. Example: "When it rains, the grass
gets wet. The grass is wet. Therefore, it might have rained." This kind of
reasoning can be used to develop a hypothesis, which in turn can be tested
by additional reasoning or data. Diagnosticians, detectives, and
scientists often use this type of reasoning.
Analogical Reasoning or Analogy
Symbolic Reasoning refers to
mathematical logic or first-order predicate logic
and sometimes higher orders. The reasoning is considered to be deductive
when a conclusion is established by means of premises that is the
necessary consequence of it, according to logical inference rules.
How Logical Are
You? (Psychology of Reasoning) (youtube)
Reasoning Systems (Cornell University)
Logical Reasoning can be distinguished in addition to formal
deduction: induction and abduction. Given a precondition or premise, a
conclusion or logical consequence and a rule or material conditional that
implies the conclusion given the precondition, one can explain that:
Deductive reasoning determines whether the truth of a conclusion can
be determined for that rule, based solely on the truth of the premises.
Example: "When it rains, things outside get wet. The grass is outside,
therefore: when it rains, the grass gets wet." Mathematical logic and
philosophical logic are commonly associated with this type of reasoning.
Valid Reasoning verbal inferencing using assumptions and
Causal Reasoning is the process of identifying causality:
the relationship between a
cause and its effect.
Motivated Reasoning is an emotion-biased decision-making phenomenon
studied in cognitive science and social psychology. This term describes
the role of motivation in cognitive processes such as decision-making and
attitude change in a number of paradigms, including: Cognitive dissonance
reduction, Beliefs about others on whom one's own outcomes depend.
Evaluation of evidence related to one's own outcomes.
Reasoning System is a software system that generates
conclusions from available knowledge using logical techniques such as
deduction and induction.
of Thought are fundamental axiomatic rules upon which
rational discourse itself is often
considered to be based. The formulation and clarification of such rules
have a long tradition in the history of philosophy and logic. Generally
they are taken as laws that guide and underlie everyone's
expressions, discussions, etc.
However such classical ideas are often questioned or rejected in more
recent developments, such as intuitionistic logic, dialetheism and fuzzy
a statement in symbolic form that is so
evident or well-established, that it is accepted without controversy or
Procedural Reasoning System is a framework for
constructing real-time reasoning systems that can perform complex tasks in
Dual Process Theory
provides an account of how a phenomenon can occur in two different ways,
or as a result of two different processes.
Case Based Reasoning - Problem Solving
Counterintuitive is a statement that does not seem likely to be true
when assessed using intuition, common sense, or gut feelings.
Evidence Based Practice -
Processing Fluency is the ease with which information is
processed. Perceptual fluency is the ease of processing stimuli based on
manipulations to perceptual quality. Retrieval fluency is the ease with
which information can be retrieved from memory.
Folk Science describes ways of understanding and predicting
the natural and social world, without the use of rigorous methodologies.
Backward Chaining is an inference method that
can be described (in lay terms) as working backward from the goal(s). It
is used in automated theorem provers, inference engines, proof assistants
and other artificial intelligence applications. In game theory, its
application to (simpler) subgames in order to find a solution to the game
is called backward induction. In chess, it is called retrograde analysis,
and it is used to generate table bases for chess endgames for computer
chess. Backward chaining is implemented in logic programming by SLD
resolution. Both rules are based on the modus ponens
inference rule. It is one of the two most commonly used methods of
reasoning with inference rules and logical implications – the other is
forward chaining. Backward chaining systems usually employ a depth-first
is an agent that has clear preferences, models
uncertainty via expected values of
or functions of variables, and always chooses to perform the action with
the optimal expected outcome for itself from among all feasible actions. A
rational agent can be anything that makes decisions, typically a person,
firm, machine, or software. Rational agents are also studied in the fields
of cognitive science,
philosophy, including the
philosophy of practical reason.
The misunderstood limits of folk science: an illusion of
Logical Positivism is the form of
empiricism that bases all
knowledge on perceptual
experience (not on
intuition or revelation).
Debates - Judging
- Calculus - Algebra
Reasonable Doubt -
Probable Cause -
Probability - Statistics
- Determinism -
Moral Certainty is a concept of intuitive probability. It
means a very high degree of probability, sufficient for action, but short
of absolute or mathematical certainty.
The Goal is
Optimal Decision and Mathematical Optimization.
Analogical Modeling is a formal theory of exemplar based
Can your decisions become more rational when thought in another
language? A university of Chicago study showed that Korean
citizens who thought in foreign languages reduced their overall
Levels of Thinking -
Eliminative Materialism is certain classes of mental states
that most people believe in do not exist.
Operations are operations that affect mental contents.
Initially, operations of reasoning have been the object of logic alone.
Understand - Figure it Out
Understand is to
the nature and the meaning of something
in order to judge wisely
Understanding is to become
aware of things through the
senses to have
comprehension, discernment and
Understanding is to
make sense of a language.
is a psychological process related to an
abstract or physical object, such
as a person, situation, or message whereby one is
able to think about it
and use concepts to deal adequately with that object. Understanding is a
relation between the knower and an object of understanding. Understanding
implies abilities and dispositions with respect to an object of
sufficient to support intelligent behavior. PDF.
Discernment is the
cognitive condition of someone who understands. A delicate
discrimination of esthetic values. The mental ability to understand and
discriminate between relations. The
trait of judging wisely and
Figure Out is to understand.
Figure it Out on Your Own.
Come to Terms is to begin to understand or
make an effort to understand something and deal with a difficult or
problematic person, thing, or situation. Accepting the fact that solving
this problem is your responsibility.
Ask for help if needed.
Clarify is to make something clearer
and more comprehensible. Simplify.
Apprehend is to
fully understand and get the meaning of something.
Apprehension is the cognitive condition of
someone who understands. Apprehension can also mean feeling fearful
expectation or anticipation, or the capturing of something.
Fathom is to come to understand. Hard to
Fathom is something difficult to understand or comprehend.
Sense is to comprehend and have sound practical judgment. The
faculty through which
the external world is fully understood.
Become aware of, not just through
the senses but also
natural appreciation or ability. A general conscious
Perceive by a physical sensation, e.g., coming from the skin or
muscles. Detect some circumstance or entity automatically.
The meaning of a word or expression; the way in which a word or
expression or situation can be
Making Sense or
Sense Making (PDF).
An Essay Concerning Human
Cognizant is having or showing
knowledge or understanding or realization or
One extremely important aspect of understanding is the ability to know
that there is another side to a story,
another point of view, another way
to look at something, to have an
open mind, avoiding
jumping to conclusions, and
is within one's means or powers or understanding.
Aspect is a distinct
feature or element in a problem. A characteristic to be considered.
Type I Error -
Type II Error (lie) - Meanings
Perspicacity is a penetrating discernment—a clarity of
vision or intellect which provides a deep understanding and insight.
Catch My Drift means that you are
asking someone if they understand what you mean or what you meant.
Gist is the central meaning or theme of a
speech or literary work. The choicest or most essential or most vital part
of some idea or experience. Gist refers to the grounds on which a legal
action rests. The main idea or most important point of something that
someone has written or said.
Infer - Inference
Inference is the
reasoning involved in drawing a conclusion or
making a logical judgment on the basis of
evidence and prior conclusions rather than on the basis of
direct observation. More of
Inference are steps in reasoning, moving from premises to
conclusions. Knowing the
Inferred is to reason by
and establish by deduction. To conclude by reasoning and logic. Draw from
specific cases for more general cases. To guess correctly or to believe
something to be the case.
Inference is a method of statistical inference in which Bayes' theorem
is used to update the probability for a hypothesis as more evidence or
information becomes available. Bayesian inference is an important
technique in statistics, and especially
in mathematical statistics. Bayesian updating is particularly important in
the dynamic analysis of a sequence of data. Bayesian inference has found
application in a wide range of activities, including science, engineering,
philosophy, medicine, sport, and law. In the philosophy of
decision theory, Bayesian
inference is closely related to subjective probability, often called
Bayesian probability, which is an interpretation of the concept of
probability, in which, instead of frequency
or propensity of some phenomenon, probability is interpreted as reasonable
expectation representing a state of knowledge or as quantification of a
Inference is the process of using data analysis
to deduce properties of an underlying
probability distribution. Inferential statistical analysis infers
properties of a population, for example by testing hypotheses and deriving
estimates. It is assumed that the observed data set is sampled from a
larger population. Inferential statistics can be contrasted with
Descriptive statistics is solely concerned with properties of the
observed data, and it does not rest on the assumption that the data come
from a larger population.
Rules of Inference (wiki)
Analogy is making a
comparison in order to show a
similarity in some respect. An inference that if things
agree in some respects they probably agree in
others. Fallacy -
Analogy or analogical
reasoning, is a cognitive process of
transferring information or
meaning from a particular subject (the
analogue or source) to another (the target), or a linguistic expression
corresponding to such a process. In a
narrower sense, analogy is an inference or an
argument from one particular to
another particular, as opposed to deduction, induction, and abduction,
where at least one of the premises or the conclusion is general. The word
analogy can also refer to the relation
between the source and the target themselves, which is often, though not
necessarily, a similarity, as in the
biological notion of analogy. Analogy plays a significant role in problem
solving, as well as decision making, argumentation, perception,
generalization, memory, creativity, invention, prediction, emotion,
explanation, conceptualization and communication.
Rule of Inference is a logical form consisting of
a function which takes premises, analyzes their syntax, and returns a
conclusion or conclusions. For example, the rule
of inference called modus ponens takes two premises, one in the form "If p
then q" and another in the form "p", and returns the conclusion "q". The
rule is valid with respect to the semantics of classical logic (as well as
the semantics of many other non-classical logics), in the sense that if
the premises are true (under an interpretation), then so is the
conclusion. Typically, a rule of inference preserves truth, a semantic
property. In many-valued logic, it preserves a general designation. But a
rule of inference's action is purely syntactic, and does not need to
preserve any semantic property: any function from sets of formulae to
formulae counts as a rule of inference. Usually only rules that are
recursive are important; i.e. rules such that there is an effective
procedure for determining whether any given formula is the conclusion of a
given set of formulae according to the rule. An example of a rule that is
not effective in this sense is the infinitary ω-rule
Analyze - Analysis
is to consider something in detail and subject to an analysis in order
to discover essential features or meaning.
To make a mathematical, chemical, or grammatical analysis of
something and break down into components or essential features.
Data Analysis -
Information Literacy -
Analysis is an
investigation of the
parts of a whole and their
relations in making up the whole. The abstract
separation of a whole into its constituent parts in order to study the
parts and their relations.
A form of literary criticism in which the
structure of a piece
of writing is analyzed.
A branch of mathematics involving calculus and the theory of
limits; sequences and series and integration and
A set of
Techniques for exploring underlying motives and a
method of treating various
Analysis is the process of breaking a complex topic or
substance into smaller parts in order to gain a better understanding of
Correspondence Analysis is a multivariate
statistical technique that is
conceptually similar to principal component analysis, but applies to
categorical rather than continuous data. In a similar manner to principal
component analysis, it provides a means of displaying or
summarizing a set
of data in
two-dimensional graphical form. All data should be nonnegative and on
the same scale for CA to be applicable, keeping in mind that the method
treats rows and columns
Principal Component Analysis is a statistical procedure that uses an
orthogonal transformation to convert a set of
observations of possibly correlated
into a set of values of linearly uncorrelated variables called principal
is the discovery, interpretation, and communication of meaningful
in data. Especially valuable in areas rich with recorded information,
analytics relies on the simultaneous application of
programming and operations research to quantify performance. Analytics
often favors data visualization to communicate insight.
Meta-Analysis is a statistical analysis
that combines the results of
multiple scientific studies. Meta-analysis can be performed when there
are multiple scientific studies addressing the same question, with each
individual study reporting measurements that are expected to have some
degree of error. The aim then is to use approaches from statistics to
derive a pooled estimate closest to the unknown common truth based on how
this error is perceived. Existing methods for meta-analysis yield a
weighted average from the results of the individual studies, and what
differs is the manner in which these weights are allocated and also the
manner in which the uncertainty is computed around the point estimate thus
generated. In addition to providing an estimate of the unknown common
truth, meta-analysis has the capacity to contrast results from different
studies and identify patterns among study results, sources of disagreement
among those results, or other interesting relationships that may come to
light in the context of multiple
studies. A key benefit of this approach is the aggregation of
information leading to a higher statistical power and more robust point
estimate than is possible from the measure derived from any individual
study. However, in performing a meta-analysis, an investigator must make
choices which can affect the results, including deciding how to search for
studies, selecting studies based on a set of objective criteria, dealing
with incomplete data, analyzing the data, and accounting for or choosing
not to account for publication bias. Judgment calls made in completing a
meta-analysis may affect the results. For example, Wanous and colleagues
examined four pairs of meta-analyses on the four topics of (a) job
performance and satisfaction relationship, (b) realistic job previews, (c)
correlates of role conflict and ambiguity, and (d) the job satisfaction
and absenteeism relationship, and illustrated how various
made by the researchers produced different results. Meta-analyses are
often, but not always, important components of a systematic review
procedure. For instance, a meta-analysis may be conducted on several
clinical trials of a medical
treatment, in an effort to obtain a better understanding of how well the
treatment works. Here it is convenient to follow the terminology used by
the Cochrane Collaboration, and use "meta-analysis" to refer to
statistical methods of combining evidence, leaving other aspects of
'research synthesis' or 'evidence synthesis', such as combining
information from qualitative studies, for the more general context of
systematic reviews. A meta-analysis is a secondary source.
Intelligence Analysis is the application of individual and collective
cognitive methods to weigh
data and test hypotheses within a secret socio-cultural context. The
analyst must correlate the similarities among
deceptions and extract a
is the ability to
conceptualize or solve both
complex and uncomplicated problems by making decisions that are sensible
given the available information. Such
skills include demonstration of the
ability to apply logical thinking to breaking complex problems into their
Complex Analysis is the branch of mathematical analysis that
investigates functions of complex numbers. It is useful in many branches
of mathematics, including algebraic geometry, number theory, analytic
combinatorics, applied mathematics; as well as in physics, including the
branches of hydrodynamics, thermodynamics, and particularly quantum
mechanics. By extension, use of complex analysis also has applications in
engineering fields such as nuclear, aerospace, mechanical and electrical
engineering. As a differentiable function of a complex variable is equal
to the sum of its Taylor series (that is, it is analytic), complex
analysis is particularly concerned with analytic functions of a complex
variable (that is, holomorphic functions).
Mathematical Analysis is the branch of mathematics
dealing with limits and related theories, such as differentiation,
integration, measure, infinite series, and analytic functions. These
theories are usually studied in the context of real and complex numbers
and functions. Analysis evolved from calculus, which involves the
elementary concepts and techniques of analysis. Analysis may be
distinguished from geometry; however, it can be applied to any space of
mathematical objects that has a definition of nearness (a topological
space) or specific distances between objects (a metric space).
There's a lot to Unpack Here means that
something needs to be analyzed very carefully and have its component
elements recognized and understood.
Sigmund Freud (wiki) - Sanity
- Therapy (counseling)
Evaluation is a systematic determination of a
merit, worth and significance, using criteria governed by a set of
standards. It can assist an organization, program, project or any other
intervention or initiative to assess any aim, realisable concept/proposal,
or any alternative, to help in decision-making; or to ascertain the degree
of achievement or value in regard to the aim and objectives and results of
any such action that has been completed. The primary purpose of
evaluation, in addition to gaining insight into prior or existing
initiatives, is to enable reflection and assist in the identification of
Physical Examination is the
process by which a medical professional investigates the body of a
patient for signs of disease. It generally follows the taking of the
medical history—an account of the symptoms as experienced by the patient.
Together with the medical history, the
physical examination aids in
determining the correct diagnosis and devising the treatment plan. This
data then becomes part of the medical record.
Processing is preparing or putting through a prescribed
procedure. Subject to
a process or treatment, with the aim of readying for some
purpose, improving, or remedying a condition. Perform
mathematical and logical operations on (data) according to
programmed instructions in order to obtain the required
information. Deal with in a routine way.
Processing - Problem
is concerned with practical matters. Guided by practical
Experience and observation rather than
Pragmatism Consider the practical effects of the objects of
your conception. Then, your conception of those effects is the whole of
your conception of the object.
Fundamental is being or involving basic
Facts or principles. Far-reaching and thoroughgoing in
effect especially on the nature of something. Any
Factor that could be considered important to the
understanding of a particular business.
Abstraction is a conceptual process by which general rules
and concepts are derived from the usage and classification of specific
examples, literal ("real" or "concrete") signifiers, first principles, or
Formal System any well-defined
abstract thought based on the model
Formal Methods are a particular kind of mathematically based
techniques for the specification, development and verification of software
and hardware systems.
Extrapolate is to gain
extrapolating something that was not known before or experienced before.
the value of something by drawing from specific cases and not
from more general cases. To extend
the application of a method or conclusion of an unknown situation by assuming that existing trends will
continue or similar methods will be applicable based on
is the process of
estimating, beyond the original
observation range, the
value of a
variable on the basis of its
relationship with another
Judge - Judgments
is the capacity to
assess situations or circumstances
accurately in order to draw
The mental ability to understand and discriminate between
relations. The act of judging or
assessing a person or situation
or event accurately. The
cognitive process of reaching a
decision that is based on
is to evaluate or
estimate the nature,
quality, ability, extent, value
or significance of.
Decision Making -
Morals - Ethics
- Judgmental (criticize) -
Sound Judgment is the capacity to
assess situations or circumstances shrewdly and
to draw sound or valid conclusions.
Sagacity is showing keen
and good judgment.
Shrewd is having
sharp powers of judgment.
having an ability to
situations or people and turn this to one's advantage.
Judgment is the evaluation
of evidence to make a decision.
Legal Terms -
What is a Judge? -
Accusation is a formal charge of
wrongdoing brought against a person;
the act of imputing blame
or guilt. An assertion that someone is guilty of a
Correct is something that is free from
error and also adapts to fact or
truth so as to achieve
accuracy. Being correct is
also in accord with accepted standards of usage and procedures.
Explain - Explanations
Explanation is a statement that makes something
comprehensible by describing
the relevant structure or operation or circumstances etc..
Words that makes something comprehensible and makes something plain or intelligible.
Explain is to make something
comprehensible and plain and simple
to understand. To give details
and define the scope and structure. Serve as a reason,
justification of something.
Explanation (wiki) -
Teaching (instruction) - Justification
Define is to determine the essential
quality of something or give a definition for
something or the meaning of a word.
Determine the nature of something by giving
Directions is a message describing
how something is to be done. Something that provides direction
or advice as to a decision or course of action. A formal
statement of a command or injunction to do something. The
concentration of attention or energy on something. Showing the
Guide is someone who shows the way
by leading or
advising. Something that offers
or Instruction. Someone
who can find paths through unexplored
having something represented accurately or precisely. Show the form or outline
of. Determine the essential quality of.
Trace the shape of. Make a mark or lines on a surface. Describe
in vivid detail.
Describe is to represent in words especially with sharpness and detail. To
give an account or representation of in
Give a description of.
Determine is to establish after a calculation,
survey, or study. Reach, make, or come to a decision about
Find out, learn, or determine with certainty, usually by making
an inquiry or other effort.
Alternative is one of a number of things from
which only one can be chosen. Serving or used in place of
Necessitating a choice between mutually exclusive
The freedom or right to choose. Choice.
Intelligible is something capable of being apprehended or
understood. Express clearly, and loud enough to be heard distinctly.
Logical Argument is a course of
reasoning aimed at demonstrating a truth or
falsehood; the methodical process of logical reasoning.
Principles is the knowledge that
is accepted as true
that can be used as a basis for reasoning or
as a rule or guide for personal conduct.
Law or assumption concerning a
natural phenomenon or the function of
a complex system.
A rule or standard, especially for
In law, principles are an explanation of the
fundamental reasons, especially an explanation of the working of
device in terms of the laws of nature. Having
principles is Knowing the differences
between a Lie and an
Error and a
Principle is a law or
rule that is usually followed so as to avoid an inevitable
something, such as the laws observed in nature or the way that a system is
constructed. The principles of such a system are understood by its users
as the essential characteristics of the
system, or reflecting
system's designed purpose, and the
effective operation or use of which would
be impossible if any one of the principles was to be ignored.
Principle is a concept or value that is a guide for behavior or
evaluation. In law, it is a rule that has to be or usually is to be
followed, or can be desirably followed, or is an inevitable consequence of
something, such as the laws observed in nature or the way that a system is
constructed. The principles of such a system are understood by its users
as the essential characteristics of the system, or reflecting system's
designed purpose, and the effective operation or use of which would be
impossible if any one of the principles was to be ignored.
Ethics - Conscience
Conclude - Conclusions
Conclusion is a
judgment reached after consideration. An intuitive
assumption. The proposition arrived at by logical
reasoning (such as the proposition that must follow from the
major and minor premises of a syllogism).
The act of making up your mind about something.
The truth as Far as you know.
Concluding is to decide by
or come to a conclusion. Reach a conclusion after a
What We Know So Far.
Conclude is to bring to a close or end.
The temporal end; the
concluding time. The bottom line is, we have to
act sooner or later.
is a section or speech at the end of
a book or play that serves as a comment on or a conclusion to what has
happened. An epilogue or epilog is a piece of writing at the end of a work
of literature, usually used to bring closure to the work. It is presented
from the perspective of within the story. When the author steps in and
speaks directly to the reader, that is more properly considered an
afterword. Excerpt -
Motivation Words -
Learning Words -
Valid Words -
Problem Solving Words.
Human Operating System (HOS)
HOS is another way of describing your base
knowledge and the constructs that you use when understanding yourself and
world around you. You have to understand the hardware if you want to
good software. The human brain is
the most powerful machine on
the world, so it makes perfect sense that the most powerful machine in
the world should have the most powerful software
in the world. Types Of Operating Systems.
Cognitive Architecture is a comprehensive computer model
structure of the
Conceptual Framework is an analytical tool used to make conceptual
organize ideas. Strong
conceptual frameworks capture something real and do this in a way that is
easy to remember and apply.
Operational Intelligence is a category of real-time dynamic, business
analytics that delivers visibility and insight into data, streaming events
and business operations. OI solutions run queries against
feeds and event data to deliver analytic results as
instructions. OI provides organizations the ability to make decisions and
immediately act on these analytic insights, through manual or automated
To write code
for a computer you have to understand how the
interpret the code and how the
operating system will translate the
code to the user. To educate or write code for a human you have to
understand how a human will interpret the
information and understand how the
human will use the information. Human Language is the Code. The Human body
and mind is the machine. Human Behavior is the output.
Human language can only be interpreted using
human language. You need code to read code. a symbol or
word needs a definition. We understand
how a computer works. When we write the code for a computer machine we
know that the computer will understand the code because we built the
machine to understand the code and how to translate electrical signals
into a language. A computer machine is
similar to the
human mind, both have processing abilities,
and both need code or language to work effectively and efficiently. But
human software needs more attention than machine software. If human
software does not advance and get updated like our machine software
counterparts, then the human will become
will not save us. Only intelligent humans who know how to use technology
can save us. We are killing ourselves because we are not educating
ourselves. Every child who is not given a quality education is a wasted
opportunity and wasted potential. And every adult who is not
educated is a
vulnerability and a
possible danger to themselves and everyone around them. We must
prepare our children and hope that we can prepare our adults, because the
stubbornness of the adults is
killing us. Brain and Computer Similarities.
You need different software to
process different information. You need photo software to process
photographic images. And you need to have word software to process words,
sentences, letters and things that are related to writing, so that you can
write effectively and efficiently. You need the
correct software in order to process a particular set of information. So
in the same sense, a person needs the correct
mindset of knowledge that is needed to process a unique set of
information, effectively and efficiently. You don't send a plumber to do a
endowing a robot with intelligent behavior by providing it with a
processing architecture that will allow it to learn and reason about how
to behave in response to complex goals in a complex world.
Brain-inspired computing 2D device that can provide more than
yes-or-no answers and could be more brain-like than current computing
Hierarchy (learning styles) -
Action Selection is a way of characterizing the most basic
problem of intelligent systems:
what to do next?
Intelligent Agent is an autonomous entity which observes
through sensors and acts
upon an environment using actuators and directs its activity towards
Intelligent Control is a class of
control techniques that
use various artificial intelligence computing approaches like
networks, Bayesian probability, fuzzy logic,
Machine Learning, evolutionary computation and genetic algorithms.
Artificial Intelligence (machine learning) -
What would be the
Algorithm for Learning? You would have to write a lot of
Patch in computing is a piece of software designed to update a computer
program or its supporting data, to fix or improve it.
Organizing Knowledge Cognitively is a system of grouping and
categorizing our brain to use, sort and store information. System changes
and adapts as the amount of knowledge about a particular subject changes
Artificial Curiosity and Creativity (wiki)
research that aims to develop software and hardware with
abilities similar to those of the animal or human brain.
Human Operators Manual has been updated.
Life Operators Manual (youtube - Tom Shadyac, Michael D.
Palm sented Life's Operating Manual)
Human Source Code -
Refactoring The Human Body -
Machine Language (code)
Feed Back (cause
and effect) -
Predictive Analytics (planning)
Category-Based Intrinsic Motivation (PDF)
Mindfulness is being
aware of your thoughts, being aware of
how you feel. An examination of the mind, questioning accuracy.
is the set of cognitive faculties that enables consciousness, perception,
thinking, judgment, and memory—a characteristic of humans, but which also
may apply to other life forms.
Language of Thought Hypothesis
is when language controls thinking, similar
to the way that computer software
This is your
working memory, the
Awareness is more then a skill that one needs to learn,
awareness is about having a full understanding of
cause and effect, and how everything in this world, in one
way or another, is
Development of Autonomy in Adolescence (PDF)
Automaticity is the ability to do things without occupying
the mind with the low-level details required, allowing it to become an
automatic response pattern or habit. It is usually the result of learning,
repetition, and practice.
- Habits -
Cognitive Load refers to the total amount of mental effort being used
in the working memory. Intrinsic cognitive load is the effort associated
with a specific topic. Extraneous cognitive load refers to the way
information or tasks are presented to a learner. And, germane cognitive
load refers to the work put into creating a permanent store of knowledge,
or a schema.
Schema is an Organized Pattern of Thought or
Manual Controls and
Procedural Memory is a type of implicit memory
or unconscious memory
and long-term memory which aids the performance of particular types of
tasks without conscious awareness of these previous experiences.
Procedural memory guides the processes we perform and most frequently
resides below the level of conscious awareness. When needed, procedural
memories are automatically retrieved and utilized for the execution of the
integrated procedures involved in both cognitive and motor skills, from
tying shoes to flying an airplane to reading. Procedural memories are
accessed and used without the need for conscious control or attention.
Procedural memory is created through procedural learning or, repeating a
complex activity over and over again until all of the relevant neural
systems work together to automatically produce the activity. Implicit
procedural learning is essential for the development of any motor skill or
Rule - Rote Learning -
brains have a basic algorithm that enables our intelligence,
Imagine using a
computer without an
Operating System and having no
system controls and
Hardware, and at the same time having no coordination
or management of priorities. You would have a very difficult
time trying to accomplish even the simplest task. Now imagine a
Human without an operating system. Well you can’t, because you
don’t know what a Human Operating System is yet. Just like if
you never used a computer you would have no idea what it would
be like using a computer without an operating system. Most of us
have a crappie operating system already thanks to our
dysfunctional education system. We should have been given an
Open Sourced Operating System instead of a
Monopolized and dysfunctional operating system. So let me give you a brief description of what a Human
Operating System is like, or supposed to be like. Remember that
the original definition of a computer was “A human who preformed
calculations”. But when the electronic computer was developed
then the definition changed or evolved. Not understanding the immediate
similarities between a computer and a
Human Brain was a huge
mistake. While the computer went through incredible advances and
improvements in a short period of time, the human counter part
did not. In less then 50 years an
computer went from being the size of a house and costing 3
million dollars to the size of a book costing less then $500.00.
Of course the
Moore's Law was not followed or most likely ignored when we
designed cars and other consumer items. Because If cars had gone
through those same improvements a car today would get a thousand
miles to the gallon and cost the same as a computer. This was
Planned Obsolescence, which is a
blatant crime that is still
happening today. (Pyramids
of Waste aka The Light bulb Conspiracy, 2010). So if we made
the same advances and improvements in educating the human brain we would
have hundreds of millions of intellectuals solving all the worlds
problems. But sadly today we only have a few thousand intellectuals that
are mostly being exploited and underutilized.
"When you first
turn on your computer you want your computer to be ready to accomplish the
actions that you need to have done. When you first wake up every day, you
want your brain to be ready to accomplish actions that you need to have
done. You don't want your brain to randomly process information all the
time. You need to be able to manually switch on the brain and focus on
your current needs and
responsibilities. If not, then
you will always be distracted and become
inefficient, and not just with your actions, but with your thoughts as
Machine Code is a set of instructions executed directly by a
computer's central processing unit (CPU). Each instruction performs a very
specific task, such as a load, a jump, or an ALU operation on a unit of
data in a CPU register or memory. Every program directly executed by a CPU
is made up of a series of such
Source Code is any collection of computer instructions,
(possibly with comments), written using a human-readable computer
language, usually as ordinary text.
Code - Programming -
Algorithms - Operating Systems
encoded information or computer instructions, in contrast to the physical
hardware from which the system is built.
An HOS will need to be activated, like
"We update our appliances, our TV's, our
phones, our computers, but we never update our brains, why? Why
did everything else improved fairly quickly except for our
Before the Human Operating System language is written here
are a few things that will outline some of its structure.
The Human Operating System will be continually learning and
improving so it will never become stagnate or repetitive.
Human Operating System will not be able to keep you from making
mistakes, but it will make you better at learning from mistakes.
Human Operating System will not dehumanize you or deprive you
of human qualities, but it will make you more aware of how
important those qualities are.
Human Operating System will not keep you from spontaneity, but
it will make you more aware of your actions.
Human Operating System will not stop you from loving, but it
will make you more aware of how important love is.
Human Operating System will have complete knowledge and control
of the human brain, for this is where the Human Operating System
resides, communicates and moves through the metaphysical world.
Human Operating System will have complete knowledge and control
of the human body that it operates in, for this is how it
communicates and moves through the physical world.
Human Operating System will be a coordinator and manager of
responsibilities and priorities and act like a conscience.
The Human Operating System will be a Collective Intelligent
Consensus where everyone is a contributor.
The Human Operating System is not Mind Control or in anyway
Mind Programming. The Human Operating System is Systems
Operational Intelligence or
Mind Management with some elements becoming
Automatic but always flexible. You are the manager who is in
control of your mind. If you do not know how to manage your own
mind then you are vulnerable to manipulation and propaganda,
which can create a distorted sense of reality. And when your
sense of reality becomes distorted you are always vulnerable to
mind controlling manipulation. A great source of mind
controlling manipulation is your
TV, If you do not believe this
or realize this, it means that you have a distorted sense of
reality and are very vulnerable to manipulation and propaganda.
You are not a free thinker, your are merely a robot waiting for
your next command.
The Human Operating System (HOS)
will consist of all the
Disciplines in Basic Knowledge 101
as well as a
Conceptual Framework made up of
Thought Processes, Thinking Styles,
Deductive Reasoning and
Cognitive Abilities to help increase the capacity to think
logically about the relationships among concepts and situations
and to justify and ultimately prove the correctness of a
mathematical procedure or assertion.
When the HOS is created,
it will also be used as Artificial Intelligence. The only
difference is AI will have fixed parameters, because knowing
what AI is supposed to do creates stability and consistency,
something that you can count on, unlike a human. Ai will be like
having a very intelligent friend who keeps you aware and up to date.
Continued from above
HOS. (off on a tangent) -
It’s kind of weird that the Windows OS is very similar to our
dysfunctional education system. They both
Stifled Innovation and hindered
improvements and growth, which of course harms everyone, and
everything. We can no longer afford to allow this to continue.
If we are to improve and prosper we need to do what’s right for
the good of everyone and not just what’s right for the sake of a
single corporation, or a few individuals. The separation of State and People is
ridicules and absurd. If a law infringes on the rights and
freedoms of the individual, our groups of individuals, then that
is not a law for it is an attack on itself. America has more
lawyers then most nations combined, and this is the best that we
can come up with? If you cannot fully explain your reasoning
then you have no reason to be there. The power of decision needs
to be openly debated and not decided in the dark behind closed
doors. But, here we are.
Similarities between a Computer and the Human Brain
This is not to say that a computer and the human brain are the
same, because there are many differences. But when you examine the
similarities, you begin to understand
the genius in the design of both machines. So instead of a computer just being a tool
for processing information, it
has become a reflection of ourselves, and not just an extension of
ourselves. On or Off?
the similarities between a computer and the Human brain. Both
are used to process information, perform calculations,
information and carry out responsibilities and priorities. A
computer is also doing things behind the scenes just like the
Human Brain does.
Like when the brain tells the heart to beat
faster or slower, telling the lungs to breath more air, and
telling the immune system to fight infections. A computer has
many parts. A Human brain also has many parts. Knowing and
understanding computer parts helps with maintaining its proper
operation. Knowing and
understanding the parts of the human
brain will also have the same benefit. What happens to a human when they don’t get their
regular updates of information and
knowledge like computers do when they get their
of virus definitions? People also get 'The
Blue Screen of Death'. People have that blank stare of
ignorance on their face, not knowing what to do and not knowing
what to say. Is this just a computer malfunction or people
just behaving badly? Understanding the differences between
an ignorant person and a highly educated person is similar to
understanding the differences between a computer and a human brain.
Damages or malfunctions in either a computer or a human brain can make
understanding anything nearly impossible.
intelligent machine can easily look more intelligent to an ignorant
person, while a highly educated person will see the same intelligent
machine as having many limits. So this conversation about the similarities
between a computer and the human brain can only be clearly understood when
people are more educated about both. Don't ever assume
that you know enough. You can only make a point
about a specific set of circumstances. You can not
generalize about all the differences or the similarities, because
there are just too many variables to explain.
Wetware is a term drawn from the computer-related idea of hardware or
software, but applied to biological life forms. Human brain cells or
thought processes regarded as analogous to, or in contrast with, computer
It's not so unusual to think
that there are similarities between a computer and a human
brain, after all, computers are made by humans. And the
humans who designed these computers have a high degree of knowledge about
language and logic. So your computer engineer and your computer
programmers possess a system of tools and language that are very useful to
educators. Teaching a computer has some of the same instruction elements
as teaching a human. The language, the structure, the organizing, the
processing, the allocating, the actions and the desired outputs. If people
understood how a computer works, understood its language and its
computational abilities, understood how the system works and communicates,
you can easily see similarities in its logic, logic that was created by a
human. To come up with a source code was understanding how we learn. If
you look at the whole computer as a engineering design, you see many
effective ways to process information.
When humans learn useful knowledge, that Knowledge writes algorithms in the brain in order
to make effective and efficient use of that knowledge, which is similar to
AI algorithms. So we are coming full circle.
Humans algorithms are chemical based, and
Intelligent Algorithms are digital based.
Why is the Human Brain similar to a
Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human traits, emotions, and intentions to
and is considered to be an innate tendency of human psychology.
Mind Files -
You don't need a Computer Chip implanted in your Body
The Internet is a Human Global Brain.
(Time-Based Structure - Space-Based Structure)
Why is Behavior like a Computer Program?
Information is verified
Data that are
correct and free from
(words, letters, numbers, diagrams, symbols).
Knowledge is Skills
Experience and the
Wisdom is the ability to apply knowledge and
Information into the correct
Action to achieve a
Goal. Wisdom is showing good
Reasoning and good judgment by
Wisdom is also understanding the future and the different events that might happen, being
because some changes might be indications that bigger changes are coming so good
Preparation and Planning is needed.
is a language with a
set of instructions that computers (or person) use to
perform specific operations or to exhibit desired behaviors.
Program is a
series of steps to be carried out or
goals to be accomplished. A
of projects or services intended to meet a public need.
Computer Program is
a sequence of
instructions that a computer can interpret and execute. Similar to
Cognitive Process is the
performance of some composite
An operation that affects mental contents.
between a Computer and the Human Brain...Continued
neural networks in computers are actually similar to the
synapses and neurons
in the human brain. And the Integrated Circuits, or IC’s, of a
computer are also similar in design to synapses and neurons,
which are also either on or off. Humans have a processor similar
in design as a computer does. The similarities between a
computer and a human are uncanny. So in a sense we have actually
been, accidentally or indirectly, building a Human Operating
System, and in a way being totally unaware of these
Neural connectionists will become teachers and not just
programmers. Of course the Human Operating System is not a new
idea. Just like many inventions and
innovations in our past we
are just again realizing the true potential of our knowledge.
Computational theory of mind, connectionism, cognitive
psychology, cognitive science, neuroscience and philosophy of
mind have all been around for a long time. So instead of humans
mostly running off their Radom Access Memory, or RAM, we should
all have a Human Operating System that helps us govern our lives
and keeps us aware and continually learning while at the same
time improving ourselves and our world. The
human brain is a
Hard Drive. Some people are walking around with a few
Gigs of information while others are walking around with
thousands of Gigs of information. People with less information will always
be at a disadvantage internally and externally.
The main difference
between analog and digital computers is not in what they do, but how they
do it. Analog
computers process information in a continuous fashion and can handle a
wide range of naturally occurring processes. An analog computer receives
one or more variables and produces a result that represents the
relationships between the input variables. Perhaps the simplest example of
an analog computer is an oscilloscope. It receives vertical and horizontal
signals, and produces a visual trace on the oscilloscope screen. The
oscilloscope does not truly compute, but puts the input signals in the
desired relationship. More generally, the relationship is called a
function. Electronic analog devices are capable of producing various
mathematical and logical functions, including logarithms, integration, and
differentiation. Some complex functions may not be solvable with digital
computers, but analog computers can usually handle them well. The main
disadvantage of analog computers is that they are hardwired and designed
to process only a limited number of functions by means of dedicated
electronic devices. This deficit is eliminated in digital computers.
Digital computers represent information in
binary states of 0's
(zeros) or 1's (ones). A "0" usually stands for low voltage (close to zero
volts), and a "1" means that a voltage (usually 5 V or 3.3 V) is present.
One wire connection is represented by one bit of information. The value of
the bit is "0" or "1." Two bits can represent two wires. Each bit can have
the values of "0" or "1" at different times, which allows to represent
four unique states or events with the values 00, 01, 10, and 11. The state
00 means that both wires have no voltage applied at a given time, and 11
means that both wires have the nominal voltages present at the same time.
By increasing the number of wire connections, long strings of 0's and 1's
(words) can be produced. Each unique combination of 0's and 1's is decoded
and represents a unique number, or information in general. A set of
related wires is referred to as a bus. A bus can have 64 or more wire
connections arranged in parallel and is controlled by a microprocessor.
The microprocessor determines what kind of information is put on the bus
at a specific time. It could be memory address, content of the memory
address, or operating code (instruction to perform an action). The
transfer of information over the bus is controlled by a software program.
The arrangement allows the use of the same hardware (the same physical
devices) to process very different information at different times. Since
the computing is done one variable at a time and is controlled by a timing
protocol, a digital computer does serial processing of information. This
statement is not totally correct, because all bits of the same word are
processed concurrently. But in the analog computer, all input variables
can be processed at the same time, which allows parallel processing.
Overall, the analog computer better reflects the natural world because
specific functions are associated with dedicated wires and circuitry. Also
human senses have dedicated sensors with direct neural connections to the
brain. Each human eye has about 120 high-quality megapixels. A really good
digital camera has about 16 megapixels. The numbers of megapixels between
the eye and the camera are not that dramatically different, but the
digital camera has no permanent wire connections between the physical
sensors and the optical, computational, and memory functions of the
camera. The microprocessor input and output need to be multiplexed to
properly channel the flow of the arriving and exiting information.
Similarly, the functional heart of a digital computer only time-shares its
faculties with the attached devices: memory, camera, speaker, or printer.
If such an arrangement existed in the human brain, you could do only one
function at a time. You could look, then think, and then stretch out your
hand to pick up an object. But you could not speak, see, hear, think,
move, and feel at the same time. These problems could be solved by
operating numerous microprocessors concurrently, but the hardware would be
too difficult to design, too bulky to package, and too expensive to
implement. By contrast, parallel processing poses no problem in the human
brain. Neurons are tiny, come to life in huge numbers, and form
connections spontaneously. Just as important is energy efficiency. Human
brains require negligible amounts of energy, and power dissipation does
not overheat the brain. A computer as complex as the human brain would
need its own power plant with megawatts of power, and a heat sink the size
of a city.
People and animals come in various shapes and sizes, and
with many imperfections. Living things are not designed to last unchanged
a lifetime. Living bodies interact with the environment and adjust to it.
Furry animals shed their coats in the summer and grow more hair in the
winter. A crab sheds its protective shell when it becomes small and grows
a new one. A shark loses its teeth and replaces them with a new set. A
lizard loses its tail and grows a new one. A polar bear has developed a
special fur to negotiate the cold environment of the Arctic ocean. A seal
insulates itself with extra blubber. A tree in a hot climate moves its
leaves vertically to reduce evaporation. All living things respond to
their surroundings, change their "mental strategies", and also modify
their bodies. The reason for these abilities is that living organisms are
not only biological machines, but also manufacturing plants that support
reproduction, maintenance, and remodeling of the organisms in response to
environmental effects. No man-made machine can do this.
to think that neurons are essentially
binary, given that they fire an
action potential if they reach a certain threshold, and otherwise do not
fire. This superficial similarity to digital
“1’s and 0’s” belies a wide
variety of continuous and non-linear processes that directly influence
neuronal processing. Inside each and every neuron is a leaky integrator
circuit, composed of a variety of ion channels and continuously
fluctuating membrane potentials.
"The brain works somewhat
like both a computer and a chemical factory. Brain cells produce
electrical signals and send them from cell to cell along
pathways called circuits. As in a computer, these circuits
receive, process, store, and retrieve information. Unlike a
computer, however, the brain creates its electrical signals by
chemical means. The proper functioning of the brain depends on
many complicated chemical substances produced by brain cells."
"People will normally look at software
before they load it on to their computer, but for some reason
people don't bother to carefully look at the information that
they take into their mind on a daily basis. It's like reading
without having any comprehension. If you are not fully aware of
what you're feeding into your mind, then learning doesn't
Questions do you think you need
to ask in order to fully understand something?
"If you consume healthy food, it will give you energy for a day,
but if you consume a little bit of knowledge each day, you will
have energy for your entire life."
System is a set of instructions that manages computer hardware
resources and provides common services for computer programs,
input and output and Memory Allocation. Acts as an
intermediary between programs.
A collection of software (Information) that manages computer hardware
resources and provides common services for computer programs.
The operating system is a vital component of the
System Software in a
computer system. Application programs usually require an operating system to
function. Software that controls the execution of computer programs and may provide
Time-sharing operating systems
Schedule Tasks for efficient use of the system
and may also include accounting for cost allocation of
processor time, mass
storage, printing, and other resources. For hardware functions such as input and output and
memory allocation, the
operating system acts as an intermediary between programs and the computer
hardware, although the application code is usually executed directly by
the hardware and will frequently make a system call to an OS function or be
interrupted by it. Operating systems can be found on almost any device that
contains a computer—from cellular phones and video game consoles to
Real-Time Operating System is used to
scientific instruments, industrial systems and
appliances. Has very little
user-interface capability and no end-user utilities.
RTOS is an operating system (OS) intended to serve
real-time applications that process
data as it comes in, typically without buffer delays. Processing time
requirements (including any OS delay) are measured in tenths of seconds or
shorter increments of time. They either are event driven or time sharing.
Event driven systems switch
between tasks based on their
priorities while time sharing systems switch the task based on clock
interrupts. A key characteristic of an RTOS is the level of its
consistency concerning the amount of time it takes to accept and complete
an application's task; the variability is jitter. A hard real-time
operating system has less jitter than a soft real-time
operating system. The chief design goal is not high throughput, but
rather a guarantee of a soft or hard performance category. An RTOS that
can usually or generally meet a deadline is a soft real-time OS, but if it
can meet a deadline deterministically it is a hard real-time OS. An RTOS
has an advanced
for scheduling. Scheduler
flexibility enables a wider, computer-system orchestration of process
priorities, but a real-time OS is more frequently dedicated to a narrow
set of applications. Key factors in a real-time OS are minimal interrupt
latency and minimal thread switching latency; a real-time OS is valued
more for how quickly or how predictably it can respond than for the amount
of work it can perform in a given period of time.
Computing describes hardware and software systems subject to a
"real-time constraint", for example from event to system response.
Real-time programs must guarantee response within specified time
constraints, often referred to as "deadlines". The correctness of these
types of systems depends on their temporal aspects as well as their
functional aspects. Real-time responses are often understood to be in the
order of milliseconds, and sometimes microseconds. A system not specified
as operating in real time cannot usually guarantee a response within any
timeframe, although typical or expected response times may be given. A
real-time system has been described as one which "controls an environment
by receiving data, processing them, and returning the results sufficiently
quickly to affect the
environment at that time." The term "real-time" is also used in
simulation to mean that the simulation's clock runs at the same speed as a
real clock, and in process control and enterprise systems to mean "without
significant delay". Real-time software may use one or more of the
following: synchronous programming languages, real-time operating systems,
and real-time networks, each of which provide essential frameworks on
which to build a real-time software application. Systems used for many
mission critical applications must be real-time, such as for control of
fly-by-wire aircraft, or anti-lock brakes on a vehicle, which must produce
maximum deceleration but intermittently stop braking to prevent skidding.
Real-time processing fails if not completed within a specified deadline
relative to an event; deadlines must always be met, regardless of system
Event in computing is an action or occurrence recognized by software,
asynchronously from the external environment, that may be handled by
the software. Computer events can be generated or triggered by the system,
by the user or in other ways. Typically, events are handled synchronously
with the program flow, that is, the software may have one or more
dedicated places where events are handled, frequently an event loop. A
source of events includes the user, who may interact with the software by
way of, for example, keystrokes on the keyboard. Another source is a
hardware device such as a timer. Software can also trigger its own set of
events into the event loop, e.g. to communicate the completion of a task.
Software that changes its behavior in response to events is said to be
event-driven, often with the goal of being interactive.
is a form of
input/output processing that permits other processing to continue
before the transmission has finished. Input and output (I/O) operations on
a computer can be extremely slow compared to the processing of data. An
I/O device can incorporate mechanical devices that must physically move,
such as a hard drive seeking a track to read or write; this is often
orders of magnitude slower than the switching of electric current. For
example, during a disk operation that takes ten milliseconds to perform, a
processor that is clocked at one gigahertz could have performed ten
million instruction-processing cycles.
Preemption in computing is the act of temporarily interrupting a task
being carried out by a computer system, without requiring its cooperation,
and with the intention of resuming the task at a later time. Such changes
of the executed task are known as context switches. It is normally carried
out by a privileged task or part of the system known as a preemptive
scheduler, which has the power to preempt, or interrupt, and later resume,
other tasks in the system.
- Multitasking -
Single-User Operating System has a reliable single hard-wired program
designed to run one program at a time so that it runs on time consistently to
insure safe operation.
Single-User Multi-Tasking Operating System runs several programs in
operation at the same time. Like desktop and laptop computers, and humans.
Embedded Operating System is a small, reliable system specially
designed and built to do one specific task, such as control your
appliance, and cannot be user-instructed to perform other tasks easily. A
typical example of such an embedded system is in your microwave oven,
which is the electrical operating system that causes the oven to heat and
cook food, and the computer operating system that translates directions
from the controls to the electrical operating system. Embedded system is
an operating system for embedded computer systems. This type of operating
system is typically designed to be resource-efficient and reliable.
Resource efficiency comes at the cost of losing some functionality or
granularity that larger computer operating systems provide, including
functions which may not be used by the specialized applications they run.
Distributed Operating System is a software over a collection of
independent, networked, communicating, and physically separate
computational nodes. They handle jobs which are serviced by multiple CPUs.
Each individual node holds a specific software subset of the global
aggregate operating system. Each subset is a composite of two distinct
service provisioners. The first is a ubiquitous minimal
microkernel, that directly controls that node’s hardware. Second is a
higher-level collection of system management components that coordinate
the node's individual and collaborative activities. These components
microkernel functions and support user applications. The microkernel
and the management components collection work together. They support the
system’s goal of integrating multiple resources and processing
functionality into an efficient and stable system. This seamless
integration of individual nodes into a global system is referred to as
transparency, or single system image; describing the illusion provided to
users of the global system’s appearance as a single computational entity.
Operating System allows for input from several different users at the same
Robot Operating System
is a collection of software frameworks for robot software development,
Robotics middleware) providing operating system-like
functionality on a heterogeneous computer cluster. ROS provides standard
operating system services such as hardware abstraction, low-level device
control, implementation of commonly used functionality, message-passing
between processes, and package management. Running sets of ROS-based
processes are represented in a graph architecture where processing takes
place in nodes that may receive, post and multiplex sensor, control,
state, planning, actuator and other messages. Despite the importance of
reactivity and low latency in robot control, ROS, itself, is not a
real-time OS (RTOS), though it is possible to integrate ROS with real-time
code. The lack of support for real-time systems is being addressed in the
creation of ROS 2.0. Software in the ROS Ecosystem can be separated into
three groups: language-and platform-independent tools used for building
and distributing ROS-based software; ROS client library implementations
such as roscpp, rospy, and roslisp; packages containing
application-related code which uses one or more ROS client libraries.
Human Operating System (HOS)
Operating System needs
software to be loaded in
sequential order. In order
for human to develop, development must be in
That means that education and what we learn should have
sequential order. But no one has defined what to learn or when
to learn it. Computer programmers wrote the code for an
operating system, teachers will write the language for a
learning system. The code in our
DNA makes us who we are
physically, and we didn't even have to write our DNA code
because some one already wrote the code for us. But humans must
manually input knowledge and information, because we are not
born with the
knowledge that helps us form our personalities, and helps us
understand ourselves and the world around us. This is why an
education must be high quality, developing humans into
intelligent people should be
Computer programmers wrote the code to make computers fully
functional, God or evolution wrote the DNA code for humans so
that humans could be fully functional. That is why we need a
high quality education, so that every human mind is developed to
be fully functional. We have already witnessed the benefits of a
good education, we just haven't defined what a good education
should be, but we are close.
Windows Operating System has roughly
50 million lines of code.
Middleware is computer software that provides services to software
applications beyond those available from the operating system. It can be
described as "software glue". Middleware makes it easier for software
developers to implement communication and input/output, so they can focus
on the specific purpose of their application.
is a characteristic of a product or system, whose
Interfaces are completely
understood, to work with other products or systems, present or future, in
either implementation or access, without any restrictions.
is to perform as expected when applied. (computer science)
Data Processing in which the result is completely specified
by a rule (especially the processing that results from a single instruction)
is an organized structure for arranging or classifying.
A Procedure or process for obtaining an objective. A complex of methods or
rules governing behavior. An ordered manner; orderliness by virtue of being methodical and well
Instrumentality that combines interrelated interacting artifacts
designed to work as a coherent entity.
Organize is to cause to be
structured or ordered or operating according to some principle or
Arrange by Systematic
Planning and united effort.
An integrated set of attitudes and beliefs. A person's
Awareness of self with regard to position and time and place and
Planning is an act of formulating a
program for a definite course of action. Have the will and intention to carry out some action.
The cognitive process of thinking about what you will do in the event of
Make a design of; plan out in systematic, often graphic form.
The act or process of drawing up plans or layouts for some project or enterprise. Planning -
Input - Process - Output
is a pre-compiled, pre-linked program that is ready to run under a
given operating system; a binary for one operating system will
not run on a different operating system.
The computer operating system software is a written language
that explains and defines its responsibilities when controlling
applications, programs, other software, system controls,
hardware and so on and so on. The Human Operating System is also
Assembly Language that also explains and defines its
responsibilities. The Human Operating System language is based
Logic that helps with carrying out human responsibilities
and human functions. The
Operating System language is
for mechanical operations that interface with the computer
responsibilities and computer functions. The computer operating
system language took years to write and went through many
changes and advances and is still improving. The Human Operating
System language will also take years to write and will also go
through many improvements and advances. Most of the Human
Operating System language has already been written but it needs
to be organized and written in the proper language in order for
it to be correctly processed by the human brain. Just like the
computer language ‘COBOL’
that is used to communicate actions and commands before it is converted
into its raw binary code of zero’s and ones, the Human Operating System
language will also need some conversion in order for it to be correctly
understood by the human brain.
Operating System Source Code
System (Programmed Logic for
(can you tell the difference)
Cohesion in computer science refers to the degree to which
the elements of a module belong together. Thus, cohesion measures the
strength of relationship between pieces of functionality within a given
module. For example, in highly cohesive systems functionality is strongly
Encapsulation in object-oriented programming is used to refer
to one of two related but distinct notions, and sometimes to the
combination thereof: A language mechanism for restricting direct access to
some of the object's components. A language construct that facilitates the
bundling of data with the methods (or other functions) operating on that
Encapsulation in networking is a method of designing modular
communication protocols in which logically separate functions in the
network are abstracted from their underlying structures by inclusion or
information hiding within higher level objects.
Encapsulation Types (wiki)
Orthogonal is not pertinent to the matter under consideration.
Statistically unrelated. Having a set of mutually perpendicular axes;
meeting at right angles.
Object-oriented Programming is a
programming paradigm based on the
concept of "objects", which may contain data, in the form of fields, often
known as attributes; and code, in the form of procedures, often known as
methods. A feature of objects is that an object's procedures can access
and often modify the data fields of the object with which they are
associated (objects have a notion of "this" or "self"). Object
Oriented Programming (youtube)
Procedural Programming is a programming paradigm, derived
from structured programming, based upon the concept of the procedure call.
Procedures, also known as routines, subroutines, or functions (not to be
confused with mathematical functions, but similar to those used in
functional programming), simply contain a series of computational steps to
be carried out. Any given procedure might be called at any point during a
program's execution, including by other procedures or itself.
Computer Programmers wrote
millions of lines of code in order
for the computer operating system to work. Just think if
programmers were used to write educational lessons for the
Operating System. We just don’t need programmers for that. We
need educators, teachers and intellectuals. That is why literacy
is one of the most important skills every human should possess.
Books and the written
word was the single greatest advancement in human
history to date. When more humans had access to knowledge and
books, which took hundreds of years, we had the most prevalent
advancements in our history. Now our important advancements will
come from understanding this knowledge and how we use it.
Orthogonality describes the property two vectors have when
they are perpendicular to each other. Each vector will advance
indefinitely into space, never to intersect. Well designed software is
orthogonal. Each of its components can be altered without effecting other
components. Making precise changes with predictable outcomes is easy." -
Fragment is an incomplete
piece. A piece broken off or cut off of something else. To break or cause
to break into pieces.
Piece is a
separate part of a whole. A serving that has been
cut from a larger
information that is not connected to its related parts, so it's hard
to piece together in order to
make sense of the information that is
available. It's information that is spread out all over the place
making information harder
to find and harder to understand.
It's information that has been
divided and has its
unity destroyed, which makes
seeing the whole picture
impossible. A piece here and a piece there, but
never the whole story.
File System Fragmentation is the tendency of a file system
to lay out the contents of files
modification of their contents. It is a special case of data
fragmentation. File system fragmentation increases disk head movement or
seek time, which decreases efficiency
and is known to hinder throughput. In addition,
cannot sustain unlimited fragmentation. The correction to existing
fragmentation is to reorganize files and free space back into contiguous
areas, a process called defragmentation.
Contiguous is being very close or connected in space or time.
Connecting without a break; within a common boundary. Having a common
boundary or edge; abutting; touching.
Fragmentation in computing is a phenomenon in which
storage space is
reducing capacity or performance and often both. The
exact consequences of fragmentation depend on the specific system of
storage allocation in use and the particular form of fragmentation. In
many cases, fragmentation leads to storage space being "wasted", and in
that case the term also refers to the wasted space itself. For other
systems (e.g. the FAT file system) the space used to store given data
(e.g. files) is the same regardless of the degree of fragmentation (from
none to extreme).
Emptying Disk Space.
Defragmentation is a process that reduces the amount of
fragmentation. It does this by physically
organizing the contents of the
mass storage device used to store files into the smallest number of
contiguous regions (fragments). It also attempts to create larger regions
of free space using compaction to impede the return of fragmentation. Some
defragmentation utilities try to keep smaller files within a single
directory together, as they are often accessed in
Defragmentation is advantageous and
relevant to file systems on
electromechanical disk drives. The movement of the hard drive's read/write
heads over different areas of the disk when accessing
fragmented files is
slower, compared to accessing the entire contents of a non-fragmented file
sequentially without moving the read/write heads to seek other fragments.
From chaos to
order. Putting the pieces
of the puzzle back
First In First Out -
FIFO in computing and electronics is a method for organizing and
manipulating a data buffer, where the oldest (first) entry, or 'head' of
the queue, is processed first. It is analogous to processing a queue with
first-come, first-served (FCFS) behaviour:
where the people leave the queue in the order in which they arrive.
(overload) - Passive Learning
Luke 11:17 - Any kingdom
divided against itself will be
ruined, and a house divided
against itself will fall.
Internet - World Wide Web of People
Internet is reconnecting people to the worlds most valuable
information that was either
or hidden. The internet is
also giving millions of people the ability to
share more valuable knowledge and
information than any
other time in human history. Making it possible for
millions of people to
learn more and
understand more about themselves and the world around them. This an
exciting time to be alive. But at
the same time, this is the worst time to be alive for billions of people.
Better late than never, but never
late is better.
The Internet is the
combined intelligence of millions of people
from all over the world. You would be a fool not to be part of
it. It is truly the single greatest resource that we have. But
at the moment, not enough people are using the
correctly or effectively.
But once we improve that, we will immediately start seeing the power of
the internet come alive. Millions of people coming together to use their
collective skills and intelligence to make improvements, and to repair the
damage that we have done to ourselves and to our planet. This will create
jobs for everyone,
it will help connect people to needed services, it will help people locate food and
water, it will give people access to information and give people access
to education, which has already begun. But it's not at the rate
that would ultimately utilize the potential of every man, women
and child on the planet. But we are getting there. And once we
do, the 21st century is going to be the biggest defining moment in human
history. This will be way beyond the Coming of Age or a
Rite of Passage. It is
Enlightenment on the grandest scale.
"The internet will not benefit people enough if people are not educated
enough to live life without the internet. If the tool is out of order or
unavailable, people will need to know how to survive."
Human Search Engine.
Emergence is the gradual beginning or
coming forth and becoming visible. Come out into view, as from
concealment. Coming to
maturity. Coming into existence.
Emergence is a process whereby larger entities arise through
interactions among smaller or simpler entities such that the larger
entities exhibit properties the smaller
or simpler entities do not exhibit.
- Enlightenment -
Coming out of Hibernation
Intelligence is shared or group intelligence that emerges
from the collaboration,
collective efforts, and competition of many
individuals and appears in consensus decision making.
Not Popular Belief.
is shared knowledge arrived at by individuals and groups.
Ancient Knowledge -
Collective Memory is the shared pool of knowledge and
information in the memories of two or more members of a social group.
Collective Consciousness is the set of
shared beliefs, ideas
and moral attitudes which operate as a unifying force within society.
Network Economy products and services are created and value
is added through social networks
operating on large or global scales.
Personal Learning Network
is an informal learning network that consists of the people a
learner interacts with and derives knowledge from in a personal learning
environment. In a PLN, a person
makes a connection with
another person with the specific intent that some type of learning
will occur because of that connection. Personal learning networks share a
close association with the concept of
personal learning environments.
Social Learning Environments
- Sharing (sharing
economy) - Public Service
of the Crowd is the collective opinion of a group of
individuals rather than that of a
interconnects all humans and their technological artifacts. As this
network stores ever more information, takes over ever more functions of
coordination and communication from traditional organizations, and becomes
increasingly intelligent, it increasingly plays the role of a brain for
the planet Earth.
helps world citizens make the best use of universal information resources
and make the best contribution to world peace.
The United Nations
is not the gathering of minds, so where is the gathering of minds? Being
physically gathered together is not like the internet. But we don't need
to be physically together, we just need to be connected. And the internet
does that, but only to a point, because people are not knowledgeable
enough to use the internet effectively or efficiently. And when we correct
this problem, then people will transition into a
singularity, a place were humans work together as a singular whole.
Something that proves human intelligence.
Brain Trust is a
term for a group of close advisers, prized for their expertise in
is the collective behavior of decentralized, self-organized systems,
natural or artificial.
Mass Communication is the study of how people and entities
relay information through mass media to
large segments of the population at the same time.
Citizen Science -
Artificial Neural Network
is the collection of computer resources from multiple locations to reach a common goal.
is a model in which components located on networked computers communicate
and coordinate their actions by passing messages.
is an association of two or more individuals, companies, organizations or
governments (or any combination of these entities) with the objective of
participating in a common activity or pooling their resources for
achieving a common goal.
Matrix - Validity
Collective intentionality characterizes the intentionality
that occurs when two or more individuals undertake a task together.
Examples include two individuals carrying a heavy table up a flight of
stairs or dancing a tango.
Cognition is a group of people produce a sequence of
utterances that performs a cognitive act.
Collective Action refers to action taken together by a group
of people whose goal is to enhance their status and achieve a common objective.
Open-Source Intelligence is intelligence collected from
publicly available sources.
Centrality is to identify the most important vertices within a graph.
Intelligence characterizes multi-agent, distributed systems
where each agent, human or machine, is uniquely positioned, with autonomy
to contribute to a problem-solving network. Collaborative autonomy of
organisms in their ecosystems makes evolution possible.
Mass Collaboration is a form of collective action that
occurs when large numbers of people work independently on a single
project, often modular in its nature. Such projects typically take place
on the internet using social software and computer-supported collaboration
tools such as wiki technologies, which provide a potentially infinite
hypertextual substrate within which the collaboration may be situated.
Collaborative Innovation Network
is a social construct used to describe innovative teams.
Distributed Cognition deploys models of the extended mind by
taking as the fundamental unit of analysis "a collection of individuals
and artifacts and their relations to each other in a particular work
Social Learning -
- Open Governance
Peer Production describes a new model of socioeconomic
production in which large numbers of people work cooperatively (usually
over the Internet). Commons-based projects generally have less rigid
hierarchical structures than those under more traditional business models.
Often—but not always—commons-based projects are designed without a need
for financial compensation for contributors.
is computationally intensive science that is carried out in highly
distributed network environments, or science that uses immense data sets
that require grid computing; the term sometimes includes technologies that
enable distributed collaboration, such as the Access Grid.
Knowledge Forum is an educational software designed to help and support
knowledge building communities.
- Sharing Economy
- Working Together
- Sharing Open Data
Knowledge Exchange (PDF)
One mind can't do it all, but 7 billion minds
could. The internet gives us the ability to connect all of us. A
Whole Brain. A brain that can connect to all of its parts.
Internet is more then an amazing tool, the internet is also a
symbol of human power and potential. Because we know that when
we work together, we are stronger, and when we work together, we
are also more effective, and we are also more efficient. The
internet is a realization of Human Intelligence. Because we now
know that when we make communication and collaboration easier,
we can solve any problem. Merging
the Power of Multiple Brains. Peer-to-Peer Knowledge Sharing.
The Power of Human Consciousness will soon be online. Each person and
every computer server that we use, symbolizes a neuron in the world brain.
We are close to having enough neurons and nodes to imitate human
consciousness. This awakening will be a signal
to the entire universe that humans have finally arrived. We finally
understand our potential.
"It's not the connection that makes you smarter, it's how you use that connection that makes you smarter."
Internet of Things
The Internet of Things is the network of physical
objects or "things" embedded with electronics, software,
sensors, and network connectivity, which enables these objects
to collect and exchange data. The Internet of Things allows objects to be
sensed and controlled remotely across existing
network infrastructure, creating opportunities for more direct
integration between the physical world and computer-based
systems, and resulting in improved efficiency, accuracy and economic benefit.
(IoT). Smart Homes.
The Education of Things is
learning about all the things that you can control, internally and externally,
resulting in improved efficiency, accuracy and economic benefit.
The Connection of Things is
learning about all the different ways that
things are connected in our world, understanding cause and
effects and how all actions and inactions have an effect,
whether they are internally or externally, or near or far away.
Cyber-Physical System is a system of collaborating
computational elements controlling physical entities. Today, a
precursor generation of CPS can be found in
areas as diverse as aerospace, automotive, chemical processes,
civil infrastructure, energy, healthcare, manufacturing,
transportation, entertainment, and consumer appliances. This
generation is often referred to as embedded systems. In embedded
systems the emphasis tends to be more on the computational
elements, and less on an intense link between the computational and physical elements.
The Natural Physical System is the Environment.
Embedded System is a computer system with a dedicated
function within a larger mechanical or electrical system, often
with real-time computing constraints. It is embedded as part of
a complete device often including hardware and mechanical parts.
Embedded systems control many devices in common use today.
Percent of all microprocessors being manufactured are used in
The Environmental System is a network of natural embedded systems.
One of the great things about the internet is that you could
have information and knowledge that is not that valuable to you
or someone near you, but on the other side of the planet, that
information and knowledge could be extremely valuable. And you
only have to share that bit of information and knowledge only
once, because it can be shared and copied over and over again,
in almost the exact same way that
our DNA gets passed on.
Internet is a Mimic of Life.
Development Learning Network
Streamlining Internet of Things
"Another great thing about the internet is that knowledge and information can be easily
translated now, which makes even more knowledge and
information accessible to more people. But even though the
internet can be translated into many different languages, there are still
many languages that have not yet been translated and digitized, and there are still
over four billion people who don’t have access to the internet."
People want information and knowledge that's easy to follow,
whether in conversation, education, videos or in writing. And we
have already been working on improving this problem, using
websites and the internet. We can make a website that makes
information easy to follow, and at the same time, dynamic enough
to handle a more experienced user who's looking for unique services and information.
"When you educate people,
people. When people are more knowledgeable about themselves and
the world around them, people make better decisions and make
better choices. We need to use our communication tools like TV,
Radio and Newspapers more effectively, so that we can
Communicate our most valuable knowledge and information and give
people more access to the Facts, this way people will finally
have the means to make the necessary improvements that are needed."
"When I'm online and I find something interesting that I'm reading, I usually ask "
what can I learn from this?"
And since I do most of my reading online, I can
instantly get more information about the subject that I'm
reading about, which means I learn a lot more about the subject
and have a much better understanding about the subject. The
internet is awesome. It's the greatest learning tool on the planet."
One of My Best Friends is a Machine, but
it's more than a machine, it's a connection to human
most intelligent person I know is the Internet Machine. But the
is not really a machine, it's millions of people. The
internet is a collective intelligence
made up of millions of people collaborating. After all, we are
the strongest when we work together, and we are the smartest when
we put our heads together. Enormous potential and strength
is staring us right in the face. It's time for us to wake up and pay
attention. We will never have a single machine or a single
human that is capable of answering every question that we have,
but collectively, our potential to learn increases by one
thousand percent. Let go of the
ego, and let go of the self, embrace the whole, our true strength awaits us.
I spent the first 48 years of my life socializing and experiencing as many things
as I could. But I didn't learn enough just socializing and experiencing.
My most important learning came from reading. And everything
important that I read, I saved on BK101. That saves every human on earth
over 50,000 hours of work.
Which was only the time that I spent locating valuable knowledge and information,
collecting valuable knowledge and information, organizing valuable
knowledge and information, and sharing valuable knowledge and information.
It does not include the 100's of years of collective time.
I also saved people time from having to learn all the necessary skills
that was needed in order to locate, collect, organize and share valuable
knowledge and information. And when you add up all the human knowledge
that other people shared, this human potential is worth trillions of
dollars, which you could easily deposit into your own personal bank called
the Human Brain. Of course I could have never done this without
Standing on the Shoulder's of Giants,
but now the Giant just got a whole lot bigger. This is more than the
Elephant in the Room, which is an idiom for an obvious problem or risk
no one wants to discuss, or a condition of groupthink no one wants to
challenge. It is based on the idea/thought that something as conspicuous
as an elephant can appear to be overlooked in codified social
interactions, and that the sociology/psychology of repression also
operates on the macro scale. This is our future,
our hope, our power, our
potential, our love of life.
Collaborating and working with people can be very productive and insightful. But when I'm alone I can
focus better on getting things done, so I work better on my own.
And that's one the the great things about the
internet, I can be alone but still be
connected to millions of people, it's freaking brilliant.
Human Search Engine
"Taking your work home with you is not always a bad thing, you need time to think."
A tremendous Leap Forward, but this
time we can actually see where we are going...
the Sleeper has Awaken (youtube) - "Waking up is not just what
you do after you sleep, it's also what you do after you realize
that you ere never fully awake."
Internet vs. Propaganda from TV and Media Outlets
Blaming the Internet for ignorant behavior is like blaming knowledge
for stupidity. To say that the internet is the reason for people being radicalized is very ignorant
and dangerous. For the past one thousand years, millions of people
were radicalized before the internet was even created. This is not to say that people can't get radicalized from the internet,
because people can definitely be sucked into
an information bubble and
become puppets. There are a lot of different
reasons and things
that could cause someone to become radicalized or ill-informed. A persons
knowledge could definitely make them more vulnerable to
all kinds of
manipulation. If you learn the wrong things at the wrong time, you
could easily be fooled and manipulated by
all kinds of things, and in all kinds of places. People on the internet do
not just click on an add and accidentally get
radicalized, oops my bad. People don't seek out radicalized ideas. People are
for answers. And sometimes people come across the wrong information at the wrong time. So
books could radicalize people,
schools could radicalize people,
religion could radicalize
people, TV could radicalize people, and people could radicalize
other people just by speaking to them. The internet is our savior. But it
does have risks and it's not without problems. And the internet is
definitely infected with all kinds of
cancers from corporations and the
cancer of ignorance that has infected millions of people. People misuse technology all the time, mostly because people don't have enough skills and knowledge to
accurately analyze information. So don't ignorantly blame
our technology tools. Blame our
ineffective schools and our irresponsible
If you want to
blame something or someone, then make it
relative and relevant, if
not, then your vagueness becomes
There is too much
misinformation, and people don't have the skills needed to
filter it. The main risk is being
undereducated. When we
improve education, we will then see a lot less misinformation that is
Saying that the internet is radicalized people is like saying
that electricity is radicalizing people. Plus it's just stupid
to use the internet to say how bad the internet is. It's like
shooting someone with a gun just to say how dangerous a gun is.
Anything can be misused, that includes
technology, that includes
money, that includes
power. We don't
blame power when a
politician commits a crime, we blame the person who is too
ignorant to use power effectively and efficiently and
morally. When we improve education, this ignorant behavior will
cease to exist, as well as most all ignorant behavior. You need
to be careful how you use labels and
how you interpret Labels.
"The internet helping people become radicalized is like saying that too much
freedom is the reason for
radicalization. That's when they take away our freedoms,
then everyone gets punished, except for the people doing the punishing of course."
There are many things that are involved in making someone
violent. People can get
radicalized by their experiences, and
from the misinterpretation of information. Talk to any radical
and they will all have a similar story about when they experienced a
traumatic event that changed them, usually the death of family
or friends, and they also know others who have lost people close
to them. All humans take to a cause sooner or later, because they feel sometimes that they
have no other choice. People who start a
not radicals. People can feel threatened, and they feel they have no
other choice but to fight. To blame this
behavior on some
inanimate object is insane. I truly know that people want to
make a difference, and they want to stop this insane violence,
and to stop this insane behavior, but we can't attack things
that are doing more good thn harm. You want to dispute the
horrible schools we have, then I'm right there with you. But if
you want to attack the technology that people use to
knowledge and information, and if you want to attack peoples
right to communicate, and if you want to attack peoples right to
inform themselves, then you will create more anger and create many more
problems. Millions of people have signed petitions already
committing themselves to
protecting the internet. We don't want to attack our ability
to communicate just because some people ignorantly believe that
is the cause of our problems. And because of the internet, you
will not be able to hide that ignorance. So my suggestion. Help
education, help us improve life for every person on the
planet. Help us improve the methods for
informing the public so
that people are more aware of their choices and options, so they
become the masters of their own destinies, and not controlled by
some outside ignorant behavior.
The Internet did not cause
people to leave their Religion or leave their Church. Religions and
failed to advance and progress at the same rate as technology did and at the
same rate as human knowledge advanced. The good news is,
religion still has time to catch up.
A personal computer that is connected to the internet is like
having the greatest car in the world where you can travel to thousands of
different places and learn all kinds of things. But most people don't know
how to effectively use computers or use the internet. It's like seeing
people who have the most expensive car in the world just drive in circles.
There not being productive, they're just driving in circles and going no
where fast, and they don't even know it.
You're very bright and aware, keep learning...Einstein Essay
- Artificial Intelligence - Ai
- Questions to ask Machines
- Drones -
There is No Future in War
- Search Technology
- Vision -
Do you need a Computer
Chip implanted in your Brain?
"If you are to benefit from someone's thinking, then you better give them time to think."