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Spatial intelligence

Awareness of 3 Dimensional Space - Picture Smart - Visual Intelligence

When people fail to see the whole picture they can easily make mistakes, as we can clearly see in the world today with all the problems that we are currently faced with. It's how you look at something and understand that something that can make all the difference. Perspective.

Senses - Intelligence - Navigation - Illusions

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3D XYZ Coordinates Spatial Intelligence is the ability to draw accurate conclusions from observing a Three-Dimensional (3D) environment. It involves interpreting and making judgments about the shape, size, movement, and relationships between surrounding objects, as well as the ability to envision and manipulate 3D models of things that are not immediately visible. People use this form of reasoning in many everyday activities, ranging from organizing a room to driving a car. This type of intelligence stems from the right side of the brain, and injuries or strokes to this area may diminish it. Spatial Intelligence involves the potential to recognize and use Patterns of wide Space and more confined areas.

Spatial Intelligence (youtube)

Body Language - Body Smart - Body Image

Blind Mathematicians (PDF) - Sight Testing (eyesight measuring)
When the Brain fills in Missing Information

Spatial Memory is the part of memory responsible for recording information about one's environment and its spatial orientation. For example, a person's spatial memory is required in order to navigate around a familiar city, just as a rat's spatial memory is needed to learn the location of food at the end of a maze. Past experiences shape what we see more than what we are looking at now. Imagination.

Spatial Visualization Ability is the ability to mentally manipulate 2-dimensional, 3-dimensional and 4-dimensional figures. It is typically measured with simple cognitive tests and is predictive of user performance with some kinds of user interfaces.

Brain cells for 3D vision discovered. Scientists have discovered neurons in insect brains that compute 3D distance and direction. Understanding these could help vision in robots.

Spatial Ability or visuo-spatial ability is the capacity to understand, reason and remember the spatial relations among objects or space.

Orientation, or angular position, or attitude of an object such as a line, plane or rigid body is part of the description of how it is placed in the space it is in. Namely, it is the imaginary rotation that is needed to move the object from a reference placement to its current placement. Navigation - Coordinates - Flight Instruments.

Grid Cell is a type of neuron in the brains of many species that allows them to understand their position in space. Grid Cells is a place-modulated neuron whose multiple firing locations define a periodic triangular array covering the entire available surface of an open two-dimensional environment. Grid cells are thought to form an essential part of the brain’s coordinate system for metric navigation. Patterns - Frame of Reference.

How the grid cell system of the brain maps mental spaces. It has long been known that so-called place cells in the human hippocampus are responsible for coding one’s position in space. A related type of brain cell, called grid cells, encodes a variety of positions that are evenly distributed across space. This results in a kind of honeycomb pattern tiling the space. The cells exhibiting this pattern were discovered in the entorhinal cortex. How exactly the grid cell system works in the human brain, and in particular with which temporal dynamics, has until now been speculation. A much-discussed possibility is that the signals from these cells create maps of “cognitive spaces” in which humans mentally organize and store the complexities of their internal and external environments. A European–American team of scientists has now been able to demonstrate, with electrophysiological evidence, the existence of grid-like activity in the human brain.

Brain region that watches for walls identified. Transverse Occipital Sulcus is continuous with the posterior end of the occipital ramus of the intraparietal sulcus, and runs across the upper part of the lobe, a short distance behind the parietooccipital fissure. Parieto-Occipital Sulcus (wiki). Memory.

Puzzles - Retinal cells go with the flow to assess own motion through space.

Proxemics is the study of human use of space and the effects that population density has on behavior, communication, and social interaction. Proxemics is one among several subcategories in the study of nonverbal communication, including haptics (touch), kinesics (body movement), vocalics (paralanguage), and chronemics (structure of time).

Vector Space is a collection of objects called vectors, which may be added together and multiplied ("scaled") by numbers, called scalars. Scalars are often taken to be real numbers, but there are also vector spaces with scalar multiplication by complex numbers, rational numbers, or generally any field. The operations of vector addition and scalar multiplication must satisfy certain requirements, called axioms.

is a variable quantity that can be resolved into components. A straight line segment whose length is magnitude and whose orientation in space is direction.

Mental Rotation is the ability to rotate mental representations of two-dimensional and three-dimensional objects as it is related to the visual representation of such rotation within the human mind.

Head Direction Cells are neurons found in a number of brain regions that increase their firing rates above baseline levels only when the animal's head points in a specific direction.

Point of View - Perspective

Vase or Two Faces Perspective is how you look at something and understand something, which is based on your current level of knowledge and experience, and sometimes depends on your current mood or your unique situation. Perceive.

World View - Subjective - Narrative Modes

Perspective in relation to graphical is the appearance of things relative to one another as determined by their distance from the viewer. The approximate representation, on a flat surface (such as paper), of an image as it is seen by the eye. The two most characteristic features of perspective are that objects are smaller as their distance from the observer increases; and that they are subject to foreshortening, meaning that an object's dimensions along the line of sight are shorter than its dimensions across the line of sight.

Viewpoint is a mental position from which things are viewed. Relative.

Point of View is the spatial property of the position from which something is observed. Stand Point.

Vantage Point is a place from which something can be viewed. Vanishing Point.

Frame of Reference or Reference Frame consists of an abstract coordinate system and the set of physical Reference Points that uniquely fix (locate and orient) the coordinate system and standardize measurements. Relative - Time and Space - Patterns.

Reference is the most direct or specific meaning of a word or expression. The class of objects that an expression refers to. The relation between a word or phrase and the object or idea it refers to. Reference in computing is the code that identifies where a piece of information is stored. A short note recognizing a source of information or of a quoted passage. The act of referring or consulting. Reference can also mean an indicator that orients you generally. Reference Book.

Perspective in the context of vision and visual perception, is the way that objects appear to the eye based on their spatial attributes or dimensions, and the position of the eye relative to the objects. There are two main meanings of the term: linear perspective and aerial perspective.

Visual Perception is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment using light in the visible spectrum reflected by the objects in the environment. The resulting perception is also known as visual perception, eyesight, sight, or vision (adjectival form: visual, optical, or ocular). The various physiological components involved in vision are referred to collectively as the visual system, and are the focus of much research in linguistics, psychology, cognitive science, neuroscience, and molecular biology, collectively referred to as vision science.

Depth Perception is the visual ability to perceive the world in three dimensions (3D) and the distance of an object.

Masking Visual Appearance of objects is given by the way in which they reflect and transmit light. The color of objects is determined by the parts of the spectrum of (incident white) light that are reflected or transmitted without being absorbed. Additional appearance attributes are based on the directional distribution of reflected (BRDF) or transmitted light (BTDF) described by attributes like glossy, shiny versus dull, matte, clear, turbid, distinct, etc..

Canonical Perspective is our preferred way of viewing an object, which is looking down at the object at an angle. People like to draw objects based on this point of view.

New Research Could Help Humans See What Nature Hides. Three main background properties that affect the ability to see objects: the luminance or brightness, the contrast (the variation in luminance) and the similarity of the background to the orientation and shape of the object.

Contrast is the difference in color and light between parts of an image.

Pattern Recognition (ai)

Visual Masking occurs when the perception of one stimulus, called a target, is affected by the presence of another stimulus, called a mask. With respect to time, there are three different types of masking – forward, backward, and simultaneous. These correspond to trials where the mask precedes the target, follows the disappearance of the target, or appears at the same time as the target, respectively. In the spatial domain, there are two different types of masking: pattern masking and metacontrast. Pattern masking occurs when the target and mask are presented within the same retinal location, and metacontrast occurs when the mask does not overlap with the target location.


Subitizing is the rapid, accurate, and confident judgments of numbers performed for small numbers of items.

Visual Literacy is the ability to interpret, negotiate, and make meaning from information presented in the form of an image, extending the meaning of literacy, which commonly signifies interpretation of a written or printed text. Visual literacy is based on the idea that pictures can be “read” and that meaning can be through a process of reading.

Mind Maps - Visual Variable Tools (art)

Sight and Eye Problems

Visible Light - Colors

Peripheral Vision Field of View is the extent of the observable world that is seen at any given moment. In case of optical instruments or sensors it is a solid angle through which a detector is sensitive to electromagnetic radiation. When something is outside your center of focus, you will not be able to understand the threat it may have, and thus, not be able to react in time.

Angle of View describes the angular extent of a given scene that is imaged by a camera. It is used interchangeably with the more general term field of view.

Visual Field is the "spatial array of visual sensations available to observation in introspectionist psychological experiments"

Peripheral Vision is a part of vision that occurs outside the very center of gaze.

Blind Spot in relation to vision is an obscuration of the visual field. A particular blind spot known as the physiological blind spot, "blind point", or punctum caecum in medical literature, is the place in the visual field that corresponds to the lack of light-detecting photoreceptor cells on the optic disc of the retina where the optic nerve passes through the optic disc. Because there are no cells to detect light on the optic disc, the corresponding part of the field of vision is invisible. Some process in our brains interpolates the blind spot based on surrounding detail and information from the other eye, so we do not normally perceive the blind spot. Eyes in the Back of My Head.

Vehicle Blind Spot in a vehicle is an area around the vehicle that cannot be directly observed by the driver while at the controls, under existing circumstances. Blind spots exist in a wide range of vehicles: aircraft, cars, motorboats, sailboats, and trucks. Other types of transport have no blind spots at all, such as bicycles, horses, and motorcycles. Proper adjustment of mirrors and use of other technical solutions can eliminate or alleviate vehicle blind spots. A no zone is one of several areas around a large truck, where the truck driver cannot see. Collisions frequently occur in no zones. In transport, driver visibility is the maximum distance at which the driver of a vehicle can see and identify prominent objects around the vehicle. Visibility is primarily determined by weather conditions (see visibility) and by a vehicle's design. The parts of a vehicle that influence visibility include the windshield, the dashboard and the pillars. Good driver visibility is essential to safe road traffic. Blind spots may occur in the front of the driver when the A-pillar (also called the windshield pillar), side-view mirror, or interior rear-view mirror block a driver's view of the road. Behind the driver, cargo, headrests, and additional pillars may reduce visibility.

Homonymous Hemianopsia is a visual field loss on the left or right side of the vertical midline. It can affect one eye but usually affects both eyes. Homonymous hemianopsia (or homonymous hemianopia) is hemianopic visual field loss on the same side of both eyes. Homonymous hemianopsia occurs because the right half of the brain has visual pathways for the left hemifield of both eyes, and the left half of the brain has visual pathways for the right hemifield of both eyes. When one of these pathways is damaged, the corresponding visual field is lost.

Researchers have found a significant improvement in the peripheral awareness of people who played computer games specially designed around using peripheral vision. This finding opens up the possibility that these types of games can be used to help improve players' performance in team sports - so they can spot team-mates quicker - or to help them to identify potential hazards at the side of their vision.

Hemispatial Neglect is a neuropsychological condition in which, after damage to one hemisphere of the brain is sustained, a deficit in attention to and awareness of one side of the field of vision is observed. It is defined by the inability of a person to process and perceive stimuli on one side of the body or environment, where that inability is not due to a lack of sensation. Hemispatial neglect is very commonly contralateral to the damaged hemisphere, but instances of ipsilesional neglect (on the same side as the lesion) have been reported.

Blindsight is the ability of people who are cortically blind due to lesions in their striate cortex, also known as primary visual cortex or V1, to respond to visual stimuli that they do not consciously see.

Second Visual System in mouse Cerebral Cortex. Post-rhinal cortex (POR), appears to obtain visual data directly from an evolutionarily ancient sensory processing center at the base of the brain called the superior colliculus. POR neurons continued to respond to moving stimuli even without input from V1."blindsight," in which people who become blind because of damage to V1 are still able to identify the positions of objects and navigate obstacles, even though they cannot consciously perceive them. Blindsight is an ability to perceive and respond to visual information without conscious awareness. People with blindsight are technically blind, meaning that they are unconscious of their surroundings and they can’t tell the light from the dark. Nevertheless, these people are able to use non-conscious knowledge to make decisions about their environment and act accordingly. Blindsight brings into question the actual process of “seeing.” If humans can see without conscious awareness, then what defines vision and how important is it for us to be aware of what we are looking at? Postrhinal Cortex is an area of the brain which borders above the entorhinal cortex. It is the cortical region dorsally adjacent and caudal to the posterior rhinal sulcus. It is implicated in the role of memory and spatial navigation.

Scenic Viewpoint is an elevated location where people can view scenery over a long distance, sometimes using binoculars or just for photographs. Scenic viewpoints may be created alongside mountain roads, often as simple turnouts where motorists can pull over onto pavement, gravel, or grass on the right-of-way.

Central Fixation means seeing best where you are looking. For people with good eyesight, when they regard an object, it appears to pulsate, or to move in various directions, from side to side, up and down, or obliquely. This apparent movement is due to the shifting of the eye, and is in a direction contrary to its movement. People with good eyesight may not be conscious of this illusion, and may have difficulty in demonstrating it, but most people can, in a longer or shorter time, become aware of it. Regaining this illusion is essential in the cure of imperfect sight. Perfect sight means perfect relaxation of the mind—and also means perfect memory and perfect imagination. When one is perfect—all is perfect. The opposite is also true. When the memory or the imagination is imperfect, the sight is imperfect. We see very largely with the mind, and only partly with the eyes. The Bates Method deals very much with improving the memory and imagination. Floaters.

Retina is the third and inner coat of the Eye which is a light-sensitive layer of tissue. The optics of the Eye create an image of the visual world on the retina (through the cornea and lens), which serves much the same function as the film in a camera. Light striking the retina initiates a cascade of chemical and electrical events that ultimately trigger nerve impulses. These are sent to various visual centres of the brain through the fibres of the optic nerve. Neural retina typically refers to three layers of neural cells (photo receptor cells, bipolar cells, and ganglion cells) within the retina, while the entire retina refers to these three layers plus a layer of pigmented epithelial cells.

Occipital Lobe - Human Brain Processing Power

Horizon is the apparent line that separates earth from sky, the line that divides all visible directions into two categories: those that intersect the Earth's surface, and those that do not.

Orienteering (navigation)

Mental Representation is a hypothetical internal cognitive symbol that represents external reality, or else a mental process that makes use of such a symbol: "a formal system for making explicit certain entities or types of information, together with a specification of how the system does this."

Perception (perspective)

Diffraction refers to various phenomena which occur when a wave encounters an obstacle or a slit. It is defined as the bending of Light around the corners of an obstacle or aperture into the region of geometrical shadow of the obstacle.

Emission Theory is the proposal that visual perception is accomplished by rays of light emitted by the eyes.

Intromission Theory is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment using light in the visible spectrum reflected by the objects in the environment.

Visual Thinking is the phenomenon of thinking through visual processing. Visual thinking has been described as seeing words as a series of pictures.

Music Visualization - Art

Spatial Analysis includes any of the formal techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties.

Spatial Temporal Reasoning is an area of artificial intelligence which draws from the fields of computer science, cognitive science, and cognitive psychology. The theoretic goal—on the cognitive side—involves representing and reasoning spatial-temporal knowledge in mind. The applied goal—on the computing side—involves developing high-level control systems of robots for navigating and understanding time and space. Grid.

Entorhinal Cortex - Memory - Navigation - Coordinates

Hippocampus There is two hippocampi, one in each side of the brain, It belongs to the limbic system and plays important roles in the consolidation of information from short-term memory to long-term memory and spatial navigation. 

Visual Acuity commonly refers to the clarity of vision. Visual acuity is dependent on optical and neural factors, i.e., (i) the sharpness of the retinal focus within the Eye, (ii) the health and functioning of the retina, and (iii) the sensitivity of the interpretative faculty of the brain.

Behavioral Optometry is used to improve vision skills such as eye movement control and eye coordination. It involves a series of procedures carried out in both home and office settings, usually under professional supervision by an orthoptist.

Visual Integration
is a term referring to the integration occurring in the brain to give us a final percept, presumably in the prefrontal cortex. Information from the dorsal (parietal or medial temporal) stream dealing with localization or movement is integrated with information from the ventral (inferotemporal) stream dealing with colour or form, so that, for example, we can see a red car moving towards us.

Imagining (x-rays)

Topological - Reading Dimensions - Scale

Visual Space is the perceptual space housing the visual world being experienced by an aware observer; it is the subjective counterpart of the space of physical objects before an observer's eyes.

Geographic Coordinate System - Topography - Geography

Geometry - Geometric Shapes - Three-Dimensional Space - Dimensions (geometry)

Think Outside the Box - Ideas

Image Differencing is an image processing technique used to determine changes between images. The difference between two images is calculated by finding the difference between each pixel in each image, and generating an image based on the result. For this technique to work, the two images must first be aligned so that corresponding points coincide, and their photometric values must be made compatible, either by careful calibration, or by post-processing (using color mapping). The complexity of the pre-processing needed before differencing varies with the type of image. Images


TV Sizes and Viewing Distance: How far to sit from a 50 inch TV. Less then 60 degrees. Viewing Distance for a 43" to 50" Screen Size is around 8 feet away. Viewing Distance for a 55" to 60" Screen Size is around 10 feet away.

4K Resolution is good for electron microscope images and medical images, but it's over kill and non-relevant for everyday video watching. - You Don't See in 4K (youtube) - Shooting 4k or HD - Pros and Cons (youtube).

Foveated Imaging is a digital image processing technique in which the image resolution, or amount of detail, varies across the image according to one or more "fixation points." A fixation point indicates the highest resolution region of the image and corresponds to the center of the eye's retina, the fovea.

Angular Resolution describes the ability of any image-forming device such as an optical or radio telescope, a microscope, a camera, or an eye, to distinguish small details of an object, thereby making it a major determinant of image resolution.

Airy Disk are descriptions of the best focused spot of light that a perfect lens with a circular aperture can make, limited by the diffraction of light. The Airy disk is of importance in physics, optics, and astronomy.

Correspondence Problem refers to the problem of ascertaining which parts of one image correspond to which parts of another image, where differences are due to movement of the camera, the elapse of time, and/or movement of objects in the photos.

Saccade is a quick, simultaneous movement of both eyes between two or more phases of fixation in the same direction. The phenomenon can be associated with a shift in frequency of an emitted signal or a movement of a body part or device. Controlled cortically by the frontal eye fields (FEF), or subcortically by the superior colliculus, saccades serve as a mechanism for fixation, rapid eye movement, and the fast phase of optokinetic nystagmus.

Duck or Rabbit  Duck or Rabbit
I can see the duck, I can see the rabbit, I can see the differences between the duck and the rabbit. I can also determine whether there is any important information or relevance to what I see. So filling in the details will be based on priorities, and not just based on beliefs.

Pareidolia is a psychological phenomenon involving a stimulus (an image or a sound) wherein the mind perceives a familiar pattern of something where none exists. Common examples are perceived images of animals, faces, or objects in cloud formations, the man in the moon, the moon rabbit, and hidden messages within recorded music played in reverse or at higher- or lower-than-normal speeds.

Subliminal Stimuli

Apophenia is the human tendency to perceive meaningful patterns within random data.

Rorschach inkblot Test Photo Rorschach Test is a psychological test in which subjects' perceptions of inkblots are recorded and then analyzed using psychological interpretation, complex algorithms, or both. Some psychologists use this test to examine a person's personality characteristics and emotional functioning. It has been employed to detect underlying thought disorder, especially in cases where patients are reluctant to describe their thinking processes openly.

Black Dots Test How many dots?

Observation Errors

Tricks that test your Problem Solving Skills (youtube)
Can You Trust Your Eyes? (youtube)


Magic are staged tricks or illusions that seem real but are actually highly skilled techniques designed to Fool You, similar to media manipulation techniques, except magic is for entertainment purposes only, it's not used to manipulate your understanding of the world.

How Magicians Trick Your Brain: The Psychology Of Magic (youtube)

Magic Tricks (slight of hand - body smart)

Psychological Theories of Magic treat magic as a personal phenomenon intended to meet individual needs, as opposed to a social phenomenon serving a collective purpose.

Magical Thinking is a term used in anthropology and psychology, denoting the fallacious attribution of causal relationships between actions and events, with subtle differences in meaning between the two fields. In anthropology, it denotes the attribution of causality between entities grouped with one another (coincidence) or similar to one another. In psychology, the entities between which a causal relation has to be posited are more strictly delineated; here it denotes the belief that one's thoughts by themselves can bring about effects in the world or that thinking something corresponds with doing it. In both cases, the belief can cause a person to experience fear, seemingly not rationally justifiable to an observer outside the belief system, of performing certain acts or having certain thoughts because of an assumed correlation between doing so and threatening calamities. Wishful Thinking - Coincidence.

The Magic: The Gathering World Championships

Eric Chien 2018 Fism Grand Prix Act -Ribbon (youtube)

Circe is a goddess of magic or sometimes a nymph, witch, enchantress or sorceress in Greek mythology. Circe was renowned for her vast knowledge of potions and herbs.


Optical illusion is an illusion caused by the visual system and characterized by visually perceived images that differ from objective reality. The information gathered by the eye is processed in the brain to give a percept that does not tally with a physical measurement of the stimulus source. There are three main types: literal optical illusions that create images that are different from the objects that make them, physiological illusions that are the effects of excessive stimulation of a specific type (brightness, colour, size, position, tilt, movement), and cognitive illusions, the result of unconscious inferences. Pathological visual illusions arise from a pathological exaggeration in physiological visual perception mechanisms causing the aforementioned types of illusions. Delusions - Hallucinations.

List of Optical illusions (wiki)
Journal i-Perception

Delboeuf illusion is an optical illusion of relative size perception. Jastrow illusion.

White's illusion is a brightness illusion where certain stripes of a black and white grating is partially replaced by a gray rectangle.

Stereoscopy is a technique for creating or enhancing the illusion of depth in an image by means of stereopsis for binocular vision.

Visual Tilt Effects is due to the effect of a spatial context or temporal context, the perceived orientation of a test line or grating pattern can appear tilted away from its physical orientation.

Hidden 3D Images
Ambiguous Cylinder Illusion (youtube)
Beau Lotto: Optical illusions show how we see (youtube)
10 BEST Optical Illusions That Will Blow Your Mind (youtube)
Menu for Restaurant Design Tricks (Info-Graph)
Lotto Lab
The Dynamic Ebbinghaus (youtube)

Iridescence is the phenomenon of certain surfaces that appear to gradually change colour as the angle of view or the angle of illumination changes.

Op Art is a style of visual art that uses optical illusions.

Pareidolia is a psychological phenomenon in which the mind responds to a stimulus (an image or a sound) by perceiving a familiar pattern where none exists.

Maya illusion is an illusion where things appear to be present but are not what they seem.

Flash Lag illusion is a visual illusion wherein a flash and a moving object that appear in the same location are perceived to be displaced from one another.

Multisensory Integration (senses)

Psychophysics investigates the relationship between physical stimuli and the sensations and perceptions they produce.

McGurk Effect is a perceptual phenomenon that demonstrates an interaction between hearing and vision in speech perception. The illusion occurs when the auditory component of one sound is paired with the visual component of another sound, leading to the perception of a third sound. The visual information a person gets from seeing a person speak changes the way they hear the sound. If a person is getting poor quality auditory information but good quality visual information, they may be more likely to experience the McGurk effect. Integration abilities for audio and visual information may also influence whether a person will experience the effect. People who are better at sensory integration have been shown to be more susceptible to the effect. Many people are affected differently by the McGurk effect based on many factors, including brain damage and other disorders.

Fear Center in the Brain protects against illusions. An inhibition of amygdalae makes people more susceptible to deception
If functionality of the brain's amygdala is impaired, illusory perceptions arise much faster and more pronounced.

Visual Effects (computer graphics)

Sound can give rise to visual illusions. The brain retroactively makes sense of rapid auditory and visual sensory stimulation.

Flicker Rate of Video Frames

Phi Phenomenon is the optical illusion of perceiving a series of still images, when viewed in rapid succession, as continuous motion. Light - Time Lapse.

TV Effects on the Mind - Eye Knowledge (sight)

Flicker Rates influence Brainwaves (flicker rate can induce an alpha brain wave).

Humans perceive flicker artifacts at 500 Hz - How Many Frames can Humans See?

Continuous Flash Suppression is an adapted version of the original flash suppression method. In CFS, the first eye is presented with a static stimulus, such as a schematic face, while the second eye is presented with a series of rapidly changing stimuli. The result is the static stimulus becomes consciously repressed by the stimuli presented in the second eye. A variant of CFS to suppress a dynamic stimulus is also reported CFS not only successfully suppresses images, but it strengthens the depth and duration of suppression compared to previous methods, such as flash suppression and binocular rivalry. CFS has the highest magnitude of suppression and allows researchers to increase the suppression time of an image tenfold. Using this method, subjects may report an image presented in their visual field as being invisible for over three minutes. CFS has the longest suppression time compared to other methods. CFS opens the door to studying preconscious processing mechanisms involved in visual perception.

Flicker Screen is a visible fading between cycles displayed on video displays, especially the refresh interval on cathode ray tube (CRT) as well as Plasma based computer screens and/or TVs. Flicker occurs on CRTs when they are driven at a low refresh rate, allowing the brightness to drop for time intervals sufficiently long to be noticed by a human eye – see persistence of vision and flicker fusion threshold. For most devices, the screen's phosphors quickly lose their excitation between sweeps of the electron gun, and the afterglow is unable to fill such gaps – see phosphor persistence. A similar effect occurs in PDPs during their refresh cycles. Movies.

Refresh Rate is the number of times in a second that a display hardware updates its buffer. This is distinct from the measure of frame rate in that the refresh rate includes the repeated drawing of identical frames, while frame rate measures how often a video source can feed an entire frame of new data to a display. For example, most movie projectors advance from one frame to the next one 24 times each second. But each frame is illuminated two or three times before the next frame is projected using a shutter in front of its lamp. As a result, the movie projector runs at 24 frames per second, but has a 48 or 72 Hz refresh rate. On cathode ray tube (CRT) displays, increasing the refresh rate decreases flickering, thereby reducing eye strain. However, if a refresh rate is specified that is beyond what is recommended for the display, damage to the display can occur. For computer programs or telemetry, the term is also applied to how frequently a datum is updated with a new external value from another source (for example; a shared public spreadsheet or hardware feed).  (vertical refresh rate, or vertical scan rate for cathode ray tubes).

"You Won't Believe Your Eyes!" - Smarter Every Day 142 (youtube)

When you are watching television and believe you are looking at pictures, you are actually looking at the phosphorescent glow of three hundred thousand tiny dots. There is no picture there. These dots seem to be lit constantly, but in fact they are not. All the dots go off thirty times per second, creating what is called the flicker effect of television, which is similar to strobe or ordinary fluorescent light.

Flicker Fusion Threshold or flicker fusion rate, is a concept in the psychophysics of vision. It is defined as the frequency at which an intermittent light stimulus appears to be completely steady to the average human observer. Flicker fusion threshold is related to persistence of vision. Although flicker can be detected for many waveforms representing time-variant fluctuations of intensity, it is conventionally, and most easily, studied in terms of sinusoidal modulation of intensity. There are seven parameters that determine the ability to detect the flicker: the frequency of the modulation; the amplitude or depth of the modulation (i.e., what is the maximum percent decrease in the illumination intensity from its peak value); the average (or maximum—these can be inter-converted if modulation depth is known) illumination intensity; the wavelength (or wavelength range) of the illumination (this parameter and the illumination intensity can be combined into a single parameter for humans or other animals for which the sensitivities of rods and cones are known as a function of wavelength using the luminous flux function); the position on the retina at which the stimulation occurs (due to the different distribution of photoreceptor types at different positions); the degree of light or dark adaptation, i.e., the duration and intensity of previous exposure to background light, which affects both the intensity sensitivity and the time resolution of vision; physiological factors such as age and fatigue. Computer Screen Overuse.

Stroboscopic Effect is a visual phenomenon caused by aliasing that occurs when continuous motion is represented by a series of short or instantaneous samples. It occurs when the view of a moving object is represented by a series of short samples as distinct from a continuous view, and the moving object is in rotational or other cyclic motion at a rate close to the sampling rate. It also accounts for the "wagon-wheel effect", so-called because in video or film, spoked wheels on horse-drawn wagons sometimes appear to be turning backwards.

You blink about 15 to 20 times every single minute, 21,000 times (or more) a day. When you blink your eye actually rolls back in its socket and then returns to normal when you open your eye.

Birds have the largest eyes relative to their size in the animal kingdom, with visual acuity superior to that of other vertebrate groups. Birds of prey have a very high density of receptors and other adaptations that maximise visual acuity. The placement of their eyes gives them good binocular vision enabling accurate judgement of distances. Nocturnal species have tubular eyes, low numbers of colour detectors, but a high density of rod cells which function well in poor light. Terns, gulls and albatrosses are amongst the seabirds which have red or yellow oil droplets in the colour receptors to improve distance vision especially in hazy conditions.

The Mechanics Of The Film Projector (youtube)

Frame Rate or frames per second FPS, is the frequency (rate) at which consecutive images called frames are displayed in an animated display.

Reflexive system of the human eye also produces a conscious visual experience that may be related to excessive light sensitivity

Time Dilation (time)

Clock Rate refers to the frequency at which a chip like a central processing unit (CPU), one core of a multi-core processor, is running and is used as an indicator of the processor's speed.

Chronometer Watch is a specific type of timepiece tested and certified to meet certain precision standards.

Time-lapse is a technique whereby the frequency at which film frames are captured (the frame rate) is much lower than that used to view the sequence. When played at normal speed, time appears to be moving faster and thus lapsing. For example, an image of a scene may be captured once every second, then played back at 30 frames per second; the result is an apparent 30 times speed increase. Time-lapse photography can be considered the opposite of high speed photography or slow motion.

Motion Induced Blindness (youtube)

Motion-induced Blindness is a phenomenon of visual disappearance or perceptual illusions observed in the lab, in which stationary visual stimuli disappear as if erased in front of an observer's eyes when masked with a moving background.

Why the World Looks Stable While We Move. Tübingen Neuroscientists investigate the interaction of visual perception and head movements with functional magnetic resonance imaging.

Spinning Head Spins

Flashing Lights can cause Seizures. On December 16, 1997, hundreds of Japanese children were brought to hospital suffering from epilepsy-like seizures. They all had one thing in common: they had been watching an episode of the Pokemon TV Show when their symptoms began. Doctors determined that their symptoms were triggered by five seconds of intensely bright flashing lights on the popular TV program. But why did the lights affect a few hundred children while thousands of other viewers were unharmed? Brains may be protected from epileptic seizures by rapidly produced molecules called short RNAs, or microRNAs (miRs). MicroRNAs are a recently-discovered class of non-coding RNAs that can prevent genes from expressing particular proteins, high amounts of one micro-RNA called miR-211, which the researchers predicted was involved. The levels of this molecule could be gradually lowered by administering the antibiotic Doxycycline, enabling tests of its potency to avoid epilepsy. Regulation of PP2Cm expression by miRNA-204/211 and miRNA-22 in mouse and human cells.

Photosensitive Epilepsy is a form of epilepsy in which seizures are triggered by visual stimuli that form patterns in time or space, such as flashing lights; bold, regular patterns; or regular moving patterns. PSE affects approximately one in 4,000 people (5% of those with epilepsy).

Spatiotemporal Database is a database that manages both space and time information.

Duration is the amount of elapsed time between two events. Action Physics - Time.

Hermann von Helmholtz was a German physician and physicist who made significant contributions in several scientific fields.(August 31, 1821 – September 8, 1894).

Hermann Ebbinghaus was a German psychologist who pioneered the experimental study of memory, and is known for his discovery of the forgetting curve and the spacing effect. He was also the first person to describe the learning curve. (January 24, 1850 – February 26, 1909).

Ewald Hering was a German physiologist who did much research into color vision, binocular perception and eye movements. He proposed opponent color theory in 1892.  (5 August 1834 – 26 January 1918).


Computer Visual Performance Assessment - Xtreme Sight

Retinal Ganglion Cell is a type of neuron located near the inner surface (the ganglion cell layer) of the retina of the eye. It receives visual information from photoreceptors via two intermediate neuron types: bipolar cells and retina amacrine cells. Retina amacrine cells, particularly narrow field cells, are important for creating functional subunits within the ganglion cell layer and making it so that ganglion cells can observe a small dot moving a small distance. Retinal ganglion cells collectively transmit image-forming and non-image forming visual information from the retina in the form of action potential to several regions in the thalamus, hypothalamus, and mesencephalon, or midbrain.

Sports Vision Training - Natural Eye Vitamins

Nutraceutical products that range from isolated nutrients, dietary supplements and herbal products.

Certain foods do effect eyesight.
If your blood sugar levels change quickly, it can affect the shape of your eye's lens, causing blurry vision, which goes back to normal after your blood sugar stabilizes. Hyperopia.

Certain activities like reading also effect eyesight
. Our eyes have focusing muscles which work to change the power of the lenses in your eyes. Your eye muscles work hardest when you focus on things close to you. Since this isn't the muscles' natural position, they spasm and fatigue after a time. When this happens, you may notice that your distance vision is blurry. This is because the muscles have failed to relax and are still focusing close, even though you are looking far away. Although the symptom is blurry distance vision, the problem is too much close work. Try to keep things at a slightly greater distance from your eyes to keep your eyes as relaxed as possible. 3D Exercise.

Factory Blindness Astigmatism is a type of refractive error in which the eye does not focus light evenly on the retina. This results in distorted or blurred vision at all distances. Other symptoms can include eyestrain, headaches, and trouble driving at night. If it occurs early in life it can result in amblyopia.

Tunnel Vision s the loss of peripheral vision with retention of central vision, resulting in a constricted circular tunnel-like field of vision.

Body Smart - Eyes - Blindness


I Can't Believe what I See

Brain Eye Tricks Hallucination is a perception in the absence of external stimulus that has qualities of real perception. Hallucinations are vivid, substantial, and are perceived to be located in external objective space. They are distinguishable from these related phenomena: dreaming, which does not involve wakefulness; illusion, which involves distorted or misinterpreted real perception; imagery, which does not mimic real perception and is under voluntary control; and pseudohallucination, which does not mimic real perception, but is not under voluntary control. Hallucinations also differ from "delusional perceptions", in which a correctly sensed and interpreted stimulus (i.e., a real perception) is given some additional (and typically absurd) significance. Hallucinations can occur in any sensory modality—visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory, tactile, proprioceptive, equilibrioceptive, nociceptive, thermoceptive and chronoceptive. A mild form of hallucination is known as a disturbance, and can occur in most of the senses above. These may be things like seeing movement in peripheral vision, or hearing faint noises and/or voices. Auditory hallucinations are very common in schizophrenia. They may be benevolent (telling the subject good things about themselves) or malicious, cursing the subject etc. Auditory hallucinations of the malicious type are frequently heard, for example people talking about the subject behind his/her back. Like auditory hallucinations, the source of the visual counterpart can also be behind the subject's back. Their visual counterpart is the feeling of being looked or stared at, usually with malicious intent. Frequently, auditory hallucinations and their visual counterpart are experienced by the subject together. Hypnagogic hallucinations and hypnopompic hallucinations are considered normal phenomena. Hypnagogic hallucinations can occur as one is falling asleep and hypnopompic hallucinations occur when one is waking up. Hallucinations can be associated with drug use (particularly deliriants), sleep deprivation, psychosis, neurological disorders, and delirium tremens. The word "hallucination" itself was introduced into the English language by the 17th century physician Sir Thomas Browne in 1646 from the derivation of the Latin word alucinari meaning to wander in the mind.

Hallucinations arise when the brain gives more weight to its expectations and beliefs about the world than to the sensory evidence it receives. Hallucinations occur when this internal fact-checking fails, our senses can’t always be trusted, how can we separate illusion from Reality.

Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder is a disorder characterized by a continual presence of sensory disturbances, most commonly visual, that are reminiscent of those generated by the use of hallucinogenic substances. Many of the characteristics of this disorder can be mistaken for anxiety or panic related disorders by physicians. Previous use of hallucinogens by the person is necessary, but not sufficient, for diagnosis of HPPD. For an individual to be diagnosed with HPPD, the symptoms cannot be due to another medical condition. HPPD is distinct from flashbacks by reason of its relative permanence; while flashbacks are transient, HPPD is persistent.

Flashback in relation to psychology is a psychological phenomenon in which an individual has a sudden, usually powerful, re-experiencing of a past experience or elements of a past experience. These experiences can be happy, sad, exciting, or any other emotion one can consider. The term is used particularly when the memory is recalled involuntarily, and/or when it is so intense that the person "relives" the experience, unable to fully recognize it as memory and not something that is happening in "real time".

Delusional Disorder are delusions with no accompanying prominent hallucinations, thought disorder, mood disorder, or significant flattening of affect, which is a condition of reduced emotional reactivity in an individual. It manifests as a failure to express feelings (affect display) either verbally or non-verbally, especially when talking about issues that would normally be expected to engage the emotions. Expressive gestures are rare and there is little animation in facial expression or vocal inflection.

Delusion is an erroneous belief that is held in the face of evidence to the contrary. A mistaken or unfounded opinion or idea. The act of deluding yourself with deception by creating illusory ideas. Illusion - Hallucination

Phenomenon is any thing which manifests itself. Phenomena are often, but not always, understood as "things that appear" or "experiences" for a sentient being, or in principle may be so.

Optical Phenomena are any observable events that result from the interaction of light and matter. See also list of optical topics and optics. A mirage is an example of an optical phenomenon. Eye Problems

Mirage is a naturally occurring optical phenomenon in which light rays are bent to produce a displaced image of distant objects or the sky. The word comes to English via the French mirage, from the Latin mirari, meaning "to look at, to wonder at". This is the same root as for "mirror" and "to admire". In contrast to a hallucination, a mirage is a real optical phenomenon that can be captured on camera, since light rays are actually refracted to form the false image at the observer's location. What the image appears to represent, however, is determined by the interpretive faculties of the human mind. For example, inferior images on land are very easily mistaken for the reflections from a small body of water. Mirages can be categorized as "inferior" (meaning lower), "superior" (meaning higher) and "Fata Morgana", one kind of superior mirage consisting of a series of unusually elaborate, vertically stacked images, which form one rapidly changing mirage.

Beyond the Senses

Afterimage is a non-specific term that refers to an image continuing to appear in one's vision after the exposure to the original image has ceased. An afterimage may be a normal phenomenon (physiological afterimage) or may be pathological (palinopsia). Illusory palinopsia may be a pathological exaggeration of physiological afterimages. The remainder of this article refers to physiological afterimages. A common physiological afterimage is the dim area that seems to float before one's eyes after briefly looking into a light source, such as a camera flash. Afterimages are a common symptom of visual snow.

Persistence of Vision refers to the optical illusion that occurs when visual perception of an object does not cease for some time after the rays of light proceeding from it have ceased to enter the eye.

Chronostasis is a type of temporal illusion in which the first impression following the introduction of a new event or task demand to the brain appears to be extended in time. For example, chronostasis temporarily occurs when fixating on a target stimulus, immediately following a saccade (i.e., quick eye movement). This elicits an overestimation in the temporal duration for which that target stimulus (i.e., postsaccadic stimulus) was perceived. This effect can extend apparent durations by up to 500 ms and is consistent with the idea that the visual system models events prior to perception

People cognize and interpret information to fit what they already believe, but what if you interpret information by what you know and learned, and by what you have experienced? Everyone should have the ability to see things in at least two different ways. Seeing things from the top-down, and the bottom-up. We know that our minds can run on automatic, so we don't have to instruct our brains to think, because the brain is always thinking, whether will tell it to or not, we think even when we're sleeping. But we have the ability to control our thinking, but we have to exercise this ability everyday, if not, then Reality could get blurred and undefined. We also have our own Personal Perception, so what you see might not be what others see, so what do you see? Delusions (personality)

It's not what you want to see. This is what I know from previous experiences. You also have to see as if it were the first time seeing, and this is how you would explain what you see is if you were seeing for the first time. You can only see what your mind allows you to see, that is why you must use the mind in a way that you're controlling what you see by looking at details and asking questions to explain those details.

Mercator Projection is a cylindrical map projection. The Size of Things

Ideologically motivated cognition is not a complete sentence. Having information does not say anything until you specify the exact information that you are referring too, and, have also confirmed that everyone has understood this information accurately in the same way in order to influence the correct actions that would help solve this particular problem.

"You can have logic and beliefs, as long as you have two logics and two beliefs, one confirming the other."

Focus - Attention
Problem Solving - Thinking Styles
Media Literacy - Memory
Awareness - Sub-Conscious

The Thinker Man