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To be intelligent you first have to know what being Intelligent is. And you also have to know what being ignorant is. Ignorant is just another word for "Not knowing". But not knowing is not always obvious or clearly understood. That's because learning is not fully understood. The more you learn the more you should realize what you didn't know. And if you learn things that do not make you realize how much you didn't know, and if learning doesn't make you realize how much you still need to know, then you did not learn anything valuable or relevant. Wisdom does not come with age, wisdom comes from learning. And if learning does not increase your understanding of yourself and the world around you, then that's not learning, that's just memorizing. Ten people can experience the same thing but not learn the same thing. This is because skill level and knowledge level varies from person to person. So this will need to be the next big advancement in education. Where every student will know what to learn, when to learn, how to learn, where to learn and why to learn. And then every student will know how to test themselves and monitor their own progress in their own time, and at their own pace. But you still need to be actively learning and deliberately learning for your entire life.

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albert einstein Words that Describe Intelligence - Types of Intelligence

Measuring Intelligence (IQ) - Cognition

Human Operating System - Ai - Collective - Brain Maintenance

Ignorance - Bias - Assuming - Fallacies

First you have to define what makes a person intelligent, then you need to have an accurate way of measuring if this intelligence is correctly understood.

Internet = The Combined Collective intelligence of millions of people.

Just because you have abilities does not guarantee that you will know how to use your abilities correctly or effectively. And just what is correctly, and just what is effective? These words we need to define if we are ever going to know exactly what being intelligent really means. Enlightenment.

Identifying the Allele Gene will not guarantee intelligence. A good education that encourages learning and a healthy environment are just two of the many influences that promote intelligence. DNA.

"When we finally have more intelligent people in the world, life will become more relaxed and a lot more enjoyable. We will have a lot less to worry about, and we will also know more and be more in control, and have a much better awareness of ourselves and the world around us. Life is going to be beautiful for everyone in the future. Knowledge and information naturally seeks harmony, and we have this amazing privilege to go along for the ride."

Defining Intelligence

Thinking Question Mark Define the actions and the thought processes that are proven to produce the most positive results that are based on a particular set of circumstances. And these intelligent actions and thought processes have to be relevant and used by society today so that everyone can see the improvements and the positive outcomes and benefits that come from these particular intelligent actions. This way everyone can understand why these particular actions and thought processes are viewed as being intelligent. Because what good is having intelligence if you never use the intelligence in real life to solve real problems. An IQ test only confirms a small percentage of what is considered to be intelligence. So the only way to truly measure a persons intelligence is to have them solve real life problems and then have them explain their methods clearly enough so that others can repeat the process. Welcome to Defining Intelligence.

If a person does not have the necessary information and knowledge that is needed to correctly analyze a problem, it is nearly impossible for that person to understand how to calculate the correct actions that are needed in order to solve that problem. Even if a problem is right in front of a person it is very unlikely that they will be able to comprehend that a particular problem is even there without necessary information and knowledge. Then a person will still have to understand that particular information and knowledge in order to use it effectively. So how will a person be able to recognize that there is necessary information and knowledge missing from their education? How do you convince a person to see that there is a void of missing information and knowledge when they don't have the necessary information and knowledge in order for them to see that there is even a void? This is why it is so extremely important to teach students early and completely, especially the logic that is behind learning these techniques, tools and skills that are needed to acquire necessary information and knowledge. So what is this necessary information and knowledge? What are the techniques, tools and skills that are needed? That is exactly what we are going to find out, and exactly what we are going to teach. Remember that saying "The Buck Stops Here", that should be changed to "The Ignorance Stops Here". Defining the extreme degrees of ignorance. If everyone around you is stupid then how will you know how stupid you are? Being surrounded by stupidity often hides stupidity. That Does Not Compute (wiki).

When we say that someone is smart, people just assume they know what smart means. Most people think that being smart is how good a person is at making decisions and solving particular types of problems. But very few people understand the processes of decision making and problem solving. So most people don't have a clue what smart is.

There is not one human alive today who is at their full potential of intelligence or abilities. That's because we just got public internet around 20 years ago in 1998, which gave us access to more knowledge and information then any other time in human history. We are just starting to figuring out the enormous potential and intelligence that every human being has on this planet. But the transfer of knowledge and information is still none existent for more then 90 percent of humans on the planet, and the other 10 percent are still not using the Internet effectively or efficiently enough. We are living on only 10 percent of our full potential, and yet we still have done a lot of amazing things, which clearly shows our actual potential. But all these great technologies are no comparison, or are in no way equivalent to the incredible advancements that awaits the human race on that special day when all people eventually have access to valuable knowledge and information. The Great Awaking is Coming.

Gifted ?

Brain Gears
When a child is labeled with Gifted or Prodigy, most parents and teachers are not qualified or experienced enough to know what having a child with enhanced abilities means. Or do they know what extra attention is needed in order to not waste these enhanced abilities on tedious or irrelevant actions, like memorizing things that do not benefit you. It's like having a very powerful and fast computer, but it's being wasted because you are only using it to play video games. We are the only species on the planet that can be distracted by our own stupidity. Intelligent species? Not yet. Remember, enhanced abilities does not guarantee incredible achievements, it only implies that there's a potential, which we all have, that's if we all get the special attention that we need. The more I study education, the more I see what's needed. The more you learn, the more you should also learn what you still do not know. Education needs to be everyone's special attention.

Advanced Precocious Learners
Human Brain Knowledge
Testing (IQ)

"People say they are educated because they went to college, which is a lie and an ignorant observation, because there is no definition of what being educated is, just like with intelligence. Just because you have a high IQ does not mean that you're intelligent."


You're Stupid Ignorant is being unaware because of a lack of relevant information or knowledge. Uneducated in general. Devoid of good sense or judgment. Uneducated in the fundamentals of a given art or branch of learning. A poor ability to understand or to profit from experience. Unable to Reason accurately or effectively, which is usually from the lack of valuable knowledge and information. Ignorance (wiki).

Ignoramus is an ignorant person. Degrees of Ignorance.

You don't outgrow ignorance. You can only overcome your ignorance by deliberately learning throughout your entire life.

Wisdom does not come with age, wisdom comes from learning.

"A fool thinks of himself as being wise, a Wiseman knows himself to be a fool." Shakespeare (1564-1616).

"Real knowledge is to know the extent of one's own ignorance." Confucius (551 BC – 479 BC).

Rational Ignorance is refraining from acquiring knowledge when the cost of educating oneself on an issue exceeds the potential benefit that the knowledge would provide. But how would you know that Mr. Dumbass? (oxymoron?).

Necessity and Sufficiency are implicational relationships between statements. The assertion that one statement is a necessary and sufficient condition of another means that the former statement is true if and only if the latter is true. That is, the two statements must be either simultaneously true or simultaneously false. Fallacy.

Agnotology is the study of culturally induced ignorance or doubt, particularly the publication of inaccurate or misleading scientific data.

illogical is lacking sense or clear, sound reasoning. Lack of connection or continuity. Disconnected. Logical.

Confused is failure to understand; unable to think with clarity or act intelligently. Being perplexed by many conflicting situations or statements; filled with bewilderment. Unable to think clearly, without order or sense. Make unclear, indistinct, or blurred. Not clearly defined or easy to perceive or understand. Disturbance of normal functioning.

Confusion is the state of being bewildered or unclear in one’s mind about something.

Clueless is having no knowledge, understanding, or ability.

Confound is something confusing or perplexing and causes you to be unable to think clearly. To mistake one thing for another.

Chaos is a state of extreme confusion and disorder.

Bewilderment is confusion resulting from failure to understand.

Perturbed is to be thrown into great confusion or disorder. Disturb in mind or make uneasy or cause to be worried or alarmed.

Discombobulate is to confuse someone and cause them to be unable to think clearly because something lacks clarity of meaning. Something bewildering or perplexing.

Contradictions - Paradox - Doubt

Proof by Contradiction is a form of proof, and more specifically a form of indirect proof, that establishes the truth or validity of a proposition. It starts by assuming that the opposite proposition is true, and then shows that such an assumption leads to a contradiction. Irony.

Law of Noncontradiction states that contradictory statements cannot both be true in the same sense at the same time, e.g. the two propositions "A is B " and "A is not B " are mutually exclusive. It is the second of the three classic laws of thought.

Law of Excluded Middle states that for any proposition, either that proposition is true or its negation is true. It is the third of the three classic laws of thought.

Ignorance of the Law. "ignorance of the law excuses not", "ignorance of law excuses no one", Ignorantia juris non excusat is a legal principle holding that a person who is unaware of a law may not escape liability for violating that law merely because one was unaware of its content. Willful blindness cannot become the basis of exculpation. This makes being ignorant illegal. Pretending not to know is just as bad as pretending that you do know.

Ignorance is similar to not understanding a Magic Trick, you are Easily Fooled. Gullible - Naive.

No one wants to be ignorant, but when you stop educating yourself, you are then choosing to stay ignorant for the rest of your life. So you are ignorant by consent. Which means that you give up most of your rights and freedoms, and at the same time, cause other people give up most of their rights and freedoms through conformity.

Lack of Knowledge is where loopholes and corruption exists, inside the void where knowledge should be.

Myopia is being near-sightedness or short-sightedness. (you can't see what is right in front of your face).

Inadequate Education - Make Minds Deficient. - Savants (special needs).

Lack Behavioral Control - Resulting from an Inadequate Education.

Scatterbrained is being disorganized and lacking in concentration. Flighty, thoughtless, absent-minded, forgetful, distractable.

Crippled is being deprive of strength or efficiency; make useless or worthless. Having inaccurate beliefs can cripple the mind.

Foolish is being devoid of good sense or judgment. Having or revealing stupidity. Insane.

Foolishness is the lack of wisdom and failing to make proper careful choices. In this sense, it differs from stupidity, which is the lack of intelligence. An act of foolishness is called folly. Foolish talk is called stultiloquence. Risk.

Stupidity is having a poor ability to understand or to profit from experience. Marked by defiant disregard for danger or consequences. Stupidity is a lack of intelligence, understanding, reason, wit or sense. Stupidity may be innate, assumed or reactive – a defense against grief or trauma. Stupid is having or showing a lack of intelligence or common sense. "I'm not saying you're stupid, I'm just saying that you have bad luck when it comes to thinking."

Unintelligent is someone who has or shows a low level of intelligence.
Thick Headed is someone who is unintelligent and stupid. Stubborn.
Empty-Headed is someone who is unintelligent and foolish.
Half-witted is someone who is foolish or stupid.
Idiotic is something or someone who is very stupid.

You need knowledge, because if you don't have much, you can't think much, or do much, or be much. But if you have money, you can be a very popular moron, but you still can't think much. Even If you use money to buy access to knowledge, it won't guarantee that you'll learn anything valuable or important and become intelligent. Because access to knowledge is not the same as acquiring knowledge or learning. You can pay someone to learn for you, but you will still be a moron who can't think much or be much. So you will never be anyone of value or importance, just someone with money, and sadly for some idiots, money is enough, at least they think it is, because they can't think much.

Suspension of Disbelief or willing suspension of disbelief has been defined as a willingness to suspend one's critical faculties and believe the unbelievable; sacrifice of realism and logic for the sake of enjoyment.

Shadow in psychology is an unconscious aspect of the personality which the conscious ego does not identify in itself. Because one tends to reject or remain ignorant of the least desirable aspects of one's personality, the shadow is largely negative, or the entirety of the unconscious, i.e., everything of which a person is not fully conscious.

Psychological Projection humans defend themselves against their own unconscious impulses or qualities (both positive and negative) by denying their existence in themselves while attributing them to others. For example, a person who is habitually rude may constantly accuse other people of being rude. It incorporates blame shifting.

But of course, being ignorant is more then the basic definition.

When Awareness becomes Distorted

Years of Potential Life Lost is also related to the years that are lost from being ignorant, or doing ignorant things.
The Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY) is a measure of overall Disease Burden, with the disease being ignorance in this case.

Illusory Superiority is a cognitive bias whereby individuals overestimate their own qualities and abilities, relative to others.

Patronizing - Condescension

Cognitive Dissonance is the mental stress or discomfort experienced by an individual who holds two or more contradictory beliefs, ideas, or values at the same time; performs an action that is contradictory to one or more beliefs, ideas, or values; or is confronted by new information that conflicts with existing beliefs, ideas, or values.

Cognitive Inertia refers to the tendency for beliefs or sets of beliefs to endure once formed. In particular, cognitive inertia describes the human inclination to rely on familiar assumptions and exhibit a reluctance and/or inability to revise those assumptions, even when the evidence supporting them no longer exists or when other evidence would question their accuracy.

Cognitive Distortion are exaggerated or irrational thought patterns that are believed to perpetuate the effects of psychopathological states, especially depression and anxiety.

Distorted is to make something false by mutilation or by addition like with propaganda. Having an intended meaning altered or misrepresented.

Mutilation is an injury that causes disfigurement that deprives you of an important body part or function.

Dunning Kruger Effect is a cognitive Bias in which low-ability individuals suffer from illusory superiority, mistakenly assessing their ability as much higher than it really is. Dunning and Kruger attributed this bias to a metacognitive inability of those of low ability to recognize their ineptitude and evaluate their ability accurately. Pretending you know - Denying - Self-Deception.

The Emperor Wears No Clothes or The Emperor Has No Clothes, is often used in political and social contexts for any obvious truth denied by the majority despite the evidence of their eyes, especially when proclaimed by the government.

The Emperor's New Clothes is used in reference to a situation in which people believe or pretend to believe in the worth or importance of something that is worthless, or fear to point out an obvious truth that is counter to prevailing opinion. Bandwagon.

Cognitive Tests (assessments)

Why most Adults don't want to Learn, or Listen.


Fallibilism is knowing that human beings could be wrong about their beliefs, expectations, or their understanding of the world.

False Equivalence is a logical fallacy in which two opposing arguments appear to be logically equivalent when in fact they are not. Creates more questions then answers.

Fallacy is a mistaken belief, especially one based on unsound argument. It's an incorrect argument in logic and rhetoric which undermines an argument's logical validity.

"Some people may react to hearing a fallacy by simplify responding "That's Bullshit!" But of course you have to explain what the bullshit is, or you end up looking like an idiot, because you just responded to a fallacy using another fallacy. So your bullshit is bullshit."

Logical Fallacy is a pattern of reasoning rendered invalid by a flaw in its logical structure that can neatly be expressed in a standard logic system, for example propositional logic. An argument that is formally fallacious is always considered wrong. A formal fallacy is contrasted with an informal fallacy, which may have a valid logical form and yet be unsound because one or more premises are false.

Anecdotal fallacy is using a personal experience or an isolated example instead of sound reasoning or compelling evidence.

Formal Fallacy is a pattern of reasoning rendered invalid by a flaw in its logical structure that can neatly be expressed in a standard logic system. An argument that is formally fallacious is always considered wrong. A formal fallacy is contrasted with an informal fallacy, which may have a valid logical form and yet be unsound because one or more premises are false.

Informal Fallacy occurs when the contents of an argument's stated premises fail to adequately support its proposed conclusion.

False Dilemma is a type of informal fallacy in which something is falsely claimed to be an "either/or" situation, when in fact there is at least one additional option. Neither Yes or No.

Association Fallacy asserts, by irrelevant association and often by appeal to emotion, that qualities of one thing are inherently qualities of another. Two types of association fallacies are sometimes referred to as guilt by association and honor by association.

List of Fallacies (PDF)

Fallacy of Composition arises when one infers that something is true of the whole from the fact that it is true of some part of the whole (or even of every proper part). For example: "This fragment of metal cannot be fractured with a hammer, therefore the machine of which it is a part cannot be fractured with a hammer." This is clearly fallacious, because many machines can be broken apart, without any of those parts being able to be fractured.

Continuum Fallacy is an informal fallacy closely related to the sorites paradox, or paradox of the heap. The fallacy causes one to erroneously reject a vague claim simply because it is not as precise as one would like it to be. Vagueness alone does not necessarily imply invalidity.


Fallacy is like having a Fantasy. You Naively believe that your reasoning is accurate, but the Reality is you're just fantasizing. So you are either lying to yourself or deceiving others, or just pretending that you know, because you have no proof. It's OK to have fantasies, just don't try to convince other people that your fantasy is real.

Scientific Misconceptions are commonly held scientific beliefs that have no basis in actual scientific fact.

Delusion is a belief that is held with strong conviction despite superior evidence to the contrary. Delusional Disorder.

Suspicion is a cognition of mistrust in which a person doubts the honesty of another person or believes another person to be guilty of some type of wrongdoing or crime, but without sure proof. Suspicion can also be aroused in response to objects that negatively differ from an expected idea.


Self-Affirmation states that if individuals reflect on values that are personally relevant to them, they are less likely to experience distress and react defensively when confronted with information that contradicts or threatens their sense of self.

Stubborn is the unwillingness to admit to a wrongdoing. Refusing to move or to change one's opinion; obstinate; firmly resisting, even when present with facts that prove they are wrong. Anger - Denial.

Passive-Aggressive Behavior is the indirect expression of hostility, such as through procrastination, stubbornness, sullen behavior, or deliberate or repeated failure to accomplish requested tasks for which one is (often explicitly) responsible.

Narrow-Minded is lacking tolerance or flexibility of ones own opinion or belief.

Insanity - Emotional Problems

Shadow psychology is the unknown dark side of your own personality.

People fail to see themselves - Self-Deception

Self Smart

Categorical Syllogism is a kind of logical argument that applies deductive reasoning to arrive at a conclusion based on two or more propositions that are asserted or assumed to be true.

Memory Errors

Appeal to the stone is dismissing a claim as absurd without demonstrating proof for its absurdity.

Accident Fallacy: Cutting people with knives is a crime. Surgeons cut people with knives. Surgeons are criminals.

List of Common Misconceptions corrects erroneous beliefs that are currently widely held about notable topics. Each misconception and the corresponding facts have been discussed in published literature. Note that each entry is formatted as a correction; the misconceptions themselves are implied rather than stated.

Base Rate Fallacy is a formal fallacy. If presented with related base rate information (i.e. generic, general information) and specific information (information only pertaining to a certain case), the mind tends to ignore the former and focus on the latter. Base rate neglect is a specific form of the more general Extension neglect.

"Condemnation without investigation is the height of ignorance." ~ Albert Einstein

Framing Effect is an example of cognitive bias, in which people react to a particular choice in different ways depending on how it is presented; e.g. as a loss or as a gain. People tend to avoid risk when a positive frame is presented but seek risks when a negative frame is presented. Gain and loss are defined in the scenario as descriptions of outcomes (e.g. lives lost or saved, disease patients treated and not treated, lives saved and lost during accidents, etc.)

Blinkers are a piece of horse tack that prevent the horse seeing to the rear and, in some cases, to the side.

Myopia causes distant objects to be blurry while close objects appear normal.

Intellectual Disabilities

Anti Intellectualism is hostility towards and mistrust of intellect, intellectuals, and intellectual pursuits, usually expressed as the derision of education, philosophy, literature, art, and science, as impractical and contemptible.

Bounded Rationality is the idea that when individuals make decisions, their rationality is limited by the available information, the tractability of the decision problem, the cognitive limitations of their minds, and the time available to make the decision. Decision-makers in this view act as satisficers, seeking a satisfactory solution rather than an optimal one.

Interference Theory occurs in learning when there is an interaction between the new material and transfer effects of past learned behavior, memories or thoughts that have a negative influence in comprehending the new material. Bringing to memory old knowledge has the effect of impairing both the speed of learning and memory performance. There are two main kinds of interference: proactive interference (see Proactive learning), retroactive interference (see Retroactive learning). The main assumption of interference theory is that the stored memory is intact but unable to be retrieved due to competition created by newly acquired information. Error.

Selective Perception is the tendency not to notice and more quickly forget stimuli that cause emotional discomfort and contradict our prior beliefs.

Monothematic Delusion is a delusional state that concerns only one particular topic.

Satisficing is a decision-making strategy or cognitive heuristic that entails searching through the available alternatives until an acceptability threshold is met.

Devolution is the notion that species can revert into more "primitive" forms over time.

Compensation in psychology is when a person covers up, consciously or unconsciously, weaknesses, frustrations, desires, or feelings of inadequacy or incompetence in one life area through the gratification or drive towards excellence in another area.

Ignorant people can be easily Fooled by the Media and other sources of Propaganda.  (Twisted Logic)

Ignorant people are more susceptible to Mental Health Problems, Physical Health Problems, Anger and Crime.

The Problems with trying to Teach Adults

Opinions - Validity

Cognitive Neuroscience - Cognitive Decline

Ignorance is the Worlds Largest Killer

Prejudice - Discrimination

Knowledge Gap and Divide

Popularity - Labels

“A Foolish Faith In Authority Is The Worst Enemy Of The Truth"


Generalization is when you are being vague because your statement lacks the specifics or the necessary details that are needed in order to clarify the meaning of what you are saying. Not being specific enough leads to meaningless chatter and misunderstanding.

If I have to ask several questions in order to understand what a person is saying and what their statement or comment means, then the person giving that statement or comment either knows very little about what they are saying or they're trying to manipulate you.

Hasty Generalization reaching an inductive generalization based on insufficient evidence. Making a hasty conclusion without considering all of the variables.

Ambiguity - Surface - Labels

Faulty Generalization is a conclusion about all or many instances of a phenomenon that has been reached on the basis of just one or just a few instances of that phenomenon. It is an example of jumping to conclusions.

Generalities or Generalizing or just being General is when you are not specifying anything in particular.

Enigmatic is something that is not clear or understood.

Barnum Effect is the tendency to accept certain information as true, such as character assessments or horoscopes, even when the information is so vague and general that it could apply to almost anyone.

Sound bite is a brief snippet of recorded speech or a short clip of speech or music extracted from a longer piece of audio, usually used in the context of news reporting or often used to promote or exemplify the full length piece. In the context of journalism, a sound bite is characterized by a short phrase or sentence that captures the essence of what the speaker was trying to say, and is used to summarize information and entice the reader or viewer, or to force people to guess or assume what the meaning of the snippet of information is. Due to its brevity, a sound bite can often overshadow the broader context in which it was spoken, and can be misleading or inaccurate. The insertion of sound bites into news broadcasts or documentaries is open to manipulation, leading to conflict over journalistic ethics. Out of Context.

Inconclusive Statement is saying something that is Not Conclusive and does not put an end to Doubt or Question. A statement that dose not explain enough in order to define the actions that are needed to come to a particular understanding. When there is no follow up, or rebuttal, then the amount of mistakes will increase. Witness.

Concision is a neatly short expression using just a few words when writing or speaking. Something's cannot be accurately explained using just a few words.

Intimations is an indirect suggestion and a slight suggestion or vague understanding.

You can say almost anything about anything. But until you specify something or define something, and also give a particular scenario that explains what you are trying to say, then you're not saying anything, and basically you're just making assumptions and accusations. You have to learn how to complete a sentence in order to express an idea fully. You also have to learn how to ask questions and stop pretending that you understand things. If things are relative, then make it relative.

Availability Heuristic is a mental shortcut that relies on immediate examples that come to a given person's mind when evaluating a specific topic, concept, method or decision. Bias.

Using just Labels can also be Generalizing because things and words can have more them one meaning.

When statements are too general they can be easily misinterpreted or misused, like when people interpret religious text so that they can exploit its meaning and pretend supports an extremist view or ideology.

Exploit is to manipulate something to one's advantage.

Manipulate is to alter something in a fraudulent manner for the purpose of deception. To falsely or secretively, or dishonestly and shrewdly or deviously change the meaning of something.

In a Nutshell means to say something in a few words without going into much needed details, like a description of a movie or a book.

To Say the Least means that more can be said about something, but was not.

Needless to Say means of course or that something goes without saying.

"If you can't explain it simply, then you don't understand it well enough." - Albert Einstein

Media News Language Distortions - Fallacies


Assume is to take something to be the case or to be true without verification or proof. Accepting something without any evidence. Arrogant or Presumptuous. Make a Pretense of. Take liberties or act with too much Confidence. Expecting something. Used for the purpose of argument to indicate a premise on which a statement can be based.

Presumptuous is another word for assuming. Pretending You Understand.

Presuming is to believe something to be true without verification or proof. To take liberties or act without permission with too much confidence.

Surmise is to infer something from incomplete evidence and to imagine something to be the case or to be true or probable. A message expressing an opinion based on incomplete evidence.

Barking up the Wrong Tree means to pursue a mistaken or misguided line of thought or course of action.

Modus Ponens is when someone believes that if "P implies Q and P is asserted to be true, therefore Q must be true?"

Guilty by Association is not Always True (false evidence) - Correlation does not Prove Causation.

Not all assumptions are bad, because we need to make theories. But if your theory has no goal, or if you have no proof other than a theory, then that is the worst kind of assumption to make. Having an assumption that has no benefit, no goal, no purpose, and if your assumption does more harm than good, then you're just making things up, like a liar. Slander.

Expectation in epistemic is the belief that something will happen without considering the possibilities that it will not happen, thus being unprepared when the expected reality does not happen like you thought it would.

Conviction is an unshakable belief in something without need for proof or evidence.

Denial - Lying - Fallacy 

Condemnation is an expression of strong disapproval; pronouncing as wrong or morally culpable.

Pretense is the act of giving a false appearance. Pretending with intention to deceive. A false or unsupportable quality.

Media Literacy

Alleged is being accused of having done something wrong or illegal but not yet proven guilty. Declared but not proved. Doubtful or suspect. Someone who is under suspicion. The act or an instance of suspecting something on little or no evidence.

Superstition is the belief in supernatural causality—that one event causes another without any natural process linking the two events.

People jump to conclusions, they incriminate, they judge, and all without any hard evidence, or confirmed information, or anything that is remotely relevant that would help them prove that their reasoning is even accurate. Blowing hot air, a temper tantrum, just another ignorant remark from the peanut gallery, a waste of human language, and time.

Jumping to Conclusions is where one "judge[s] or decide[s] something without having all the facts; to reach unwarranted conclusions".

List of Common Misconceptions can be misleading in themselves.

Retro-Causality is any of several hypothetical phenomena or processes that reverse causality, allowing an effect to occur before its cause.

When people assume, they make up stories and pretend they know the facts, and they make other people believe by gossiping this pretend made up story, even when they have very little facts. This behavior is idiotic. People should focus more on each other and learn how to verify facts, and learn to fully understand ourselves and other people.

"Everyone needs to learn how to stop assuming that they know more then the other person. We have to stop pretending to have conversations that never happened. Talking to yourself is not the same as talking to the actual person. The art of conversation is the opportunity to make a connection, to work together in mind. We have to stop wasting time and energy, and life. We have this incredible ability to communicate and use language, but we don't even teach this, why?"

Motivated Reasoning is an emotion-biased decision-making phenomenon studied in cognitive science and social psychology. This term describes the role of motivation in cognitive processes such as decision-making and attitude change in a number of paradigms, including: Cognitive dissonance reduction, Beliefs about others on whom one's own outcomes depend, Evaluation of evidence related to one's own outcomes. Motivated Reasoning ( (PDF)


Bias is favoring something in advance that prevents objective consideration of an issue or situation. Influence in an unfair way. An attitude of mind especially one that favors one alternative over others. An inclination to favor one group or view or opinion over alternatives. A predisposition to like something. An inclination beforehand to interpret statements in a particular way. A disposition in advance to react in a particular way. The state of being susceptible and easily affected. A natural or acquired habit or characteristic tendency in a person or thing. A characteristic likelihood of or natural disposition toward a certain condition or character or effect. A feeling of favorable regard. Consider as the favorite. Promote over another. Give preference to one over another. 

Opinion - Pretending to Understand - Hindsight Bias

Don't judge a book totally by its cover, and don't judge information totally by its source. Don't use barriers when receiving information, use filters that are based on logic and not based on preconceived notions. Putting up barriers will lower your chances of learning things that may be extremely important, which will decrease your odds for success and lower your chances in life, and you only have so many chances in life, so don't waste them on a foolish ego. You need to keep learning, and stop pretending that you have learned enough.

Partiality is a predisposition to like something. An inclination to favor one group or view or opinion over alternatives.

Predisposition is a disposition in advance to react in a particular way. An inclination beforehand to interpret statements in a particular way.

Inclination is an attitude of mind when you favor one alternative over others. A characteristic likelihood of or natural disposition toward a certain condition or character or effect. A person's natural tendency or urge to act or feel in a particular way. Disposition or usual mood. Propensity or behave in a certain way. Not to be confused with Intuition.

Preference is having a strong liking or a predisposition in favor of something. Liking for one alternative over another or others.

Dichotomize is to regard or represent something as divided or opposed. To divide into two opposing groups or kinds.

Everyone is biased to a certain degree, but it is the things that people are biased against that makes certain biases so damaging, illogical and wrong. It's never just an opinion.

Mere-Exposure Effect is a psychological phenomenon by which people tend to develop a preference for things merely because they are familiar with them. In social psychology, this effect is sometimes called the familiarity principle. The effect has been demonstrated with many kinds of things, including words, Chinese characters, paintings, pictures of faces, geometric figures, and sounds. In studies of interpersonal attraction, the more often a person is seen by someone, the more pleasing and likeable that person appears to be. Self-Deception.

Cognitive Bias refers to a systematic pattern of deviation from norm or rationality in judgment, whereby inferences about other people and situations may be drawn in an illogical fashion. Individuals create their own "subjective social reality" from their perception of the input. An individual's construction of social reality, not the objective input, may dictate their behaviour in the social world. Thus, cognitive biases may sometimes lead to perceptual distortion, inaccurate judgment, illogical interpretation, or what is broadly called irrationality. Motivation.

List of Cognitive Biases (wiki)

Attribution Bias is a cognitive bias that refers to the systematic errors made when people evaluate or try to find reasons for their own and others' behaviors. People constantly make attributions regarding the cause of their own and others' behaviors; however, attributions do not always accurately mirror reality. Rather than operating as objective perceivers, people are prone to perceptual errors that lead to biased interpretations of their social world. Attributions is assigning some quality or character to a person or thing. Assigning to a cause or source. Prior Probability is when an uncertain quantity is the probability distribution that would express one's beliefs about this quantity before some evidence is taken into account.

In-Group Favoritism sometimes known as in-group–out-group bias, in-group bias, or intergroup bias, is a pattern of favoring members of one's in-group over out-group members. This can be expressed in evaluation of others, in allocation of resources, and in many other way. Discrimination - Gender Bias sways how we Perceive Competence in Faces.

Subjective Validation is a cognitive bias by which a person will consider a statement or another piece of information to be correct if it has any personal meaning or significance to them. In other words, a person whose opinion is affected by subjective validation will perceive two unrelated events (i.e., a coincidence) to be related because their personal belief demands that they be related. Closely related to the Forer effect, subjective validation is an important element in cold reading. It is considered to be the main reason behind most reports of paranormal phenomena.

Response Bias also called survey bias, is the tendency of a person to answer questions on a survey untruthfully or misleadingly. For example, they may feel pressure to give answers that are socially acceptable. A general term for a wide range of cognitive biases that influence the responses of participants away from an accurate or truthful response. These biases are most prevalent in the types of studies and research that involve participant self-report, such as structured interviews or surveys. Response biases can have a large impact on the validity of questionnaires or surveys.

Barnum Effect is the observation that individuals will give high accuracy ratings to descriptions of their personality that supposedly are tailored specifically for them but are, in fact, vague and general enough to apply to a wide range of people. This effect can provide a partial explanation for the widespread acceptance of some beliefs and practices, such as astrology, fortune telling, graphology, aura reading and some types of personality tests. Self-Deception.

Insensitivity to Sample Size is a cognitive bias that occurs when people judge the probability of obtaining a sample statistic without respect to the sample size.

Illusion of Validity is a cognitive bias in which a person overestimates his or her ability to interpret and predict accurately the outcome when analyzing a set of data, in particular when the data analyzed show a very consistent pattern—that is, when the data "tell" a coherent story. This effect persists even when the person is aware of all the factors that limit the accuracy of his or her predictions, that is when the data and/or methods used to judge them lead to highly fallible predictions. Illusory Correlation is the phenomenon of perceiving a relationship between variables (typically people, events, or behaviors) even when no such relationship exists. Expert Opinion - Variables.

Confirmation Bias is a tendency to interpret new information in a way that supports your pre-existing beliefs. People have the tendency to search for, interpret, favor, and recall information in a way that confirms one's preexisting beliefs or hypotheses, while giving disproportionately less consideration to alternative possibilities. We tend to seek out and listen to information that confirms what we already believe. Not only do we disregard contrary ideas, but we also interpret ambiguous ones to fit our beliefs. Confirming our preconceptions feels good. We like to be right. In reality, we can become blind to the truth. Information Bubble - Popularity is not an accurate measurement of Reality - Social Influence.

False Consensus Effect is a cognitive bias whereby people tend to overestimate the extent to which their opinions, beliefs, preferences, values, and habits are normal and typical of those of others because others also think the same way that they do. This cognitive bias tends to lead to the perception of a consensus that does not exist, a "false consensus".

Attitude Polarization is a phenomenon in which a disagreement becomes more extreme as the different parties consider evidence on the issue. It is one of the effects of confirmation bias: the tendency of people to search for and interpret evidence selectively, to reinforce their current beliefs or attitudes. When people encounter ambiguous evidence, this bias can potentially result in each of them interpreting it as in support of their existing attitudes, widening rather than narrowing the disagreement between them.

Inference-Observation Confusion. Unwarranted Conclusions. Judges or decides something without having all the facts.

Suggestibility is the quality of being inclined to accept and act on the suggestions of others; where false but plausible information is given and one fills in the gaps in certain memories with false information when recalling a scenario or moment. Suggestibility uses cues to distort recollection after persistently being told something pertaining to a past event, one's memory of the event conforms to what they've been told.

Discrimination - Media Manipulation

Receiving accurate feedback and getting a second opinion is important when you're trying to understand something and also when you're trying to make a good decision. But when you're understanding of something is not totally correct from the beginning, and then when you receive feedback or second opinion that is also inaccurate, then you could incorrectly assume that your understanding is right because others have said the same thing. That's when people make mistakes and that's when people believe things that are false. Information Bubble.

Listening is a Skill

A statistic is biased if it is calculated in such a way that it is only systematically different from the population parameter of interest. Neurosociety by Pace Art + Technology.

The following lists some types of biases, which can overlap.

Selection bias involves individuals being more likely to be selected for study than others, biasing the sample. This can also be termed Berksonian bias.

Spectrum bias
arises from evaluating diagnostic tests on biased patient samples, leading to an overestimate of the sensitivity and specificity of the test.

Bias of an estimator is the difference between an estimator's expectations and the true value of the parameter being estimated. Bias of an Estimator of an estimator is the difference between this estimator's expected value and the true value of the parameter being estimated. An estimator or decision rule with zero bias is called unbiased. Otherwise the estimator is said to be biased. In statistics, "bias" is an objective statement about a function, and while not a desired property, it is not pejorative, unlike the ordinary English use of the term "bias".

Omitted-variable bias is the bias that appears in estimates of parameters in a regression analysis when the assumed specification omits an independent variable that should be in the model.

In statistical hypothesis testing, a test is said to be unbiased when the probability of committing a type I error (i.e. false positive) is less than the significance level, and that of getting a true positive (rejecting the null hypothesis when the alternative hypothesis is true) is at least that of the significance level.

Detection bias occurs when a phenomenon is more likely to be observed for a particular set of study subjects. For instance, the syndemic involving obesity and diabetes may mean doctors are more likely to look for diabetes in obese patients than in thinner patients, leading to an inflation in diabetes among obese patients because of skewed detection efforts.

Funding bias
may lead to selection of outcomes, test samples, or test procedures that favor a study's financial sponsor.
Reporting bias involves a skew in the availability of data, such that observations of a certain kind are more likely to be reported.
Outcome Bias is when we judge a decision based on its outcome rather than how exactly the decision was made in the moment. Just because you win a lottery doesn't mean that buying a lottery ticket was a smart decision. Here you are deciding the value of decision after you have seen the outcome.
Analytical bias arise due to the way that the results are evaluated.
Exclusion bias arise due to the systematic exclusion of certain individuals from the study.
Attrition bias arises due to a loss of participants e.g. loss to follow up during a study.
Recall bias arises due to differences in the accuracy or completeness of participant recollections of past events. e.g. a patient cannot recall how many cigarettes they smoked last week exactly, leading to over-estimation or under-estimation.
Observer bias arises when the researcher unconsciously influences the experiment due to cognitive bias where judgment may alter how an experiment is carried out / how results are recorded.
Bias blind spot is when people tend to think themselves as less biased than other people. It means that by default we remain blind to our own cognitive biases.

What if your bias was based on lies or inaccurate information? Ratings.

There are no quick fixes when it comes to repairing our biases. It takes years to learn how to overcome biases, and you have to have discipline and awareness. But even then, there are no guarantees that you will always be accurate. People need to be on a learning journey, and be reminded that this journey should never end. Learning must be part of our daily responsibilities, like eating healthy, drinking clean water, sleeping enough, exercising, and learning something new that will increase your understanding of yourself and the world around you. And remember, there is no finish line or graduation day, only a continuation, something that adds to life and extends life for the better. Live, Learn, Love and Progress.

Introspection illusion is a cognitive bias in which people wrongly think they have direct insight into the origins of their mental states, while treating others' introspections as unreliable. In certain situations, this illusion leads people to make confident but false explanations of their own behavior (called "causal theories") or inaccurate predictions of their future mental states.

Patronizing - Condescension 

Self-Affirmation is how individuals adapt to information or experiences that are threatening to their self-concept.

Bias could also be a way of looking at something using a particular set of parameters or roperties. But you can't use the same parameters for everything.

Properties are those physical quantities which directly describe the physical attributes of the system;

Parameters are those combinations of the properties which suffice to determine the response of the system. Properties can have all sorts of dimensions, depending upon the system being considered; parameters are dimensionless, or have the dimension of time or its reciprocal.

Trick Questions

A man and his son were in an automobile accident. The man died on the way to the hospital, but the boy was rushed into surgery. The emergency room surgeon said "I can't operate, that's my son!" How is this possible?   Answer: The surgeon was his mother.

The worst thing about assuming is that people ask a Question when what they are really doing is making an accusation and a judgment in the form of a question, because they assume that they know the answer. So it's not a question, but an accusation and a judgment without a trial, or without debate. Presumptuous questions can either be balanced or unbalanced. Unbalanced questions ask questions only from the point of view of one side of an argument. For example, an interrogator might ask “’Do you favor the death penalty for persons convicted of murder?”’ This question assumes that the person’s only point of view in the situation is that a person who is convicted must either get the death penalty or not. The second type of presumptuous question is balanced question. This is when the interrogator uses opposite questions to make the witness believe that the question is balanced when the reality is that it is not. For example, the interrogator would ask, “’Do you favor life in prison, without the possibility of parole?” This type of question may seem balanced when in reality it is still influencing the person to discuss life in prison and no other choice.  

The Right to Remain Silent

Interrogation is interviewing as commonly employed by law enforcement officers, military personnel, and intelligence agencies with the goal of eliciting useful information. Interrogation may involve a diverse array of techniques, ranging from developing a rapport with the subject, to outright torture.

Suggestive Question is one that implies that a certain answer should be given in response, or falsely presents a presupposition in the question as accepted fact. Such a question distorts the memory thereby tricking the person into answering in a specific way that might or might not be true or consistent with their actual feelings, and can be deliberate or unintentional. For example, the phrasing "Don't you think this was wrong?" is more suggestive than "Do you think this was wrong?" despite the difference of only one word. The former may subtly pressure the respondent into responding "yes," whereas the latter is far more direct. Repeated questions can make people think their first answer is wrong and lead them to change their answer, or it can cause people to continuously answer until the interrogator gets the exact response that they desire. The diction used by the interviewer can also be an influencing factor to the response given by the interrogated individual. PDF

Loaded Question is a question that contains a controversial or unjustified assumption (e.g., a presumption of guilt).

Double-Barreled Question when someone asks a question that touches upon more than one issue, yet allows only for one answer. This may result in inaccuracies in the attitudes being measured for the question, as the respondent can answer only one of the two questions, and cannot indicate which one is being answered.

Complex Question is a question that has a presupposition that is complex. The presupposition is a proposition that is presumed to be acceptable to the respondent when the question is asked.

Rhetorical Question is a figure of speech in the form of a question that is asked to make a point rather than to elicit an answer. Though a rhetorical question does not require a direct answer, in many cases it may be intended to start a discussion or at least draw an acknowledgement that the listener understands the intended message. A common example is the question "Can't
you do anything right?
" This question, when posed, is intended not to ask about the listener's ability, but rather to insinuate the listener's lack of ability. Although sometimes amusing and even humorous, rhetorical questions are rarely meant for pure, comedic effect.

Presupposition is an implicit assumption about the world or background belief relating to an utterance whose truth is taken for granted in discourse.

Forced Confession is a confession obtained by a suspect or a prisoner under means of torture (including enhanced interrogation techniques) or other forms of duress. Depending on the level of coercion used, a forced confession is not valid in revealing the truth. The person being interrogated may agree to the story presented to him or even make up falsehoods himself in order to satisfy the interrogator and discontinue his suffering.

False Confession is an admission of guilt for a crime for which the confessor is not responsible. False confessions can be induced through coercion or by the mental disorder or incompetency of the accused. Research demonstrates that false confessions occur on a regular basis in case law, which is one reason why jurisprudence has established a series of rules—called "confession rules"—to detect, and subsequently reject, false confessions. Plea agreements typically require the defendant to stipulate to a set of facts establishing that he/she is guilty of the offense; in the United States federal system, before entering judgment on a guilty plea, the court must determine that there is a factual basis for the plea.

False Memories - Meaning

Lie - Truth

Objection is a formal protest raised in court during a trial to disallow a witness's testimony or other evidence which would be in violation of the rules of evidence or other procedural law. List of Objections (PDF)

Communication Styles

Effects of misleading questions and hypnotic memory suggestion on memory reports: a signal-detection analysis. In 2002, the first author and colleagues reported data indicating that both hypnosis and misleading questions decreased the accuracy of memory reports and decreased "don't know" response rates, that the effects of misleading questions were significantly greater than those of hypnosis, and that the two effects were additive. Using a sample of 194 undergraduate students, the present study replicated the findings that misleading questions reduce accuracy and "don't know" responding but failed to replicate the negative effect of hypnosis on memory reports. Signal detection analysis indicated that misleading questioning produced decreased sensitivity accompanied by higher response bias, though affecting sensitivity more than producing a criterion shift.

National Criminal Justice Reference Service
Ask a question as if you are talking to a Machine

It's not unusual for someone not to understand something the first time that they look at it. Everyone on the planet knows that to be a fact, yet to many people still assume and jump to conclusions. And you know why? People forget. People forget that they know that it's not unusual for someone not to understand something the first time that they look at it. So you are either lying to yourself and others, or you have a really bad memory.

Too many people can't understand the things that will help them to understand. People cannot utilize knowledge and information if they never learned how to utilize knowledge and information. So what exactly is knowledge and information. knowledge and information is the potential energy that is in every human being. But in order to have access to this power, you have to learn the right things at the right time. And you also have to have access to the world most valuable knowledge and information that the world has to offer, and you have to be shown how to effectively and efficiently use knowledge and information, so that you would receive the maximum benefits from knowledge and information, and increase your awareness about yourself and the world around you, and also have more control, more freedom, more power, more potential, and more possibilities...

People are not stupid, people just don't have enough knowledge and information in order to accurately understand themselves and the world around them. To say someone one is stupid because they did not learn something that you know, is stupid. To expect people to know something that you know, is stupid. You cannot assume to understand someone's thinking, you should just inquire.

It's really difficult when there are so many ignorant people, mentally challenged but functional. So they can appear to be normal, but they are far from normal, they cause more harm then good, because they can only act functional temporally, the rest of the time they are causing damage. But the damage goes unnoticeable to most people, so the damage continues, which is extremely crazy. We need to remove these people from their important positions and replace them with more competent people, while at the same time, get these nonfunctioning people the help that they need.

I have to stop being surprised and irritated by peoples ignorance, no one is to blame for their own stupidity, because we know where the problem lie's, and that is our education. We need to drastically improve education, and the media, so that all citizens are completely educated and informed. Otherwise this ignorance will continue to kill us and cause us problems till the day we die, and that my friend is the future that I'm trying to stop from ever happening, and not just for me, but for the trillions of people who will have to live after me. If life is a cycle, then you better get on this bike with me, because we have a lot of peddling to do. Knowledge Peddler's Unite.

In order to become intelligent, the first thing that you need to do is to realize how ignorant you are. You can read all the best books in the world and go to the best colleges, but if you are not educating yourself on the things that make you ignorant, and if you're not taking the necessary steps to reduce ignorant actions and thoughts, then you will always be ignorant, even though you are very knowledgeable and educated. Being smart is more then not being stupid. It's a combination of many different skills and it's acquiring specialized knowledge over many years.

Ignorance in itself has an unusual side effect of blinding the person from their own ignorance. So how does a person realize that they are ignorant when it’s the ignorance itself that keeps them from realizing that they are ignorant? Think about when you see a doctor and the doctor tells you that you have been diagnosed with a disease, a lot of people would say that they never knew that they were sick. Anton Babinski Syndrome  So there has to be a way to diagnose Ignorance. We need some way to communicate or a test that will say to that person that their thinking is not accurate without saying that they are stupid, because I don’t think that anyone is stupid, it's just that some of us are not thinking correctly. There's a big difference between being stupid, and doing stupid things. Most people have some level of intelligence, it's just that most people are not always using their intelligence at the right time or in the right way. We have to understand that people are not born bad, they are simply brought up badly and thus become a bad person. That's why most people in Prison have very little education as well as very poor reading and writing skills. So people are not born ignorant, they are just brought up ignorantly and thus become an ignorant person. Now ignorant does not mean that you are stupid. You can have a High IQ (Intelligence Quotient) and still be ignorant. To explain this lets first define ignorance. Though the definition of ignorance is usually defined a ‘ person who is ‘Uneducated in general, lacking knowledge or sophistication, Unaware because of a lack of relevant information or knowledge’. That is the more common definition that I do not totally agree with. I would like to define ignorance as a ‘ person who lacks a common sense that keeps oneself from separating opinion from fact, a person who dismisses information solely based on preference, a person who assumes without questioning, and a person who has difficulty formulating information in order to obtain a logical answer. This to me is a more accurate meaning of the word ignorance. I wonder if I could have the dictionary updated to include this definition or just replace the old definition with the one above, unless of course there is a better word in the dictionary for what is described above. Now some of you are still wondering how can you have a high IQ and still be ignorant. To me an IQ test is not a measure of intelligence but more of a test to measure ones brain function. If a persons IQ is high then their ability to process information and access their memory is exceptional, thus their brain is functioning properly. A person with a high IQ should be nurtured very carefully so that their ability is not stifled and at the same time their brain is not overwhelmed with useless information. A person with a low IQ will be treated the same way, but they will need extra special attention to get their brain functioning like a person with a high IQ. So if you use my definition of ignorance you will find that there are people with high IQ’s who are ignorant. They can process information, but they still have trouble with separating opinion from fact and sometimes can still dismiss information solely based on preference. I have not yet met an intelligent person. I have met some really smart people but I would not consider them intelligent.

First, you have to admit that you can be wrong about things. Second, you have to admit that you don't know enough about yourself and the world around you. Then and Only then will you be able to effectively learn to increase your understanding about yourself and the world around you. There is one extremely important thing that you need to commit to, and that is learning. Otherwise, you will be ignorant till the day you die.

If you don't know how ignorant you are every day, then that's another day that you didn't learn anything. And those days can easily and quickly turn into years.

Too many people just pretend that they know enough about themselves and the world. That means that millions of people are living in a fantasy world of make believe. Almost totally oblivious of the reality of this world, or the impact that they have on themselves and other people. And the only way for people to escape this quasi reality, is to learn what things in life are reality. Things that have been proven, things that have been experienced. And one of the most important things that a person needs to do first is to admit how ignorant they are about themselves, and how ignorant they are about the world around them. And the only way to know how ignorant you are, is to learn and study knowledge that would reveal how ignorant you are, because ignorance does not reveal itself. They say that being stupid doesn't hurt, like ignorance is bliss. That's a lie, because being stupid does hurt, you just don't know it because you're stupid. And the only way to know how much you're hurting yourself and other people, is to learn why. And one of the best ways to learn is by reading. But you can't read just anything because that would also be stupid. You have to seek out the exact knowledge that you need that would help increase your understanding of yourself and the world around you. You have to take learning seriously, because everything depends on it, everything. Everything.

When it comes to Child Prodigies, I look at them as being normal and everyone else being abnormal or just not aware of their potential, just yet. It’s really hard to measure intelligence because to me intelligence must be proven in many ways that would clearly define a person as being intelligent. People have estimated that there are over 3 million academically gifted students in the United States alone, which is an ignorant observation, because everyone has the potential to be so called gifted. The single largest disability that every child has is not having a school that understands knowledge and intelligence. This goes beyond Undermatching or Tracking. The U.S. is not just Neglecting Its Smartest Kids, but all kids. Todays schools produce more Intellectual Disabilities then they do Intellectual abilities, and the reason that you don't know this is because you have an Intellectual Disability. When smart kids do poorly in school, that proves schools are flawed.

Young females limit their own progress based on what they believe about their intelligence called the "bright girl effect". Growth mindset describes the underlying beliefs that people have about learning and intelligence. When students believe they can get smarter, they understand that effort makes them stronger.

Some areas of intelligence are linguistics intelligence, math intelligence, music intelligence, spatial intelligence, self intelligence and so on.

Take any person from any continent on this planet, and everyone will say that they would prefer to be strong then weak. It's a humans natural instinct to be strong, humans would never choose to be weak, but that is exactly what we have done with our education system. We have a very weak education, which creates weak minds. And a weak mind doesn't know its weak, because it is to weak to figure it out. Education Blog

Unlightneing "Knowledge will forever govern ignorance; and a people who mean to be their own governors must arm themselves with the power which knowledge gives." - James Madison.

"The only way to become intelligent is to first admit that you are a moron, then and only then, does the journey towards intelligence begin...It's impossible to know all the answers, especially when you don't even know the questions."

"The fool doth think he is wise, but the wise man knows himself to be a fool". - (Act V, Scene I). 
As You Like It 1599

"You don't know what you do not know, until you know what you did not know."

Judy Collins - Both Sides (youtube)

"Intelligence is not a destination, Intelligence is a path that you take, and staying on this path is to be intelligent."

"Intelligence is being aware of all the things that you still don't know but making the effort to know them, while using all the things that you do know, effectively as possible. Humans need to feed the brain as well as their stomachs, we need to be hunters and gatherers of knowledge. And we need to preserve all the valuable knowledge that we find and create. We certainly don't want to end up like previous civilizations, dead and gone with very little records to explain why."

"I wouldn't call people ignorant or incompetent, people just lack the intelligence and the necessary skills that are needed to run their life or to do their job effectively or efficiently. Improving education and training will help solve this problem."

I'm just revealing how ignorant someone's behavior is, not all behaviors are bad, just the behaviors that cause damage and suffering. Some people take offense to having their ignorance revealed, like they feel bad for finding out that they were wrong about something, or having someone find out about a horrible secret they have been hiding, something embarrassing, something shameful. So Why do some people see learning as something negative and tedious?

I didn't want to be the one to tell you this, but since no one else has, I guess I'm stuck with this job of having to inform you. Don't blame the messenger, because no one is to blame, until tomorrow that is. Maybe you will forget what you have learned today, so maybe I will have to remind you again tomorrow, I hope not. I hope we keep learning. A better world is waiting for us, but it will not wait forever. And this is not just about our time, our flash in the pan, this is about all time, and the time that trillions upon trillions of future generations who will either have to endure life or have the pleasure to enjoy life, this choice is ours now, and tomorrow. I choose enjoy. No one should ever have to suffer and endure from other peoples behavior. No one. Learning needs to be the new fad, the new relish. There is tremendous amount of pleasure that comes from learning. Everyone should be benefiting from learning. But when some people can't learn because they don't have access, or they refuse to learn, then they haven't learned the most important thing about learning, which is, you learn everyday, if not, you will struggle, and in that struggle is when people make most of their mistakes, mistakes that do most of damage.

"I work around a lot of things, especially my own ignorance, because if you can't get passed your own ignorance, you're screwed."

"I have experienced things and learned from them even before I knew what they were. Meaning that, you do not necessarily have to have a language to explain something in order to learn from something, that is the brilliant design of the brain. Just like having instincts"

Your brain is like an 8 cylinder engine. When your brain finally starts to run on 6 cylinders, you then realize that your brain has been only running on 2 cylinders for several years. And now that you're running on 6 cylinders, you can now improve and progress so that you will eventually be running on all 8 cylinders, meaning that you will eventually have full access to the power of the human mind.

I'm still an Idiot sometimes, but not as much as I used to be

Everyone is inflicted with some form of ignorance, even me. But it's the level of ignorance and the amount of ignorance that a person has that will ultimately determine the amount of damage that a person will do to themselves, or to others, or to the world. Ignorance kills more people then all causes of death combined. And why we hardy ever here anything about the worlds biggest killer is because we are ignorant. So when we finally do realize how ignorant we are, that is when learning will finally become extremely important, and a lot more meaningful then ever before. It's an epiphany and the great awakening all rolled up into one. I thought I knew enough at 48, but I was wrong, and the only reason I knew that I was wrong was because I started to educate myself.

I'm still an idiot, but I'm always learning, so I'm always discovering more ways to do what is right. I have made a lot of improvements, but I still have many more improvements to make. Once you start the process of self examination, you are starting an amazing journey. Making a commitment to never stop learning about yourself and the world around you is something that everyone needs to do. But you need to avoid being consumed by all the problems, and by all the advancements. You need balance. Live, Learn, Love and Progress. But what is Live? Thinking has bought you here and has made your life possible, but can you understand the importance? The fact that you have the most amazing thing called the brain should be enough to explore its inner workings. You live because of the environment that you grew into helped you to live, now its time to find out where this love is coming from. When things go bad it's not about hate, its about information going bad. That is why we have correcting data error software, which is another word for learning, where we learn that mistakes happen, so how do we correct them? You can't be aware of everything or plan for everything, but you can increase your odds of success by continually learning and paying attention to change and the evidence of changes to come. The one major advantage that humans have is that we can see the future. This is what life needs to have in order to survive. And seeing the future has nothing to do with sight or sound, only the patterns learned from sight and sound, which do not have to be experienced, only read. That is the human advantage. If I did not tell you to turn left instead of right, you would have made a wrong turn.

"I know enough about intelligence to know that I'm not intelligent yet. And I also know enough about intelligence to know that no one else is intelligent either. Intelligence is a destination that I'm working on, and I hope that intelligence would be everyone's destination too, because I don't want to be intelligent all by myself, because that wouldn't be intelligent."

A Genius who can't Tie his own Shoes

"The common curse of mankind, - folly and ignorance". - (Act II, Scene III). Troilus and Cressida - 1602

"I was the idiot who didn't know any better, but I wanted to know better, but I didn't know how. So I'm sorry it took so long, after all, I was an idiot, but now I'm less of an idiot, which means I can continually improve and become even smarter then I am now."

"What are the smartest countries in the world, the answer is none. People who do rankings are incredibly ignorant and criminal, especially when they use math and science test scores as a predictor of good outcomes. Ignorant people cannot measure intelligence, especially when they can't even measure their own ignorance."

"I have neither the time nor the crayons to explain it to you." 

"I can explain it to you but I can't understand it for you."

"You couldn't pour the water out of a boot if the instructions were written on the heel."


"There is a cult of ignorance in the United States, and there always has been. The strain of anti-intellectualism has been a constant thread winding its way through our political and cultural life, nurtured by the false notion that democracy means that my ignorance is just as good as your knowledge." Isaac Asimov, (written January 21st, 1980).

Anti-intellectualism is hostility towards and the mistrust of intellect, intellectuals, and intellectual pursuits, usually expressed as a biased disrespect of education, philosophy, literature, art, and science, as impractical and contemptible.

"This is what happens when ignorance speaks about intelligence. You have to wonder where in the hell are ignorant people getting this information from? How could you perceive and understand other peoples ignorance when you are not even aware of your own ignorance, or even understand why you are ignorant?" I understand the mistrust of certain people, because some people pretend to be intelligent, when in fact they're criminals. But what I don't understand is that lack of Reasoning and Justification that you are supposed to have. You can't create your own quasi reality and blame other people for not understanding you. You have to learn how to Debate and stop the Hate."

To Know, or not to Know?

Is that even a question?

It's better to know than not to know. And when someone says "I wish I didn't know that", what they're really saying is, "I wish I knew more about that thing that I wish I didn't know about, because not understanding something makes me really uncomfortable and confused". It's better to know than not to know.

Epiphany is a sudden revelation. A moment of sudden understanding or revelation. Epiphany is a scientific breakthrough that allows a problem or situation to be understood from a new and deeper perspective. Having a depth of prior knowledge is required to allow the leap of understanding. Emergence - Transformative Learning.

Enlightening is the process of increasing knowledge and reducing ignorance. Understanding. Enlightenment is that feeling you get when you finally release ignorance that you have been holding on to. Letting go of your stupidity, a relief from not knowing, to a realization of knowing. Enlightenment refers to the "full comprehension of a situation". Learning.

Revelation is an enlightening or astonishing disclosure. Idea.

Realization is coming to understand something clearly and distinctly. Making real or giving the appearance of Reality.

Acknowledge is to admit the existence of something or to  declare the reality or truth of something. Expressing recognition of the presence or the existence of something. Accept something as legally binding and valid.

Recognition is the state or quality of being recognized or acknowledged. Coming to understand something clearly and distinctly. Approval.

Perspicacity is a penetrating discernment and a clarity of vision or intellect which provides a deep understanding and insight.

Discernment is the cognitive condition of someone who understands. The mental ability to understand and discriminate between relations. The trait of judging wisely and objectively.

Known is to apprehended with certainty. To be cognizant or aware of a fact or a specific piece of information. To possess knowledge or information about something. To Know the nature or character of something. To be able to distinguish and recognize something as being different.

Apprehend is to fully understand or grasp the meaning of something.

Mind Blowing Hands Gesture Giff Mind-Blowing Experience is when someone's mind is affected very strongly by something new, exciting, unusual or impressive. Something that changes you, and something that you will never forget. Blow Your Mind - The Big Bang - The Big Idea.

A Holy F*cking Sh*t moment! WTF! I can't freaking believe it! Wow!

Wow is to be impressed greatly and surprised, sometimes with admiration.

Oh My God, OMG, oh my gosh, omigosh, or oh my goodness is a way of expressing surprise, astonishment, excitement, shock or awe. It can also mean a way of expressing disbelief, frustration, dismay or anger. Reactions can be Relative, so the Meaning may change.

Paradigm Shift is when someone sees the same information in an entirely new and different way from what was the generally accepted perspective or typical standard, leading to fundamental changes in basic concepts and assumptions. Emergence.

Scientific Revolution is a series of events that marked the emergence of modern science during the early modern period, when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology (including human anatomy) and chemistry transformed the views of society about nature. Transformative Learning.

Age of Enlightenment was an intellectual and philosophical movement which dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century. The Enlightenment included a range of ideas centered on reason as the primary source of authority and legitimacy, and came to advance ideals like liberty, progress, tolerance, fraternity, constitutional government, and separation of church and state.

The Great Awakening is the period in Human Civilization when the value of Knowledge and Information is fully Realized. Making Human intelligence accessible to every human on the planet. Which in turn utilizes the potential energy of every person on the planet. Making humans feel more connected to each other, more connected to the earth, and more connected to life itself. Creating a global awareness of monumental proportions. It will be like experiencing life for the very first time on levels that were never imagined. Consciousness Raising. The Human Race has fallen asleep at the wheel, time to wake up.

is an arrival that has been awaited, especially of something momentous. Meme.

Revolution of the Mind. There is a revolution coming, a revolution like no other revolution before, a revolution of the mind.

See the Light is to gain an understanding of something that was previously not understood, especially in a sudden insight. LiFi.

It Opened My Eyes or That was an Eye Opener means that something was so informative that it caused you to understand something a lot better then you did before or see something more clearer then you did before.

Insight is the understanding of a specific cause and effect within a specific context. The term insight can have several related meanings such as the act or result of understanding the inner nature of things or of seeing intuitively, called noesis in Greek. An introspection. The power of acute observation and deduction, discernment, and perception, called intellection or noesis. An understanding of cause and effect based on identification of relationships and behaviors within a model, context, or scenario.

Things Begin to Click means that you finally understand something more clearly and so now everything falls into place or clicks into place, and you suddenly understand how different pieces of information are connected and now everything becomes clearer then before when it was puzzling.

Fire on all Cylinders means that you are functioning or operating at the most desirable or greatest possible level of efficiency, speed, or productivity.

Hundredth Monkey Effect is a hypothetical phenomenon in which a new behavior or idea is claimed to spread rapidly by unexplained means from one group to all related groups once a critical number of members of one group exhibit the new behavior or acknowledge the new idea.

Tipping Point in sociology is a point in time when a group—or a large number of group members—rapidly and dramatically changes its behavior by widely adopting a previously rare practice, like learning.

Threshold Knowledge is a term in the study of higher education used to describe core concepts — or threshold concepts — which, once understood, transform perception of a given subject, phenomenon, or experience. There are certain concepts, or certain learning experiences, which resemble passing through a portal, from which a new perspective opens up, allowing things formerly not perceived to come into view. This permits a new and previously inaccessible way of thinking about something. It represents a transformed way of understanding, or interpreting, or viewing something, without which the learner cannot progress, and results in a reformulation of the learners’ frame of meaning. The thresholds approach also emphasizes the importance of disciplinary contexts. As a consequence of comprehending a threshold concept there may thus be a transformed internal view of subject matter, subject landscape, or even world view.

We are on the verge of an incredible breakthrough. We have learned more in the last 50 years than we have in the last 100,000 years. We have accumulated more knowledge and information in just the last 100 years then we have in all the millions of years that humans have existed on earth, and we are just getting started. We are on the verge of some of the most incredible advancements in human intelligence. It will be like waking up for the very first time and experiencing life as if you were just born. It will be amazing.

Wow Symbol On the Verge or Brink is something close in time and about to occur that is within reach. An imminent event that is about to happen that will change the current condition and create a new situation.

Breakthrough is a sudden, dramatic, and important discovery or development. An instance of achieving success in a particular sphere or activity.

Brink is to come close to a region marking a boundary. The edge of a steep place or extreme edge of land before a steep or vertical slope. The limit beyond which something happens or changes.

It's a Game Changer means that something has changed in such a degree that it alters your previous perceptions and affects your future decisions.

New Age are the outstanding and significant changes in the Mind, Body and Spirit. A term applied to a range of spiritual or religious beliefs and practices that developed in Western nations during the 1970s.

It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity, it was the season of Light, it was the season of Darkness, it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair, we had everything before us, we had nothing before us, we were all going direct to Heaven, we were all going direct the other way—in short, the period was so far like the present period, that some of its noisiest authorities insisted on its being received, for good or for evil, in the superlative degree of comparison only

Rite of Passage is a ceremony of the passage which occurs when an individual leaves one group to enter another. It involves a significant change of status in society. Rites of passage have three phases: separation, liminality, and incorporation.

Born Again refers to  a spiritual rebirth or a regeneration of the human spirit from the Holy Spirit, contrasted with physical birth. Reboot.

Zen is a Buddhist doctrine that enlightenment can be attained through direct intuitive insight.

Spiritual Transformation constitutes a change in the meaning system that a person holds as a basis for self-definition, the interpretation of life, and overarching purposes and ultimate concerns. a fundamental change in the place of the sacred or the character of the sacred in the life of the individual. Transformative Learning.

Salvation is being saved or protected from harm or being saved or delivered from a dire situation, through Learning.

Mysticism refers to the attainment of insight in ultimate or hidden truths, and to human transformation supported by various practices and experiences. A kind of ecstasy or altered state of consciousness which is given a religious or spiritual meaning. Mysticism is the practice of religious ecstasies religious experiences during alternate states of consciousness, together with whatever ideologies, ethics, rites, myths, legends, and magic may be related to them.

Critical Point in mathematics of a differentiable function of a real or complex variable, is any value in its domain where its derivative is 0. Some authors include in the critical points the limit points where the function may be prolongated by continuity and where the derivative is not defined. For a differentiable function of several real variables, a critical point is a value in its domain where all partial derivatives are zero. The value of the function at a critical point is a critical value.

Inflection Point is a point of a curve at which a change in the direction of curvature occurs. A point on a curve at which the curve changes from being concave (concave downward) to convex (concave upward), or vice versa. A point where the curvature vanishes but does not change sign is sometimes called a point of undulation or undulation point. Inflection point in business is a time of significant change in a situation or a turning point.

Cognizant is having or showing knowledge or understanding or realization or perception.

Detect is to discover or to determine the existence, presence, or fact of something.

Detection is the extraction of particular information from a larger stream of information, or the action or process of identifying the presence of something concealed.

Profundity is wisdom that is recondite and abstruse and profound. Intellectual depth or penetrating knowledge or a keen insight.
The intellectual ability to penetrate deeply into ideas. The quality of being physically deep.

Profound is showing intellectual penetration or emotional depth of the greatest intensity. Complete far-reaching and thoroughgoing in effect, especially on the nature of something. Coming from deep within one.

Abstruse or Recondite is something difficult to penetrate or incomprehensible to one of ordinary understanding or knowledge.

Awareness - Confidence - Third Eye

Remarkable! Spanky's Story in the Little Rascals (1922 to 1944) (youtube)

Open-Mindedness is receptiveness to new ideas. Open-mindedness relates to the way in which people approach the views and knowledge of others, and "incorporate the beliefs that others should be free to express their views and that the value of others’ knowledge should be recognized." There are various scales for the measurement of open-mindedness. Relativism is the belief that all criteria of judgment are relative to the individuals and situations involved, but this is being narrow-mined and biased.

Broaden your Horizons is to expand one's range of interests, activities, and knowledge.

Self-Directed Learning - Inspiration - Motivation

Serendipity is the unexpected and fortunate discoveries, usually happening when looking for something unrelated. Finding something nice while looking for something else.

Luck is an unknown and unpredictable phenomenon that leads to a favorable outcome.

Fate - Coincidence

A Matter of Fact, in the Human sense, is the type of knowledge that can be characterized as arising out of one's interaction with and experience in the external world (as compared to a Relation of Ideas). In a Kantian framework, it is equivalent to the synthetic a posteriori. Examples:-The sun will come out tomorrow. (Not reason but habitual)-There are people outside the room. (One cannot know what is outside one's own experience) How We Know:-It is impossible to "know everything."-Depend upon The Principles of Induction and The Uniformity of Nature. -Denying these do not lead to a contradiction.

Do you Know Enough?

"It aint what you don't know that gets you into trouble, it's what you think you know for sure that just aint so." ~ Mark Twain

"It's not just what you don't know, but it's also what you think you know is true that can do most of the damage."

"A fool thinks himself to be wise, but a wise man knows himself to be a fool." (William Shakespeare)

“The most difficult subjects can be explained to the most slow-witted man if he has not formed any idea of them already; but the simplest thing cannot be made clear to the most intelligent man if he is firmly persuaded that he knows already, without a shadow of doubt, what is laid before him.” Leo Tolstoy (wiki).

Dunning Kruger Effect - Most people live in a make believe world were they pretend to know things.

“What we know is a drop, what we don't know is an ocean.”― Isaac Newton (1642-1727). - "What we know now is a lake, what we still don't know is still an ocean." (2018).

Most people only see the shadows on the walls and never see what makes the shadows. Allegory of the Cave describes a group of people who have lived chained to the wall of a cave all of their lives, facing a blank wall. The people watch shadows projected on the wall from objects passing in front of a fire behind them, and give names to these shadows. The shadows are the prisoners' reality. There is a whole other world that people don't see, and most are not even aware of this bigger reality. You have to be able to see the whole picture in order to see the whole of reality. But if you never leave the cave, that prison for your mind will keep you blind for life. Observation Errors - Asymptomatic.

Knowledge Illusion: We are largely unaware of how little we understand. We live with the belief that we understand more than we do. When we know about something, we find it hard to imagine that someone else doesn’t know it. We confuse the knowledge in our heads with the knowledge we have access to. We live in a community of knowledge and we fail to distinguish the knowledge that is in our heads from the knowledge outside of it. We think the knowledge we have about how things work sits inside our skulls when in fact we’re drawing a lot of it from the environment and from other people. most of what is in our heads is quite superficial.

What is it that fools people into believing that they know enough about a particular subject? Is it that people don't even ask what's missing? If it were easy for people to measure their intelligence level and skills level, then people would be more aware of their potential, and more aware of what they know and what they don't know. "You don't feel a brain full of knowledge, it just works better. But you also don't feel a brain that is lacking knowledge, and you don't realize whether your brain is working good or not working good".

How are you supposed to know what you don't know? If things that you don't know are invisible to you, then how are you supposed to see what you don't know? You can't, until you learn what you don't know. But you have to learn deliberately. You have to have an idea of what you're looking for, and you have to have a plan, and you have to have a goal.  And the only way to know something, is to learn about it. But the only way that you can learn about something is when you have access to knowledge and information, along with the abilities and skills to understand, and you also have to learn the right things at the right time.

Intellectual Humility involves recognizing and owning our intellectual limitations in the service of pursuing deeper knowledge, truth, and understanding. often described as an intellectual virtue, along with other perceived virtues such as open-mindedness,
intellectual courage and integrity, and in contrast to proposed intellectual vices, such as pride and arrogance.

There are people who are very knowledgeable and who also know how to use the English language fairly well. But they still don't know a lot of things, and they don't even know it, especially the knowledge that would give them the ability to understand themselves more accurately and the ability to understand the world around them more effectively. If people knew the knowledge that they were missing, they would definitely want to learn those things, especially if they knew how valuable the knowledge was and how damaging it is for them not to have certain knowledge. When you're a teenager you can't wait to learn how to drive a car, so you practice driving and you read and learn the rules of the road so that you can pass the test to get your drivers license. Now you can drive a car all by yourself to almost anywhere you want. Well the same thing goes for learning how to use the human brain, which also gives you the freedom and the ability to go anywhere in life that you want, just as long as you learn everything that you need to know, so that you can pass the test for the human brain drivers license, which will prove that you know enough to operate the most powerful machine in the world, effectively and efficiently.

I wish I knew then what I know now. Just to say that implies that you have learned something recently that you wish you could have learned when you were younger. If only you were more knowledgeable in your youth, you could have made better decisions and not made so many mistakes. So what did you learn? And what was the knowledge and information that you didn't have? Was it not available? Was it that you did not have access to this knowledge and information? So now that you have this knowledge and information, how do you plan to pass it forward, or in this case, how do you pass it backwards, meaning, how do you get this important knowledge and information in the hands of young people? Everything that you have in life and everything that you are in life, comes from the process of transmitting information. So it seems pretty important.

Ooh La La - The Faces (Without A Paddle Soundtrack) (youtube) - I wish that I knew what I know now, When I was younger, I wish that I knew what I know now, When I was stronger.

Hindsight Bias, also known as the knew-it-all-along effect or creeping determinism, is the inclination, after an event has occurred, to see the event as having been predictable, despite there having been little or no objective basis for predicting it.

Hindsight is understanding the nature of an event after it has happened. Learning.

Bounded Rationality is when the decision-making of individuals is limited by the information they have and by the cognitive limitations of their minds, and the finite amount of time they have to make a decision. Rational.

When you finally stop denying that you're ignorant, that will be one of the best things that will ever happen in your life, but also it will be one the worst things that will happen in your life, because you now will realize how little you know about yourself and the world around you, and you will also realize all the mistakes that you made and all the time that you wasted. But at least now you're doing something about your ignorance. So don't ignore the activity of learning, it is the holy grail.

Why don't you know what you've got Till it's gone?

Tending is to care for and to look after something important, and to manage the work of providing treatment.

Treatment is care that is provided to improve a situation by following procedures or applications that are intended to relieve illness or injury.

Just don't think, Know. It's not what you think, it's what you know. It's what you know for sure, and not what you think you know. Know. "I almost learned something today." If Ignorance of the Law is No Excuse, then ignorance of life is also no excuse.

You don't have to know everything, but you do need to know the important stuff. There are good things that you need to know, so you should know them. you don't have to know everything, only know the things that matter most.

What you don't know is an abstract barrier where you're boxed in and you can't see what's over the wall. But most people will not even try to get out of the box, this is because they have no idea that they are in a box. You will not know what anything is until you start asking questions. Stop pretending to know and start tending to know what is known. Tending is your responsibility to learn and progress.

"I am so clever that sometimes I don't understand a single word of what I am saying." (Oscar Wilde)

"You're smart, it's just that your understanding of the world is not totally accurate, or complete."

"There are known knowns; there are things we know we know. We also know there are known unknowns; that is to say we know there are some things we do not know. But there are also unknown unknowns — the ones we don't know we don't know." This was quoted by Donald Rumsfeld when he was coming up with lame excuses for why mistakes where made, basically saying "you can't handle the truth", especially when it exposes incompetence, arrogance and corruption, so here's some gibberish instead. Congressional Hearings where people testify are mostly for show. Most questions are never asked and most answers are never given. They just play dumb go through it. This is not Just about following orders, this is human behavior at its worst and an blatant attack on democracy.

Blatant is doing something without any attempt at concealment and doing something completely obvious and offensive.

"Be careful who you call an Intellectual because intellectuals are not always intelligent, they have mostly been schooled, thus they are most likely to be still ignorant and very vulnerable to corruption." Intellectual Dark Web?

"All concepts are dependent on consciousness to know them."

"What is essential is invisible to the eye." Antoine de Saint-Exupery.

What is that? When something is unidentified to you, you need more information.

Unidentified is something unknown or unnamed or unfamiliar where you are unable to use previous knowledge and information to correlate any connection with something that is new to you.

Unfamiliar is something not known or well known.

Foreign or Alien is something not belonging to that in which it is contained and introduced from an outside source.

Strange is something out of the ordinary and unexpected and slightly odd or even a bit weird. Something that is not known before and does not seem to be originating or characteristic of this place or part of the world that you are in.

You can't understand something when you don't have the knowledge and information that's needed to understand it. Things will only exist in your mind when you have the knowledge that proves something exists. There for, things will not exist or be known to you until you learn about its existence. If people cannot understand the importance of learning, then people will never learn anything important, and they will never know that because that knowledge does not exist in their mind. You don't know what you don't know, so you will never know what you don't know, or know what you can know. So remember, you can't know what you don't know until you learn what you don't know. The Key is learning.

How do you get people to know what they don't know? By using all communication technologies effectively and efficiently. We are only using 10%.

Do you know enough about yourself? Do you know enough about the world? What do you know? And, is it enough? I know enough to get buy, but what is enough? And what is getting buy mean? You can't even get buy these questions, so how could you know enough? Can you explain what you know? And if so, how could it be enough? Some people just don't want to Learn, so they pretend that they know enough, or, they did not know enough to begin with, so they don't even know what they don't know. I know. I know that I don't know everything. But the more I know, the more of everything is possible. "I almost know a lot of things." Keep Reading.

Do you know the Basics? Do you know enough about a particular subject in order to perform a particular task? Do you know what Knowledge is? Do you know what Knowing is? What is there to Know? Do you understand what Learning is? Do you know what Living in Denial is? Do you know why there's a Knowledge Gap? Could you know too much?

You need to Have an Open Mind. And you need to be able to Expand your Mind and Broaden your Horizons.

Curse of Knowledge is the inability of more informed individual to think about the problems from the perspective of lesser informed individuals. Condescension.

"Don't believe everything you think."  "Get Rid of Everything that you Think you Know."

"I wouldn't say that there is Limits to Knowledge, what I would say is that there is definitely limits to the Lack of Knowledge."

Absolute Idealism asserts that in order for the thinking subject (human reason or consciousness) to be able to know its object (the world) at all, there must be in some sense an identity of thought and being. Otherwise, the subject would never have access to the object and we would have no certainty about any of our knowledge of the world. To account for the differences between thought and being, however, as well as the richness and diversity of each, the unity of thought and being cannot be expressed as the abstract identity "A=A". Absolute idealism is the attempt to demonstrate this unity using a new "speculative" philosophical method, which requires new concepts and rules of logic.

Intellectual Freedom begins when one says with Socrates that he knows that he knows nothing, and then goes on to add: Do you know what you don’t know and therefore what you should know? If your answer is affirmative and humble, then you are your own teacher, you are making your own assignment, and you will be your own best critic. You will not need externally imposed courses, nor marks, nor diplomas, nor a nod from your boss . . . in business or in politics." - Scott Buchanan (wiki)

People Need to Stop Pretending that they Know and stop pretending that they understand certain things. This pretending stops people from learning. But it doesn't stop people from expressing their opinions that do more harm then good. Believing that you know something that isn't true can do a lot of damage. Pretending that you understand something is one of the most damaging things that you can do to yourself. It's more then just wrong and illogical, it's a self inflicted learning disability. Not only will you will suffer from your own assumptions, but other people will suffer as well. Once you stop learning, you stop living. So instead of accelerating towards life, you accelerate towards death, like a cancer. You have to first admit that your ignorant in order to start the process of learning.

Assumptions - Biased - Prejudice - Truth

"Most People Don't Know the Half of It."  "Do you know how the subconscious mind works?"

Stop Pretending you Know. If you never realize your own ignorance and never admit how much you still don't know and how much you still need to learn and understand, then you will be ignorant for the rest of your life, and that is a complete waste of human intelligence, which is also a complete waste of human potential and human energy.

How can you call it thinking when you never ask questions and never seek answers and never confirm the things you think you know, that's not thinking, that's rumination, which is like a hamster wheel,, your moving, but you're not getting anywhere.

Every person on earth makes the same mistake of believing that they have learned enough, and that the knowledge they have gives them full understanding of themselves and the world around them. But trying to figure out what you don't know is not that easy. And you must have access to the knowledge that you need, and some guidance to navigate through the worlds accumulated knowledge that has been collected in the last 2,000 years or so. People naively believe that they are learning enough because they watch the news and do some reading. Well your wrong, you are not learning enough. Read BK101 and you will begin to learn enough.

Everybody Knows - Leonard Cohen (youtube) - sadly the fact is, everyone doesn't know.

"You need to see the light and free yourself from the darkness of ignorance. Intelligence is just a natural progression. To embrace Intelligence is to embrace freedom."

You can say that you don't know how to speak a particular language. And you can confirm this by trying to speak a language that you never learned how to speak. You can also say that you don't know enough about yourself and the world around you. But you don't know what you are supposed to know. And that is where all human problems begin and persist. But what if you had access to knowledge and information that you are supposed to know? Would you want to know things that would give you a better understanding of yourself and the world around you? Most people would. And now most people can. BK101.

The best thing that you can do is to keep asking questions and stop pretending that you have all the answers. Knowing that you are a moron is a good thing, because now you have the ability to educate yourself, and thus stop being a moron and start becoming more intelligent.

What if your goal is to learn how to be intelligent? Then you would have learn what being intelligence is. Then you would have to learn what learning is. Then you would have learn what knowledge is. And then learn what information is. And then you would have learn what language is. And so on and so on. But you have to start learning, and you have to stay faithful and devoted to learning.

If finding out that you were ignorant about something makes you feel bad, then that's a good thing, because ignorance should never feel good. The only time that ignorance should feel good is when you finally learned to over come it.

Every person alive today carries the ignorance of their generation, and that is a sad fact. Education needs to be about correcting all our ignorance instead of perpetuating our ignorance. Ignorance is making reincarnation look like a bad thing, like it's just another death sentence. Human life is incredibly amazing, and if everyone were intelligent, then human life would be a million times better. Intelligence is a natural progression, so we can't allow ignorance to slow it down. Ignorance is not natural like disease, and we can cure diseases, so we can cure ignorance, which would cure all diseases.

We use only 10% of our Brains, the other 90% of our brain power is not utilized effectively, that's because humans don't have the necessary knowledge and information that would help them utilize the human brains full power and capabilities. And the reason why humans don't have the necessary knowledge and information is because our Schools, Universities only teach students 10% of what is known in the world, the other 90% of what is known is not being transmitted. This is why people use only 10% of communication technology effectively, the other 90% is used for entertainment, advertising and propaganda. When we have schools that teach students 99% of the human knowledge that is known, then humans will use 99% of their brain power, and also use technologies 99% more effectively.

"I have a question that I'm not going to ask you. I am just going to pretend that you don't know the answer to that question that I never asked you so that I can continue to pretend to know something that you don't."

"knowing what to do is just as important as knowing what not to do." 

"Most people do not have enough information and knowledge in order to be fully aware of themselves or the world around them. So people never fully understand the options or the choices that they have, or what better decisions they could be making."

"People don't think stuff through far enough to fully understand." "Think Twice"

"You don't know what you don't know until you know what you did not know."

"If there's one thing that I have learned, it's that I still have a lot to learn."

"The most damaging lies are the ones we tell ourselves."

"One of the most important things that a person should know is that there will always be more that they still don't know. knowing that you don't know everything will always be better then believing that you know everything. You will never get through a locked door unless you have a key, and the key is knowledge."

"Know one could have all the answers, but the more answers you do have, the better off you will be."

"There is more information in your DNA in just one tiny microscopic cell in your body, then you have in your entire brain. But not for long. (BK101).

Some people are not smarter then you, some people just learned a little more about certain things then you. Things that you can also learn. So people who have more knowledge and information then you are not smarter then you, they just seem smarter, only because you stopped learning or you didn't have access to the knowledge and information that you need in order to better understand yourself and the world around you. Just keep learning a little each day.

How will you add yesterdays learning to today? And how will you add todays learning to the future? Learning needs progression, if knowledge becomes fragmented, then it becomes less effective.

You can't be any more then you know, but you can definitely be less then what you know, because you may have forgotten important things that you have learned. So the more you know the better. But you have to choose your knowledge wisely, and you have to learn something new everyday, if not, then you will have wasted a day. And if you miss too many days, your development and progress will almost come to a complete stop. You have to understand the potential that knowledge gives you, but you also have to understand that potential energy comes from action, and that action is called learning. But you have to know what to learn and when to learn it, otherwise, information and knowledge becomes fragmented, and unable to be utilized collectively. So you will not know enough to piece together a full understanding of yourself, or the world. "You can be more then what you know, but not knowing that you are more then what you know, will never be as good as knowing that you are more then what you know."

"What I think and what I know are two different things."

To say that you are educated does not mean that you are competent, intelligence or even fully aware of yourself and the world around you. Being educated just means that you went to some type of school or institution. The only way to measure if you are competent, intelligence and aware, is to have a test that proves that you have these abilities. A test that can't be faked or manipulated. No multiple choice or yes or no answers. The test will have written or verbal explanations with witnesses present during the test. Practice testing will be available so that you can study and prepare for the test. The final test will be a confirmation that accurately measures your abilities and that you fully understand yourself and the world around you. And in doing so, you are ready to take on the world.

A Genius Who Can't Tie His Own Shoes

Specialized knowledge is knowledge that is time and place specific, meaning that you don't really need that particular knowledge and information until a special set of circumstances arises. So this type of knowledge will only benefit you when you need to perform a particular function, like surgery, or farming, or driving a truck, and so on. Almost every school on the planet offers this type of knowledge. This is the main reason why people are ignorant. Because they have been denied knowledge and information that would give them intelligence and awareness. So they are just educated enough to be mindless slaves who are easily manipulated and controlled. Though many people will immediately say this is false, they will have a very difficult time explaining why they believe this is false. And this is when the realization happens, or, this is when they enter a state of denial. So what valuable knowledge and information is missing from education, and what knowledge and information is missing from the news and our media outlets. They are supposedly paid to inform us of our reality, but they are not doing this effectively or efficiently. In fact they are doing the opposite most of the time. I'm still an Idiot Sometimes. And not everything I do in life can be perceived as being intelligent. But many things are still relevant and relative, So something's may appear to be not intelligent at first, but when you look at all the facts, it may be intelligent after all.

High Functioning Addict - I'm still a little stupid in some ways

There are lots of ways that a person can be ignorant. Everyone is lacking some quantity knowledge and information about a particular subject that they never studied or learned about. So there are different degrees of ignorance and other ways of being stupid. You can be smart about one thing but not so smart about the other thing.

You can't be aware of Everything

Genius in one area of your life does not necessary mean that you're a genius in other areas of your life. You've learn this, but not that. Anyone is capable of a genius action, but that doesn't make that person a genius. Just because an insane person shows signs of genius does not mean that there is a connection or a correlation between genius and insanity. That's like saying that because a person did something genius, they must also be insane. One does not imply the other, because they are two separate things. Two things are not necessarily connected just because they share the same space. Similarities don't necessarily mean connected. And just because someone is suffering from mental illness does not make that person crazy or broken. We have to be very careful with our labels. When we narrowly define things, we never see the whole picture. So we never fully understand, or, do we know the correct actions to take. So a label is just a starting point, because it doesn't fully explain the contents. When we give a label or use a label, we must also give the instructions and the reasons, otherwise, a label could be more dangerous then helpful. Don't judge a book by it's cover is also an incomplete sentence. What book? Who's cover? Why this book?

Just because someone has more knowledge then you, or more schooling then you, this does not guarantee that this particular person is smarter the you. It mostly comes down to who has the right information at the right time, and if you are doing more harm then good. So don't ever underestimate your value, and don't ever underestimate the value of learning, because the more you know the better your odds will be at making better decisions. So choose what to learn and when to learn it very wisely. Choosing correctly what to eat everyday has many benefits, and choosing what to learn everyday has even more benefits.

Being smart is that ability to have good relationships, to listen well, to treat people fairly with honestly. Being smart is that ability to control emotions, to make good decisions, to have good awareness.

Having more valuable knowledge that gives a greater understanding does not mean that you will stop making mistakes, but mistakes will be less frequently.

It's impossible to know everything, but it is possible to know most of the important things. When smart people don't know something they have the knowledge and skills to learn what they need to learn, thus they are good at solving problems and good at making the best decisions. Being intelligent means you actually seek to understand what you know and the way things work. Being smart is having a good bullshit detector, or being able to tell when someone is lying, and being able to distinguish sense from nonsense. But you still may be susceptible to falling into certain traps of falsehood or mind manipulation. Being smart is being able to control and use human energy to accomplish certain goals. Having extensive knowledge of the mind and body, and how to use mind and body functions to achieve goals, like last for days without food, or survive extreme cold or heat without dying.

Accumulative Knowledge is knowledge that accumulates over many months or even years as you learn more. And as you learn more, you increase your understanding of yourself and the world around you. So you become more aware, and have more potential, and have more abilities and more skills. Though specialized knowledge shares the same function as accumulated knowledge, specialized knowledge is limited to a specific need. Everyone needs a foundation of knowledge and information that provides them with a full understanding of themselves and the world around them. Intelligence is the goal.

BK101 is not everything there is to know, but it will help you to know more about things in life then you ever thought possible.

Reading every encyclopedia wont make you smart. Having a great memory wont make you smart either. Remembering mundane details might get you on a meaningless game show like Jeopardy, but it does not mean that you are smart or intelligent. It's not how much knowledge and information you have, it's how effective and efficient you are in using that knowledge and information to improve life. That is truly what makes a person intelligent. So it's not what you have, or how much you have, it's how you use what you have that ends up being the most important aspect. That should be the top priority of every educational institution on the planet, but it's not. But for BK101, this is the top priority. This website may have some of the worlds most valuable knowledge and information, but if you never learn how to formulate knowledge and information correctly, and use it effectively and efficiently, then the benefits from knowledge and information will never materialize. If you are not solving problems then you are most likely adding to the problems that we have.

"Ignorance kills more people then all causes of death combined" Preventable Deaths

chinese symbols for intelligence

Intelligence Types

Life Skills are the Abilities for Adaptive and Positive Behavior that enable humans to deal Effectively with the demands and challenges of everyday life. It's having Competency in Decision Making, Problem Solving, Creative thinking, Lateral Thinking, Perspicacity, Effective Communication, Interpersonal Relationships, Self Awareness, Mindfulness, Assertiveness, Empathy, Equanimity, Coping with Stress, Trauma and Loss, and having Resilience

21st Century Skills - Skill Set (PDF) - Mind Set

Soft Skills are a combination of interpersonal people skills, social skills, communication skills, character traits, attitudes, career attributes and emotional intelligence quotient (EQ) among others that enable people to effectively navigate their environment, work well with others, perform well, and achieve their goals with complementing hard skills.

Life Skills-Based Education are abilities for adaptive and positive behavior that enable individuals to deal effectively with the demands and challenges of everyday life.

Intelligent Words Definitions - Artificial Intelligence

Evolution of Human Intelligence is closely tied to the evolution of the human brain and to the origin of language. The timeline of human evolution spans approximately 7 million years, from the separation of the Pan genus until the emergence of behavioral modernity by 50,000 years ago. The first 3 million years of this timeline concern Sahelanthropus, the following 2 million concern Australopithecus and the final 2 million span the history of actual human genus in the Paleolithic era. Many traits of human intelligence, such as empathy, theory of mind, mourning, ritual, and the use of symbols and tools, are apparent in great apes although in less sophisticated forms than found in humans, such as great ape language. Glutamate.

Outline of Human Intelligence (wiki) - PDF

Intelligence has been defined in many different ways including one's capacity for logic, abstract thought, understanding, self-awareness, communication, learning, emotional knowledge, memory, planning, creativity and problem solving. It can be more generally described as the ability to perceive information, and retain it as knowledge to be applied towards adaptive behaviors within an environment.

Quantitative Reasoning is the ability to comprehend quantitative concepts and relationships and to manipulate numerical symbols. (Gq).

Crystallized Intelligence refers to experience and accumulated knowledge. Includes the breadth and depth of a person's acquired knowledge, the ability to communicate one's knowledge, and the ability to reason using previously learned experiences or procedures.

Fluid Intelligence is the ability to learn and process information. The ability to reason, form concepts, and solve problems using unfamiliar information or novel procedures. Cognitive Fluidity.

There are the pathways that encode prior knowledge and experience, which we call 'crystallized intelligence.' And there are adaptive reasoning and problem-solving skills that are quite flexible, called 'fluid intelligence. Crystallized intelligence involves robust connections, the result of months or years of neural traffic on well-worn pathways. Fluid intelligence involves weaker, more transient pathways and connections that are formed when the brain tackles unique or unusual problems. General intelligence requires both the ability to flexibly reach nearby, easy-to-access states -- to support crystallized intelligence -- but also the ability to adapt and reach difficult-to-access states -- to support fluid intelligence. General intelligence does not originate from a single brain region or network. Emerging neuroscience evidence instead suggests that intelligence reflects the ability to flexibly transition between network states.

Reading and writing ability (Grw) includes basic reading and writing skills.

Short-term memory (Gsm) is the ability to apprehend and hold information in immediate awareness, and then use it within a few seconds.

Long-term storage and retrieval (Glr) is the ability to store information and fluently retrieve it later in the process of thinking.

Visual processing (Gv) is the ability to perceive, analyze, synthesize, and think with visual patterns, including the ability to store and recall visual representations.

Auditory processing (Ga) is the ability to analyze, synthesize, and discriminate auditory stimuli, including the ability to process and discriminate speech sounds that may be presented under distorted conditions.

Processing speed (Gs) is the ability to perform automatic cognitive tasks, particularly when measured under pressure to maintain focused attention.

Decision - Reaction Time - Speed (Gt) reflects the immediacy with which an individual can react to stimuli or a task (typically measured in seconds or fractions of seconds; it is not to be confused with Gs, which typically is measured in intervals of 2–3 minutes). Brain Exercise Games.

Mental chronometry is the use of response time in perceptual-motor tasks to infer the content, duration, and temporal sequencing of cognitive operations.

Multiple Intelligences are eight abilities, musical–rhythmic, visual–spatial, verbal–linguistic, logical–mathematical, bodily–kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalistic.

Six Intellects: Logical Intelligence - Empathetic ‘Social’ Intelligence - Creative ‘Abstract’ Intelligence - Artistic ‘Sensory’ Intelligence - Mnemonic Intelligence - Parallel ‘Active’ Intelligence.

Triarchic Theory of Intelligence is how well an individual deals with environmental changes throughout their lifespan. Componential, experiential, and practical. Mental activity directed toward purposive adaptation to, selection and shaping of, real-world environments relevant to one's life. Metacomponents are executive processes used in problem solving and decision making that involve the majority of managing our mind. They tell the mind how to act. Metacomponents are also sometimes referred to as a homunculus. A homunculus is a fictitious or metaphorical "person" inside our head that controls our actions, and which is often seen to invite an infinite regress of homunculi controlling each other (Sternberg, 1985). Sternberg's next set of components, performance components, are the processes that actually carry out the actions the metacomponents dictate. These are the basic processes that allow us to do tasks, such as perceiving problems in our long-term memory, perceiving relations between objects, and applying relations to another set of terms (Sternberg, 1997). The last set of components, knowledge-acquisition components, are used in obtaining new information. These components complete tasks that involve selectively choosing relevant information from a mix of information, some of it relevant and some of it irrelevant. These components can also be used to selectively combine the various pieces of information they have gathered. Gifted individuals are proficient in using these components because they are able to learn new information at a greater rate (Sternberg, 1997).

Howard Gardner Spatial Intelligence (youtube)

Smart Types
People Smart - Social Intelligence - Collaboration Smart
Nature Smart - Survival Smart
Number Smart - Word Smart
Five Wits - Five W's
Self Smart - Body Smart
Emotional Intelligence - Emotions
Learning Smart - 10,000 Hours
Music Smart
Problem Solving Smart - Scientifically Literate
Spatial Intelligence - Frame of Reference
Spiritual Intelligence is a term used by some philosophers, psychologists, and developmental theorists to indicate spiritual parallels with IQ (Intelligence Quotient) and EQ (Emotional Quotient).

Heart's Intuitive Intelligence (youtube)

Cognition Testing (examinations)

Wisdom, Intelligence, Creativity, Synthesized (PDF)

Improving fluid intelligence with training on working memory, The ability to reason and to solve new problems independently of previously acquired knowledge.

Five-Percent Nation is a movement founded in 1964 in the Harlem section of the borough of Manhattan, New York City, with the concept that ten percent of the people in the world know the truth of existence, and those elites and agents opt to keep eighty-five percent of the world in ignorance and under their controlling thumb; the remaining five percent are those who know the truth and are determined to enlighten the rest. (sometimes referred to as the Nation of Gods and Earths). Gods and Earths sometimes refer to themselves as scientists, implying their search for knowledge and proof.

Seven Levels of intelligence and three types of genius
Link between Sensory Discriminations and Intelligence
Switching skills on by turning off part of the Brain
Brain Stimulation makes the impossible problem solvable

Related Subjects
Problem Solving - Self-Directed Learning
Knowledge Management
Information Literacy
Parallel Computing - Brain
Artificial Intelligence
Optogenetics (light)
Global Brain - Swarm Intelligence (collective) - Internet

Videos About Intelligent People
Pure Science Specials - Beautiful Minds (youtube) Season 1 Episode 86 | Aired on 01/28/2015 | TV-G | 2 hr. 17 min
My Brilliant Brain - Make Me a Genius (Episode 1) (video)
The Genius in All of Us, David Shenk (video)
How do you Teach Multiple Intelligences (youtube)
NatGeo "My Brilliant Brain" featuring Susan Polgar (youtube) - Chess
Phenomenon (film, 1996) On his birthday, mechanic George Malley (John Travolta) sees a flash of light and proceeds to exhibit extraordinary mental abilities. He becomes a genius, even showing an ability to move objects with his mind. George wishes to help people, but the government wants to take him in for observation.

Brain Function Examinations

Intelligence tests are more about measuring your ability to be intelligent then they are about measuring intelligence. That's because many things contribute to being intelligent. The only real intelligence test so far is life itself, which is measured in many different ways, like how good of a person you are, your accomplishments, your impact on the world, the choices you made, how well you lived your life, your input to output ratio based on how much you took from the world and how much you gave back to the world, and so on and so on. This is why tests should have real life examples. This way people could actually apply the skills that they learned to real life situations and see and experience the benefits for themselves. This would help reaffirm the accuracy of the tests, and also help update the tests if the feedback reveals any errors in the test that need to be improved. Knowing how to count doesn't matter if you never count the things that matter.

"Having a High IQ might say that you can learn most things faster and that you can be easily trained, but it does not say that you will learn the right things at the right time, or that you will become good at doing something that is measurably valuable and beneficial to the world. You have potential like everyone else, it will be how you use that potential that will determine how intelligent you really are."

Intelligence Tests and Aptitude Tests will vary depending on the skills that you need to have Assessed. Most tests are intended to assess a variety of mental abilities, skills and the understanding of basic principles.

Types of Intelligence - Competence

IQ = MA/CA x 100  (The Ratio of Mental Age (MA) to Chronological Age (CA) multiplied by 100).

Quotient is the ratio of two quantities to be divided.

Intelligence Quotient is a total score derived from several standardized tests designed to assess skills like Analogies (mathematical and verbal), Pattern driven (spatial and mathematical), Classification, Visual, Spatial and Logical.

The number of questions in an IQ test varies. Some IQ tests contains several hundred questions and takes between 60 and 90 minutes to complete. The Wechsler Suite of Instruments consists of 15 different subtests; there are 3 different Wechsler scales: one for pre-schoolers, one for children and one for adults. Each subtest measures a different cognitive ability. Some subtests are relatively short with about 10 items (questions) and some are rather long at 25 items. One of the longest subtests with about 50 items is speeded which means that there’s a short time limit (2 minutes) where hardly anyone gets finished when the time is called. The Mensa Admissions Test is actually two tests. Scoring at or above 98 percent on either or both tests qualifies for admission. The first test consists of 50 questions and test-takers are given 12 minutes to complete as many questions as they can. The second test consists of seven sections.

The types of questions that might be found on an IQ test are: Analogies (mathematical and verbal), Pattern driven (spatial and mathematical), Classification, Visual, Spatial and Logical.

Fluid Intelligence (Gf) includes the broad ability to reason, form concepts, and solve problems using unfamiliar information or novel procedures.

Crystallized Intelligence (Gc) includes the breadth and depth of a person's acquired knowledge, the ability to communicate one's knowledge, and the ability to reason using previously learned experiences or procedures.

Quantitative Reasoning (Gq) is the ability to comprehend quantitative concepts and relationships and to manipulate numerical symbols.

Reading and Writing Ability (Grw) includes basic reading and writing skills.

Short-Term Memory (Gsm) is the ability to apprehend and hold information in immediate awareness, and then use it within a few seconds.

Long-Term Storage and Retrieval (Glr) is the ability to store information and fluently retrieve it later in the process of thinking.

Visual Processing (Gv) is the ability to perceive, analyze, synthesize, and think with visual patterns, including the ability to store and recall visual representations.

Auditory Processing (Ga) is the ability to analyze, synthesize, and discriminate auditory stimuli, including the ability to process and discriminate speech sounds that may be presented under distorted conditions.

Processing Speed (Gs) is the ability to perform automatic cognitive tasks, particularly when measured under pressure to maintain focused attention.

Decision/reaction time/speed (Gt) reflects the immediacy with which an individual can react to stimuli or a task (typically measured in seconds or fractions of seconds; it is not to be confused with Gs, which typically is measured in intervals of 2–3 minutes).

Advanced IQ Test (PDF) - IQ Test - Intelligence Exercise Tests-Philip Carter (PDF)

A 7 year old has an IQ of 170. A 27 year old has an IQ of 160. Is the 7 year old more intelligent than the 27 year old?

IQ is just a measure of your potential to become intelligent. Lets say that you have an IQ of 150, that means you have a 75% chance of becoming intelligent. An IQ of 100 would mean that you have 50% chance of becoming intelligent. And if you keep education yourself, then your potential and your IQ will always increase. 

IQ Classification is the practice by IQ test publishers of labeling IQ score ranges with category names such as "superior" or "average". There are several publishers of tests of cognitive abilities. No two publishers use exactly the same classification labels, which have changed from time to time since the beginning of intelligence testing in the early twentieth century. IQ Research (PDF).

Flynn Effect is the substantial and long-sustained increase in both fluid and crystallized intelligence test scores measured in many parts of the world from roughly 1930 to the present day. When intelligence quotient (IQ) tests are initially standardized using a sample of test-takers, by convention the average of the test results is set to 100 and their standard deviation is set to 15 or 16 IQ points. When IQ tests are revised, they are again standardized using a new sample of test-takers, usually born more recently than the first. Again, the average result is set to 100. However, when the new test subjects take the older tests, in almost every case their average scores are significantly above 100.

Ragnar Frisch Center for Economic Research in Norway did a survey of Norwegian men born between 1962 and 1991. They found that for those who were born between 1962 and 1975, IQ scores gained nearly three percentage points each decade. However, the IQs of those born after 1975 declined. "The causes in IQ increases over time and now the decline is due to environmental factors. A person's media diet, eating habits, changes in the education system, and Toxins in the Environment, lowered a persons IQ more than genetics. There was not only a considerable variance in IQ between parents and their offspring, but also a variance in siblings born to the same parents. Flynn effect and its reversal are both environmentally caused.

Mental Age looks at how a specific child, at a specific age—usually today, now—performs intellectually, compared to average intellectual performance for that physical age, measured in years. The physical age of the child is compared to the intellectual performance of the child, based on performance in tests and live assessments by a psychologist. Scores achieved by the child in question are compared to scores in the middle of a bell curve for children of the same age. However, mental age varies according to what kind of intelligence is measured. A child's intellectual age can be average for his physical age but the same child's emotional intelligence can be immature for his physical age. In this psychologists often remark girls are more emotionally mature than boys in the tween years. Also, a six-year-old child intellectually gifted in Piaget terms can remain a three-year-old child in terms of emotional maturity. Mental age was once considered a controversial concept.

Mental Chronometry is the use of response time in perceptual-motor tasks to infer the content, duration, and temporal sequencing of cognitive operations.

Educational Quotient is a score designed to assess a subject's level of general education. Though related to intelligence quotient, there is no direct correlation between the two. A person of high IQ, may have a low EQ, and vice versa. A person's EQ is generally found by dividing the results of their Wide Range Achievement Test by their IQ and multiplying by 100, or by dividing their Education Age by their Chronological Age and multiplying by 100.

Self-Test of Intelligence is a psychological test that someone can take to measure one's own intelligence. a self-test of intelligence normally consists of a series of verbal and non-verbal intellectual tasks and puzzles. These tests usually give the taker instructions on how to complete the tasks and offer a performance score after the test has been completed. These self-tests can be performed in various ways that are quick, easy, and can be done at home or on the go. Web sites on the internet, apps for mobile devices, and one or more books are popular choices for taking these tests. There are two ways that one can look at intelligence: either as an innate, intrinsic, static characteristic of a person; or as a characteristic that is acquired which can be influenced by the environment and that can be improved on. These opposing points of view are part of a more general nature vs. nurture (or hereditarianism vs. environmentalist) debate that dates back to Ancient Greeks like Plato and Aristotle. Implicit theories of intelligence can be at the basis of the chosen point of view, and whether or not the results of a self-test of intelligence are considered definitive or can be improved upon may depend on this. Self-tests of intelligence can contribute to the self-assessed intelligence (SAI) of a person, where SAI can be defined as people's estimates of their cognitive abilities in relation to the overall population.

Neuro-Psychological Test are specifically designed tasks used to measure a psychological function known to be linked to a particular brain structure or pathway. Tests are used for research into brain function and in a clinical setting for the diagnosis of deficits. They usually involve the systematic administration of clearly defined procedures in a formal environment. Neuropsychological tests are typically administered to a single person working with an examiner in a quiet office environment, free from distractions. As such, it can be argued that neuropsychological tests at times offer an estimate of a person's peak level of cognitive performance. Neuropsychological tests are a core component of the process of conducting neuropsychological assessment, along with personal, interpersonal and contextual factors. Most neuropsychological tests in current use are based on traditional psychometric theory. In this model, a person's raw score on a test is compared to a large general population normative sample, that should ideally be drawn from a comparable population to the person being examined. Normative studies frequently provide data stratified by age, level of education, and/or ethnicity, where such factors have been shown by research to affect performance on a particular test. This allows for a person's performance to be compared to a suitable control group, and thus provide a fair assessment of their current cognitive function.

Trail Making Test is a neuropsychological test of visual attention and task switching. It consists of two parts in which the subject is instructed to connect a set of 25 dots as quickly as possible while still maintaining accuracy. The test can provide information about visual search speed, scanning, speed of processing, mental flexibility, as well as executive functioning.

Mensa Brain Test 
Thurstone Test of Mental Alertness

Implicit Association Test is a measure within social psychology designed to detect the strength of a person's automatic association between mental representations of objects (concepts) in memory.

Executive Functions are a set of cognitive processes – including attentional control, inhibitory control, working memory, and cognitive flexibility, as well as reasoning, problem solving, and planning – that are necessary for the cognitive control of behavior: selecting and successfully monitoring behaviors that facilitate the attainment of chosen goals. Executive functions gradually develop and change across the lifespan of an individual and can be improved at any time over the course of a person's life. Similarly, these cognitive processes can be adversely affected by a variety of events which affect an individual.

Levels of Thinking


Cognitive Skill is defined as the ability of an individual to perform the various mental activities most closely associated with learning and problem solving. Examples include verbal, spatial, psychomotor, and processing-speed ability. Cognition mainly refers to things like memory, the ability to learn new information, speech, understanding of written material. Cognitive Load.

Cognition is the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses. It encompasses processes such as knowledge, attention, memory and working memory, judgment and evaluation, reasoning and "computation", problem solving and decision making, comprehension and production of language, etc.

Cognitive Neuroscience - Thinking Smart - Executive Functions

Cognitive Abilities - Researchers Develop New Tool to Assess Individual’s Level of Wisdom

Cognitive Revolution was an intellectual movement that began in the 1950's as an interdisciplinary study of the mind and its processes, which became known collectively as cognitive science. The relevant areas of interchange were between the fields of psychology, anthropology, and linguistics using approaches developed within the then-nascent fields of artificial intelligence, computer science, and neuroscience. A key goal of early cognitive psychology was to apply the scientific method to the study of human cognition by designing experiments that used computational models of artificial intelligence to systematically test theories about human mental processes in a controlled laboratory setting.

Faculty is one of the inherent cognitive or perceptual powers of the mind.

Cognitive Psychology is the study of mental processes such as "attention, language use, memory, perception, problem solving, creativity, and thinking". Much of the work derived from cognitive psychology has been integrated into various other modern disciplines of psychological study, including educational psychology, social psychology, personality psychology, abnormal psychology, developmental psychology, and economics.

Cognitive Flexibility as been described as the mental ability to switch between thinking about two different concepts, and to think about multiple concepts simultaneously. Cognitive flexibility is usually described as one of the Executive Functions. Two subcategories of cognitive flexibility are task switching and cognitive shifting, depending on whether the change happens unconsciously or consciously, respectively. Can’t Switch Your Focus? Your Brain Might Not Be Wired for It.

Cognitive Fluidity is combining different ways of processing knowledge and using tools to create a modern civilization. Arriving at original thoughts that are often highly creative and rely on metaphors and analogies. Cognitive fluidity is a key element of the human attentive consciousness. Adaptation.

Cognitive Shifting is the mental process of consciously redirecting one's attention from one fixation to another. In contrast, if this process happened unconsciously, then it is referred to as task switching. Both are forms of cognitive flexibility.

Task Switching in psychology is an executive function that involves the ability to unconsciously shift attention between one task and another. In contrast, cognitive shifting is a very similar executive function, but it involves conscious (not unconscious) change in attention. Together, these two functions are subcategories of the broader cognitive flexibility concept. Task switching allows a person to rapidly and efficiently adapt to different situations. It is often studied by cognitive and experimental psychologists, and can be tested experimentally using tasks like the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Multi Tasking.

Embodied cognitive science is an interdisciplinary field of research, the aim of which is to explain the mechanisms underlying intelligent behavior. It comprises three main methodologies: 1) the modeling of psychological and biological systems in a
holistic manner that considers the mind and body as a single entity, 2) the formation of a common set of general principles of intelligent behavior, and 3) the experimental use of robotic agents in controlled environments.

Embodied cognition is the theory that many features of cognition, whether human or otherwise, are shaped by aspects of the entire body of the organism. Abstract - Body effects the Mind.

Cognitive Tests are assessments of the cognitive capabilities of humans and other animals. Tests administered to humans include various forms of IQ tests; those administered to animals include the mirror test (a test of visual self-awareness) and the T maze test (which tests learning ability). Such study is important to research concerning the philosophy of mind and psychology, as well as determination of human and animal intelligence.

Cognitive Abilities Test intended to estimate students' learned reasoning and problem solving abilities through a battery of verbal, quantitative, and nonverbal test items.

Mild Cognitive Impairment is a neurological disorder that occurs in older adults which involves cognitive impairments with minimal impairment in instrumental activities of daily living. MCI involves the onset and evolution of cognitive impairments beyond those expected based on an individual's age and education, but which are not significant enough to interfere with her or his daily activities. It may occur as a transitional stage between normal aging and dementia. The specific etiology of the disorder remains unclear, as well as its prevention and treatment. (also known as incipient dementia and isolated memory impairment).

Cognizant is having or showing knowledge or understanding or realization or perception.

Neuro Tracker scientifically based tool to measure and improve cognitive performance.

G Factor in Psychometrics is a construct developed in psychometric investigations of cognitive abilities and human intelligence. It is a variable that summarizes positive correlations among different cognitive tasks, reflecting the fact that an individual's performance on one type of cognitive task tends to be comparable to that person's performance on other kinds of cognitive tasks. The g factor typically accounts for 40 to 50 percent of the between-individual performance differences on a given cognitive test, and composite scores ("IQ scores") based on many tests are frequently regarded as estimates of individuals' standing on the g factor. The terms IQ, general intelligence, general cognitive ability, general mental ability, or simply intelligence are often used interchangeably to refer to this common core shared by cognitive tests. The g factor targets a particular measure of general intelligence. (also known as general intelligence, general mental ability or general intelligence factor).

Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities is a set of intelligence tests administered to children from age two right up to the oldest adults (with norms utilizing individuals in their 90s). Numerical Reasoning: Quantitative Reasoning, Participants must determine numerical sequences and determine a two-dimensional numerical pattern. Concept Formation: Induction, Participants must identify rules that make up geometric figures after being exposed to concepts. Analysis Synthesis: General Sequential Reasoning, Participants must analyze the structure of an incomplete logic puzzle and solve the missing parts. Block Rotation: Mental rotation, Visualization, Participants must choose geometric designs that match another design which have been physically rotated to a different position. Spatial Relations: Participants must select the component parts of whole shape. Pattern Recognition: Visual Memory, Participants must study five images, remember them and recognize them in a larger set of other arranged images. Visual Matching: Perceptual Speed, Participants must quickly find and circle two identical numbers in a row of six numbers in 3 minutes. Decision Speed: Mental Comparison Speed, Participants must quickly analyze a row of images and mark two images that are the most closely related in 3 minutes. Cross out: Perceptual Speed & Rate of Test Taking, Participants must mark drawings that are identical to the first drawing in the row in 3 mins. Rapid Picture Naming: Naming Facility, Participants must quickly name a series of pictures as fast as possible. Retrieval Fluency: Ideational Fluency, Participants must state as many words from specified categories as possible in 1 minute. Visual Auditory Learning: Delayed, Associative Memory, Participants must recall and relearn (after a 30-minute to 8-day delay) symbols presented in Visual-Auditory Learning. Memory For Names: Associative Memory, Participants must remember an increasingly large number of names of novel cartoon characters. Sound Blending: Phonetic Coding Synthesis, Participants must listen to a series of individual syllables, individual phonemes, or both that form words and name the complete words. Incomplete Words: Phonetic Coding Analysis, Participants must listen to words with one or more phonemes missing and name the complete words. Sound Patterns: Speech Sound Discrimination, Participants must indicate whether pairs of complex sound patterns are the same or different. The patterns may differ in pitch, rhythm, or sound content. Auditory Working Memory: Working Memory, Participants must listen to a mixed series of words and digits and then to rearrange them by first saying the words in order and then the numbers. Numbers Reversed: Working Memory, Participants must repeat a series of random numbers backward. Memory For Words: Memory Span, Participants must repeat lists of unrelated words in the correct sequence. Memory For Sentences: Memory Span, Participants must repeat complete sentences. Picture Vocabulary: Lexical Knowledge, Participants must name familiar and unfamiliar pictured objects. Verbal Comprehension: Language Development & Lexical Knowledge, Participants must name familiar and unfamiliar pictured objects and then say words similar in meaning to word presented, say words that are opposites in meaning to the word presented, and complete phrases with words that complete analogies. General Information: Participants must provide characteristics of objects by responding to questions, such as “Where you would find . . .?” and “What you would do with . . .? Academic Knowledge: General Information, Participants must provide information about biological and physical sciences, history, geography, government, economics, art, music, and literature. Oral Comprehension: Listening Ability, Participants must listen to a short passage and orally supply the word missing at the end of the passage. Story Recall: Listening Ability, Participants must listen to a short passage and describe the details. Verbal attention: Working memory capacity, Participants must listen to a series of numbers and animal words mixed together and answer questions regarding the sequence. Number series: Quantitative reasoning, Participants have to identify the correct number in a series of number that correctly completed the series. Ex. (2,4,?,8,10.....). Letter-Pattern Matching: Perceptual speed, Participants must quickly find and circle identical letters and patterns. Visualization: Mental rotation, Visualization, Participants must identify two sets of 2D pieces that form a specific shape. Participants must also identify two sets of 3D rotated blocks that match another shape. Phonological Processing: Phonetic coding, Word fluency, Participants must name words that beings with a certain sound. Participants must also use parts of words to create new ones. Nonword Repetition: Phonetic coding, Participants must listen to a nonsense word and repeat the word exactly. Segmentation: Phonetic coding, Participants must listen to words and break it into syllables and phonemes.

Cognitive Tests - Cognitive Abilities - Cognitive Failures

Winter Light Labs quantify speech and language patterns to help detect and monitor cognitive and mental diseases.


Four Stages of Competence is the process of progressing from incompetence to competence in a skill.

Unconscious incompetence: The individual does not understand or know how to do something and does not necessarily recognize the deficit. They may deny the usefulness of the skill. The individual must recognize their own incompetence, and the value of the new skill, before moving on to the next stage. The length of time an individual spends in this stage depends on the strength of the stimulus to learn.
Conscious incompetence: Though the individual does not understand or know how to do something, he or she does recognize the deficit, as well as the value of a new skill in addressing the deficit. The making of mistakes can be integral to the learning process at this stage.
Conscious competence: The individual understands or knows how to do something. However, demonstrating the skill or knowledge requires concentration. It may be broken down into steps, and there is heavy conscious involvement in executing the new skill.
Unconscious competence: The individual has had so much practice with a skill that it has become "second nature" and can be performed easily. As a result, the skill can be performed while executing another task. The individual may be able to teach it to others, depending upon how and when it was learned.

Competence (employment skills)

Army Alpha a systematic method of evaluating the intellectual and emotional functioning of soldiers. The test measured "verbal ability, numerical ability, ability to follow directions, and knowledge of information". Scores on the Army Alpha were used to determine a soldier's capability of serving, his job classification, and his potential for a leadership position. Soldiers who were illiterate or foreign speaking would take the Army Beta, the nonverbal equivalent of the exam.

Wonderlic Test is a popular group intelligence test used to assess the aptitude of prospective employees for learning and problem-solving in a range of occupations. The Wonderlic is available in 12 different languages and is often used in college, entry level jobs, and team-making efforts. It consists of 50 multiple choice questions to be answered in 12 minutes. The test was developed by Eldon F. Wonderlic. The score is calculated as the number of correct answers given in the allotted time. A score of 20 is intended to indicate average intelligence (corresponding to an intelligence quotient of 100). Wonderlic, Inc. claims a score of 10 points or more suggests a person is literate. A new version was released in January 2007 called the Wonderlic Contemporary Cognitive Ability Test (formerly known as the Wonderlic Personnel Test – Revised), containing questions more appropriate to the 21st century; it is available both online and in printed form, whereas the original test is only available on paper. The Wonderlic test was based on another test called the Otis Self-Administering Test of Mental Ability.

Gifted is a student whose mental capacities develop ahead of chronological age.

Mini Mental State Examination is a 30-point questionnaire that is used extensively in clinical and research settings to measure cognitive impairment. - PDF

Mental Health Assessments - Personality Tests
Assessment Flaws - Observer Effects - Bias
Executive Functions - Cognitive Control

Attentional Network Task (ANT)
Attention Networks Test
Delis–Kaplan Executive Function System
Wiz IQ
50 things everyone should know how to do 
Reasoning Tests
Darwin Awards
Testing Mom

Block Design Test assessment of human intelligence. It is thought to tap spatial visualization ability and motor skill. The test-taker uses hand movements to rearrange blocks that have various color patterns on different sides to match a pattern. The items in a block design test can be scored both by accuracy in matching the pattern and by speed in completing each item.

Games - Puzzles - Brain Games - Virtual Reality

Knox Cubes a nonverbal intelligence test

Kohs Block Design Test is a performance test designed to be an IQ test. The test taker must, using 16 colored cubes, replicate the patterns displayed on a series of test cards. The design of the test was motivated by a belief that the test could easily be administered to persons with language or hearing disabilities.

Jensen Box a standard apparatus for measuring choice reaction time, especially in relationship to differences in intelligence.

Odd Man Out Test box is normally used for measuring choice reaction times in which the participant in the experiment is tested on their ability to recognize which of the eight lights of the Jensen box is illuminated, as quickly as possible. However, in the Odd Man Out RT test, there are three lights that are “illuminated on each trial, two that are relatively close together and one that is further apart." The individual in the experiment is responsible to identify the stimulus that is the “Odd-Man-Out” in the scenario. The Odd-Man-Out RT test correlates with “Intelligent Quotients (IQ) in the range of 0.30 to 0.60, a reliable and substantial effect.” This correlation range is typically higher than the correlations to IQ found among Reaction Time Tests.

Mental Rotations Test is a test of spatial ability.

Porteus Maze Test s designed to measure psychological planning capacity and foresight. It is a nonverbal test of intelligence. The test consists of a set of mazes for the subject to solve. The mazes are of varying complexity. The test runs for 15–60 minutes, allowing the subject to solve as many mazes as possible. The test serves as a supplementary subtest of the
Wechsler intelligence scale.

Bracken School Readiness Assessment test assesses six basic skills: Colors: Student must identify common colors by name. Letters: Students must identify upper-case and lower-case letters. Numbers and Counting: Student must identify single- and double-digit numerals, and must count objects. Sizes: Student must demonstrate knowledge of words used to depict size (e.g., tall, wide, etc.) Comparisons: Student must match or differentiate objects based on a specific characteristic. Shapes: Student must identify basic shapes by name.

McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities is a psychological test given to young children. "the McCarthy scales present a carefully constructed individual test of human ability. In the General Cognitive Index (CGI): Verbal Scale: Pictorial Memory, Word Knowledge, Verbal Memory I, Verbal Memory II, Verbal Fluency, Opposite Analogies. Perceptual-performance: Block Building, Puzzle Solving, Tapping Sequence, Right-Left Orientation, Draw-a-design, Draw-a-child, Conceptual Grouping. Quantitative: Number Questions, Numerical Memory I, Numerical Memory II, Counting and Sorting in the Additional Scales. Memory: Pictorial Memory, Tapping Sequence, Verbal Memory I and II, Numerical Memory I and II. Motor: Leg Coordination, Arm Coordination, Imitative Action, Draw-a-design, Draw-a-child.

Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children is a clinical instrument (psychological diagnostic test) for assessing cognitive development. Simultaneous/Gv. Triangles: the child assembles several foam triangles to match a picture. Face Recognition: the child looks a photographs of one or two faces for 5 seconds and then selects the correct face/faces shown in a difference pose from a selection. Block Counting: The child counts the number of blocks in a picture of a stack of blocks, some of the blocks are partially hidden. Conceptual Thinking: The child selects one picture from a set of 4 or 5 which does not belong with the set. Rover: The child moves a toy dog to a bone on a grid that contains several obstacles trying to find the quickest path to the bone. Gestalt Closure: The child mentally fills in the gaps in a partially completed inkblot drawing and names or describes the object/action depicted in the drawing. Pattern Reasoning (ages 5 and 6). Story Completion (ages 5 and 6). Sequential/Gsm. Word Order: The assessor reads the names of common objects, the child the touches a series of silhouettes of these objects in the same order they were read out in. Number Recall: The assessor reads a string of numbers and the child repeats the string in the same order. The strings range from 2 to 9 digits. Hand Movements: the child copies a series of taps the examiner makes on the table with the fist, palm or side of the hand. Planning/Gf. Pattern Reasoning (ages 7–18): the child is shown a series of stimulus that form a logical linear pattern with one stimulus missing. The child selects the missing stimulus from several options. Story Completion (ages 7–18): the child is shown a row of pictures that tell a story, some pictures are missing. The child selects several pictures from a selection that are needed to complete the story and places them in the correct location. Learning/Glr. Atlantis: the assessor teaches the child nonsense names for pictures of fish, shells and plants. The child then has to point to the correct picture when read out the nonsense name. Atlantis Delayed: the child repeats the Atlantis subtest 15–25 minutes later to demonstrate delayed recall. Rebus: the assessor teaches the child the word or concept associated with a rebus (drawing) and the child reads aloud phrases and sentences composed of these rebuses. Rebus Delayed: the child repeats the Rebus subtest 15–25 minutes later to demonstrate delayed recall of paired associates. Knowledge(Gc) included in the CHC model only. Riddles: the examiner says several characteristics of a concrete or abstract verbal concept, and the child has to point to it or name it. Expressive Vocabulary: measures the Childs ability to say the correct names of objects and Verbal Knowledge: the child selects from an array for 6 pictures the one that corresponds to a vocabulary word or answers a general information question.

Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test s an untimed test of receptive vocabulary for Standard American English and is intended to provide a quick estimate of verbal ability and scholastic aptitude. The test is given verbally and takes from twenty to thirty minutes to complete. No reading is required by the individual, and scoring is rapid. For its administration, the examiner presents a series of pictures to each person. There are four pictures to a page, and each is numbered. The examiner speaks a word describing one of the pictures and asks the individual to point to or say the number of the picture that the word describes. Item responses can also be made by multiple choice selection depending on the age of the person being tested. The total score can be converted to a percentile rank, mental age, or a standard deviation IQ score. Although desirable, no special training is required to properly administer and score the PPVT-IV. The test publisher recommends that anyone interpreting or explaining the test scores should have knowledge in psychological testing and statistics.

Ammons Quick Test help assess premorbid intelligence. It is a passive response picture-vocabulary test. The Quick Test (QT) can be administered to the physically handicapped as well as individuals with attention span deficits. The QT results correlate well with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) Full Scale IQ. The Quick Test raw score of 46 translates to a WAIS IQ score of 110, which is in the high average range of intellectual functioning for an adult.

Otis-Lennon School Ability Test is a test of abstract thinking and reasoning ability of children pre-K to 18. The Otis-Lennon is a group-administered (except preschool), multiple choice, taken with pencil and paper, measures verbal, quantitative, and spatial reasoning ability. The test yields verbal and nonverbal scores, from which a total score is derived, called a School Ability Index (SAI). The SAI is a normalized standard score with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 16. With the exception of pre-K, the test is administered in groups.

Raven's Progressive Matrices is a nonverbal group test typically used in educational settings. It is usually a 60-item test used in measuring abstract reasoning and regarded as a non-verbal estimate of fluid intelligence. All of the questions on the Raven's progressives consist of visual geometric design with a missing piece. The test taker is given six to eight choices to pick from and fill in the missing piece.

Leiter International Performance Scale is an intelligence test in the form of a strict performance scale. It was designed for children and adolescents ages 2 to 18, although it can yield an intelligence quotient (IQ) and a measure of logical ability for all ages.The Leiter contains 10 subtests organized into four domains: Fluid Intelligence, Visualization, Memory, Attention.

Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children provides five primary index scores (i.e., Verbal Comprehension Index, Visual Spatial Index, Fluid Reasoning Index, Working Memory Index, and Processing Speed Index) that represent a child's abilities in more discrete cognitive domains. Five ancillary composite scores can be derived from various combinations of primary or primary and secondary subtests.

Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) is a very short form of estimating intellectual functioning. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale is an IQ test designed to measure intelligence and cognitive ability in adults and older adolescents.

Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence is an intelligence test designed for children ages 2 years 6 months to 7 years 7 months provides subtest and composite scores that represent intellectual functioning in verbal and performance cognitive domains, as well as providing a composite score that represents a child’s general intellectual ability (i.e., Full Scale IQ).

Prodigy (gifted)

SON-tests are intelligence tests appropriate for children and adults from two and a half to forty years old. The tests are called nonverbal because they can be administered without having to use written or spoken language. The manuals also contain verbal instructions, but the spoken text does not contain extra information compared to the non-verbal instructions. The way the tests are administered is adjusted to the communicative abilities of the subject in order to create a natural test situation. The tests provide an intelligence score that indicates how someone performs in comparison with other persons from the same age.

Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale is an individually administered cognitive ability and intelligence test that is used to diagnose developmental or intellectual deficiencies in young children. The test measures five weighted factors and consists of both verbal and nonverbal subtests. The five factors being tested are knowledge, quantitative reasoning, visual-spatial processing, working memory, and fluid reasoning. "Le Regard", Prehension Provoked by a Tactile Stimulus, Prehension Provoked by a Visual Perception, Recognition of Food, Quest of Food Complicated by a Slight Mechanical Difficulty, Execution of Simple Commands and Imitation of Simple Gestures, Verbal Knowledge of Objects, Verbal Knowledge of Pictures, Naming of Designated Objects, Immediate Comparison of Two Lines of Unequal Lengths, Repetition of Three Figures, Comparison of Two Weights, Suggestibility, Verbal Definition of Known Objects, Repetition of Sentences of Fifteen Words, Comparison of Known Objects from Memory, Exercise of Memory on Pictures, Drawing a Design from Memory, Immediate Repetition of Figures, Resemblances of Several Known Objects Given from Memory, Comparison of Lengths, Five Weights to be Placed in Order, Gap in Weights, Exercise upon Rhymes, Verbal Gaps to be Filled, Synthesis of Three Words in One Sentence, Reply to an Abstract Question, Reversal of the Hands of a Clock, Paper Cutting, Definitions of Abstract Terms.

Vibrant Brains - Wonderlic

Intelligence Analysis is the application of individual and collective cognitive methods to weigh data and test hypotheses within a secret socio-cultural context. The analyst must correlate the similarities among deceptions and extract a common truth.

Battle of the Brains (youtube) - Documentary is about IQ testing and Testing for Intelligence.

Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales is an individually administered test of intelligence that includes a co-normed, supplemental measure of memory. It is appropriate for individuals ages 3–94. Guess What: Participants are given around two to four clues to solve the concept or the object being described. Verbal Reasoning: Participants must complete propositional statements that essentially forms a verbal analogy. This section measures verbal-analytical reasoning ability. Odd item out: Participants must choose which picture does not belong in a set of five to seven pictures. It's a form of non-verbal analogy that measures spatial ability, visual imagery and other non-verbal skills. What's Missing: Participants must figure out the missing element in an incomplete picture. Verbal memory: Participants have to listen to, memorize and repeat back a series of sentences and stories that are read to them. Measures encoding, storing and recalling aspects of memory. Non-verbal memory: Participants are shown a picture for five seconds and then must identify the same picture among a series of different set of pictures. Measures encoding, storing and recognition of visual stimuli.

If a High School Diploma, SAT, GRE, ACT or College Degree does not confirm intelligence, then what does it confirm? Conformity? College Entry Tests.

Miller Analogies Test is a standardized test used both for graduate school admissions in the United States and entrance to high I.Q. societies. The MAT consists of 120 questions in 60 minutes (formerly 100 questions in 50 minutes). Unlike other graduate school admissions exams such as the GRE, the Miller Analogies Test is verbal or computer based. The test aims to measure an individual's logical and analytical reasoning through the use of partial analogies. A sample test question might be Bach : Composing :: Monet : a. painting, b. composing, c. writing, d. orating. This should be read as "Bach is to (:) Composing as (::) Monet is to (:) _______." The answer would be a. painting because just as Bach is most known for composing music, Monet is most known for his painting. The open slot may appear in any of the four positions. Unlike analogies found on past editions of the GRE and the SAT, the MAT's analogies demand a broad knowledge of Western culture, testing subjects such as science, music, literature, philosophy, mathematics, art, and history. Thus, exemplary success on the MAT requires more than a nuanced and cultivated vocabulary.

Multidimensional Aptitude Battery II is a group-administered intelligence test that is supposed to measure Verbal, Performance and Full Scale IQ. The battery consists of 10 subtests and is used for various professional, medical, military, government, law enforcement and employment settings. The test-retest reliability based on timed performance correlates with values of 0.95 for the verbal section, 0.96 for the performance section and 0.97 for the full scale. Information: Assess general knowledge about diverse topics. Comprehension: Assess the ability to analyze social situations, identify appropriate behavior, and explain why certain laws and customs are practiced. Arithmetic: Assess the ability to solve numerical problems, reasoning and problem solving abilities. Similarities: Assess the ability to recognize, compare and reason the likeness and differences between individual objects. Vocabulary: Assess the learned words, verbal concepts and ability to store, categorize and retrieve information appropriately. Digit symbol: Assess ability to learn new coding system and using it in context. Picture completion: Assess ability to identify and solve missing elements in picture. Spatial: Assess ability to visualize abstract objects in different positions within 2 dimensional space. Picture arrangement: Ability to identify a meaningful sequence from a random sequence. Object assembly: Ability to identify an object by solving left-to right sequences of disarranged segments.

Mechanical Aptitude requires a person to recognize which mechanical principle is suggested by a test item. The underlying concepts measured by these items include sounds and heat conduction, velocity, gravity, and force. A number of tests of mechanical comprehension and mechanical aptitude have been developed and are predictive of performance in manufacturing/production and technical type jobs, for instance.

New Brain Mapping Technique highlights relationship between Connectivity and IQ. Using these morphometric similarity networks (MSNs), the researchers were able to build up a map showing how well connected the 'hubs' -- the major connection points between different regions of the brain network -- were. They found a link between the connectivity in the MSNs in brain regions linked to higher order functions -- such as problem solving and language -- and intelligence.

Higher IQ scores are predictive in measuring the ability of a person to have more occupational success, higher income, and better physical and mental health. But higher IQ scores do not determine the value of success, it only determines the increased chances of success. But you have to define success, and an iq test does not define success. This is more then just getting a job, it's knowing that the work you do is valuable. It's not about how much money you made, it's how you impacted the world. Did you use and abuse the world and make everyone pay for it? Or did you improve the world that produced measurable benefits for other people? Once you accurately measure the inputs and outputs of a persons life, it paints a much clearer picture about what real success is.

There is too much propaganda in these tests, just like in our Civics Tests. Just remembering ignorant facts is not a test.

Testing Failures - Purpose of Education

Optional Testing (pdf)

"I would not say that "Wisdom comes with Age", because knowledge comes from continually learning and seeking out facts. Though older people may have more experiences, they don't always learn from those experiences the way they should. If you stop seeking knowledge and stop learning, then wisdom and old age will never meet."

So what do I consider to be Intelligent? First review the common definitions of intelligence below and then I will tell you my definitions that I believe should be added. To be endowed and privileged enough to be labeled with intelligent characteristics you should also have these added qualities. A person who has common sense, a person who separates opinion from fact, a person who does not dismiss information solely based on preference, a person who does not assume but Questions, a person who can formulate information in order to obtain a logical answer, A person who can Problem Solve, a person who is knowledgeable of the Human Brain and Body, a person who possesses Discipline and Self-Control, a person who knows Good from Bad and right from wrong and lives buy it, a person who is not corruptible, a person who Never Stops Learning, a person who knows that being a Great Teacher and a Great Leader are the two greatest responsibilities of an intelligent person, a person who is constantly striving to always possess and honor the qualities of intelligence, a person who teaches the qualities of intelligence, a person who knows they will still make mistakes but now will learn from them and move on. So the next time you want to call someone intelligent remember these qualities. You should never call a child intelligent or gifted. You should instead tell them that they have the abilities to be intelligent or gifted. This way they will know that to be intelligent or gifted is a life long process that is much more then a label that someone gives you. If you find someone who considers themselves to be intelligent then show them these definitions. They should be able to prove these qualities, but a truly intelligent person should say that they are constantly striving to acquire all these qualities in order to one day possess them all and even add some new ones. I look at these qualities as the foundation of a good person.

Equation for Intelligence

F = T (del) Sτ   F = T (upside-down triangle or Del or Nabla Symbol) Sτ (A force to maximize future options and future freedom of action, avoid future confinement. Knowing when to apply the correct action at the correct time).

Happiness Formula - Machine Learning - Education Purpose - Control Theory - Entropy

Being intelligent is being able to approach intellectual road blocks from new angles. Being intelligent is the ability to borrow tools from one discipline to solve problems in another. Being intelligent is having many different hobbies that can lead to creative breakthroughs. Being intelligent is being able to slow down multitasking, having one project take center stage for a series of hours or days. Leaving the other projects to linger in the margins of consciousness, but still being able to take ideas from the projects at the margins. Being intelligent is being able to think outside the box, letting the mind wander and dream, processing new information, making new connections, and developing new thinking strategies.

To determine how dysfunctional you are you first have to determine how functional you are. That's like trying to figure out how smart you are, which is not easy because intelligence is not totally defined yet, with too much of your understanding being determined by your own perception. The only way to determine intelligence is to have an exact list of questions and problems that test your skills and knowledge. How much intelligence does the IQ test really determine? Very little because it's an overall test of skills and knowledge and not an exact test of what makes a person intelligent. Define intelligence, then define the test.

Harvard Takes the 1964 Louisiana Literacy Test (youtube) - Page 1 - Page 2 - Page 3 - (The test was a test in itself).

“The key to attaining a higher level of intelligence is to make your years of study qualitatively rich. We don't simply absorb information - we internalize it and make it our own by finding some way to put this knowledge to practical use.”

"We are gradually and finally understanding just how incredibly important knowledge and information is to a human."

In one ear and out the other. Knowledge and information is mostly abstract, and if a person is unable to understand the message or unable to translate the information being transmitted, then it will be like the message was never sent, all because the receiver did not have the knowledge and skills that are needed to decipher and detect that message. The person needs to be able understand the message that the information is sending. Humans have made amazing tools that allowed us to make incredible advancements and increase our knowledge of the world. But the one tool we neglected was the most incredible tool in the world, the human brain. No data can be accurate when the measuring devices can not be calibrated. The human brain must be calibrated, so a standard of intelligence is needed, something to compare ourselves to.

It Feels like I'm Talking to the Wall. Listening.

Education Sayings and Quotes

Intelligent Words

Intelligent is having the capacity for Thought and Reason especially to a high degree. Intelligence is possessing sound Knowledge and exercising or showing good judgment and having good understanding of things and having a high mental capacity to quickly to Comprehend things. Artificial Intelligence.

"Intelligence is making good decisions and examining things carefully. Intelligence is always learning."

Intelligent has been defined in many different ways including one's capacity for logic, understanding, self-awareness, learning, emotional knowledge, planning, creativity and problem solving. It can be more generally described as the ability to perceive information, and retain it as knowledge to be applied towards adaptive behaviors within an environment or context. Intelligent Types - Skills 

is a person who uses intelligence rather than emotions or instinct. A person who uses the mind creatively. Having the capacity for rational thought or inference or discrimination.

Intellect is having knowledge and intellectual ability and the capacity for rational thought or inference or discrimination. A person who uses the mind creatively.

"Intelligence is not a level of achievement, it is a way of life. And the levels are just temporary steps that lead to greater and even larger steps, some of which have not yet been created."

Executive Functions are a set of cognitive processes that are necessary for the cognitive control of behavior, including attentional control, inhibitory control, working memory, cognitive flexibility, reasoning, problem solving and planning.

Polymath is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas and can use complex bodies of knowledge and information to solve specific problems. Self-Directed Learning.

Erudition is the depth, polish and breadth that education confers. The Latin word educāre means to bring out or train; hence an educated person has come to think critically and logically. An erudite person has both deep and broad familiarity with general subjects and is usually knowledgeable in a particular subject, by virtue of study and extensive reading of the subject's literature.

Phronesis a type of wisdom relevant to practical things, requiring an ability to discern how or why to act virtuously and encourage practical virtue, excellence of character, in others.

Smart is someone who shows excellent mental alertness along with quickness and ease in Learning and with Calculations. Smart is being capable of independent intelligent actions and having resourcefulness. Smart is the ability to figure things out. But being smart does not say that you know enough about yourself and the world around you, it only says that you the ability to know and learn everything that there is to know. Being smart is understanding how much you still don't know and that you still have a lot to learn. Smart is using the knowledge and information that you have effectively and efficiently.

Street Smart is a person who has a lot of common sense and knows some things about what's going on in the world. This person knows what every type of person has to deal with daily and understands all groups of people and how to act around them. This person also knows all the current sh*t going on in the streets and in the ghetto and almost everywhere else, and knows how to make their own right decisions, and knows how to deal with different situations and has their own independent state of mind. A street smart person isn't stubborn, they actually listen and try to understand things.

Common Sense is a basic ability to perceive, understand, and judge things that are shared by ("common to") nearly all people and can reasonably be expected of nearly all people without need for debate.

Bright is being full of promise and potential. Enlightened.

Brilliant is having or marked by unusual and impressive intelligence. Surpassing excellence. 10,000 Hours.

Mental Acuity is having effective and efficent memory, focus, concentration, and understanding.

A Sharp Mind is someone who learns fast and understands things fast and remembers things easy and effortlessly. A sharp mind is able to stay focused on achieving goals, while at the same time, quick to adapt to changes and quick to notice when a change is necessary. A sharp mind is a mind that keeps learning and is always learning new knowledge and updating information, this helps to keep the mind sharp and ready to cut through any of life's challenges.

"A sharpened pencil is ready to write and prepared to communicate, just like a sharp mind."

The Brains of the Organization is a term used to describe an exceptionally intelligent person with excellent intellectual capacity. A clever person who supplies the ideas and plans for a group of people. The brains can also mean an electronic device with functions comparable to those of the human brain.

Maturity in psychological is the ability to respond to the environment in an appropriate manner. This response is generally learned rather than instinctive. Maturity also encompasses being aware of the correct time and place to behave and knowing when to act, according to the circumstances and the culture of the society one lives in. Adult development and maturity theories include the purpose in life concept, in which maturity emphasizes a clear comprehension of life's purpose, directedness, and intentionality, which contributes to the feeling that life is meaningful.

Attention - Focus - Awareness - Thinking

Prudent is being careful and sensible and marked by sound judgment.

Alertness is being mentally perceptive and responsive.

Awareness - What is Mindset?

Attentiveness is the trait of being considerate and thoughtful of others. The trait of being observant and paying attention.

Wise is marked by the exercise of good judgment or common sense in practical matters. Having or prompted by wisdom or discernment. Enlightenment.

Wisdom is accumulated knowledge or erudition or enlightenment. The trait of utilizing knowledge and experience with common sense and insight. Ability to apply knowledge or experience or understanding or common sense and insight. The quality of being prudent and sensible. Knowing the difference between Facts and OpinionsWisdom is the ability to think and act using knowledge, experience, understanding, common sense, and insight.

Conventional Wisdom is the body of ideas or explanations generally accepted as true by the public or by experts in a field.

Crazy Wisdom (wiki) - Assumptions

Infinite Wisdom is having no limits or boundaries in time, space, extent, or magnitude.

Wiseman is a wise and trusted guide and advisor.

Rationality is a logical formulation of a problem. When the goal or problem involves making a decision, rationality factors in all information that is available (e.g. complete or incomplete knowledge). Collectively, the formulation and background assumptions are the model within which rationality applies. Rationality is relative: if one accepts a model in which benefitting oneself is optimal, then rationality is equated with behavior that is self-interested to the point of being selfish; whereas if one accepts a model in which benefiting the group is optimal, then purely selfish behavior is deemed irrational. It is thus meaningless to assert rationality without also specifying the background model assumptions describing how the problem is framed and formulated. Rationality optimization is decision-making as a fully rational process of finding an optimal choice given the information available.

Rational is being capable and consistent in reasoning, and being guided by the intellect and facts instead of emotions.

Super Rationality or Perfect Rationality is acting in a way that maximizes utility.

Validity - Analogy

Sage is someone who has attained the wisdom which a philosopher seeks.

Oracle was a person or agency considered to provide wise and insightful counsel or prophetic predictions or precognition of the future, inspired by the gods.

Sophia is a philosophical concept regarding wisdom.

"Wisdom does not come with age, wisdom only comes from learning. And learning only comes from having access to valuable knowledge and information that increases your understanding of yourself and the world around you, and then learning how to use knowledge and information effectively and efficiently."

Solomonic is exhibiting or requiring the exercise of great wisdom, especially in making difficult decisions.
Antonym: Inferior.

Sophisticated is having worldly knowledge and refinement and Social skill. Ahead in development; complex or intricate; Intellectually appealing.

Cleverness is the power of creative imagination. Intelligence as manifested in being quick and witty. Mentally quick and resourceful. Showing inventiveness and skill. 

Ingenuity - Imaginative

Problem Solving - Self-Directed Learning

Resourcefulness is the quality of being able to cope with a difficult situation. The ability to deal resourcefully with Unusual Problems

Advanced is being at a higher level in training or knowledge or skill; Ahead in development; complex or intricate. Farther along in physical or mental development; Ahead of the times. (of societies) highly developed especially in technology or industry. Contribute to the progress or growth of; Develop in a positive way; Move forward.

Know Better is to be wise enough, experienced enough, or well trained enough not to have done something wrong. To be wise enough to behave in a more responsible or acceptable way. You can know better, but, if you don't apply the right information at the right time, then knowing better will not help you, so you will most likely make the same mistakes again and again. It's a Process, a Procedure.

Profundity is having deep insight and a great depth of knowledge or thought. Wisdom that is recondite and abstruse and profound. Intellectual depth and penetrating knowledge or keen insight. The intellectual ability to penetrate deeply into ideas.

Insight is having clear or deep perception and understanding of a situation, grasping the inner nature of things intuitively.

Experience is the accumulation of knowledge or skill that results from direct participation in events or activities. The content of direct observation or participation in an event.  Go or live through. Have firsthand knowledge of states, situations, emotions, or sensations. Go through (mental or physical states or experiences) Undergo an emotional sensation or be in a particular state of mind. Experience is the knowledge or mastery of an event or subject gained through involvement in or exposure to it.

Remembering - Training - Rehearsal - Risk

Professional - Expert -Skill - Self-Directed

Experience does not always mean that you are learning the right things

Discernment is the cognitive condition of someone who understands. Delicate discrimination (especially of esthetic values) Perception of that which is obscure. The mental ability to understand and discriminate between relations. The trait of judging wisely and objectively.

Sagacious is acutely insightful and wise. Skillful in statecraft or management.

Meaning - Abstraction - Reality

Extrapolation is an inference about the future (or about some hypothetical situation) based on known facts and observations. A calculation of the value of a function outside the range of known values.

Genius is someone who has exceptional intellectual ability and originality. Unusual mental ability. Someone who is dazzlingly Skilled in any field. Exceptional Creative ability. A Natural Talent. Genius is a person who is creative and productive universality in genres or originality, typically to a degree that is associated with the achievement of new advances in a domain of knowledge. Most great works of Genius happen between the ages of 30 and 40 years of age.

Competence - Savant Syndrome - Aptitude Testing


Logic is having Good Reasoning Skills and good Reasonable Judgment. The principles that guide reasoning within a given field or situation. A System of Reasoning. The branch of philosophy that analyzes inference. The system of operations performed by a computer that underlies the machine's representation of logical operationsEfficient - Effective

Logic is generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of arguments. A valid argument is one where there is a specific relation of logical support between the assumptions of the argument and its conclusion.

Logical is being capable of or reflecting the capability for correct and valid reasoning. Based on known statements or events or conditions. Marked by an orderly, logical, and aesthetically consistent relation of parts. Capable of thinking and expressing yourself in a clear and consistent manner.

Modal Logic classical propositional and predicate logic to include operators expressing modality.

Relevance Logic is a kind of non-classical logic requiring the antecedent and consequent of implications to be relevantly related. They may be viewed as a family of sub-structural or modal logics.

Pretzel Logic
is fallible, twisted or circular reasoning that when dissected is wrong, does not make sense or does not explain the situation rationally.

Logicians is a person, such as a philosopher or a mathematician, whose topic of scholarly study is logic.

Formulation Logic are simple, first-order logic knowledge representations of natural language sentences formed by the conjunction of concept predicates related through shared arguments.

First-Order Logic is a collection of formal systems used in mathematics, philosophy, linguistics, and computer science. First-Order (wiki).

Interpretation Logic is an assignment of meaning to the symbols of a formal language.

Subjective Logic is a type of probabilistic logic that explicitly takes uncertainty and belief ownership into account.

Logical Fallacy is a pattern of reasoning rendered invalid by a flaw in its logical structure that can neatly be expressed in a standard logic system, for example propositional logic.

Classical Logic identifies a class of formal logics that have been most intensively studied and most widely used.


Resolution Logic is a rule of inference leading to a refutation theorem-proving technique for sentences in propositional logic and first-order logic. In other words, iteratively applying the resolution rule in a suitable way allows for telling whether a propositional formula is satisfiable and for proving that a first-order formula is unsatisfiable. Attempting to prove a satisfiable first-order formula as unsatisfiable may result in a nonterminating computation; this problem doesn't occur in propositional logic.

Substructural Logic is a logic lacking one of the usual structural rules (e.g. of classical and intuitionistic logic), such as weakening, contraction, exchange or associativity. Two of the more significant substructural logics are relevant logic and linear logic.

Logical Positivism asserted that only statements verifiable through empirical observation are cognitively meaningful.

Computational Logic

Validity - Control Theory - Ignorance

Race Condition is the behavior of an electronic, software or other system where the output is dependent on the sequence or timing of other uncontrollable events. It becomes a bug when events do not happen in the order the programmer intended.


Reasoning is thinking that is coherent and logical so as to come to an accurate conclusion.

Good examples of reasoning can be found in case decision rulings in law books.

Reason is a rational motive for a belief or action. An explanation of the cause of some phenomenon. The capacity for Rational thought or inference or discrimination.  The state of having good sense and sound judgment. A justification for something existing or happening. A fact that logically justifies some premise or conclusion. Show to be right by providing justification or proof. Defend, explain, clear away, or make excuses for by reasoning. Decide by reasoning; draw or come to a conclusion. Think logically. Knowing the difference between Facts and Opinions. Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, applying logic, establishing and verifying facts, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information. What's the Pont?

Explanation is a statement that makes something comprehensible by describing the relevant structure or operation or circumstances etc. The premise. Understanding.

Evidence (law) - Relative - Fallacy - Debating

Deductive Reasoning determines whether the truth of a conclusion can be determined for that rule, based solely on the truth of the premises. (deductive logic, logical deduction, bottom up logic). Reasoning from the general to the particular (or from cause to effect). Making Comparisons. Precedent (law).

Deduction is reasoning from the general to the particular, or from cause to effect. Something that is inferred deduced or entailed or implied. Deduction can also mean the act of subtracting something or removing a part from the whole.

Sensible is showing reason or sound judgment. Able to feel or perceive. Readily perceived by the senses. Aware intuitively or intellectually of something sensed.

Internalization describes the psychological outcome of a conscious mind reasoning about a specific subject; the subject is internalized, and the consideration of the subject is internal. Externalize.

Transitive Inference is a form of deductive reasoning that allows one to derive a relation between items that have not been explicitly compared before. In a general form, TI is the ability to deduce that if Item B is related to Item C and Item C is related to Item D, then Item B must be related to Item D. Inference.

Syllogism is deductive reasoning in which a conclusion is derived from two premises.

Inductive Reasoning attempts to support a determination of the rule. It hypothesizes a rule after numerous examples are taken to be a conclusion that follows from a precondition in terms of such a rule.

Problem of Induction is the philosophical question of whether inductive reasoning leads to knowledge understood in the classic philosophical sense, since it focuses on the alleged lack of justification for either: Generalizing about the properties of a class of objects based on some number of observations of particular instances of that class (e.g., the inference that "all swans we have seen are white, and, therefore, all swans are white", before the discovery of black swans) or Presupposing that a sequence of events in the future will occur as it always has in the past (e.g., that the laws of physics will hold as they have always been observed to hold). Hume called this the principle of uniformity of nature. Induction.

Mathematical Induction is a mathematical proof technique used to prove a given statement about any well-ordered set. Most commonly, it is used to establish statements for the set of all natural numbers.

Abductive Reasoning is a form of logical inference which goes from an observation to a theory which accounts for the observation, ideally seeking to find the simplest and most likely explanation. In abductive reasoning, unlike in deductive reasoning, the premises do not guarantee the conclusion. One can understand abductive reasoning as "inference to the best explanation".

Analogical Reasoning or Analogy

How Logical Are You? (Psychology of Reasoning) (youtube)

Automated Reasoning Systems (Cornell University)

Logical Reasoning can be distinguished in addition to formal deduction: induction and abduction. Given a precondition or premise, a conclusion or logical consequence and a rule or material conditional that implies the conclusion given the precondition, one can explain that: Deductive reasoning determines whether the truth of a conclusion can be determined for that rule, based solely on the truth of the premises. Example: "When it rains, things outside get wet. The grass is outside, therefore: when it rains, the grass gets wet." Mathematical logic and philosophical logic are commonly associated with this type of reasoning.

Inductive Reasoning attempts to support a determination of the rule. It hypothesizes a rule after numerous examples are taken to be a conclusion that follows from a precondition in terms of such a rule. Example: "The grass got wet numerous times when it rained, therefore: the grass always gets wet when it rains." While they may be persuasive, these arguments are not deductively valid, see the problem of induction. Science is associated with this type of reasoning.

Abductive Reasoning, a.k.a. inference to the best explanation, selects a cogent set of preconditions. Given a true conclusion and a rule, it attempts to select some possible premises that, if true also, can support the conclusion, though not uniquely. Example: "When it rains, the grass gets wet. The grass is wet. Therefore, it might have rained." This kind of reasoning can be used to develop a hypothesis, which in turn can be tested by additional reasoning or data. Diagnosticians, detectives, and scientists often use this type of reasoning.

Valid Reasoning verbal inferencing using assumptions and conclusions.

Causal Reasoning is the process of identifying causality: the relationship between a cause and its effect.

Motivated Reasoning is an emotion-biased decision-making phenomenon studied in cognitive science and social psychology. This term describes the role of motivation in cognitive processes such as decision-making and attitude change in a number of paradigms, including: Cognitive dissonance reduction, Beliefs about others on whom one's own outcomes depend. Evaluation of evidence related to one's own outcomes.

Reasoning System is a software system that generates conclusions from available knowledge using logical techniques such as deduction and induction.

Law of Thought are fundamental axiomatic rules upon which rational discourse itself is often considered to be based. The formulation and clarification of such rules have a long tradition in the history of philosophy and logic. Generally they are taken as laws that guide and underlie everyone's thinking, thoughts, expressions, discussions, etc. However such classical ideas are often questioned or rejected in more recent developments, such as intuitionistic logic, dialetheism and fuzzy logic.

Axiom is a statement (in mathematics often shown in symbolic form) that is so evident or well-established, that it is accepted without controversy or question.

Procedural Reasoning System is a framework for constructing real-time reasoning systems that can perform complex tasks in dynamic environments.

Dual Process Theory provides an account of how a phenomenon can occur in two different ways, or as a result of two different processes.

Case Based Reasoning - Problem Solving

Rationality is the quality or state of being reasonable, based on facts or reason. Rationality implies the conformity of one's beliefs with one's reasons to believe, or of one's actions with one's reasons for action. "Rationality" has different specialized meanings in economics, sociology, psychology, evolutionary biology, and political science.

Rational is using reason guided by the intellect.

Rationalism is the view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification". More formally, rationalism is defined as a methodology or a theory "in which the criterion of the truth is not sensory but intellectual and deductive".

Rational Choice Theory

Counterintuitive is a statement that does not seem likely to be true when assessed using intuition, common sense, or gut feelings.

Evidence Based Practice - Research

Motivated Reasoning - Decision Making


Processing Fluency is the ease with which information is processed. Perceptual fluency is the ease of processing stimuli based on manipulations to perceptual quality. Retrieval fluency is the ease with which information can be retrieved from memory.

Folk Science describes ways of understanding and predicting the natural and social world, without the use of rigorous methodologies.

Backward Chaining is an inference method that can be described (in lay terms) as working backward from the goal(s). It is used in automated theorem provers, inference engines, proof assistants and other artificial intelligence applications. In game theory, its application to (simpler) subgames in order to find a solution to the game is called backward induction. In chess, it is called retrograde analysis, and it is used to generate tablebases for chess endgames for computer chess. Backward chaining is implemented in logic programming by SLD resolution. Both rules are based on the modus ponens inference rule. It is one of the two most commonly used methods of reasoning with inference rules and logical implications – the other is forward chaining. Backward chaining systems usually employ a depth-first search strategy.

Rational Agent is an agent that has clear preferences, models uncertainty via expected values of variables or functions of variables, and always chooses to perform the action with the optimal expected outcome for itself from among all feasible actions. A rational agent can be anything that makes decisions, typically a person, firm, machine, or software. Rational agents are also studied in the fields of cognitive science, ethics, and philosophy, including the philosophy of practical reason.

The misunderstood limits of folk science: an illusion of explanatory depth

Logical Positivism is the form of empiricism that bases all knowledge on perceptual experience (not on intuition or revelation).

Arguments - Debates

Calculus - Algebra

Reasonable Doubt - Probable Cause

Moral Certainty is a concept of intuitive probability. It means a very high degree of probability, sufficient for action, but short of absolute or mathematical certainty.

Probability - Statistics

Determinism - Indeterminism


The Goal is Maximization Optimal Decision and Mathematical Optimization.

Analogical Modeling is a formal theory of exemplar based analogical reasoning.

Can your decisions become more rational when thought in another language? A university of Chicago study showed that Korean citizens who thought in foreign languages reduced their overall bias. Why?

Mental Operations are operations that affect mental contents. Initially, operations of reasoning have been the object of logic alone.


Eliminative Materialism is certain classes of mental states that most people believe in do not exist.

Formulating - Levels of Thinking - Thinking Styles


Understanding is to Know and Comprehend the nature and the meaning of something in order to judge wisely and objectively. Understanding is to become aware of things through the Senses to have comprehension, discernment and empathy. Understanding is to Perceive an Idea or Situation mentally and accurately

Understanding is a psychological process related to an abstract or physical object, such as a person, situation, or message whereby one is able to think about it and use concepts to deal adequately with that object. Understanding is a relation between the knower and an object of understanding. Understanding implies abilities and dispositions with respect to an object of knowledge sufficient to support intelligent behavior. PDF.

Cognizant is having or showing knowledge or understanding or realization or perception.

One extremely important aspect of understanding is the ability to know that there is another side to a story, another point of view, another way to look at something, to have an open mind, avoiding jumping to conclusions, and Listening.

Apprehended is to fully understand and get the meaning of something. Apprehension is the cognitive condition of someone who understands. Apprehension can also mean feeling fearful expectation or anticipation, or the capturing of something.

Catch My Drift means that you are asking someone if they understand what you mean or what you meant.

Clarify is to make something clearer and more comprehensible.

An Essay Concerning Human Understanding

Aspect is a distinct feature or element in a problem. A characteristic to be considered.

Type I Error - Type II Error (lie)

Perspicacity is a penetrating discernment—a clarity of vision or intellect which provides a deep understanding and insight.


Sense is to comprehend and have sound practical judgment. The faculty through which the external world is fully understood. Become aware of, not just through the senses but also instinctively. A natural appreciation or ability. A general conscious awareness. Perceive by a physical sensation, e.g., coming from the skin or muscles. Detect some circumstance or entity automatically. The meaning of a word or expression; the way in which a word or expression or situation can be interpreted.
Sense Making (PDF).


Inference is the reasoning involved in drawing a conclusion or making a logical judgment on the basis of circumstantial evidence and prior conclusions rather than on the basis of direct observation. More of an Opinion than Facts. Inference are steps in reasoning, moving from premises to conclusions. Knowing the difference between Facts and Opinions.

Infer is to reason by deduction and establish by deduction. To conclude by reasoning and logic.

Bayesian Inference is a method of statistical inference in which Bayes' theorem is used to update the probability for a hypothesis as more evidence or information becomes available. Bayesian inference is an important technique in statistics, and especially in mathematical statistics. Bayesian updating is particularly important in the dynamic analysis of a sequence of data. Bayesian inference has found application in a wide range of activities, including science, engineering, philosophy, medicine, sport, and law. In the philosophy of decision theory, Bayesian inference is closely related to subjective probability, often called Bayesian probability, which is an interpretation of the concept of probability, in which, instead of frequency or propensity of some phenomenon, probability is interpreted as reasonable expectation representing a state of knowledge or as quantification of a personal belief.

Statistical Inference is the process of using data analysis to deduce properties of an underlying probability distribution. Inferential statistical analysis infers properties of a population, for example by testing hypotheses and deriving estimates. It is assumed that the observed data set is sampled from a larger population. Inferential statistics can be contrasted with descriptive statistics. Descriptive statistics is solely concerned with properties of the observed data, and it does not rest on the assumption that the data come from a larger population.

List of Rules of Inference (wiki)

Analogy is making a comparison in order to show a similarity in some respect. An inference that if things agree in some respects they probably agree in others. Fallacy - Metaphor.

Analogy or analogical reasoning, is a cognitive process of transferring information or meaning from a particular subject (the analogue or source) to another (the target), or a linguistic expression corresponding to such a process. In a narrower sense, analogy is an inference or an argument from one particular to another particular, as opposed to deduction, induction, and abduction, where at least one of the premises or the conclusion is general. The word analogy can also refer to the relation between the source and the target themselves, which is often, though not necessarily, a similarity, as in the biological notion of analogy. Analogy plays a significant role in problem solving, as well as decision making, argumentation, perception, generalization, memory, creativity, invention, prediction, emotion, explanation, conceptualization and communication.

Valid - Rational


Analyze is to consider something in detail and subject to an analysis in order to discover essential features or meaning. To make a mathematical, chemical, or grammatical analysis of something and break down into components or essential features.

Data Analysis - Information Literacy - Observations - Evaluation

Analysis is an investigation of the component parts of a whole and their relations in making up the whole. The abstract separation of a whole into its constituent parts in order to study the parts and their relations. A form of literary criticism in which the structure of a piece of writing is analyzed. A branch of mathematics involving calculus and the theory of limits; sequences and series and integration and differentiation. A set of Techniques for exploring underlying motives and a method of treating various Mental Disorders.

Analysis is the process of breaking a complex topic or substance into smaller parts in order to gain a better understanding of it.

Correspondence Analysis is a multivariate statistical technique that is conceptually similar to principal component analysis, but applies to categorical rather than continuous data. In a similar manner to principal component analysis, it provides a means of displaying or summarizing a set of data in two-dimensional graphical form. All data should be nonnegative and on the same scale for CA to be applicable, keeping in mind that the method treats rows and columns equivalently.

Principal Component Analysis is a statistical procedure that uses an orthogonal transformation to convert a set of observations of possibly correlated variables into a set of values of linearly uncorrelated variables called principal components.

Analytics is the discovery, interpretation, and communication of meaningful patterns in data. Especially valuable in areas rich with recorded information, analytics relies on the simultaneous application of statistics, computer programming and operations research to quantify performance. Analytics often favors data visualization to communicate insight.

Intelligence Analysis is the application of individual and collective cognitive methods to weigh data and test hypotheses within a secret socio-cultural context. The analyst must correlate the similarities among deceptions and extract a common truth.

Analytical Skills is the ability to visualize, articulate, conceptualize or solve both complex and uncomplicated problems by making decisions that are sensible given the available information. Such skills include demonstration of the ability to apply logical thinking to breaking complex problems into their component parts. Math.

Complex Analysis is the branch of mathematical analysis that investigates functions of complex numbers. It is useful in many branches of mathematics, including algebraic geometry, number theory, analytic combinatorics, applied mathematics; as well as in physics, including the branches of hydrodynamics, thermodynamics, and particularly quantum mechanics. By extension, use of complex analysis also has applications in engineering fields such as nuclear, aerospace, mechanical and electrical engineering. As a differentiable function of a complex variable is equal to the sum of its Taylor series (that is, it is analytic), complex analysis is particularly concerned with analytic functions of a complex variable (that is, holomorphic functions).

Mathematical Analysis is the branch of mathematics dealing with limits and related theories, such as differentiation, integration, measure, infinite series, and analytic functions. These theories are usually studied in the context of real and complex numbers and functions. Analysis evolved from calculus, which involves the elementary concepts and techniques of analysis. Analysis may be distinguished from geometry; however, it can be applied to any space of mathematical objects that has a definition of nearness (a topological space) or specific distances between objects (a metric space).

Sigmund Freud (wiki) - Sanity - Therapy (counseling)

Evaluation is a systematic determination of a subject's merit, worth and significance, using criteria governed by a set of standards. It can assist an organization, program, project or any other intervention or initiative to assess any aim, realisable concept/proposal, or any alternative, to help in decision-making; or to ascertain the degree of achievement or value in regard to the aim and objectives and results of any such action that has been completed. The primary purpose of evaluation, in addition to gaining insight into prior or existing initiatives, is to enable reflection and assist in the identification of future change.

Processer - Research

Physical Examination is the process by which a medical professional investigates the body of a patient for signs of disease. It generally follows the taking of the medical history—an account of the symptoms as experienced by the patient. Together with the medical history, the physical examination aids in determining the correct diagnosis and devising the treatment plan. This data then becomes part of the medical record.

Self-Directed Learning

Processing is preparing or putting through a prescribed procedure. Subject to a process or treatment, with the aim of readying for some purpose, improving, or remedying a condition. Perform mathematical and logical operations on (data) according to programmed instructions in order to obtain the required information. Deal with in a routine way. 

Information Processing - Problem Solving

Pragmatic is concerned with practical matters. Guided by practical Experience and observation rather than Theory.

Pragmatism Consider the practical effects of the objects of your conception. Then, your conception of those effects is the whole of your conception of the object.

Fundamental is being or involving basic Facts or principles. Far-reaching and thoroughgoing in effect especially on the nature of something. Any Factor that could be considered important to the understanding of a particular business.

Principles (ethics)

Abstraction is a conceptual process by which general rules and concepts are derived from the usage and classification of specific examples, literal ("real" or "concrete") signifiers, first principles, or other methods.

Abstract Structure

Formal System any well-defined system of abstract thought based on the model of mathematics.

Formal Methods are a particular kind of mathematically based techniques for the specification, development and verification of software and hardware systems.

Extrapolate is to gain knowledge by extrapolating something that was not known before or experienced before. To estimate the value of something by drawing from specific cases and not from more general cases. To extend the application of a method or conclusion of an unknown situation by assuming that existing trends will continue or similar methods will be applicable based on statistics.

Extrapolation is the process of estimating, beyond the original observation range, the value of a variable on the basis of its relationship with another variable.


Judgment is the capacity to assess situations or circumstances accurately in order to draw logical conclusions. The mental ability to understand and discriminate between relations. The act of judging or assessing a person or situation or event accurately. The cognitive process of reaching a decision that is based on facts

is to evaluate or estimate the nature, quality, ability, extent, value or significance of.

Judgment is the evaluation of evidence to make a decision.

Accusation is a formal charge of wrongdoing brought against a person; the act of imputing blame or guilt. An assertion that someone is guilty of a fault or offence.

Decision Making - Morals - Ethics

Legal Terms - What is a Judge? - Why Punish?

Sound Judgment is the capacity to assess situations or circumstances shrewdly and to draw sound conclusions. Valid.

Correct is something that is free from error and also adapts to fact or truth so as to achieve accuracy. Being correct is also in accord with accepted standards of usage and procedures.


Explanation is a statement that makes something comprehensible by describing the relevant structure or operation or circumstances etc.. Words that makes something comprehensible and makes something plain or intelligible.

Explanation (wiki) - Teaching (instruction)

Define is to determine the essential quality of something or give a definition for something or the meaning of a word. Determine the nature of something by giving details.

Directions is a message describing how something is to be done. Something that provides direction or advice as to a decision or course of action. A formal statement of a command or injunction to do something. The concentration of attention or energy on something. Showing the way. Instructions.

Guide is someone who shows the way by leading or advising. Something that offers basic information or Instruction. Someone who can find paths through unexplored territory.

Delineate is having something represented accurately or precisely. Show the form or outline of. Determine the essential quality of. Trace the shape of. Make a mark or lines on a surface. Describe in vivid detail.

Describe is to represent in words especially with sharpness and detail. To give an account or representation of in words. Give a description of.

Determine is to establish after a calculation, investigation, experiment, survey, or study. Reach, make, or come to a decision about something. Find out, learn, or determine with certainty, usually by making an inquiry or other effort.

Alternative is one of a number of things from which only one can be chosen. Serving or used in place of another. Necessitating a choice between mutually exclusive possibilities. The freedom or right to choose. Choice.

Intelligible is something capable of being apprehended or understood. Express clearly, and loud enough to be heard distinctly.

Logical Argument is a course of reasoning aimed at demonstrating a truth or falsehood; the methodical process of logical reasoning.

Debate - Collaborations

Justification is something (such as a fact or circumstance) that shows an action to be reasonable or necessary. A statement in explanation of some action or belief. The act of defending or explaining or making excuses for by reasoning.

Theory of Justification is a part of epistemology that attempts to understand the justification of propositions and beliefs. Epistemologists are concerned with various epistemic features of belief, which include the ideas of justification, warrant, rationality, and probability. Of these four terms, the term that has been most widely used and discussed by the early 21st century is "warrant". Loosely speaking, justification is the reason that someone (properly) holds a belief. When a claim is in doubt, justification can be used to support the claim and reduce or remove the doubt. Justification can use empiricism (the evidence of the senses), authoritative testimony (the appeal to criteria and authority), or logical deduction.


Principles is the knowledge that is accepted as true that can be used as a basis for reasoning or as a rule or guide for personal conduct. A basic Truth, Law or assumption concerning a natural phenomenon or the function of a complex system. A rule or standard, especially for good behavior. In law, principles are an explanation of the fundamental reasons, especially an explanation of the working of some device in terms of the laws of nature. Having principles is Knowing the differences between a Lie and an Error and a Belief. Principle is a law or rule that is usually followed so as to avoid an inevitable consequence of something, such as the laws observed in nature or the way that a system is constructed. The principles of such a system are understood by its users as the essential characteristics of the system, or reflecting system's designed purpose, and the effective operation or use of which would be impossible if any one of the principles was to be ignored. Principle is a concept or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule that has to be or usually is to be followed, or can be desirably followed, or is an inevitable consequence of something, such as the laws observed in nature or the way that a system is constructed. The principles of such a system are understood by its users as the essential characteristics of the system, or reflecting system's designed purpose, and the effective operation or use of which would be impossible if any one of the principles was to be ignored.

Morals - Ethics - Intelligence


Conclusion is a position or opinion or judgment reached after consideration. An intuitive assumption. The proposition arrived at by logical reasoning (such as the proposition that must follow from the major and minor premises of a syllogism). The act of making up your mind about something. The truth as Far as you know.

Concluding is to decide by reasoning; draw or come to a conclusion. Reach a conclusion after a discussion or deliberation. Reach agreement on.

is to bring to a close or end. The temporal end; the concluding time.

Motivation Words
Learning Words
Valid Words
Problem Solving Words

Think Lightbulb

I still love you, even knowing that you only have a Half a Brain. But I would love you a lot more if you had a whole brain that was full of valuable knowledge and information. Then when we are together, we would have more potential, more options, more control, more power, more freedom, and more possibilities...Well, that's what whole brain people do any way, just sayin.

How would you explain intelligence to someone who isn't intelligent?

Smart and intelligent cannot be used to describe a person unless you explain why. Smart and intelligent only describes a particular action, an action that is known to be logical. That was a smart thing to do, that was an intelligent thing to do. So to say "That Person is Smart", you have to say why? Did they do a smart thing, or is it they can do particular things that require specialized knowledge? So in order to be smart or intelligent you have to perform intelligent actions. So only that particular action is smart and not necessarily the person performing the action. But if you would like to be considered smart then you would have to be known as the person who performed the most intelligent actions. And to prove that you would have to be extremely intelligent." Good luck...it's not a problem, it's a challenge...

albert einstein
You're very bright and aware, keep learning...Einstein Essay

Human Operating System (HOS)

HOS is another way of describing your base knowledge. The constructs that you use when understanding yourself and the world around you.

The Human Brain is the most powerful machine on the world, so it makes perfect sense that the most powerful machine in the world should have the most powerful software in the world. Types Of Operating Systems.

Cognitive Architecture is a comprehensive computer model structure of the human mind. Brain Computer Interface

Conceptual Framework is an analytical tool used to make conceptual distinctions and organize ideas. Strong conceptual frameworks capture something real and do this in a way that is easy to remember and apply. Executive Functions.

Operational Intelligence is a category of real-time dynamic, business analytics that delivers visibility and insight into data, streaming events and business operations. OI solutions run queries against streaming data feeds and event data to deliver analytic results as operational instructions. OI provides organizations the ability to make decisions and immediately act on these analytic insights, through manual or automated actions. Controls.

You need different software to process different information. You need photo software to process photographic images. And you need to have word software to process words, sentences, letters and things that are related to writing, so that you can write effectively and efficiently. You need the correct software in order to process a particular set of information. So in the same sense, a person needs the correct mindset of knowledge that is needed to process a unique set of information, effectively and efficiently. You don't send a plumber to do a electricians job.

Cognitive Robotics is endowing a robot with intelligent behavior by providing it with a processing architecture that will allow it to learn and reason about how to behave in response to complex goals in a complex world.

Hierarchy (learning styles)

Action Selection is a way of characterizing the most basic problem of intelligent systems: what to do next?

Intelligent Agent is an autonomous entity which observes through sensors and acts upon an environment using actuators and directs its activity towards achieving goals.

Intelligent Control is a class of control techniques that use various artificial intelligence computing approaches like neural networks, Bayesian probability, fuzzy logic, Machine Learning, evolutionary computation and genetic algorithms.

Artificial Intelligence (machine learning) - Brain Computer Interface

What would be the Human Algorithm for Learning? You would have to write a lot of Procedures.

Patch in computing is a piece of software designed to update a computer program or its supporting data, to fix or improve it.

Organizing Knowledge Cognitively is a system of grouping and categorizing our brain to use, sort and store information. System changes and adapts as the amount of knowledge about a particular subject changes and grows.

Artificial Curiosity and Creativity (wiki)

Artificial Brain research that aims to develop software and hardware with cognitive abilities similar to those of the animal or human brain.

Human Operators Manual has been updated.

Human Life Operators Manual (youtube - Tom Shadyac, Michael D. Palm sented Life's Operating Manual)

Human Source Code - Refactoring The Human Body - Machine Language (code)

Pattern Recognition - Awareness
Feed Back (cause and effect)
Predictive Analytics (planning)
Category-Based Intrinsic Motivation (PDF)

Mindfulness is being aware of your thoughts, being aware of how you feel. An examination of the mind, questioning accuracy.

Mind is the set of cognitive faculties that enables consciousness, perception, thinking, judgment, and memory—a characteristic of humans, but which also may apply to other life forms. 

Language of Thought Hypothesis is when language controls thinking, similar to the way that computer software controls processes.

This is your working memory, the constructs of reality. Awareness is more then a skill that one needs to learn, awareness is about having a full understanding of cause and effect, and how everything in this world, in one way or another, is connected.

Remembrance Agent are a set of applications that watch over a user’s shoulder and suggest information relevant to the current situation. While query-based memory aids help with direct recall, remembrance agents are an augmented associative memory. For example, the word-processor version of the RA continuously updates a list of documents relevant to what’s being typed or read in an emacs buffer. These suggested documents can be any text files that might be relevant to what you are currently writing or reading. They might be old emails related to the mail you are currently reading, or abstracts from papers and newspaper articles that discuss the topic of your writing.

Working Memory is the system responsible for the transient holding and processing of new and already-stored information, recalling past experiences and knowledge from memory. To Keep in mind for attention or consideration. This is an important process for reasoning, comprehension, learning and memory updating. Thinking, Processing, Output. Working memory is a theoretical framework that refers to structures and processes used for temporarily storing and manipulating information. What information do we have? What information are we receiving? What is the appropriate action? Most of the time people are in automatic mode, and rarely use the processing power of the human brain. That's because not enough people are teaching this skill or learning this skill. Memory Consolidation is when existing memories are recalled and modified with new knowledge.

Working Memory (PDF)

Development of Autonomy in Adolescence (PDF)

Automaticity is the ability to do things without occupying the mind with the low-level details required, allowing it to become an automatic response pattern or habit. It is usually the result of learning, repetition, and practice.

Automatic - Autonomy
Habits - Routines

Cognitive Load refers to the total amount of mental effort being used in the working memory. Intrinsic cognitive load is the effort associated with a specific topic. Extraneous cognitive load refers to the way information or tasks are presented to a learner. And, germane cognitive load refers to the work put into creating a permanent store of knowledge, or a schema.

Schema is an Organized Pattern of Thought or Behavior.


Manual Controls and Automation 

Procedural Memory is a type of implicit memory (unconscious memory) and long-term memory which aids the performance of particular types of tasks without conscious awareness of these previous experiences. Procedural memory guides the processes we perform and most frequently resides below the level of conscious awareness. When needed, procedural memories are automatically retrieved and utilized for the execution of the integrated procedures involved in both cognitive and motor skills, from tying shoes to flying an airplane to reading. Procedural memories are accessed and used without the need for conscious control or attention. Procedural memory is created through procedural learning or, repeating a complex activity over and over again until all of the relevant neural systems work together to automatically produce the activity. Implicit procedural learning is essential for the development of any motor skill or cognitive activity.

10,000 Rule - Rote Learning - Procedures

Our brains have a basic algorithm that enables our intelligence, scientists say.

Imagine using a computer without an Operating System and having no interface between Applications, Programs, other Software, system controls and Hardware, and at the same time having no coordination or management of priorities. You would have a very difficult time trying to accomplish even the simplest task. Now imagine a Human without an operating system. Well you can’t, because you don’t know what a Human Operating System is yet. Just like if you never used a computer you would have no idea what it would be like using a computer without an operating system. Most of us have a crappie operating system already thanks to our dysfunctional education system. We should have been given an Open Sourced Operating System instead of a Monopolized and dysfunctional operating system. So let me give you a brief description of what a Human Operating System is like, or supposed to be like. Remember that the original definition of a computer was “A human who preformed calculations”. But when the electronic computer was developed then the definition changed or evolved. Not understanding the immediate similarities between a computer and a Human Brain was a huge mistake. While the computer went through incredible advances and improvements in a short period of time, the human counter part did not. In less then 50 years an ENIAC computer went from being the size of a house and costing 3 million dollars to the size of a book costing less then $500.00. Of course the Moore's Law was not followed or most likely ignored when we designed cars and other consumer items. Because If cars had gone through those same improvements a car today would get a thousand miles to the gallon and cost the same as a computer. This was obviously Planned Obsolescence, which is a blatant crime that is still happening today. (Pyramids of Waste aka The Light bulb Conspiracy, 2010). So if we made the same advances and improvements in educating the human brain we would have hundreds of millions of intellectuals solving all the worlds problems. But sadly today we only have a few thousand intellectuals that are mostly being exploited and underutilized. 

"When you first turn on your computer you want your computer to be ready to accomplish the actions that you need to have done. When you first wake up every day, you want your brain to be ready to accomplish actions that you need to have done. You don't want your brain to randomly process information all the time. You need to be able to manually switch on the brain and focus on your current needs and responsibilities. If not, then you will always be distracted and become ineffective and inefficient, and not just with your actions, but with your thoughts as well."

Machine Code is a set of instructions executed directly by a computer's central processing unit (CPU). Each instruction performs a very specific task, such as a load, a jump, or an ALU operation on a unit of data in a CPU register or memory. Every program directly executed by a CPU is made up of a series of such instructions.

Word Matrix

Source Code is any collection of computer instructions, (possibly with comments), written using a human-readable computer language, usually as ordinary text.

Code - Programming

Software is encoded information or computer instructions, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built.

An HOS will need to be activated, like a Mindset.

Algorithms - Operating Systems

"We update our appliances, our TV's, our phones, our computers, but we never update our brains, why? Why did everything else improved fairly quickly except for our education institutions?"
Before the Human Operating System language is written here are a few things that will outline some of its structure.

The Human Operating System will be continually learning and improving so it will never become stagnate or repetitive.
Human Operating System will not be able to keep you from making mistakes, but it will make you better at learning from mistakes.
Human Operating System will not dehumanize you or deprive you of human qualities, but it will make you more aware of how important those qualities are.
Human Operating System will not keep you from spontaneity, but it will make you more aware of your actions.
Human Operating System will not stop you from loving, but it will make you more aware of how important love is.
Human Operating System will have complete knowledge and control of the human brain, for this is where the Human Operating System resides, communicates and moves through the metaphysical world.
Human Operating System will have complete knowledge and control of the human body that it operates in, for this is how it communicates and moves through the physical world.
Human Operating System will be a coordinator and manager of responsibilities and priorities and act like a conscience.
The Human Operating System will be a Collective Intelligent Consensus where everyone is a contributor.
The Human Operating System is not Mind Control or in anyway Mind Programming. The Human Operating System is Systems Management, Operational Intelligence or Mind Management with some elements becoming Automatic but always flexible. You are the manager who is in control of your mind. If you do not know how to manage your own mind then you are vulnerable to manipulation and propaganda, which can create a distorted sense of reality. And when your sense of reality becomes distorted you are always vulnerable to mind controlling manipulation. A great source of mind controlling manipulation is your TV, If you do not believe this or realize this, it means that you have a distorted sense of reality and are very vulnerable to manipulation and propaganda. You are not a free thinker, your are merely a robot waiting for your next command.

The Human Operating System (HOS) will consist of all the Disciplines in Basic Knowledge 101 as well as a Conceptual Framework made up of Thought Processes, Thinking Styles, Inductive Reasoning, Abductive Reasoning, Deductive Reasoning and Cognitive Abilities to help increase the capacity to think logically about the relationships among concepts and situations and to justify and ultimately prove the correctness of a mathematical procedure or assertion. More .

When the HOS is created, it will also be used as Artificial Intelligence. The only difference is AI will have fixed parameters, because knowing what AI is supposed to do creates stability and consistency, something that you can count on, unlike a human. Ai will be like having a very intelligent friend who keeps you aware and up to date.

Continued from above HOS.. - (off on a tangent) - It’s kind of weird that the Windows OS is very similar to our dysfunctional education system. They both Stifled Innovation and hindered improvements and growth, which of course harms everyone, and everything. We can no longer afford to allow this to continue. If we are to improve and prosper we need to do what’s right for the good of everyone and not just what’s right for the sake of a single corporation, or a few individuals. The separation of State and People is ridicules and absurd. If a law infringes on the rights and freedoms of the individual, our groups of individuals, then that is not a law for it is an attack on itself. America has more lawyers then most nations combined, and this is the best that we can come up with? If you cannot fully explain your reasoning then you have no reason to be there. The power of decision needs to be openly debated and not decided in the dark behind closed doors. But, here we are.

Similarities between a Computer and the Human Brain

Computer Brain Similarities This is not to say that a computer and the human brain are the same, because there are many differences. But when you examine the similarities, you begin to understand the genius in the design of both machines. So instead of a computer just being a tool for processing information, it has become a reflection of ourselves, and not just an extension of ourselves. On or Off?

Let's examine the similarities between a computer and the Human brain. Both are used to process information, perform calculations, store information and carry out responsibilities and priorities. A computer is also doing things behind the scenes just like the Human Brain does. Like when the brain tells the heart to beat faster or slower, telling the lungs to breath more air, and telling the immune system to fight infections. A computer has many parts. A Human brain also has many parts. Knowing and understanding computer parts helps with maintaining its proper operation. Knowing and understanding the parts of the human brain will also have the same benefit. What happens to a human when they don’t get their regular updates of information and knowledge like computers do when they get their regular updates of virus definitions? People also get 'The Blue Screen of Death'. People have that blank stare of ignorance on their face, not knowing what to do and not knowing what to say. Is this just a computer malfunction or people just behaving badly? Understanding the differences between an ignorant person and a highly educated person is similar to understanding the differences between a computer and a human brain. Damages or malfunctions in either a computer or a human brain can make understanding anything nearly impossible. A highly intelligent machine can easily look more intelligent to an ignorant person, while a highly educated person will see the same intelligent machine as having many limits. So this conversation about the similarities between a computer and the human brain can only be clearly understood when people are more educated about both. Don't ever assume that you know enough. You can only make a point about a specific set of circumstances. You can not generalize about all the differences or the similarities, because there are just too many variables to explain.

It's not so unusual to think that there are similarities between a computer and a human brain, after all, computers are made by humans. And the humans who designed these computers have a high degree of knowledge about language and logic. So your computer engineer and your computer programmers possess a system of tools and language that are very useful to educators. Teaching a computer has some of the same instruction elements as teaching a human. The language, the structure, the organizing, the processing, the allocating, the actions and the desired outputs. If people understood how a computer works, understood its language and its computational abilities, understood how the system works and communicates, you can easily see similarities in its logic, logic that was created by a human. To come up with a source code was understanding how we learn. If you look at the whole computer as a engineering design, you see many effective ways to process information.  Continue...

When humans learn useful knowledge, that Knowledge writes algorithms in the brain in order to make effective and efficient use of that knowledge, which is similar to AI algorithms. So we are coming full circle. Humans algorithms are chemical based, and Artificial Intelligent Algorithms are digital based.

Harmonic Thought (youtube)

Why is the Human Brain similar to a Quantum Computer?

Computational Neuroscience

Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human traits, emotions, and intentions to non-human entities and is considered to be an innate tendency of human psychology.

Mind Files - You don't need a Computer Chip implanted in your Body

The Internet is a Human Global Brain. (Time-Based Structure - Space-Based Structure)

Why is Behavior like a Computer Program?

Information is verified Facts and Data that are correct and free from error. (words, letters, numbers, diagrams, symbols).

Knowledge is Skills Learned through Experience and the Ability to Process and Understand Information correctly. More

Wisdom is the ability to apply knowledge and Information into the correct Action to achieve a Goal. Wisdom is showing good Reasoning and good judgment by Measurement or Research. Wisdom is also understanding the future and the different events that might happen, being Aware of Trends because some changes might be indications that bigger changes are coming so good Preparation and Planning is needed. Intelligence

Computer Programming is a language with a set of instructions that computers (or person) use to perform specific operations or to exhibit desired behaviors. Computer Programming - Coding

Program is a series of steps to be carried out or goals to be accomplished. A system of projects or services intended to meet a public need.

Computer Program is a sequence of instructions that a computer can interpret and execute. Similar to Learning.

Cognitive Process is the performance of some composite Cognitive Activity: An operation that affects mental contents.

More Similarities between a Computer and the Human Brain...Continued from above

The neural networks in computers are actually similar to the synapses and neurons in the human brain. And the Integrated Circuits, or IC’s, of a computer are also similar in design to synapses and neurons, which are also either on or off. Humans have a processor similar in design as a computer does. The similarities between a computer and a human are uncanny. So in a sense we have actually been, accidentally or indirectly, building a Human Operating System, and in a way being totally unaware of these accomplishments. Neural connectionists will become teachers and not just programmers. Of course the Human Operating System is not a new idea. Just like many inventions and innovations in our past we are just again realizing the true potential of our knowledge. Computational theory of mind, connectionism, cognitive psychology, cognitive science, neuroscience and philosophy of mind have all been around for a long time. So instead of humans mostly running off their Radom Access Memory, or RAM, we should all have a Human Operating System that helps us govern our lives and keeps us aware and continually learning while at the same time improving ourselves and our world. The human brain is a Hard Drive. Some people are walking around with a few hundred Gigs of information while others are walking around with thousands of Gigs of information. People with less information will always be at a disadvantage internally and externally.

The main difference between analog and digital computers is not in what they do, but how they do it. Analog computers process information in a continuous fashion and can handle a wide range of naturally occurring processes. An analog computer receives one or more variables and produces a result that represents the relationships between the input variables. Perhaps the simplest example of an analog computer is an oscilloscope. It receives vertical and horizontal signals, and produces a visual trace on the oscilloscope screen. The oscilloscope does not truly compute, but puts the input signals in the desired relationship. More generally, the relationship is called a function. Electronic analog devices are capable of producing various mathematical and logical functions, including logarithms, integration, and differentiation. Some complex functions may not be solvable with digital computers, but analog computers can usually handle them well. The main disadvantage of analog computers is that they are hardwired and designed to process only a limited number of functions by means of dedicated electronic devices. This deficit is eliminated in digital computers.

Digital computers represent information in binary states of 0's (zeros) or 1's (ones). A "0" usually stands for low voltage (close to zero volts), and a "1" means that a voltage (usually 5 V or 3.3 V) is present. One wire connection is represented by one bit of information. The value of the bit is "0" or "1." Two bits can represent two wires. Each bit can have the values of "0" or "1" at different times, which allows to represent four unique states or events with the values 00, 01, 10, and 11. The state 00 means that both wires have no voltage applied at a given time, and 11 means that both wires have the nominal voltages present at the same time. By increasing the number of wire connections, long strings of 0's and 1's (words) can be produced. Each unique combination of 0's and 1's is decoded and represents a unique number, or information in general. A set of related wires is referred to as a bus. A bus can have 64 or more wire connections arranged in parallel and is controlled by a microprocessor. The microprocessor determines what kind of information is put on the bus at a specific time. It could be memory address, content of the memory address, or operating code (instruction to perform an action). The transfer of information over the bus is controlled by a software program. The arrangement allows the use of the same hardware (the same physical devices) to process very different information at different times. Since the computing is done one variable at a time and is controlled by a timing protocol, a digital computer does serial processing of information. This statement is not totally correct, because all bits of the same word are processed concurrently. But in the analog computer, all input variables can be processed at the same time, which allows parallel processing.

Overall, the analog computer better reflects the natural world because specific functions are associated with dedicated wires and circuitry. Also human senses have dedicated sensors with direct neural connections to the brain. Each human eye has about 120 high-quality megapixels. A really good digital camera has about 16 megapixels. The numbers of megapixels between the eye and the camera are not that dramatically different, but the digital camera has no permanent wire connections between the physical sensors and the optical, computational, and memory functions of the camera. The microprocessor input and output need to be multiplexed to properly channel the flow of the arriving and exiting information. Similarly, the functional heart of a digital computer only time-shares its faculties with the attached devices: memory, camera, speaker, or printer. If such an arrangement existed in the human brain, you could do only one function at a time. You could look, then think, and then stretch out your hand to pick up an object. But you could not speak, see, hear, think, move, and feel at the same time. These problems could be solved by operating numerous microprocessors concurrently, but the hardware would be too difficult to design, too bulky to package, and too expensive to implement. By contrast, parallel processing poses no problem in the human brain. Neurons are tiny, come to life in huge numbers, and form connections spontaneously. Just as important is energy efficiency. Human brains require negligible amounts of energy, and power dissipation does not overheat the brain. A computer as complex as the human brain would need its own power plant with megawatts of power, and a heat sink the size of a city.

People and animals come in various shapes and sizes, and with many imperfections. Living things are not designed to last unchanged a lifetime. Living bodies interact with the environment and adjust to it. Furry animals shed their coats in the summer and grow more hair in the winter. A crab sheds its protective shell when it becomes small and grows a new one. A shark loses its teeth and replaces them with a new set. A lizard loses its tail and grows a new one. A polar bear has developed a special fur to negotiate the cold environment of the Arctic ocean. A seal insulates itself with extra blubber. A tree in a hot climate moves its leaves vertically to reduce evaporation. All living things respond to their surroundings, change their "mental strategies", and also modify their bodies. The reason for these abilities is that living organisms are not only biological machines, but also manufacturing plants that support reproduction, maintenance, and remodeling of the organisms in response to environmental effects. No man-made machine can do this.

It’s easy to think that neurons are essentially binary, given that they fire an action potential if they reach a certain threshold, and otherwise do not fire. This superficial similarity to digital “1’s and 0’s” belies a wide variety of continuous and non-linear processes that directly influence neuronal processing. Inside each and every neuron is a leaky integrator circuit, composed of a variety of ion channels and continuously fluctuating membrane potentials.

"The brain works somewhat like both a computer and a chemical factory. Brain cells produce electrical signals and send them from cell to cell along pathways called circuits. As in a computer, these circuits receive, process, store, and retrieve information. Unlike a computer, however, the brain creates its electrical signals by chemical means. The proper functioning of the brain depends on many complicated chemical substances produced by brain cells."

"People will normally look at software before they load it on to their computer, but for some reason people don't bother to carefully look at the information that they take into their mind on a daily basis. It's like reading without having any comprehension. If you are not fully aware of what you're feeding into your mind, then learning doesn't exist."

"If you consume healthy food, it will give you energy for a day, but if you consume a little bit of knowledge each day, you will have energy for your entire life."

How many Questions do you think you need to ask in order to fully understand something?


Fragmented is having been divided and having unity destroyed. To break or cause to break into pieces.

File System Fragmentation is the tendency of a file system to lay out the contents of files non-contiguously to allow in-place modification of their contents. It is a special case of data fragmentation. File system fragmentation increases disk head movement or seek time, which are known to hinder throughput. In addition, file systems cannot sustain unlimited fragmentation. The correction to existing fragmentation is to reorganize files and free space back into contiguous areas, a process called defragmentation.

Fragmentation in computing is a phenomenon in which storage space is used inefficiently, reducing capacity or performance and often both. The exact consequences of fragmentation depend on the specific system of storage allocation in use and the particular form of fragmentation. In many cases, fragmentation leads to storage space being "wasted", and in that case the term also refers to the wasted space itself. For other systems (e.g. the FAT file system) the space used to store given data (e.g. files) is the same regardless of the degree of fragmentation (from none to extreme). Emptying Disk Space.

Defragmentation is a process that reduces the amount of fragmentation. It does this by physically organizing the contents of the mass storage device used to store files into the smallest number of contiguous regions (fragments). It also attempts to create larger regions of free space using compaction to impede the return of fragmentation. Some defragmentation utilities try to keep smaller files within a single directory together, as they are often accessed in sequence. Defragmentation is advantageous and relevant to file systems on electromechanical disk drives. The movement of the hard drive's read/write heads over different areas of the disk when accessing fragmented files is slower, compared to accessing the entire contents of a non-fragmented file sequentially without moving the read/write heads to seek other fragments.

From Chaos to Order. Putting the pieces of the puzzle back together again.

First In First Out - FIFO in computing and electronics is a method for organizing and manipulating a data buffer, where the oldest (first) entry, or 'head' of the queue, is processed first. It is analogous to processing a queue with first-come, first-served (FCFS) behaviour: where the people leave the queue in the order in which they arrive.

Unstructured Data (overload)

Working Together

Luke 11:17 - Any kingdom divided against itself will be ruined, and a house divided against itself will fall.

Operating Systems

Operating System is a set of instructions that manages computer hardware resources and provides common services for computer programs, input and output and Memory Allocation. Acts as an intermediary between programs. A collection of software (Information) that manages computer hardware resources and provides common services for computer programs. The operating system is a vital component of the System Software in a computer system. Application programs usually require an operating system to function.  Software that controls the execution of computer programs and may provide various services. Time-sharing operating systems Schedule Tasks for efficient use of the system and may also include accounting for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage, printing, and other resources. For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary between programs and the computer hardware, although the application code is usually executed directly by the hardware and will frequently make a system call to an OS function or be interrupted by it. Operating systems can be found on almost any device that contains a computer—from cellular phones and video game consoles to supercomputers and web servers.

Real-Time Operating System is used to control machinery, scientific instruments, industrial systems and appliances. Has very little user-interface capability and no end-user utilities. RTOS is an operating system (OS) intended to serve real-time applications that process data as it comes in, typically without buffer delays. Processing time requirements (including any OS delay) are measured in tenths of seconds or shorter increments of time. They either are event driven or time sharing. Event driven systems switch between tasks based on their priorities while time sharing systems switch the task based on clock interrupts. A key characteristic of an RTOS is the level of its consistency concerning the amount of time it takes to accept and complete an application's task; the variability is jitter. A hard real-time operating system has less jitter than a soft real-time operating system. The chief design goal is not high throughput, but rather a guarantee of a soft or hard performance category. An RTOS that can usually or generally meet a deadline is a soft real-time OS, but if it can meet a deadline deterministically it is a hard real-time OS. An RTOS has an advanced algorithm for scheduling. Scheduler flexibility enables a wider, computer-system orchestration of process priorities, but a real-time OS is more frequently dedicated to a narrow set of applications. Key factors in a real-time OS are minimal interrupt latency and minimal thread switching latency; a real-time OS is valued more for how quickly or how predictably it can respond than for the amount of work it can perform in a given period of time.

Real-Time Computing describes hardware and software systems subject to a "real-time constraint", for example from event to system response. Real-time programs must guarantee response within specified time constraints, often referred to as "deadlines". The correctness of these types of systems depends on their temporal aspects as well as their functional aspects. Real-time responses are often understood to be in the order of milliseconds, and sometimes microseconds. A system not specified as operating in real time cannot usually guarantee a response within any timeframe, although typical or expected response times may be given. A real-time system has been described as one which "controls an environment by receiving data, processing them, and returning the results sufficiently quickly to affect the environment at that time." The term "real-time" is also used in simulation to mean that the simulation's clock runs at the same speed as a real clock, and in process control and enterprise systems to mean "without significant delay". Real-time software may use one or more of the following: synchronous programming languages, real-time operating systems, and real-time networks, each of which provide essential frameworks on which to build a real-time software application. Systems used for many mission critical applications must be real-time, such as for control of fly-by-wire aircraft, or anti-lock brakes on a vehicle, which must produce maximum deceleration but intermittently stop braking to prevent skidding. Real-time processing fails if not completed within a specified deadline relative to an event; deadlines must always be met, regardless of system load.

Event in computing is an action or occurrence recognized by software, often originating asynchronously from the external environment, that may be handled by the software. Computer events can be generated or triggered by the system, by the user or in other ways. Typically, events are handled synchronously with the program flow, that is, the software may have one or more dedicated places where events are handled, frequently an event loop. A source of events includes the user, who may interact with the software by way of, for example, keystrokes on the keyboard. Another source is a hardware device such as a timer. Software can also trigger its own set of events into the event loop, e.g. to communicate the completion of a task. Software that changes its behavior in response to events is said to be event-driven, often with the goal of being interactive.

Asynchronous I/O is a form of input/output processing that permits other processing to continue before the transmission has finished. Input and output (I/O) operations on a computer can be extremely slow compared to the processing of data. An I/O device can incorporate mechanical devices that must physically move, such as a hard drive seeking a track to read or write; this is often orders of magnitude slower than the switching of electric current. For example, during a disk operation that takes ten milliseconds to perform, a processor that is clocked at one gigahertz could have performed ten million instruction-processing cycles.

Preemption in computing is the act of temporarily interrupting a task being carried out by a computer system, without requiring its cooperation, and with the intention of resuming the task at a later time. Such changes of the executed task are known as context switches. It is normally carried out by a privileged task or part of the system known as a preemptive scheduler, which has the power to preempt, or interrupt, and later resume, other tasks in the system.

Focus - Multitasking - Autonomous

Single-User Operating System has a reliable single hard-wired program designed to run one program at a time so that it runs on time consistently to insure safe operation.

Single-User Multi-Tasking Operating System runs several programs in operation at the same time. Like desktop and laptop computers, and humans.

Multi-User Operating System allows for input from several different users at the same time.

Robot Operating System is a collection of software frameworks for robot software development, (see also Robotics middleware) providing operating system-like functionality on a heterogeneous computer cluster. ROS provides standard operating system services such as hardware abstraction, low-level device control, implementation of commonly used functionality, message-passing between processes, and package management. Running sets of ROS-based processes are represented in a graph architecture where processing takes place in nodes that may receive, post and multiplex sensor, control, state, planning, actuator and other messages. Despite the importance of reactivity and low latency in robot control, ROS, itself, is not a real-time OS (RTOS), though it is possible to integrate ROS with real-time code. The lack of support for real-time systems is being addressed in the creation of ROS 2.0. Software in the ROS Ecosystem can be separated into three groups: language-and platform-independent tools used for building and distributing ROS-based software; ROS client library implementations such as roscpp, rospy, and roslisp; packages containing application-related code which uses one or more ROS client libraries. Robot Operating System (AI).

Human Operating System (HOS)

An Operating System needs software to be loaded in sequential order. In order for human to develop, development must be in sequential order. That means that education and what we learn should have sequential order. But no one has defined what to learn or when to learn it. Computer programmers wrote the code for an operating system, teachers will write the language for a learning system. The code in our DNA makes us who we are physically, and we didn't even have to write our DNA code because some one already wrote the code for us. But humans must manually input knowledge and information, because we are not born with the knowledge that helps us form our personalities, and helps us understand ourselves and the world around us. This is why an education must be high quality, developing humans into intelligent people should be the goal. Computer programmers wrote the code to make computers fully functional, God or evolution wrote the DNA code for humans so that humans could be fully functional. That is why we need a high quality education, so that every human mind is developed to be fully functional. We have already witnessed the benefits of a good education, we just haven't defined what a good education should be, but we are close.

Windows Operating System has roughly 50 million lines of code.

Operating Systems (computer software)

Middleware is computer software that provides services to software applications beyond those available from the operating system. It can be described as "software glue". Middleware makes it easier for software developers to implement communication and input/output, so they can focus on the specific purpose of their application.

Collaboration - Interfaces

Interoperability is a characteristic of a product or system, whose Interfaces are completely understood, to work with other products or systems, present or future, in either implementation or access, without any restrictions.

Operating is to perform as expected when applied. (computer science) Data Processing in which the result is completely specified by a rule (especially the processing that results from a single instruction)

System is an organized structure for arranging or classifying. A Procedure or process for obtaining an objective. A complex of methods or rules governing behavior. An ordered manner; orderliness by virtue of being methodical and well organized. Instrumentality that combines interrelated interacting artifacts designed to work as a coherent entity. Systems

Organize is to cause to be structured or ordered or operating according to some principle or idea. Arrange by Systematic Planning and united effort. Mental Orientation An integrated set of attitudes and beliefs. A person's Awareness of self with regard to position and time and place and personal relationships. Organizing

Planning is an act of formulating a program for a definite course of action. Have the will and intention to carry out some action. The cognitive process of thinking about what you will do in the event of something happening. Make a design of; plan out in systematic, often graphic form. The act or process of drawing up plans or layouts for some project or enterprise. 
Planning - Managing

Input - Process - Output

Binary is a pre-compiled, pre-linked program that is ready to run under a given operating system; a binary for one operating system will not run on a different operating system.

Data - Digital

The computer operating system software is a written language that explains and defines its responsibilities when controlling applications, programs, other software, system controls, hardware and so on and so on. The Human Operating System is also an Assembly Language that also explains and defines its responsibilities. The Human Operating System language is based on Logic that helps with carrying out human responsibilities and human functions. The Computer Operating System language is for mechanical operations that interface with the computer responsibilities and computer functions. The computer operating system language took years to write and went through many changes and advances and is still improving. The Human Operating System language will also take years to write and will also go through many improvements and advances. Most of the Human Operating System language has already been written but it needs to be organized and written in the proper language in order for it to be correctly processed by the human brain. Just like the computer language ‘COBOL’ that is used to communicate actions and commands before it is converted into its raw binary code of zero’s and ones, the Human Operating System language will also need some conversion in order for it to be correctly understood by the human brain.

Operating System Source Code 

PLATO System (Programmed Logic for Automated Teaching Operations).

Turing Test (can you tell the difference)

Cohesion in computer science refers to the degree to which the elements of a module belong together. Thus, cohesion measures the strength of relationship between pieces of functionality within a given module. For example, in highly cohesive systems functionality is strongly related.

Encapsulation in object-oriented programming is used to refer to one of two related but distinct notions, and sometimes to the combination thereof: A language mechanism for restricting direct access to some of the object's components. A language construct that facilitates the bundling of data with the methods (or other functions) operating on that data.

Encapsulation in networking is a method of designing modular communication protocols in which logically separate functions in the network are abstracted from their underlying structures by inclusion or information hiding within higher level objects.
Encapsulation Types (wiki)

Orthogonal is not pertinent to the matter under consideration. Statistically unrelated. Having a set of mutually perpendicular axes; meeting at right angles.

Object-oriented Programming is a programming paradigm based on the concept of "objects", which may contain data, in the form of fields, often known as attributes; and code, in the form of procedures, often known as methods. A feature of objects is that an object's procedures can access and often modify the data fields of the object with which they are associated (objects have a notion of "this" or "self"). Object Oriented Programming (youtube)

Procedural Programming is a programming paradigm, derived from structured programming, based upon the concept of the procedure call. Procedures, also known as routines, subroutines, or functions (not to be confused with mathematical functions, but similar to those used in functional programming), simply contain a series of computational steps to be carried out. Any given procedure might be called at any point during a program's execution, including by other procedures or itself.

Computer Programmers wrote millions of lines of code in order for the computer operating system to work. Just think if programmers were used to write educational lessons for the Human Operating System. We just don’t need programmers for that. We need educators, teachers and intellectuals. That is why literacy is one of the most important skills every human should possess. Books and the written word was the single greatest advancement in human history to date. When more humans had access to knowledge and books, which took hundreds of years, we had the most prevalent advancements in our history. Now our important advancements will come from understanding this knowledge and how we use it.

"In mathematics, Orthogonality describes the property two vectors have when they are perpendicular to each other. Each vector will advance indefinitely into space, never to intersect. Well designed software is orthogonal. Each of its components can be altered without effecting other components. Making precise changes with predictable outcomes is easy." - Jason Coffin


The Internet is reconnecting people to the worlds most valuable knowledge and information that was either lost, misplaced or hidden. The internet is also giving millions of people the ability to share valuable knowledge and information, making it possible for more people to learn more and understand more about themselves and the world around them then any other time in human history.

The Internet is the combined intelligence of millions of people from all over the world. You would be a fool not to be part of it. It is truly the single greatest resource that we have. But at the moment, not enough people are using the internet correctly or effectively. But once we improve that, we will immediately start seeing the power of the internet come alive. Millions of people coming together to use their collective skills and intelligence to make improvements, and to repair the damage that we have done to ourselves and to our planet. This will create jobs for everyone, it will help connect people to needed services, it will help people locate food and water, it will give people access to information and give people access to education, which has already begun. But it's not at the rate that would ultimately utilize the potential of every man, women and child on the planet. But we are getting there. And once we do, the 21st century is going to be the biggest defining moment in human history. This will be way beyond the Coming of Age or a Rite of Passage. It is Enlightenment on the grandest scale. "The internet will not benefit people enough if people are not educated enough to live life without the internet. If the tool is out of order or unavailable, people will need to know how to survive."

Emergence is a process whereby larger entities arise through interactions among smaller or simpler entities such that the larger entities exhibit properties the smaller/simpler entities do not exhibit. Transformative Learning - Enlightenment.

Collective Intelligence is shared or group intelligence that emerges from the collaboration, collective efforts, and competition of many individuals and appears in consensus decision making. Not Popular Belief

Collective Wisdom is shared knowledge arrived at by individuals and groups. Ancient Knowledge.

Collective Memory is the shared pool of knowledge and information in the memories of two or more members of a social group.

Collective Consciousness is the set of shared beliefs, ideas and moral attitudes which operate as a unifying force within society.

Network Economy products and services are created and value is added through social networks operating on large or global scales.

Personal Learning Network is an informal learning network that consists of the people a learner interacts with and derives knowledge from in a personal learning environment. In a PLN, a person makes a connection with another person with the specific intent that some type of learning will occur because of that connection. Personal learning networks share a close association with the concept of personal learning environments.

Social Learning Environments - Sharing (sharing economy) - Public Service

Wisdom of the Crowd is the collective opinion of a group of individuals rather than that of a single expert.

Global Brain interconnects all humans and their technological artifacts.  As this network stores ever more information, takes over ever more functions of coordination and communication from traditional organizations, and becomes increasingly intelligent, it increasingly plays the role of a brain for the planet Earth.

World Brain help world citizens make the best use of universal information resources and make the best contribution to world peace.

The United Nations is not the gathering of minds, so where is the gathering of minds? Being physically gathered together is not like the internet. But we don't need to be physically together, we just need to be connected. And the internet does that, but only to a point, because people are not knowledgeable enough to use the internet effectively or efficiently. And when we correct this problem, then people will transition into a singularity, a place were humans work together as a singular whole. Something that proves human intelligence.

Brain Trust is a term for a group of close advisers, prized for their expertise in particular fields.

Swarm Intelligence is the collective behavior of decentralized, self-organized systems, natural or artificial.

Mass Communication is the study of how people and entities relay information through mass media to large segments of the population at the same time.

Citizen Science - Artificial Neural Network

Grid Computing is the collection of computer resources from multiple locations to reach a common goal.

Distributed Computing is a model in which components located on networked computers communicate and coordinate their actions by passing messages.

Consortium is an association of two or more individuals, companies, organizations or governments (or any combination of these entities) with the objective of participating in a common activity or pooling their resources for achieving a common goal.

Matrix - Validity

Collective intentionality characterizes the intentionality that occurs when two or more individuals undertake a task together. Examples include two individuals carrying a heavy table up a flight of stairs or dancing a tango.

Group Cognition is a group of people produce a sequence of utterances that performs a cognitive act.

Collective Action refers to action taken together by a group of people whose goal is to enhance their status and achieve a common objective.


Open-Source Intelligence is intelligence collected from publicly available sources.

Centrality is to identify the most important vertices within a graph.

Collaborative Intelligence characterizes multi-agent, distributed systems where each agent, human or machine, is uniquely positioned, with autonomy to contribute to a problem-solving network. Collaborative autonomy of organisms in their ecosystems makes evolution possible.

Mass Collaboration is a form of collective action that occurs when large numbers of people work independently on a single project, often modular in its nature. Such projects typically take place on the internet using social software and computer-supported collaboration tools such as wiki technologies, which provide a potentially infinite hypertextual substrate within which the collaboration may be situated.

Collaborative Innovation Network is a social construct used to describe innovative teams.

Consensus Decision-Making

Socially Distributed Cognition deploys models of the extended mind by taking as the fundamental unit of analysis "a collection of individuals and artifacts and their relations to each other in a particular work practice"

Social Learning - Social Capital

Commons-Based Peer Production describes a new model of socioeconomic production in which large numbers of people work cooperatively (usually over the Internet). Commons-based projects generally have less rigid hierarchical structures than those under more traditional business models. Often—but not always—commons-based projects are designed without a need for financial compensation for contributors.

E-Science is computationally intensive science that is carried out in highly distributed network environments, or science that uses immense data sets that require grid computing; the term sometimes includes technologies that enable distributed collaboration, such as the Access Grid.

Open Governance (RT)

Knowledge Forum is an educational software designed to help and support knowledge building communities.

Buddy System - Sharing Economy - Working Together

Social Networks - Networks - Wikipedia

Internet Protections - Knowledge Preservation

Collaboration Tools - Sharing Open Data

Knowledge Management - Knowledge Exchange (PDF)

One mind can't do it all, but 7 billion minds Working Together could. The internet gives us the ability to connect all of us. A Whole Brain. A brain that can connect to all of its parts.

Internet is more then an amazing tool, the internet is also a symbol of human power and potential. Because we know that when we work together we are stronger, and when we work together we are also more effective, and we are also more efficient. The internet is a realization of Human Intelligence. Because we now know that When we make communication and collaboration easier, we can solve any problem. Merging the Power of Multiple Brains  Peer-to-Peer Knowledge Sharing

"It's not the connection that makes you smarter, it's how you use that connection that makes you smarter."

Internet of Things

The Internet of Things (IoT) The Internet of Things is the network of physical objects or "things" embedded with electronics, software, sensors, and network connectivity, which enables these objects to collect and exchange data. The Internet of Things allows objects to be sensed and controlled remotely across existing network infrastructure, creating opportunities for more direct integration between the physical world and computer-based systems, and resulting in improved efficiency, accuracy and economic benefit. (IoT).
Smart Homes

The Education of Things is learning about all the things that you can control, internally and externally, resulting in improved efficiency, accuracy and economic benefit.

The Connection of Things is learning about all the different ways that things are connected in our world, understanding cause and effects and how all actions and inactions have an effect, whether they are internally or externally, or near or far away.

Cyber-Physical System (CPS) is a system of collaborating computational elements controlling physical entities. Today, a precursor generation of cyber-physical systems can be found in areas as diverse as aerospace, automotive, chemical processes, civil infrastructure, energy, healthcare, manufacturing, transportation, entertainment, and consumer appliances. This generation is often referred to as embedded systems. In embedded systems the emphasis tends to be more on the computational elements, and less on an intense link between the computational and physical elements.

The Natural Physical System is the Environment.

Embedded System is a computer system with a dedicated function within a larger mechanical or electrical system, often with real-time computing constraints. It is embedded as part of a complete device often including hardware and mechanical parts. Embedded systems control many devices in common use today. Percent of all microprocessors being manufactured are used in embedded systems.

The Environmental System is a network of natural embedded systems.

One of the great things about the internet is that you could have information and knowledge that is not that valuable to you or someone near you, but on the other side of the planet, that information and knowledge could be extremely valuable. And you only have to share that bit of information and knowledge only once, because it can be shared and copied over and over again, in almost the exact same way that our DNA gets passed on.

The internet is a mimic of life.

Development Learning Network

"Another great thing about the internet is that knowledge and information can be easily translated now, which makes even more knowledge and information accessible to more people. But even though the internet can be translated into many different languages, there are still many languages that have not yet been translated and digitized, and there are still over four billion people who don’t have access to the internet."

People want information and knowledge that's easy to follow, whether in conversation, education, videos or in writing. And we have already been working on improving this problem, using websites and the internet. We can make a website that makes information easy to follow, and at the same time, dynamic enough to handle a more experienced user who's looking for unique services and information.

"When you educate people, you liberate people. When people are more knowledgeable about themselves and the world around them, people make better decisions and make better choices. We need to use our communication tools like TV, Radio and Newspapers more effectively, so that we can Communicate our most valuable knowledge and information and give people more access to the Facts, this way people will finally have the means to make the necessary improvements that are needed."

"When I'm online and I find something interesting that I'm reading, I usually ask " what can I learn from this?" And since I do most of my reading online, I can instantly get more information about the subject that I'm reading about, which means I learn a lot more about the subject and have a much better understanding about the subject. The internet is awesome. It's the greatest learning tool on the planet."

Idea for a Book to Write One of my best friends is a machine, but it's more then a machine, it's a connection to human collective intelligence..So The most Intelligent person I know is the Internet Machine. But the internet is not really a person, it's persons. The Internet is a  collective intelligence made up of millions of people collaborating. After all, we are the strongest when we work together, and we are the smartest when we put our heads together. Enormous  potential and strength is staring us right in the face. It's time to wake up and pay attention. You will never have a single machine or a single human that is capable of answering every question that you have, but collectively, our potential to learn increases by one thousand percent. Let go of your ego, let go of the self and embrace the whole, our true strength awaits us.

I spent the first 48 years of my life socializing and experiencing as many things as I could. But I didn't learn enough just socializing and experiencing. My most important and valuable learning came from reading. And everything important that I read I saved on BK101. That saves every human on earth over 50,000 hours of work. Which was the time I spent locating valuable knowledge and information, collecting valuable knowledge and information, organizing valuable knowledge and information and sharing valuable knowledge and information. I also save you the time from having to learn all the necessary skills that was needed in order to Locate, collect, organize and share valuable knowledge and information. And when you add up all the human knowledge that other people shared, this human potential is worth trillions of dollars, which you could easily deposit into your own personal bank called the Human Brain. I could have never done this without Standing on the Shoulder's of Giants, but now the Giant just got a whole lot bigger. This is more then the Elephant in the Room, which is an idiom for an obvious problem or risk no one wants to discuss, or a condition of groupthink no one wants to challenge. It is based on the idea/thought that something as conspicuous as an elephant can appear to be overlooked in codified social interactions, and that the sociology/psychology of repression also operates on the macro scale. This is our future, our hope, our power, our potential, our love of life.

"Collaborating and working with people can be very productive and insightful. But when I'm alone I can focus better on getting things done, so I work better on my own. And that's one the the great things about the internet, I can be alone but still be connected to millions of people, it's freaking brilliant."

Human Search Engine

"Taking your work home with you is not always a bad thing, you need time to think."

Father, the Sleeper has Awaken (youtube)

"Waking up is not just what you do after you sleep, it's also what you do after you realize that you were never fully awake."


A tremendous Leap Forward, but this time we can actually see where we are going...

Blaming the Internet for Ignorant Behavior is like blaming knowledge for Stupidity

To say that the internet is the reason for people being radicalized is very ignorant, and a dangerous lie. That is like saying that phone lines radicalized people. People on the internet did not click on an add and accidentally get radicalized, oops my bad. People don't seek out radicalized ideas. People are searching for answers. And sometimes people come across the wrong information at the wrong time. So books could radicalize people, schools could radicalize people, religion could radicalize people, TV could radicalize people, and people could radicalize people. The internet is our savior. But it is not without problems. People misuse technology. And people don't have enough skills and knowledge to accurately analyze information. So don't blame the tools moron. Blame our ineffective schools and our irresponsible media outlets.

Saying that the internet is radicalized people is like saying that electricity is radicalizing people. Plus it's just stupid to use the internet to say how bad the internet is. It's like shooting someone with a gun just to say how dangerous a gun is. Anything can be misused, that includes technology, that includes money, that includes power. We don't blame power when a politician commits a crime, we blame the person who is too ignorant to use something effectively and efficiently. and morally. When we improving education this ignorant behavior will cease to exist, as well as all ignorant behavior.

"The internet helping people become radicalized is like saying that too much freedom is the reason for radicalization. That's when they take away our freedoms, then everyone gets punished, except for the people doing the punishing of course."

There are many things involved that create violence. People get radicalized by there experiences and from the misinterpretation of information. Talk to any radical and they will all have a story about when they experienced a traumatic event that changed them, usually the death of family or friends, and also knowing others who have lost people close to them. All humans take to a cause, because they feel that they have no other choices. People who start a revolution are not radicals. They feel threatened, and they feel they have no other choice but to fight. To blame this behavior on some inanimate object is insane. I truly know that people want to make a difference, and they want to stop this insane violence, and to stop this insane behavior, but we can't attack things that are doing more good then harm. You want to dispute the horrible schools we have, then I'm right there with you. But if you want to attack the technology that people use to share knowledge and information, and if you want to attack peoples right to communicate, and you want to attack peoples right to inform themselves, then you will create more anger and many more problems. Millions of people have signed petitions already committing themselves to protecting the internet. We don't want to attack our ability to communicate just because some people ignorantly believe that is the cause of our problems. And because of the internet, you will not be able to hide that ignorance. So my suggestion. Help us improve education, help us improve life for every person on the planet. Help us improve the methods for informing the public so that people are more aware of their choices and options, so they become the masters of their own destinies, and not controlled by some outside ignorant behavior.

The Internet did not cause people to leave their Religion or their Church. Religions and Churches failed to advance and progress at the same rate as technology and human knowledge did. You still have time to catch up.

Related Subjects
Artificial Intelligence - Ai
Controls - Automation
Questions to ask Machines
Drones - There is No Future in War
Machine Learning
Search Technology
Vision - Patterns
Do you need a Computer Chip implanted in your Brain?

"If you are to benefit from someone's thinking, then you better give them time to think."

The Thinker Man