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Vaccinations - Infections - Viruses - Colds - Flu

Hypodermic Needle
This is not about being against vaccines, because not all vaccines are bad. This is about knowing Why you need a particular vaccine? And Knowing How Much you need? And Knowing What the ingredients are? And Knowing the Facts and the Choices? Colds - Flu - Disease - Antibiotics

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Informed Consent is having a clear understanding of the facts, implications, and the consequences of an action. This way you can give legal and logical permission to someone before they conduct a healthcare intervention on you.

Asking Questions - Consumer Warnings - Hospital Infections

Implied Consent is consent which is not expressly granted by a person, but rather implicitly granted by a person's actions and the facts and circumstances of a particular situation. In some cases, a person's silence or inaction is the same as saying yes. Accessory to a Crime - Passive

Consent of the Governed refers to the idea that a government's legitimacy and moral right to use state power is only justified and lawful when consented to by the people or society over which that political power is exercised. This theory of consent is historically contrasted to the divine right of kings and had often been invoked against the legitimacy of colonialism. Article 21 of the United Nation's 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights states that "The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government". You have the Right to Remain Silent.

Compliance (psychology) refers to a response—specifically, a submission—made in reaction to a request. Defined as the effect that the words, actions, or mere presence of other people (real or imagined) have on our thoughts, feelings, attitudes, or behavior; social influence is the driving force behind compliance. It is important that psychologists and ordinary people alike recognize that social influence extends beyond our behavior—to our thoughts, feelings and beliefs—and that it takes on many forms. Persuasion and the gaining of compliance are particularly significant types of social influence since they utilize the respective effect's power to attain the submission of others. Studying compliance is significant because it is a type of social influence that affects our everyday behavior—especially social interactions. Compliance itself is a complicated concept that must be studied in depth so that its uses, implications and both its theoretical and experimental approaches may be better understood. Exemptions - Immunity.

Opt-Out Systems, organ donation will occur automatically unless a specific request is made before death for organs not to be taken. So anyone who has not refused consent to donate is a donor.  A presumed consent system, it is assumed that individuals do intend to donate their organs.

Dissent is non-agreement or opposition to a prevailing idea. Strawman

No means No - Entrapment - False Evidence - Conscientious Objector

Authorization is a document giving an official instructions, permission or approval.

Permission is the act of giving a formal (usually written) authorization, which gives approval to do something.

If everyone signs non-disclosure agreements then how will the public be informed of Negligence and Abuse? Companies are using non-disclosure agreements to get away with committing crimes and to silence victims of crimes, allowing the criminals to keep committing more crimes.

Vaccines are not Risk Free. But if you don't know the risks, then how can you Decide? How do you minimize risk without increasing risk for yourself or for others.

Flu Vaccine is an Educated Guess

Number Needed to Vaccinate states that the number of people needed to be vaccinated is sometimes small. So vaccinating more people does not make people safer, especially when the vaccination will do more harm the good if given to more people then needed. Protecting the most vulnerable people is a priority, but there is still risks involved.

Number Needed to Treat is the average number of patients who need to be treated to prevent one additional bad outcome. e.g. the number of patients that need to be treated for one to benefit compared with a control in a clinical trial. NNT is the effectiveness of a health-care intervention, typically a treatment with medication.

Number Needed to Harm is an average of one patient who would not otherwise have been harmed.

Effect Size is a quantitative measure of the strength of a phenomenon. Examples of effect sizes are the correlation between two variables, the regression coefficient in a regression, the mean difference, or even the risk with which something happens, such as how many people survive after a heart attack for every one person that does not survive. For each type of effect size, a larger absolute value always indicates a stronger effect. Effect sizes complement statistical hypothesis testing, and play an important role in power analyses, sample size planning, and in meta-analyses. They are the first item (magnitude) in the MAGIC criteria for evaluating the strength of a statistical claim.

Herd immunity occurs when a large percentage of a population has become immune to an infection, thereby providing a measure of protection for individuals who are not immune. But just being immune does not mean you or someone else can't be a carrier of an infectious disease.

Asymptomatic Carrier is a person or other organism that has contracted an infectious disease, but who displays no symptoms. Although unaffected by the disease themselves, carriers can transmit it to others.

We have to force pharmaceutical companies to do more testing to see which people are more vulnerable to certain vaccines, and we also have to force pharmaceutical companies to make safer vaccines. 

The FDA is not always our Friend, they are easily Corrupted with Money and Power, just like a lot of people.

Vaccine is an agent that resembles a disease-causing micro-organism and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins or one of its surface proteins. The agent stimulates the body's immune system to recognize the agent as a threat, destroy it, and keep a record of it, so that the immune system can more easily recognize and destroy any of these micro-organisms that it later encounters. Inactivated vaccines use the killed version of the germ that causes a disease. Inactivated vaccines usually don't provide immunity (protection) that's as strong as live vaccines. So you may need several doses over time (booster shots) in order to get ongoing immunity against diseases.

Attenuated Vaccine is a vaccine created by reducing the virulence of a pathogen, but still keeping it viable (or "live"). Attenuation takes an infectious agent and alters it so that it becomes harmless or less virulent. These vaccines contrast to those produced by "killing" the virus (inactivated vaccine). Live Vaccines (wiki)

How Live Vaccines enhance the body's immune response. New findings point the way to more efficient vaccines.

Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine is a type of influenza vaccine in the form of a nasal spray that used to be recommended to prevent influenza. In June 2016 the CDC stopped recommending the use of LAIV as its effectiveness has appeared to have decreased between 2013 and 2016.  Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine FluMist (wiki)

Vaccinations Info - Vaccines.gov

Immunization is the process by which an individual's immune system becomes fortified against an agent (known as the immunogen). Exposing an animal to an immunogen in a controlled way, its body can learn to protect itself: this is called active immunization.

Injection (medicine) is the act of putting a liquid, especially a drug, into a person's body using a needle (usually a hypodermic needle) and a syringe. Injection is a technique for delivering drugs by parenteral administration, that is, administration via a route other than through the digestive tract. Parenteral injection includes subcutaneous, intramuscular, intravenous, intraperitoneal, intracardiac, intraarticular and intracavernous injection. Injection is generally administered as a bolus, but can possibly be used for continuous drug administration as well. Even when administered as a bolus, the medication may be long-acting, and can then be called depot injection. Administration by an indwelling catheter is generally preferred instead of injection in case of more long-term or recurrent drug administration. Injections are among the most common health care procedures, with at least 16 billion administered in developing and transitional countries each year. 95% of injections are administered in curative care, 3% are for immunization, and the rest for other purposes, such as blood transfusions. In some instances the term injection is used synonymously with inoculation even by different workers in the same hospital. This should not cause confusion; the focus is on what is being injected/inoculated, not the terminology of the procedure. Since the process inherently involves a small puncture wound to the body (with varying degrees of pain depending on injection type and location, medication type, needle gauge and the skill of the individual administering the injection), fear of needles is a common phobia.

Antigen is a molecule capable of inducing an immune response on the part of the host organism, though sometimes antigens can be part of the host itself. In other words, an antigen is any substance that causes an immune system to produce antibodies against it. Each antibody is specifically produced by the immune system to match an antigen after cells in the immune system come into contact with it; this allows a precise identification of the antigen and the initiation of a tailored response. The antibody is said to "match" the antigen in the sense that it can bind to it thanks to adaptations performed to a region of the antibody; because of this, many different antibodies can be produced, with specificity to bind many different antigens while sharing the same basic structure. In most cases, an antibody can only bind one specific antigen; in some instances, however, antibodies may bind more than one antigen.

FDA Biologics Blood Vaccines

Colds and Flu

How many vaccines should I get, and when? Should I get one vaccine at a time so that we can see which vaccines are the safest? Are Vaccinations are more effective when administered in the morning because of fluctuations in immune responses throughout the day?

Vaccination Schedule (wiki)

Which type of vaccine is safer? Oral or Injection? For the polio vaccine, the injection is safer then the oral vaccination.

Should I get a DNA Screening to determine if any defects in my genes can be triggered by a vaccination?

Dry powder nasal vaccines as an alternative to needle-based delivery. Dry powder vaccines offer the advantages of chemical and physical stability in comparison to liquid formulations. An intranasal vaccine can elicit both a local and systemic immune response. Mucoadhesive compounds can extend the residence time for powder formulations on the nasal mucosa, potentially increasing the immune response. Manufacture and characterization of a formulation containing particles of a dry powder vaccine are discussed.

How many children get Autism who have never received a vaccine in their entire life? 

So what if my child did not get autism from vaccines, but what about a lower IQ, or other side effects?

Inoculation is not new, it's been around for hundreds of years. What's new is how we are administering our medicine today.

What other alternatives do we have that would boost our immune system?

Disease Outbreak Map and Monitoring

Medical Exemptions
All 50 states allow exemptions for children who have a valid medical reason, and almost all states allow nonmedical exemptions for parents with either religious or philosophical objections.

Films About Vaccines
How Vaccines Harm Child Brain Development - Dr Russell Blaylock MD (youtube) Adding insult to injury.
Shots in the Dark (veho)
In Lies We Trust (youtube)
Lethal Injection: The Story Of Vaccination (youtube)
The Greater Good (2012) a feature documentary that looks behind the fear, hype and politics that have polarized the vaccine debate in America today. Greater Good Movie
How We'll Fight the Next Deadly Virus (video and text)

Vaccine Liberation Army
Drug Errors
Vaccine Truth
Early Development and Toxins

Why are flu vaccines only about 60 percent effective?  If that's the case then education is more effective then vaccines. The vaccine does not protect you from spreading the virus, it only gives you a 60% chance of not getting sick from a certain virus.

Ask for Thiomersal Mercury free Vaccines. 

Human Experimentation describes numerous experiments performed on human test subjects in the United States that have been considered unethical, and were often performed illegally, without the knowledge, consent, or informed consent of the test subjects. Such tests have occurred throughout American history, but particularly in the 20th century.

Pharmaceutical Dangers
The word Natural can be misleading

Unlike vaccines for measles or polio that work more than 90 percent of the time, the new Malaria Vaccine has an efficacy rate between 26 and 36 percent.

Autoimmune Disease

U.S. Code Legal Information
Vac Lib
Alliance for Human Research Protection
Human Research Protections
Human Research

Health Documentaries
Consumer Safety
Human Diploid Cell
National Vaccine Information Center
Dr. Tenpenny

Non-Communicable Disease is a medical condition or disease that is not caused by infectious agents (non-infectious or non-transmissible).

Causes of Death - Poverty

Vaccine-Preventable Diseases (wiki)
Vaccine Preventable Diseases Monitoring System
Health Map
Russell Blaylock MD
Vaccines Hurt Babies (youtube channel)

Cytokine are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling. Their release has an effect on the behavior of cells around them. It can be said that cytokines are involved in autocrine signalling, paracrine signalling and endocrine signalling as immunomodulating agents. Their definite distinction from hormones is still part of ongoing research. Cytokines include chemokines, interferons, interleukins, lymphokines, and tumour necrosis factors but generally not hormones or growth factors (despite some overlap in the terminology). Cytokines are produced by a broad range of cells, including immune cells like macrophages, B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes and mast cells, as well as endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and various stromal cells; a given cytokine may be produced by more than one type of cell. They act through receptors, and are especially important in the immune system; cytokines modulate the balance between humoral and cell-based immune responses, and they regulate the maturation, growth, and responsiveness of particular cell populations. Some cytokines enhance or inhibit the action of other cytokines in complex ways. They are different from hormones, which are also important cell signaling molecules, in that hormones circulate in less variable concentrations and hormones tend to be made by specific kinds of cells. They are important in health and disease, specifically in host responses to infection, immune responses, inflammation, trauma, sepsis, cancer, and reproduction.

Microglia are a type of glial cell located throughout the brain and spinal cord. Microglia account for 10–15% of all cells found within the brain. As the resident macrophage cells, they act as the first and main form of active immune defense in the central nervous system (CNS)

Immune System
Center for Drug Design, Development and Delivery
Vaccine Patch
Mitochondrial Antiviral-Signaling Protein (wiki)
Viruses Carry Antiviral Cargo
cGAMP (wiki)

Vaccine indemnification program in the US paid out thousands of claims for Billions of dollars.

Vaccine Court refers to the Office of Special Masters of the U.S. Court of Federal Claims, which administers a no-fault system for litigating vaccine injury claims. These claims against vaccine manufacturers cannot normally be filed in state or Federal Civil Courts, but instead must be heard in the Court of Claims, sitting without a jury.

National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program (VICP)
National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act (wiki)
Vaccine Compensation
Vaccine Injury Compensation Reports

HYDRA Device converts electricity passing through a piezoelectric chip into mechanical vibration, or sound waves, which in turn break liquid into a spray, so that vaccines can be inhaled through a nebulizer device.

Vaccine builds up anti-bodies to help people defend against virus's. We need a vaccine against ignorance and corruption, we will call it a real high quality education vaccine. This way when children grow up, they will have enough knowledge and skills (anti-bodies) to defend themselves, and others, from corruption, abuse, waste and other crimes that kill millions every year.

It's not just the lack of a vaccine that will kill you, it's the lack of knowledge about how to protect yourself from a particular disease that will kill you. A vaccine can help replace education where there is very little education, which happens to be the entire planet. You will save more people by educating them, then you will by injecting them, especially if the injection is mostly propaganda. Education is the only proven vaccination for ignorance, which kills more people then all diseases combined.

When WHO says routine life-saving immunizations could avert 1.5 million deaths each year from preventable diseases, what they're not saying is that the 1.5 million deaths each year from preventable diseases is mostly a result of poor people who have no access to a good education, or clean water, or healthy food, or healthy homes. When you lie and mislead people, that means you are trying to hide something, and that's when people stop trusting you. So what will stop the murders of millions of people every year? Maybe a shot of the truth. Path


Disease is a particular abnormal condition, a disorder of a structure or function, that affects part or all of an organism. The study of disease is called pathology which includes the causal study of etiology, which is the study of causation, or origination. Disease is often construed as a medical condition associated with specific symptoms and signs. It may be caused by external factors such as pathogens, or it may be caused by internal dysfunctions particularly of the immune system such as an immunodeficiency, or a hypersensitivity including allergies and autoimmunity.

Pathogen is anything that can produce disease. Infectious agent such as a virus, bacterium, prion, a fungus, or even another micro-organism. Model sheds new light on pathogen cooperation

Pathogenesis of a disease is the biological mechanism (or mechanisms) that leads to the diseased state.

Asymptomatic is a patient who is a carrier for a disease or infection but experiences no symptoms.

Infectious Diseases Emergency Preparedness Plan

Communicable Disease is a disease that is transmitted through direct contact with an infected individual or indirectly through a vector.

Contagious is easily diffused or spread as from one person to another.

Transmission is the passing of a pathogen causing communicable disease from an infected host individual or group to a particular individual or group, regardless of whether the other individual was previously infected.

is capable of being transmitted by infection.

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation is an independent population Health Research center at UW Medicine
provides rigorous and comparable measurement of the world's most important health problems and evaluates the strategies used to address them. IHME makes this information freely available so that policymakers have the evidence they need to make informed decisions about how to allocate resources to best improve population health.

Hepatitis A, B, C, D and E viruses kill 1.34 million people a year. HIV/AIDS claims 1 million lives a year. Estimates vary for malaria (from 429,000 deaths by WHO's calculations to 719,000 deaths according to the new report). TB statistics range from 1.2 million in the study to 1.8 million from WHO).

Global Burden of Disease Study is a comprehensive regional and global research program of disease burden that assesses mortality and disability from major diseases, injuries, and risk factors. GBD is a collaboration of over 1,800 researchers from 127 countries. The Lancet general medical journal.

Mosquito-Borne Disease are diseases caused by bacterial, viruses or parasites transmitted by mosquitoes. They can transmit disease without being affected themselves. Diseases transmitted by mosquitoes include: malaria, dengue, West Nile virus, chikungunya, yellow fever, filariasis, Japanese encephalitis, Saint Louis encephalitis, Western equine encephalitis, Eastern equine encephalitis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, La Crosse encephalitis and Zika fever. Nearly 700 million people get a mosquito borne illness each year resulting in greater than one million deaths.

A secret weapon against Zika and other mosquito-borne diseases: Nina Fedoroff (video and interactive text). A little British company called Oxitec genetically modified that mosquito so that when it mates with a wild female, its eggs don't develop to adulthood. Zika Virus (wiki)

Newly described Human Antibody prevents Malaria in mice

Mosquito Net offers protection against mosquitos, flies, and other insects, and thus against the diseases they may carry. Examples include malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever, zika virus and various forms of encephalitis, including the West Nile virus. To be effective the mesh of a mosquito net must be fine enough to exclude such insects without reducing visibility or air flow to unacceptable levels. It is possible to increase the effectiveness of a mosquito net greatly by treating it with an appropriate insecticide or mosquito repellant. Beds

Rare Diseases
Chronic Disease

Chronic Medicine is a human health condition or disease that is persistent or otherwise long-lasting in its effects or a disease that comes with time.

Molecular Pathology is an emerging discipline within pathology which is focused in the study and diagnosis of disease through the examination of molecules within organs, tissues or bodily fluids. Molecular pathology shares some aspects of practice with both anatomic pathology and clinical pathology, molecular biology, biochemistry, proteomics and genetics, and is sometimes considered a "crossover" discipline. It is multi-disciplinary in nature and focuses mainly on the sub-microscopic aspects of disease. A key consideration is that more accurate diagnosis is possible when the diagnosis is based on both the morphologic changes in tissues (traditional anatomic pathology) and on molecular testing.

Eradication of Infectious Diseases is the reduction of an infectious disease's prevalence in the global host population to zero.

Measles spread by coughing and sneezing via close personal contact or direct contact with secretions. Risk factors for severe measles is Malnutrition. Infected people are usually contagious from about 4 days before their rash starts to 4 days afterwards. The measles virus resides in the mucus in the nose and throat of infected people. Investments into vaccine campaigns is not effective enough. You need to invest in educating the public, it's the only proven way for protecting people.

Over the past 60 years, the number of new diseases cropping up in a decade has almost quadrupled. The number of outbreaks each year has more than tripled since 1980.

Toxins - Pesticides

Numer of Diseases by Country Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the patterns, causes and effects of health and disease conditions in defined populations. It is the cornerstone of public health, and shapes policy decisions and evidence-based practice by identifying risk factors for disease and targets for preventive healthcare. Epidemiologists help with study design, collection, and statistical analysis of data, amend interpretation and dissemination of results (including peer review and occasional systematic review). Epidemiology has helped develop methodology used in clinical research, public health studies, and, to a lesser extent, basic research in the biological sciences.

Pathophysiology is a convergence of pathology with physiology. Pathology is the medical discipline that describes conditions typically observed during a disease state, whereas physiology is the biological discipline that describes processes or mechanisms operating within an organism. Pathology describes the abnormal or undesired condition, whereas pathophysiology seeks to explain the physiological processes or mechanisms whereby such condition develops and progresses. Pathophysiology can also mean the functional changes associated with or resulting from disease or injury. Another definition is the functional changes that accompany a particular disease.

Pandemic is an epidemic of infectious disease that has spread through human populations across a large region; for instance multiple continents, or even worldwide. A widespread endemic disease that is stable in terms of how many people are getting sick from it is not a pandemic. Further, flu pandemics generally exclude recurrences of seasonal flu. Throughout history, there have been a number of pandemics, such as smallpox and tuberculosis. One of the most devastating pandemics was the Black Death, killing over 75 million people in 1350. The most recent pandemics include the HIV pandemic as well as the 1918 and 2009 H1N1 pandemics.

List of Epidemics (wiki)

Epidemics: The Invisible Threat (video, 10.13.14, 52 min.)

A genetic rearrangement of red blood cell glycophorin receptors that confers a 40 percent reduced risk from severe malaria.

Scientists discover off-switch for ‘molecular machine’ active in many diseases. Researchers have uncovered how an inflammation process automatically switches off in healthy cells.

The brain detects disease in others even before it breaks out. Our sense of vision and smell alone are enough to make us aware that someone has a disease even before it breaks out.

Wash Your Hands

Keeping Hands Clean is one of the most important steps you can take to avoid getting sick and spreading germs to others. Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue when you cough or sneeze, and throw out your used tissue. If you don’t have a tissue, cough or sneeze into your upper sleeve or elbow, not your hands.

Hand Washing - Good Hygiene - Bathing

Protect Yourself from Viruses
Avoid close contact with sick people. Wash your hands often with soap and water. Avoid touching your eyes, nose and mouth because Germs spread this way. Cover your nose and mouth with a tissue when you cough or sneeze. If sick, limit contact with others as much as possible to keep from infecting them. Colds

Think Twice

Infections - Antiviral Drug - Pathogens

Take off your Shoes when entering a Home
A study done by the University of Arizona found an average of 421,000 different bacteria on shoes. Coliforms, a bacterial indicator of the level of sanitation of foods and water (and universally present in feces), were detected on the bottoms of 96% of shoes

Hospital Infections

2011 survey of 183 hospitals in 10 states. In that year alone, there were approximately 721,800 infections in 648,000 patients. Around 75,000 of these patients died that year as a result of a health care-associated infection. Hospital infections cost the U.S. 9.8 billion each year. Superbugs are on the rise. Hospitals are gaming a system by failing to report patient-infection rates and, in turn, the facilities can see a bonus or a penalty worth millions of dollars. The bonuses and penalties are part of Medicare's Inpatient Quality Reporting program, which is meant to reward hospitals for low infection rates and give consumers access to the information at the agency's Hospital Compare website. Contagious Transmissible.

Antimicrobial Resistance is the ability of a microbe to resist the effects of medication previously used to treat them. This broader term also covers antibiotic resistance, which applies to bacteria and antibiotics. Resistance arises through one of three ways: natural resistance in certain types of bacteria; genetic mutation; or by one species acquiring resistance from another. Resistance can appear spontaneously because of random mutations; or more commonly following gradual buildup over time, and because of misuse of antibiotics or antimicrobials. Resistant microbes are increasingly difficult to treat, requiring alternative medications or higher doses—which may be more costly or more toxic. Microbes resistant to multiple antimicrobials are called multidrug resistant (MDR); or sometimes superbugs. Antimicrobial resistance is on the rise with millions of deaths every year. A few infections are now completely untreatable because of resistance. All classes of microbes develop resistance (fungi, antifungal resistance; viruses, antiviral resistance; protozoa, antiprotozoal resistance; bacteria, antibiotic resistance).
Humans are mostly Microbes

Molecular basis of major Antibiotic Resistance transfer mechanism unraveled. The research team discovered that the workhorse of the transposon insertion machine, the transposase protein, has an unusual shape. This enables it to bind to the DNA in an inactive state, which prevents cleavage and thus destruction of the transposon until it can paste the antibiotic resistance gene in the new host genome. The protein's special shape also forces the transposon DNA to unwind and open up, allowing it to insert its antibiotic resistance cargo at many places in an extremely diverse range of bacteria. Multi-Drug Resistant Bacteria.

Antimicrobial Properties of Copper and its alloys (brasses, bronzes, cupronickel, copper-nickel-zinc, and others) are natural antimicrobial materials.

Infection outbreaks at Hospitals could be reduced by Copper-Coated Uniforms. Uniforms brushed with tiny copper nanoparticles to reduce the spread of bacterial infections and viruses.

Smartphone Screen Technology used to trick Harmful Bacteria. Conducting plastics found in smartphone screens can be used to trick the metabolism of pathogenic bacteria by adding or removing electrons from the plastic surface, bacteria may be tricked into growing more or less.

Antimicrobial is an agent that kills microorganisms or stops their growth. Antimicrobial medicines can be grouped according to the microorganisms they act primarily against. For example, antibiotics are used against bacteria and antifungals are used against fungi. They can also be classified according to their function. Agents that kill microbes are called microbicidal, while those that merely inhibit their growth are called biostatic. The use of antimicrobial medicines to treat infection is known as antimicrobial chemotherapy, while the use of antimicrobial medicines to prevent infection is known as antimicrobial prophylaxis, which refers to the prevention of infection complications using antimicrobial therapy (most commonly antibiotics).

Antibiotics (drugs)

Deaths Attrbutable to Antimicrobial Resistance Oligodynamic effect is a biocidal effect of metals, especially heavy metals, that occurs even in low concentrations.

Biocide is a chemical substance or microorganism intended to destroy, deter, render harmless, or exert a controlling effect on any harmful organism by chemical or biological means.

Disinfectant are antimicrobial agents that are applied to the surface of non-living objects to destroy microorganisms that are living on the objects.

Hospital workers often transfer germs when removing gloves and gowns.

Hand Washing Tips

Doctors should also wipe their stethoscopes between patients

Choosing a Hospital and Surgeon with Low Infections Rates.

Bacterial infections are still killing about 700,000 people each year.

Efflux (microbiology) is a mechanism responsible for moving compounds, like neurotransmitters, toxic substances, and antibiotics, out of the cell; this is considered to be a vital part of xenobiotic metabolism. This mechanism is important in medicine as it can contribute to bacterial antibiotic resistance. Efflux systems function via an energy-dependent mechanism (active transport) to pump out unwanted toxic substances through specific efflux pumps. Some efflux systems are drug-specific, whereas others may accommodate multiple drugs with small multidrug resistance (SMR) transporters.

Hospital Errors
Best Practice

Plague's and Epidemics

By masquerading as red blood cells, the Nanosponges attract harmful toxins and remove them from the bloodstream.

Olympus $40,000 gastrointestinal scopes endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. The scope’s design could allow blood and tissue to become trapped, spreading bacteria from one patient to another. Physicians perform nearly 700,000 of those procedures annually in the U.S., and 2 million worldwide.

How Antibiotic Resistance SpreadsMost of these 18 bacteria, which cause about 2.3 million yearly infections in the US, have developed measurable resistances to many drugs within the existing classes.

Heater-cooler devices used in cardiac surgery aerosolized the Mycobacterium chimaera into the air leading to direct contamination of the surgical wound.

Comprehensive serological profiling of human populations using a synthetic human virome

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, on any given day about 1 in 25 hospital patients has at least one healthcare-associated infection. Tens of thousands of people die each year as a result.

Research, including a 2015 investigation from Consumer Reports, found that many of these cases can be traced back to inappropriate antibiotic use, the very drugs that are supposed to fight infections. Patients on Antibiotics are more susceptible to C. diff, for example, because antibiotics kill off intestinal bacteria make sure all visitors and medical staff wash their hands before approaching you.

Bringing a canister of bleach wipes wiping down surfaces around the hospital bed can reduce the risk of some C. diff infections by as much as 85 percent.

Bathing with chlorhexidine soap, which can remove harmful bacteria you may be carrying on your skin, days before scheduled surgery.


Antibiotic are a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections. They may either kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria. A limited number of antibiotics also possess antiprotozoal activity. Antibiotics are not effective against viruses such as the common cold or influenza, and their inappropriate use allows the emergence of resistant organisms. Drugs which inhibit viruses are termed antiviral drugs or antivirals rather than antibiotics.

Antimicrobial (germ killers) - Humans are mostly Microbes

List of Antibiotics (wiki) - Ointments for Small Cuts

Antibacterial is an agent that interferes with the growth and reproduction of bacteria. While antibiotics and antibacterials both attack bacteria, these terms have evolved over the years to mean two different things.

Synthesised Antibiotic is Capable of Treating Superbugs. Drug version is based on teixobactin, which is a natural antibiotic discovered by US scientists in soil samples in 2015, could help in the battle against antibiotic resistant pathogens such as MRSA and VRE. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus - Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci

Vancomycin is an antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections. Vancomycin is made by the soil bacterium Amycolatopsis orientalis. Fights bacteria in three different ways.

Viruses - Infections

Linezolid is an antibiotic used for the treatment of infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria that are resistant to other antibiotics.

Daptomycin is a lipopeptide antibiotic used in the treatment of systemic and life-threatening infections caused by Gram-positive organisms.

Immune System

Antimicrobial Resistance is the ability of a microbe to resist the effects of medication previously used to treat them.

Bacteria Resistant to Antibiotics

Carbapenem resistant enterobacteriaceae are Gram-negative bacteria that are resistant to the carbapenem class of antibiotics, considered the drugs of last resort for such infections.

Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative, nonmotile, encapsulated, lactose-fermenting, facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium. It appears as a mucoid lactose fermenter on MacConkey agar.

New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase 1 is an enzyme that makes bacteria resistant to a broad range of beta-lactam antibiotics. These include the antibiotics of the carbapenem family, which are a mainstay for the treatment of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections.

Maryn Mckenna what do we do when antibiotics don't work any more? (video and interactive text)

Using rank order to identify complex genetic interactions. Ranking pathogen mutants can help scientists understand how mutants evolve to resist drug treatments.

Antibiotic over used Nudging Guideline-Concordant Antibiotic Prescribing

Nudging physician prescription decisions by partitioning the order set: results of a vignette-based study

Effect of Behavioral Interventions on Inappropriate Antibiotic Prescribing Among Primary Care Practices

Supercharged Antibiotics could turn tide against Superbugs by modifying vancomycin’s membrane-binding properties to selectively bind to bacterial membranes rather than those of human cells, creating a series of supercharged vancomycin derivatives called vancapticins. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria – Superbugs cause 700,000 deaths worldwide each year, and a UK government review has predicted this could rise to 10 million by 2050.

Strontium Titanate is an oxide of strontium and titanium with the chemical formula SrTiO3. (neodymium titanate).

Antibiotics that kill gut bacteria also stop growth of new brain cells. A type of white blood cell seems to act as a communicator between the brain, the immune system, and the gut.

M Protein (Streptococcus) is a virulence factor that can be produced by certain species of Streptococcus. Viruses, parasites and bacteria are covered in protein and sugar molecules that help them gain entry into a host by counteracting the host's defences. One such molecule is the M protein produced by certain streptococcal bacteria. M proteins embody a motif that is now known to be shared by many Gram-positive bacterial surface proteins. The motif includes a conserved pentapeptide LPXTG, which precedes a hydrophobic C-terminal membrane anchor, which itself precedes a cluster of basic residues. Strep's M protein alone wipes out macrophages, but not other types of immune cells. The macrophages' self-sacrifice serves as an early warning of infection to the rest of the immune system. White Blood Cells

Neurodegeneration is the progressive loss of structure or function of neurons, including death of neurons. (Ly6Chi cells).

Body Burden

Antibiotics resistance: researchers succeed to block genes of resistance. One of the ways antibiotic resistance genes spread in hospitals and in the environment is that the genes are coded on plasmids that transfer between bacteria. A plasmid is a DNA fragment found in bacteria or yeasts. It carries genes useful for bacteria, especially when these genes encode proteins that can make bacteria resistant to antibiotics researchers screened a library of small chemical molecules for those that bind to the TraE protein, an essential component of the plasmid transfer machinery. Analysis by X-ray crystallography revealed the exact binding site of these molecules on TraE. Having precise information on the binding site enabled the researchers to design more potent binding molecules that, in the end, reduced the transfer of antibiotic-resistant, gene-carrying plasmids.

Germs with unusual Antibiotic Resistance widespread in U.S. More than 23,000 Americans die each year from infections caused by germs resistant to antibiotics.

Answer to Bacterial Antibiotic Resistance may be found in Plants. Plant secondary metabolites (PSMs). PSMs are highly diverse, with more than 12,000 alkaloids, 8,000 phenolic compounds, and 25,000 terpenoids currently known.

Plant Secondary Metabolism produces a large number of specialized compounds (estimated 200,000) that do not aid in the growth and development of plants but are required for the plant to survive in its environment. Secondary metabolism is connected to primary metabolism by using building blocks and biosynthetic enzymes derived from primary metabolism. Primary metabolism governs all basic physiological processes that allow a plant to grow and set seeds, by translating the genetic code into proteins, carbohydrates, and amino acids. Specialized compounds from secondary metabolism are essential for communicating with other organisms in mutualistic (e.g. attraction of beneficial organisms such as pollinators) or antagonistic interactions (e.g. deterrent against herbivores and pathogens). They further assist in coping with abiotic stress such as increased UV-radiation. The broad functional spectrum of specialized metabolism is still not fully understood. In any case, a good balance between products of primary and secondary metabolism is best for a plant’s optimal growth and development as well as for its effective coping with often changing environmental conditions. Well known specialized compounds include alkaloids, polyphenols including flavonoids, and terpenoids. Humans use quite a lot of these compounds, or the plants from which they originate, for medicinal and nutraceutical purposes.

Does a vaccine kill good bacteria? A vaccine works by training the immune system to recognize and combat pathogens,
either viruses or bacteria. To do this, certain molecules from the pathogen must be introduced into the body to trigger an immune response. These molecules are called antigens, and they are present on all viruses and bacteria. By injecting these
antigens into the body, the immune system can safely learn to recognize them as hostile invaders, produce antibodies, and remember them for the future. If the bacteria or virus reappears, the immune system will recognize the antigens immediately and attack aggressively well before the pathogen can spread and cause sickness.

Bacteria that naturally colonize the gut may help mount a strong immune response to a seasonal flu vaccine. Findings also suggest that antibiotic treatment, which decreases the number and diversity of resident gut bacteria, may reduce the immune response to the vaccine. Understanding how gut bacteria affect vaccine responses may help scientists develop new strategies to enhance vaccine-induced immunity.

Colds - Flu - Viruses

Women Sneezing Virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms. Viruses can infect all types of life forms, from animals and plants to Microorganisms, including bacteria and archaea. Microbes - Flu - Pneumonia - Influenza

Why Do Viruses Kill? - BBC - Archaea - Horizon (youtube)

Virology is the study of viruses – submicroscopic, parasitic particles of genetic material contained in a protein coat – and virus-like agents. It focuses on the following aspects of viruses: their structure, classification and evolution, their ways to infect and exploit host cells for reproduction, their interaction with host organism physiology and immunity, the diseases they cause, the techniques to isolate and culture them, and their use in research and therapy. Virology is considered to be a subfield of microbiology or of medicine. Contagious

Human Virome is the collection of viruses in and on the human body. Defining the virome is thought to provide an understanding of microbes and how they affect human health and disease. Viruses in the human body infect both human cells as well as other microbes such as bacteria.

is a list of all the known viruses.

1,445 viruses have been discovered in the most populous animals.
Biologists Discover How Viruses Hijack Cell’s Machinery
Viral Infection

Dormant is a condition of biological rest or suspended animation that is temporaly inactive but capable of becoming active and awake.

Latent is remaining in an inactive or hidden phase; dormant. Lying dormant or hidden until circumstances are suitable for development or manifestation.

Virus Latency is the ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant (latent) within a cell, denoted as the lysogenic part of the viral life cycle. A latent viral infection is a type of persistent viral infection which is distinguished from a chronic viral infection. Latency is the phase in certain viruses' life cycles in which, after initial infection, proliferation of virus particles ceases. However, the viral genome is not fully eradicated. The result of this is that the virus can reactivate and begin producing large amounts of viral progeny without the host being infected by new outside virus, denoted as the lytic part of the viral life cycle, and stays within the host indefinitely. Virus latency is not to be confused with clinical latency during the incubation period when a virus is not dormant.

Lytic Cycle is one of the two cycles of viral reproduction (referring to bacterial viruses or bacteriophages), the other being the lysogenic cycle. The lytic cycle results in the destruction of the infected cell and its membrane. A key difference between the lytic and lysogenic phage cycles is that in the lytic phage, the viral DNA exists as a separate molecule within the bacterial cell, and replicates separately from the host bacterial DNA. The location of viral DNA in the lysogenic phage cycle is within the host DNA, therefore in both cases the virus/phage replicates using the host DNA machinery, but in the lytic phage cycle, the phage is a free floating separate molecule to the host DNA.

Dormancy is a period in an organism's life cycle when growth, development, and (in animals) physical activity are temporarily stopped. This minimizes metabolic activity and therefore helps an organism to conserve energy. Dormancy tends to be closely associated with environmental conditions. Organisms can synchronize entry to a dormant phase with their environment through predictive or consequential means. Predictive dormancy occurs when an organism enters a dormant phase before the onset of adverse conditions. For example, photoperiod and decreasing temperature are used by many plants to predict the onset of winter. Consequential dormancy occurs when organisms enter a dormant phase after adverse conditions have arisen. This is commonly found in areas with an unpredictable climate. While very sudden changes in conditions may lead to a high mortality rate among animals relying on consequential dormancy, its use can be advantageous, as organisms remain active longer and are therefore able to make greater use of available resources.

Gesundheit Machine is used to collect samples of a virus from the breath that sick people exhale.

Antiviral Drug are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections rather than bacterial ones. Most antivirals are used for specific viral infections, while a broad-spectrum antiviral is effective against a wide range of viruses. Unlike most antibiotics, antiviral drugs do not destroy their target pathogen; instead they inhibit their development.

Double-stranded RNA Activated Caspase Oligomerizers is a group of experimental antiviral drugs under development at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. DRACOs May Be Effective Against All Viruses.

Bacterial vs. Viral Infections: How do they differ?

Bacteria is a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a number of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals. Bacteria also live in symbiotic and parasitic relationships with plants and animals. Most bacteria have not been characterised, and only about half of the bacterial phyla have species that can be grown in the laboratory. The study of bacteria is known as bacteriology, a branch of microbiology.

Pathogenic Bacteria are bacteria that can cause infection. Although most bacteria are harmless or often beneficial, some can produce disease. Bacteriophage is a virus that infects and replicates within a bacterium.

Gram-Positive Bacteria are bacteria that give a positive result in the Gram stain test, which is traditionally used to quickly classify bacteria into two broad categories according to their cell wall.

Some Viruses produce Insulin-Like Hormones that can Stimulate Human Cells -- and have potential to cause disease. Scientists have identified four viruses that can produce insulin-like hormones that are active on human cells. The discovery brings new possibilities for revealing biological mechanisms that may cause diabetes or cancer. Every cell in your body responds to the hormone insulin, and if that process starts to fail, you get diabetes.

Melioidosis is an infectious disease caused by a Gram-negative bacterium, Burkholderia pseudomallei, found in soil and water. It is of public health importance in endemic areas, particularly in northeast Thailand, Vietnam, and northern Australia. It exists in acute and chronic forms. Signs and symptoms may include pain in chest, bones, or joints; cough; skin infections, lung nodules, and pneumonia.

Toxic Shock Syndrome is a condition caused by bacterial toxins. Symptoms may include fever, rash, skin peeling, and low blood pressure. There may also be symptoms related to the specific underlying infection such as mastitis, osteomyelitis, necrotising fasciitis, or pneumonia. TSS is caused by bacteria of either the Streptococcus pyogenes or Staphylococcus aureus type. Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) is sometimes referred to as toxic shock-like syndrome (TSLS). The underlying mechanism involves the production of superantigens during an invasive streptococcus infection or a localized staphylococcus infection. Risk factors for the staphylococcal type include the use of very absorbent tampons and skin lesions in young children. Diagnosis is typically based on symptoms. Treatment includes antibiotics, incision and drainage of any abscesses, and possibly intravenous immunoglobulin. The need for rapid removal of infected tissue via surgery in those with a streptococcal cause while commonly recommended is poorly supported by the evidence. Some recommend delaying surgical debridement. The overall risk of death in streptococcal disease is about 50% while in staphylococcal disease it is around 5%. Death may occur within 2 days.

Phage Therapy or viral phage therapy is the therapeutic use of bacteriophages to treat pathogenic bacterial infections.

Meningitis is an acute inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges. The most common symptoms are fever, headache and neck stiffness. Other symptoms include confusion or altered consciousness, vomiting, and an inability to tolerate light or loud noises. Young children often exhibit only nonspecific symptoms, such as irritability, drowsiness, or poor feeding. If a rash is present, it may indicate a particular cause of meningitis; for instance, meningitis caused by meningococcal bacteria may be accompanied by a characteristic rash.

Viruses that kill Bacteria. A bacteriophage is a virus that infects and replicates within a bacterium.

Protein Transport Channel offers new Target for thwarting Pathogen

Rotavirus is the most common cause of diarrhoeal disease among infants and young children.

Norovirus Evades Immune System by Hiding Out in Rare Gut Cells. Noroviruses are the leading cause of non-bacterial gastroenteritis in the world and are estimated to cause 267 million infections and 20,000 deaths each year. This virus causes severe diarrhea, nausea, and stomach pain.

Burkholderia Pseudomallei is a Gram-negative, bipolar, aerobic, motile rod-shaped bacterium. It is a soil-dwelling bacterium endemic in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide, particularly in Thailand and northern Australia. It infects humans and animals and causes the disease melioidosis. It is also capable of infecting plants.

Gram-Negative Bacteria are a group of bacteria that do not retain the crystal violet stain used in the Gram staining method of bacterial differentiation. They are characterized by their cell envelopes, which are composed of a thin peptidoglycan cell wall sandwiched between an inner cytoplasmic cell membrane and a bacterial outer membrane.

Melioidosis is an infectious disease caused by a Gram-negative bacterium, Burkholderia pseudomallei, found in soil and water.

Zoonosis are infectious diseases of animals (usually vertebrates) that can naturally be transmitted to humans.

Coronaviruses in Humans and Animals

Toxoplasma Gondii is an obligate intracellular, parasitic alveolate that causes the disease toxoplasmosis. Found worldwide, T. gondii is capable of infecting virtually all warm-blooded animals, but felids such as domestic cats are the only known definitive hosts in which the parasite can undergo sexual reproduction.

Cytomegalovirus is a genus of viruses in the order Herpesvirales, in the family Herpesviridae, in the subfamily Betaherpesvirinae. Humans and monkeys serve as natural hosts.

Parasitism is a non-mutual relationship between species, where one species, the parasite, benefits at the expense of the other, the host.

Brain Eating Amoeba is a type of cell or organism which has the ability to alter its shape, primarily by extending and retracting pseudopods.

Septic Shock is a serious medical condition that occurs when sepsis, which is organ injury or damage in response to infection, leads to dangerously low blood pressure and abnormalities in cellular metabolism.

Virulence Factor are molecules produced by bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa that add to their effectiveness and enable them to achieve the following: colonization of a niche in the host (this includes attachment to cells). Immunoevasion, evasion of the host's immune response. Immunosuppression, inhibition of the host's immune response. Entry into and exit out of cells (if the pathogen is an intracellular one), Obtain nutrition from the host. Specific pathogens possess a wide array of virulence factors. Some are chromosomally encoded and intrinsic to the bacteria (e.g. capsules and endotoxin), whereas others are obtained from mobile genetic elements like plasmids and bacteriophages (e.g. some exotoxins). Virulence factors encoded on mobile genetic elements spread through horizontal gene transfer, and can convert harmless bacteria into dangerous pathogens. Bacteria like Escherichia coli O157:H7 gain the majority of their virulence from mobile genetic elements. Gram-negative bacteria secrete a variety of virulence factors at host-pathogen interface, via membrane vesicle trafficking as bacterial outer membrane vesicles for invasion, nutrition and other cell-cell communications. It has been found that many pathogens have converged on similar virulence factors to battle against eukaryotic host defenses. These obtained bacterial virulence factors have two different routes used to help them survive and grow: The factors are used to assist and promote colonization of the host. These factors include adhesins, invasins, and antiphagocytic factors. The factors, including toxins, hemolysins, and proteases, bring damage to the host.

Allergies - Pollution - Germs - Clay (soil science)

Biology - Immune System - Washing your Hands

Sneeze in Slow Motion What a Sneeze looks like in slow motion, discharging Mucus containing foreign particles.

Sneezing is a semi-autonomous, convulsive expulsion of air from the lungs through the nose and mouth, usually caused by foreign particles irritating the nasal mucosa. A sneeze expels air forcibly from the mouth and nose in an explosive, spasmodic involuntary action resulting chiefly from irritation of the nasal mucous membrane. Sneezing is possibly linked to sudden exposure to bright light, sudden change (fall) in temperature, breeze of cold air, a particularly full stomach, or viral infection, and can lead to the spread of disease. Photic Sneeze Reflex causes variable difficulty to control sneezing in response to numerous stimuli.

Cough is a sudden and often repetitively occurring reflex which helps to clear the large breathing passages from fluids, irritants, foreign particles and microbes. The cough reflex consists of three phases: an inhalation, a forced exhalation against a closed glottis, and a violent release of air from the lungs following opening of the glottis, usually accompanied by a distinctive sound. Coughing is either voluntary or involuntary. Coughing Dangers (image). Instead of cough syrup, consider sipping hot lemon tea with honey instead.

Common Cold is a viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract that primarily affects the nose. The throat, sinuses, and voice box may also be affected. Signs and symptoms may begin less than two days following exposure. They include coughing, sore throat, runny nose, sneezing, headache, and fever. People usually recover in seven to ten days. Some symptoms may last up to three weeks. In those with other health problems, pneumonia may occasionally develop.

Cold Remedies - Mayoclinic
Webmd - Remedies

Why do people catch colds more in the winter? One reason is that we spend more time indoors in the winter, meaning that we’re in closer contact with other people who may be carrying germs. Viruses from coughs and sneezes can hang around in the air for days because of the drier air in the winter. Another reason is that the cold weather also wears down your body’s defenses against infection. In the short days of winter, without much sunlight, we may run low on Vitamin D, which helps power the body’s immune system, making us more vulnerable to infection. And on top of that when we breathe in cold air, the blood vessels in our nose may constrict to stop us losing heat. This may prevent white blood cells (the warriors that fight germs) from reaching our mucus membranes and killing any viruses that we inhale, allowing them to slip past our defenses unnoticed. (It could be for this reason that we tend to catch a cold if we go outside with wet hair. Washing Hands

Alveolus Diagram Nasal Congestion is the blockage of the nasal passages usually due to membranes lining the nose becoming swollen from inflamed blood vessels.

Relieve Stuffy Nose Instantly (youtube)
Relieve Head Congestion
Relieve Ear Congestion

Nasal Cycle is the result of alternating congestion and decongestion of the nasal conchae or turbinates, predominantly the inferior turbinates, which are by far the largest of the turbinates in each nasal fossa. The cycle, which is controlled by the autonomic nervous system, has a mean duration of two and a half hours. It has been shown that the cilia of the congested side suspend their motility until that side decongests. Thus the cycle ensures that one side of the nose is always moist, to facilitate humidification, which is one of the three functions of the nose, the other two being filtration and warming of inspired air prior to its entering the lungs.

Sinusitis is inflammation of the sinuses resulting in symptoms.

Sinus Infection - Colloidal Silver

Nasal Irrigation is a personal hygiene practice in which the nasal cavity is washed to flush out excess mucus and debris from the nose and sinuses. The practice is generally well-tolerated and reported to be beneficial with only minor side effects. Nasal irrigation in a wider sense can also refer to the use of saline nasal spray or nebulizers to moisten the mucous membranes.

Phlegm is a liquid secreted by the mucous membranes of mammals. Its definition is limited to the mucus produced by the respiratory system, excluding that from the nasal passages, and particularly that which is expelled by coughing (sputum). Phlegm is in essence a water-based gel consisting of glycoproteins, immunoglobulins, lipids and other substances. Its composition varies depending on climate, genetics, and state of the immune system. Its color can vary from transparent to pale or dark yellow and green, from light to dark brown, and even to dark grey depending on the constituents.

Get Rid of Phlegm in Your Throat Without Medicine

Make sure that you drink plenty of liquids such as water, juice or tea with honey, and gargle daily with warm salt water to thin out mucus. Another easy fix to get rid of excess mucus, is to add eucalyptus oil to a tub of boiling water and inhale the vapors which will help to drain the mucus from the throat and chest.

Mucous Membrane is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and surrounds internal organs. It consists of one or more layers of epithelial cells overlying a layer of loose connective tissue. It is of entodermal origin and is continuous with the skin at various body openings such as the eyes, ears, inside the nose, inside the mouth, lip, the urethral opening and the anus, frenulum of tongue, tongue. Some mucous membranes secrete mucus, a thick protective fluid. The function of the membrane is to stop pathogens and dirt from entering the body and to prevent bodily tissues from becoming dehydrated.

Flu - Pneumonia

Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the Lung affecting primarily the microscopic air sacs known as alveoli. Typical signs and symptoms include a varying severity and combination of productive or dry cough, chest pain, fever, and trouble breathing, depending on the underlying cause. Pneumonia is usually caused by infection with viruses or bacteria and less commonly by other microorganisms, certain medications and conditions such as autoimmune diseases. Risk factors include other lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis, COPD, and asthma, diabetes, heart failure, a history of smoking, a poor ability to cough such as following a stroke, or a weak immune system. Diagnosis is often based on the symptoms and physical examination. Chest X-ray, blood tests, and culture of the sputum may help confirm the diagnosis. The disease may be classified by where it was acquired with community, hospital, or health care associated pneumonia. Vaccines to prevent certain types of pneumonia are available. Other methods of prevention include handwashing and not smoking. Treatment depends on the underlying cause. Pneumonia believed to be due to bacteria is treated with antibiotics. If the pneumonia is severe, the affected person is generally hospitalized. Oxygen therapy may be used if oxygen levels are low. Pneumonia affects approximately 450 million people globally (7% of the population) and results in about 4 million deaths per year.

A New Hypervirulent (Hypermucoviscous) variant of Klebsiella Pneumoniae has emerged. Defining clinical features are the ability to cause serious, life-threatening community-acquired infection in younger healthy hosts, including liver abscess, pneumonia, meningitis and endophthalmitis and the ability to metastatically spread, an unusual feature for enteric Gram-negative bacilli in the non-immunocompromised. Despite infecting a healthier population, significant morbidity and mortality occurs. Although epidemiologic features are still being defined, colonization, particularly intestinal colonization, appears to be a critical step leading to infection. However the route of entry remains unclear.

Hypervirulent means that something is extremely infectious, malignant, or poisonous. Used of a disease or toxin. Capable of causing disease by breaking down protective mechanisms of the host. Used of a pathogen. Intensely irritating, obnoxious, or harsh.

Motility motility is the ability to move spontaneously and actively, consuming energy in the process. It is not to be confused with mobility, which describes the ability of an object to be moved. Motility is genetically determined.

Klebsiella is a genus of nonmotile, Gram-negative, oxidase-negative, rod-shaped bacteria with a prominent polysaccharide-based capsule. Klebsiella species are found everywhere in nature. They can be found in water, soil, plants, insects, animals, and humans.

Breathing - Lungs

Influenza commonly known as "The Flu", is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus. Symptoms can be mild to severe. The most common symptoms include: a high fever, runny nose, sore throat, muscle pains, headache, coughing, and feeling tired. These symptoms typically begin two days after exposure to the virus and most last less than a week. The cough, however, may last for more than two weeks. In children, there may be nausea and vomiting, but these are not common in adults. Nausea and vomiting occur more commonly in the unrelated infection gastroenteritis, which is sometimes inaccurately referred to as "stomach flu" or "24-hour flu". Complications of influenza may include viral pneumonia, secondary bacterial pneumonia, sinus infections, and worsening of previous health problems such as asthma or heart failure.

Flu Near You
Flu Cast

Flu Researchers discover new mechanism for battling influenza.
Influenza A virus kills 12,000 to 56,000 people in the United States annually. Human protein called TRIM25, also a "restriction factor, is a special protein present in the fastest-acting arm of the immune system, before spreading infection occurs. Restriction factors lie in wait, and should a virus be detected in one of your cells, they have immediate destructive ability. TRIM25 plays important role in the human immune response to flu infection; and a protein called NS1 present in all strains of the influenza A virus and shown to bind TRIM25 to keep it from doing its job. TRIM25 acts earlier than previously believed, latching on to a critical and unique flu virus structure like a "molecular clamp" to keep the virus from replicating as soon as TRIM25 detects this unique structure. NS1 produced by the flu virus can block this function of TRIM25, enabling flu to circumvent the immune response and cause infection. Previous research had suggested that TRIM25 fought off flu by switching on what is known as the "interferon response" -- a complex signaling pathway that arms cells through the body to fight off pathogens. But not all strains of influenza block this interferon signaling pathway. TRIM25 (previously believed to be present only in the cell cytoplasm) is also present in the cell nucleus, which is the same cellular location where flu replication occurs.

Natural compound coupled with specific gut microbes may prevent severe flu. A Gut microbe can prevent severe flu infections in mice, likely by breaking down naturally occurring compounds called flavonoids, which are commonly found in foods such as black tea, red wine and blueberries. Desaminotyrosine or DAT kept the immune system from harming the lung tissue.

Infection is the physical condition or pathological state resulting from the invasion of the body by pathogenic microorganisms. An incident in which an infectious disease is transmitted.

Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to these organisms and the toxins they produce. Infectious disease, also known as transmissible disease or communicable disease, is illness resulting from an infection. Infections are caused by infectious agents including viruses, viroids, prions, bacteria, nematodes such as parasitic roundworms and pinworms, arthropods such as ticks, mites, fleas, and lice, fungi such as ringworm, and other macroparasites such as tapeworms and other helminths. Hosts can fight infections using their immune system. Mammalian hosts react to infections with an innate response, often involving inflammation, followed by an adaptive response.

Subclinical infection is an infection that, being subclinical, is nearly or completely asymptomatic (no signs or symptoms). A subclinically infected person is thus an asymptomatic carrier of a microbe, intestinal parasite, or virus that usually is a pathogen causing illness, at least in some individuals. Many pathogens spread by being silently carried in this way by some of their host population. Such infections occur both in humans and nonhuman animals. An example of an asymptomatic infection is a mild common cold that is not noticed by the infected individual. Since subclinical infections often occur without eventual overt sign, their existence is only identified by microbiological culture or DNA techniques such as polymerase chain reaction.

Hospital Infections - No Symptoms

Contagious Infectious Disease is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to these organisms and the toxins they produce. Infectious disease, also known as transmissible disease or communicable disease, is illness resulting from an infection. Infections are caused by infectious agents including viruses, viroids, prions, bacteria, nematodes such as parasitic roundworms and pinworms, arthropods such as ticks, mites, fleas, and lice, fungi such as ringworm, and other macroparasites such as tapeworms and other helminths. Hosts can fight infections using their immune system. Mammalian hosts react to infections with an innate response, often involving inflammation, followed by an adaptive response. Specific medications used to treat infections include antibiotics, antivirals, antifungals, antiprotozoals, and antihelminthics. Infectious diseases resulted in 9.2 million deaths in 2013 (about 17% of all deaths). The branch of medicine that focuses on infections is referred to as infectious disease.

Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to infection causes injury to its own tissues and organs. Common signs and symptoms include fever, increased heart rate, increased breathing rate, and confusion. There also may be symptoms related to a specific infection, such as a cough with pneumonia, or painful urination with a kidney infection. In the very young, old, and people with a weakened immune system, there may be no symptoms of a specific infection and the body temperature may be low or normal, rather than high. Severe sepsis is sepsis causing poor organ function or insufficient blood flow. Insufficient blood flow may be evident by low blood pressure, high blood lactate, or low urine output. Septic shock is low blood pressure due to sepsis that does not improve after reasonable amounts of intravenous fluids are given.

Macrophage Nano-Sponges could keep Sepsis in check. Researchers have developed macrophage 'nanosponges' -- nanoparticles cloaked in the cell membranes of macrophages -- that can safely remove sepsis-causing molecules from the bloodstream.

Hijacker parasite blocked from infiltrating blood. World's most widespread malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax (P. vivax) infects humans by hijacking a protein the body cannot live without.

Infectious Diseases Emergency Preparedness Plan

Bioelectricity new weapon to fight dangerous infection. Drugs already approved for other uses in people help frogs survive deadly E. coli by changing their cells’ electrical charge.

DNA Virus is a virus that has DNA as its genetic material and replicates using a DNA-dependent DNA polymerase. The nucleic acid is usually double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) but may also be single-stranded DNA (ssDNA).

R Gene are genes in plant genomes that convey plant disease resistance against pathogens by producing R proteins.

Bacterial DNA

Plasmid is a small DNA molecule within a cell that is physically separated from a chromosomal DNA and can replicate independently. They are most commonly found in bacteria as small circular, double-stranded DNA molecules; however, plasmids are sometimes present in archaea and eukaryotic organisms. In nature, plasmids often carry genes that may benefit the survival of the organism, for example antibiotic resistance. While the chromosomes are big and contain all the essential genetic information for living under normal conditions, plasmids usually are very small and contain only additional genes that may be useful to the organism under certain situations or particular conditions. Artificial plasmids are widely used as vectors in molecular cloning, serving to drive the replication of recombinant DNA sequences within host organisms. .

The role of Plasmids

Malaise is a feeling of general discomfort, uneasiness or pain, often the first indication of an infection or other disease.

Vaccine Dangers

Travel Health Advice
World Health Organization
Center For Disease Control (CDC)
Infectious Diseases Emergency Preparedness Plan

Biosecurity is a set of preventive measures designed to reduce the risk of transmission of infectious diseases in crops and livestock, quarantined pests, invasive alien species, and living modified organisms.

Disease Outbreaks
Virus Outbreaks Map

Antibody-Based Protection HIV - Aids

ZMapp is an experimental biopharmaceutical drug comprising three chimeric monoclonal antibodies under development as a treatment for Ebola virus disease.

Monoclonal Antibody

Hospital Infections

Engineered Bacteria Target Antibiotic-Resistant Pathogens

Healthy Mouth and Strep Throat Otorhinolaryngology is a surgical subspecialty within medicine that deals with conditions of the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) and related structures of the head and neck. Doctors who specialize in this area are called otorhinolaryngologists, otolaryngologists, ENT doctors, ENT surgeons, or head and neck surgeons. Patients seek treatment from an otorhinolaryngologist for diseases of the ear, nose, throat, base of the skull, and for the surgical management of cancers and benign tumors of the head and neck.

Serology is the scientific study of serum and other bodily fluids. In practice, the term usually refers to the diagnostic identification of antibodies in the serum. Such antibodies are typically formed in response to an infection (against a given microorganism), against other foreign proteins (in response, for example, to a mismatched blood transfusion), or to one's own proteins (in instances of autoimmune disease).

Immune System can effect Social Behavior - Interferon Gamma is a cytokine that is critical for innate and adaptive immunity against viral, some bacterial and protozoal infections.

Cytokine is important in cell signaling. Their release has an effect on the behavior of cells around them. It can be said that cytokines are involved in autocrine signalling, paracrine signalling and endocrine signalling as immunomodulating agents. Their definite distinction from hormones is still part of ongoing research. Cytokines include chemokines, interferons, interleukins, lymphokines, and tumour necrosis factors but generally not hormones or growth factors (despite some overlap in the terminology). Cytokines are produced by a broad range of cells, including immune cells like macrophages, B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes and mast cells, as well as endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and various stromal cells; a given cytokine may be produced by more than one type of cell. They act through receptors, and are especially important in the immune system; cytokines modulate the balance between humoral and cell-based immune responses, and they regulate the maturation, growth, and responsiveness of particular cell populations. Some cytokines enhance or inhibit the action of other cytokines in complex ways. They are different from hormones, which are also important cell signaling molecules, in that hormones circulate in less variable concentrations and hormones tend to be made by specific kinds of cells. They are important in health and disease, specifically in host responses to infection, immune responses, inflammation, trauma, sepsis, cancer, and reproduction.

Interferon are a group of signaling proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of several pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, and also tumor cells. In a typical scenario, a virus-infected cell will release interferons causing nearby cells to heighten their anti-viral defenses.

The Thinker Man