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City Management

How to Develop and grow without Over Developing, and without wasting time, people, resources, energy and money.

Learning Society

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City Image City is a densely Populated human settlement with complex systems for sanitation, utilities, land usage, housing, and transportation.

Why Cities Are Where They Are (youtube)
Sustainable Development
Smart Cities - Environment Monitoring
Location (best places to build)

Urban is a human settlement with high population density and infrastructure of built environment. Urban areas are created through urbanization and are categorized by urban morphology as cities, towns, conurbations or suburbs. In urbanism, the term contrasts to rural areas such as villages and hamlets and in urban sociology or urban anthropology it contrasts with natural environment.

Human Settlement is a Community in which people live. A settlement can range in size from a small number of dwellings grouped together to the largest of cities with surrounding urbanized areas. Settlements may include hamlets, villages, towns and cities.

Village is a clustered human settlement or community, larger than a hamlet but smaller than a town, with a population ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand.

Rural is a geographic area that is located outside towns and cities (Farming or Countryside).

Suburb is a residential area or a mixed use area, either existing as part of a city or urban area or as a separate residential community within commuting distance of a city. (Residential District outside of a City)

Town is a human settlement larger than a village but smaller than a city. The size definition for what constitutes a "town" varies considerably in different parts of the world.

State is an organized Community living under a single political structure and government, sovereign or constituent.

Country is the territory occupied by a nation of people. A politically organized body of people under a single government with geographical region boundary area outside of cities and towns.

Nation is a large group or collective of people with common characteristics attributed to them — including language, traditions, mores (customs), habitus (habits), and ethnicity. By comparison, a nation is more impersonal, abstract, and overtly political than an ethnic group. It is a cultural-political community that has become conscious of its autonomy, unity, and particular interests.

Person is a human that has certain capacities and attributes constituting Personhood, which in turn is defined differently by different authors in different disciplines, and by different cultures in different times and places.

Citizen is someone who has a document that states that they are living in a particular country.

Immigrant is the international movement of people into a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take-up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker.


Master Plan View Diagram Master Plan is a comprehensive document that sets out an overall strategy. (architecture) A small-scale graphic outline that shows all the major elements of a project. To develop or improve (land, a community, a building complex, or the like) through a long-range plan that balances and harmonizes all elements: In land-use planning, a government entity’s plan for the overall utilization of a particular area, including its allocation for residential or manufacturing uses and the corresponding environmental impacts. Highest and best use is the use that would produce the highest value for a property, regardless of its actual current use.

Big 5 Needs - Location Concerns - Growth vs. Decay

Comprehensive Planning is a process that determines community goals and aspirations in terms of community development. The outcome of comprehensive Planning is the Comprehensive Plan which dictates public policy in terms of transportation, utilities, land use, recreation, and housing. Comprehensive plans typically encompass large geographical areas, a broad range of topics, and cover a long-term time horizon.

Sustainable Development - Parks - Water Management - Infrastructure

Official Community Plan is a comprehensive plan created by an incorporated municipality which dictates public policy in terms of transportation, utilities, land use, recreation, and housing. OCPs typically encompass large geographical areas, a broad range of topics, and cover a long-term time horizon. The process of creating an OCP is today often referred to as a Community Vision.

Participatory Design co-operative design or co-design is an approach to design attempting to actively involve all stakeholders (e.g. employees, partners, customers, citizens, end users) in the design process to help ensure the result meets their needs and is usable. Participatory design is an approach which is focused on processes and procedures of design and is not a design style. The term is used in a variety of fields e.g. software design, urban design, architecture, landscape architecture, product design, sustainability, graphic design, planning, and even medicine as a way of creating environments that are more responsive and appropriate to their inhabitants' and users' cultural, emotional, spiritual and practical needs. It is one approach to placemaking. Recent research suggests that designers create more innovative concepts and ideas when working within a co-design environment with others than they do when creating ideas on their own. Participatory design has been used in many settings and at various scales. For some, this approach has a political dimension of user empowerment and democratization. For others, it is seen as a way of abrogating design responsibility and innovation by designers.

Community Development is a process where community members come together to take collective action and generate solutions to common problems." It is a broad term given to the practices of civic leaders, activists, involved citizens and professionals to improve various aspects of communities, typically aiming to build stronger and more resilient local communities.

Enhanced Integrated Framework is a global development program with the objective of supporting least developed countries (LDCs) to better integrate into the global trading system and to make trade a driver for development.

The Limits to Growth a 1972 book about the computer simulation of exponential economic and population growth with finite resource supplies.

Progress Trap - Social Trap

Internal Colonialism is the structural political and economic inequalities between regions within a nation state. The term is used to describe the uneven effects of economic development on a regional basis, otherwise known as "uneven development", and to describe the exploitation of minority groups within a wider society. This is held to be similar to the relationship between metropole and colony, in colonialism proper. The term used to describe the distinct separation of the dominant core, from the periphery in an empire.

How do you quantify the cost of sprawl? There are so many, after all. For local governments, the cost of single-family homes and shopping malls tend to outweigh the tax benefits. Sprawl drives up fuel and energy consumption, commute times, and per capita land use, and drives down individual health, physical activity, and even psychological well-being. Combining the the 50 largest metro areas in the U.S., he found, commuters pay more than $107 billion annually, which is about $1,400 per commuter, on average. Those are the dollar costs of the number of additional hours Americans spend traveling to and from work due to sprawling land-use patterns—which, by their methodology, ends up being around 3.9 billion extra hours total, or 50 hours per worker, per year. Modernization Theory (wiki) - Modernism (wiki)

We know The Limits to Growth and that the Ecosystem is Fluctuating, Adapting and Evolving. The Balance of Nature is not an Equilibrium for Mother Nature is sometimes unpredictable just like Humans. But what we do know is that Cause and Effect cannot be ignored. Even when there is no 100 percent guarantee we still have to play the Odds as best as we can.

Precautionary Principle to risk management states that if an action or policy has a suspected risk of causing harm to the public, or to the environment, in the absence of scientific consensus (that the action or policy is not harmful), the burden of proof that it is not harmful falls on those taking that action.

Planning Permission refers to the approval needed for construction or expansion (including significant renovation) in some jurisdictions. It is usually given in the form of a building permit (or construction permit). Generally, the new construction must be inspected during construction and after completion to ensure compliance with national, regional, and local building codes.

Human Impact on the Environment includes impacts on biophysical environments, biodiversity, and other resources. The term anthropogenic designates an effect or object resulting from human activity.

Environmental Planning is the process of facilitating decision making to carry out land development with the consideration given to the natural environment, social, political, economic and governance factors and provides a holistic framework to achieve sustainable outcomes. A major goal of environmental planning is to create sustainable communities, which aim to conserve and protect undeveloped land. Some of the main elements of present-day environmental planning are: Social & economic development, Urban development, Regional development, Natural resource management & integrated land use, Infrastructure systems, Governance frameworks. The environmental planning assessments encompass areas such as land use, socio-economics, transportation, economic and housing characteristics, air pollution, noise pollution, the wetlands, habitat of the endangered species, flood zones susceptibility, coastal zones erosion, and visual studies among others, and is referred to as an Integrated environmental planning assessment. It is the ability to analyze environmental issues that will facilitate critical decision making.

Urban Planner is a professional who practices in the field of urban planning.

American Institute of Certified Planners certifies professionals in the United States in the field of Urban planning and assists planners in the areas of ethics, professional development, planning education, and the standards of planning practice. Members of AICP pledge to adhere to a detailed Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct. Once certified, professional planners may place the designation "AICP" after their name to indicate their membership in AICP, and their mastery of the principles, skills, knowledge, and experience determined by the organization as essential for a professional planner. To become certified, a planner must have a specified combination of relevant education and professional experience, must pass an examination that tests skills and knowledge, must pay an annual fee, and must be a member of the American Planning Association in good standing. The AICP certification exam is offered twice a year for two weeks, in May and November. Beginning in 2004 the exam uses a computer-based format. To maintain membership in the AICP, a certified planner must earn a specified number of continuing education credit hours that include courses in planning law and ethics every two years.

Urban Planning Education is the practice of teaching and learning urban theory, studies, and professional practices. The interaction between public officials, professional planners and the public involves a continuous education on planning process. Community members often serve on a city planning commission, council or board. As a result, education outreach is effectively an ongoing cycle. Core courses typically include coursework in history/theory of urban planning, urban design, statistics, land use/planning law, urban economics, and planning practice. Many planning degree programs also allow a student to "concentrate" in a specific area of interest within planning, such as land use, environmental planning, housing, community development, economic development, historic preservation, international development, urban design, transportation planning, or geographic information systems (GIS). Some programs permit a student to concentrate in real estate, however, graduate real estate education has changed giving rise to specialized real estate programs.


Scale (ratio) of a model represents the proportional ratio of a linear dimension of the model to the same feature of the original. Examples include a 3-Dimensional Scale Model of a building or the scale drawings of the elevations or plans of a building. In such cases the scale is dimensionless and exact throughout the model or drawing. The scale can be expressed in four ways: in words (a lexical scale), as a ratio, as a fraction and as a graphical (bar) scale. Thus on an architect's drawing one might read 'one centimetre to one metre' or 1:100 or 1/100 and a bar scale would also normally appear on the drawing.
Golden Ratio - Fractals

Scale Parameter is a special kind of numerical parameter of a parametric family of probability distributions. The larger the scale parameter, the more spread out the distribution.

Scale Factor is a number which scales, or multiplies, some quantity. In the equation y = Cx, C is the scale factor for x. C is also the coefficient of x, and may be called the constant of proportionality of y to x. For example, doubling distances corresponds to a scale factor of two for distance, while cutting a cake in half results in pieces with a scale factor of one half. The basic equation for it is image over preimage. In the field of measurements, the scale factor of an instrument is sometimes referred to as sensitivity. The ratio of any two corresponding lengths in two similar geometric figures is also called a scale factor.

Scaling (geometry) is a linear transformation that enlarges (increases) or shrinks (diminishes) objects by a scale factor that is the same in all directions. The result of uniform scaling is similar (in the geometric sense) to the original. A scale factor of 1 is normally allowed, so that congruent shapes are also classed as similar. Uniform scaling happens, for example, when enlarging or reducing a photograph, or when creating a scale model of a building, car, airplane, etc.

Scale (social sciences) is the process of measuring or ordering entities with respect to quantitative attributes or traits.

Scalability is the capability of a system, network, or process to handle a growing amount of work, or its potential to be enlarged in order to accommodate that growth.

Prime Minister Narendra Modi in 2015 said private property developers should not decide how a city should grow, and the decision should be taken by residents and the city leadership, leadership that is not corrupted or criminal and ignorant of course.

Surveying is the technique, profession, and science of determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional position of points and the distances and angles between them. A land surveying professional is called a land surveyor. These points are usually on the surface of the Earth, and they are often used to establish land maps and boundaries for ownership, locations like building corners or the surface location of subsurface features, or other purposes required by government or civil law, such as property sales. Surveyors work with elements of geometry, trigonometry, regression analysis, physics, engineering, metrology, programming languages and the law. They use equipment like total stations, robotic total stations, GPS receivers, retroreflectors, 3D scanners, radios, handheld tablets, digital levels, drones, GIS and surveying software. Surveying has been an element in the development of the human environment since the beginning of recorded history. The planning and execution of most forms of construction require it. It is also used in transport, communications, mapping, and the definition of legal boundaries for land ownership. It is an important tool for research in many other scientific disciplines.

Cadastre is a comprehensive register of the real estate or real property's metes-and-bounds of a country.

Public Land Survey System is the surveying method developed and used in the United States to plat, or divide, real property for sale and settling. Also known as the Rectangular Survey System, it was created by the Land Ordinance of 1785 to survey land ceded to the United States by the Treaty of Paris in 1783, following the end of the American Revolution.

Space Syntax encompasses a set of theories and techniques for the analysis of spatial configurations.

Planning (predictions)

Social Interface is face-to-face encounters between individuals or social units representing different interests and backed by different resources. Interfaces

Grid Plan is a type of city plan in which streets run at right angles to each other, forming a grid. In the context of the culture of ancient Rome, the grid plan method of land measurement was called Centuriation.

Square-Mile Street Network Visualization

A Century of Sprawl in the United States

There is No Free Lunch. Only criminals believe that profiting from death is somehow called making a living. This is what ignorance does, it blinds a person from their own murderess acts. And they believe they can do it just by changing the definitions of words to fit their own distorted reality. They try to cover up their crimes, and hope to some how feel good about themselves.
You can't call it growth when you steal from other people and steal from millions of future generations.
You can't call it growth when you poison the water, poison the land and poison the air.
You can't call it growth when people die because of it.
This is way beyond being amoral, or lacking any sense of moral standards or principles, this is something extremely evil and dangerous, a million times worse then a rabid animal. This is a disease. And it needs to be treated as such.

Common-Pool Resource is a type of good consisting of a natural or human-made resource system (e.g. an irrigation system or fishing grounds), whose size or characteristics makes it costly, but not impossible, to exclude potential beneficiaries from obtaining benefits from its use. Unlike pure public goods, common pool resources face problems of congestion or overuse, because they are subtractable. A common-pool resource typically consists of a core resource (e.g. water or fish), which defines the stock variable, while providing a limited quantity of extractable fringe units, which defines the flow variable. While the core resource is to be protected or nurtured in order to allow for its continuous exploitation, the fringe units can be harvested or consumed.

Exponential Growth is a phenomenon that occurs when the growth rate of the value of a mathematical function is proportional to the function's current value, resulting in its growth with time being an exponential function. Exponential decay occurs in the same way when the growth rate is negative. In the case of a discrete domain of definition with equal intervals, it is also called geometric growth or geometric decay, the function values forming a geometric progression.

Doubling time is the Rule of 70. The Rule of 70 states that to find the doubling time of a quantity growing at a given annual percentage rate, divide the percentage number into 70 to obtain the approximate number of years required to double. For example, at a 10% annual growth rate, doubling time is 70 / 10 = 7 years. Doublingtime is the period of time required for a quantity to double in size or value. It is applied to population growth, inflation, resource extraction, consumption of goods, Climate Change, compound interest, the volume of malignant tumours, and many other things that tend to grow over time. When the relative growth rate (not the absolute growth rate) is constant, the quantity undergoes exponential growth and has a constant doubling time or period, which can be calculated directly from the growth rate.

Power Law is a functional relationship between two quantities, where a relative change in one quantity results in a proportional relative change in the other quantity, independent of the initial size of those quantities: one quantity varies as a power of another. For instance, considering the area of a square in terms of the length of its side, if the length is doubled, the area is multiplied by a factor of four.

Exponential Decay decreases at a rate proportional to its current value. Denial

Growth of Decay are the side effects of growth and over development, like more pollution, more depleted resources, more sick people, and more problems. People need to Learn how to do Math correctly and completely.

Growth is a process of becoming larger or longer, more numerous or more important, more dangerous or more unstable. In biology growth is the process of an individual organism growing organically; a purely biological unfolding of events involved in an organism changing gradually from a simple to a more complex level.

Grow is to become larger, greater, or bigger; expand or gain. To develop.

Over Development Dangers (environmental awareness) - Unsustainable

Logarithmic Growth describes a phenomenon whose size or cost can be described as a logarithm function of some input. Logarithmic growth and exponential growth may be explained by the fact that exponential growth curves may be straightened by plotting them using a logarithmic scale for the growth axis.

Logarithm is the exponent required to produce a given number. Exponent is a mathematical notation indicating the number of times a quantity is multiplied by itself. The inverse operation to exponentiation, just as division is the inverse of multiplication and vice versa. That means the logarithm of a number is the exponent to which another fixed number, the base, must be raised to produce that number. Natural Logarithm (wiki)

St. Petersburg Paradox is a situation where a naive decision criterion which takes only the expected value into account predicts a course of action that presumably no actual person would be willing to take. Several resolutions are possible.

Arithmetic, Population and Energy with Dr. Albert Bartlett (youtube)
M. King Hubbert the rate of petroleum production of the reserve over time would resemble a bell curve.

Sustainability (smart growth is no growth) - Economic Growth

Environmental Crime is an illegal act which directly harms the environment.

Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic of life expectancy, education, and income per capita indicators.

Where Intuition meets Knowledge.

Problem Solving
Doomsday Clock

Urban Sprawl relates to the social and environmental consequences associated with this development where the expansion of human populations away from central urban areas into low-density, monofunctional and usually car-dependent communities, in a process called suburbanization.

NIMBY is an acronym for the phrase "Not In My Back Yard", which is an opposition by residents to a proposal for a new development because it is close to them (or, in some cases, because the development involves controversial or potentially dangerous technology) often with the connotation that such residents believe that the developments are needed in society but should be further away. The residents are often called Nimbys and their state of mind is called Nimbyism.

Architecture that's Built to Heal: Michael Murphy (video and interactive text)
All Watched Over by Machines of Loving Grace (Ep. 2) (youtube)
Paul Gilding: The Earth is Full (youtube)

Dystopia is a community or society that is undesirable or frightening. It is translated as "not-good place"

Cybernetics approach for exploring regulatory systems – their structures, constraints, and possibilities.

Externalities (transferring of problems)

Equilibrium Point is a constant solution to a differential equation.

Rare Earth Element (currency)


Malls and Huge Shopping Centers Repurposed (info-graph)

Self Management

Developed Country is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.

Developing Country is a nation or sovereign state with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.

Least Developed Country
Mental Development?
Sustainable Development

Knowledge Keeper CKK provides for instant desktop analysis of potential impacts of industrial development on traditional land use, species habitat, and any areas of importance to a community. This fully customizable referrals/consultation tracking and management system is configured to suit and support each community’s specific needs and consultation process. The CKK also provides a comprehensive digital community archive for documents, photographs, audio, and video files.

Tools for Data Sharing

Housing (home alternatives)

Land Development is making land more usable by humans without waste, abuse or corruption.

Principles of Intelligent Urbanism is urban planning composed of a set of ten axioms intended to guide the formulation of city plans and urban designs. They are intended to reconcile and integrate diverse urban planning and management concerns. These axioms include environmental sustainability, heritage conservation, appropriate technology, infrastructure-efficiency, placemaking, social access, transit-oriented development, regional integration, human scale, and institutional integrity.

Urban Planning is a technical and political process concerned with the development and use of land, protection and use of the environment, public welfare, and the design of the urban environment, including air, water, and the infrastructure passing into and out of urban areas, such as transportation, communications, and distribution networks. Urban planning is also referred to as urban and regional planning, regional planning, town planning, city planning, rural planning or some combination in various areas worldwide. It takes many forms and it can share perspectives and practices with urban design.

Sustainable City is a city designed with consideration of environmental impact, inhabited by people dedicated to minimization of required inputs of energy, water and food, and waste output of heat, air pollution - CO2, methane, and water pollution.

City Beautiful was a reform philosophy of North American architecture and urban planning that flourished during the 1890s and 1900s with the intent of introducing beautification and monumental grandeur in cities.

Garden City cities were intended to be planned, self-contained communities surrounded by "greenbelts", containing proportionate areas of residences, industry, and agriculture. Parks

Jacque Fresco of The Venus Project believes in having a central computer base where people can ask questions and get answers. Of course this central database will need humans to operate it, humans to manage it, humans to update it, and humans to monitor it. (Autonomic Computing) Computers are not a self reliant entity, they do need human interaction. For now you can just ask the internet a question or ask a search engine a question and get an answer, collectively, it's truly our greatest strength. So we just need to expand on that central database a little more so that people can understand the idea a little better. Jacque has great vision and great ideas. I love his ideas on future cities and society. He just needs to explain the Transition from our old incompetent way of living to the new improved and sustainable way of living. We also need to Retrofit old cities so that we can help maximize this transition and make it easy for everyone during these improvements. And of course we have to come up with a way to educate people so that these improvements are clearly understood by everyone and why we need to make these improvements as quick as possible.  

Photos of Design Ideas for Future Cities (images)

Major Cities only take up 2% of the usable land on earth. But Major Cities are home to 50% of the worlds population, consume 75% of the worlds energy and emit 80% of CO2 Carbon Dioxide. So fixing cities are a good place to start.

Paul Romer: The World's First Charter City (youtube)
Green Building

Charter City is a city in which the governing system is defined by the city's own charter document rather than by state, provincial, regional or national laws. In locations where city charters are allowed by law, a city can adopt or modify its organizing charter by decision of its administration by the way established in the charter. These cities may be administered predominantly by residents or through a third-party management structure, because a charter gives a city the flexibility to choose novel types of government structure. Charter cities are similar in administrative structure to special administrative regions.

Charter City Film (youtube)
Charter Cities

Smart City is an urban development vision to integrate multiple information and communication technology (ICT) and Internet of Things (IoT) solutions in a secure fashion to manage a city's assets – the city's assets include, but are not limited to, local departments' information systems, schools, libraries, transportation systems, hospitals, power plants, water supply networks, waste management, law enforcement, and other community services. The goal of building a smart city is to improve quality of life by using urban informatics and technology to improve the efficiency of services and meet residents' needs. ICT allows city officials to interact directly with the community and the city infrastructure and to monitor what is happening in the city, how the city is evolving, and how to enable a better quality of life. Through the use of sensors integrated with real-time monitoring systems, data are collected from citizens and devices – then processed and analyzed. The information and knowledge gathered are keys to tackling inefficiency.

Smart City Prototype
Smart Cities Initiative
Smart Cities Initiative
Environmentally Sustainable Urban Spaces

Renovation is the process of improving a broken, damaged, or outdated structure. Renovations are typically either commercial or residential. Additionally, renovation can refer to making something new, or bringing something back to life and can apply in social contexts. For example, a community can be renovated if it is strengthened and revive.

Transition Towns refers to grassroot community projects that aim to increase self-sufficiency to reduce the potential effects of peak oil, climate destruction, and economic instability.

Retrofit refers to the addition of new technology or features to older systems.

Repurpose (reuse-re-imagine)

The Death and Life of Great American Cities is a 1961 book by writer and activist Jane Jacobs. The book is a critique of 1950s urban planning policy, which it holds responsible for the decline of many city neighborhoods in the United States. Going against the modernist planning dogma of the era, it proposes a newfound appreciation for organic urban vibrancy in the United States.

Real Estate Development has no specific credential required, or license. Almost any person or company can call himself a real estate developer.

Property is that which belongs to or with something, whether as an attribute or as a component of said thing.

Zoning - Building Codes

Social Economic Development
Social Entrepreneur
Community Solutions
Families and Work
Urban Habitat
Economic Co-Operation
Environmental Leader

The End of Ownership (youtube -VPRO Backlight, 47:52)

Instead of having property lines that just show ownership, we should have lines that show protected areas, polluted areas and areas that could sustain life.

Time-Lapse of a City Growing


Geotechnical Engineering is the branch of civil engineering concerned with the engineering behavior of earth materials. Geotechnical engineering is important in civil engineering, but also has applications in military, mining, petroleum and other engineering disciplines that are concerned with construction occurring on the surface or within the ground. Geotechnical engineering uses principles of soil mechanics and rock mechanics to investigate subsurface conditions and materials; determine the relevant physical/mechanical and chemical properties of these materials; evaluate stability of natural slopes and man-made soil deposits; assess risks posed by site conditions; design earthworks and structure foundations; and monitor site conditions, earthwork and foundation construction.

Geospatial Predictive Modeling is a process for analyzing events through a geographic filter in order to make statements of likelihood for event occurrence or emergence. Spatial environment factors (infrastructure, sociocultural, topographic, etc.) that constrain and influence where the locations of events occur. Geospatial predictive modeling attempts to describe those constraints and influences by spatially correlating occurrences of historical geospatial locations with environmental factors that represent those constraints and influences.

Civil Engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including works like roads, bridges, canals, dams, and buildings.

Engineering Geology is the application of the geological sciences to engineering study for the purpose of assuring that the geological factors regarding the location, design, construction, operation and maintenance of engineering works are recognized and accounted for. Engineering geologists provide geological and geotechnical recommendations, analysis, and design associated with human development and various types of structures. The realm of the engineering geologist is essentially in the area of earth-structure interactions, or investigation of how the earth or earth processes impact human made structures and human activities.

Constructivist Architecture was a form of modern architecture that flourished in the Soviet Union in the 1920s and early 1930s.

Deconstructivism is a development of postmodern architecture that began in the late 1950s. It is influenced by the theory of "Deconstruction", which is a form of semiotic analysis. It is characterized by fragmentation, an interest in manipulating a structure's surface, skin, non-rectilinear shapes which appear to distort and dislocate elements of architecture, such as structure and envelope. The finished visual appearance of buildings that exhibit deconstructivist "styles" is characterized by unpredictability and controlled chaos.


Infrastructure Infrastructure refers to structures, systems, and facilities serving the country, city, town, or area, including technical structures' such as roads, bridges, tunnels, or other constructed facilities such as loading docks, cold storage chambers, electrical capacity, fuel tanks, cranes, overhead clearances, or components of water supplies, sewers, electrical grids, telecommunications, and so forth. Infrastructure thus consists of improvements with significant cost to develop or install that return an important value over time. Transport

Green Infrastructure is a network providing the “ingredients” for solving urban and climatic challenges by building with nature. The main components of this approach include storm-water management, climate adaptation, less heat stress, more biodiversity, food production, better air quality, sustainable energy production, clean water and healthy soils, as well as the more anthropocentric functions such as increased quality of life through recreation and providing shade and shelter in and around towns and cities. Green infrastructure also serves to provide an ecological framework for social, economic and environmental health of the surroundings. Environmental Monitoring

Knowledge Infrastructure (nothing lasts or works effectively without knowledge)

Public Utilities is an organization that maintains the infrastructure for a public service (often also providing a service using that infrastructure). Public utilities are subject to forms of public control and regulation ranging from local community-based groups to statewide government monopolies. Electricity, natural gas, Water, and sewage. Broadband internet services (both fixed-line and mobile) are increasingly being included within the definition.

Public Works are a broad category of infrastructure projects, financed and constructed by the government, for recreational, employment, and health and safety uses in the greater community. They include public buildings (municipal buildings, schools, hospitals), transport infrastructure (roads, railroads, bridges, pipelines, canals, ports, airports), public spaces (public squares, parks, beaches), public services (water supply, sewage, electrical grid, dams), and other, usually long-term, physical assets and facilities. Though often interchangeable with public infrastructure and public capital, public works does not necessarily carry an economic component, thereby being a broader term. Environment - Restoration

City Manager is an official appointed as the administrative manager of a city, in a council–manager form of city government. Local officials serving in this position are sometimes referred to as the chief executive officer (CEO) or chief administrative officer (CAO) in some municipalities.

Office of Management and Budget is the largest office within the Executive Office of the President of the United States.

Public Administration is the implementation of government policy and also an academic discipline that studies this implementation and prepares civil servants for working in the public service.

Municipality is usually a single urban administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and state laws, to which it is subordinate. It is to be distinguished from the county, which may encompass rural territory and/or numerous small communities such as towns, villages and hamlets.

District is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by local government.

Problem Solving
Politics - Economics
Management Tools - Maintenance
Supply Chain - 5 Basic Needs
Public Service - Social Services

Converged Infrastructure operates by grouping multiple information technology (IT) components into a single, optimized computing package. Components of a converged infrastructure may include servers, data storage devices, networking equipment and software for IT infrastructure management, automation and orchestration. IT organizations use converged infrastructure to centralize the management of IT resources, to consolidate systems, to increase resource-utilization rates, and to lower costs. Converged infrastructures foster these objectives by implementing pools of computers, storage and networking resources that can be shared by multiple applications and managed in a collective manner using policy-driven processes. IT vendors and IT industry analysts use various terms to describe the concept of a converged infrastructure. These include "converged system", "unified computing", "fabric-based computing", and "dynamic infrastructure".

World's Highest Bridge Opens in Southwest China (youtube) The Beipanjiang Bridge is a 1,341-meter-long cable-stayed suspension bridge started construction in 2013 - 9/2016. Costing about 1 billion yuan (about 150 million U.S. dollars).
570 meters above a valley, high as 200-story building.

Infrastructure Security is the security provided to protect infrastructure, especially critical infrastructure, such as airports, highways rail transport, hospitals, bridges, transport hubs, network communications, media, the electricity grid, dams, power plants, seaports, oil refineries, and water systems. Infrastructure security seeks to limit vulnerability of these structures and systems to sabotage, terrorism, and contamination. Critical infrastructures naturally utilize information technology as this capability has become more and more available. As a result, they have become highly interconnected, and interdependent. Intrusions and disruptions in one infrastructure might provoke unexpected failures to others. How to handle interdependencies becomes an important problem.

You have to know how the system works in order to improve it, repair it, maintain it and understand it.

Keeping it Clean - Sanitation - Waste Management

City Water (run off management)

Sanitation and Clean Water Sanitation is the hygienic means of promoting health through prevention of human contact with the hazards of wastes as well as the treatment and proper disposal of sewage or wastewater. Hazards can be either physical, microbiological, biological or chemical agents of disease that can cause health problems.

Toilets - Waste Energy

Waste Management - Landfills Garbage Dump

Cleaner is someone who helps keep areas free from dirt or impurities. Makes clean by removing dirt, filth, or unwanted substances from without spreading pollution or contamination.

Maintenance - Infrastructure


Policeman and Two Firemen Security is protection from Harm. The state of being free from danger or injury. Freedom from anxiety or fear. A guarantee that an obligation will be met. Measures taken as a precaution against theft or espionage or sabotage etc. Defense against financial failure.

Public Security is the function of governments which ensures the protection of citizens, organizations, and institutions against threats to their well-being – and to the prosperity of their communities. This includes protection against corruption corporate crimes and abuse from the justice system.

Protection is the act of defending, shielding and guarding someone or something from danger, damage, injury, loss or destruction. Self-Defense

is a safe place. Turn to for assistance or security. A shelter from danger or hardship.

Defense (self) - Home Monitors

Rescue is to save from any violence, danger or evil. To free or liberate from confinement or other physical restraint. Recovery or preservation from loss or danger. Rescue Equipment

Help is to give assistance; be of service. Improve the condition of. Improve; change for the better. The activity of contributing to the fulfillment of a need or furtherance of an effort or purpose. A person who contributes to the fulfillment of a need or furtherance of an effort or purpose.

Assist is to give help or assistance; be of service. The activity of contributing to the fulfillment of a need or furtherance of an effort or purpose.

Consumer Protection - Environment Protection - Information Protection

Safety is the state of being "safe", the condition of being protected from harm or other non-desirable outcomes. Safety can also refer to the control of recognized hazards in order to achieve an acceptable level of Risk.

Safe is free from danger or the Risk of harm. Safety Engineering - Quality Control

Police is a constituted body of persons empowered by the state to enforce the law, protect property, and limit civil disorder. Their powers include the legitimized use of force, but not abuse or misuse. Nuisance

Constable is a person holding a particular office, most commonly in criminal law enforcement. The office of constable can vary significantly in different jurisdictions. A constable is commonly the rank of an officer within the police. Other persons may be granted powers of a constable without holding the title of constable.

Councillor is a member of a local government council.

Knightscope Robotic Security Force - Robo-Cop at your service.

Violence Prevention through Urban Upgrading (VPUU)

Firefighting is the act of attempting to prevent the spread of and extinguish significant unwanted fires in buildings, vehicles, woodlands, etc. A firefighter suppresses fires and performs rescues to protect lives, property and the environment. Firefighters may provide other services to their communities. Firefighters typically undergo a high degree of technical training. This involves both general firefighting techniques and developing specialist expertise in particular fire operations, such as aircraft firefighting and wildland firefighting In the U.S. the national level of certifications are called Firefighter I/II. One of the major hazards associated with firefighting operations is the toxic environment created by combustible materials. The four major risks are smoke, oxygen deficiency, elevated temperatures, and poisonous atmospheres. Additional hazards include falls and structural collapse that can exacerbate the problems entailed in a toxic environment. To combat some of these risks, firefighters carry self-contained breathing equipment. The first step in a firefighting operation is reconnaissance to search for the origin of the fire and to identify the specific risks. Fires can be extinguished by water, fuel or oxidant removal, or chemical flame inhibition.

Firefighter is a rescuer extensively trained in firefighting, primarily to extinguish hazardous fires that threaten life, property and/or the environment. The complexity of modern, industrialized life has created an increase in the skills needed in firefighting technology. The fire service, also known in some countries as the fire brigade or fire department, is one of the three main emergency services. From urban areas to aboard ships, firefighters have become ubiquitous around the world. The goals of firefighting are (in order of priority): Save Life, Save Property, Save the Environment.

Fire Marshal duties vary but usually include Fire Code Enforcement or investigating fires for origin and cause. Fire marshals may be sworn law-enforcement officers and are often experienced firefighters. In larger cities with substantially developed fire departments the local fire departments are sometimes delegated some of the duties of the fire marshal.

First Aid (cpr) - OSHA

Integrated Pest Management is a broad-based approach that integrates practices for economic control of pests. IPM aims to suppress pest populations below the economic injury level (EIL), which is the smallest number of insects (amount of injury) that will cause yield losses equal to the insect management costs. Economic threshold. The pest density at which management action should be taken to prevent an increasing pest population from reaching the economic injury level.

People need safety, insurances and stability. If things go bad, people want to be prepared and avoid catastrophic failures, like wars, diseases and environmental threats. Having insurances makes life a lot more enjoyable and a lot more pleasant. As long as we don't create a false sense of security or forget our responsibilities to maintain life to the highest degree of quality possible.

Emergency Response (disasters - catastrophes)

Transportation - Mobility

Transportation Services
Intelligent Transportation Systems are advanced applications which, without embodying intelligence as such, aim to provide innovative services relating to different modes of transport and traffic management and enable various users to be better informed and make safer, more coordinated, and 'smarter' use of transport networks.

Transportation Planning is the process of defining future policies, goals, investments and designs to prepare for future needs to move people and goods to destinations.

Transportation is the movement of people, animals and goods from one location to another. Modes of transport include air, rail, road, water, cable, pipeline and space. The field can be divided into infrastructure, vehicles and operations. Transport is important because it enables trade between people, which is essential for the development of civilizations.

Public Transportation is a shared passenger-transport service which is available for use by the general public, as distinct from modes such as taxicab, carpooling, or hired buses, which are not shared by strangers without private arrangement.

Freight Transport - Logistics - Sustainable Transport

Vac-Train is a proposed design for very-high-speed rail transportation. Maglev (magnetic levitation).

Environmentally Safe Roads

Walking Symbol for Foot Traffic Walkability or Walk Score is a measure of how friendly an area is to walking. Walkability has health, environmental, and economic benefits.

The City with the Highest Walking Score is New York with a walk score rating of 87.6 , then San Francisco 83.9, Boston 79.5, Philadelphia 76.5, Miami 75.6, Chicago 74.8, Washington, D.C. 74.1, Seattle 70.8, Oakland 68.5 and Baltimore with 66.2.

New Pedestrianism
Jeff Speck: The Walkable City (video)
4 ways to make a city more walkable: Jeff Speck (video and interactive text)
Walkable Communities
Global Street Design Guide - National Association of City Transportation Officials.
Superblocks: How Barcelona is taking city streets back from cars (youtube)
Vegamálun GÍH - 3D Cross walk Design makes cross walks more visible (youtube)
Sidewalks that Generate Electricity just by people walking on them.

Pedestrians is a person traveling on foot, whether walking or running. In some communities, those traveling using tiny wheels such as roller skates, skateboards, and scooters, as well as wheelchair users are also included as pedestrians. In modern times, the term usually refers to someone walking on a road or pavement, but this was not the case historically.

Walking is one of the main gaits of locomotion among legged animals, and is typically slower than running and other gaits. Walking is defined by an 'inverted pendulum' gait in which the body vaults over the stiff limb or limbs with each step. This applies regardless of the number of limbs - even arthropods, with six, eight or more limbs, walk. Gait is the pattern of movement of the limbs of animals, including humans, during locomotion over a solid substrate. Body Smart

How Your Neighborhood May Impact Your Health and Well-Being. Residents of traditional neighborhoods walk the most, while residents of suburban developments report the best mental health, the UA's Adriana Zuniga-Teran found.

Hypermobility travelers are "highly mobile individuals" who take "frequent trips, often over great distances.
Project for Public Spaces
LA Open Acres
Spaces Awareness
Urbanized (video)

Mobilities is a contemporary paradigm in the social sciences that explores the movement of people, ideas and things, as well as the broader social implications of those movements. Mobility Types

Social Mobility  is the movement of individuals, families, households, or other categories of people within or between social strata in a society. It is a change in social status relative to others' social location within a given society.

Geographic Mobility is the measure of how populations move over time.

Economic Mobility is the ability of an individual, family or some other group to improve (or lower) their economic status—usually measured in income.

Academic Mobility refers to students and teachers in higher education moving to another institution inside or outside their own country to study or teach for a limited time.
Bicycle Transport
Bicycle Transportation Engineering is designing and implementation of cycling infrastructure.

Utility Cycling encompasses any cycling done simply as a means of transport rather than as a sport or leisure activity. It is the original and most common type of cycling in the world.

Bike City, Great City (2014) (video)
Junction Design in the Netherlands (youtube)
How Amsterdam Cleverly Reconfigured Its Bike Crossings To Allow More Riders At Once (youtube)

Biking Knowledge and Information

Streetfilms-Ciclovia (Bogotá, Colombia) Every Sunday and holiday, every week, the City of Bogotá, Colombia closes down over 70 miles of roadways to cars and let people bike, walk, talk, exercise, picnic, sunbathe, I could go on and on. Just watch the video, it's amazing. Street Films

Tactical Urbanism and Demonstration Projects
Action Physics
American Public Transportation Association
Transit Projects
Solar Roadways

Vehicle Infrastructure Integration is an initiative fostering research and applications development for a series of technologies directly linking road vehicles to their physical surroundings, first and foremost in order to improve road safety.

Traffic Engineering is designing safe and efficient movement of people and goods on roadways. It focuses mainly on research for safe and efficient traffic flow, such as road geometry, sidewalks and crosswalks, cycling infrastructure, traffic signs, road surface markings and traffic lights.

Traffic Safety

Sustainable Transport evaluating sustainability include the particular vehicles used for road, water or air transport; the source of energy; and the infrastructure used to accommodate the transport (roads, railways, airways, waterways, canals and terminals).

Transportation Alternatives
Transportation Alternatives (TA) Data Exchange
Transportation Choices - Shared Cars

Balanced Transportation Analyzer - Komanoff

Chinese Street Surveillance. Object / Face Recognition (youtube) Shows number of Cars, Trucks, Bicycles and Pedestrians in real time.

Transit-Oriented Development is a mixed-use residential and commercial area designed to maximize access to public transport, and often incorporates features to encourage transit ridership while dissuading the ownership of automobiles. A TOD neighborhood typically has a center with a transit station or stop (train station, metro station, tram stop, or bus stop), surrounded by relatively high-density development with progressively lower-density development spreading outward from the center. TODs generally are located within a radius of one-quarter to one-half mile (400 to 800 m) from a transit stop, as this is considered to be an appropriate scale for pedestrians, thus solving the last mile problem. Overlay zoning is a regulatory tool that creates a special zoning district, placed over an existing base zone(s), which identifies special provisions in addition to those in the underlying base zone.

Parks - Open Spaces

City Park near Lake Side Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat

Urban Ecology is the scientific study of the relation of living organisms with each other and their surroundings in the context of an urban environment. The urban environment refers to environments dominated by high-density residential and commercial buildings, paved surfaces, and other urban-related factors that create a unique landscape dissimilar to most previously studied environments in the field of ecology. Landscaping

The Nature of Cities
The Nature of Cities (video)

Reappropriation is the cultural process by which a group reclaims terms or artifacts that were previously used in a way disparaging of that group.

Social Center are community spaces. They are buildings which are used for a range of disparate activities, which can be linked only by being not-for-profit. They might be organizing centers for local activities or they might provide support networks for minority groups such as prisoners and refugees. Often they provide a base for initiatives such as cafes, free shops, public computer labs, graffiti murals, legal collectives and free housing for travellers. The services are determined by both the needs of the community in which the social center is based and the skills which the participants have to offer.

Community Building is a field of practices directed toward the creation or enhancement of community among individuals within a regional area (such as a neighborhood) or with a common interest. It is sometimes encompassed under the field of community development.

Community Centre are public locations where members of a community tend to gather for group activities, social support, public information, and other purposes. They may sometimes be open for the whole community or for a specialized group within the greater community.

Cultural Space - Diversity

Souq is an open-air marketplace or commercial quarter in Western Asian and North African cities.

Market is a location where people regularly gather for the purchase and sale of provisions, livestock, and other goods.

Personal Space (solitude)

Common Land is land owned collectively by a number of persons, or by one person, but over which other people have certain traditional rights, such as to allow their livestock to graze upon it, to collect firewood, or to cut turf for fuel.

City Engineer
Future Cities
Environmental Impacts

City Parks is a park in cities which may have playgrounds, gardens, hiking, running and fitness trails or paths, bridle paths, sports fields and courts, public restrooms, boat ramps and/or picnic facilities, depending on the budget and natural features available.

Open Space Reserve is an area of protected or conserved land or water on which development is indefinitely set aside.
Place Meter Urban Intelligence Platform helps quantify how public space is used structured data about pedestrian, bike, and vehicle traffic. Tools for Data Sharing
Carto is an open, powerful, and intuitive platform for discovering and predicting the key insights underlying the location data in our world.

Land Economics comprises all naturally occurring resources whose supply is inherently fixed. Examples are any and all particular geographical locations, mineral deposits, forests, fish stocks, atmospheric quality, geostationary orbits, and portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Natural resources are fundamental to the production of all goods, including capital goods. Location values must not be confused with values imparted by fixed capital improvements. In classical economics, land is considered one of the three factors of production (also sometimes called the three producer goods) along with capital, and labor. Land is sometimes merged with capital to simplify micro-economics. However, a common mistake is combining land and capital in macro-analysis. Income derived from ownership or control of natural resources is referred to as rent.

National Parks is a park in use for conservation purposes. Often it is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state declares or owns.

Wilderness is a natural environment on Earth that has not been significantly modified by civilized human activity. It may also be defined as: "The most intact, undisturbed wild natural areas left on our planet—those last truly wild places that humans do not control and have not developed with roads, pipelines or other industrial infrastructure.

Conservation of Land (orginizations)
There is a big difference between Developing Land and Destroying Land, make sure that people know the difference.

Stadium Maracana 2013 Multi-Purpose Stadium are a type of stadium designed to be easily used by multiple types of events. While any stadium could potentially host more than one type of sport or event, this concept usually refers to a specific design philosophy that stresses multifunctionality over specificity.

Wolfgang Kessling: Building Outdoor Arenas (video)

Stadium is a place or venue for (mostly) outdoor sports, concerts, or other events and consists of a field or stage either partly or completely surrounded by a tiered structure designed to allow spectators to stand or sit and view the event.

Arena is an enclosed area, often circular or oval-shaped, designed to showcase theater, musical performances, or sporting events.

Coliseum is an oval amphitheatre in the centre of the city of Rome, Italy.

Amphitheatre is an open-air venue used for entertainment, performances, and sports.

Paint Colors (video)
Bjarke Ingels: Sustainable Design (video)
Sustainable Lawns and Landscapes
Before I Die

Urban Morphology is the study of the form of human settlements and the process of their formation and transformation. The study seeks to understand the spatial structure and character of a metropolitan area, city, town or village by examining the patterns of its component parts and the pro\ , ownership or control and occupation. Typically, analysis of physical form focuses on street pattern, lot (or, in the UK, plot) pattern and building pattern, sometimes referred to collectively as urban grain. Analysis of specific settlements is usually undertaken using cartographic sources and the process of development is deduced from comparison of historic maps.

Sustainable Development

Urban Decay is the process whereby a previously functioning city, or part of a city, falls into disrepair and decrepitude. It may feature deindustrialization, depopulation or changing population, restructuring, abandoned buildings, high local unemployment, fragmented families, political disenfranchisement, crime, and a desolate, inhospitable city landscape.

Noise Pollution - Pollution
Location Dangers - Floods

Resident Assistant is a trained peer leader who supervises those living in a residence hall or group housing facility. The majority of RAs work at colleges, universities, or residential mental health and substance abuse facilities.

Mixed-use Development is a type of urban development that blends residential, commercial, cultural, institutional, or industrial uses, where those functions are physically and functionally integrated, and that provides pedestrian connections. Greater housing variety and density, reduced distances between housing, workplaces, retail businesses, and other destinations, more compact development, stronger neighborhood character, pedestrian and bicycle-friendly environments.

Official Development Assistance is widely used as an indicator of international aid flow. It includes some loans.

Development Aid is financial aid given by governments and other agencies to support the economic, environmental, social, and political development of developing countries. It is distinguished from humanitarian aid by focusing on alleviating poverty in the long term, rather than a short term response.

Egalitarianism is a trend of thought that favors equality for all people.

We should not have Ghetto's

Human Development Index


Industry - Resources

Industry - Inside a Factory Industry is the Production of Goods or related Services within an Economy.

Industrialization is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society into an industrial one, involving the extensive re-organisation of an economy for the purpose of manufacturing.

Automation is the use of various control systems for operating equipment such as machinery, processes in factories, boilers and heat treating ovens, switching on telephone networks, steering and stabilization of ships, aircraft and other applications with minimal or reduced human intervention. Some processes have been completely automated.

Peer Production is a way of producing goods and services that relies on self-organizing communities of individuals. In such communities, the labor of a large number of people is coordinated towards a shared outcome.

Manufacturing is the value added production of merchandise for use or sale using labour and machines, tools, chemical and biological processing, or formulation. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from handicraft to high tech, but is most commonly applied to industrial production, in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale. Such finished goods may be used for manufacturing other, more complex products, such as aircraft, household appliances or automobiles, or sold to wholesalers, who in turn sell them to retailers, who then sell them to end users and consumers.

Mining (resources)

Textile Manufacturing is based on the conversion of fibre into yarn, yarn into fabric. These are then dyed or printed, fabricated into clothes. Different types of fibre are used to produce yarn. Cotton remains the most important natural fibre, so is treated in depth. There are many variable processes available at the spinning and fabric-forming stages coupled with the complexities of the finishing and Coloration Dyes processes to the production of a wide ranges of products. There remains a large industry that uses hand techniques to achieve the same results. Clothing Waste.

Means of Production are physical, non-human inputs used for the production of economic value, such as facilities, machinery, tools, infrastructural capital and natural capital.

Division of Labour is the separation of tasks in any economic system so that participants may specialize. Individuals, organizations, and nations are endowed with or acquire specialized capabilities and either form combinations or trade to take advantage of the capabilities of others in addition to their own. Specialized capabilities may include equipment or natural resources in addition to skills and training and complex combinations of such assets are often important, as when multiple items of specialized equipment and skilled operators are used to produce a single product. The division of labour is the motive for trade and the source of economic interdependence.

Jobs (work - employment)

Procedural Justice is the idea of fairness in the processes that resolve disputes and allocate resources.

The Third Industrial Revolution

Sustainable - Energy

Industrial Development Report Series

Cooperation instead of Competition

Work Force

Group of Workers Merchant is a business person who trades in commodities produced by other people.

Business is an organizational entity involved in the provision of goods and services to people.

Small and Medium Enterprises are businesses whose personnel numbers fall below certain limits.

Commerce is the activity of buying and selling of goods and services, especially on a large scale. The system includes legal, economic, political, social, cultural and technological systems that are in operation in any country or internationally.

Commerce Department is to create the conditions for economic growth and opportunity.

Chamber of Commerce of the U.S. is the world’s largest business organization representing the interests of more than 3 million businesses of all sizes, sectors, and regions. Our members range from mom-and-pop shops and local chambers to leading industry associations and large corporations. They all share one thing—they count on the Chamber to be their voice in Washington, D.C.. Department of Commerce (cabinet)

Global Business Coalition brings together leading independent business associations from the major world economies and advocates on behalf of more than 6.8 million small, medium and large companies.

Small Business Administration

Business Development entails tasks and processes to develop and implement growth opportunities within and between organizations. It is a subset of the fields of business, commerce and organizational theory. Business development is the creation of long-term value for an organization from customers, markets, and relationships.

Private Sector is the part of the economy, sometimes referred to as the citizen sector, which is run by private individuals or groups, usually as a means of service, and is not controlled by the State (areas of the economy controlled by the state being referred to as the public sector). The private sector employs most of the workforce in some countries. In private sector activities are guided by the motive to provide services that are sustainable, fair and reliable.

Trade - Fair Trade

Artisan is a skilled craft worker who makes or creates things by hand. Artist

Craftsman is a Profession that requires particular skills and knowledge of skilled work. People in small-scale production of goods, or their maintenance. The traditional terms craftsman and craftswoman are nowadays often replaced by artisan and rarely by craftsperson (craftspeople).

Master Craftsman is to pass through career training from apprentice to journeyman and then to Master Craftsman.

Craft Production is the process of manufacturing by hand with or without the aid of tools.

Skilled Worker is any worker who has special skill, training, knowledge, and (usually acquired) ability in their work.

Tradesman refers to a worker that specializes in a particular trade or craft requiring skill.

Profession is a vocation founded upon specialized educational training, the purpose of which is to supply disinterested objective counsel and service to others. Disinterested is not manipulated or biased by self-interest.

Employment (employees)

Production Factories

Labor Economics seeks to understand the functioning and dynamics of the markets for wage labour.

Manual Labor is physical work done by people, instead of using machines.

Wage Labour is working for Money.

Money Alternatives

Tailor is a person who makes, repairs, or alters clothing professionally, especially suits and men's clothing.

Creative Designing - Fashion

Knit is a method by which yarn is manipulated to create a textile or fabric.

Textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres (yarn or thread). Yarn is produced by spinning raw fibres of wool, flax, cotton, or other material to produce long strands. Textiles are formed by weaving, knitting, crocheting, knotting, or felting. Clothing

Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, embroidery, or rope making. Thread is a type of yarn intended for sewing by hand or machine. Modern manufactured sewing threads may be finished with wax or other lubricants to withstand the stresses involved in sewing. Embroidery threads are yarns specifically designed for hand or machine embroidery.

Weaving is a method of textile production in which two distinct sets of yarns or threads are interlaced at right angles to form a fabric or cloth. Other methods are knitting, felting, and braiding or plaiting. The longitudinal threads are called the warp and the lateral threads are the weft or filling. Weaving a Bed, amazing Katiya Bunai (youtube)

Lime Bast Rope. Video of making a rope from lime bast, the way it's been done for over a thousand years in Norway.

Shoemaking is the process of making footwear, which are garments worn on the feet, which originally serves to purpose of protection against adversities of the environment, usually regarding ground textures and temperature.

Barber is a person whose occupation is mainly to cut, dress, groom, style and shave men's and boys' hair.

Professions Teacher (education)

Farmer (food)

Grocery Store is a retail store that primarily sells food.

Food Preparation - Cooking

Outdoor Schools (camps)

Energy (power)

Hotels - Motels - Hotel Types

Housing (homes)

Tourism is travel for pleasure or business; also the theory and practice of touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and the business of operating tours. Tourism may be international, or within the traveller's country.

Journalism (reporting)

Printing is a process for reproducing text and images using a master form or template.

Carpentry - Woodworking
Blacksmith - Welder - Machinist
Engineering - Design - Architecture


Construction is the process of constructing a building or infrastructure. Construction differs from manufacturing in that manufacturing typically involves mass production of similar items without a designated purchaser, while construction typically takes place on location for a known client.

Construction Worker is a tradesperson, labourer (by tradition considered an unskilled tradesperson), or professional employed in the physical construction of the built environment and its infrastructure.

Laborer is a person who works in one of the construction trades, traditionally considered unskilled manual labor, as opposed to skilled labor. Laborers are also employed outside of the construction industry, in fields such as road paving, shoveling snow, digging graves, chain gangs, and picking up leaves. In the division of labor, laborers have all blasting, hand tools, power tools, air tools, and small heavy equipment, and act as assistants to other trades.

House Painter is a tradesman responsible for the painting and decorating of buildings, and is also known as a decorator or house painter. The purpose of painting is to improve the aesthetic of a building and to protect it from damage by water, rust, corrosion, insects and mold.

Stone Mason - Brick Layer

Heavy Equipment Operators refers to heavy-duty vehicles, specially designed for executing construction tasks, most frequently ones involving earthwork operations. Also known as heavy machines, heavy trucks, construction equipment, engineering equipment, heavy vehicles, or heavy hydraulics. They usually comprise five equipment systems: implement, traction, structure, power train, control and information. Heavy equipment functions through the mechanical advantage of a simple machine, the ratio between input force applied and force exerted is multiplied. Some equipment uses hydraulic drives as a primary source of motion.

Construction Surveying is to stake out reference points and markers that will guide the construction of new structures such as roads or buildings. These markers are usually staked out according to a suitable coordinate system selected for the project

Surveying is the technique, profession, and science of determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional position of points and the distances and angles between them. A land surveying professional is called a land surveyor. These points are usually on the surface of the Earth, and they are often used to establish land maps and boundaries for ownership, locations like building corners or the surface location of subsurface features, or other purposes required by government or civil law, such as property sales.

Sustainable Landscapes

Mechanic is a tradesman, craftsman, or technician who uses tools to build or repair machinery.

Auto Mechanic is a mechanic with a variety of automobile makes or either in a specific area or in a specific make of automobile. In repairing cars, their main role is to diagnose the problem accurately and quickly. They often have to quote prices for their customers before commencing work or after partial disassembly for inspection. Their job may involve the repair of a specific part or the replacement of one or more parts as assemblies.

Technician is a worker in a field of technology who is proficient in the relevant skills and techniques, with a relatively practical understanding of the theoretical principles.


Pipefitter is a tradesperson who installs, assembles, fabricates, maintains and repairs mechanical piping systems. Pipefitters usually begin as helpers or apprentices. Journeyman pipefitters deal with industrial/commercial/marine piping and heating/cooling systems.

Plumber is a tradesperson who specializes in installing and maintaining systems used for potable (drinking) water, sewage and drainage in plumbing systems. The term dates from ancient times and is related to the Latin word for lead, "plumbum".

Solder less Copper- Just for Copper
Compression Fitting are used in plumbing and electrical conduit systems to join two tubes or thin-walled pipes together. In instances where two pipes made of dissimilar materials are to be joined (most commonly PVC and copper), the fittings will be made of one or more compatible materials appropriate for the connection. Compression fittings for attaching tubing (piping) commonly have ferrules (or olives in the UK) in them. Compression fittings are also used extensively for hot and cold water faucets (taps) and toilet stop valves; compression fittings are well suited to this application, as these valves are usually located in confined spaces where copper pipe would be difficult to solder without creating a fire hazard. Also, the fittings allow easy disconnection and reconnection. How to Solder Copper Pipe (Important Tips!!) -- by Home Repair Tutor (youtube)

Electrician (electrical energy)

More Professions

Independent Contractor is a natural person, business, or corporation that provides goods or services to another entity under terms specified in a contract or within a verbal agreement. Unlike an employee, an independent contractor does not work regularly for an employer but works as and when required, during which time he or she may be subject to law of agency. Independent contractors are usually paid on a freelance basis. Contractors often work through a limited company or franchise, which they themselves own, or may work through an umbrella company.

General Contractor is responsible for the day-to-day oversight of a construction site, management of vendors and trades, and the communication of information to all involved parties throughout the course of a building project.

Subcontractor is an individual or in many cases a business that signs a contract to perform part or all of the obligations of another's contract. A subcontractor is a person who is hired by a general contractor (or prime contractor, or main contractor) to perform a specific task as part of the overall project and is normally paid for services provided to the project by the originating general contractor. While the most common concept of a subcontractor is in building works and civil engineering, the range of opportunities for subcontractor is much wider and it is possible that the greatest number now operate in the information technology and information sectors of business.

Trade Schools (careers)

Child Care

Elderly Care

Health Care

Temporary Workers

Contingent Workforce is an employment relationship which is considered non-permanent. These jobs are typically part time (typically with variable hours), have limited job security, and result in payment on a piece work basis. Contingent work is usually not considered to be a career or part of a career. One of the features of contingent work is that it usually offers little or no opportunity for career development. Contingent workers are also often called freelancers, independent professionals, temporary contract workers, independent contractors, or consultants.

Migrant Worker has different official meanings and connotations in different parts of the world. The United Nations' definition is broad, many people were working outside of their home country. Some of these are called expatriates. Several countries have millions of foreign workers. Some have millions of illegal immigrants, most of them being workers also.

Consultants is a professional who provides expert advice in a particular area such as security (electronic or physical), management, education, accountancy, law, human resources, marketing (and public relations), finance, engineering, science or any of many other specialized fields.

Legal Help

Funeral Director is a professional involved in the business of funeral rites. These tasks often entail the embalming and burial or cremation of the dead, as well as the planning and arrangement of the actual funeral ceremony. Funeral directors may at times be asked to perform tasks such as dressing (in garments usually suitable for daily wear), casketing (placing the human body in the coffin), and cossetting (applying any sort of cosmetic or substance to the viewable areas of the corpse for the purpose of enhancing its appearance). A funeral director may work at a funeral home or be an independent employee. (also known as an undertaker (British English) or mortician (American English).




Humanitarian Aid is material and logistic assistance to people in need. It is usually short-term help until the long-term help by government and other institutions replaces it.

Creative Design

Retail includes product, price, place, promotion, personnel and presentation.

Product is anything that can be offered to a market that might satisfy a want or need. In retailing, products are called merchandise. In manufacturing, products are bought as raw materials and sold as finished goods. A service is another common product type.

Goods (economics) (value measuring)

Starting a Business


Adventure Jobs
Adventure Schools

Arts - Entertainment 

Career Advice
Professional Training

Worker Qualities


Accredited - Credentials

Supply Chain

Supply Chain Supply Chain is a system of organizations, people, activities, information, and resources involved in moving a product or service from supplier to customer. Supply chain activities involve the transformation of natural resources, raw materials, and components into a finished product that is delivered to the end customer. In sophisticated supply chain systems, used products may re-enter the supply chain at any point where residual value is recyclable. Supply chains link value chains.

Supply Chain Management is managing the flow of goods and services, that involves the movement and storage of raw materials, of work-in-process inventory, and of finished goods from point of origin to point of consumption. Interconnected or interlinked networks, channels and node businesses combine in the provision of products and services required by end customers in a supply chain. Supply-chain management has been defined as the "design, planning, execution, control, and monitoring of supply chain activities with the objective of creating net value, building a competitive infrastructure, leveraging worldwide logistics, synchronizing supply with demand and measuring performance globally." SCM practice draws heavily from the areas of industrial engineering, systems engineering, operations management, logistics, procurement, information technology, and marketing and strives for an integrated approach. Marketing channels play an important role in supply chain management. (Supply Chain Buyer). Monitoring

Fair Transport - Sustainable Transport

Supplier (production - manufacturing) - Distributer

"There's almost a trillion boxes in transit and being shipped all around the world everyday. It's like cells being pumped through the human body, except this body is planet earth." Ace Tool Commerce Shipping - Global Shipping

Raw Material is a basic material that is used to produce goods, finished products, energy, or intermediate materials which are feedstock for future finished products.

Resource is a source or supply from which benefit is produced. Resources can be broadly classified on bases upon their availability they are renewable and non renewable resources. They can also be classified as actual and potential on the basis of level of development and use , on the basis of origin they can be classified as biotic and abiotic, and in the base of their distribution as ubiquitous and localized. An item becomes a resource with time and developing technology. Typically resources are materials, energy, services, staff, knowledge, or other assets that are transformed to produce benefit and in the process may be consumed or made unavailable. Benefits of resource utilization may include increased wealth or wants, proper functioning of a system, or enhanced well being. From a human perspective a natural resource is anything obtained from the environment to satisfy human needs and wants. From a broader biological or ecological perspective a resource satisfies the needs of a living organism (see biological resource). Resources have three main characteristics: utility, limited availability, and potential for depletion or consumption. Resources have been variously categorized as biotic versus abiotic, renewable versus non-renewable, and potential versus actual, along with more elaborate classification.

Food Chain is a linear network of links in a food web starting from producer organisms (such as grass or trees which use radiation from the sun to make their food) and ending at apex predator species (like grizzly bears or killer whales), detritivores (like earthworms or woodlice), or decomposer species (such as fungi or bacteria).

Consumer is a person or organization that uses economic services or commodities, hopefully in a sustainable and non polluting way without waste or abuse. Utility (purpose).

Customer is the recipient of a good, service, product or an idea - obtained from a seller, vendor, or supplier via a financial transaction or exchange for money or some other valuable consideration. (sometimes known as a client, buyer, or purchaser).

Logistics is the handling of an operation that involves providing labor and materials to be supplied as needed, a detailed organization and implementation of a complex operation. Logistics is the management of the flow of things between the point of origin and the point of consumption in order to meet requirements of customers. The resources managed in logistics can include physical items such as food, materials, animals, equipment, and liquids; as well as abstract items, such as time and information. The logistics of physical items usually involves the integration of information flow, material handling, production, packaging, inventory, transportation, warehousing, and often security.

Reverse Logistics is for all operations related to the reuse of products and materials. It is "the process of moving goods from their typical final destination for the purpose of capturing value, or proper disposal. Remanufacturing and refurbishing activities also may be included in the definition of reverse logistics. The reverse logistics process includes the management and the sale of surplus as well as returned equipment and machines from the hardware leasing business. Normally, logistics deal with events that bring the product towards the customer. In the case of reverse logistics, the resource goes at least one step back in the supply chain. For instance, goods move from the customer to the distributor or to the manufacturer.

Recycling - Reusing

Returns cost retailers about $260 billion each year. "Retailers" is another word for "People and Environment".

Procurement is the process of finding, agreeing terms and acquiring goods, services or works from an external source, often via a tendering or competitive bidding process. The process is used to ensure the buyer receives goods, services or works at the best possible price, when aspects such as quality, quantity, time, and location are compared. Almost all purchasing decisions include factors such as delivery and handling, marginal benefit, and price fluctuations. Procurement generally involves making buying decisions under conditions of scarcity. If good data is available, it is good practice to make use of economic analysis methods such as cost-benefit analysis or cost-utility analysis. An important distinction should be made between analyses without risk and those with risk. Where risk is involved, either in the costs or the benefits, the concept of best value should be employed. Procurement activities are often split into two distinct categories, direct and indirect spend. Direct spend refers to production-related procurement that encompasses all items that are part of finished products, such as raw material, components and parts. Direct procurement, which is the focus in supply chain management, directly affects the production process of manufacturing firms. In contrast, indirect procurement concerns non-production-related acquisition: obtaining “operating resources” which a company purchases to enable its operations. Indirect procurement comprises a wide variety of goods and services, from standardized items like office supplies and machine lubricants to complex and costly products and services like heavy equipment, consulting services, and outsourcing services.

Sourcing as the process of identifying sources that could provide needed products or services for the acquiring organization. The term procurement used to reflect the entire purchasing process or cycle, and not just the tactical components. ISM defines procurement as an organizational function that includes specifications development, value analysis, supplier market research, negotiation, buying activities, contract administration, inventory control, traffic, receiving and stores. Purchasing refers to the major function of an organization that is responsible for acquisition of required materials, services and equipment.

Acquisition as the conceptualization, initiation, design, development, test, contracting, production, deployment, Logistics Support (LS), modification, and disposal of waste and other systems, supplies, or services (including construction) to satisfy Department needs, intended for use in or in support of missions. Acquisition and sourcing are therefore much wider concepts than procurement. Multiple sourcing business models exist, and acquisition models exist.

Distribution (economics) is the way total output, income, or wealth is distributed among individuals or among the factors of production (such as labour, land, and capital). Equally.

Distribution (business) is one of the four elements of the marketing mix. Distribution is the process of making a product or service available for the consumer or business user that needs it. This can be done directly by the producer or service provider, or using indirect channels with intermediaries. The other three parts of the marketing mix are product, pricing, and promotion.

Distribution Resource Planning is a method used in business administration for planning orders within a supply chain. DRP enables the user to set certain inventory control parameters (like a safety stock) and calculate the time-phased inventory
requirements. This process is also commonly referred to as distribution requirements planning. DRP uses several variables: The required quantity of product needed at the beginning of a period. The constrained quantity of product available at the beginning of a period. The recommended order quantity at the beginning of a period. The backordered demand at the end of a period. The on-hand inventory at the end of a period. DRP needs the following information: The demand in a future period. The scheduled
receipts at the beginning of a period. The on-hand inventory at the beginning of a period. The safety stock requirement for a period.

Food Distribution is the process in which a general population is supplied with food. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) considers food distribution as a subset of the food system.

Resource Distribution refers to the distribution of resources, including land, water, minerals, fuel and wealth in general among corresponding geographic entities (states, countries, etc.).

Optoro is a technology company that works with retailers and manufacturers to manage and then resell their returned and excess merchandise.

Commissary are officials charged with overseeing the purchase and delivery of supplies.

Coops (food security)

Food Supply Chain Quarter of a million tons of food could be saved a year with better logistics - Food Waste

Material Flow Accounting is the study of material flows on a national or regional scale. It is therefore sometimes also referred to as regional, national or economy-wide material flow analysis.

Transport Engineering is the application of technology and scientific principles to the planning, functional design, operation and management of facilities for any mode of transportation in order to provide for the safe, efficient, rapid, comfortable, convenient, economical, and environmentally compatible movement of people and goods (transport). It is a sub-discipline of civil engineering.

Public Transportation

Cargo Ship is any sort of ship or vessel that carries cargo, goods, and materials from one port to another. Thousands of cargo carriers ply the world's seas and oceans each year, handling the bulk of international trade. Cargo ships are usually specially designed for the task, often being equipped with cranes and other mechanisms to load and unload, and come in all sizes. Today, they are almost always built by welded steel, and with some exceptions generally have a life expectancy of 25 to 30 years before being scrapped.

Tres Hombres: Engineless Sailing Cargo Ship that doesn't Pollute the Environment - Sustainable Trade

Container Ship are cargo ships that carry all of their load in truck-size intermodal containers, in a technique called containerization. They are a common means of commercial intermodal freight transport and now carry most seagoing non-bulk cargo. Container ship capacity is measured in twenty-foot equivalent units (TEU). Typical loads are a mix of 20-foot and 40-foot (2-TEU) ISO-standard containers, with the latter predominant. Today, about 90% of non-bulk cargo worldwide is transported by container, and modern container ships can carry over 19,000 TEU (e.g., MSC Zoe). Container ships now rival crude oil tankers and bulk carriers as the largest commercial vessels on the ocean.

Emma Maersk | World's Largest Cargo Ship | History Documentary Films (youtube) - Can carry 12,000 Containers.

Merchant Vessel is a boat or ship that transports cargo or carries passengers for hire. This excludes pleasure craft that do not carry passengers for hire; warships are also excluded.

Freight Transport is the physical process of transporting commodities and merchandise goods and cargo. The term shipping originally referred to transport by sea, but is extended in American English to refer to transport by land or air (International English: "carriage") as well. "Logistics", a term borrowed from the military environment, is also fashionably used in the same sense.

Driving is the controlled operation and movement of a motorized vehicle with wheels, such as a car, motorcycle, truck, or bus by either a human or computer controller.

Chauffeur is a person employed to drive a passenger motor vehicle. Transportation

Truck Driver is a person who earns a living as the driver of a truck (usually a semi truck, box truck or dump truck).

Truck is a motor vehicle designed to transport cargo. Trucks vary greatly in size, power, and configuration; smaller varieties may be mechanically similar to some automobiles. Commercial trucks can be very large and powerful, and may be configured to mount specialized equipment, such as in the case of fire trucks and concrete mixers and suction excavators.

Semi-Trailer Truck is the combination of a tractor unit and one or more semi-trailers to carry freight.

Tesla Semi Truck is the safest, most comfortable, easy to drive, and lowest energy cost per mile then any other truck ever built so far. Electric Cars

Marbie Delivery Robots are creating a fleet of intelligent courier robots to reliably and securely transport the goods that people need and want in a way that is accessible to everyone. Marble’s robot is perfectly suited to transport the essentials including
groceries, meals, and medicine. Self Driving Vehicles

Road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two places that has been paved or otherwise improved to allow travel by foot or some form of conveyance, including a motor vehicle, cart, bicycle, or horse. Roads that are available for use by the public may be referred to as parkways, avenues, freeways, interstates, highways, or primary, secondary, and tertiary local roads.

Highway is any public road or other public way on land. It is used for major roads, but also includes other public roads and public tracks: It is not an equivalent term to controlled-access highway, or a translation for autobahn, autoroute, etc.

Delivery is the process of transporting goods from a source location to a predefined destination.

Package Delivery is the delivery of shipping containers, parcels, or high value mail as single shipments. The service is provided by most postal systems, express mail, private courier companies, and less than truckload shipping carriers.

Airline is a company that provides air transport services for traveling passengers and freight. Airlines utilize aircraft to supply these services and may form partnerships or alliances with other airlines for codeshare agreements.

Cargo Airline are airlines mainly dedicated to the transport of cargo by air. Some cargo airlines are divisions or subsidiaries of larger passenger airlines.

Airplane (action physics)

Travel Warnings - Monitoring


Predicting - Planning

The Thinker Man