Pharmaceutical Knowledge - Prescription Drug Warnings
Things you should definitely know about pharmaceutical drugs. Most
prescribed medications only treat the
, so you need to address the causes
and seek a cure
Please do your
always be your best defense) - Dosage
Prescription Drugs Info
Films and Videos about the Pharmaceutical
The Marketing of Madness:
mistakes made by Psychiatrists and the Pharmaceutical industry (youtube 1 of 18).
Psychiatry: An Industry Of Death
Ben Goldacre: Battling Bad Science
American Addict (2013)
War on Health - Gary Null's Documentary Exposing the FDA
Science Fraud: The Price for Fame and Fortune
More Health Documentaries
is the practice of widening the diagnostic
boundaries of illnesses
and aggressively promoting their public
awareness in order to expand the markets for treatment. Among
the entities benefiting from selling and delivering treatments
are pharmaceutical companies, physicians, and other professional
or consumer organizations. (scumbag criminals).
(Drug Dealers Guide Book)
Illegal Drug Trade
is a global black market dedicated to the
cultivation, manufacture, distribution and sale of drugs that are subject
to drug prohibition laws
. Most jurisdictions
prohibit trade, except under license, of many types of drugs through the
use of drug prohibition laws. A UN report has stated that "the global drug
trade generated an estimated US $321.6 billion in 2003." With a world GDP
of US $36 trillion in the same year, the illegal drug trade may be
estimated as nearly 1% of total global trade. Consumption of illegal drugs
is widespread globally.
How To Become a Drug Dealer
Pharmaceutical Sales Representative
are salespeople employed by
pharmaceutical companies to persuade doctors to prescribe their drugs to
patients. Most sales representative never disclose all the serious side
effects and dangers and under report them or down play them so they can
make a profit
. Drug companies in the
United States spend $5 billion annually sending representatives to
doctors, and most are not even qualified to give drug advice.
attempts to summarize the overall value for money
of a project or proposal. Drug companies don't care how many people die or
get injured from a drug as long as the drug company makes a
Patient Care America
who make 18 million a day,
from $42 million a month to more than $300 million.
is the same as
when a person dies because
they could not afford the medicine they need to live.
Greedy drug company trying to gouge patients in need of Cancer Drugs
Check Prices for prescription drugs vary widely between pharmacies.
Now scumbags are using
Orphan Drug Act of 1983
to charge high prices for needed drugs, while
taking millions of dollars in government incentives and tax credits. When
a drugmaker wins approval of a medicine for an orphan disease, the company
gets seven years of exclusive rights to the marketplace, which means the
FDA won't approve another version to treat that rare disease for seven
years, even if the brand name company's patent has run out.
By salami slicing the disease into subgroups
, it allows them to get
the orphan drug approval with all the government benefits and even some of
the subsidies, to facilitate development of orphan drugs — drugs for rare
diseases such as Huntington's Disease, myoclonus, ALS, Tourette syndrome
and muscular dystrophy which affect small numbers of individuals residing
in the United States.
Biosimilar drugs could cut US health spending by $54 billion over next
is a biologic medical product which is almost an identical
copy of an original product that is manufactured by a different company.
Biosimilars are officially approved versions of original "innovator
products, and can be manufactured when the original product's patent
expires. Reference to the innovator product is an integral component of
is a pharmaceutical drug that is equivalent to a
brand-name product in dosage, strength, route of administration, quality,
performance and intended use. The term may also refer to any drug marketed
under its chemical name without advertising, or to the chemical makeup of
a drug rather than the brand name under which the drug is sold.
is a pharmaceutical agent that has been developed specifically to
treat a rare medical condition, the condition itself being referred to as
an orphan disease.
any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that,
when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the
skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a physiological change in the
is a drug used to
, cure, treat, or
prevent disease. Drug therapy (pharmacotherapy) is an important part of
the medical field and relies on the science of pharmacology for continual
advancement and on pharmacy for appropriate management.
healthcare professionals who practice in pharmacy, the field of health
sciences focusing on safe and effective medication use. A pharmacist is a
member of the health care team directly involved with patient care.
Pharmacists undergo university-level education to understand the
biochemical mechanisms and actions of drugs, drug uses, therapeutic roles,
side effects, potential drug interactions, and monitoring parameters. This
is mated to anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology. Pharmacists
interpret and communicate this specialized knowledge to patients,
physicians, and other health care providers.
science and technique of preparing and dispensing drugs. It is a health
profession that links health sciences with chemical sciences and aims to
ensure the safe and effective use of pharmaceutical drugs.
is a situation in which a substance (usually another
drug) affects the activity of a drug when both are administered together.
This action can be synergistic (when the drug's effect is increased) or
antagonistic (when the drug's effect is decreased) or a new effect can be
produced that neither produces on its own. Typically, interactions between
drugs come to mind (drug-drug interaction). However, interactions may also
exist between drugs and foods (drug-food interactions
), as well as drugs
and medicinal plants or herbs (drug-plant interactions). People taking
antidepressant drugs such as monoamine oxidase inhibitors should not take
food containing tyramine as hypertensive crisis may occur (an example of a
drug-food interaction). These interactions may occur out of accidental
misuse or due to lack of knowledge about the active ingredients involved
in the relevant substance. Dosage
is measuring the fate of a chemical from the moment that it is
administered up to the point at which it is completely eliminated from the
body. Some drugs irreversibly accumulate in body tissue. Tolerance
- Side Effects
means able to be dissolved.
vitamins are easily dissolved
in the body. The kidneys remove excess amounts of these vitamins so they
can be excreted in the urine. Still, this doesn’t mean that you can take
vitamins B and C in unlimited quantities.
are absorbed in the lymph, transported in the
blood, and can be stored in the liver and fatty tissues for use as needed.
Fat-soluble vitamins are the ones you really need to be careful about.
Because fat-soluble vitamins can be stored in the body, these vitamins can
build up to toxic levels when consumed in excessive amounts. Fat-soluble
vitamins are A, D, E, and K.
Reduce Accumulation of the Drug
- Elimination Kinetics
Plasma Protein Binding
is a drug's efficiency may be affected by the
degree to which it binds to the proteins
plasma. The less
bound a drug is, the more efficiently it can traverse cell membranes or
diffuse. Common blood proteins that drugs bind to are human serum albumin,
lipoprotein, glycoprotein, and α, β‚ and γ globulins.
in pharmacology is a branch of
pharmacokinetics which describes the reversible transfer of a drug from
one location to another within the body. Once a drug enters into systemic
circulation by absorption or direct administration, it must be distributed
into interstitial and intracellular fluids. Each organ or tissue can
receive different doses of the drug and the drug can remain in the
different organs or tissues for a varying amount of time. The distribution
of a drug between tissues is dependent on vascular permeability, regional
blood flow, cardiac output and perfusion rate of the tissue and the
ability of the drug to bind tissue and plasma proteins and its lipid
solubility. pH partition plays a major role as well. The drug is easily
distributed in highly perfused organs such as the liver, heart and kidney.
It is distributed in small quantities through less perfused tissues like
muscle, fat and peripheral organs. The drug can be moved from the plasma
to the tissue until the equilibrium is established (for unbound drug
present in plasma). The concept of compartmentalization of an organism
must be considered when discussing a drug’s distribution. This concept is
used in pharmacokinetic modelling.
is a comparison of the amount of a therapeutic agent
that causes the therapeutic effect to the amount that causes toxicity. The
related terms therapeutic window or safety window refer to a range of
doses which optimize between efficacy and toxicity, achieving the greatest
therapeutic benefit without resulting in unacceptable side-effects or
is the movement of a drug into the
bloodstream. Absorption involves several phases. First, the drug needs to
be introduced via some route of administration (oral, topical-dermal,
etc.) and in a specific dosage form such as a tablet, capsule, solution
and so on. In other situations, such as intravenous therapy, intramuscular
injection, enteral nutrition and others, absorption is even more
straightforward and there is less variability in absorption and
bioavailability is often near 100%. It is considered that intravascular
administration (e.g. IV) does not involve absorption, and there is no loss
of drug. The fastest route of absorption is inhalation, and not as
mistakenly considered the intravenous administration. Absorption is a
primary focus in drug development and medicinal chemistry, since the drug
must be absorbed before any medicinal effects can take place. Moreover,
the drug's pharmacokinetic profile can be easily and significantly changed
by adjusting factors that affect absorption.
is a subcategory of absorption and is the fraction of an administered dose
of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the
principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs. By definition, when a
medication is administered intravenously, its bioavailability is 100%.
However, when a medication is administered via other routes (such as
orally), its bioavailability generally decreases (due to incomplete
absorption and first-pass metabolism) or may vary from patient to patient.
Bioavailability is one of the essential tools in pharmacokinetics, as
bioavailability must be considered when calculating dosages for
non-intravenous routes of administration. For dietary supplements, herbs
and other nutrients in which the route of administration is nearly always
oral, bioavailability generally designates simply the quantity or fraction
of the ingested dose that is absorbed. Bioavailability is defined slightly
differently for drugs as opposed to dietary supplements primarily due to
the method of administration and Food and Drug Administration regulations.
is a medical subspecialty focusing on the diagnosis,
management and prevention of poisoning and other adverse health effects
due to medications, occupational and
biological agents. Medical toxicologists are involved in the assessment
and treatment of acute or chronic poisoning, adverse drug reactions (ADR),
, and substance abuse, and other chemical exposures.
is the branch of
concerned with the study of drug
is the science
and practice of the
, treatment, and
prevention of disease
is a disease that affects a small percentage of the
population. Estimated that more than 300 million people worldwide are
living with one of the 7,000 diseases they define as "rare" orphan
"Drug companies are not here to bring health to the population but to
them on one
level for vast amounts of money
, by treating the symptoms and
not addressing the cause."
H.R.6 - 21st Century Cures Act
114th Congress House Bill
Open Payments from Drug Companies
Reverse Settlement Payments or Pay to Delay
criminal practices by the pharmaceutical industry where drug
manufacturers pay competitors not to manufacture generic
versions of their products, so drug manufacturers
can continue to sell over priced drugs and steal millions from
consumers and the elderly.
Almost six million prescriptions for some type of controlled substance were written
last year alone in Connecticut
. That’s almost double the amount
of people who actually live here.
The amount of money the
world spends on prescription drugs could rise to
$1.5 trillion by 2021.
There were 45 new
drugs approved by the FDA last year and 41 in 2014
. That's more
than double the number that's been approved in 2016, which as of December
5 was just 19 new drugs.
say that nearly 70 percent of Americans are on
at least one prescription drug
, and more than half take two. The
most commonly prescribed are
. Twenty percent of patients are on five or more
prescription medications. Spending on prescription drugs reached
$250 billion in 2009.
Survey found that
119 Million Americans over the age of 12
took prescription psychotherapeutic drugs
. That's 45 percent of the
refers to the use of two or more psychoactive drugs in
combination to achieve a particular effect
. In many cases one drug is used
as a base or primary drug, with additional drugs to leaven or compensate
for the side effects of the primary drug and make the experience more
enjoyable with drug synergy effects, or to supplement for primary drug
when supply is low.
the use of four or more medications by a patient, generally adults aged
over 65 years. Polypharmacy is most common in the
, affecting about 40% of
older adults living in their own homes. About 21% of adults with
intellectual disability are also exposed to polypharmacy. Too Many Meds
for the Elderly
Number Needed to Treat
With Americans now filling four billion
prescriptions a year
children in the U.S. each year end up in the emergency room
after accidental poisonings that involve taking medicine. In 48
percent of cases, kids got into
their grandparents' medicines
Anxiety and Sleeping Pills 'Linked to Dementia'
discovers, develops, produces, and
markets drugs or pharmaceuticals for use as medications. Pharmaceutical
companies may deal in generic or brand medications and medical devices.
They are subject to a variety of laws and regulations that govern the
patenting, testing, safety, efficacy and marketing of drugs.
is the creation of a particular
pharmaceutical product to fit the unique need of a patient. To do this,
compounding pharmacists combine or process appropriate ingredients using
various tools. This may be done for medically necessary reasons, such as
to change the form of the medication from a solid pill to a liquid, to
avoid a non-essential ingredient that the patient is allergic to, or to
obtain the exact dose(s) needed or deemed best of particular active
U.S. Companies Losing $10 Billion a Year Due
to Workers' Opioid Abuse
. And no one is getting arrested, just
like the Bankers
At least 100 people die from drug
overdoses every day in the U.S.
More than 36,000 people die from
drug overdoses annually and most of these deaths are caused by
prescription drugs. We have a serious problem when our
treatments cause people to die, Asking for help shouldn't kill
you, or put innocent people and family members in danger. The
misuse and abuse of prescription painkillers was responsible for
more than 475,000 emergency department visits in 2009, a number
that nearly doubled in just five years. Today it is estimated
that 100 million people in the U.S. suffer from chronic pain –
more than the number with diabetes (26 million), heart disease
(16 million) and cancer (12 million). Many who suffer from
will be treated with opioids. It is estimated that 5.1
million Americans abuse painkillers.The Drug War is a
How did a war on drugs not include scumbag Doctors and criminal pharmaceutical companies
when they clearly caused more deaths and more damage? The
justice system is in on these crimes, accessories to murder.
Another problem to solve.
Injury Prevention & Control: Prescription Drug Overdose
America’s Addiction to Opioids: Heroin and Prescription Drug Abuse
The risk for death when prescribed antipsychotics
to control behavioral problems in demented patients
pharmaceutical market analysis firm
, estimates the 2010
revenues for pharmaceuticals to be over $955 billion, and will
exceed $1 trillion dollars by 2013. Big Pharma also shows
revenues of around $300 billion in medical devices in 2012,
and close to $320 billion in 2013. So the total revenues that
will derive just from pharmaceuticals and devices
will be around $1.32 trillion. According to the World Health
Organization, estimated 2013 global revenues for vaccines is
around $24 billion.
are a class of medication primarily used to
delusions, hallucinations, paranoia or disordered thought), principally in
schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. They are increasingly being used in
the management of non-psychotic disorders. The long-term use of
antipsychotics is associated with side effects such as
or man breasts, and
They are also associated with increased mortality in elderly people with
dementia. medication tend to block
receptors in the brain's dopamine pathways
, but atypicals tend to act
on serotonin receptors
Major Psychiatric Disorders Have things in Common
, fewer genes
involved in signaling between neurons, and more genes related to
neuroinflammatory cells. Shared molecular neuropathology across major
psychiatric disorders parallels polygenic
are used to treat
that are on
the market in the United States (this list is incomplete; the title of the
entry is "List of Psychotropic Medications" and what follows is a list of
psychiatric drugs - not all psychotropic agents are used to treat
psychiatric conditions. A couple of examples are 'Tramadol' and
is the scientific study of the effects drugs have on mood, sensation,
thinking, and behavior. It is distinguished from neuropsychopharmacology,
which emphasizes the correlation between drug-induced changes in the
functioning of cells in the nervous system and changes in consciousness
refers to therapeutic practices involving the use of
serotonergic psychedelics such as LSD, psilocybin, DMT, MDMA, mescaline,
and 2C-B, primarily to assist psychotherapy. As an alternative to synonyms
such as "hallucinogen", "entheogen", "psychotomimetic" and other
functionally constructed names, the use of the term psychedelic
("mind-manifesting") emphasizes that those who use these drugs as part of
a therapeutic practice believe these drugs can facilitate beneficial
exploration of the psyche. In contrast to conventional psychiatric
medication which is taken by the patient regularly or as-needed, in
psychedelic therapy, patients remain in an extended psychotherapy session
during the acute activity of the drug and spend the night at the facility.
In the sessions with the drug, therapists are nondirective and support the
patient in exploring their inner experience. Patients participate in
psychotherapy before the drug psychotherapy sessions to prepare them and
after the drug psychotherapy to help them integrate their experiences with
is therapy using pharmaceutical drugs, as
distinguished from therapy using surgery (surgical therapy), radiation
(radiation therapy), movement (physical therapy), or other modes. Among
physicians, sometimes the term medical therapy refers specifically to
pharmacotherapy as opposed to surgical or other therapy; for example, in
oncology, medical oncology is thus distinguished from surgical oncology.
is a medical procedure that separates patients
into different groups—with medical decisions, practices, interventions
and/or products being tailored to the individual patient based on their
predicted response or risk of disease. The terms personalized medicine,
precision medicine, stratified medicine and P4 medicine are used
interchangeably to describe this concept though some authors and
organisations use these expressions separately to indicate particular
is a medical model that proposes the customization
of healthcare, with medical decisions, practices, or products being
tailored to the individual patient. In this model, diagnostic testing is
often employed for selecting appropriate and optimal therapies based on
the context of a patient’s genetic content or other molecular or cellular
analysis. Tools employed in precision medicine can include molecular
diagnostics, imaging, and analytics.
Mental Health Evaluation
s a health-care program implemented by a
physician or other qualified health care practitioner in the form of
instructions that govern the plan of care for an individual patient. The
term often refers to a health care provider's written authorization for a
patient to purchase a prescription drug from a pharmacist.
Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor
are a class of drugs that are
typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive
disorder and anxiety disorders. (SSRI)
is any medical therapy of a disease
that only affects its
, not its cause, i.e., its etiology. It is usually aimed at
reducing the signs and symptoms for the comfort and well-being of the
patient, but it also may be useful in reducing organic consequences and
sequelae of these signs and symptoms of the disease.
discovers, develops, produces, and
markets drugs or pharmaceutical drugs for use as medications.
Pharmaceutical companies may deal in generic or brand medications and
medical devices. They are subject to a variety of laws and regulations
that govern the patenting, testing, safety, efficacy and marketing of
is the branch of psychiatry that specialises in
the interface between general medicine and psychiatry, usually taking
place in a hospital or medical setting. The role of the
consultation-liaison psychiatrist is to see patients with comorbid medical
conditions at the request of the treating medical or surgical consultant
or team. Liaison psychiatry has areas of overlap with other disciplines
including psychosomatic medicine, health psychology and neuropsychiatry.
(also known as consultative psychiatry or consultation-liaison psychiatry)
of Internal Medicine
Annals of Internal Medicine
Too Many Meds Given to Senior Citizens
The Human Brain
Greed is the Biggest Killer in Healthcare
Neural networks examine 3D images—thousands of molecules that
might serve as drug candidates—and predict their
blocking the mechanism of a pathogen.
Novartis-MIT Center for Continuous Manufacturing
Knowing when to stop taking medications and preparing a person
for the changes that they may experience when stopping meds.
Adherence to Treatment
Medication Adherence in Children
Non-compliance with Medical Treatment and Teens
Providing more information to the Patient and the Doctor will help make better choices and
Low levels of the "happiness" neurotransmitter, serotonin
Anti-depressants are are only fully effective roughly 30 percent
of the time, and often come with troublesome side effects.
levels that are released and used by the brain
during depressive episodes trigger processes that promote
-- the obsessive negative thinking that is the
. Then, because they facilitate the production of
exacerbate rumination and actually worsen
symptoms of depression, especially at first. Over time, in some
cases, the SSRIs can reverse ruminative processes and reduce
symptoms -- but this is in spite of the medication, not because
of it. As people and physicians become more aware that
antidepressants only work for a limited period of time, and are
less safe than they have been supposed, the use of
antidepressant medications will decline and the use of
Serotonin Theory of Depression
Mental Health Failures
- We need to improve and provide better mental health care services.
means quantity (in units of energy/mass) in the fields of nutrition,
medicine, and toxicology. Dosage is the rate of application of a dose,
although in common and imprecise usage, the words are sometimes used
synonymously. Dose can also mean quantity (in units of number/area) in the
fields of Surface science and Ion implantation.
is a statistical measure of drug consumption, defined by the
World Health Organization (WHO). It is used to standardize the comparison
of drug usage between different drugs or between different health care
environments. The DDD is not to be confused with the therapeutic dose or
with the dose actually prescribed by a physician for an individual
patient. The WHO's definition is: "The DDD is the assumed average
maintenance dose per day for a drug used for its main indication in
is an initial higher dose of a drug that may be given at
the beginning of a course of treatment before dropping down to a lower
is the maintenance rate [mg/h] of drug administration
equal to the rate of
elimination at steady state
. This is not to be confused with dose
regimen, which is a type of drug therapy in which the dose [mg] of a drug
is given at a regular dosing interval on a repetitive basis. Continuing
the maintenance dose for about 4 to 5 half lives (t½) of the drug will
approximate the steady state level. One or more doses higher than the
maintenance dose can be given together at the beginning of therapy with a
loading dose. A loading dose is most useful for drugs that are eliminated
from the body relatively slowly. Such drugs need only a low maintenance
dose in order to keep the amount of the drug in the body at the
appropriate level, but this also means that, without an initial higher
dose, it would take a long time for the amount of the drug in the body to
reach that level. Over
Effective Dose (pharmacology)
is the dose or amount of drug that produces a therapeutic response or
desired effect in some fraction of the subjects taking it. It has been
stated that any substance can be toxic at a high enough dose. This concept
was exemplified in 2007 when a California woman died of water intoxication
in a contest sanctioned by a radio station. The line between efficacy and
toxicity is dependent upon the particular patient, although the dose
administered by a physician should fall into the predetermined therapeutic
window of the drug. The importance of determining the therapeutic range of
a drug cannot be overstated. This is generally defined by the range
between the minimum effective dose (MED) and the maximum tolerated dose (MTD).
The MED is defined as the lowest dose level of a pharmaceutical product
that provides a clinically significant response in average efficacy, which
is also statistically significantly superior to the response provided by
the placebo. Similarly, the MTD is the highest possible but still
tolerable dose level with respect to a pre-specified clinical limiting
toxicity. In general, these limits refer to the average patient
population. For instances in which there is a large discrepancy between
the MED and MTD, it is stated that the drug has a large therapeutic
window. Conversely, if the range is relatively small, or if the MTD is
less than the MED, then the pharmaceutical product will have little to no
describes the ingestion or application of a drug or other substance in
quantities greater than are recommended or generally practiced. An
overdose may result in a toxic state or death.
is the concentration of a substance dissolved in the
blood above which the kidneys begin to remove it into the urine. When the
renal threshold of a substance is exceeded, reabsorption of the substance
by the proximal convoluted tubule is incomplete; consequently, part of the
substance remains in the urine. Renal thresholds vary by substance – the
low potency poison urea, for instance, is removed at much lower
concentrations than glucose. Indeed, the most common reason for the
glucose renal threshold ever being exceeded is diabetes. Renal thresholds
vary by species and by physiological condition; thus an animal may have
different renal thresholds while hibernating, Renal thresholds can also be
altered by many drugs, and may change in characteristic ways during
certain illnesses. Taken together, the collection of a kidney's renal
thresholds essentially define much of its function in renal physiology.
Many tests of kidney function amount to measures of renal thresholds for
is any model where a threshold value, or set of
threshold values, is used to distinguish ranges of values where the
behaviour predicted by the model varies in some important way. A
particularly important instance arises in toxicology, where the model for
the effect of a drug may be that there is zero effect for a dose below a
critical or threshold value, while an effect of some significance exists
above that value. Certain types of regression model may include threshold
of a chemical
is believed to be a level to which a worker can be exposed
day after day for a working lifetime without adverse effects. Strictly
speaking, TLV is a reserved term of the
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists
TLVs issued by the ACGIH are the most widely accepted occupational
exposure limits both in the United States and most other countries.
However, it is sometimes loosely used to refer to other similar concepts
used in occupational health and
, such as acceptable daily intake (ADI) and tolerable daily
intake (TDI). Concepts such as TLV, ADI, and TDI can be compared to the
no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) in animal testing, but whereas a
NOAEL can be established experimentally during a short period, TLV, ADI,
and TDI apply to human beings over a lifetime and thus are harder to test
empirically and are usually set at lower levels. TLVs, along with
biological exposure indices (BEIs), are published annually by the ACGIH.
The TLV is an estimate based on the known toxicity in humans or animals of
a given chemical substance, and the reliability and accuracy of the latest
sampling and analytical methods. It is not a static definition since new
research can often modify the risk assessment of substances and new
laboratory or instrumental analysis methods can improve analytical
detection limits. The TLV is a recommendation by ACGIH, with only a
guideline status. As such, it should not be confused with exposure limits
having a regulatory status, like those published and enforced by the
Occupational Safety and Health
(OSHA). The OSHA regulatory exposure limits permissible
exposure limits (PELs) published in 29CFR 1910.1000 Table Z1 are based on
recommendations made by the ACGIH in 1968, although other exposure limits
were adopted more recently. Many OSHA exposure limits are not considered
by the industrial hygiene community to be sufficiently protective levels
since the toxicological basis for most limits have not been updated since
the 1960s. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)
Recommended Exposure Limits
(RELs) which OSHA takes into consideration
when promulgating new regulatory exposure limits.
Deaths and Over Doses from Prescription Drugs
month that prescription painkillers caused 15,000 U.S. deaths in
2008, more than triple the 4,000 deaths in 1999. Emergency room
visits related to
abuse have shot from 19,221 in 2000 to 86,258 in
2009, according to the
In Florida alone, hydrocodone caused 910 deaths and contributed
to 1,803 others between 2003 and 2007. The U.S. consumes 99
percent of the world's hydrocodone and 83 percent of its
, according to a 2008 study by the
Narcotics Control Board
pharmaceutical prescription dugs become the problem and not the solution,
some even do more harm then good
is when Doctors prescribe drugs that are an unnecessary
treatment just for profit, instead of doing what is right for the patient,
causing side effects of possible drug interactions, complications arising
from a procedure or treatment, medical error
, unexamined instrument
design, anxiety or annoyance in the physician or treatment provider in
relation to medical procedures or treatments.
are serious side effects from pharmaceuticals that
results in death, illness requiring hospitalization, events deemed
life-threatening, results in persistent or significant
disability/incapacity, a congenital anomaly/birth defect or medically
important condition. Any unfavourable and unintended sign (including an
abnormal laboratory finding), symptom, or disease temporally associated
with the use of a medicinal (investigational) product, whether or not
related to the medicinal (investigational) product.
Drug Overdoses on the Rise
Reducing Addiction Cravings
describes the ingestion or application
of a drug or other substance in quantities greater than are recommended or
generally practiced. An overdose may result in a
Opioid Overdose Help
is a medication used to block the effects
of opioids, especially in overdose. Naloxone may be combined within the
same pill as an opioid to decrease the risk of misuse. When given
intravenously, it works within two minutes, and when injected into a
muscle, it works within five minutes. The medication may also be used in
the nose. The effects of naloxone last about half an hour to an hour.
Multiple doses may be required, as the duration of action of most opioids
is greater than that of naloxon. Administration to opioid-dependent
individuals may cause symptoms of opioid withdrawal, including
restlessness, agitation, nausea, vomiting, a fast heart rate, and
sweating. To prevent this, small doses every few minutes can be given
until the desired effect is reached. In those with previous heart disease
or taking medications that negatively affect the heart, further heart
problems have occurred. It appears to be safe in pregnancy, after having
been given to a limited number of women. Naloxone is a pure opioid
antagonist. It works by reversing the depression of the central nervous
system and respiratory system caused by opioids.
Center for Biotechnology Information
About 48,000 women have died
between 1999 and 2010, an increase of 400
percent over the period.
In 2010, that amounted to about 18 women every day.
For every woman who dies of a prescription painkiller overdose, 30
go to the emergency department for painkiller misuse or abuse.
Although men are still more likely to die of prescription
painkiller overdoses (more than 10,000 deaths in 2010), the gap
between men and women is closing. CDC
Adverse effects of medical treatment resulted in 142,000
deaths in 2013
up from 94,000 deaths in 1990 globally.
Disturbing new research says the
number of U.S. babies born with signs of
Opiate Drug Withdrawal
has tripled in a decade because of a
surge in pregnant women's use of legal and illegal narcotics,
shut down 1,677 illegal
in June 2013.
Another Drug War
So it's OK for legal Pharmacies to Kill?
say's Don't Put Your Health In the Hands of Crooks, but
they don't say which crooks?
Association of Boards of Pharmacy
recently performed an
analysis of more than 10,000 websites, and found that 97% did
not fully comply with state and federal regulations.
Pharmacy Verification Program
As of 2006, there were 58,768
throughout the US. and way over
10,000 online pharmacies in the U.S.
The time, the people, the resources and the billions of dollars used to make
pharmaceutical drugs are just
. It just goes to show you how incredibly
ignorant people are and how horribly victimized the general
public is. People are just
Human Guinea Pigs
for the greedy. If you were to use that
same time, people, resources and money to stop polluting our
drinking water and stop poisoning our foods, while at the same
time improve education quality and quantity, you would have
healthier people and a much healthier planet. Instead you have
corrupt and irresponsible corporations making people drug
addicts while at the same time polluting the earth, which in
turn makes people sicker and even more dependent on drugs. A
viscous and ignorant cycle. And these drugs have so many
that they not only contribute to more
, they also create more diseases and more
sickness that is actually being alleviated by the drugs
themselves. Corporations don’t want to help you, Corporations
don’t want to educate you, Corporations don’t even want to
protect you, Corporations just want your money no matter whom
they kill or whom they injure. Pharmaceutical drugs are an
epidemic and a
Weapon of Mass Destruction
. I’m not saying all drugs are
bad, just 90% of them. The most dangerous criminals are not
behind bars; they are your
Corporate Leaders and the Politicians they
own that they Bought with our Money
Alliance for Human Research Protection
Human Research Protections
Unethical Human Experimentation in the United States
Pharmaceutical Drug Errors
5 million errors a year tied to wrong medications; some cause injury and death
Confirm the spelling of the drug because 1,500 drugs have names so similar
they’ve been confused with one or more other medications.
U.S. outpatient pharmacies filled 3.9 billion 'Legal'
prescriptions in 2009. Medical Errors
Patient Safety Tips
- Prescriptions for
(deaths and injuries)
A Child Experiences A Medication Error every 8 Minutes
Most of the medication errors involved liquid
formulations. Errors were highest among children under the age of 1.
Safe Medication Practices
is making drug containers hard to open for children to reduce
the risk of children ingesting dangerous items. This is often accomplished
by the use of a special safety cap and special packaging.
kill around 195,000 Americans each year and costs the
health care system as much as $300 billion annually
So please ask about what Safety Guidelines and Procedures
that your Hospital
and Doctor follows and request a copy of the procedures and
guidelines so that you can review them to better understand the
decision making and so that you are more aware of your
responsibilities and the responsibilities of the Doctor and
Hospital. It is extremely important that you know what
questions to ask.
Number Needed to Treat
What really happens when you mix medications
? (video and text)
An average of 195,000 people in the USA died due to potentially preventable,
in-hospital medical errors in each of the years 2000, 2001 and 2002
Health Care Fraud and Abuse
Hospital Connect Search
describes the degree to which a patient correctly follows medical advice.
Most commonly, it refers to medication or drug compliance, but it can
also apply to other situations such as medical device use, self care,
self-directed exercises, or therapy sessions. Both the patient and the
health-care provider affect compliance, and a positive physician-patient
relationship is the most important factor in improving compliance,
although the high cost of prescription medication also plays a major role.
is an approach to medical practice
intended to optimize decision-making by emphasizing the use of
from well-designed and -conducted Research
. (Quantifiable Measurements).
is a branch of healthcare science that determines
and effectiveness (efficacy) of medications, devices,
diagnostic products and treatment regimens intended for human use. These
may be used for prevention, treatment,
or for relieving
of a disease. Clinical research is different from clinical practice. In
clinical practice established treatments are used, while in clinical
is collected to establish a treatment. You should always question
Research Validated Programs
are experiments done in clinical research.
Clinical Trials Results Database
- Make your Research Visible. Open
is a stage of research that begins
before clinical trials (testing in humans) can begin, and during which
important feasibility, iterative testing and drug safety data are
collected. The main goals of pre-clinical studies are to determine the
safe dose for first-in-man study and assess a product's safety profile.
Products may include new medical devices, drugs, gene therapy solutions
and diagnostic tools. On average, only one in every 5,000 compounds that
enters drug discovery to the stage of preclinical development becomes an
approved drug. DIY Science
is the formulation of trials and
, as well as
observational studies in medical, clinical and other types of research
(e.g., epidemiological) involving human beings. The goal of a clinical
study is to assess the safety, efficacy, and / or the mechanism of action
of an investigational medicinal product or
, or new drug or device that
is in development, but potentially not yet approved by a health authority
(e.g. Food and Drug Administration). It can also be to investigate a drug,
device or procedure
that has already been approved but is still in need of
with respect to long-term effects or cost-effectiveness. Some of the
considerations here are shared under the more general topic of design of
experiments but there can be others, in particular related to patient
confidentiality and ethics.
Randomized Controlled Trial
is a type of scientific (often
which aims to reduce
when testing a new
treatment. The people participating in the trial are randomly allocated to
either the group receiving the treatment under investigation or to a group
receiving standard treatment (or placebo
treatment) as the control.
Randomization minimizes selection bias
and the different comparison groups
allow the researchers to determine any effects of the treatment when
compared with the no treatment (control) group, while other variables are
kept constant. The RCT is often considered the gold standard for a
clinical trial. RCTs are often used to test the efficacy or effectiveness
of various types of medical intervention and may provide information about
adverse effects, such as drug reactions. Random assignment of intervention
is done after subjects have been assessed for eligibility and recruited,
but before the intervention to be studied begins.
are the experiments that allow the greatest
reliability and validity
statistical estimates of treatment effects. Randomization-based inference
is especially important in experimental design and in
is an experiment in which information about
the test is masked (kept) from the participant, to reduce or eliminate
, until after a trial outcome is known. It is understood that bias may
be intentional or unconscious, thus no dishonesty is implied by blinding.
If both tester and subject are blinded, the trial is called a
draws inferences from a sample to a
population where the independent variable is not under the control of the
researcher because of ethical concerns or logistical constraints.
One common observational study is about the possible effect of a treatment
on subjects, where the assignment of subjects into a treated group versus
a control group is outside the
control of the investigator. This is in
contrast with experiments, such as randomized controlled trials, where
each subject is randomly assigned to a treated group or a control group.
developed in epidemiology, in which two existing groups differing in
outcome are identified and compared on the basis of some supposed causal
attribute. Cross-sectional study:
involves data collection from a population, or a representative subset, at
one specific point in time.Longitudinal study:
correlational research study that involves repeated observations of the
same variables over long periods of time.
Cohort study or Panel study:
a particular form of longitudinal
study where a group of patients is closely monitored over a span of time.
an observational study in
which at least one variable is measured at the group level.
that can be either interventional (a "trial")
or observational (no "test article") and involves human beings as research
subjects. Human subject research can be either medical (clinical) research
or non-medical (e.g., social science) research. Systematic investigation
incorporates both the collection and analysis of data in order to answer a
specific question. Medical human subject research often involves
of biological specimens,
epidemiological and behavioral studies and medical chart review studies.
(A specific, and especially heavily regulated, type of medical human
subject research is the "clinical trial", in which drugs, vaccines and
medical devices are evaluated.) On the other hand, human subject research
in the social sciences often involves
which consist of
questions to a particular group of people. Survey methodology includes
questionnaires, interviews, and focus groups. Human subject research is
used in various fields, including research into basic biology, clinical
medicine, nursing, psychology, sociology, political science, and
anthropology. As research has become formalized, the academic community
has developed formal definitions of "human subject research", largely in
response to abuses of human subjects.
searchs for healthy research volunteers.
Gain of Function Research: Background and Alternatives
Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the efficacy and
safety of rilonacept in the treatment of systemic juvenile idiopathic
Independent Third Party Testing
Independent Test Organization
is an organization, person, or company
that tests products, materials, software, etc. according to agreed
requirements. The test organization can be affiliated with the government
or universities or can be an independent testing laboratory. They are
independent because they are not affiliated
with the producer nor the user of the item being tested: no commercial
bias is present. These "contract testing" facilities are sometimes called
"third party" testing or evaluation facilities.
Independent testing might have a variety of purposes, such as:
Determine if, or verify that, the requirements of a specification,
regulation, or contract are met. Decide if a new product development
program is on track. Demonstrate proof of concept. Provide standard data
for other scientific, engineering, and quality assurance functions.
Validate suitability for end-use. Provide a basis for technical
communication. Provide a technical means of comparison of several options.
Provide evidence in legal proceedings: forensics, product liability,
patents, product claims, etc. Help solve problems with current products or
services. Help identify potential cost savings in products or services.
means that an
independent organization has reviewed the manufacturing process of a
product and has independently determined that the final product complies
with specific Standards for
or performance. This
review typically includes comprehensive formulation/material reviews,
testing and facility inspections. Most certified products bear the
certifier’s mark on their packaging to help consumers and other buyers
make educated purchasing decisions.
Third-Party Inspection Company
must not be involved in any activities
other than inspection and testing. Based on this requirement the third
party inspection agency must not be involved in design, procurement,
fabrication, construction and installation. All companies and parties such
as buyers, sellers, engineering companies, plant owners must have access
to these agencies and use their services. The confidentiality,
independence, impartiality and
conditions for being a Third Party Inspection Company.
U.S. Conformity Assessment System: 3rd Party Conformity Assessment
involves repeating a study
using the same methods but with different
subjects and experimenters
refers to a methodological crisis in science in which
have found that the results of many scientific experiments are
difficult or impossible to replicate on subsequent
by independent researchers
or by the original researchers themselves.
While the crisis has long-standing roots, the phrase was coined in the
early 2010s as part of a growing awareness of the problem. 70% of them
failed to reproduce another scientist's experiments (50% failed to
reproduce their own experiment).
is an experiment or observation designed
to minimize the effects of
other than the independent variable. This increases the reliability of the
results, often through a comparison
between control measurements and the other
. Scientific controls are a part of the
is a correlational research study that
involves repeated observations of the same variables over long
periods of time, often many decades. Longitudinal data,
sometimes referred to as panel data, track the same sample at different
points in time. The sample can consist of individuals, households,
establishments, and so on. In contrast, repeated cross-sectional data,
which also provides long-term data, gives the same survey to different
samples over time.
Retrospective Cohort Study
is a longitudinal cohort study used in
medical and psychological research. A cohort of individuals that share a
common exposure factor is compared to another group of equivalent
individuals not exposed to that factor, to determine the factor's
influence on the incidence of a condition such as disease or death.
Retrospective cohort studies have existed for approximately as long as
prospective cohort studies.
Treatment and Control Groups
. In the design of experiments,
treatments are applied to experimental units in the treatment group(s). In
comparative experiments, members of the complementary group, the control
group, receive either no treatment or a standard treatment. For the
conclusions drawn from the results of an experiment to have
, it is essential
that the items or patients assigned to treatment and control groups be
representative of the same population
some experiments, such as many in agriculture or psychology, this can be
achieved by randomly assigning items from a common population to one of
the treatment and control groups. In studies of twins involving just one
treatment group and a control group, it is statistically efficient to do
this random assignment separately for each pair of twins, so that one is
in the treatment group and one in the control group. In some medical
studies, where it may be unethical not to treat patients who present with
symptoms, controls may be given a standard treatment, rather than no
treatment at all. Another alternative is to select controls from a wider
population, provided that this population is well-defined and that those
presenting with symptoms at the clinic are representative of those in the
involving an up-close,
in-depth, and detailed examination of a subject of study (the case), as
well as its related contextual conditions. In public-relations research,
three types of case studies are used: Linear,
Grounded. Under the more generalized category of case study exist several
subdivisions, each of which
is custom selected for use depending upon
the goals of the investigator. These types of case study include the
following:Illustrative case studies
These are primarily descriptive studies. They typically utilize one or two
instances of an event to show the existing situation. Illustrative case
studies serve primarily to make the unfamiliar familiar and to give
readers a common language about the topic in question.
Exploratory (or pilot) case studies
are condensed case studies performed before implementing a large scale
investigation. Their basic function is to help identify questions and
select types of measurement prior to the main investigation. The primary
pitfall of this type of study is that initial findings may seem convincing
enough to be released prematurely as conclusions.
Cumulative case studies
. These serve to
aggregate information from several sites collected at different times. The
idea behind these studies is that the collection of past studies will
allow for greater generalization without additional cost or time being
expended on new, possibly repetitive studies.
Critical instance case studies
. These examine one or more sites
either for the purpose of examining a situation of unique interest with
little to no interest in generalization, or to call into question a highly
generalized or universal assertion. This method is useful for answering
cause and effect questions.
is a statistical
matching technique that
attempts to estimate the effect of a treatment, policy, or other
intervention by accounting for the covariates that predict receiving the
treatment. PSM attempts to reduce the bias
due to confounding
that could be found in an estimate
of the treatment effect obtained from
simply comparing outcomes among units that received the treatment versus
those that did not.
Number Needed to
is the process by which new candidate medications are discovered. Modern
drug discovery involves the identification of screening hits, medicinal
chemistry and optimization of those hits to increase the affinity,
selectivity (to reduce the potential of side effects), efficacy/potency,
metabolic stability (to increase the half-life), and oral bioavailability.
Once a compound that fulfills all of these requirements has been
identified, it will begin the process of drug
clinical trials. One or more of these steps may, but not necessarily,
involve computer-aided drug design. In the past Drugs were discovered
through identifying the active ingredient from traditional remedies or by
serendipitous discovery. Later chemical libraries of synthetic small
molecules, natural products or extracts were screened in intact cells or
whole organisms to identify substances that have a desirable therapeutic
effect in a process known as classical pharmacology. Since sequencing of
the human genome which allowed rapid cloning and synthesis of large
quantities of purified proteins, it has become common practice to use
high throughput screening of large compounds libraries against isolated
biological targets which are hypothesized to be disease modifying in a
process known as reverse pharmacology. Hits from these screens are then
tested in cells and then in animals for efficacy.
Busting the billion-dollar myth: how to slash the cost of drug development
is a computational technique used in
drug discovery to search libraries of small molecules in order to identify
those structures which are most likely to bind to a drug target, typically
a protein receptor or enzyme
Chemists harness Artificial Intelligence to predict the future of Chemical
to predict multi-dimensional reaction yields.
Lost to follow-up
refers to patients who at one point in time were actively
participating in a clinical research trial, but have become lost (either
by error in a computer tracking system or by being unreachable) at the
point of follow-up in the trial. These patients can become lost for many
reasons. Without properly informing the investigator associated with the
clinical trial, they may have opted to withdraw from the clinical trial,
moved away from the particular study site during the clinical trial, or
become ill and unable to communicate or are deceased. (Follow Up Study).
is the use of pharmaceutical drugs for an
unapproved indication or in an unapproved age group,
, or route of administration. Both
prescription drugs and over-the-counter drugs (OTCs) can be used in
off-label ways, although most studies of off-label use focus on
prescription drugs. Off-label use is generally legal unless it violates
ethical guidelines or safety regulations. The ability to prescribe drugs
for uses beyond the officially approved indications is commonly used to
good effect by healthcare providers. For example, methotrexate is commonly
used off-label because its immunomodulatory effects relieve various
disorders. However, off-label use can entail health risks and differences
in legal liability. Marketing of pharmaceuticals for off-label use is
User-Fee Programs for Prescription Drugs
, also known as compassionate use, refers to the use of
an investigational new drug (IND) outside of a clinical trial by patients
with serious or life-threatening conditions who do not meet the enrollment
criteria for the clinical trial in progress
Compassionate Use (FDA)
What is a
What is Competence
Clinical Research Associate
is a health-care professional
who performs many activities related to medical research, particularly
clinical trials. Clinical research associates work in various settings,
such as pharmaceutical companies, medical research institutes and
government agencies. Depending on the jurisdiction, different education
and certification requirements may be necessary to practice as a clinical
research associate. The main tasks of the CRA are defined by good clinical
practice guidelines for monitoring clinical trials, such as those
elaborated by the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical
Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH).
"Peer reviews are only as good as the peers
Peers have to be intelligent and free from bias in
order for the feedback to work and to be accurate and
Even Rating Systems
can be corrupted.
is a type of literature review that
collects and critically analyzes multiple research studies or papers. A
review of existing studies is often quicker and cheaper than embarking on
a new study. Researchers use methods that are selected before one or more
research questions are formulated, and then they aim to find and analyze
studies that relate to and answer those questions. Systematic reviews of
randomized controlled trials are key in the practice of evidence-based
"It seems that society is a control group for some crazy experiment"
United States Pharmacopeia
is a pharmacopeia (compendium of drug information) for the
United States published annually by the United States Pharmacopeial
Convention (usually also called the USP), a nonprofit organization that
owns the trademark and copyright. The USP is published in a combined
volume with the National Formulary (a formulary) as the USP-NF. If a drug
ingredient or drug product has an applicable USP quality standard (in the
form of a USP-NF monograph), it must conform in order to use the
designation "USP" or "NF." Drugs subject to USP standards include both
human drugs (prescription, over-the-counter, or otherwise), as well as
animal drugs. USP-NF standards also have a role in U.S. federal law; a
drug or drug ingredient with a name recognized in USP-NF is deemed
adulterated if it does not satisfy compendial standards for strength,
quality or purity. USP also sets standards for dietary supplements, and
food ingredients (as part of the Food Chemicals Codex). USP has no role in
enforcing its standards; enforcement is the responsibility of FDA and
other government authorities in the U.S. and elsewhere.
In-vitro Chip-Based Human Investigational Platform
central nervous system
neural activity from multiple brain cell types deposited and grown onto
microelectrode arrays. The device could be used to test and predict the
effects of biological and chemical agents, disease, or pharmaceutical
drugs on the brain over time without the need for human
Bias in Research
Bias in Research Studies
is a type of bias
occurring in published academic research. It occurs when the outcome of an
experiment or research study influences the decision whether to publish or
otherwise distribute it. Publication bias is of interest because
literature reviews of claims about support for a hypothesis or values for
a parameter will themselves be biased if the original literature is
contaminated by publication bias.
is the selection of individuals, groups or data
for analysis in such a way that proper randomization is not achieved,
thereby ensuring that the sample obtained is not representative of the
population intended to be analyzed. It is sometimes referred to as the
selection effect. The phrase "selection bias" most often refers to the
distortion of a statistical analysis, resulting from the method of
collecting samples. If the selection bias is not taken into account, then
some conclusions of the study may not be accurate.
Lead Time Bias
is the length of time between the detection of a disease (usually based on
new, experimental criteria) and
its usual clinical presentation and
diagnosis (based on traditional criteria). It is the time between early
diagnosis with screening and the time in which diagnosis would have been
made without screening. It is an important factor when evaluating the
effectiveness of a specific test.
Length Time Bias
is a form of selection bias, a statistical distortion of results that can
lead to incorrect conclusions about the data. Length time bias can occur
when the lengths of intervals are analysed by selecting intervals that
occupy randomly chosen points in time or space. That process favors longer
intervals and so skews the data.
is the violation of the standard codes of
scholarly conduct and ethical behavior in professional scientific
But even with the research there is still a lot of corruption in the drug industry because
of falsified research. More than two-thirds of biomedical papers
over the past four decades were the result of
misconduct, not error. More than 67 percent had to be retracted
because of fraud, suspected fraud, fudged data,
fraudulent studies, lying and duplicate publication or
Significant Scientific Agreement
Opinion: Laetrile At Sloan-Kettering - by Eric Merola - Watch
(jumping to conclusions)
"It's sad knowing that criminals have
manipulated research just for the money, which has caused the
premature death of thousands of people, people who can have been
saved if they had access to valuable information and knowledge,
instead it was covered up and buried."
Results Of Many Clinical Trials Not Being Reported
Only 13 percent of scientists running clinical trials had reported their results.
50% of Academic Papers are Never Read
Trials are Published
Discontinuation and Nonpublication of Randomized Clinical Trials Conducted
Sharing Clinical Trial Data
Sharing Clinical Trial Data
Yale Open Data
is the movement to make scientific research, data and dissemination
accessible to all levels of an inquiring society, amateur
or professional. It encompasses practices such as publishing open
research, campaigning for open access, encouraging scientists to practice
open notebook science, and generally making it easier to publish and
communicate scientific knowledge.
is a type of open data focused on publishing observations and
results of scientific activities available for anyone to analyze and
was a Creative Commons project for designing strategies and tools
for faster, more efficient web-enabled scientific research. The
organization's goals were to identify unnecessary barriers to research,
craft policy guidelines and legal agreements to lower those barriers, and
develop technology to make research data and materials easier to find and
use. Its overarching goal was to speed the translation of data into
discovery and thereby the value of research.
Web of Science
is an online subscription-based scientific
citation indexing service maintained by Thomson Reuters that provides a
comprehensive citation search. It gives access to multiple databases that
reference cross-disciplinary research, which allows for in-depth
exploration of specialized sub-fields within an academic or scientific
Journal Impact Factors
When you hear people saying,
"The Evidence Proves", or, "There Is No
", or, "The Research
Shows", these people are either lying or they are withholding
key information and knowledge that keeps you from fully
understanding the problem. So you have to ask, "What Evidence?"
Where is this Evidence? What
? Show Me! How was this
Who produced the Research? Most research creates more questions
then it actually answers, or worse, it doesn't really apply to
your particular problem. When you hear someone say "There's No
Evidence", what they are actually saying is "I do not have
enough information or knowledge to accurately understand this
". What is the exact
Council Against Health Fraud
Crazy People treating crazy people, now that's just crazy.
America and New Zealand are the only 2 developed countries in the world that allow
Direct to Consumer Advertising
So it's no surprise that 80% of all pharmaceutical drugs are
consumed by Americans, and America is only 5% of the worlds
population. Pharmaceutical companies also spend over 4 billion
dollars on advertising these drugs to Americans, which the
consumer pays for. So Americans are paying to be manipulated and
drugged. So why are we the
Prescription Drug Alternatives
Mom Gets Rid of Food in her Kitchen that She Believes was
Hurting her Family
"Let Food Be Your Medicine and Medicine Be Your Food"
Citizen Science - DIY Chemistry
We should be thankful to ordinary people who have educated themselves enough in order to
examine the world. Though we can't say that people experimenting
on their own is more dangerous then the main stream
pharmaceutical industry, but there are still many dangers
we can all get together and share our notes, and share what we
have learned, we won't waste so much time and resources, or kill
lots of people unnecessarily. This is another reason why
improving education is so important. We have learned a lot, now
it's time to put what we have learned into practice.
is scientific research
conducted, in whole
or in part, by amateur or nonprofessional scientists. Citizen science is
sometimes described as "public participation in scientific research",
participatory monitoring and participatory action research.
pursues scientific study without direct affiliation to a
public institution such as a university or government-run
and development body. The expression
"gentleman scientist" arose in post-Renaissance Europe but became less
common in the 20th century as government and private funding increased.
Center for Open Science
increase openness, integrity, and reproducibility of scholarly research.
is anyone who conducts scholarly research outside
universities and traditional academia.
provides a way for well-motivated students to pursue a topic of
that does not necessarily
fit into a traditional academic curriculum. They are a way for students to
learn specialized material or gain research
experience. And also provide students opportunities to explore their
interests deeper and make important decisions about how and where they
will direct their talents in the future. Another way to understand
independent study is to understand learning from a distance. Learning from
a distance is a theory in which the student is at a physical or a mental
distance from his or her teacher. The student and the teacher are
connected by something such as a worksheet, an essay, or through a website
on the internet.
- DIY Biology
Self Directed Learning
Don't take that Pill
is a process used to identify substances contained within a
pill, usually illicit substances. With the increased prevalence of drugs
being available in their pure forms, the terms "reagent testing" may also
be used, with the reagents referred to in context simply as "reagent test
Substance Test Kits
Ez Test Kits
What's In My
(youtube / 60 mins.)
What's in my baggie
Britain's Illegal Rave Renaissance: LOCKED OFF
(vice) (youtube 37 mins.).
is used as a simple spot-test to presumptively
identify alkaloids as well as other compounds. It is composed of a mixture
of formaldehyde and concentrated sulfuric acid, which is dripped onto the
substance being tested.
is a pejorative term for a substance found within other
substances such as food, fuels or chemicals even though it is not allowed
for legal or other reasons.
Adulterated drugs and devices (21 U.S. Code § 351)Just because a drug is legal or pure
does not mean that it's safe
Synthetic cannabinoids creates dangers coming from cannabinoid abuse
It's not a soft drug without dangerous health effects if it's abused or
Teens Recreate Key Ingredient in 'Pharma Bro' Drug for Just $20
group of Australian teenagers have cheaply created the active ingredient
in the drug Daraprim, which “Pharma Bro” Martin Shkreli hiked the cost of
by 5,500 percent. Sydney Grammar students recreated 3.7 grams of
Pyrimethamine, the active ingredient in the drug used to treat parasitic
infection in patients with weakened immune systems.
The Deep Web Drug Lab
is a structural or functional analog of a controlled
substance that has been designed to mimic the pharmacological effects of
the original drug, while avoiding classification as illegal and/or
detection in standard drug tests.Mephedrone
is a synthetic stimulant drug of the amphetamine and cathinone classes.
Slang names include drone, M-CAT, White Magic and meow meow. It is
chemically similar to the cathinone compounds found in the khat plant of
eastern Africa. It comes in the form of tablets or a powder, which users
can swallow, snort or inject, producing similar effects to MDMA,
amphetamines and cocaine.
with Doctor Z
Testing Legal Highs could Save Lives
is any pharmaceutical drug product
manufactured in, extracted from, or semisynthesized from biological
sources. Different from totally synthesized pharmaceuticals, they include
vaccines, blood, blood components, allergenics, somatic cells, gene
therapies, tissues, recombinant therapeutic protein, and living cells used
in cell therapy. Biologics can be composed of sugars, proteins, or nucleic
acids or complex combinations of these substances, or may be living cells
or tissues. They (or their precursors or components) are isolated from
living sources—human, animal, plant, fungal, or microbial.
gives us more insight on how drugs can be
customized towards the individual. But it shouldn't just
be about getting high, it should be just enough of the drug to
let the brain explore these new chemical compounds and explore
the effects on the thinking pathways of the brain.
might reveal something beneficial, and other times reveal
nothing beneficial at all. Drugs should be a temporary
adjustment that reveals the persons own
good, and at the same time give the person a short period of
time to analyze the world from a different perspective. Showing
the person another way of thinking, maybe a more suitable way of
processing the information, knowledge and experiences that they
have accumulated in life. And once you have learned this, there
should be no need for the drug, because now you can repeat the
benefits of the drug yourself. The drug should be just a
showing you how
. But most people can't understand this,
another reason why improving
is so important.
"An undisciplined mind, along with the lack
of knowledge, always leads to some form of abuse, whether sought
"Designer drugs have promise, but we also
have all kinds of natural drugs and herbs that we can examine
Science didn't understand my kids' rare disease until I decided to study
it: Sharon Terry
(video and interactive text). Terry explains how she
and her husband became citizen scientists, working midnight shifts at the
lab to find the gene behind PXE and establishing mandates that require
researchers to share biological samples and work together.
BioTrust holds the space for individuals, families, and communities to
participate in translational research. The revolution in health will only
happen in a trust environment with people at the heart of it. BioTrust
examines and creates policies, and provides novel tools for participants
to actively engage in research. The BioTrust Ethics Team, together with
the Genetic Alliance Institutional Review Board, provides oversight.
Artificial Leaf as Mini-Factory for Medicine
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of
or Drug Dealers Hand Book for short.
is a drug dealer’s training manual and nothing more.
It is not science, it's only a drug pushers dream. Everyone has
if you look at all the so called symptoms that psychiatrists and
doctors make up. Plus anyone can fake the symptoms, which leads to
Overprescribing of Medications
or just plain corrupted
behavior. It's a felony to sell or use medications without
prescriptions but somehow Doctors are rarely ever arrested. Only
can fully understand
what is happening to the human brain and how the brain is
affected by foods, chemicals, environment and poor education.
Then this information has to be passed on to parents, teachers
and the general public. The
has failed to protect the general public from bogus
pharmaceutical drugs and the claims they make. The FDA is
and part of the drug dealing business. We should
reevaluate the responsibilities of FDA and create a more
responsible agency that is incorruptible and only serves the
publics best interest and not the interests of
. Parents who believe that their child has ADD or
should seek out
Child Development Professionals
instead of Doctors. The drugs that treat ADD or ADHD cause more
damage to the person then actually helping them.
Women and Men have differences when it comes to Medication amounts and types
Women's Health Research
Sex-Based Differences in Drug Activity
Status of Women Data
Sex and Gender-Based Analysis (SGBA)
Scientists uncover a difference between the Sexes
Sex does matter:
Key molecular process in brain is different in
males and females.
Why medicine often has dangerous side effects for women
International Center for Research on Women
UCLA Center for
the Study of Women
of Minority Health Resource Center
He was one of a group of 14 researchers who found that
diversity in biomedical research
often does not reflect the American population.
Racial and Ethnic Minority Populations
Taking Race out of human genetics
you can't make the genetic
conclusions based on someone's race or ancestry. Subordination
of different groups and social groupings based on myths about
their biologic or genetic predispositions is not always
How Racism makes us Sick: David R. Williams
(video and interactive
Black mothers in the U.S. die at three to four times the rate of white
. Black woman is 22 percent more likely to die from heart
disease than a white woman, 71 percent more likely to perish from cervical
cancer, but 300 percent more likely to die from pregnancy- or
childbirth-related causes. In a
national study of five medical complications
that are common causes of
maternal death and injury, black women were two to three times more likely
to die than white women who had the same condition.
Looking at married couples who were together
less than 20 years and couples together for more than 50, similarities
were found between partners, like kidney function, total cholesterol
levels, and the strength of their grips, which is a key predictor of
Society of America
Racial Bias in Health Care
Differences in Physicians' Verbal and Nonverbal Communication
With Black and White Patients at the End of Life
Racial Bias May Be Conveyed by Doctors’ Body Language
Patient Centered Communication
Patient-Centered Communication, Ratings of Care, and Concordance
of Patient and Physician Race
Differences between Racial and Ethnic groups in Health Care
Cultural Diversity at the End of Life: Issues and Guidelines for
Heart disease is the leading cause of death for African
African American Health Disparities Compared to Non-Hispanic
Walking as a revolutionary act of self-care: T. Morgan Dixon and Vanessa
and interactive text)
Why genetic research must be more diverse, Keolu Fox:
and interactive text)
Significant racial disparities persist in hospital readmissions
patients enrolled with Medicare Advantage are far more likely to be
readmitted to the hospital after a surgery than those enrolled on
Blacks And Hispanics More Likely To Receive Low-Value Care Than White
- Drug War
There are many things that we have available that helps improve
Matcha Green Tea
The Human Brain
or just a
to name a few. So there are many alternatives
that we have that we can research.
is used for treatment of disorders such as
narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder, and excessive daytime sleepiness
associated with obstructive sleep apnea. It has also seen widespread
off-label use as a purported cognition-enhancing agent.
is an adjunctive therapy (therapy that uses more
than one medication or modality for the treatment) of treatment-resistant
major depressive disorder, which is a term used in clinical psychiatry to
describe cases of major depressive
(MDD) that do not respond adequately to appropriate courses
of at least two antidepressants.
Etherium Monotomic White Gold
flowering plant native to the Horn of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula.
Among communities from these areas, khat chewing has a history as a social
custom dating back thousands of years. Khat contains a monoamine alkaloid
called cathinone, an amphetamine-like stimulant, which is said to cause
excitement, loss of appetite and euphoria.
is a medication used in the palliative
treatment of Alzheimer's disease.
Transcranial Random Noise Stimulation (TRNS)
are drugs, supplements, or other substances that improve cognitive
function, particularly executive functions, memory, creativity, or
motivation, in healthy individuals. Cognitive Enhancer.
Study SkillsLearning Methods
Healthy individuals run the risk of
pushing themselves beyond optimal levels into
hyperdopaminergic and hypernoradrenergic
vitiating the very behaviors they are striving to improve. The
brain doesn’t fully stop developing until age 25 or 30, making
cognitive enhancement potentially risky even for users who are
well into adulthood.
shows you just how incompetent our education system
is. Kids who should be educated are not supposed to be ignorant
about drugs. When students believe
that they're getting an edge using drugs, that means they don't
And if your using something
that will help you pass a test, then you have already failed
yourself, what happens after the test?
I'm sure you would want to keep your good memory, so what will
you be doing in your lifestyle that would help maintain your
good memory? And on top of that you have to remember that most
testing is flawed
, It does not confirm you understand the
knowledge, only that you studied enough to pass a particular
test. And if the test itself is not even asking the right
questions, then your knowledge becomes fragmented, irrelevant
and ineffective. I hope you didn't pay for that, if you did,
got ripped off
Taking drugs to be smarter?
This reminds me of that movie
Bradley Cooper in the end of the movie says something like....."If the drug makes you smarter then eventually you should become smart enough
not to need the drug at all."
That of course implies that the person is learning the
right things at the right time, because just having the ability
to learn does not guarantee that you will learn the right things
at the right time, thus you will still be ignorant.
are misleading the public, just like our
"If you're not learning how ignorant you are, then you're not learning."
If someone has been taking Adderall for years to help them
focus, that means that they have not been focusing on how not to
, or, focusing on why they would even need Adderall
in the first place? Focus on that. What's the point of being
interested in things if one of those things isn't you?
Be interested in yourself
Don't confuse personal perception
Just because something is
to you, that doesn't mean that
it's important or not important. And just because something is
interesting to you, that doesn't mean that the thing is important or
not important. What is stimulating to one person, may be dull to
, fun for some,
but not for
Understand the influences of
signal is a pleasure signal, it does not measure
worth or importance. That is why you have a brain, which is to
decide what's important and when it's important. I Like
something, but not because dopamine tells me that I like it.
I would not call Dopamine a reward circuit, but more of an
enhancing circuit of coincidence. When you have to do something
that's important for your health, like eating certain vegetables
that you don't like, your brain will not release dopamine,
mostly because dopamine is not an indicator of right, wrong,
good or bad. I believe that eventually people will learn how to
release dopamine only when something they are doing is
calculated to be right and good. So the dopamine could help encourage positive
behavior and actions. But even then, awareness of our reality
must not be compromised or degraded by hormones or by any other
things such as chemicals, because we'll become more
vulnerable to mistakes. You can't be a slave to feeling good,
when feeling good makes you a slave.
Plants that Reduce Cravings
controls thinking, but reasoning is a skill that requires
regular updates and practicing. And reasoning itself must be
reasoned with, because if you are not reasoning the things that
matter, then being able to reason will not matter.
Feeling bad is not bad, it is a personal
interpretation of a particular moment, feeling bad is not
a measurement of reality.
Sad is OK
, Feeling Good is OK,
and that time and place in Between is the
that we need,
feeling aware and connected, and having a purpose, or a goal.
, but not so positive that you positively stop
Placebos - The Power of the Mind
Besides showing us how ineffective some drugs are, placebos has
accidentally helped us to discover some of the
powers of the
. From research scientists have
found that Positivity and Hope
is beneficial to the mind and the body
because under those conditions the human body releases
that travel all around the body. And
beneficial to the mind and the body because under those
conditions the body does not release beneficial molecules.
The placebo is
to the powers of the human mind. So
a deep breath can be your
be a placebo
, a way to activate your
where ever you are, and also, to make yourself more
aware of any
that you could be experiencing,
because the powers of the mind can also work against us. We still have a lot to learn.
Patients who knowingly took placebos reported 30 percent
less pain and 29 percent reduction in disability compared to control
Convincing yourself that you slept well
tricks your brain into thinking that you did. It's called “Placebo
is able to influence his autonomic nervous system
and immune system at will.
Don't confuse the placebo effect with
Can the human brain
of a drug just by knowing how and why the drug works?
sometimes more effective and
safer then the actual drug?
Power of the Mind
being under estimated and under utilized?
just more proof that the
Power of the Mind
Is believing in
prove that the power of the mind is real?
is the ritualistic practice of prayer and
gestures (such as laying on of hands) that are claimed to elicit divine
intervention in spiritual and physical healing, especially the Christian
practice. Believers assert that the healing of disease and disability can
be brought about by religious faith through prayer and/or other rituals
that, according to adherents, stimulate a divine presence and power.
Belief in such divine intervention is derived from religious belief.
is an event not explicable by natural or scientific
laws. Such an event may be attributed to a supernatural being (a deity),
magic, a miracle worker, a saint or a religious leader.
is an interdisciplinary medical
field exploring the relationships among social, psychological, and
behavioral factors on bodily processes and quality of life in humans and
animals. Some physical diseases are thought to be particularly prone to be
made worse by mental factors such as
is a branch of medical science that applies biological and physiological
principles to clinical practice. The branch especially applies to biology
and physiology. Biomedicine also can relate to many other categories in
health and biological related fields. It has been the dominant health
system for more than a century.
Placebo: Cracking the Code
Lissa Rankin MD : Is There Scientific Proof We Can Heal
Ourselves? at TEDxAmericanRiviera 2012
Natural Mystery: mind over body 1/3
(video) investigations into
the power of mind over the body. touches on many subjects including self
healing (incl. cancer, heavy burns), hypnosis, kung fu, deep free diving,
anesthetic free operations, mental exercise.
Placebo Effects of Caffeine on Cycling Performance
Scientists have identified for the first time the region in the brain
responsible for the "placebo effect" in pain relief
refers to any effect on a person, resulting
from any activity of one or more persons acting as healthcare
professionals or promoting products or services as beneficial to health,
that does not support a goal of the person affected.
was a hypothesized polymerized form of water
that was the subject of much scientific controversy during the late 1960s.
By 1969 the popular press had taken notice and sparked fears of a "polywater
gap" in the USA.
is a parasitic disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii. Infections
with toxoplasmosis usually cause no symptoms in adult humans. Occasionally
there may be a few weeks or months of mild flu-like illness such as muscle
aches and tender lymph nodes. In a small number of people, eye problems
may develop. In those with a weak immune system, severe symptoms such as
seizures and poor coordination may occur. If infected during pregnancy, a
condition known as congenital toxoplasmosis may affect the child.
What's in a Placebo
Drug companies manufacture their own placebos and they are not
required to list the ingredients. An active placebo is one that
is biologically active, rather than inert. Active placebos are
designed to mimic the side-effects of drugs under study.
The Human Brain
is a Chemical Warehouse
, so we don't need more drugs,
we need more education and more awareness.
Drugs manipulate the auto-pilot or natural functions of the
brain, but drugs do not teach us how to manually control our brain, unless the drug was
used to direct us towards a
particular process, so that we can eventually learn how to control it
on our own.
are biologically occurring short chains of
monomers linked by
peptide (amide) bonds.
Knowledge is a Placebo
When love hurts, a placebo can help
Just believing you’re doing
something to help yourself get over your ex can influence brain regions
associated with emotional regulation and lessen the perception of pain.
Mind over Body
Our brains are at the top of the body to remind us of
Mind over Matter
. The mind must be the
. The body effects the mind, so the mind must know
the difference between what is happening in the body and
what is happening in the
You don't want the body to control your thinking
, but you
don't want to ignore the body either. You have to accurately
interpret the messages coming from your body, without having the
messages effect your thinking ability, because then it will be
almost impossible to know what is happening to your body, or to
your mind. Our bodies and minds are sensitive because they have
to be in order to sense changes that might be a danger to us.
But because the mind is sensitive, we have to take extra care
not to get confused between what's happening in the body and
what's happening in the mind. It's usually the body, but if you
don't understand the differences, then you will not be able to
accurately analyze the true nature of what is happening in your
body, or your mind.
Placebo is Latin for "I will please"
"Anything drugs can do I can do better;
I can do anything better than drugs
where people are mysteriously healed just be a placebo effect?
Placebo effect can also work against you, when you worry
or when you believe that bad things will happen to you, your
body will feel this
in a negative way, and you
not benefit from your thinking
People who have
multiple personalities have diseases related to one personality but not
the other personality
So one personality is fine, while the other personality suffers from a
is when a negative expectation of a phenomenon causes
it to have a more negative effect than it otherwise would. A nocebo effect
causes the perception that the phenomenon will have a negative outcome to
actively influence the result. Mental states such as beliefs, expectations
and anticipation can strongly influence the outcome of: disease;
experience of pain; and even success of surgery. Positive expectations
regarding a treatment can result in more positive outcomes and this effect
is known as the placebo effect.
Sudden Unexpected Death Syndrome
is sudden unexpected death
of adolescents and adults, mainly during sleep. Sudden unexpected death
syndrome is rare in most areas around the world.
Pharmaceutical Drugs in Public Drinking Water
A vast array of
pharmaceuticals have been found in the drinking water supplies
of at least 41 million Americans,
. (an Associated Press investigation).
Traces of Drugs in Drinking Water
Pharmaceuticals in Drinking Water
does not have any guidelines about pharmaceuticals in
Damage to the Brain and Body
About 90% of the drug is metabolized. Others aren’t
as much, and a lot of the parent compound is
excreted. The undigested drugs and metabolites, the digested
drugs, are either removed from the body as waste or sweat. These
are either flushed down toilets are go down the drain in our
is the metabolic breakdown
usually through specialized
systems. More generally, xenobiotic metabolism
(from the Greek
"stranger" and biotic "related to living beings") is the set of
that modify the chemical structure of
, which are compounds foreign to an organism's normal
biochemistry, such any
drug or poison
These pathways are a form of
present in all major groups of organisms, and are
considered to be of ancient origin. These reactions often act to
poisonous compounds (although in some cases the intermediates in
xenobiotic metabolism can themselves cause toxic effects). The study of drug
metabolism is called
The metabolism of
pharmaceutical drugs is an important aspect of
For example, the rate of metabolism determines the duration and intensity of a
drug's pharmacologic action. Drug metabolism also affects
the actions of some drugs as
of enzymes involved in xenobiotic metabolism are a common reason
drug interactions. These pathways are also important in
, with the xenobiotic metabolism of
determining whether a pollutant will be broken down during
in the environment. The enzymes of xenobiotic metabolism,
are also important in agriculture, since they may
produce resistance to
Drug metabolism is divided into three phases. In phase I, enzymes such as
cytochrome P450 oxidases
introduce reactive or polar groups into xenobiotics.
These modified compounds are then conjugated to polar compounds in phase II
reactions. These reactions are catalysed by
enzymes such as
. Finally, in phase III, the conjugated
xenobiotics may be further processed, before being recognised by
and pumped out of cells. Drug metabolism often converts
products that are more readily