Vaccinations - Infections - Viruses - Colds - Flu
This is not about being against vaccines, because not all
vaccines are bad. This is about knowing Why you need a
particular vaccine? And Knowing How Much you need? And Knowing
What the ingredients
are? And Knowing the
is having a clear
of the facts
, and the
of an action. This way you can give legal and logical
permission to someone before they conduct a healthcare intervention on
you. Asking Questions
- Consumer Warnings
- Hospital Infections
is consent which is
not expressly granted by
, but rather implicitly granted by a person's actions and the
facts and circumstances of a particular situation. In some cases,
a person's silence or inaction
is the same as saying yes.
Accessory to a Crime
Consent of the Governed
refers to the idea that a government's
legitimacy and moral right to use state power is
only justified and lawful when consented to by the people or society
over which that political power is exercised. This theory of
consent is historically contrasted to the divine right of kings and had
often been invoked against the legitimacy of colonialism. Article 21 of
the United Nation's 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights states that
"The will of the people shall be the basis of the
authority of government
You have the Right to Remain Silent
refers to a response—specifically, a
reaction to a request. Defined as the effect that the words, actions, or
mere presence of other people (real or imagined) have on our thoughts,
feelings, attitudes, or behavior;
is the driving force behind compliance. It is important that psychologists
and ordinary people alike recognize that social influence extends beyond
our behavior—to our thoughts, feelings and
—and that it takes
on many forms.
and the gaining of compliance are particularly significant
types of social influence since they utilize the respective effect's power
to attain the submission
of others. Studying compliance is significant because it is a type of
social influence that affects our everyday behavior—especially social
interactions. Compliance itself is a complicated concept that must be
studied in depth so that its uses, implications and both its theoretical
and experimental approaches may be better understood.
, organ donation will occur
automatically unless a specific request is made before death for organs
not to be taken. So anyone who has not refused consent to donate is a
donor. A presumed consent system, it is assumed that individuals do
intend to donate their organs.
is non-agreement or opposition to a prevailing idea.
No means No
an official instructions
, permission or approval.
is the act of giving a formal
(usually written) authorization
, which gives approval to do something.
Vaccines are not
. But if you don't know the risks, then how can you
? How do you minimize risk without increasing risk for yourself or
Vaccine is an Educated Guess
Number Needed to Vaccinate
states that the number of people
needed to be vaccinated is sometimes small. So vaccinating more people
does not make people safer, especially when the vaccination will
harm the good
if given to more people then needed. Protecting the most
vulnerable people is a priority, but there is still risks involved.
Number Needed to Treat
is the average number of patients who need to
be treated to prevent one additional bad outcome. e.g. the number of
patients that need to be treated for one to benefit compared with a
control in a clinical trial. NNT is the effectiveness of a health-care
intervention, typically a treatment with medication.
Number Needed to Harm
is an average of one patient who would not
otherwise have been harmed.
is a quantitative measure of the strength of a
phenomenon. Examples of effect sizes are the correlation between two
variables, the regression coefficient in a regression, the mean
difference, or even the risk with which something happens, such as how
many people survive after a heart attack for every one person that does
not survive. For each type of effect size, a larger absolute value always
indicates a stronger effect. Effect sizes complement statistical
hypothesis testing, and play an important role in power analyses, sample
size planning, and in meta-analyses. They are the first item (magnitude)
in the MAGIC criteria for evaluating the strength of a
occurs when a large percentage of a population
has become immune to an infection, thereby providing a measure of
protection for individuals who are not immune
. But just being immune does
not mean you or someone else can't be a carrier of an infectious disease.
is a person or other organism that has contracted
an infectious disease, but who displays no symptoms. Although unaffected
by the disease themselves, carriers can transmit it to others.
We have to force pharmaceutical companies to do more testing to
see which people are more vulnerable to certain vaccines, and we
also have to force pharmaceutical companies to make safer
The FDA is not always our Friend,
they are easily Corrupted
, just like a lot of people.
is an agent that resembles a disease-causing micro-organism
is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins or
one of its surface proteins. The agent stimulates the body's immune system
to recognize the agent as a threat, destroy it, and keep a record of it,
so that the immune system can more easily recognize and destroy any of
these micro-organisms that it later encounters.
is the process by which an individual's
becomes fortified against an agent (known as the
immunogen). Exposing an animal to an immunogen in a controlled way, its
body can learn to protect itself: this is called active immunization.
is a molecule
capable of inducing an immune response
on the part of the host organism,
though sometimes antigens can be part of the host itself. In other words,
an antigen is any substance that causes an immune system to produce
against it. Each antibody is specifically produced by the
to match an antigen after cells in the immune system come
into contact with it; this allows a precise identification of the antigen
and the initiation of a tailored response. The antibody is said to "match"
the antigen in the sense that it can bind to it thanks to adaptations
performed to a region of the antibody; because of this, many different
antibodies can be produced, with specificity to bind many different
antigens while sharing the same basic structure. In most cases, an
antibody can only bind one specific antigen; in some instances, however,
antibodies may bind more than one antigen.
FDA Biologics Blood Vaccines
Colds and Flu
How many vaccines should I get, and when?
Should I get one
vaccine at a time so that we can see which vaccines are the
Vaccinations are more effective when administered in the morning
because of fluctuations in immune responses
throughout the day?
Which type of vaccine is safer
? Oral or Injection?
For the polio vaccine, the injection is safer then the oral
Should I get a DNA
to determine if any defects in my genes can be
triggered by a vaccination?
powder nasal vaccines as an alternative to needle-based delivery
powder vaccines offer the advantages of chemical and physical stability in
comparison to liquid formulations. An intranasal vaccine can elicit both a
local and systemic immune response. Mucoadhesive compounds can extend the
residence time for powder formulations on the nasal mucosa,
potentially increasing the immune response. Manufacture and
characterization of a formulation containing particles of a dry powder
vaccine are discussed.
Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine
is a type of influenza vaccine in
the form of a nasal spray that used to be recommended to prevent
influenza. In June 2016 the CDC stopped recommending the use of LAIV as
its effectiveness has appeared to have decreased between 2013 and 2016.
How many children get
Autism who have never received a vaccine in their entire
So what if my child
did not get autism from vaccines, but what about a
other side effects?
is not new, it's been around for
hundreds of years
. What's new is how we are administering
our medicine today.
What other alternatives do we have that would boost
our immune system
Disease Outbreak Map and Monitoring
All 50 states allow
exemptions for children who have a valid medical reason, and almost all
states allow nonmedical exemptions
parents with either religious or philosophical objections.
Films About Vaccines
Vaccines Harm Child Brain Development - Dr Russell Blaylock MD
(youtube) Adding insult to injury.
Shots in the Dark
In Lies We Trust
Injection: The Story Of Vaccination
Greater Good (2012)
a feature documentary that looks behind
the fear, hype and politics that have polarized the vaccine
debate in America today.
Greater Good Movie
How We'll Fight the Next Deadly Virus
(video and text)
Development and Toxins
Why are flu vaccines only about 60
If that's the case then education is
more effective then vaccines.
The vaccine does not protect you from spreading the virus, it
only gives you a 60% chance of not getting sick from a
Mercury free Vaccines.
describes numerous experiments
performed on human test subjects in the United States that have been
considered unethical, and were often performed illegally, without the
knowledge, consent, or informed consent of the test subjects. Such tests
have occurred throughout American history, but particularly in the 20th
The word Natural
can be misleading
Unlike vaccines for measles or polio that work more than 90
percent of the time, the new
has an efficacy rate between 26 and 36
U.S. Code Legal Information
Alliance for Human Research Protection
Human Research Protections
Human Diploid Cell
is a medical condition or disease
that is not caused by infectious agents (non-infectious or
Causes of Death
Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine
Vaccine Preventable Diseases Monitoring System
Russell Blaylock MD
Vaccines Hurt Babies
are a broad and loose category of small
(~5–20 kDa) that
are important in cell signaling. Their release has an effect on the
behavior of cells around them. It can be said that cytokines are involved
in autocrine signalling, paracrine signalling and
as immunomodulating agents. Their definite distinction from hormones is
still part of ongoing research. Cytokines include chemokines, interferons,
interleukins, lymphokines, and tumour necrosis factors but generally not
hormones or growth factors (despite some overlap in the terminology).
Cytokines are produced by a broad range of cells, including
like macrophages, B
lymphocytes, T lymphocytes and mast cells, as well as endothelial cells,
fibroblasts, and various stromal cells; a given cytokine may be produced
by more than one type of cell. They act through receptors, and are
especially important in the immune system; cytokines modulate the balance
between humoral and cell-based immune responses, and they regulate the
maturation, growth, and responsiveness of particular cell populations.
Some cytokines enhance or inhibit the action of other cytokines in complex
ways. They are different from
, which are
also important cell signaling
molecules, in that hormones circulate in less variable concentrations and
hormones tend to be made by specific kinds of cells. They are important in
health and disease, specifically in host responses to infection, immune
responses, inflammation, trauma, sepsis, cancer, and reproduction.
are a type of
the brain and spinal cord. Microglia account for 10–15% of all
found within the
. As the resident macrophage
cells, they act as the first and main form of active immune defense in the
central nervous system
for Drug Design, Development and Delivery
Mitochondrial Antiviral-Signaling Protein
Viruses Carry Antiviral Cargo
Vaccine indemnification program in the US paid out thousands of
claims for Billions of dollars.
refers to the Office of Special Masters of the
U.S. Court of Federal Claims, which administers a no-fault system for
litigating vaccine injury claims. These claims against
cannot normally be filed in state or
Federal Civil Courts
, but instead must
be heard in the
Court of Claims
, sitting without a jury.
National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program
National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act
Vaccine Injury Compensation Reports
converts electricity passing through a
piezoelectric chip into mechanical vibration, or sound waves,
which in turn break liquid into a spray, so that vaccines can be
inhaled through a nebulizer device.
Vaccine builds up anti-bodies to help
people defend against virus's
. We need a vaccine against
, we will call it a real high quality education vaccine.
This way when children grow up, they will have enough knowledge
and skills (anti-bodies) to defend themselves, and others, from
corruption, abuse, waste and other crimes that kill millions
It's not just the lack of a vaccine that
will kill you, it's the lack of knowledge about how to protect
yourself from a particular disease that will kill you. A vaccine
can help replace education where there is very little education,
which happens to be the entire planet. You will save more people
by educating them, then you will by injecting them, especially
if the injection is mostly propaganda. Education is the only
proven vaccination for
, which kills more people then all diseases
says routine life-saving immunizations could avert
million deaths each yea
r from preventable diseases, what they're
not saying is that the 1.5 million deaths each year from
preventable diseases is mostly a result of poor people who have
no access to a good education, or clean water, or healthy food,
or healthy homes. When you lie and
, that means you are trying to hide something,
and that's when people stop trusting you. So what will
murders of millions of people every year
? Maybe a shot of the
is a particular abnormal condition, a disorder of a structure or function,
that affects part or all of an organism. The study of disease is called
which includes the causal study of
which is the study of
or origination. Disease is often
construed as a medical condition associated with specific
. It may be caused by external factors such as pathogens, or it
may be caused by internal dysfunctions particularly of the immune system
such as an immunodeficiency, or a hypersensitivity including allergies and
is anything that can produce disease. Infectious
as a virus
, prion, a fungus, or even
Model sheds new light on pathogen cooperation
of a disease is the biological mechanism (or mechanisms)
that leads to the diseased state.
is a patient who is a carrier for a disease or
but experiences no
Infectious Diseases Emergency Preparedness Plan
is a disease that is
through direct contact with an infected
individual or indirectly through a vector.
is easily diffused or spread as from one person to another.
is the passing of a pathogen causing communicable disease
from an infected host individual or group to a particular individual or
group, regardless of whether the other individual was previously infected.
is capable of being
transmitted by infection.
Institute for Health
Metrics and Evaluation
is an independent population
center at UW Medicine
provides rigorous and comparable measurement of
the world's most important health problems and evaluates the strategies
used to address them. IHME makes this information freely available so that
policymakers have the evidence they need to make informed decisions about
how to allocate resources to best improve population health.
A, B, C, D and E viruses kill 1.34 million people a year.
HIV/AIDS claims 1 million lives a year. Estimates vary for malaria (from
429,000 deaths by WHO's calculations to 719,000 deaths according to the
new report). TB statistics range from
1.2 million in the study to 1.8
million from WHO).
Global Burden of Disease Study
a comprehensive regional and global research program of
mortality and disability from major diseases, injuries,
and risk factors. GBD is a collaboration of over 1,800 researchers
from 127 countries. The Lancet
general medical journal.
are diseases caused by
bacterial, viruses or parasites transmitted by mosquitoes. They can
transmit disease without being affected themselves. Diseases transmitted
include: malaria, dengue, West Nile virus, chikungunya,
yellow fever, filariasis, Japanese encephalitis, Saint Louis encephalitis,
Western equine encephalitis, Eastern equine encephalitis, Venezuelan
equine encephalitis, La Crosse encephalitis and Zika fever. Nearly
700 million people
get a mosquito borne
illness each year resulting in greater than one
A secret weapon against Zika and other mosquito-borne diseases: Nina
(video and interactive text). A little British company called
Oxitec genetically modified that mosquito so that when it mates with a
wild female, its eggs don't develop to adulthood.
offers protection against
flies, and other insects, and thus against the diseases they may carry.
Examples include malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever, zika virus and
various forms of encephalitis, including the West Nile virus. To be
effective the mesh of a mosquito net must be fine enough to exclude such
insects without reducing visibility or air flow to unacceptable levels. It
is possible to increase the effectiveness of a mosquito net greatly by
treating it with an appropriate insecticide or mosquito repellant.
is a human health
condition or disease that is persistent or otherwise long-lasting in its
effects or a disease that comes with time.
is an emerging
discipline within pathology which is focused in the study and
disease through the examination of
tissues or bodily fluids. Molecular pathology shares some aspects of
practice with both anatomic pathology and clinical pathology, molecular
and genetics, and is sometimes considered a "crossover" discipline. It is
multi-disciplinary in nature and focuses mainly on the sub-microscopic
aspects of disease. A key consideration is that more accurate diagnosis is
possible when the
is based on both the morphologic changes in tissues
(traditional anatomic pathology) and on molecular testing.
Eradication of Infectious Diseases
is the reduction of an infectious disease's prevalence in the global host
population to zero.
spread by coughing and sneezing via close personal contact or
direct contact with secretions. Risk factors for severe measles
is Malnutrition. Infected people are usually contagious from
about 4 days before their rash starts to 4 days afterwards. The
measles virus resides in the mucus in the nose and throat of
infected people. Investments into vaccine campaigns is not
effective enough. You need to invest in educating the public,
it's the only proven way for protecting people.
Over the past 60 years
number of new diseases cropping up in a decade has almost quadrupled
The number of outbreaks each year has more than tripled since 1980.
is the study and analysis
of the patterns
causes and effects
of health and disease conditions in
defined populations. It is the cornerstone of public health, and shapes
policy decisions and evidence-based practice by identifying risk factors
for disease and targets for preventive healthcare. Epidemiologists help
with study design, collection, and statistical analysis of data, amend
interpretation and dissemination of results (including peer review and
occasional systematic review). Epidemiology has helped develop methodology
used in clinical research, public health studies, and, to a lesser extent,
basic research in the biological
is a convergence of pathology with
is the medical discipline that describes conditions typically observed
during a disease
state, whereas physiology is the biological discipline that describes
processes or mechanisms operating within an organism. Pathology describes
the abnormal or undesired condition, whereas pathophysiology seeks to
explain the physiological processes or mechanisms whereby such condition
develops and progresses. Pathophysiology can also mean the functional
changes associated with or resulting from disease or injury. Another
definition is the functional changes that accompany a particular disease.
is an epidemic of infectious
disease that has spread through human populations across a large region;
for instance multiple continents, or even worldwide. A widespread endemic
disease that is stable in terms of how many people are getting sick from
it is not a pandemic. Further, flu pandemics generally exclude recurrences
of seasonal flu. Throughout history, there have been a number of
pandemics, such as smallpox and tuberculosis. One of the most devastating
pandemics was the Black Death, killing over 75 million people in 1350. The
most recent pandemics include the HIV pandemic as well as the 1918 and
2009 H1N1 pandemics.
List of Epidemics
Epidemics: The Invisible Threat
10.13.14, 52 min.)
A genetic rearrangement of red blood cell glycophorin receptors that
confers a 40 percent reduced risk from severe malaria.
Scientists discover off-switch for ‘molecular machine’ active in many
. Researchers have uncovered how an
switches off in healthy cells.
The brain detects disease in others even before it breaks out
sense of vision and smell alone are enough to make us aware that someone
has a disease even before it breaks out.
Wash Your Hands
Keeping Hands Clean
is one of the most important steps you can take to avoid getting
sick and spreading germs to others.
Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue when you cough or
sneeze, and throw out your used tissue. If you don’t have a tissue, cough
or sneeze into your upper sleeve or elbow, not your hands.
- Good Hygiene
Protect Yourself from Viruses
Avoid close contact with sick people. Wash your hands
often with soap and water. Avoid touching your eyes, nose and
spread this way. Cover your nose and mouth with a tissue when you
. If sick, limit contact with others as much as possible to keep
from infecting them. Colds
- Antiviral Drug
Take off your Shoes when entering a Home
A study done by the University of Arizona found an average of
421,000 different bacteria on shoes. Coliforms, a bacterial
indicator of the level of sanitation of foods and water (and
universally present in feces),
were detected on the bottoms of 96% of shoes
2011 survey of 183 hospitals in 10 states. In that year alone,
there were approximately 721,800 infections
in 648,000 patients. Around
75,000 of these patients died that year as a result of a health
. Hospital infections cost the U.S. 9.8 billion
each year. Superbugs are on the rise.
Hospitals are gaming a system by failing to report patient-infection rates
and, in turn, the facilities can see a bonus or a penalty worth millions
of dollars. The bonuses and penalties are part of Medicare's Inpatient
Quality Reporting program, which is meant to reward hospitals for low
infection rates and give consumers access to the information at the
Hospital Compare website
. Contagious Transmissible
is the ability of a microbe to resist the
effects of medication previously used to treat them. This broader term
also covers antibiotic resistance, which applies to bacteria and
antibiotics. Resistance arises through one of three ways: natural
resistance in certain types of bacteria; genetic mutation; or by one
species acquiring resistance from another. Resistance can appear
spontaneously because of random
; or more commonly following gradual buildup over time, and
because of misuse of antibiotics
antimicrobials. Resistant microbes are increasingly difficult to treat,
requiring alternative medications or higher doses—which may be more costly
or more toxic. Microbes
resistant to multiple antimicrobials are called
(MDR); or sometimes superbugs. Antimicrobial
resistance is on the rise with millions of deaths every year. A few
infections are now completely untreatable because of resistance. All
classes of microbes develop resistance (fungi, antifungal resistance;
viruses, antiviral resistance; protozoa, antiprotozoal resistance;
bacteria, antibiotic resistance).
Humans are mostly Microbes
Antimicrobial Properties of Copper
and its alloys (brasses,
cupronickel, copper-nickel-zinc, and others) are natural antimicrobial
Infection outbreaks at Hospitals could be reduced by Copper-Coated
tiny copper nanoparticles
to reduce the spread of
bacterial infections and viruses.
Smartphone Screen Technology used to trick Harmful Bacteria
Conducting plastics found in smartphone screens can be used to trick the
metabolism of pathogenic bacteria by adding or removing electrons from the
plastic surface, bacteria may
be tricked into growing more or less.
is an agent that kills microorganisms or stops their
growth. Antimicrobial medicines can be grouped according to the
microorganisms they act primarily against. For example, antibiotics are
used against bacteria and antifungals are used against fungi. They can
also be classified according to their function. Agents that kill microbes
are called microbicidal, while those that merely inhibit their growth are
called biostatic. The use of antimicrobial medicines to treat infection is
, while the use of antimicrobial medicines
to prevent infection is known as
, which refers to the prevention of infection
complications using antimicrobial therapy (most commonly antibiotics).
is a biocidal effect of metals, especially heavy
metals, that occurs even in low concentrations.
is a chemical substance or microorganism intended to destroy, deter,
render harmless, or exert a controlling effect on any harmful organism by
chemical or biological means.
are antimicrobial agents that are applied to the surface
of non-living objects to destroy microorganisms that are living on the
objects.Hospital workers often transfer germs when removing gloves and
gowns. Hand Washing Tips
Doctors should also wipe their stethoscopes between patients
Choosing a Hospital and Surgeon with Low Infections Rates
are still killing about 700,000 people each year.
is a mechanism responsible for moving compounds,
substances, and antibiotics, out of the cell; this is considered to be a
vital part of xenobiotic metabolism. This mechanism is important in
medicine as it can contribute to bacterial antibiotic resistance. Efflux
systems function via an energy-dependent mechanism (active transport) to
pump out unwanted toxic substances through specific efflux pumps. Some
efflux systems are drug-specific, whereas others may accommodate multiple
drugs with small multidrug resistance (SMR) transporters.Hospital
Plague's and Epidemics
By masquerading as red blood cells, the
Nanosponges attract harmful toxins
and remove them from the
. The scope’s design could allow
blood and tissue to become trapped, spreading bacteria from one
patient to another. Physicians perform nearly 700,000 of those
procedures annually in the U.S., and 2 million worldwide.
Most of these 18
, which cause about 2.3 million yearly infections in
the US, have developed
to many drugs within the existing
Heater-cooler devices used in cardiac surgery
into the air leading to direct
contamination of the surgical wound.
Comprehensive serological profiling of human populations using a
synthetic human virome
According to the
Disease Control and Prevention
, on any given day about 1 in
25 hospital patients has at least one healthcare-associated
infection. Tens of thousands of people die each year as a
Research, including a 2015 investigation from Consumer
Reports, found that many of these cases can be traced back to
, the very drugs that are supposed to fight
infections. Patients on
more susceptible to C. diff, for example, because antibiotics
make sure all visitors and medical staff wash their hands before
Bringing a canister of
wiping down surfaces around the hospital bed
can reduce the risk of some
C. diff infections
by as much as 85 percent.
, which can remove harmful bacteria you
may be carrying on your skin, days before scheduled surgery.
are a type of antimicrobial
drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections
may either kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria. A limited number of
antibiotics also possess antiprotozoal activity. Antibiotics are not
effective against viruses such as the common cold or influenza
, and their
inappropriate use allows the emergence of resistant organisms. Drugs which
inhibit viruses are termed antiviral drugs or antivirals rather than
- Humans are mostly Microbes
List of Antibiotics
antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections. Vancomycin is
made by the soil bacterium
. Fights bacteria in three different ways.
is an antibiotic used for the
treatment of infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria that are
resistant to other antibiotics.
is a lipopeptide antibiotic
used in the treatment of systemic and life-threatening infections caused
by Gram-positive organisms.
is the ability
of a microbe to resist the effects of medication previously used to treat
Bacteria Resistant to Antibiotics
Carbapenem resistant enterobacteriaceae
are Gram-negative bacteria that are resistant to the carbapenem class of
antibiotics, considered the drugs of last resort for such infections.
Gram-negative, nonmotile, encapsulated, lactose-fermenting, facultative
anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium. It appears as a mucoid lactose fermenter
on MacConkey agar.
New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase 1
enzyme that makes bacteria resistant to a broad range of beta-lactam
antibiotics. These include the antibiotics of the carbapenem family, which
are a mainstay for the treatment of antibiotic-resistant bacterial
what do we do when
antibiotics don't work any more? (video and interactive text)
rank order to identify complex genetic interactions. Ranking pathogen
mutants can help scientists understand how mutants evolve to resist drug
Nudging Guideline-Concordant Antibiotic
Nudging physician prescription decisions by
partitioning the order set: results of a
Effect of Behavioral Interventions on
Inappropriate Antibiotic Prescribing Among
Primary Care Practices
Supercharged Antibiotics could turn tide against Superbugs
modifying vancomycin’s membrane-binding properties to selectively bind to
bacterial membranes rather than those of human cells, creating a series of
supercharged vancomycin derivatives called vancapticins.
Antibiotic-resistant bacteria – Superbugs cause
700,000 deaths worldwide each year
a UK government review
has predicted this could rise to 10 million by 2050.
is an oxide of strontium and titanium with the chemical
formula SrTiO3. (neodymium titanate)
Antibiotics that kill gut bacteria also stop growth of new brain cells
A type of white blood cell
seems to act as a communicator between the
brain, the immune system, and the gut.
M Protein (Streptococcus)
is a virulence factor that can be produced
by certain species of Streptococcus. Viruses, parasites and bacteria are
covered in protein and sugar molecules that help them gain entry into a
host by counteracting the host's defences. One such molecule is the M
protein produced by certain streptococcal bacteria. M proteins embody a
motif that is now
known to be shared by many Gram-positive bacterial
surface proteins. The motif includes a conserved pentapeptide LPXTG, which
precedes a hydrophobic C-terminal membrane anchor, which itself precedes a
cluster of basic residues. Strep's M protein alone wipes out macrophages,
but not other types of immune cells. The macrophages' self-sacrifice
serves as an early warning of infection to the rest of the
White Blood Cells
is the progressive loss of structure or
function of neurons
death of neurons. (Ly6Chi cells)
Antibiotics resistance: researchers succeed to block genes of resistance
One of the ways antibiotic resistance genes spread in hospitals and in the
environment is that the genes are coded on plasmids that transfer between
bacteria. A plasmid is a DNA fragment found in bacteria or yeasts. It
carries genes useful for bacteria, especially when these genes encode
proteins that can make bacteria resistant to antibiotics researchers
screened a library of small chemical molecules for those that bind to the
TraE protein, an essential component of the plasmid transfer machinery.
Analysis by X-ray crystallography revealed the exact binding site of these
molecules on TraE. Having precise information on the binding site enabled
the researchers to design more potent binding molecules that, in the end,
reduced the transfer of antibiotic-resistant, gene-carrying plasmids.
Answer to Bacterial Antibiotic Resistance may be found in Plants
Plant secondary metabolites (PSMs). PSMs are highly diverse, with more
than 12,000 alkaloids, 8,000 phenolic compounds, and 25,000 terpenoids
Plant Secondary Metabolism
produces a large number of specialized
compounds (estimated 200,000) that do not aid in the growth and
development of plants but are required for the plant to survive in its
environment. Secondary metabolism is connected to primary metabolism by
using building blocks and biosynthetic enzymes derived from primary
metabolism. Primary metabolism governs all basic physiological processes
that allow a plant to grow and set seeds, by translating the genetic code
into proteins, carbohydrates, and amino acids. Specialized compounds from
secondary metabolism are essential for communicating with other organisms
in mutualistic (e.g. attraction of beneficial organisms such as
pollinators) or antagonistic interactions (e.g. deterrent against
herbivores and pathogens). They further assist in coping with abiotic
stress such as increased UV-radiation. The broad functional spectrum of
specialized metabolism is still not fully understood. In any case, a good
balance between products of primary and secondary metabolism is best for a
plant’s optimal growth and development as well as for its effective coping
with often changing environmental conditions. Well known specialized
compounds include alkaloids, polyphenols including flavonoids, and
terpenoids. Humans use quite a lot of these compounds, or the plants from
which they originate, for medicinal and nutraceutical purposes.
Colds - Flu - Viruses
is a small
agent that replicates only inside the living
. Viruses can infect all
types of life forms, from animals and plants to
, including bacteria and archaea.
Why Do Viruses
Kill? - BBC - Archaea - Horizon
is the study of viruses –
submicroscopic, parasitic particles
of genetic material contained in a
protein coat – and virus-like agents. It focuses on the following aspects
of viruses: their structure, classification and evolution, their ways to
infect and exploit host cells for reproduction, their interaction with
host organism physiology and immunity
, the diseases they cause, the
techniques to isolate and culture them, and their use in research and
therapy. Virology is considered to be a subfield of
is the collection of
viruses in and on the human body. Defining the virome is thought to
provide an understanding of microbes
and how they affect human health and disease. Viruses in the human body
infect both human cells as well as other microbes such as bacteria.
is a list of all the known
1,445 viruses have been discovered in the most populous animals
Biologists Discover How Viruses Hijack Cell’s Machinery
is a condition of biological
rest or suspended animation that is temporaly inactive but capable of
becoming active and awake.Latent
remaining in an inactive or hidden phase; dormant. Lying dormant or hidden
until circumstances are suitable for development or manifestation.
is the ability of a pathogenic
virus to lie dormant (latent) within a cell, denoted as the
lysogenic part of the viral life cycle
. A latent viral infection is a
type of persistent viral infection which is distinguished from a chronic
viral infection. Latency is the phase in certain viruses' life cycles in
which, after initial infection, proliferation of virus particles ceases.
However, the viral genome is not fully eradicated. The result of this is
that the virus can reactivate and begin producing large amounts of viral
progeny without the host being infected by new outside virus, denoted as
the lytic part of the viral life cycle, and stays within the host
indefinitely. Virus latency is not to be confused with clinical latency
during the incubation period when a virus is not dormant.
is one of the two cycles of viral reproduction (referring to
bacterial viruses or bacteriophages), the other being the lysogenic cycle.
The lytic cycle results in the destruction of the infected cell and its
membrane. A key difference between the lytic and lysogenic phage cycles is
that in the lytic phage, the viral DNA exists as a separate molecule
within the bacterial cell, and replicates separately from the host
bacterial DNA. The location of viral DNA in the lysogenic phage cycle is
within the host DNA, therefore in both cases the virus/phage replicates
using the host DNA machinery, but in the lytic phage cycle, the phage is a
free floating separate molecule to the host DNA.
is a period in an organism's
when growth, development, and (in animals) physical
activity are temporarily stopped. This minimizes metabolic activity and
therefore helps an organism to conserve energy. Dormancy tends to be
closely associated with environmental conditions. Organisms can
synchronize entry to a dormant phase with their environment through
predictive or consequential means
. Predictive dormancy occurs when an
organism enters a dormant phase before the onset of adverse conditions.
For example, photoperiod and decreasing temperature are used by many
plants to predict the onset of winter. Consequential dormancy occurs when
organisms enter a dormant phase after adverse conditions have arisen. This
is commonly found in areas with an unpredictable climate. While very
sudden changes in conditions may lead to a high mortality rate among
animals relying on consequential dormancy, its use can be advantageous, as
organisms remain active longer and are therefore able to make greater use
of available resources.
is used to collect
samples of a virus from the breath that sick people exhale.
are a class of medication used specifically
for treating viral infections rather than bacterial ones. Most antivirals
are used for specific viral infections, while a broad-spectrum antiviral
is effective against a wide range of viruses. Unlike most antibiotics,
antiviral drugs do not destroy their target pathogen; instead they inhibit
Double-stranded RNA Activated Caspase Oligomerizers
group of experimental antiviral drugs under development at the
Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
DRACOs May Be Effective Against All Viruses
Bacterial vs. Viral Infections
: How do
is a large domain of
. Typically a few
in length, bacteria have a number of shapes, ranging from
spheres to rods and spirals. Bacteria also live in symbiotic and parasitic
relationships with plants and animals. Most bacteria have not been
characterised, and only about half of the bacterial phyla have species
that can be grown in the laboratory. The study of bacteria is known as
y, a branch of
are bacteria that
can cause infection
. Although most bacteria are harmless or often
beneficial, some can produce disease
is a virus that
infects and replicates within a bacterium.
Some Viruses produce Insulin-Like Hormones that can Stimulate Human Cells
-- and have potential to cause disease. Scientists have identified four
viruses that can produce insulin-like
that are active on human cells. The discovery brings new
possibilities for revealing biological mechanisms that may cause diabetes
or cancer. Every cell in your body responds to the hormone insulin, and if
that process starts to fail, you get
is an infectious disease
, found in soil and water. It is of public
health importance in endemic areas, particularly in northeast Thailand,
Vietnam, and northern Australia. It exists in acute and chronic forms.
Signs and symptoms may include pain in chest, bones, or joints; cough;
skin infections, lung nodules, and pneumonia.
Toxic Shock Syndrome
is a condition caused by bacterial toxins.
Symptoms may include fever, rash, skin peeling, and low blood pressure.
There may also be symptoms related to the specific underlying infection
such as mastitis, osteomyelitis, necrotising fasciitis, or pneumonia. TSS
is caused by bacteria of either the
type. Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS)
is sometimes referred to as toxic shock-like syndrome (TSLS). The
underlying mechanism involves the production of
during an invasive streptococcus infection or a
localized staphylococcus infection. Risk factors for the staphylococcal
type include the use of very absorbent tampons and skin lesions in young
children. Diagnosis is typically based on symptoms. Treatment includes
, incision and drainage of any
abscesses, and possibly intravenous immunoglobulin. The need for rapid
removal of infected tissue via surgery in those with a streptococcal cause
while commonly recommended is poorly supported by the evidence. Some
recommend delaying surgical debridement. The overall risk of death in
streptococcal disease is about 50% while in staphylococcal disease it is
around 5%. Death may occur within 2 days.
or viral phage therapy
is the therapeutic use of bacteriophages
to treat pathogenic bacterial
is an acute
of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal
cord, known collectively as the meninges. The most common symptoms are
fever, headache and neck stiffness. Other symptoms include confusion or
altered consciousness, vomiting, and an inability to tolerate light or
loud noises. Young children often exhibit only nonspecific symptoms, such
as irritability, drowsiness, or poor feeding. If a rash is present, it may
indicate a particular cause of meningitis; for instance, meningitis caused
by meningococcal bacteria may be accompanied by a characteristic rash.
Viruses that kill Bacteria
bacteriophage is a virus that infects and replicates within a bacterium.
Protein Transport Channel offers new Target for thwarting Pathogen
the most common cause of diarrhoeal disease
among infants and young children.
Norovirus Evades Immune System by Hiding Out in Rare Gut Cells
Noroviruses are the leading cause of non-bacterial gastroenteritis in the
world and are estimated to cause 267 million infections and 20,000 deaths
each year. This virus causes severe diarrhea
nausea, and stomach pain.
Gram-negative, bipolar, aerobic, motile rod-shaped bacterium. It is a
soil-dwelling bacterium endemic in tropical and subtropical regions
worldwide, particularly in Thailand and northern Australia. It infects
humans and animals and causes the disease melioidosis. It is also capable
of infecting plants.
are a group of bacteria that do not retain the
crystal violet stain used in the Gram staining method of bacterial
differentiation. They are characterized by their cell envelopes, which are
composed of a thin peptidoglycan cell wall sandwiched between an inner
cytoplasmic cell membrane and a bacterial outer membrane.
is an infectious disease
caused by a Gram-negative bacterium, Burkholderia pseudomallei, found in
soil and water.
are infectious diseases of
animals (usually vertebrates) that can naturally be transmitted to humans.
Coronaviruses in Humans and Animals
is an obligate intracellular, parasitic alveolate that causes the disease
toxoplasmosis. Found worldwide, T. gondii is capable of infecting
virtually all warm-blooded animals, but felids such as domestic cats are
the only known definitive hosts in which the parasite can undergo sexual
is a genus of viruses in the order Herpesvirales, in the family
Herpesviridae, in the subfamily Betaherpesvirinae. Humans and monkeys
serve as natural hosts.
species, where one species, the parasite, benefits at the expense of the
other, the host.
Brain Eating Amoeba
is a type of cell or
organism which has the ability to alter its shape, primarily by extending
and retracting pseudopods.
is a serious medical condition that occurs when sepsis, which is organ
injury or damage in response to infection, leads to dangerously low blood
pressure and abnormalities in cellular metabolism.
are molecules produced by bacteria, viruses, fungi,
and protozoa that add to their effectiveness and enable them to achieve
the following: colonization of a niche in the host (this includes
attachment to cells). Immunoevasion, evasion of the host's immune
response. Immunosuppression, inhibition of the host's
Entry into and exit out of cells (if the pathogen is an intracellular
one), Obtain nutrition from the host. Specific pathogens possess a wide
array of virulence factors. Some are chromosomally encoded and intrinsic
to the bacteria (e.g. capsules and endotoxin), whereas others are obtained
from mobile genetic elements like plasmids and bacteriophages (e.g. some
exotoxins). Virulence factors encoded on mobile genetic elements spread
through horizontal gene transfer, and can convert harmless bacteria into
dangerous pathogens. Bacteria like Escherichia coli O157:H7 gain the
majority of their virulence from mobile genetic elements. Gram-negative
bacteria secrete a variety of virulence factors at host-pathogen
interface, via membrane vesicle trafficking as bacterial outer membrane
vesicles for invasion, nutrition and other cell-cell communications. It
has been found that many pathogens have converged on similar virulence
factors to battle against eukaryotic host defenses. These obtained
bacterial virulence factors have two different routes used to help them
survive and grow: The factors are used to assist and promote colonization
of the host. These factors include adhesins, invasins, and antiphagocytic
factors. The factors, including toxins, hemolysins, and proteases, bring
damage to the host.
Washing your Hands
looks like in slow motion, discharging
containing foreign particles.
is a semi-autonomous,
convulsive expulsion of air from the lungs through the nose and mouth,
usually caused by foreign particles irritating the nasal mucosa. A sneeze
expels air forcibly from the mouth and nose in an explosive, spasmodic
involuntary action resulting chiefly from irritation of the nasal mucous
membrane. Sneezing is possibly linked to sudden exposure to bright light,
sudden change (fall) in temperature, breeze of cold air, a particularly
full stomach, or viral infection, and can lead to the spread of disease.
Photic Sneeze Reflex
difficulty to control sneezing in response to numerous stimuli.
is a sudden and often repetitively
occurring reflex which helps to clear the large breathing passages from
fluids, irritants, foreign particles and microbes. The cough reflex
consists of three phases: an inhalation, a forced exhalation against a
closed glottis, and a violent release of air from the lungs following
opening of the glottis, usually accompanied by a distinctive sound.
Coughing is either voluntary or involuntary.
(image). Instead of
, consider sipping hot
is a viral infectious
of the upper respiratory tract that primarily affects the nose.
The throat, sinuses, and voice box may also be affected. Signs and
symptoms may begin less than two days following exposure. They include
coughing, sore throat, runny nose, sneezing, headache, and fever. People
usually recover in seven to ten days. Some symptoms may last up to three
weeks. In those with other health problems, pneumonia may occasionally
Why do people catch colds more in the
One reason is that we spend more time indoors in
the winter, meaning that we’re in closer contact with other
people who may be carrying germs. Viruses from coughs and
can hang around in the air for days because of the drier
air in the winter. Another reason is that the cold weather also
wears down your body’s defenses against infection
. In the short
days of winter, without much sunlight, we may run low on Vitamin
D, which helps power the body’s immune system, making us more
vulnerable to infection. And on top of that when we breathe in
cold air, the blood vessels in our nose may constrict to stop us
losing heat. This may prevent white blood cells (the warriors
that fight germs) from reaching our mucus membranes and killing
any viruses that we inhale, allowing them to slip past our
defenses unnoticed. (It could be for this reason that we tend to
catch a cold if we go outside with wet hair.
is the blockage of the
nasal passages usually due to membranes lining the nose becoming swollen
from inflamed blood vessels.
Relieve Stuffy Nose Instantly
Relieve Head Congestion
Relieve Ear Congestion
is the result of alternating
congestion and decongestion of the nasal conchae or turbinates,
predominantly the inferior turbinates, which are by far the largest of the
turbinates in each nasal fossa. The cycle, which is controlled by the
autonomic nervous system
has a mean duration of two and a half hours. It has been shown that the
cilia of the congested side suspend their motility until that side
decongests. Thus the cycle ensures that one side of the nose is always
moist, to facilitate humidification, which is one of the three functions
of the nose, the other two being filtration and warming of inspired air
prior to its entering the lungs
of the sinuses
resulting in symptoms.
is a personal hygiene practice in which the nasal cavity is washed to
flush out excess mucus and debris from the nose and sinuses. The practice
is generally well-tolerated and reported to be beneficial with only minor
side effects. Nasal irrigation in a wider sense can also refer to the use
of saline nasal spray or nebulizers to moisten the mucous membranes
is a liquid secreted by the
mucous membranes of mammals. Its definition is limited to the mucus
produced by the respiratory system, excluding that from the nasal
passages, and particularly that which is expelled by coughing (sputum).
Phlegm is in essence a water-based gel consisting of glycoproteins,
immunoglobulins, lipids and other substances. Its composition varies
depending on climate, genetics, and state of the immune system. Its color
can vary from transparent to pale or dark yellow and green, from light to
dark brown, and even to dark grey depending on the constituents.
Get Rid of Phlegm in Your Throat Without
Make sure that you drink
plenty of liquids such as water, juice or
tea with honey, and gargle daily with warm
salt water to thin out mucus. Another easy
fix to get rid of excess
, is to add eucalyptus oil to a tub
of boiling water and inhale the vapors which
will help to drain the mucus from the throat
is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body
and surrounds internal organs. It consists of one or more layers of
epithelial cells overlying a layer of loose connective tissue. It is of
entodermal origin and is continuous with the skin at various body openings
such as the eyes, ears, inside the nose, inside the mouth, lip, the
urethral opening and the anus, frenulum of tongue, tongue. Some mucous
membranes secrete mucus, a thick protective fluid. The function of the
membrane is to stop pathogens and dirt from entering the body and to
prevent bodily tissues from becoming
Flu - Pneumonia
affecting primarily the microscopic
air sacs known as
. Typical signs and
include a varying
severity and combination of productive or dry cough, chest pain, fever,
and trouble breathing, depending on the underlying cause. Pneumonia is
usually caused by infection with viruses or bacteria and less commonly by
other microorganisms, certain medications and conditions such as
autoimmune diseases. Risk factors
include other lung diseases such as
cystic fibrosis, COPD, and asthma, diabetes, heart failure, a history of
smoking, a poor ability to cough such as following a stroke, or a weak
immune system. Diagnosis is often based on the symptoms and physical
examination. Chest X-ray, blood tests, and culture of the sputum may help
confirm the diagnosis. The disease may be classified by where it was
acquired with community, hospital, or health care associated pneumonia.
Vaccines to prevent certain types of pneumonia are available. Other
methods of prevention include handwashing
smoking. Treatment depends on the underlying cause. Pneumonia believed to
be due to bacteria is treated with antibiotics. If the pneumonia is
severe, the affected person is generally hospitalized. Oxygen therapy may
be used if oxygen levels are low. Pneumonia affects approximately 450
million people globally (7% of the population) and results in about
4 million deaths per year
New Hypervirulent (Hypermucoviscous) variant of Klebsiella Pneumoniae has
. Defining clinical features are the ability to cause serious,
life-threatening community-acquired infection in younger healthy hosts,
including liver abscess, pneumonia, meningitis and endophthalmitis and the
ability to metastatically spread, an unusual feature for enteric
Gram-negative bacilli in the non-immunocompromised. Despite infecting a
healthier population, significant morbidity and mortality occurs. Although
epidemiologic features are still being defined, colonization, particularly
intestinal colonization, appears to be a critical step leading to
infection. However the route of entry remains unclear.
means that something is
extremely infectious, malignant, or poisonous. Used of a disease or toxin.
Capable of causing disease by breaking down protective mechanisms of the
host. Used of a pathogen. Intensely irritating, obnoxious, or harsh.
is the ability to move spontaneously and actively, consuming energy in the
process. It is not to be confused with mobility, which describes the
ability of an object to be moved. Motility is genetically determined.
of nonmotile, Gram-negative,
oxidase-negative, rod-shaped bacteria with a prominent
polysaccharide-based capsule. Klebsiella species are found everywhere in
nature. They can be found in water, soil, plants, insects, animals, and
commonly known as "The
", is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus.
Symptoms can be mild to severe. The most common symptoms include: a high
fever, runny nose, sore throat, muscle pains, headache, coughing, and
feeling tired. These symptoms typically begin two days after exposure to
the virus and most last less than a week. The cough, however, may last for
more than two weeks. In children, there may be nausea and vomiting, but
these are not common in adults. Nausea and vomiting occur more commonly in
the unrelated infection gastroenteritis, which is sometimes inaccurately
referred to as "stomach flu" or "24-hour flu". Complications of influenza
may include viral pneumonia, secondary bacterial pneumonia, sinus
infections, and worsening of previous health problems such as asthma or
Flu Researchers discover new mechanism for battling influenza
Influenza A virus
kills 12,000 to 56,000 people in the United States
annually. Human protein called
also a "restriction factor, is a special
present in the
fastest-acting arm of the immune system
before spreading infection occurs. Restriction factors lie in wait, and
should a virus be detected in one of your cells, they have immediate
destructive ability. TRIM25 plays important role in the human immune
response to flu infection; and a protein called
present in all strains of the influenza A virus and shown to bind
TRIM25 to keep it from doing its job. TRIM25 acts earlier than previously
believed, latching on to a critical and unique flu virus structure like a
"molecular clamp" to keep the virus from replicating as soon as TRIM25
detects this unique structure. NS1 produced by the flu virus can block
this function of TRIM25, enabling flu to circumvent the immune response
and cause infection. Previous research had suggested that TRIM25 fought
off flu by switching on what is known as the "interferon
response" -- a complex signaling pathway that arms cells through the body
to fight off pathogens. But not all strains of influenza block this
interferon signaling pathway. TRIM25 (previously believed to be present
only in the cell cytoplasm) is also present in the cell nucleus, which is
the same cellular location where flu replication occurs.
Natural compound coupled with specific gut microbes may prevent severe flu
A Gut microbe
can prevent severe
flu infections in mice, likely by breaking down naturally occurring
compounds called flavonoids
are commonly found in foods such as black tea, red wine and blueberries.
or DAT kept the immune
from harming the lung tissue.
is the physical condition
or pathological state resulting from the invasion of the body by
incident in which an infectious disease
is the invasion of an
organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication,
and the reaction of host tissues to these organisms and the toxins they
produce. Infectious disease
, also known as transmissible disease or
communicable disease, is illness resulting from an infection. Infections
are caused by infectious agents including viruses, viroids, prions,
, nematodes such as parasitic roundworms and pinworms, arthropods
such as ticks, mites, fleas, and lice, fungi such as ringworm, and other macroparasites such as tapeworms and other helminths. Hosts can fight
infections using their immune system
. Mammalian hosts react to infections
with an innate response, often involving
, followed by an
is an infection
that, being subclinical, is nearly or completely asymptomatic (no signs or
). A subclinically infected person is thus an asymptomatic carrier
of a microbe, intestinal parasite, or virus that usually is a pathogen
causing illness, at least in some individuals. Many pathogens spread by
being silently carried in this way by some of their host population. Such
infections occur both in humans and nonhuman animals. An example of an
asymptomatic infection is a mild common cold that is not noticed by the
infected individual. Since subclinical infections often occur without
eventual overt sign, their existence is only identified by microbiological
culture or DNA techniques such as polymerase chain reaction.
Contagious Infectious Disease
invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease
-causing agents, their
multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to these organisms and
the toxins they produce. Infectious disease, also known as
or communicable disease
, is illness resulting from an infection.
Infections are caused by infectious agents including viruses, viroids,
prions, bacteria, nematodes such as parasitic roundworms and pinworms,
arthropods such as ticks, mites, fleas, and lice, fungi such as ringworm,
and other macroparasites such as tapeworms and other helminths. Hosts can
fight infections using their immune system. Mammalian hosts react to
infections with an innate response, often involving inflammation, followed
by an adaptive response. Specific medications used to treat infections
include antibiotics, antivirals, antifungals, antiprotozoals, and
antihelminthics. Infectious diseases resulted in 9.2 million deaths in
2013 (about 17% of all deaths). The branch of medicine that focuses on
infections is referred to as infectious disease.
is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to
infection causes injury to its own tissues and organs. Common signs and
symptoms include fever, increased heart rate, increased breathing rate,
and confusion. There also may be symptoms related to a specific infection,
such as a cough with pneumonia, or painful urination with a kidney
infection. In the very young, old, and people with a weakened immune
system, there may be no symptoms of a specific infection and the body
temperature may be low or normal, rather than high. Severe sepsis is
sepsis causing poor organ function or insufficient blood flow.
Insufficient blood flow may be evident by low blood pressure, high blood
lactate, or low urine output. Septic shock is low blood pressure due to
sepsis that does not improve after reasonable amounts of intravenous
fluids are given.
Macrophage Nano-Sponges could keep Sepsis in check
. Researchers have
developed macrophage 'nanosponges' -- nanoparticles cloaked in the cell
membranes of macrophages -- that can safely remove sepsis-causing
molecules from the
Hijacker parasite blocked from infiltrating blood
. World's most
widespread malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax (P. vivax) infects humans by
hijacking a protein the body cannot live without.
Infectious Diseases Emergency
Bioelectricity new weapon to fight dangerous infection
. Drugs already
approved for other uses in people help frogs survive deadly E. coli by
changing their cells’ electrical charge.
is a virus that has DNA
as its genetic material and
replicates using a DNA-dependent DNA polymerase. The nucleic acid is
usually double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) but may also be single-stranded DNA (ssDNA).
are genes in plant genomes
that convey plant disease resistance against pathogens by producing R
is a small DNA molecule
within a cell that is physically separated from a chromosomal DNA and can
replicate independently. They are most commonly found in bacteria as small
circular, double-stranded DNA molecules
; however, plasmids are sometimes
present in archaea and eukaryotic organisms. In nature, plasmids often
carry genes that may benefit the survival of the organism, for example
antibiotic resistance. While the chromosomes are big and contain all the
essential genetic information for living under normal conditions, plasmids
usually are very small and contain only additional genes that may be
useful to the organism under certain situations or particular conditions.
Artificial plasmids are widely used as vectors in molecular cloning,
serving to drive the replication of recombinant DNA sequences within host
The role of Plasmids
is a feeling of general
discomfort, uneasiness or pain, often the first indication of an infection
or other disease.
Travel Health Advice
World Health Organization
Center For Disease Control
Infectious Diseases Emergency
is a set of preventive
measures designed to reduce the risk of transmission of infectious
diseases in crops and livestock, quarantined pests, invasive alien
species, and living modified organisms.
Virus Outbreaks Map
Antibody-Based Protection HIV
is an experimental
biopharmaceutical drug comprising three chimeric monoclonal antibodies
under development as a treatment for Ebola virus disease.
Engineered Bacteria Target
is the scientific study of
serum and other bodily fluids. In practice, the term usually refers to the
diagnostic identification of antibodies in the serum. Such antibodies are
typically formed in response to an infection (against a given
microorganism), against other foreign proteins (in response, for example,
to a mismatched blood transfusion), or to one's own proteins (in instances
of autoimmune disease
Immune System can effect Social Behavior - Interferon Gamma
cytokine that is critical for innate and adaptive immunity against viral,
some bacterial and protozoal infections.
is important in cell
release has an effect on the behavior of cells around them. It can be said
that cytokines are involved in autocrine signalling, paracrine signalling
and endocrine signalling as immunomodulating agents. Their definite
distinction from hormones is still part of ongoing research. Cytokines
include chemokines, interferons, interleukins, lymphokines, and tumour
necrosis factors but generally not hormones or growth factors (despite
some overlap in the terminology). Cytokines are produced by a broad range
of cells, including immune cells like macrophages, B lymphocytes, T
lymphocytes and mast cells, as well as endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and
various stromal cells; a given cytokine may be produced by more than one
type of cell. They act through receptors, and are especially important in
the immune system
; cytokines modulate the balance between humoral and
cell-based immune responses, and they regulate the maturation, growth, and
responsiveness of particular cell populations. Some cytokines enhance or
inhibit the action of other cytokines in complex ways. They are different
from hormones, which are also important cell signaling molecules, in that
hormones circulate in less variable concentrations and hormones tend to be
made by specific kinds of cells. They are important in health and disease,
specifically in host responses to infection, immune responses,
inflammation, trauma, sepsis, cancer, and reproduction.
group of signaling proteins
made and released by host cells in response to the presence of several
pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, and also tumor cells. In
a typical scenario, a virus-infected cell will release interferons causing
nearby cells to heighten their anti-viral defenses