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Chemistry Laboratory Glassware Chemistry is the Science of Matter; The branch of the natural sciences dealing with the Composition of Substances and their Properties and ReactionsBiology

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Chemical Hazrd Symbols Chemist is a scientist trained in the study of chemistry. Chemists study the composition of matter and its properties. Chemists carefully describe the properties they study in terms of quantities, with detail on the level of molecules and their component atoms. Chemists carefully measure substance proportions, reaction rates, and other chemical properties. Drug Research

Chemical Substance is a form of matter that has constant chemical composition and characteristic properties. It cannot be separated into components by physical separation methods, i.e., without breaking chemical bonds. Chemical substances can be chemical elements, chemical compounds, ions or alloys.

Chemical Property is any of a material's properties that becomes evident during, or after, a chemical reaction; that is, any quality that can be established only by changing a substance's chemical identity. Simply speaking, chemical properties cannot be determined just by viewing or touching the substance; the substance's internal structure must be affected greatly for its chemical properties to be investigated. When a substance goes under a chemical reaction, the properties will change drastically, resulting in chemical change. However, a catalytic property would also be a chemical property.

Chemical Composition refers to the arrangement, type, and ratio of atoms in molecules of chemical substances. Chemical composition varies when chemicals are added or subtracted from a substance, when the ratio of substances changes, or when other chemical changes occur in chemicals.

Mixture is a material system made up of two or more different substances which are mixed but are not combined chemically. A mixture refers to the physical combination of two or more substances in which the identities are retained and are mixed in the form of solutions, suspensions, and colloids.

Chemical Reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another. Classically, chemical reactions encompass changes that only involve the positions of electrons in the forming and breaking of chemical bonds between atoms, with no change to the nuclei (no change to the elements present), and can often be described by a chemical equation. Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another.
A bacterial enzyme enables reactions.

Unimolecular reactions, where one reactant undergoes bond breaking and/or forming to yield different products. Bimolecular reactions, where two reactants collide and then undergo bond breaking and/or forming to yield different products
Termolecular association reactions, where two reactants collide to form a molecular complex with a new chemical bond between the two reactants and a third molecule, known as the bath gas, removes some of the internal kinetic energy of that molecule to stabilize it. New class of chemical reactions involving three molecules that each participate in the breaking and forming of chemical bonds. The reaction of three different molecules is enabled by an "ephemeral collision complex," formed from the collision of two molecules, which lives long enough to collide with a third molecule.

Synthesis - Enzymes

Nuclear Chemistry is a sub-discipline of chemistry that involves the chemical reactions of unstable and radioactive elements where both electronic and nuclear changes may occur.

Chemical Similarity refers to the similarity of chemical elements, molecules or chemical compounds with respect to either structural or functional qualities, i.e. the effect that the chemical compound has on reaction partners in inorganic or biological settings. Biological effects and thus also similarity of effects are usually quantified using the biological activity of a compound. In general terms, function can be related to the chemical activity of compounds (among others).

Chemical Energy is the potential of a chemical substance to undergo a transformation through a chemical reaction to transform other chemical substances. Examples include batteries, gasoline, food and more. Breaking or making of chemical bonds involves Energy, which may be either absorbed or evolved from a chemical system.

Organic Chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms. Study of structure includes many physical and chemical methods to determine the chemical composition and the chemical constitution of organic compounds and materials. Study of properties includes both physical properties and chemical properties, and uses similar methods as well as methods to evaluate chemical reactivity, with the aim to understand the behavior of the organic matter in its pure form (when possible), but also in solutions, mixtures, and fabricated forms. The study of organic reactions includes probing their scope through use in preparation of target compounds (e.g., natural products, drugs, polymers, etc.) by chemical synthesis, as well as the focused study of the reactivities of individual organic molecules, both in the laboratory and via theoretical (in silico) study.

Organic Materials Database - Green Chemistry

Inorganic Chemistry deals with the synthesis and behavior of inorganic and organometallic compounds. This field covers all chemical compounds except the myriad organic compounds (carbon based compounds, usually containing C-H bonds), which are the subjects of organic chemistry. The distinction between the two disciplines is far from absolute, as there is much overlap in the subdiscipline of organometallic chemistry. It has applications in every aspect of the chemical industry, including catalysis, materials science, pigments, surfactants, coatings, medications, fuels, and agriculture.

Physical Chemistry is the study of macroscopic, atomic, subatomic, and particulate phenomena in chemical systems in terms of the principles, practices and concepts of physics such as motion, energy, force, time, thermodynamics, quantum chemistry, statistical mechanics, analytical dynamics and chemical equilibrium.

Photo-Electro-Chemistry is a subfield of study within physical chemistry concerned with the interaction of Light with electrochemical systems. It is an active domain of investigation. One of the pioneers of this field of electrochemistry was the German electrochemist Heinz Gerischer. The interest in this domain is high in the context of development of renewable energy conversion and storage technology.

Photo-Chemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the chemical effects of light. Generally, this term is used to describe a chemical reaction caused by absorption of ultraviolet (wavelength from 100 to 400 nm), visible light (400 – 750 nm) or infrared radiation (750 – 2500 nm). In nature, photochemistry is of immense importance as it is the basis of photosynthesis, vision, and the formation of vitamin D with sunlight. Photochemical reactions proceed differently than temperature-driven reactions. Photochemical paths access high energy intermediates that cannot be generated thermally, thereby overcoming large activation barriers in a short period of time, and allowing reactions otherwise inaccessible by thermal processes. Photochemistry is also destructive, as illustrated by the photodegradation of plastics.


Fuel Cells

Electrochemistry (Batteries)

Biochemistry sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms. By controlling information flow through biochemical signaling and the flow of chemical energy through metabolism, biochemical processes give rise to the complexity of life. Over the last decades of the 20th century, biochemistry has become so successful at explaining living processes that now almost all areas of the life sciences from botany to medicine to genetics are engaged in biochemical research. Today, the main focus of pure biochemistry is on understanding how biological molecules give rise to the processes that occur within living cells, which in turn relates greatly to the study and understanding of tissues, organs, and whole organisms-that is, all of biology. Biochemist are scientists that are trained in biochemistry.

Polymer Chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline that deals with the structures, chemical synthesis and properties of polymers, primarily synthetic polymers such as plastics and elastomers. Polymer chemistry is related to the broader field of polymer science, which also encompasses polymer physics and polymer engineering. Molding

Polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks. There are many forms of polymerization and different systems exist to categorize them. Polymers are high molecular mass compounds formed by polymerization of monomers, which is a molecule that, as a unit, binds chemically or supramolecularly to other molecules to form a supramolecular polymer.

Analytical Chemistry studies and uses instruments and methods used to separate, identify, and quantify matter. In practice separation, identification or quantification may constitute the entire analysis or be combined with another method. Separation isolates analytes. Qualitative analysis identifies analytes, while quantitative analysis determines the numerical amount or concentration.

Geochemistry is the science that uses the tools and principles of chemistry to explain the mechanisms behind major geological systems such as the Earth's crust and its oceans. The realm of geochemistry extends beyond the Earth, encompassing the entire Solar System and has made important contributions to the understanding of a number of processes including mantle convection, the formation of planets and the origins of granite and basalt.

Medicinal Chemistry are disciplines at the intersection of chemistry, especially synthetic organic chemistry, and pharmacology and various other biological specialties, where they are involved with design, chemical synthesis and development for market of pharmaceutical agents, or bio-active molecules (drugs).

Computational Chemistry is a branch of chemistry that uses computer simulation to assist in solving chemical problems. It uses methods of theoretical chemistry, incorporated into efficient computer programs, to calculate the structures and properties of molecules and solids. It is necessary because, apart from relatively recent results concerning the hydrogen molecular ion (dihydrogen cation, see references therein for more details), the quantum many-body problem cannot be solved analytically, much less in closed form. While computational results normally complement the information obtained by chemical experiments, it can in some cases predict hitherto unobserved chemical phenomena. It is widely used in the design of new drugs and materials.


Chirality Chemistry is a geometric property of some molecules and ions. A chiral molecule/ion is non-superposable on its mirror image. The presence of an asymmetric carbon center is one of several structural features that induce chirality in organic and inorganic molecules.


Synthesis refers to a combination of two or more entities that together form something new; alternately, it refers to the creating of something by artificial means. The process of producing a chemical compound, usually by the union of simpler chemical compounds. Alchemy

Biosynthesis is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms. In biosynthesis, simple compounds are modified, converted into other compounds, or joined together to form macromolecules. This process often consists of metabolic pathways. Some of these biosynthetic pathways are located within a single cellular organelle, while others involve enzymes that are located within multiple cellular organelles. Examples of these biosynthetic pathways include the production of lipid membrane components and nucleotides. The prerequisite elements for biosynthesis include: precursor compounds, chemical energy (e.g. ATP), and catalytic enzymes which may require coenzymes
(e.g.NADH, NADPH). These elements create monomers, the building blocks for macromolecules. Some important biological macromolecules include: proteins, which are composed of amino acid monomers joined via peptide bonds, and DNA molecules, which are composed of nucleotides joined via phosphodiester bonds.

Protein Biosynthesis is the process whereby biological cells generate new proteins; it is balanced by the loss of cellular proteins via degradation or export. Translation, the assembly of amino acids by ribosomes, is an essential part of the biosynthetic pathway, along with generation of messenger RNA (mRNA), aminoacylation of transfer RNA (tRNA), co-translational transport, and post-translational modification. Protein biosynthesis is strictly regulated at multiple steps. They are principally during transcription (phenomena of RNA synthesis from DNA template) and translation (phenomena of amino acid assembly from RNA).

Amino Acid are biologically important organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side-chain (R group) specific to each amino acid. The key elements of an amino acid are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen, though other elements are found in the side-chains of certain amino acids. About 500 amino acids are known (though only 20 appear in the genetic code) and can be classified in many ways. Nine proteinogenic amino acids are called "essential" for humans because they cannot be created from other compounds by the human body and so must be taken in as food. Others may be conditionally essential for certain ages or medical conditions. Essential amino acids may also differ between species. Because of their biological significance, amino acids are important in nutrition and are commonly used in nutritional supplements, fertilizers, and food technology. Industrial uses include the production of drugs, biodegradable plastics, and chiral catalysts. Amino acids perform critical roles in processes such as neurotransmitter transport and biosynthesis. BCAA or Branched Chain Amino Acids. Amino acids are the building blocks of protein. There are nine essential amino acids in total, but there's a key trio that helps you maintain muscle: leucine, isoleucine, and valine. Of these three, leucine is the muscle-building powerhouse. The beauty of BCAA supplements is they can be easily used during exercise to reduce fatigue, accelerate recovery, reduce muscle soreness, and improve the use of fat for energy. BCAAs are well known for triggering protein synthesis. Leucine is an α-amino acid used in the biosynthesis of proteins. Isoleucine is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins. It is essential in humans, meaning the body cannot synthesize it, and must be ingested in our diet. Valine is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins. Human dietary sources are any proteinaceous foods such as meats, dairy products, soy products, beans and legumes.

Peptide are natural biological or artificially manufactured short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.

Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalyst. In most cases, reactions occur faster with a catalyst because they require less activation energy. Furthermore, since they are not consumed in the catalyzed reaction, catalysts can continue to act repeatedly. Often only tiny amounts are required in principle.

Autocatalysis. A single chemical reaction is said to have undergone autocatalysis, or be autocatalytic, if one of the reaction products is also a reactant and therefore a catalyst in the same or a coupled reaction. The reaction is called an autocatalytic reaction.

Order of Reaction in chemical kinetics, the order of reaction with respect to a given substance (such as reactant, catalyst or product) is defined as the index, or exponent, to which its concentration term in the rate equation is raised.

Enzyme are macromolecular biological catalysts. Enzymes accelerate chemical reactions. The molecules upon which enzymes may act are called substrates and the enzyme converts the substrates into different molecules known as products. Almost all metabolic processes in the cell need enzymes in order to occur at rates fast enough to sustain life. The set of enzymes made in a cell determines which metabolic pathways occur in that cell. The study of enzymes is called enzymology and a new field of pseudoenzyme analysis has recently grown up, recognising that during evolution, some enzymes have lost the ability to carry out biological catalysis, which is often reflected in their amino acid sequences and unusual 'pseudocatalytic' properties. Enzymes are known to catalyze more than 5,000 biochemical reaction types. Most enzymes are proteins, although a few are catalytic RNA molecules. The latter are called ribozymes. Enzymes' specificity comes from their unique three-dimensional structures. Like all catalysts, enzymes increase the reaction rate by lowering its activation energy. Some enzymes can make their conversion of substrate to product occur many millions of times faster. An extreme example is orotidine 5'-phosphate decarboxylase, which allows a reaction that would otherwise take millions of years to occur in milliseconds. Chemically, enzymes are like any catalyst and are not consumed in chemical reactions, nor do they alter the equilibrium of a reaction. Enzymes differ from most other catalysts by being much more specific. Enzyme activity can be affected by other molecules: inhibitors are molecules that decrease enzyme activity, and activators are molecules that increase activity. Many therapeutic drugs and poisons are enzyme inhibitors. An enzyme's activity decreases markedly outside its optimal temperature and pH. Some enzymes are used commercially, for example, in the synthesis of antibiotics. Some household products use enzymes to speed up chemical reactions: enzymes in biological washing powders break down protein, starch or fat stains on clothes, and enzymes in meat tenderizer break down proteins into smaller molecules, making the meat easier to chew.

Cofactor (biochemistry) is a non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for a protein's biological activity to happen. These proteins are commonly enzymes, and cofactors can be considered "helper molecules" that assist in biochemical transformations. The rates at which this happen are characterized by enzyme kinetics. Cofactors can be subclassified as either inorganic ions or complex organic molecules called coenzymes, the latter of which is mostly derived from vitamins and other organic essential nutrients in small amounts. A coenzyme that is tightly or even covalently bound is termed a prosthetic group. Cosubstrates are transiently bound to the protein and will be released at some point, then get back in. The prosthetic groups, on the other hand, are bound permanently to the protein. Both of them have the same function, which is to facilitate the reaction of enzymes and protein. Additionally, some sources also limit the use of the term "cofactor" to inorganic substances. An inactive enzyme without the cofactor is called an apoenzyme, while the complete enzyme with cofactor is called a holoenzyme. Some enzymes or enzyme complexes require several cofactors. For example, the multienzyme complex pyruvate dehydrogenase[6] at the junction of glycolysis and the citric acid cycle requires five organic cofactors and one metal ion: loosely bound thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), covalently bound lipoamide and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), and the cosubstrates nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) and coenzyme A (CoA), and a metal ion (Mg2+). Organic cofactors are often vitamins or made from vitamins. Many contain the nucleotide adenosine monophosphate (AMP) as part of their structures, such as ATP, coenzyme A, FAD, and NAD+. This common structure may reflect a common evolutionary origin as part of ribozymes in an ancient RNA world. It has been suggested that the AMP part of the molecule can be considered to be a kind of "handle" by which the enzyme can "grasp" the coenzyme to switch it between different catalytic centers.

Chemical Kinetics also known as reaction kinetics, is the study of rates of chemical processes. Chemical kinetics includes investigations of how different experimental conditions can influence the speed of a chemical reaction and yield information about the reaction's mechanism and transition states, as well as the construction of mathematical models that can describe the characteristics of a chemical reaction.

Petrochemical are chemical products derived from petroleum. Some chemical compounds made from petroleum are also obtained from other fossil fuels, such as coal or natural gas, or renewable sources such as corn or sugar cane.

Litmus is a water soluble mixture of different dyes extracted from lichens. It is often absorbed onto filter paper to produce one of the oldest forms of pH indicator, used to test materials for acidity.

PH - Water

Structural Formula of a chemical compound is a graphic representation of the molecular structure, showing how the atoms are arranged. The chemical bonding within the molecule is also shown, either explicitly or implicitly. Unlike chemical formulas, which have a limited number of symbols and are capable of only limited descriptive power, structural formulas provide a complete geometric representation of the molecular structure. For example, many chemical compounds exist in different isomeric forms, which have different enantiomeric structures but the same chemical formula. A structural formula is able to indicate arrangements of atoms in three dimensional space in a way that a chemical formula may not be able to do. Also known as Representation (chemistry).

Unbalanced Equation
Chemical equations usually do not come already balanced. ... Therefore, we must finish our chemical reaction with as many atoms of each element as when we started. Example #1: Balance the following equation: H2 + O2 ---> H2O. It is an unbalanced equation (sometimes also called a skeleton equation). A skeleton equation is just a way of using the formulas to indicate the chemicals that were involved in the chemical reaction. "Mg + O2 MgO." This skeleton equation shows that magnesium reacts with oxygen to form magnesium oxide.

Nucleosynthesis is the process that creates new atomic nuclei from pre-existing nucleons, primarily protons and neutrons.

Molecular Diffusion is the thermal motion of all (liquid or gas) particles at temperatures above absolute zero. The rate of this movement is a function of temperature, viscosity of the fluid and the size (mass) of the particles. Diffusion explains the net flux of molecules from a region of higher concentration to one of lower concentration. Once the concentrations are equal the molecules continue to move, but since there is no concentration gradient the process of molecular diffusion has ceased and is instead governed by the process of self-diffusion, originating from the random motion of the molecules. The result of diffusion is a gradual mixing of material such that the distribution of molecules is uniform. Since the molecules are still in motion, but an equilibrium has been established, the end result of molecular diffusion is called a "dynamic equilibrium". In a phase with uniform temperature, absent external net forces acting on the particles, the diffusion process will eventually result in complete mixing.

Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration (or high chemical potential) to a region of low concentration (or low chemical potential). This is also referred to as the movement of a substance down a concentration gradient. A gradient is the change in the value of a quantity (e.g., concentration, pressure, temperature) with the change in another variable (usually distance). For example, a change in concentration over a distance is called a concentration gradient, a change in pressure over a distance is called a pressure gradient, and a change in temperature over a distance is a called a temperature gradient.

Intrinsic Properties and Extrinsic Properties is a property of a system or of a material itself or within. It is independent of how much of the material is present and is independent of the form of the material, e.g., one large piece or a collection of small particles. Intrinsic properties are dependent mainly on the chemical composition or structure of the material.

Quantitative Analysis is the determination of the absolute or relative abundance (often expressed as a concentration) of one, several or all particular substance(s) present in a sample.

Receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell. When such chemical signals bind to a receptor, they cause some form of cellular/tissue response, e.g. a change in the electrical activity of a cell. In this sense, a receptor is a protein-molecule that recognizes and responds to endogenous chemical signals, e.g. an acetylcholine receptor recognizes and responds to its endogenous ligand, acetylcholine. However, sometimes in pharmacology, the term is also used to include other proteins that are drug targets, such as enzymes, transporters and ion channels.

Base Chemistry are substances that, in aqueous solution, are slippery to the touch, taste astringent, change the color of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions (base catalysis), accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions. Examples of bases are the hydroxides of the alkali metals and alkaline earth metals (NaOH, Ca(OH)2, etc.).


Periodic Table of Elements (image)

118 different Elements and more than 109 different types of atom - one for each element. Only the first 92 elements in the table are naturally found.

Periodic Table of Elements (interactive)
Wiki Periodic Table (wiki)
Natural Elements (wiki periodic table)
Earth & Sky Chart

Monatomic Gas means "single atom." It is usually applied to gases: a monatomic gas is one in which atoms are not bound to each other. All chemical elements will be monatomic in the gas phase at sufficiently high temperatures. The thermodynamic behavior of monatomic gas is extremely simple when compared to polyatomic gases because it is free of any rotational or vibrational energy.

Diatomic are molecules composed of only two atoms, of the same or different chemical elements.

Noble Gas are all odorless, colorless, monatomic gases with very low chemical reactivity. The six noble gases that occur naturally are helium (He), neon (Ne), argon (Ar), krypton (Kr), xenon (Xe), and the radioactive radon (Rn). Oganesson (Og) is predicted to be a noble gas as well, but its chemistry has not yet been investigated.

Helium Atom Helium is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, inert, monatomic gas, the first in the noble gas group in the periodic table. Its boiling point is the lowest among all the elements. After hydrogen, helium is the second lightest and second most abundant element in the observable universe, being present at about 24% of the total elemental mass, which is more than 12 times the mass of all the heavier elements combined. Its abundance is similar to this figure in the Sun and in Jupiter. This is due to the very high nuclear binding energy (per nucleon) of helium-4 with respect to the next three elements after helium. This helium-4 binding energy also accounts for why it is a product of both nuclear fusion and radioactive decay. Most helium in the universe is helium-4, and is believed to have been formed during the Big Bang. Large amounts of new helium are being created by nuclear fusion of hydrogen in stars.

A Tour of the Periodic Table (youtube)
Chemistry (youtube)
(Ununseptium Uus element 117) PAI

Atomic Number (# of Protons)

Relative Atomic Mass is a dimensionless physical quantity, the ratio of the average mass of atoms of an element (from a single given sample or source) to 1⁄12 of the mass of an atom of carbon-12 (known as the unified atomic mass unit).

Electron Configuration is the distribution of electrons of an atom or molecule (or other physical structure) in atomic or molecular orbitals.

Resonance is a way of describing delocalized electrons within certain molecules or polyatomic ions where the bonding cannot be expressed by one single Lewis structure. A molecule or ion with such delocalized electrons is represented by several contributing structures (also called resonance structures or canonical structures).

Minerals - Rocks - Rare Earth Minerals

Mineral or Element?

Mineral by definition, is any naturally occurring, inorganic substance, often additionally characterized by an exact crystal structure. A solid homogeneous inorganic substances occurring in nature having a definite chemical composition. Its chemical structure can be exact, or can vary within limits.

Native Metal is any metal that is found in its metallic form, either pure or as an alloy, in nature.

Alloy is a mixture of metals or a mixture of a metal and another element. Alloys are defined by a metallic bonding character.

Nonmetal is a chemical element that mostly lacks metallic attributes. Physically, nonmetals tend to be highly volatile (easily vaporized), have low elasticity, and are good insulators of heat and electricity; chemically, they tend to have high ionization energy and electronegativity values, and gain or share electrons when they react with other elements or compounds. Seventeen elements are generally classified as nonmetals; most are gases (hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, neon, chlorine, argon, krypton, xenon and radon); one is a liquid (bromine), and a few are solids (carbon, phosphorus, sulfur, selenium, and iodine). Graphene

Metalloid is any chemical element which has properties in between those of metals and nonmetals, or that has a mixture of them. There is neither a standard definition of a metalloid nor complete agreement on the elements appropriately classified as such. Despite the lack of specificity, the term remains in use in the literature of chemistry.

Elements are Atoms, the smallest piece that we can split matter into (except for subatomic particles and other things. Elements often are stacked together with other elements to form minerals. Native elements that occur naturally are also considered minerals. Native Element Minerals are those elements that occur in nature in uncombined form with a distinct mineral structure. The elemental class includes metals and intermetallic elements, naturally occurring alloys, semi-metals and non-metals. The Nickel–Strunz classification system also includes the naturally occurring phosphides, silicides, nitrides and carbides.

Chemical Element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei. There are 118 elements that have been identified, of which the first 94 occur naturally on Earth with the remaining 24 being synthetic elements. There are 80 elements that have at least one stable isotope and 38 that have exclusively radioactive isotopes, which decay over time into other elements. Iron is the most abundant element (by mass) making up Earth, while oxygen is the most common element in the Earth's crust. Chemical elements constitute all of the ordinary matter of the universe.

Synthetic Element is a chemical element that does not occur naturally on Earth, and can only be created artificially. So far, 24 synthetic elements have been created (those with atomic numbers 95–118). All are unstable, decaying with half-lives ranging from 15.6 million years to a few hundred microseconds. Seven other elements were first created artificially and thus considered synthetic, but later discovered to exist naturally (in trace quantities) as well; among them plutonium—first synthesized in 1940—the one best known to laypeople, because of its use in atomic bombs and nuclear reactors.

Chalcogen are the chemical elements in group 16 of the periodic table. This group is also known as the oxygen family. It consists of the elements oxygen (O), sulfur (S), selenium (Se), tellurium (Te), and the radioactive element polonium (Po). The chemically uncharacterized synthetic element livermorium (Lv) is predicted to be a chalcogen as well. Often, oxygen is treated separately from the other chalcogens, sometimes even excluded from the scope of the term "chalcogen" altogether, due to its very different chemical behavior from sulfur, selenium, tellurium, and polonium. The word "chalcogen" is derived from a combination of the Greek word khalkόs (χαλκός) principally meaning copper (the term was also used for bronze/brass, any metal in the poetic sense, ore or coin), and the Latinised Greek word genēs, meaning born or produced.

Rocks are a composed of one or more minerals.

Molecule is formed when two or more Atoms join together chemically. All molecules are in constant motion. Molecules of a liquid have more freedom of movement than those in a solid. Molecules in a gas have the greatest degree of motion. Heat, temperature and the motion of molecules are all related. Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the molecules in a material. Nano Size

Biomolecule is molecule that is present in living organisms, including large macromolecules such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids, as well as small molecules such as primary metabolites, secondary metabolites, and natural products. A more general name for this class of material is biological materials. Biomolecules are usually endogenous but may also be exogenous. For example, pharmaceutical drugs may be natural products or semisynthetic (biopharmaceuticals) or they may be totally synthetic.

Polymer is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits. Because of their broad range of properties, both synthetic and natural polymers play an essential and ubiquitous role in everyday life. Polymers range from familiar synthetic plastics such as polystyrene to natural biopolymers such as DNA and proteins that are fundamental to biological structure and function. Polymers, both natural and synthetic, are created via polymerization of many small molecules, known as monomers. Their consequently large molecular mass relative to small molecule compounds produces unique physical properties, including toughness, viscoelasticity, and a tendency to form glasses and semicrystalline structures rather than crystals.

Biopolymer are polymers produced by living organisms; in other words, they are polymeric biomolecules. Since they are polymers, biopolymers contain monomeric units that are covalently bonded to form larger structures. There are three main classes of biopolymers, classified according to the monomeric units used and the structure of the biopolymer formed: polynucleotides (RNA and DNA), which are long polymers composed of 13 or more nucleotide monomers; polypeptides, which are short polymers of amino acids; and polysaccharides, which are often linear bonded polymeric carbohydrate structures. Other examples of biopolymers include rubber, suberin, melanin and lignin.

Molecular Engineering is an emerging field of study concerned with the design and testing of molecular properties, behavior and interactions in order to assemble better materials, systems, and processes for specific functions. This approach, in which observable properties of a macroscopic system are influenced by direct alteration of a molecular structure, falls into the broader category of “bottom-up” design.

Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism is a variation in a single nucleotide that occurs at a specific position in the genome, where each variation is present to some appreciable degree within a population.

Nucleotide are organic molecules that serve as the monomers, or subunits, of nucleic acids like DNA and RNA. The building blocks of nucleic acids, nucleotides are composed of a nitrogenous base, a five-carbon sugar (ribose or deoxyribose), and at least one phosphate group. Thus a nucleoside plus a phosphate group yields a nucleotide.

Monomer is a molecule that may bind chemically or supramolecularly to other molecules to form a (supramolecular) polymer.

Supramolecular Polymers is a polymer whose monomer repeat units are held together by noncovalent bonds. Non-covalent forces that hold supramolecular polymers together include coordination, π-π interactions, and hydrogen bonding. Supramolecular polymers can have physical properties similar to plastic materials, while having better processability and better recycling and self-healing properties, thanks to their reversible transition from monomer to polymer structure.

Molecular Biology concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, and proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions

Automated Small-Molecule Synthesis

Diatomic Molecule are molecules composed of only two atoms, of the same or different chemical elements.

Monomer is a molecule that may bind chemically or supramolecularly to other molecules to form a (supramolecular) polymer.

Chemical Bond is a lasting attraction between atoms that enables the formation of chemical compounds. The bond may result from the electrostatic force of attraction between atoms with opposite charges, or through the sharing of electrons as in the covalent bonds. The strength of chemical bonds varies considerably; there are "strong bonds" or "primary bond" such as metallic, covalent or ionic bonds and "weak bonds" or "secondary bond" such as Dipole-dipole interaction, the London dispersion force and hydrogen bonding.

Covalent Bond also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms. These electron pairs are known as shared pairs or bonding pairs, and the stable balance of attractive and repulsive forces between atoms, when they share electrons, is known as covalent bonding. For many molecules, the sharing of electrons allows each atom to attain the equivalent of a full outer shell, corresponding to a stable electronic configuration.

Chirality is a geometric property of some molecules and ions. A chiral molecule/ion is non-superposable on its mirror image. The presence of an asymmetric carbon center is one of several structural features that induce chirality in organic and inorganic molecules.

Water in Space

Compound is a molecule that contains at least two different Elements. Every combination of atoms is a molecule, but not all molecules are compounds. Hydrogen gas (H2) is a molecule, but not a compound because it is made of only one element. Water (H2O) can be called a molecule or a compound because it is made of hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms.

Chemical Compound is an entity consisting of two or more atoms, at least two from different chemical elements, which associate via chemical bonds. There are four types of compounds, depending on how the constituent atoms are held together: molecules held together by covalent bonds, ionic compounds held together by ionic bonds, intermetallic compounds held together by metallic bonds, and certain complexes held together by coordinate covalent bonds. Many chemical compounds have a unique numerical identifier assigned by the Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS): its CAS number.

Inorganic Compound is a chemical compound where there is an absence of carbon in its composition, and is of a non-biologic origin, and cannot be found or incorporated into a living organism.

Organic Compound is virtually any chemical compound that contains carbon, although a consensus definition remains elusive and likely arbitrary. Organic compounds are rare terrestrially, but of central importance because all known life is based on organic compounds. The most basic petrochemicals are considered the building blocks of organic chemistry.
There are now more than ten million Organic Compounds known by chemists.

Carbon Atom Isotopes Carbon Atoms make up 85% of all known compounds? Carbon Atoms can make around 1.7 million different compounds?

Carbon-12 is the more abundant carbon of the two stable isotopes, amounting to 98.93% of the element carbon; its abundance is due to the triple-alpha process by which it is created in stars. Carbon-12 is of particular importance in its use as the standard from which atomic masses of all nuclides are measured: its mass number is 12 by definition and contains 6 protons, 6 neutrons and 6 electrons. 

Carbon is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6. It is nonmetallic and tetravalent—making four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds. Three isotopes occur naturally, 12C and 13C being stable, while 14C is a radioactive isotope, decaying with a half-life of about 5,730 years. Carbon is one of the few elements known since antiquity.

Isotopes of Carbon, Carbon (6C) has 15 known isotopes, from 8C to 22C, of which 12C and 13C are stable.

Isotope are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number. All Isotopes of a given element have the same number of protons in each atom.

Carbon-Based Life is a key component of all known life on Earth. Complex molecules are made up of carbon bonded with other elements, especially oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen, and carbon can bond with all of these because of its four valence electrons. Carbon is abundant on Earth. It is also lightweight and relatively small in size, making it easier for enzymes to manipulate carbon molecules. It is assumed in astrobiology that if life exists somewhere else in the universe, it will also be carbon-based.

Building Blocks of Life - Human Body Composition

Carbon Capture
Carbon-Fiber - Graphene

Chem 4 Kids

Pyrolysis is a thermochemical decomposition of organic material at elevated temperatures in the absence of oxygen (or any halogen). It involves the simultaneous change of chemical composition and physical phase, and is irreversible.

Bioanalysis is a sub-discipline of analytical chemistry covering the quantitative measurement of xenobiotics (drugs and their metabolites, and biological molecules in unnatural locations or concentrations) and biotics (macromolecules, proteins, DNA, large molecule drugs, metabolites) in biological systems.

Lab Tests (physical health)



Thermodynamics is the branch of physics which deals with the energy and work of a system. Thermodynamics is the branch of science concerned with Heat and Temperature and their relation to energy and work. It states that the behavior of these quantities is governed by the four laws of thermodynamics, irrespective of the composition or specific properties of the material or system in question. The laws of thermodynamics are explained in terms of microscopic constituents by statistical mechanics. Thermodynamics applies to a wide variety of topics in science and engineering, especially physical chemistry, chemical engineering and mechanical engineering.

Laws of Thermodynamics define fundamental physical quantities (temperature, energy, and entropy) that characterize thermodynamic systems at thermal equilibrium. The laws describe how these quantities behave under various circumstances, and forbid certain phenomena (such as perpetual motion).

The Second Law of Thermodynamics "what goes up must come down"

Second Law of Thermodynamics dictates that everything ages, Death, and decays, and states that the total entropy of an isolated system always increases over time, or remains constant in ideal cases where the system is in a steady state or undergoing a reversible process. The increase in entropy accounts for the irreversibility of natural processes, and the asymmetry between future and past. Historically, the second law was an empirical finding that was accepted as an axiom of thermodynamic theory. Statistical thermodynamics, classical or quantum, explains the microscopic origin of the law. The second law has been expressed in many ways. There is an upper limit to the efficiency of conversion of heat to work in a heat engine.

Thermodynamic Law is a branch of science concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work.

Thermodynamic Equilibrium is an axiomatic concept of thermodynamics. It is an internal state of a single thermodynamic system, or a relation between several thermodynamic systems connected by more or less permeable or impermeable walls. In thermodynamic equilibrium there are no net macroscopic flows of matter or of energy, either within a system or between systems. In a system in its own state of internal thermodynamic equilibrium, no macroscopic change occurs. Systems in mutual thermodynamic equilibrium are simultaneously in mutual thermal, mechanical, chemical, and radiative equilibria. Systems can be in one kind of mutual equilibrium, though not in others. In thermodynamic equilibrium, all kinds of equilibrium hold at once and indefinitely, until disturbed by a thermodynamic operation. In a macroscopic equilibrium, almost or perfectly exactly balanced microscopic exchanges occur; this is the physical explanation of the notion of macroscopic equilibrium.

Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics deals with physical systems that are not in thermodynamic equilibrium but can adequately be described in terms of variables (non-equilibrium state variables) that represent an extrapolation of the variables used to specify the system in thermodynamic equilibrium. Non-equilibrium thermodynamics is concerned with transport processes and with the rates of chemical reactions. It relies on what may be thought of as more or less nearness to thermodynamic equilibrium. Non-equilibrium thermodynamics is a work in progress, not an established edifice. This article will try to sketch some approaches to it and some concepts important for it. Almost all systems found in nature are not in thermodynamic equilibrium; for they are changing or can be triggered to change over time, and are continuously and discontinuously subject to flux of matter and energy to and from other systems and to chemical reactions. Some systems and processes are, however, in a useful sense, near enough to thermodynamic equilibrium to allow description with useful accuracy by currently known non-equilibrium thermodynamics. Nevertheless, many natural systems and processes will always remain far beyond the scope of non-equilibrium thermodynamic methods. This is because of the very small size of atoms, as compared with macroscopic systems.

Thermodynamic System is the material and radiative content of a macroscopic volume in space, that can be adequately described by thermodynamic state variables such as temperature, entropy, internal energy and pressure.

Chemical Thermodynamics is the study of the interrelation of heat and work with chemical reactions or with physical changes of state within the confines of the laws of thermodynamics.

Engineering Thermodynamics
Thermoelectric Energy

Urea is an organic compound with the chemical formula CO(NH2)2. Urea serves an important role in the metabolism of nitrogen-containing compounds by animals, and is the main nitrogen-containing substance in the urine of mammals.

Thermodynamics of Computation (pdf)

Chemical Process Modeling is a computer modeling technique used in chemical engineering process design. It typically involves using purpose-built software to define a system of interconnected components, which are then solved so that the steady-state or dynamic behavior of the system can be predicted. The system components and connections are represented as a Process Flow diagram. Simulations can be as simple as the mixing of two substances in a tank, or as complex as an entire alumina refinery.

Triple Point of a substance is the temperature and pressure at which the three phases (gas, liquid, and solid) of that substance coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium.

Compound Chem

Thermal Energy (geothermal)

Thermal is a column of rising air in the lower altitudes of Earth's atmosphere. Thermals are created by the uneven heating of Earth's surface from solar radiation, and are an example of convection, specifically atmospheric convection. The Sun warms the ground, which in turn warms the air directly above it. Dark earth, urban areas, and roadways are good sources of thermals

Temperature is an objective comparative measurement of Hot or cold. It is measured by a thermometer. Several scales and units exist for measuring temperature, the most common being Celsius (denoted °C; formerly called centigrade), Fahrenheit (denoted °F), and, especially in science, Kelvin (denoted K). The coldest theoretical temperature is absolute zero, at which the thermal motion of atoms and molecules reaches its minimum – classically, this would be a state of motionlessness, but quantum uncertainty dictates that the particles still possess a finite zero-point energy. Absolute zero is denoted as 0 K on the Kelvin scale, −273.15 °C on the Celsius scale, and −459.67 °F on the Fahrenheit scale. The kinetic theory offers a valuable but limited account of the behavior of the materials of macroscopic bodies, especially of fluids. It indicates the absolute temperature as proportional to the average kinetic energy of the random microscopic motions of those of their constituent microscopic particles, such as electrons, atoms, and molecules, that move freely within the material. Thermal vibration of a segment of protein alpha helix: The amplitude of the vibrations increases with temperature. Temperature is important in all fields of natural science including physics, geology, chemistry, atmospheric sciences, medicine and biology as well as most aspects of daily life.

Degree (temperature) is used in several scales of temperature. The symbol ° is usually used, followed by the initial letter of the unit, for example “°C” for degree(s) Celsius. A degree can be defined as a set change in temperature measured against a given scale, for example, one degree Celsius is one hundredth of the temperature change between the point at which water starts to change state from solid to liquid state and the point at which it starts to change from its gaseous state to liquid. Boiling Point.

Cold is the presence of low temperature, especially in the atmosphere. In common usage, cold is often a subjective perception. A lower bound to temperature is absolute zero, defined as 0.00 K on the Kelvin scale, an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale. This corresponds to −273.15 °C on the Celsius scale, −459.67 °F on the Fahrenheit scale, and 0.00 °R on the Rankine scale. Since temperature relates to the thermal energy held by an object or a sample of matter, which is the kinetic energy of the random motion of the particle constituents of matter, an object will have less thermal energy when it is colder and more when it is hotter. If it were possible to cool a system to absolute zero, all motion of the particles in a sample of matter would cease and they would be at complete rest in this classical sense. The object would be described as having zero thermal energy. Microscopically in the description of quantum mechanics, however, matter still has zero-point energy even at absolute zero, because of the uncertainty principle. Ice

Absolute Zero is the lower limit of the thermodynamic temperature scale, a state at which the enthalpy and entropy of a cooled ideal gas reaches its minimum value, taken as 0. The theoretical temperature is determined by extrapolating the ideal gas law; by international agreement, absolute zero is taken as −273.15° on the Celsius scale (International System of Units), which equates to −459.67° on the Fahrenheit scale (United States customary units or Imperial units). The corresponding Kelvin and Rankine temperature scales set their zero points at absolute zero by definition. Ice

Kelvin is a unit of measure for temperature based upon an absolute scale. It is one of the seven base units in the International System of Units (SI) and is assigned the unit symbol K. The Kelvin scale is an absolute, thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.

Body Temperature

Dark Matter

(0C = 32F, 27C = 80F, for every 10 Degrees F increase is equal to around a 5C increase)

Entropy is a thermodynamic quantity representing the amount of energy in a system that is no longer available for doing mechanical work. High Entropy would indicate less energy available for useful work in a system, and Low Entropy would suggest greater energy. "entropy increases as matter and energy in the universe degrade to an ultimate state of inert uniformity". 

Entropy (pdf)

Entropy in statistical thermodynamics, entropy (usual symbol S) is a measure of the number of microscopic configurations Ω that correspond to a thermodynamic system in a state specified by certain macroscopic variables. Specifically, assuming that each of the microscopic configurations is equally probable, the entropy of the system is the natural logarithm of that number of configurations, multiplied by the Boltzmann constant kB (which provides consistency with the original thermodynamic concept of entropy discussed below, and gives entropy the dimension of energy divided by temperature)

Entropy and Life (pdf)
Entropy and Life (wiki)

Thermodynamic free energy is the amount of work that a thermodynamic system can perform.

Entropy (order disorder) is associated with the amount of order, disorder, or chaos in a thermodynamic system.

Entropy (information theory) systems are modeled by a transmitter, channel, and receiver. The transmitter produces messages that are sent through the channel. The channel modifies the message in some way. The receiver attempts to infer which message was sent. PDF

Entropic Force is a force resulting from the entire system's thermodynamical tendency to increase its entropy, rather than from a particular underlying microscopic force. For instance, the internal energy of an ideal gas depends only on its temperature, and not on the volume of its containing box, so it is not an energy effect that tends to increase the volume of the box as gas pressure does. This implies that the pressure of an ideal gas has an entropic origin. What is the origin of such an entropic force? The most general answer is that the effect of thermal fluctuations tends to bring a thermodynamic system toward a macroscopic state that corresponds to a maximum in the number of microscopic states (or micro-states) that are compatible with this macroscopic state. In other words, thermal fluctuations tend to bring a system toward its macroscopic state of maximum entropy.

Enthalpy is a measurement of energy in a thermodynamic system. It is the thermodynamic quantity equivalent to the total heat content of a system. It is equal to the internal energy of the system plus the product of pressure and volume. More technically, it includes the internal energy, which is the energy required to create a system, and the amount of energy required to make room for it by displacing its environment and establishing its volume and pressure.

Biology (entropy)

Janet Iwasa: How 3D Animations help Scientists Visualize what we can't See (video)

Molecular Flipbook

Toxicology is a branch of biology, chemistry, and medicine (more specifically pharmacology) concerned with the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms.

Drug Metabolism is the metabolic breakdown of drugs by living organisms.

Pharmacokinetics is a branch of pharmacology dedicated to determining the fate of substances administered to a living organism.

Pharmaceutical Industry

Pharmacology is the branch of medicine and biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (from within body) molecule which exerts a biochemical and/or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharmacon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species). More specifically, it is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function. If substances have medicinal properties, they are considered pharmaceuticals.


Alchemy is change of one substance into another, Transmutation of metals aimed to purify, mature, and perfect certain objects. Alchemy Symbols

Philosopher Stone is a legendary alchemical substance capable of turning base metals such as mercury into gold.

Metamaterial is a material engineered to have a property that is not found in nature. They are made from assemblies of multiple elements fashioned from composite materials such as metals or plastics.

Metallurgy (metal working)

Related Pages and Subjects

Chemistry Tools and Equipment

Laboratory Equipment Names and Chemistry Lab Tools (photo)

Chemistry Sets
Chemistry Kits

Do It Yourself Science (DIY)
Science Tools

Stanford bioengineers develop a 20-cent, hand-powered centrifuge "Hand-powered ultralow-cost paper centrifuge, or paperfuge." With rotational speeds of up to 125,000 revolutions per minute, the device separates blood plasma from red cells in 1.5 minutes, no electricity required. A centrifuge is critical for detecting diseases such as malaria, African sleeping sickness, HIV and tuberculosis. This low-cost version will enable precise diagnosis and treatment in the poor, off-the-grid regions where these diseases are most prevalent. Stanford

Centrifuge is a piece of equipment that puts an object in rotation around a fixed axis (spins it in a circle), applying a potentially strong force perpendicular to the axis of spin (outward). The centrifuge works using the sedimentation principle, where the centripetal acceleration causes denser substances and particles to move outward in the radial direction. At the same time, objects that are less dense are displaced and move to the center. In a laboratory centrifuge that uses sample tubes, the radial acceleration causes denser particles to settle to the bottom of the tube, while low-density substances rise to the top. There are 3 types of centrifuge designed for different applications. Industrial scale centrifuges are commonly used in manufacturing and waste processing to sediment suspended solids, or to separate immiscible liquids. An example is the cream separator found in dairies. Very high speed centrifuges and ultracentrifuges able to provide very high accelerations can separate fine particles down to the nano-scale, and molecules of different masses. Large centrifuges are used to simulate high gravity or acceleration environments (for example, high-G training for test pilots). Medium-sized centrifuges are used in washing machines and at some swimming pools to wring water out of fabrics. Gas centrifuges are used for isotope separation, such as to enrich nuclear fuel for fissile isotopes.

Chemistry Set History (wiki)

Typical contents found in chemistry sets

Equipment might include: vials of dry chemicals, metal wires, such as copper, nickel or zinc, metal filings such as iron, graphite rods, a balance and weights, a measuring cylinder, a thermometer, a magnifying glass, pipettes, beakers, retorts, flasks, test tubes, U-tubes or other reaction vessels, cork stoppers, watch glasses, glass and rubber tubing, test tube holders, retort stands and clamps, an alcohol burner or other heat source, a filter funnel and filter paper, universal indicator paper or litmus paper, safety goggles, an instruction manual.

Chemicals might include: Aluminium ammonium sulfate, Aluminium sulfate, Ammonium chloride, Borax, Calcium chloride, Calcium hydroxide, Calcium oxide, Calcium oxychloride, Calcium sulfate, Cobalt chloride, Cupric chloride, Copper sulfate, Ferric ammonium sulfate, Ferrous sulfate, Gum arabic, Magnesium ribbon, Magnesium chloride Magnesium sulfate, Manganese sulfate, Phenolphthalein, Potassium chloride, Potassium iodide, Potassium permanganate, Potassium sulfate Powdered charcoal, Powdered iron, Sodium bisulfate, Sodium bisulfite, Sodium carbonate, Sodium ferrocyanide, Sodium silicate, Sodium thiosulfate, Strontium chloride, Sulfur, Tannic acid, Tartaric acid, Zinc sulfate.. The experiments described in the instruction manual typically require a number of chemicals not shipped with the chemistry set, because they are common household chemicals: Acetic acid (in vinegar), Ammonium carbonate ("baker's ammonia" or "salts of hartshorn"), Citric acid (in lemons), Ethanol (in denatured alcohol), Sodium bicarbonate, (baking soda), Sodium chloride ("table salt") Other chemicals, including strong acids, bases and oxidizers cannot be safely shipped with the set and others having a limited shelf life have to be purchased separately from a drug store: Hydrochloric acid, Hydrogen peroxide, Silver nitrate,, Sodium hydroxide.

List of Commonly Available Chemicals (wiki)

Amateur Chemistry is the pursuit of chemistry as a private hobby. Amateur chemistry is usually done with whatever chemicals are available at disposal at the privacy of one's home. It should not be confused with clandestine chemistry, which involves the illicit production of controlled drugs.[a] Notable amateur chemists include Oliver Sacks and Sir Edward Elgar.

Nanodots - Magnetic Constructors - Video

Chemistry Resources

American Chemical Society
American Chemical Society (youtube channel)
American Chemistry
Journals & Publications
Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research
The American Oil Chemists’ Society
American Chemistry
Chemical Heritage Foundation
Royal Society of Chemistry
Royal Society

Pub Chem provides information on the biological activities of small molecules. Biological properties component database with a
fast chemical structure similarity search tool.

The Thinker Man