Environmental Awareness - Naturalist Intelligence
is the area in which we live.
thin layer of air that surrounds our planet
supports life. The only life
of that exists in our universe
If we did not have our environment we could not exist. This environmental space in
which we share with other life forms is a
. Though our
environment can be an incredibly beautiful experience, the environment can
. Evidence of mass extinctions
in our past reveals
the vulnerabilities of our environment. And today we have millions of
people and other living species dying every year from
and other pollution
. Humans have irresponsibly
infected the only living space in our solar system. But we can recover,
because science has taught us about the laws of
and how everything is
Cause and Effect
. So we have a lot of work to do,
and we have a lot to learn. Our lives depend on it. We will have to
globally in order to solve these problems that we are faced with, like
with the problem of increased amounts of
. We have been given a
beautiful gift. So let us preserve this gift for future generations and
the trillions of people who will need to depend on this environment to live.
like us and millions of other life forms do today.
is when Humankind benefits in a multitude of ways from
ecosystems by providing clean drinking water
production of food
decomposition of wastes
regulating the control of climate and disease; supporting
and crop pollination; and
, spiritual and
, and economic values.
are resources that exist without actions of
humankind. This includes all valued characteristics such as magnetic,
gravitational, and electrical properties and forces. On earth it includes:
sunlight, atmosphere, water, land (includes all minerals) along with all
vegetation and animal life that naturally subsists upon or within the
heretofore identified characteristics and substances.
is the biotic
surrounding of an
organism or population
, and consequently includes the factors that have an
influence in their survival, development
and evolution marine environment,
the atmospheric environment
and the terrestrial environment. All life that
has survived must have adapted
to conditions of its environment.
Temperature, light, humidity, soil nutrients, etc.
"There is no such thing as
, Nothing is Free, so please don't
, especially from the Future".
Managing our surroundings
and those responsibilities must be defined and
understood if we are ever going
to succeed. And now that
the world is flat again, means that our surroundings are
not just local, they're also global.Nature Smart
enables human beings to
, categorize and
draw upon certain features of the environment.
Cause and Effect
connects one process (the cause) with another process or state (the
effect), where the first is understood to be partly responsible for the
second, and the second is dependent on the first.
is the cumulative effect produced when
one event sets off a chain of similar events.
is a process that starts from an initial state of small significance and
builds upon itself, becoming larger (graver, more serious), and also
perhaps potentially dangerous or disastrous.
is a sequence of reactions where a reactive product or
by-product causes additional reactions to take place. In a chain reaction,
positive feedback leads to a self-amplifying chain of events.
is a failure in a system of interconnected parts in
which the failure of a part can trigger the failure of successive parts.
is a secondary phenomenon that occurs alongside or in parallel to a
Newtown's Third LawThermo Dynamics
is an undesired harmful effect resulting from
or harmful chemicals
which result in morbidity or particular disease or unhealthy state of
mind, mortality, alteration in body weight, levels of enzymes, loss of
function, or as a pathological change detected at the microscopic,
macroscopic or physiological level. Adverse effects may cause a reversible
or irreversible change, including an increase or decrease in the
susceptibility of the individual to other
, foods, or
procedures, such as drug
List of Effects
is a formal system which describes the
computational effects of computer programs, such as side effects. An
effect system can be used to provide a compile-time check of the possible
effects of the program.
is a functional relationship between two quantities, where a
relative change in one quantity results in a proportional relative change
in the other quantity, independent of the initial size of those
quantities: one quantity varies as a power of another. For instance,
considering the area of a square in terms of the length of its side, if
the length is doubled, the area is multiplied by a factor of four.
Rate of Change
Causal Loop Diagram
visualizing how different variables in a system
is when the control action from the
controller is independent of the "process output", which is the process
variable that is being controlled. It does not use feedback to determine
if its output has achieved the desired goal of the input or process "set
point". An open-loop system cannot engage in
and also cannot correct any
that it could make. It
will not compensate for disturbances in the process being controlled.
small causes can have large
effects. Everything is Connected
means to perform an action that may seem small or innocent, but that turns
out to have severely detrimental and far-reaching negative consequences.
The action cannot be reversed. Progress Trap
- Social Trap
is a dilemma or difficult
circumstance from which there is no escape because of mutually
conditions. "What goes around comes around."
is a process whereby larger entities arise through
interactions among smaller or simpler entities such that the larger
entities exhibit properties the smaller/simpler entities do not exhibit.
states that, for many events, roughly 80%
of the effects come from 20% of the causes. (80–20 rule)
is strict standards of
of cause and effect . (c. 460 – c. 400 BC)
is the extensive damage to, destruction of or loss of
ecosystem(s) of a given territory, whether by
or by other, to
such an extent that peaceful enjoyment by the inhabitants of that
territory has been or will be severely diminished.
is an undesired
. Food Safety
is an effect that is secondary
to the one intended; It can be
in (bio-)chemical sciences generally refers to the process whereby
something is prepared or excited for a subsequent reaction.
are outcomes that are not the ones
and intended by a
is the property of a system in which a
variable (for example, the concentration of a substance in solution, or
its temperature) is actively regulated to remain very nearly constant.
is a process where some form of overall order or
coordination arises out of the local interactions between
component parts of an initially disordered system. The process of
self-organization can be spontaneous, and it is not necessarily controlled
by any auxiliary agent outside of the
. It is often
triggered by random fluctuations that are amplified by positive feedback.
is a neurological phenomenon in which stimulation
of one sensory or
cognitive pathway leads to automatic
, involuntary experiences in a second
sensory or cognitive pathway.
is being Responsible
for the world by Maintaining
taking care of it. Green Schools
You Don't Know What
You Got Till It's Gone - Cinderella
occurs when outputs of a system are routed back as
inputs as part of a chain of cause-and-effect that forms a circuit or
loop. The system can then be said to feed back into itself. The notion of
cause-and-effect has to be handled carefully when applied to
is a process that occurs in a
in which the effects of a small disturbance on a system include an
increase in the magnitude of the disturbance. The enhancement or
amplification of an effect by its own influence on the process that gives
rise to it. The return of part of an output signal to the input, which is
in phase with it, so that the amplifier gain is increased and the output
is often distorted.
occurs in situations where an increase in temperature changes the
conditions in a way that causes a further increase in temperature, often
leading to a destructive result. It is a kind of uncontrolled positive
occurs when some function of the output of a system, process,
or mechanism is fed back in a manner that tends to reduce the fluctuations
in the output, whether caused by changes in the input or by other
disturbances. Social Feedback
Input - Output
between an information
system, such as a
, and the outside world,
possibly a human or another information
processing system. Inputs are the signals or
by the system
and outputs are the signals or data sent from it. The term can also be
used as part of an action
to "perform I/O" is to perform an input or output operation. I/O devices
are used by a human
(or other system)
to communicate with a computer. For instance, a
keyboard or mouse
input device for a computer, while monitors and printers are output
devices. Devices for communication between computers, such as modems and
network cards, typically perform both input and output operations.
are patterns of behavior of a
expressed by circles of causality have therefore similar
or Paradigm Shift
is a fundamental change in the basic concepts and experimental practices
of a scientific discipline.
is when cognition arises through a dynamic interaction between an acting
organism and its environment.
Fixx - One Thing Leads To Another
You Reap what you Sow
, Give and Receive, or what
goes around comes around, is only accurate when you measure the value of
the input and the output. Just the facts, and not the perceived facts or
is the outcome of an event that
is relative to an individual or group of people. Having important effects
We should Remake these game shows to be more reality based -
Truth or Consequences
Truth or Dare?
is the final consequence of a sequence
of actions or events expressed qualitatively or
. Possible results include advantage,
, gain, injury, loss,
value and victory. There may be a range of possible outcomes associated
with an event depending on the point of view, historical distance or
relevance. Reaching no result can mean that actions are inefficient,
ineffective, meaningless or flawed.
is a deduction
implication, that is, something that follows logically from or is implied
by something else. In logic, an entailment is the relationship between
sentences whereby one sentence will be true if all the others are also
true. Something involved as a necessary part or consequence of something.
An entailment can also mean a situation where the owner of property has
limited power over his own property.
is a remarkable concurrence of events or circumstances
which have no apparent causal connection with each other.
is a deviation from the normal or common order or
form or rule.Random
is the lack of
in events. A
random sequence of events, symbols or steps has no order and does not
follow an intelligible pattern or combination. Individual random events
are by definition unpredictable, but in many cases the frequency of
different outcomes over a large number of events (or "trials") is
predictable. For example, when throwing two dice, the outcome of any
particular roll is unpredictable, but a sum of 7 will occur twice as often
as 4. In this view, randomness is a measure of uncertainty of an outcome,
rather than haphazardness, and applies to concepts of chance,
and information entropy
is a system
in which the
output is not directly proportional to the input. Nonlinear problems are
of interest to engineers, physicists and mathematicians and many other
scientists because most systems are inherently nonlinear in nature.
Nonlinear systems may appear chaotic, unpredictable or counterintuitive,
contrasting with the much simpler linear systems.
is a form of
in which observational data are modeled by a
function which is a nonlinear combination of the model parameters and
depends on one or more independent
The data are fitted by a method of successive
Reason for Everything
is the philosophical doctrine that all events transpire in virtue of some
necessity and are therefore inevitable. The philosophical position that
for every event there exist conditions that could cause no other event.
sometimes referred to as Fate
predetermined course of events. It may be conceived as a predetermined
future, whether in general or of an individual.
the concept that events (certain events, or events of certain types) are
not caused, or not caused deterministically (cf. causality) by prior
events. It is the opposite of determinism and related to chance. It is
highly relevant to the philosophical problem of free will, particularly in
the form of metaphysical libertarianism.
branch of mathematics
focused on the behavior of
dynamical systems that are highly sensitive to initial conditions—a
response popularly referred to as the butterfly effect. Small differences
in initial conditions (such as those due to rounding errors in numerical
computation) yield widely diverging outcomes for such dynamical systems,
rendering long-term prediction
of their behavior impossible in general. This happens even though these
systems are deterministic, meaning that their future behavior is fully
determined by their initial conditions, with no random elements involved.
In other words, the deterministic nature of these systems does not make
them predictable. This behavior is known as deterministic chaos, or simply
Anomaly (natural sciences)
is the deviation in a quantity from its
expected value. A deviation from the normal or common order or form or
rule, e.g., the difference between a measurement and a
or a model prediction. Similarly,
a standardized anomaly equals an anomaly divided by a
. A group of
anomalies can be analyzed spatially, as a map, or temporally, as a time
series. There are examples in atmospheric sciences and in geophysics.
also called spontaneous order (in the social
sciences), is a process where some form of overall order arises from local
interactions between parts of an initially disordered system. The process
is spontaneous, not needing control by any external agent. It is often
triggered by random fluctuations, amplified by positive feedback. The
resulting organization is wholly decentralized, distributed over all the
components of the system. As such, the organization is typically robust
and able to survive or self-repair substantial perturbation. Chaos theory
discusses self-organization in terms of islands of predictability in a sea
of chaotic unpredictability. Self-organization occurs in many physical,
chemical, biological, robotic, and cognitive systems. Examples can be
found in crystallization, thermal convection of fluids, chemical
oscillation, animal swarming, and artificial and biological neural
ascribes cause where none exists. The flaw is
failing to account for natural fluctuations. It is frequently a special
kind of the
post hoc fallacy
. Since event Y followed event X, event Y must have
been caused by event X. Fallacies
"the study of mathematical models of conflict and cooperation between
intelligent rational decision-makers."
a mathematical representation of a situation in which each participant's
gain or loss of utility is exactly balanced by the losses or gains of the
utility of the other participants. If the total gains of the participants
are added up and the total losses are subtracted, they will sum to zero.
Thus, cutting a cake, where taking a larger piece reduces the amount of
cake available for others, is a zero-sum game if all participants value
each unit of cake equally. Marginal utility
Non Zero Sum Game
is a situation where one
decision maker's gain (or loss) does not necessarily result in the other
decision makers' loss (or gain). In other words, where the winnings and
losses of all players do not add up to zero and everyone can gain: a
is an event not explicable by natural or scientific
. Such an event may be attributed to a supernatural being (a
deity), magic, a miracle worker, a saint or a religious leader.
are the set of
that surround a
situation or event. Information that should be kept in mind when making a
decision. A condition that accompanies or
some event or
states that if an
action or policy
suspected risk of causing harm to the public
, or to the environment, in
the absence of scientific consensus
(that the action or policy is not
harmful), the burden of proof that it is not harmful falls on those taking
an action that may or may not be a Risk
Human Impact on the Environment
includes impacts on biophysical
environments, biodiversity, and other resources.
Habitat DestructionEveryone needs to
see the whole picture
. We need to see things from the beginning,
and we need to see to the very end, or years from now. We need to
understand all the different things that influence our actions and our
decisions. And we need to see all the effects that are the result of our
actions, even if the results from our actions happen years later. These
are just some of the responsibilities that every human shares on this
beautiful planet earth. You cannot ignore these responsibilities, and you
cannot transfer these responsibilities to someone else, unless, there is
an agreement or a contract that explains that this cooperation that you
have with other people, states that this is the most logical, the most
efficient, and the most effective way
to fulfill these
responsibilities that we all share to live. Everyone needs to be
accountable for their actions, and accountable for all the results that
come from their actions. Everyone also needs to be open and honest. It
doesn't seem like a lot to ask, but it means a lot, it means a lot to
everyone, and to every single thing that we hold dear.
You should always know the answers to these
two questions...What would Earth do?
What natural processes
have been working for
millions of years?What would Life do?
How has life adapted
in order to survive over the last 500 million years?
encompasses all living and non-living things occurring
naturally on Earth or some region thereof. It is an
encompasses the interaction of all living species. Climate, weather, and
natural resources that affect human survival and economic activity. The
concept of the natural environment can be distinguished by components:
Complete ecological units that function as natural systems without massive
civilized human intervention, including all vegetation, microorganisms,
soil, rocks, atmosphere, and natural phenomena that occur within their
boundaries and their nature. Universal natural resources and physical
phenomena that lack clear-cut boundaries, such as air, water, and climate,
as well as energy, radiation, electric charge, and magnetism, not
originating from civilized human activity.
is the natural, physical, or material world or universe. "Nature" can
refer to the phenomena
of the physical world,
and also to life in general. The study of nature is a large part of
science. Although humans are part of nature, human activity is often
understood as a separate category from other natural phenomena.
scientific analysis and study of interactions among organisms and their
environment. It is an interdisciplinary field that includes biology,
geography, and Earth science.
is a community of living organisms in conjunction
with the nonliving components of their environment (things like air, water
and mineral soil
), interacting as a system. These
biotic and abiotic components are regarded as linked together through
nutrient cycles and energy flows. As ecosystems are defined by the network
of interactions among organisms, and between organisms and their
environment, they can be of any size but usually encompass specific,
limited spaces (although some scientists say that the entire planet is an
also known as the ecosphere, is the wordwide sum of all
is the branches of epidemiology concerned
with the discovery of the environmental exposures that contribute to or
protect against injuries, illnesses, developmental conditions,
disabilities, and deaths; and identification of public health and health
care actions to manage the risks associated with harmful exposures.
is the branch of public health that is concerned
with all aspects of the natural and built environment that
human health. Other terms referring to or concerning environmental health
are environmental public health, and public health protection /
environmental health protection.
is a set of properties and characteristics of
the environment, either generalized or local, as they impinge
beings and other organisms. It is a measure of the condition of an
environment relative to the requirements of one or more species and or to
any human need or purpose.
regarding concerns for environmental
protection and improvement of the health of the environment, particularly
as the measure for this health seeks to incorporate the concerns of
is a practice of protecting the
natural environment on individual, organizational or governmental levels,
for the benefit of both the environment and humans. Due to the pressures
of overconsumption, population and technology, the biophysical environment
is being degraded, sometimes permanently.
is an ethic of resource use, allocation, and
protection. Its primary focus is upon maintaining the health of the
natural world, its fisheries, habitats, and biological diversity.
Secondary focus is on materials conservation, including non-renewable
resources such as metals, minerals and fossil fuels, and energy
conservation, which is important to protect the natural world. Those who
follow the conservation ethic and, especially, those who advocate or work
toward conservation goals are termed conservationists.
is an interdisciplinary field that focused on
the interplay between individuals and their surroundings.
studies the relationship between human beings and the natural world
through ecological and psychological principles. The field seeks to
develop and understand ways of expanding the emotional connection between
individuals and the natural world, thereby assisting individuals with
developing sustainable lifestyles
remedying alienation from nature
refers to the manmade surroundings that provide the
setting for human activity, ranging in scale from
buildings and parks
or green space to neighborhoods and cities that can often include their
supporting infrastructure, such as water supply or energy networks. The
built environment is a material, spatial and cultural product of human
labor that combines physical elements and energy in forms for living,
working and playing. It has been defined as "the humanitarian-made space
in which people live, work, and recreate on a day-to-day basis.
is a diverse scientific, social, and political
movement for addressing environmental issues.
refers to the commitment
of an organization to the laws,
regulations, and other policy mechanisms
issues. These issues generally include air and water pollution, solid
waste management, ecosystem management, maintenance of biodiversity, the
protection of natural resources, wildlife and endangered species. Policies
concerning energy or regulation of toxic substances including pesticides
and many types of industrial waste are part of the topic of environmental
policy. This policy can be deliberately taken to direct and oversee human
activities and thereby prevent harmful effects on the biophysical
environment and natural resources, as well as to make sure that changes in
the environment do
not have harmful effects on humans.
is a law that gives the President of the United States
the authority to, by presidential proclamation, create national monuments
from public lands to protect significant natural, cultural, or scientific
features. The Act has been used over a hundred times since its passage.
Its use occasionally creates significant controversy. Act passed by the
United States Congress and signed into law by Theodore Roosevelt on June
refers to the immediate physical and social setting in
which people live or in which something happens or
includes the culture that the individual was educated or lives in, and the
people and institutions with whom they interact.
is an interdisciplinary academic field that
integrates physical, biological and information sciences
ecology, biology, physics, chemistry, zoology, mineralogy, oceanology,
limnology, soil science, geology, atmospheric science, and geodesy) to the
study of the environment, and the solution of environmental problems.
is the part of the universe that is being
studied, while the environment is the remainder of the universe
lies outside the boundaries of the system. It is also known as the
surroundings or neighborhood, and in thermodynamics, as the reservoir.
Depending on the type of system, it may interact with the environment by
exchanging mass, energy (including heat and work), linear momentum,
angular momentum, electric charge, or other conserved properties. In some
disciplines, such as information theory, information may also be
exchanged. The environment is ignored in analysis of the system, except in
regard to these interactions.
refers to organized
efforts to teach how natural environments function, and particularly, how
human beings can manage behavior and ecosystems to live sustainably.
Environmental Impact Assessment
assessment of the
environmental consequences (positive and negative) of a plan, policy,
program, or concrete projects prior to the decision to move forward with
the proposed action.
measures that tell us what
is happening in the environment.
Environmental Performance Index
is a method of quantifying
and numerically marking the environmental performance of a state's
Conservation Management System
is a procedure for
maintaining a species or habitat in a particular state.
deals with the removal of pollution or
contaminants from environmental media such as soil
groundwater, sediment, or surface water. This would mean that once
requested by the government or a land remediation authority, immediate
action should be taken as this can impact negatively on human health and
IU scientists discover 'supramolecule' that could help reduce nuclear,
First evidence for new molecular structure could open doors to chemical
solutions for environmental problems
People enhanced the environment, not degraded it, over past 13,000 years
is the process of restoring something to its former good
condition. The Power of "RE"
is a process-oriented systems theory based
approach to design. The term "regenerative" describes processes that
restore, renew or revitalize their own sources of energy and materials,
creating sustainable systems that integrate the needs of society with the
integrity of nature. Biomimicry
is a sub-sector practice of organic farming
designed to build soil health or to regenerate unhealthy soils. The
practices associated with regenerative agriculture are those identified
with other approaches to organic farming, including maintaining a high
percentage of organic matter in soils, minimum tillage, biodiversity,
composting, mulching, crop rotation, cover crops, and green manures.
Not only are single organisms capable of
regeneration but Ecosystems are regenerative as well, although not on a
cellular level but rather - as a complex system composed of myriads of
organisms and their habitat - on the level of interactions of whole
populations and their environment. Resilience to minor disturbances is one
characteristic feature of healthy ecosystems. Following major (lethal)
disturbances, such as a fire or pest outbreak in a forest, an immediate
return to the previous dynamic equilibrium will not be possible. Instead,
pioneering species will occupy, compete for space, and establish
themselves in the newly opened habitat. The new growth of seedlings and
community assembly process is known as regeneration in ecology. As
ecological succession sets in, a forest will slowly regenerate towards its
former state within the succession (climax or any intermediate stage),
provided that all outer parameters (climate, soil fertility availability
of nutrients, animal migration paths, air pollution or the absence
thereof, etc.) remain unchanged.
the practice of renewing and restoring degraded,
damaged, or destroyed ecosystems and habitats in the environment by active
human intervention and action.
Rewilding (conservation biology)
conservation aimed at restoring and protecting natural processes and core
wilderness areas, providing connectivity between such areas, and
protecting or reintroducing apex predators and keystone species.
means to return to a more wild
or natural state; it is the process of undoing domestication.
World's Largest Reforestation Program Overlooks Wildlife
Forest for the Trees: After years of environmental destruction, China has
spent billions of dollars on the world's largest reforestation program,
converting a combined area nearly the size of New York and Pennsylvania
back to forest. (69.2 million acres) Must avoid
Grain for Green
program in 1999 as an ambitious conservation program designed to mitigate
and prevent soil erosion. It is an
example of Payment for ecosystem
services which is helping to solve Environmental issues in China. The
program is designed to retire farmland that is susceptible to soil
erosion, although some farmers may go back to farming the land after the
Payment for Ecosystem Services
are incentives offered to farmers or
landowners in exchange for managing their land to provide some sort of
ecological service. They have been defined as "a transparent system for
the additional provision of
environmental services through conditional
payments to voluntary providers." These programmes promote the
conservation of natural resources in the marketplace.
is a management practice
that seeks to conserve, protect and restore habitat areas for wild plants
and animals, especially conservation reliant species, and prevent their
extinction, fragmentation or reduction in range.
Conservation Reliant Species
Creating and Restoring Wildlife Habitat
is the deterioration of the
environment through depletion of resources such as air, water and soil;
the destruction of ecosystems and the extinction of wildlife.
people who are forced to leave their home region due to sudden or
long-term changes to their local environment which compromise their well
being or secure livelihood, such changes are held to include increased
droughts, desertification, sea level rise, and disruption of seasonal
weather patterns such as monsoons.
Nature Deficit Disorder
is when human beings, especially children, are spending less time outdoors
resulting in a wide range of behavioral problems.
is the world's stock of natural resources,
which includes geology, soils, air, water and all living organisms.
Natural capital assets provide people with a wide range of free goods and
services, often called ecosystem services, which underpin our economy and
society and some of which even make human life possible.
is a measure of human impact on Earth's ecosystems. It's typically
measured in area of wilderness or amount of natural capital consumed each
year. A common way of estimating footprint is, the area of wilderness of
both land and sea needed to supply resources to a human population; This
includes the area of wilderness needed to assimilate human waste.
is any form of design that minimizes environmentally destructive impacts
by integrating itself with living processes." Ecological design is an
integrative ecologically responsible design discipline.
refers to altering the landscape in any
number of ways such as: Changing landforms from a natural or semi-natural
state for a purpose such as agriculture or housing. Subdividing real
estate into lots, typically for the purpose of building homes. Real estate
development or changing its purpose, for example by converting an unused
factory complex into condominia.
is a protected area of importance for wildlife, flora, fauna or features
of geological or other special interest, which is reserved and managed for
conservation and to provide special opportunities for study or research.
Open Source Ecology
is a network of farmers,
engineers, architects and supporters, whose main goal is the eventual
manufacturing of the Global Village
is to do more and more with less and less
until eventually you can do everything with nothing.
is the concept of things being transitory,
existing only briefly.
is the maximum population size
the species that the environment can sustain indefinitely, given the food,
habitat, water, and other necessities available in the environment.
occurs when a population
temporarily exceeds the long term carrying capacity of its environment.
The consequence of overshoot is called a collapse
, a crash or a
which there is a decline in population density. The entire sequence or
trajectory undergone by the population and its environment is often termed
is a system of stimuli and response
correlated to population density.
is a proposed
that begins when human
activities started to have a significant global impact on Earth's geology
is a species that has a disproportionately
large effect on its environment relative to its abundance.
Gap Minder Trends and Stats
local behavior of harmonic functions.
is the way two organisms of different
species exist in a relationship in which each individual benefits from the
activity of the other.
is the process where groups of organisms work
or act together for common or mutual benefits
. It is commonly defined as
any adaptation that has evolved, at least in part, to increase the
reproductive success of the actor’s social partners.
the state of two or more things
existing together, usually in a temporal or spatial sense, with or without
is a bond that is formed between animals of
is the mutual reliance between two or more groups. This concept differs
from the reliance in a dependent relationship, where some members are
and some are not. There
can be various degrees of interdependence.
is a close and often long-term interaction
between two different biological species. "if you help me to stay alive
then I will help you to stay alive, for if one of us dies, we both die."
Symbiotic Relationships List
List of Symbiotic Organisms
is defined as the process of bringing
together the component subsystems into one
and ensuring that the
subsystems function together as a system.
is the empirical study of systems in
transformation, with an emphasis on total system behavior unpredicted by
the behavior of any isolated components, including humanity's role as both
participant and observer.
is a system in which the output is not
directly proportional to the input.
is a mathematical function having an "S" shaped
curve (sigmoid curve).
Biodiversity Indicators Partnership
Union for Conservation of Nature
The Limits to Growth
supporting the practice of ecological restoration, which is the practice
of renewing and restoring degraded, damaged, or destroyed ecosystems and
habitats in the environment by active human intervention and action.
Justice Governance and Environmental Action
Catastrophic Loss Reduction
Ecological Observatories Network
National Ecological Observatory Network
STReam Experimental Observatory Network (STREON)
Goldman Environmental Prize
environmental activists "There is no Planet B"
Eyes in the Sky
Radio Controlled Drones
describes the processes and activities that
need to take place to monitor the quality of the
environment. Environmental monitoring is used in the preparation of
environmental impact assessments, as well as in many circumstances in
which human activities carry a risk of harmful effects
on the natural environment
3-D spectral and laser imaging
high resolution cameras
thermal imaging systems
to see at night. Se we can monitor almost
everything, even Poachers
Monitoring Birds by Drone
Eyes on the SeasCultural
Protection Using Satellites and Citizen Scientists
Unmanned Port Security Vessel
Autonomously surveys the seabed and is a sensor
platform for other optical, chemical and environmental sensors,
including real-time video.
Underwater Drone Flies AND Swims
Human Flying Drone
is Powerful enough to Lift a Human
Ecosystem Studies Units
is an automated communications process by which
measurements and other data are collected at remote or inaccessible points
and transmitted to receiving equipment for monitoring. The word is derived
from Greek roots: tele = remote, and metron = measure. Systems that need
external instructions and data to operate require the counterpart of
telemetry, telecommand. Although the term commonly refers to wireless data
transfer mechanisms (e.g., using radio, ultrasonic, or infrared systems),
it also encompasses data transferred over other media such as a telephone
or computer network, optical link or other wired communications like power
line carriers. Many modern telemetry systems take advantage of the low
cost and ubiquity of GSM networks by using SMS to receive and transmit
telemetry data. A telemeter is a device used to remotely measure any
quantity. It consists of a sensor, a transmission path, and a display,
recording, or control device. Telemeters are the physical devices used in
telemetry. Electronic devices are widely used in telemetry and can be
wireless or hard-wired, analog or digital. Other technologies are also
possible, such as mechanical, hydraulic and optical. Telemetry may be
commutated to allow the transmission of multiple data streams in a fixed
Geographic Information Science
is the scientific discipline that
studies data structures and computational techniques to capture,
represent, process, and analyze geographic information. It can be
contrasted with geographic information systems, which are software tools.
National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
is both a combat support
agency, under the United States Department of Defense, and an intelligence
agency of the United States Intelligence Community, with the primary
mission of collecting, analyzing, and distributing geospatial intelligence
(GEOINT) in support of national security. NGA was known as the National
Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) until 2003.
is intelligence about the human activity on
earth derived from the exploitation and analysis of imagery and geospatial
information that describes, assesses, and visually depicts physical
features and geographically referenced activities on the Earth. GEOINT, as
defined in US Code, consists of imagery, imagery intelligence (IMINT) and
is an approach to applying statistical analysis
and other analytic techniques to data which has a geographical or spatial
aspect. Such analysis would typically employ software capable of rendering
maps processing spatial data, and applying analytical methods to
terrestrial or geographic datasets, including the use of geographic
information systems and geomatics.
Geographic Information System
is a system designed to capture, store,
manipulate, analyze, manage, and present spatial or
The acronym GIS is sometimes used for geographic information science (GIScience)
to refer to the academic discipline that studies geographic information
systems and is a large domain within the broader academic discipline of
geoinformatics. What goes beyond a GIS is a spatial data infrastructure, a
concept that has no such restrictive boundaries.
is the science and the technology which develops and
uses information science infrastructure to address the problems of
geography, cartography, geosciences locations and related branches of
science and engineering.
is extraction of valuable minerals
geological materials from the earth, which are
that do not renew and are there for
. But if theses extractions
were to be used effectively and efficiently our resources would benefit
mankind, instead of poisoning the environment and killing people and other
Mineral Policy Institute
specializes in preventing
environmentally and socially destructive mining, minerals and energy
projects in Australia, Asia and the Pacific.
is a situation where resource use has
outpaced the sustainable capacity of the ecosystem. A prolonged pattern of
overconsumption leads to environmental degradation and the eventual loss
of resource bases.
works with communities facing environmental pollution
issues and health problems. who suffer Human Rights violations, especially
linked to extractive industries. Any processes that involve the extraction
of raw materials from the earth to be used by consumers. The extractive
industry consists of any operations that remove metals, mineral and
aggregates from the earth. Examples of extractive processes include oil
and gas extraction, mining, dredging and quarrying.
Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative
is a global standard to
promote the open and accountable management of extractive resources. It
seeks to address the key governance issues in the oil, gas and mining
public awareness about how countries manage their oil, gas and mineral
is an action involving deliberate destruction of
or damage to public
is an illegal act which directly harms
the environment. Lawsuit
Toxics Release Inventory Tri-Program
Toxics Release Inventory
Waste Materials from Mines
Toxic Mine Waste Threatens Worlds Waters
are natural resources extracted in a conflict zone
and sold to perpetuate the fighting.
Congo Conflict Minerals
Indigenous People are Left Poor as Tech World takes Lithium from under
is the extraction of useful materials (elements or compounds)
which are naturally dissolved in brine. The brine may be seawater, other
surface water, or groundwater. It differs from solution mining or in-situ
leaching in that those methods inject water or chemicals to dissolve
materials which are in a solid state; in brine mining, the materials are
already dissolved. Brines are important sources of salt, iodine, lithium,
magnesium, potassium, bromine, and other materials, and potentially
important sources of a number of others.
Investigating BHP's $5bn Mining Disaster In Brazil
Damian Palin: Mining Minerals from
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon
The Hidden Cost of Fossil Fuels
Hambach Surface Mine
Metals used in high-tech products face future supply risks
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of
work-related injury and illness. NIOSH is part of the Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention (CDC) within the U.S. Department of Health and
Progressive Massive Fibrosis
is the disease arises firstly through the
deposition of silica or coal dust (or other dust) within the
then through the body's immunological reactions to the dust.
Coal worker's Pneumoconiosis
is also known as
black lung disease
or black lung, is caused by long exposure to
coal dust. Similar to both silicosis from inhaling silica dust and to the
long-term effects of tobacco smoking
Inhaled coal dust progressively builds up in the lungs and cannot be
removed by the body; this leads to inflammation, fibrosis, and in worse
is a form of occupational lung disease caused by inhalation
of crystalline silica dust, and is marked by inflammation and scarring in
the form of nodular lesions in the upper lobes of the lungs. It is a type
of pneumoconiosis. Silicosis resulted in 46,000 deaths globally in 2013
down from 55,000 deaths in 1990.
Exploitation of Natural Resources
is the use of natural resources for
economic growth, sometimes with a negative connotation of accompanying
environmental degradation. Rare Earth
- Precious Metals
should never be a reason to commit
or as a reason to
Energy Returned on Energy Invested
is the ratio of the
amount of usable energy delivered from a particular energy resource to the
amount of energy used to obtain that energy resource. It is a distinct
measure from energy efficiency as it does not measure the primary energy
inputs to the system, only usable energy
from companies related to fossil fuel abuses
We just don't want to
, we need to correctly measure the resources
the world has
so that we can then use them effectively and
waste and abuse
. Resources belong to
the people of the earth, and not to individuals, governments or
is the consumption of a resource faster than it can be replenished.
Natural resources are commonly divided between renewable resources and
non-renewable resources (see also mineral resource classification). Use of
either of these forms of resources beyond their rate of replacement is
considered to be resource depletion.Habitat
Go Fossil Free: Divestment Day
February 13 and 14:
Divest from fossil fuels
Ray Anderson: The Business Logic of Sustainability
Ecology of Commerce
Lovins: We Must Win the Oil Endgame
Oil End Game
Johan Rockstrom let the Environment
Guide our Development
James Hansen: Why I must Speak Out about Climate Change
Steve Howard: Lets Go All in on Selling Sustainability
38:20 (proposed coal exports)
Paul Gilding: The Earth is Full
Pavan Sukhdev: What is the Price of Nature
E. O. Wilson on Saving life on Earth
Encyclopedia of Life
Garth Lenz: The True Cost of Oil
To the Last Drop - Part 1
Stop Keystone XL
Dirty Oil Sands
Murder by Oil
(09/20/2014 - 1:35) This movie shows the
criminals, the murderers, the liars, the polluters, and the
thieves of the Keystone Pipeline. All who work for the Keystone
to these crimes.
List Of Corporate Crimes being Committed
Idle no More
Idle No More
Spirit Of Water
Land Conservation Websites
Ocean Protection Websites
River Protection Websites
Sounds of Nature around the world
Laws of Nature
or events in nature.
is a logical or comprehensible arrangement of
A condition of regular or proper arrangement.
relation between interdependent entities.
"Whatever we do to the Earth, we do to
"It's not just
our actions that do damage, it's also our
is not progressing
to slowly. Not exerting
influence or change.
Lacking activity. Lacking in energy or will. Lying idle or
unused. Not active physically or mentally.
is the study of geology, the
and the large-scale structure of the Earth's interior
, as well as the
, hydrosphere, and biosphere. Typically, Earth scientists use
tools from geography, physics, chemistry, biology, chronology, and
mathematics to build a quantitative understanding of how the Earth system
works and evolves.
Rocks - Dirt
is the study of
A science that deals with the history of the earth as recorded in rocks.
is a naturally
occurring chemical compound
of crystalline form and abiogenic in origin. A mineral has one specific
chemical composition, whereas a rock can be an aggregate of different
minerals or mineraloids. The study of minerals is called mineralogy.
subject of geology specializing in the scientific study of
, crystal structure, and physical
(including optical) properties of minerals and mineralized artifacts.
Specific studies within mineralogy include the processes of mineral origin
and formation, classification of minerals, their geographical
distribution, as well as their utilization. Soil
208 species of minerals exist today solely due to human
in locations around the world. These minerals
represent nearly 4 percent of the 5,200 mineral species recognized by the
, which is an international group of 38
national societies. The goal is to promote the science of mineralogy and
to standardize the nomenclature of the 4000 plus known mineral species.
The IMA is affiliated with the
International Union of Geological Sciences
, which is devoted to
international cooperation in the field of geology.
There are around 5,200 Minerals
is a mineral belonging to the group of nesosilicates. Its chemical name is
zirconium silicate and its corresponding chemical formula is ZrSiO4.
are rock-forming minerals made up of silicate groups. They
are the largest and most important class of rock-forming minerals and make
up approximately 90 percent of the Earth's crust. They are classified
based on the structure of their silicate groups, which contain different
ratios of silicon and oxygen.
is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or
mineraloids. For example, granite, a common rock, is a combination of the
minerals quartz, feldspar and biotite. The
Earth's outer solid layer
, the lithosphere, is made of rock.
major groups of rocks are defined: igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic.
The scientific study of rocks is called petrology, which is an essential
component of geology. Earth’s rocks contain more than 4,000 different
(the crystalline molecules
that make up rocks).
magmatic rock, is formed through the cooling and solidification of magma
or lava. The magma can be derived from partial melts of existing rocks in
either a planet's mantle or crust. Typically, the melting is caused by one
or more of three processes: an increase in temperature, a decrease in
pressure, or a change in composition. Solidification into rock occurs
either below the surface as intrusive rocks or on the surface as extrusive
rocks. Igneous rock may form with crystallization to form granular,
crystalline rocks, or without crystallization to form natural glasses.
a rock formed from magma erupted from a volcano. In other words, it
differs from other igneous rock by being of volcanic origin. Like all rock
types, the concept of volcanic rock is artificial, and in nature volcanic
rocks grade into hypabyssal and metamorphic rocks and constitute an
important element of some sediments and sedimentary rocks. For these
reasons, in geology, volcanics and shallow hypabyssal rocks are not always
treated as distinct. In the context of Precambrian shield geology, the
term "volcanic" is often applied to what are strictly metavolcanic rocks.
Volcanic rocks are among the most common rock types on Earth's surface,
particularly in the oceans. On land, they are very common at plate
boundaries and in flood basalt provinces. It has been estimated that
volcanic rocks cover about 8% of the Earth's
current land surface
arises from the transformation of existing rock types, in a process called
metamorphism, which means "change in form". The original rock (protolith)
is subjected to heat (temperatures greater than 150 to 200 °C) and
pressure (1500 bars), causing profound physical and/or chemical change.
The protolith may be a sedimentary rock, an igneous rock or another older
is the change of minerals or geologic texture (distinct
arrangement of minerals) in pre-existing rocks (protoliths), without the
protolith melting into liquid magma (a solid-state change). The change
occurs primarily due to heat, pressure, and the introduction of chemically
active fluids. The chemical components and crystal structures of the
minerals making up the rock may change even though the rock remains a
solid. Changes at or just beneath Earth's surface due to weathering and/or
diagenesis are not classified as metamorphism.Metamorphism typically
occurs between diagenesis (max. 200°C), and melting (~850°C). Three types
of metamorphism exist: contact, dynamic, and regional. Metamorphism
produced with increasing pressure and temperature conditions is known as
prograde metamorphism. Conversely, decreasing temperatures and pressure
characterize retrograde metamorphism.
are types of rock that are formed by the deposition and subsequent
cementation of that material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of
water. Sedimentation is the collective name for processes that cause
mineral and/or organic particles (detritus) to settle in place. The
particles that form a sedimentary rock by accumulating are called
sediment. Before being deposited, the sediment was formed by weathering
and erosion from the source area, and then transported to the place of
deposition by water, wind, ice, mass movement or glaciers, which are
called agents of denudation. Sedimentation may also occur as minerals
precipitate from water solution or shells of aquatic creatures settle out
a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of
weathering and erosion, and is subsequently transported by the action of
wind, water, or ice, and/or by the force of gravity acting on the
particles. For example, sand and silt can be carried in suspension in
river water and on reaching the sea be deposited by sedimentation and if
buried this may eventually become sandstone and siltstone, ( sedimentary
is a naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock
and mineral particles. It is defined by size, being finer than gravel and
coarser than silt. Sand can also refer to a textural class of soil or soil
type; i.e. a soil containing more than 85% sand-sized particles by mass.
The composition of sand varies, depending on the local rock sources and
conditions, but the most common constituent of sand in inland continental
settings and non-tropical coastal settings is silica (silicon dioxide, or
SiO2), usually in the form of quartz. The second most common type of sand
is calcium carbonate, for example aragonite, which has mostly been
created, over the past half billion years, by various forms of life, like
coral and shellfish. For example, it is the primary form of sand apparent
in areas where reefs have dominated the ecosystem for millions of years
like the Caribbean.
are hard and strong because Diamonds carbon shares electrons
with four other carbon atoms
four single bonds operating in 3-dimensions making a
don't conduct electricity. All the electrons are held tightly between the
atoms, and aren't free to move.
has layers that leaves out the fourth electron in the bonding level,
making it soft and brittle.
branch of geology which studies rock layers (strata) and layering
(stratification). It is primarily used in the study of sedimentary and
layered volcanic rocks. Stratigraphy has two related subfields: lithologic
stratigraphy or lithostratigraphy, and biologic stratigraphy or
is a scientist who studies the solid and liquid matter that constitutes
the Earth as well as the processes and history that have shaped it.
is the combined mass of
found on, under, and above the surface of a planet, minor planet
or natural satellite.
is the area of geology that deals with the
distribution and movement of groundwater
soil and rocks of the Earth's crust (commonly in aquifers). The term
geohydrology is often used interchangeably. Some make the minor
distinction between a hydrologist or engineer applying themselves to
geology (geohydrology), and a geologist applying themselves to hydrology
is a field of science devoted to the study of the
lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth
The True Size of
is the scientific study of the origin and evolution of topographic and
bathymetric features created by physical, chemical or biological processes
operating at or near the Earth's surface.
is a hybrid discipline that comprises elements
of civil engineering, mining engineering, petroleum engineering, and earth
is the application of the geological sciences to
is the branch of civil engineering concerned
with the engineering behavior of earth materials.
is the application of geophysics to the
engineering design of facilities including roads, tunnels, and mines.
Surface Exposure Dating
Encyclopedia of Earth
Rocks, Minerals, & Gemstones
List of U.S. State Minerals, Rocks, Stones and Gemstones
invented the discipline of geography, including
the terminology used today. A Greek mathematician and astronomer
who estimated the circumference of the earth and the distances
to the Moon and sun (276-194 BC)
is the branch of
that studies the animal kingdom, including the structure,
embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and distribution of all
animals, both living and extinct, and how they interact with their
is the scientific and objective study of
animal behaviour, usually with a focus on behaviour under natural
conditions, and viewing behaviour as an evolutionarily adaptive trait.
are multicellular, eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom Animalia (also
called Metazoa). The animal kingdom emerged as a basal clade within
Apoikozoa as a sister of the choanoflagellates. Sponges are the most basal
clade of animals. Animals are motile, meaning they can move spontaneously
and independently at some point in their lives. Their body plan eventually
becomes fixed as they develop, although some undergo a process of
metamorphosis later on in their lives. All animals are heterotrophs: they
must ingest other organisms or their products for sustenance.
are large or giant animals.
are any vertebrates within the class Mammalia
distinguished from reptiles and birds by the possession of a
(a region of the brain), hair,
three middle ear bones and mammary glands.
refers to the collective sound
vocalizing animals create in each given environment.
Ways to Save some of the Worlds Rarest Species
is the scientific study of insects, a branch of
are a class of invertebrates within the arthropod phylum that have a
chitinous exoskeleton, a three-part body (head, thorax and abdomen), three
pairs of jointed legs, compound eyes and one pair of antennae. They are
the most diverse group of animals on the planet, including more than a
million described species and representing more than half of all known
living organisms. The number of extant species is estimated at between six
and ten million, and potentially represent over 90% of the differing
animal life forms on Earth. Insects may be found in nearly all
environments, although only a small number of species reside in the
oceans, a habitat dominated by another arthropod group, crustaceans.
Phylogeny of insects
is based on genome sequencing data, it
is estimated that the class of insects originated on Earth about
480 million years ago
, in the
Ordovician, at about the same time terrestrial plants appeared.
Insect Agriculture is a specialized form of Symbiosis
is the scientific study of the normal function in living systems.
is the science of plant life and a branch of
are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the
kingdom Plantae. The term is today generally limited to the green plants,
which form an unranked clade Viridiplantae (Latin for "green plants").
This includes the flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms, ferns,
clubmosses, hornworts, liverworts, mosses and the green algae, and
excludes the red and brown algae. Historically, plants formed one of two
kingdoms covering all living things that were not animals, and both algae
and fungi were treated as plants; however all current definitions of
"plant" exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the
archaea and bacteria). Green plants have cell walls with cellulose and
obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary
chloroplasts, derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria. Their
chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green
color. Some plants are parasitic and have lost the ability to produce
normal amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize. Plants are
characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations,
although asexual reproduction is also common. There are about
300–315 thousand species of plants
which the great majority, some 260–290 thousand, are seed plants (see the
table below). Green plants provide most of the
world's molecular oxygen
and are the basis of most of Earth's
ecologies, especially on land. Plants that produce grains, fruits and
vegetables form humankind's basic foodstuffs, and have been domesticated
for millennia. Plants play many roles in culture. They are used as
ornaments and, until recently and in great variety, they have served as
the source of most medicines and drugs. The scientific study of plants is
known as botany, a branch of biology.
is a subdiscipline of botany concerned with
the functioning, or physiology, of plants. Closely related fields include
plant morphology (structure of plants), plant ecology (interactions with
the environment), phytochemistry (biochemistry of plants), cell biology,
genetics, biophysics and molecular biology
describes the information processing rate in plants, which
are mostly based on hormones instead of neurons like in all major animals
(except sponges). Plants can to some degree communicate with each other
and there are even examples of one-way-communication with animals.
Bioinformatics for Plant Biotechnology
Life of Plants
Wild Edible Plant Identifier App
Environmental Awareness Books
That Wouldn't Die (w/Robert Krulwich)
Information on Plant Protection Products
Garden Hasn't Been Watered in Over 40 Years
Environmental Preservation Ideas
Summer Rayne Oaks
keeps over 500 plants with 150 Types alive inside of her Williamsburg
1,200 foot Apartment
Royal Botanic Garden
are 391,000 vascular plant species known to science, with an
average of 2,000 new ones being discovered and named each year.
21 percent of global plant species are currently threatened with
(Study of the
Air is a
mixture of 21% oxygen, 78% nitrogen, and approximately 1% other trace
gases, primarily argon;Earth
is the global sum of all ecosystems.
is the sphere of
is the state of the atmosphere, to the degree
that it is hot or cold, wet or dry, calm or stormy, clear or cloudy. Most
weather phenomena occur in the troposphere
just below the stratosphere. Weather refers to day-to-day temperature and
precipitation activity, whereas climate is the term for the statistics of
atmospheric conditions over longer periods of time. When used without
qualification, "weather" is generally understood to mean the weather of
Air Quality Report
is an organic compound that
contains only carbon, chlorine, and fluorine, produced as volatile
derivative of methane, ethane, and propane.
This Website is Hosted on Servers that are Powered by 100% Wind
is one of the two major sub-fields of geography. Physical geography is
that branch of natural science which deals with the study of processes and
patterns in the natural environment like the
, hydrosphere, biosphere,
and geosphere, as opposed to the cultural or built environment, the domain
of human geography.
Art made of the Air we Breathe: Emily Parsons-Lord
Air is the combination of the invisible gases that
envelop the Earth, attracted by the Earth's gravitational pull. That air
that you just exhaled
, you enriched a hundred times in
roughly five liters of air per breath, 17 breaths
of the 525,600 minutes per year, comes to approximately
45 million liters of air, enriched 100 times in carbon dioxide, just for
you. Now, that's equivalent to about 18 Olympic-sized swimming pools.
. It's from about 300 to 350 million years ago
an era known as the time of the giants. So for the first time in the
history of life, lignin evolves. That's the hard
stuff that trees are
made of. So trees effectively invent their own trunks at this time, and
they get really big, bigger and bigger, and pepper the Earth, releasing
oxygen, releasing oxygen, releasing oxygen, such that the oxygen levels
are about twice as high as what they are today. And this rich air supports
massive insects -- huge spiders and dragonflies with a wingspan of about
65 centimeters. To breathe, this air is really clean and really fresh. It
doesn't so much have a flavor, but it does give your body a really subtle
kind of boost of energy. It's really good for hangovers.
, the air in the bubble has 4% to 5% by volume more carbon
dioxide and 4% to 5% by volume less oxygen than was inhaled. Your exhaled
air is typically composed of: 78.04% nitrogen. 13.6% – 16% oxygen.
Plants that Purify Indoor Air
is a mixture of gaseous chemical elements and compounds
used for respiration
. Air is the most common, and only natural, breathing
gas - but a range of pure gases or mixtures of gases are used in breathing
equipment and enclosed habitats such as scuba equipment, surface supplied
diving equipment, recompression chambers, submarines, space suits,
spacecraft, medical life support and first aid equipment, high-altitude
mountaineering and anaesthetic machines. Oxygen
is the essential component for any
gas, at a partial pressure of
between roughly 0.16 and 1.60 bar
ambient pressure. The oxygen is usually the only metabolically active
component unless the gas is an anaesthetic mixture. Some of the oxygen in
the breathing gas is consumed by the metabolic processes, and the inert
components are unchanged, and serve mainly to dilute the oxygen to an
appropriate concentration, and are therefore also known as diluent gases.
Most breathing gases therefore are a mixture of oxygen and one or more
inert gases. Other breathing gases have been developed to improve on the
performance of ordinary air by reducing the risk of decompression
sickness, reducing the duration of decompression stops, reducing nitrogen
narcosis or allowing safer deep diving. A safe
for hyperbaric use has three essential features: it
must contain sufficient oxygen to support life, consciousness and work
rate of the breather. It must not contain harmful gases. Carbon monoxide
and carbon dioxide
are common poisons which
may contaminate breathing gases. There are many other possibilities. It
must not become toxic when being breathed at high pressure such as when
underwater. Oxygen and nitrogen are examples of gases that become toxic
under pressure. The techniques used to fill
with gases other than air are called gas blending. Breathing gases for use
at ambient pressures below normal atmospheric pressure are usually air
enriched with oxygen to provide sufficient oxygen to maintain life and
consciousness, or to allow higher levels of exertion than would be
possible using air. It is common to provide the additional oxygen as a
pure gas added to the breathing air at inhalation, or though a
refers to any gas mixture composed (excepting trace gases) of nitrogen and
oxygen. This includes atmospheric air, which is approximately 78%
nitrogen, 21% oxygen, and 1% other gases, primarily argon.
is a breathing apparatus that absorbs the carbon dioxide of
a user's exhaled breath to permit the rebreathing (recycling) of the
substantially unused oxygen content, and unused inert content when
present, of each breath. Oxygen is added to replenish the amount
metabolised by the user. This differs from an open-circuit breathing
apparatus, where the exhaled gas is discharged directly into the
environment. As a person breathes, the body consumes oxygen and produces
carbon dioxide. Base metabolism requires about 0.25 L/min of oxygen from a
of about 6 L/min, and a fit person working hard may
ventilate at a rate of 95 L/min but will only metabolise about 4 L/min of
oxygen The oxygen metabolised is generally about 4% to 5% of the inspired
volume at normal atmospheric pressure, or about 20% of the available
oxygen in sea level air. Exhaled air at sea level still contains roughly
16% oxygen. Even a small buildup of CO2
the inhaled gas quickly becomes intolerable; if a person tries to directly
rebreathe their exhaled breathing gas, they will soon feel an acute sense
of suffocation, therefore rebreathers must chemically remove the CO2 in a
component known as a carbon dioxide scrubber.
To recognize, categorize and
draw upon certain features of the environment.
comprise the fields of science that involve the
scientific study of living organisms – such as microorganisms, plants,
animals, and human beings – as well as related considerations like
is a branch of science concerned with the
description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on
observational and empirical evidence. Habitat
natural laws are the rules that govern the
structure and behavior of the natural universe
, that the changing
universe at every stage is a product of these laws.
recognizes the work of six young leaders who are making strides
in the environmental movement.
is a branch of natural Science
that studies non-living systems, in contrast to life science. It in turn
has many branches, each referred to as a "physical science", together
called the "physical sciences". However, the term "physical" creates an
unintended, somewhat arbitrary distinction, since many branches of
physical science also study biological phenomena and branches of chemistry
such as organic chemistry.
Outline of Earth Science
is a literary movement that emphasizes
observation and the scientific method in the fictional portrayal of
Limits to Growth
Is the Eco-System our Teacher
Waste to Energy
refers to all economic activity derived
from scientific and research activity focused on biotechnology. In other
words, understanding mechanisms and processes at the genetic and molecular
levels and applying this understanding to creating or improving industrial
is a process whereby larger entities, patterns, and regularities arise
through interactions among smaller or simpler entities that themselves do
not exhibit such properties.
is the world's stock of natural resources,
which includes geology, soils, air, water and all living organisms.
Natural capital assets provide people with a wide range of free goods and
services, often called ecosystem services, which underpin our economy and
society and some of which even make human life possible.
studies the nature of systems—from simple to
complex—in nature, society, and science itself.
the scientific study of the normal function in
Outdoor Courses, Wilderness Schools, Experiential Education
Survival Books and Info
for Edible and Medicinal Wild Plants
relating to the uniformity in a substance or
to purify, mature, and perfect certain objects.
is the study of the structure and function of
biological systems such as humans, animals, plants, organs, fungi, and
cells by means of the methods of mechanics.
is typically conclusions based on repeated
scientific experiments and observations over many years and which have
become accepted universally within the scientific community. The
production of a summary description of our environment in the form of such
laws is a fundamental aim of science. These terms are not used the same
way by all authors.
is the change of minerals or geologic texture.
Global Green Carbon
is the branch of paleontology or paleobiology
dealing with the recovery and identification of plant remains from
geological contexts, and their use for the biological reconstruction of
past environments (paleogeography), and both the evolutionary history of
plants, with a bearing upon the evolution of life in general.
is the study of remains of plants
cultivated or used by man in ancient times, which have survived in
archaeological contexts. Paleoethnobotany is the archaeological sub-field
that studies plant remains from archaeological sites. Basing on the
recovery and identification of plant remains and the ecological and
cultural information available for modern plants, the major research
themes are the use of wild plants, the origins of agriculture and
domestication, and the co-evolution of human-plant interactions.
is the study of changes in climate taken on
the scale of the entire history of Earth. It uses a variety of proxy
methods from the Earth and life sciences to obtain data previously
preserved within things such as rocks, sediments, ice sheets, tree rings,
corals, shells and microfossils. It then uses the records to determine the
past states of the Earth's various climate regions and its atmospheric
system. Studies of past changes in the environment and biodiversity often
reflect on the current situation, specifically the impact of climate on
mass extinctions and biotic recovery.
is the study of the diversification of living
forms, both past and present, and the relationships among living things
refers to responsible use and protection of the
natural environment through conservation and sustainable practices. Aldo
Leopold (1887–1949) championed environmental stewardship based on a land
ethic "dealing with man's relation to land and to the animals and plants
which grow upon it.Environmental
Study shows some Biodiversity Losses can be Reversed
"It's not the strongest of species that survives, nor the most intelligent,
but the one most adaptable to change
About the quote above:
was assuming that there was intelligence and that it was not
intelligent enough to adapt, then I guess it was not so
intelligent after all? If you are not intelligent enough to
adapt, then your not
, just like we are
now. So maybe Charles is just mocking our perceived intelligence, which
doesn't really matter because the message still stands true, you have to
adapt, if not, you die. HP Homophony
"Don't shit where you eat, and Don't shit
where you drink"..meaning, be extremely careful with
sanitation kills thousands everyday.
is the study of ecological processes that
operate in agricultural production systems.
Everything about Farming
Green Schools - Clean Technology Schools
include instruction in sustainable development, geography, environmental
policies, ethics, ecology, landscape architecture, city and regional
planning, economics, natural resources, sociology, and anthropology.
is the consumption of a resource faster than it can be
replenished. Natural resources are commonly divided between renewable
resources and non-renewable resources (see also mineral resource
classification). Use of either of these forms of resources beyond their
rate of replacement is considered to be resource depletion.
is the branch of engineering concerned with the application of scientific
and engineering principles for protection of human populations from the
effects of adverse environmental factors; protection of environments, both
local and global, from the potentially deleterious effects of natural and
human activities; and improvement of environmental quality.
is an emerging study of integrating ecology and
engineering, concerned with the design, monitoring, and
of ecosystems. According to Mitsch (1996) "the design of sustainable
ecosystems intends to integrate human society with its natural environment
for the benefit of both".
includes recycling, renewable energy (wind
power, solar power, biomass, hydropower, biofuels, etc.), information
technology, green transportation, electric motors, green chemistry,
lighting, Greywater, and many other appliances that are now more energy
efficient. It is a means to create electricity and fuels, with a smaller
environmental footprint and minimise pollution.
the scientific study of the relationships that exist between
peoples and plants.
is the process that occurs between a
teacher and student that infuses direct experience with the learning
environment and content. The term is not interchangeable with
experiential learning is a sub-field and operates under the methodologies
of experiential education.
refers to organized efforts to teach how natural environments function,
and particularly, how human beings can manage behavior and ecosystems to
live sustainably. It is a multi-disciplinary field integrating disciplines
such as biology, chemistry, physics, ecology, earth science, atmospheric
science, mathematics, and geography.
is the study of nature by attempting to describe
things in terms of their apparent purpose, directive principle, or goal
refers to organized learning that takes place in
the outdoors. Outdoor
sometimes involve residential or journey
wilderness-based experiences in which students participate in a variety of
adventurous challenges and
such as hiking, climbing, canoeing, ropes courses and
is the Emphasis on learning by doing –
hands-on projects, expeditionary learning, experiential learning
Integrated curriculum focused on thematic units. Integration of
entrepreneurship into education. Strong emphasis on problem solving and
critical thinking. Group work and development of social skills.
Understanding and action as the goals of learning as opposed to rote
knowledge. Collaborative and cooperative learning projects. Education for
social responsibility and democracy
Highly personalized learning
accounting for each individual's personal goals. Integration of community
service and service learning projects into the daily curriculum. Selection
of subject content by looking forward to ask what skills will be needed in
future society. De-emphasis on textbooks in favor of varied learning
resources. Emphasis on lifelong learning and social skills
by evaluation of child's projects and productions.
Children of the Earth
virtue is the only good and that
the essence of virtue
College of Agricultural Engineering
was opened in 1962. It
was closed as a separate entity at the end of 2007 and the land sold for
Environmental Integrity Project
Survival Books and Info
Foraging Wild Foods
Outdoor Gear Check List and Camping List
"Support wildlife, throw a
teaches beasts to know their friends". - (Act II, Scene I).
Learning Outside the Classroom
Nature is everywhere we just need to learn to see it: Emma
(video and interactive text)
are human-built, modified, or engineered
niches of the Anthropocene. They exist in places that have been
altered in structure and function by human agency. Novel
ecosystems are part
of the human environment and niche (including urban, suburban,
and rural), they lack natural analogs, and they have extended an
influence that has converted more than three-quarters of wild
Earth. These anthropogenic biomes include technoecosystems that
are fuelled by powerful energy sources (fossil and nuclear)
including ecosystems populated with technodiversity, such as
roads and unique combinations of soils called technosols.
Vegetation associations on old buildings or along field boundary
stone walls in old agricultural landscapes are examples of sites
where research into novel ecosystem ecology is developing.
is the process in which natural habitat
is rendered unable to support the species present. In this
process, the organisms that previously used the site are
displaced or destroyed, reducing biodiversity.
Biodiversity falls below ‘safe levels’ globally
refers to the variety and variability of life
on Earth. One of the most widely used definitions defines it in terms of
the variability within species, between species and between ecosystems. It
is a measure of the variety of organisms present in different ecosystems.
This can refer to genetic variation, ecosystem variation, or species
variation (number of species) within an area, biome, or planet.
Terrestrial biodiversity tends to be greater near the equator, which seems
to be the result of the warm climate and high primary productivity.
Biodiversity is not distributed evenly on Earth. It is richest in the
tropics. Marine biodiversity tends to be highest along coasts in the
Western Pacific, where sea surface temperature is highest and in the
mid-latitudinal band in all oceans. There are latitudinal gradients in
species diversity. Biodiversity generally tends to cluster in hotspots,
and has been increasing through time, but will be likely to slow in the
future. The number and variety of plants, animals and other organisms that
exist is known as biodiversity. It is an essential component of nature and
it ensures the survival of human species by providing food, fuel, shelter,
medicines and other resources to mankind. The richness of biodiversity
depends on the climatic conditions and area of the region. All species of
plants taken together are known as flora and about 300,000 species of
plants are known to date. All species of animals taken together are known
as fauna which includes birds, mammals, fish, reptiles, insects,
crustaceans, molluscs, etc..Biology
is a biogeographic region with
significant levels of
that is under threat from humans.
Dangers Facing Our Planet
is a fact that a biological system
individual and population – is different over space. It is the
base of the Genetic variability
of different biological systems
is when a process variable or variables has been
changed and the system has not yet reached a steady
state. A transient
process is a process in which process variables change over time.
Transient analysis is a study of transient processes.
is the response of a
to a change from an
or a steady state. The
transient response is not necessarily tied to "on/off" events but to any
event that affects the equilibrium of the system. The impulse response and
step response are transient responses to a specific input (an impulse and
a step, respectively).
is when the variables (called state variables) which
define the behavior of the system or the process are unchanging in time.
are the effects that the organisms in a community have on one another. In
the natural world no organism exists in absolute
, and thus every organism must interact with the environment
and other organisms. An organism's interactions with its environment are
fundamental to the survival of that organism and the functioning of the
ecosystem as a whole.
that applies to biological systems. A network is any system with sub-units
that are linked into a whole
, such as species
units linked into a whole food web. Biological networks provide a
mathematical representation of connections found in ecological,
evolutionary, and physiological studies, such as neural networks. The
analysis of biological networks with respect to human diseases has led to
the field of network medicine. Soil
Carbon Dioxide CO2 Concentrations
"Every child must know that we are still learning and that we
still have much to learn. Our future depends on you learning
what people have still not learned."
"Remember, it's our
responsibility to maintain
our natural environment and preserve
what we have left. The reason why we have parks and open land is
because we learned how extremely valuable our natural
world is to us. But too many people do not fully understand the
value of our natural world. So we have to find ways to spread
this message and offer free information and knowledge so that
people can educate themselves and learn what ever they need to
learn. This way, people can make good choices that would
continually improve their lives, as well as learn more and more
about all the other possibilities that life offers us."
"The only resource that this
world is short of is intelligence, and intelligence is one
resource that we have the power to create ourselves."
Caring about People and the Planet can be Dangerous
185 Environmental activists across 16 countries were
murdered last year in 2015
trying to protect their communities
and protecting forest, water, and land rights from illegal
mining, logging, palm oil agriculture and industrial development
Everyone person on this planet has benefited from people who were
activists. All the freedoms we have came from activists, yet we still have
ignorant criminals who are blinded by money
much so, they can no longer see the truth.
Wildlife biologists can now cover vastly more territory with the
help of listening devices, camera traps, drones
remote DNA testing, and other technological timesavers.
is development that meets the needs of the present without
compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own
"If there's a more efficient way of doing
something then you should do it. We should be thriving
from our use of energy, and not waste our energy and poison ourselves
because of it."
"I'm seeing a lot of advancements but not a lot
of improvements. Why?"
"Working with the land
is a lot easier then working against it"
"When things are are used by many people in many places all over
the world continuously, they can have an incredible impact on the earth
and it's inhabitants. So we must make sure that the things we use a lot of
have Positive effects, because if they have negative effects the results
will be catastrophic, as clearly seen."
By adding the value of the various services that
perform, such as providing
, an EU-commissioned study
estimates that the annual cost of forest loss is between $2
trillion and $5 trillion, which is not including the loss of
humans or animal life. Air pollution now kills around seven
million people every year globally.
Trees help people live
longer, healthier, happier lives
. Trees and forests help remove
17 tonnes of air pollution, physically intercepting particulate
matter and absorbing gasses through their leaves.
Land and Forest Conservation Websites
15.3 billion trees are cut down each
year, 45% of all trees on
planet earth have been cut down.
Trees create oxygen
, sequester carbon,
purify the air of
, and help keep temperatures cooler.
How Trees Talk to Each Other: Suzanne Simard
Green Belt Movement
natural, wild, maintenance free, native forests.
Global Forest Watch
Plant for the Planet
Plant for the Planet Billion Tree Campaign
Trees for a
A tree or a group of trees is planted in an area of a U.S.
Forest that's been damaged by fire. Information about where the tree is
located and photos of it are posted online. The recipient of your gift can
go online and learn about the tree. They can even use a map to find it and
plan a trip to visit it!
Norway commits to zero deforestation and has become the first
country in the world to commit to zero deforestation
i Tree Tools
for Assessing and Managing Community Forests.
Want Your City to Thrive? Look to Its Trees
Bombed Judi Bari?
(2012) Aired: 03/02/2012 | 1 hr. 32 min.
who bombed judi bari.com
Over 64,000 trees were planted
in 15 minutes
, breaking the world record for the most trees
planted simultaneously. 7,000 people helped to plant
the Philippines province of
. Forests in the
Philippines are considered to be one of the ten most threatened
forests in the world.
reports that these threatened forests store over 25
. Meanwhile, 15% of the world's
emissions are due to
. China has reportedly
increased its forests by an unprecedented three million
per year. But many conservationists are concerned that
are still disappearing as new forests are
deliberately planted. As
Langrand explains, "Forests must be seen as more than just a
group of trees."
1000s in Ecuador pitch in to plant nearly 650,000 trees in One
plans to plant 2 billion trees
along the nation’s highway.
Become ONE: Blind Man and friend with No Arms plant 10.000 trees
in 10 years in China
Newly grown tropical forests can capture harmful carbon from the
atmosphere at a rate up to 11 times faster than older forests
We need to actively promote protection of old-growth forests as
well as to promote natural forest regeneration.
Nature can provide services on par with traditional
infrastructure. On average, forests make up just 40 percent of
urban watersheds, with 30 percent of the area being used for
crops and 20 percent for pasture. Replanting forests,
changing farming practices to limit runoff.
Tropical forests covering an area
nearly the size of India are set to be destroyed in the next 35
Global DevelopmentChina is building a belt of trees
that will stretch some 2,800
miles across north and northwest China in an attempt to stop the
advance of the
. Overall, the country has planted 13 million
hectares (32 million acres) of new forest since 2008, according
to the State Forestry Administration. Global Forest Watch, China
has been suffering a net loss of about 523,248 hectares (1.29
million acres) of tree cover a year since 2011. Since 2008, that
yearly amount appears to be dropping.
How pervasive is biotic homogenization in human-modified
tropical forest landscapes. The paper suggests that creating
a network of forest reserves nestled inside agricultural areas
would be the most beneficial way to preserve biodiversity. These
would include a mix of undisturbed and partially degraded
National Forest Management Act of 1976
many Trees can be grown in one acre depends on the space between
each tree, and the type of tree.
1'x1' foot spacing can have 43,560 trees
- 10'x10' 436 trees - 30'x30' 48 trees -
250'x250' 1 tree
How to Save Forests
Growing the Wood Raw Material
Flourishing faster: How to make Trees Grow Bigger and Quicker
Planting is the process of transplanting tree seedlings,
generally for forestry, land reclamation, or landscaping
purpose. It differs from the transplantation of larger trees in
arboriculture, and from the lower cost but slower and less
reliable distribution of tree seeds.
Tree Planting Tips
Native Forest Council
Native Forest Action
Tree Relocation Machine (youtube)
Relocation University of Michigan (youtube)
Enhanced Tree Removal / Enhanced Tree Trimming by Electric
Tree Removal (youtube)
Fall Photos -
Living near trees can make you feel healthier.
Neighborhood greenspace and health in a large urban center
Nature experience reduces rumination and subgenual prefrontal
Brodmann area 25
11 scientifically proven reasons you should be spending less
time in the office
Bioengineering Trees to be more resilient.
American Chestnut for Restoration
Transgenic American chestnuts show enhanced blight resistance
and transmit the trait to T1 progeny
Plant a Tree in someone's Memory:
Seeds of Life
Plant a Memory
"There is something special when the tree leaves finally come
out, it's like a breath of fresh air and a burst of energy."
Recognizing Hazardous Defects In Trees
Saving the Ash Tree
Fraxinus is a genus of flowering plants in the olive and
lilac family, Oleaceae. It contains 45–65 species of usually
medium to large trees, mostly deciduous though a few subtropical
species are evergreen. The genus is widespread across much of
Europe, Asia and North America.
Rapid Ohi'a Death | Ceratocystis Wilt of Ohi'a Native Hawaiian
Sudden Oak Death Pathogen
Blight - Plant
Potential effect of
Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) on urban
trees in the United States. Beetle could have killed a third of
the trees in cities nationwide, at a loss of up to $669 billion.
New Aerial Survey Identifies More Than 100 Million Dead Trees in
There used to be 4 billion American
chestnut trees, but they all disappeared.
Phytophthora ramorum is the oomycete plant pathogen known to
cause the disease sudden oak death (SOD). The disease kills oak
and other species of trees and has had devastating effects on
the oak populations in California and Oregon, as well
as being present in Europe. Symptoms include bleeding cankers on
the tree's trunk and dieback of the foliage, in many cases
eventually leading to the death of the tree.
Chemicals from wood waste: Vitamins, medication, solvents,
crop protection products and polymers cost-effective,
environmentally friendly and safe manner -- using bacteria to
The Amazon Rain Forest is the
Largest Rain Forest in the World.
1.5 million square miles (1.7 billion-acre
jungle), covering about 40 percent of
Makes up more than half of the
Rainforest remaining on the
planet, producing over 20 percent of the world’s oxygen
and home to more than one-third of all living species in the
world. It is the source of one-fifth of the Earth’s river water.
The Amazon is situated in nine countries:
Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru,
Suriname and Venezuela. The
pushes so much water into the Atlantic Ocean that, more than one
hundred miles at sea off the mouth of the river, one can dip
fresh water out of the ocean. The volume of water in the Amazon
river is greater than the next eight largest rivers in the world
combined and three times the flow of all rivers in the United
Global Forest Watch 2.0
Global Forest Watch
DETERring Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon
and Law Enforcement.
Detection of Deforestation (DETER) is a satellite-based system
that enables frequent and quick identification of deforestation
hot spots, greatly enhanced monitoring and targeting capacity,
making it easier for law enforcers to act upon areas with
illegal deforestation activity.
vs. the Amazon - Full Documentary // Empire Files (youtube -
1 hour) Abby launches a deep investigation into Chevron Texaco's
intentional spilling of 19 billion gallons of oil and waste in
Ecuador's pristine Amazon.
Antonio donato Nobre: The Magic of the Amazon
(video and text)
Mark Plotkin: what the people of the Amazon know that you don't (video
Amazônia Eterna The Amazon rainforest is a vast laboratory
for experiments that are unveiling new relationships among human
beings, corporations and natural heritage that is crucial for
life on the planet. (12/05/2012 | 1 hr. 23 min.)
With more than 80 percent of
Earth's forests already destroyed,
Nations Environment Program recently released an alarming
report indicating organized crime is responsible for 50 to 90
illegal Logging in tropical countries in the Amazon basin,
Central Africa and South East Asia.
illegal Logging info
Smits: How to Restore a Rainforest (youtube)
Almost 19 million
Forests are destroyed every year due to
illegal Logging? This is a direct result of people being
forced to do horrible things by way of
Economic Slavery and also a result of peoples ignorance and
lack of education about Land Management. Land does not need to
be cleared for our survival, it's the other way around. On top
of that the planet is losing almost 20 million hectares of
Arable Land due to degradation and bad Land Management and
practices? So you see the the main problem still exists,
economic slavery and peoples lack of education and information
Environmental Management Scheme
Sustainable Land Management
Scientists estimate that
humans burn an
average of 175 million acres of forest and grassland every year,
often to make room for agriculture and living space.
Deep In The Amazon, An Unseen Battle Over The Most Valuable
Trees rubber tappers
Save Ecuador's Indigenous Peoples Ancestral Lands that includes
Rain Forests from Destructive Oil Drilling
World in tree density: dark green represents a million or more
trees per square kilometer. There are fewer trees in the lighter
shades of green. The buff color has very few trees and darkest
brown represents areas with no trees.
A team of 38 scientists finds that the planet is home to
3.04 trillion trees, blowing away the previously estimate of 400
billion. That means, the researchers say, that there are 422
trees for every person on Earth.
More Earth Info
Conifers evolved before the
Broadleaf Trees. Conifers produce their seeds in woody
Broadleafs produce their seeds in more fleshy fruits.
Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Coniferous = bearing pinecones, most coniferous are
Needle = a thin, long modified leaf typical of conifers
Evergreen = retaining leaves year round, therefore remaining
Softwood = usually refers to coniferous trees.
Broadleaf = a thin, broad leaf structure with a good deal of
Deciduous = the dropping of a part that is no longer needed, in
this case leaves.
Hardwood = another commonly used word for deciduous, broadleaf
Oil Spills and Leaks Happen Daily across U.S.
Each year there are more than 10,000 spills of oil and
hazardous substances, according to federal estimates, many that get into
. A six month CBS News
investigation found that spills of crude oil and
last year alone were three times the amount of
the Exxon Valdez spill. CBS News collected reported incidents for 2010 at wells and
pipelines from three federal agencies and 23 of 33 oil and gas
producing states. Not counting the BP disaster, we found
at least 6,500 spills, leaks, fires or explosions nationwide - that's
18 a day. Overall, at least 34 million gallons of crude oil and other
potentially toxic chemicals were spilled. That's triple the size of
the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill. Poisoned Drinking Water
Dead wildlife, destroyed land, illness, injury, and people being forced from their homes.
is an illegal
act which directly harms
the environment. Lawsuit
Pipeline Spills, 1986-2016
in the last 30 years, there have been over
8,700 liquid pipeline spills, averaging nearly one every
million barrels (176 million gallons) that have spilled in the last 30
Dakota Access Pipeline Project
Bakken Pipeline Map
Neil Young's New
Anti-Pipeline Protest Song Dakota Access Pipeline supports the Standing
Rock Sioux Reservation.
is remaining after the greater
part or quantity has gone. Relating to or indicating a remainder.
Something left after other parts have been taken away.
The Big Fix - BP
Oil Spill Cover up
On April 22, 2010
rig sank into the
Gulf of Mexico
creating the worst
oil spill in
205 million gallons
of crude oil and
over 1.8 millions
into the sea.
OIL & WATER (full
documentary HD) oil
Chevron vs. the
Amazon - Full Documentary // Empire Files
(youtube - 1 hour) Abby
launches a deep investigation into Chevron Texaco's intentional spilling
of 19 billion gallons of oil and waste in Ecuador's pristine Amazon.
The Empire Files:
The Tyranny of Big
Son of a Snake Oil
How Big Oil
Conquered the World
(youtube, 1:11 mins.)
NASA CSI: On the
Trail of a Hazy
in the lower
detected by the
aboard the Aura
Water Don't Mix
Aging oil pipelines threaten the pristine waters of
Straits of Mackinac
in the Great lakes.
amphipods living in the Mariana Trench
were contaminated at levels similar to those found in crabs living in
waters fed by one of China's most polluted rivers. The amphipods were
contaminated with PCBs —
used for decades in industry, as well as other
industrial pollutants known as persistent organic pollutants.
identify movement of
spills or toxic
releases in rivers,
ocean and air.
Oil demand in 2012 was 89.17 million
barrels per day worldwide, an increase of 1.07 million barrels
per day over 2011. Demand is projected to increase to 90.11
million barrels per day in 2013 and 91.46 million barrels per
day in 2014.
Energy Information Administration
CBS News Video
Oil Spill Cleanup
What BP Doesn't want
you to know about
the 2010 Gulf Spill
rain or any other form of precipitation that is unusually acidic, meaning
that it possesses elevated levels of hydrogen ions (low pH). It can have
harmful effects on plants, aquatic animals and infrastructure. Acid rain
is caused by emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide, which react
with the water molecules in the atmosphere to produce acids. Some
governments have made efforts since the 1970s to reduce the release of
sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide into the atmosphere with positive
results. Nitrogen oxides can also be produced naturally by lightning
strikes, and sulfur dioxide is produced by volcanic eruptions. Acid rain
has been shown to have adverse impacts on forests, freshwaters and soils,
killing insect and aquatic life-forms, causing paint to peel, corrosion of
steel structures such as bridges, and weathering of stone buildings and
statues as well as having impacts on human health.
What Ever Happened
To Acid Rain?
8 Fossil Fuel Companies Responsible for 15% of
Global Carbon Emissions Since 1850s
Royal Dutch Shell
Climate Accountability Scorecard Ranking
The Sleepy Texan
Town Suffering In
The Shadow Of Big
Global Alliance on
Health and Pollution
polluted soil, water
and air (both
ambient) killed 8.4
million people in
statistics show that
56 million people
died in 2012 —
that’s every person
who passed away on
the planet, whether
from car accidents,
suicides, old age,
failures, war or any
number of other
nearly one in seven
Other things that
It cost a "staggering"
$76.6 billion to
cover the health
expenses of American
children who were
sick because of
according to new
research by senior
scientists at the
Mount Sinai School
of Medicine in New
Warning: Mafia May
caused by some form
California could save $7.2 billion in healthcare costs -- and prevent more
than 400 premature deaths -annually if the state adopts a 64 miles-
per-gallon equivalent fuel economy standard, according to a report
released Tuesday by the American Lung Assn. in California.
is the introduction of contaminants into the
natural environment that cause adverse change. Pollution can take the
form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or light.
Pollutants, the components of pollution, can be either foreign
substances/energies or naturally occurring contaminants. Pollution is
often classed as point source or nonpoint source pollution.
is the deterioration of the environment through depletion of resources
such as air, water and soil; the destruction of ecosystems; habitat
destruction; the extinction of wildlife; and pollution. It is defined as
any change or disturbance to the environment perceived to be deleterious
or undesirable. As indicated by the I=PAT equation, environmental impact
(I) or degradation is caused by the combination of an already very large
and increasing human population (P), continually increasing economic
growth or per capita affluence (A), and the application of resource
depleting and polluting technology (T). Environmental degradation is one
of the ten threats officially cautioned by the High-level Panel on
Threats, Challenges and Change of the United Nations. The United Nations
International Strategy for Disaster Reduction defines environmental
degradation as "The reduction of the capacity of the environment to meet
social and ecological objectives, and needs". Environmental degradation is
of many types. When natural habitats are destroyed or natural resources
are depleted, the environment is degraded. Efforts to counteract this
problem include environmental protection and environmental resources
The Hidden Cost of Fossil Fuels
The Secret of the Seven Sisters -
Special series - Al Jazeera
Seven Sisters Oil Companies
The Biggest and Most Damaging Disasters in Human History
Boom: North America's Explosive Oil-By-Rail Problem
Lists Pollution Disasters around the World.
Just because people use products that are made from oil does not
mean we don't have other choices and options. Just because some
criminal takes away our choices and options does not mean that
options don't exist anymore. When they are people living a life
that you believe doesn't exist, that means that there is
choices. People say that we are dependent on oil, but that is
clearly a lie. That is like saying that the drug addict needs
drugs, or that the soldier needs people to kill. To say that we
need oil for jobs is a lie, that's like saying that we need war
to live, or that we need to poison the environment, and that we
need to kill people and destroy peoples health just because it creates jobs.
Ignorance is killing us
Air pollution kills
an estimated 7 million people worldwide every year
. 4.3 million
deaths in 2012 caused by
indoor air pollution
, mostly people
using wood and coal stoves in Asia.
there were about 3.7 million deaths from outdoor air pollution
in 2012, of which nearly 90 percent were in developing
9 out of 10 or 92 Percent Of The World's Population Breathes Substandard
Nearly 600,000 Children under 5 Die From Breathing Toxic Air Every
People who live close to high-traffic roadways
face a higher risk of
than those who live
Air Quality Alerts
Indoor Air Quality Monitors
Household Air Pollution and Health
Study shows how Air Pollution fosters Heart Disease
Pollution Particles Linked To
Found In Human Brain: Nanoparticles, linked to
neurodegenerative diseases, are found in the human brain - and appear to
come from an outside source. Video
Alternate Fuel Cars
Association of Clean Air Agencies
reveals 'invisible' air pollution
Causes of Death from Pollution Related Diseases By State in America
More Causes of Death
Health Risks from Wildfires in U.S.
climate change will expose tens of
millions of Americans to high levels of air pollution in the coming
decades. Air pollution from past and projected future wildfires in 561
western counties, and found that by mid-century more than 82 million
people will experience “smoke waves,” or consecutive days with high air
pollution related to Fires
also known as particulate matter (PM) or particulates –
are microscopic solid or liquid matter suspended in the
atmosphere. Suspended particulate matter (SPM). Thoracic and respirable
particles. Inhalable coarse particles, which are [coarse] particles with a
diameter between 2.5 and 10 micrometres (µm). Fine particles with a
diameter of 2.5 µm or less.
PM2.5. PM10. Ultrafine particles.
More than 80% of the world’s urban population lives in areas
where air quality does not meet standards set by the World
Association between neighbourhood air pollution concentrations
and dispensed medication for psychiatric disorders in a large
longitudinal cohort of Swedish children and adolescents.
Nearly 138.5 million Americans, nearly 44 percent, are inhaling
Particulate Matter (PM)
2.5 means microscopic particles
about 25 times thinner than a human hair; they can be dust,
dirt, soot, smoke or liquid droplets.
can trigger asthma attacks.
Clean Air Act
Environmental Justice Screening and Mapping Tool
NASA Satellite Maps Show Human Fingerprint on Global Air Quality
Global Air Quality: the Impact of People and Cities
India's Smog Destroyed Enough Crops In A Year To Feed 94 Million
People, worth an estimated $1.3 billion
The top four the 20 worst polluted cities worldwide are in
India. Delhi is now the most polluted major city.
India has the highest rate of deaths caused by respiratory
disease. Indian air quality standards would save 2.1 billion
If India curbs the pollution and meets its air quality
standards, those 660 million people would add some 3.2 years
onto their lives.
had free rein of Milan's streets Monday during a
six-hour ban on private cars in a bid to alleviate persistent
smog. Health officials say vehicle emissions account for half of
the pollution in Milan and 70 percent in Rome, and that the high
pollution levels have increased reports of acute cardiovascular
disease in recent days.
Pollution levels in Italy's business capital have exceeded
levels considered healthy for more than 30 days straight,
prompting officials to ban private cars from 10 a.m. until 4
p.m. Monday through Wednesday this week.
Rome, which is also battling smog, has been enforcing alternate
day driving based on odd and even numbers on license plates,
while Florence has announced limits on automobile access to the
historic center through New Year's Eve.
Ozone Air Pollution
Ozone PollutionLeaded Gasoline used in piston-engine
Once burned and emitted from the tail of a car or plane,
lead from gasoline
can contaminate not only the air but also
waterways, livestock, crops and soil. What's more, the metal
doesn't dissipate in the environment. The EPA reports increases
concentrations near airports that host piston-engine planes,
including the Santa Monica Airport. The agency also echoes the
U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's warning that
there is no safe level of lead exposure, and it estimates that
people live, and more than 3 million children attend school,
within a kilometer of airports where avgas is used.
supplies over 40 percent of global electricity needs. 1,200 big new coal facilities in 59
countries are proposed for construction, 7,000 coal-fired power
plants, including almost 600 in the US. 7.6 billion tons of coal consumed worldwide last
2 pounds of carbon dioxide emitted for each kilowatt-hour of
electricity generated via coal. 1 billion tons of coal used in
global industrial steel production each year. At the moment
there are Zero alternatives to coal in the industrial
44 degrees Fahrenheit is the potential average global
temperature rise if all remaining coal were burned.
That means we're all dead.
U.S. Coal Production Peaked in 2008
China is the largest emitter of green house gases, more then
Europe and north America combined. China already emits
one-quarter of the world’s greenhouse gases, more than any other
country. 16 million tons of carbon every year. Outdoor air
pollution annually contributes to about 1.2 million premature
deaths in China. 70% of china's energy comes from coal. China
consumes half of the worlds coal. China builds a new coal
burning plant every week. Every second 100 tons of coal are
burned. 3 billion tons a year. But china only uses 1 fifth of
the electricity then the average American. More than
three-quarters of China’s electricity comes from coal. China's
energy demand has tripled in the last 20 years. China Produces
480 tons of garbage every minute. 1 in 5 people live in china.
China sells 35,000 cars a day. China builds 1,800 new cars in
one hour. China has 160 cities with a million people or more.
has over 30 million people. By 2025 will have 10 NYC size
cities. Half of the worlds buildings that are built are built in
Bouts of acrid smog enveloping Beijing prompted authorities in
the Chinese capital to declare two unprecedented "red alerts" in
December 2015 — a warning to the city's 22 million inhabitants
that heavy pollution is expected for more than three days.
A safe level of
airborne particulate matter
air quality index
, measures 25 micrograms per cubic meter.
Beijing's index hit 608, that is more than 24 times the safe
level estimated by the
Air Quality Reports
China, 4,400 people die from air
pollution each day, according to an August 2015 study by the
U.S. nonprofit Berkeley Earth.
Science Specials - Green China Rising
(youtube 05/13/2013 |
45 min.)Renewable Clean
Energy Progress Reports
Smog Free Project
More than 46.2 million people (14.7%) in the United States live
in an area with unhealthful year-round levels of particle
Top 10 U.S. Cities Most Polluted
by Short-Term Particle Pollution
1. Bakersfield, California
2. Fresno-Madera, California
3. Visalia-Porterville-Hanford, California
4. Modesto-Merced, California
5. Fairbanks, Alaska
6. Salt Lake City-Provo-Orem, Utah
7. Logan, Utah-Idaho
8. San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, California
9. Los Angeles-Long Beach, California
10. Missoula, Montana
Top 10 U.S. Cities Most Polluted
by Year-Round Particle Pollution
1. Bakersfield, California
2. Visalia-Porterville-Hanford, California
3. Fresno-Madera, California
4. Los Angeles-Long Beach, California
5. El Centro, California
6. Modesto-Merced, California
7. San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, California
8. Pittsburgh-New Castle-Weirton, Pennsylvania-Ohio-West
9. Harrisburg-York-Lebanon, Pennsylvania
10. Louisville-Jefferson County-Elizabethtown-Madison,
Top 10 Most Ozone-Polluted Cities
1. Los Angeles-Long Beach, California
2. Bakersfield, California
3. Visalia-Porterville-Hanford, California
4. Fresno-Madera, California
5. Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale, Arizona
6. Sacramento-Roseville, California
7. Modesto-Merced, California
8. Denver-Aurora, Colorado
9. Las Vegas-Henderson, Nevada-Arizona
10. Fort Collins, Colorado
Carbon Capture - CO2
is a carbon atom
covalently double bonded
to two oxygen atoms
. A colorless
and odorless gas that is vital to life on Earth. Carbon dioxide is a
significant greenhouse gas. Since the Industrial Revolution, anthropogenic
emissions - including the burning of carbon-based fossil fuels and land
use changes (primarily deforestation) - have rapidly increased its
concentration in the atmosphere, leading to global warming. Carbon dioxide
also causes ocean acidification because it dissolves in water to form
worldwide oxygen content declined by more than 2% between 1960
Carbon Capture and Storage
is the process of capturing waste
carbon dioxide (CO2) from large point sources, such as fossil
fuel power plants, transporting it to a storage site, and
depositing it where it will not enter the atmosphere, normally
an underground geological formation.
Blowing Bubbles to Catch Carbon Dioxide
using a bio-inspired liquid
membrane that could make clean coal a reality.
We can convert
. More carbon resides in soil than in the
atmosphere and all plant life combined; there are 2,500 billion
tons of carbon in soil, compared with 800 billion tons in the
atmosphere and 560 billion tons in plant and animal life. And
compared to many proposed geoengineering fixes,
storing carbon in soil is simple
: It’s a matter of returning
carbon where it belongs. Through
, a plant draws carbon out of the air to form
Bolstering soil microbiology by adding beneficial microbes to
stimulate the soil cycles where they have been interrupted by use of
insecticides, herbicides, or fertilizers. Soil Knowledge
or carbon assimilation refers to the
conversion process of inorganic carbon (carbon dioxide) to
organic compounds by living organisms.
is the process involved in carbon capture and
the long-term storage of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2).
Study finds increased ocean acidification due to human activities
anthropogenic carbon in the northeast Pacific means weaker shells for many
When you take your next breath
, you'll be breathing in 42 percent more carbon dioxide than if you were
breathing in 1750.
how I'm supposed to Breathe with No Air
The concentration of CO2 reached 400 ppm for the
first time in recorded history in 2013
Oxygen Levels Decreasing
Carbon Dioxide Passes 400 PPM Threshold. never to return below it in our
(every breath you take)
CO2 concentrations of 7% to 10% (70,000 to 100,000 ppm) may
, even in the presence of sufficient oxygen.
Manifesting as dizziness
, headache, visual and hearing
dysfunction, and unconsciousness within a few minutes to an
hour. The physiological effects of acute carbon dioxide exposure
are grouped together under the term
, a subset of
. Symptoms of carbon
include a pressure on your chest, auditory
whoosh — and an unexplained feeling of
3 Molecules of Oxygen are Lost for every 1 CO2 Molecule Produced
. Less oxygen in the atmosphere
allows more sunlight to reach the earth, allowing more moisture
to evaporate, which increases temperatures and the intensity of
is the set of chemical reactions that take place in
chloroplasts during photosynthesis. The cycle is light-independent because
it takes place after the energy has been captured from sunlight.
are chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and other compounds
Acid/Alkaline Balance and the
Immune System: Carbon dioxide, through its conversion to carbonic acid, is
a primary regulator of the acid/alkaline balance
the blood. The body (organs) has several needs for different levels of
pH). A reduction in carbon dioxide shifts the body's
which alters the rate of activity of other biochemical processes. An blood
alkaline state weakens the immune system, thus making the body more
susceptible to viruses and allergies. Higher levels of CO2 also lead to an
immediate drop in blood and extracellular fluid pH levels through the
formation of carbonic acid, thus obliging the hemoglobin to more readily
distribute its oxygen to meet local metabolic requirements. Lower levels
of CO2, as a result of lower metabolism, lead to blood vessel constriction
(e.g. reduction in the diameter of the coronaries) and to higher levels of
blood and extracellular fluid pH (less carbonic acid), thus permitting
oxygen and glucose to go elsewhere where metabolic requirements are
greater. In the simplest of terms, this is the biochemistry of healthy
Vessels: Carbon dioxide in the plasma helps to dilate smooth muscle tissue.
Insufficient carbon dioxide can cause spasms throughout the body,
including the brain, the bronchi, and other smooth muscle tissues. Good
examples are the spasms that take place during asthma attacks and
migraines. The Cardiovascular System: Carbon dioxide helps regulate the
cardiovascular system. Too little carbon dioxide can result in many
problems, including angina, high blood pressure, chest pain, myocardial
infarcts, strokes, and so on. The Digestive System: A direct
relationship exists between the level of carbon dioxide in the body and
the functioning of the digestive glands—especially between the level of
carbon dioxide and the intensity of gastric secretion. Too little carbon
dioxide can eventually lead to poor digestion and eventually to ulcers.
Though having more carbon dioxide in the air yields 10 percent more crops
when compared to plants in normal atmosphere,
they have five to
ten percent reductions in nutrients like iron, zinc, and
. 2 billion people already are getting too little iron
and zinc in their diets, and it's damaging their health.
Ice cores reveal a slow decline in atmospheric Oxygen over the last
Molecular signature shows plants are adapting to increasing atmospheric
, but not humans.Warming
is the study of changes in climate taken on
the scale of the entire history of Earth.
List of countries by carbon dioxide emissions per capita
Climate Change Information and Resources
Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle
is a technology that
uses a high pressure gasifier to turn coal and other carbon
based fuels into pressurized gas—synthesis gas (syngas). It can
then remove impurities from the syngas prior to the power
generation cycle. Some of these pollutants, such as sulfur, can
be turned into re-usable byproducts through the Claus process.
This results in lower emissions of sulfur dioxide, particulates,
mercury, and in some cases carbon dioxide.
is the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is
exchanged among the biosphere, pedosphere, geosphere,
hydrosphere, and atmosphere of the Earth. Along with the
nitrogen cycle and the water cycle, the carbon cycle comprises a
sequence of events that are key to making the Earth capable of
sustaining life; it describes the movement of carbon as it is
recycled and reused throughout the biosphere, including carbon
Deep Carbon Observatory
is a global research program designed to
transform understanding of carbon's role in Earth. DCO is a community of
scientists, including biologists, physicists, geoscientists and chemists,
whose work crosses several traditional disciplinary lines to develop the
new, integrative field of deep carbon science. To complement this
research, the DCO’s infrastructure includes public engagement and
education, online and offline community support, innovative data
management, and novel instrumentation development.
Scientists probe underground depths of Earth’s carbon cycle
the fluid of the Earth’s mantle is not in the form of carbon dioxide, but
rather in carbonate and
is a salt of carbonic acid (H2CO3), characterized by the
presence of the carbonate ion, CO2−3.
is a natural or
artificial reservoir that accumulates and stores some
carbon-containing chemical compound for an indefinite period.
The process by which carbon sinks remove carbon dioxide (CO2)
from the atmosphere is known as carbon sequestration.
Earth's upper mantle may be up to 100 trillion
metric tons of carbon dioxide
. There is 1.8 million square
kilometers reservoir of melting carbon under Western United States.
CO2-eating Microalgae as a Biofuel Feedstock
Engineering a More Efficient System for Harnessing Carbon Dioxide
is a technique for solving problems in the
planning of organic syntheses. This is achieved by transforming a target
molecule into simpler precursor structures without assumptions regarding
starting materials. Each precursor material is examined using the same
method. This procedure is repeated until simple or commercially available
structures are reached.
an enzyme involved in the first major step of carbon fixation, a
process by which atmospheric carbon dioxide is converted by
plants and other photosynthetic organisms to energy-rich
molecules such as glucose.
Surveying Rubisco diversity and temperature response to improve
crop photosynthetic efficiency
Discoveries in Rubisco (Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase):
a historical perspective
Diamonds from the sky, approach turns CO2 into valuable products
Capturing Carbon Dioxide From Air
Global CCS Institute
Waste to EnergyCarbon Offsets
A forgotten Space Age technology could change how we grow food:
(video and interactive text)
are organisms that are able to metabolize
molecular hydrogen as a source of energy. An example of
hydrogenotrophy is performed by carbon dioxide reducing
organisms. They utilize CO2 and H2 to produce methane, CH4, by
the following reaction: CO2 + 4H2 → CH4 + 2H2O.
Other hydrogenotrophic metabolic pathways include acetogenesis
and sulfate reduction
to produce renewable methanol from carbon dioxide,
hydrogen, and electricity for energy storage, fuel applications,
and efficiency enhancement.
Breakthrough solar cell captures carbon dioxide and sunlight,
produces burnable fuel
: 1,000-fold improved chemistry leads
to 'artificial leaf' that makes syngas. Solar cell that cheaply
and efficiently converts atmospheric carbon dioxide directly
into usable hydrocarbon fuel, using only sunlight for energy.
Nanostructured transition metal dichalcogenide electrocatalysts
for CO2 reduction in ionic liquid
Cornell scientists convert carbon dioxide, create electricity
Recycling carbon dioxide: U of T researchers efficiently reduce
climate-warming CO2 into building blocks for fuels
Nano-spike catalysts convert carbon dioxide directly into ethanol
High-Selectivity Electrochemical Conversion of CO2 to Ethanol using a
Copper Nanoparticle/N-Doped Graphene Electrode
Chemists create Molecular 'Leaf' that collects and stores Solar Power
without Solar Panels
. Uses light or electricity to convert the
greenhouse gas carbon dioxide into carbon monoxide -- a carbon-neutral
fuel source -- more efficiently than any other method of "carbon
reduction." quest to recycle carbon dioxide in the Earth’s atmosphere into
carbon-neutral fuels and others materials.
Well-Defined Nanographene–Rhenium Complex as an Efficient Electrocatalyst
and Photocatalyst for Selective CO2 Reduction
Go Ever Green
Carbon War Room
Be Green Now
is a white salt, soluble in water
(insoluble in ethanol) which forms a strongly alkaline solution. It can be
made as the product of potassium hydroxide's absorbent reaction with
carbon dioxide. It is deliquescent, often appearing a damp or wet solid.
Potassium carbonate is used in the production of soap and glass.
Low Impact Living
Green Building Ideas
What's the difference between
Rankings Countries Carbon Dioxide Emissions
List of Countries by Carbon Dioxide Emissions
is when Green House Gas
emissions caused by the combustion of fossil fuels are closely related to
the carbon content of the respective fuels, a tax on these emissions can
be levied by taxing the carbon content of fossil fuels at any point in the
product cycle of the fuel.
the method favored by many economists for reducing
global-warming emissions — charges those who emit carbon dioxide (CO2
for their emissions. That charge, called a carbon price, is the amount
that must be paid for the right to emit one tonne of CO2 into the
atmosphere. Carbon pricing usually takes the form either of a carbon tax
or a requirement to purchase permits to emit, generally known as
cap-and-trade, but also called "allowances".
Carbon Dioxide Equivalent
are two related but distinct measures for describing how much global
warming a given type and amount of greenhouse gas may cause, using the
functionally equivalent amount or concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) as
Global warming Potential
is a relative measure of how much heat a greenhouse gas traps in the
. It compares the amount of heat trapped by a certain mass of
the gas in question to the amount of heat trapped by a similar mass of
carbon dioxide. A GWP is calculated over a specific time interval,
commonly 20, 100 or 500 years. Air Pollution
is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiation within the
thermal infrared range. This process is the fundamental cause of the
greenhouse effect. The primary greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere are
water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone. Without
greenhouse gases, the average temperature of Earth's surface would be
about −18 °C (0 °F), rather than the present average of 15 °C (59 °F). In
the Solar System, the atmospheres of Venus, Mars and Titan also contain
gases that cause a greenhouse effect. Human activities since the beginning
of the Industrial Revolution (taken as the year 1750) have produced a 40%
increase in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide, from 280 ppm
in 1750 to 400 ppm in 2015. This increase has occurred despite the uptake
of a large portion of the emissions by various natural "sinks" involved in
the carbon cycle. Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions (i.e.,
emissions produced by human activities) come from combustion of fossil
fuels, principally coal, oil, and natural gas, along with deforestation,
soil erosion and animal agriculture. It has been estimated that if
greenhouse gas emissions continue at the present rate, Earth's surface
temperature could exceed historical values as early as 2047, with
potentially harmful effects on ecosystems, biodiversity and the
livelihoods of people worldwide. Recent estimates suggest that on the
current emissions trajectory the Earth could pass a threshold of 2 °C
global warming, which the United Nations' IPCC designated as the upper
limit to avoid "dangerous" global warming, by 2036.
Human Impact on the Environment
anthropogenic impact on the
environment includes impacts on biophysical environments.
Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006
. Assembly Bill AB32 is a
California State Law that fights global warming by establishing
a comprehensive program to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from
all sources throughout the state.
7,000 Underground Methane Permafrost Gas Bubbles in Siberia Are About to
More than 50 million
years ago, when the Earth experienced a series of extreme global warming
events, early mammals responded by shrinking in size. While this mammalian
dwarfism has previously been linked to the largest of these events.
Eocene Thermal Maximum 2
was a transient period of global warming that
occurred approximately 53.7 million years ago (Ma). It appears to be the
second major hyperthermal that punctuated the long-term warming trend from
the Late Paleocene through the early Eocene (58 to 50 Ma). The
hyperthermals were geologically brief time intervals (<200,000 years) of
global warming and massive carbon input. The most extreme and best-studied
event, the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM or ETM-1), occurred
about 1.8 million years before ETM-2, at approximately 55.5 Ma. Other
hyperthermals likely followed ETM-2 at nominally 53.6 Ma (H-2), 53.3
(I-1), 53.2 (I-2) and 52.8 Ma (informally called K, X or ETM-3). The
number, nomenclature, absolute ages and relative global impact of the
Eocene hyperthermals are the source of much current research. In any case,
the hyperthermals appear to have ushered in the Early Eocene Climatic
Optimum, the warmest interval of the Cenozoic Era. They also definitely
precede the Azolla event at about 49 Ma.
Coal Seam Fire
Centralia | 100 Wonders | Atlas Obscura
Rising of Global Coal Fires
and the release of
happens everyday, except we call it
. Pollution has murdered more people and created
more diseases then all wars combined. Billions of dollars are
spent every year in healthcare
to treat all these pollution related diseases. Think about all
the time people and resources that are wasted treating this
disease called pollution, and none for fixing the causes of
pollution, you can't win a war if you are only treating the
disease, you have to find a cure. And improving peoples access
to important information and knowledge is the first step.
Witness : Invisible Threat
Toxins in Products
The real terrorists are the government
agency's that allow big corporations to kill people and to
poison the environment
. They are responsible for more murders,
more attacks on human rights, and poisoning more food, water,
land and air then anything else. And since these criminals own
the media you will never have enough knowledge and information
that is needed to understand what is happening to you, or the
Coal Combustion Waste
EPA’s 1998 Chemical
Hazard Data Availability Study revealed that although nearly
3,000 chemicals have High Production Volume status in the United
States (defined by the EPA as imported or produced at one
million pounds per year or more), complete basic toxicity
profiles (covering acute, sub-chronic, chronic, developmental,
and reproductive toxicity, as well as mutagenicity) were
available for only 7% of these.
Confronting Toxic Chemical Management
Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976
Importing and Exporting Hazardous Chemicals
It's not what you believe
The question is do you understand knowledge and information? Do
you understand research and historical evidence? Do you know the
difference between a fact and an opinion
? So it does not matter
what you believe, what matters is
what you know
, and can you
prove what you know? If you don't know enough, and if you know
something but have no way of proving it, then what you believe
is useless and irrelevant. You are simply ignorant. So the only
logical answer that you can give is "I don't know enough to have
an opinion on that matter, but if it is true, I can make
adjustments in my life that will guarantee that either way, I am
safe. And these adjustments are good either way, so I can't lose
even if I'm wrong.
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus
According to the EPA, more than half of all
toxic water pollution
in the country comes from coal-fired power plants.
List of Hazardous Waste
Lipstick on a Pig
Radioactive Isotopes by half-life
Hazardous Waste in the United States
and their residues causes farmworkers to suffer more
chemical-related injuries and illnesses than any other workforce
"There are many
toxins in our foods, in our homes and in our environment. If you
don't stand up for healthier products and a healthier
environment, then you will have to get use to eating poison and
getting diseases, like cancer."
"How can we be an accessory to the
worlds largest mass murder in our history. People seem
comfortable with knowing their life is ending, but they have no
compassion for the millions of lives that they are responsible
for killing. How did we become so disconnected?..So many people
have blood on their hands, some people don't even know it and
others know it but ignore it."
"Humans are killing
the planet, but if we combine our efforts and make better
decisions together, humans can save the plane and save the lives
of millions of people.
The Choice is ours
"Money is just one of
many tools that humans have. And when it comes to solving a
problem you will need more then just money to solve it. Money
doesn't solve problems, people solve problems."
Underwater Noise Pollution
"Mountains don't grow back, besides that, you have nothing
to show for the energy you used except 1,000's of acres of
poison ground and water that will last 10's of thousands of
years. This is a horrific crime and a total waste of resources,
land and people."
Could you be evil and not even know it
course, that is why improving education is a must, but just in
case, here's the prayer; "We're taking back
and all the other
, the people you refer to as your
so called friends, and we will let them know that you are truly
the enemy and that it would be in their best interest if they
would return to heaven to help us end your insanity instead of
fueling it, because everyone knows that this will ultimately end
badly for everyone, and everything."
The Eco-System is our Teacher
And this teacher is clearly
showing us the way to survive and to sustain a Happy and Healthy Life Style. This knowledge is
The Natural Beauty of the Great Outdoors in Perfect Harmony
National Parks are a
beautiful reminder of what God was doing for hundreds of
millions of years before humans were even created. Just think
about it, hundreds of millions of years creating magnificent
mountains, beautiful oceans, streams and rivers, in a perfect
that has built to sustain itself for millions of years, living
in harmony with all kinds of amazing life forms, to roam her
land, to fly through her skies and to swim in her seas.
Evolution or Intelligent Design
I couldn’t even begin to imagine a greater place then earth, and
we can see hundreds millions of light years away. Even if there
were another living planet, I doubt it would be as nice as
Nature is more
then just visual it’s a feeling of Serenity, Tranquility,
Peacefulness, Harmony and Calm. If you lose this feeling it
means that you are simply lost and out of touch.
It's like the
Six degrees of Separation
, everybody in one way or another
is related to
It’s easy to
describe how beautiful our earth is, especially now with photos
and video, but when try to describe what you feel when you see a
National Park, like Glacier National Park in Wyoming for
instance, it’s really hard to find the words that do it justice,
it’s like trying to describe life. It’s has to be the oldest
living feeling in our human history. Knowing that millions of
eyes before you have witnessed what you are seeing, it’s like
being connected to all our ancestors, especially the American
Indians, who have loved this land for thousands of years before
America was even a country. When you read all the beautiful
words that people have written about National Parks, it’s like
you are reading a love story, and that’s what it truly is, a
love story. I have always loved the outdoors and our natural
environment, and when I see it being destroyed, it’s like
someone destroying your home with your family still inside. Even
amongst all the devastation, we are so fortunate that we had
some great people who stood up and fought to protect our natural
Documentary by Ken Burns:
National Parks - America's Best Idea
Humans are the caretakers of this earth, the only living planet
around. So it is everyone’s responsibility to protect our earth
and all its life forms, because believe it or not, our life
actually depends on it.
Mass Extinction Number 6
Scientists estimate that 150-200 species of plant, insect, bird and mammal
every 24 hours. This is nearly 1,000 times the
"natural" or "background" rate and, say many biologists, is
greater than anything the world has experienced since the
vanishing of the dinosaurs nearly 65 Million years ago.
Population of Vertebrate Animals Fell 58% From 1970-2012
. The largest
drop was in freshwater species, which fell on average 81 percent in that
Climate ChangeCanary in a Coal Mine
is something whose sensitivity to adverse conditions makes it a
useful early indicator of such conditions;
something which warns of
the coming of greater danger or trouble by a deterioration in its health
or welfare. Name originated from miners who use to carry down caged
canaries (birds) into the mine tunnels with them. If dangerous gases such
as carbon monoxide collected in the mine, the gases would kill the canary
before killing the miners, thus providing a warning to exit the tunnels
immediately. Except in our case we don't have a way out of our tunnel
because we have only one planet.
"We can either be
part of this miracle called the eco-system or just Go Extinct
like 99.9% of other species have done before. We
just happen to be the only species in the history of our planet
who actually might have a choice."
, the Sixth Extinction or Anthropocene Extinction, is a name
for the ongoing extinction event of species during the present Holocene
epoch (11,700 years before AD 2000) mainly due to human activity.
the New Geological Epoch
is a subdivision of the geologic timescale that is
longer than an age and shorter than a period.
is a system of chronological dating that relates geological
strata (stratigraphy) to time, and is used by geologists, paleontologists,
and other Earth scientists to describe the timing and relationships of
events that have occurred during Earth’s history. The table of geologic
time spans, presented here, agrees with the nomenclature, dates and
standard color codes set forth by the International Commission on
Mass Extinctions in the Past
end of an organism or of a group of
(taxon), normally a species.
The moment of extinction is generally considered to be the death of the
last individual of the species.
is a widespread and rapid decrease in the
biodiversity on Earth. Such an event is identified by a sharp change in
the diversity and abundance of multicellular organisms. It occurs when the
rate of extinction increases with respect to the rate of speciation.
Because the majority of diversity and biomass on Earth is microbial, and
thus difficult to measure, recorded extinction events affect the easily
observed, biologically complex component of the biosphere rather than the
total diversity and abundance of life. Extinction occurs at an uneven
rate. Based on the fossil record, the background rate of extinctions on
Earth is about two to five taxonomic families of marine animals every
million years. Marine fossils are mostly used to measure extinction rates
because of their superior fossil record and stratigraphic range compared
to land organisms.
refers to any end of the world scenario.
are the final events of history, or the ultimate destiny
is where world events achieve a final climax.
A staggering 80 percent of 94 ecological processes
that form the
foundation for healthy marine, freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems
already show signs of distress and response to
. 82 percent of key biological processes necessary for
healthy ecosystems had been impacted by the phenomenon. The changes have
been felt even though the world is just 1 degree Celsius warmer than
The human body is in fact very much like the earths eco-system,
it grows, it regenerates, it sustains, it dies and then it’s
reborn. So in a sense the earth is an extension of our body for
it too keeps us alive. The earth can live without humans but
humans cannot live without the earth.
We are all Connected
The earth is our greatest
teacher. Everything that our earth has taught us, through her
many lessons and examples, has given us the abilities and
knowledge to survive and grow for ten’s of thousands of years.
But for some strange reason humans have stopped paying attention
to their teacher. Blame it on emotions, superficial distractions
or an undisciplined brain. This Attention Deficit is every
humans Achilles Heal. We cannot allow ourselves to be distracted
or blinded from knowing our responsibilities, our priorities and
our own reality. One of earth’s greatest lessons is upon us,
“Learn to Live Together or Die”
. And not just learn to live each
other as humans, but learn to live together with our planet.
There’s nothing more damaging to the human spirit then
suffering. And there’s no need to suffer in order to learn a
lesson. Though survival is a great motivator, motivation without
a clear direction or understanding will always lead to more
confusion and then more suffering. Our fellow humans are
suffering and so is our earth. It’s time that we start paying
more attention to what we need to do and not just what we want
Every living thing on this planet
is in some way affected by the environment in which they live.
The number of environmental effects
that Humans have to deal
with is much higher then any other species on the planet. That
is because we have added most of theses environmental effects
ourselves. We are not totally aware of most of these
environmental effects but we are aware of a lot of them.
Everyone needs to be more informed in order to be aware of these
effects and to be aware if they are contributing to these
effects. Also everyone needs to be more informed in order to
understand and become more aware of the effects that we know
little about. If we minimize our affects on the environment
while at the same time educate ourselves about the ones that we
need to contend with, we will definitely improve life to a
degree because we all know that things have a cumulative effect,
whether they are good or bad.
You have to learn to understand the
what it needs and what it offers.
The earth is our
and she’s the reason why we are all here.
Take care of her and she’ll take care of you.
And please don’t mind the occasional outbursts from
she’s just reminding us that we should never take Life for
Thank You Mom..
Our Souls are
Seeds, our Words are its Soil.
Spreading the seeds of
like a flower spreading its seeds in the wind,
education is the first step so let us begin.
Our evolution is upon us and has already begun,
it's time for all to realize we too can shine like the sun.
To learn more about how earth is our greatest teacher watch the documentary
The universe is our home. The
earth is our teacher and the animals are the students. Since
most animals have been here longer then humans they have become
the teachers assistant. Animals have taught us many things on
how to survive and the reasons to migrate.
There are a lot of things in nature that
make sense, except for humans. Too many Humans are not making
any sense of the world, and when you don't make sense, you do
things that are insensible. Nature understands adaptation,
nature understands trends. And this intelligence is one of the
main reasons why plant life has survived for millions of years.
We also see intelligence in animal life, especially humans. But
too many humans make no sense of the environment, like plants
do. So why are we so disconnected? And not just disconnected
from ourselves, why are we so disconnected from other
intelligent life on our planet? Somehow we got lost, we went of
track. We have the bigger brain, so why don't we use it? Oh ya,
that stupid education problem
that we have. What we think is education, is not education.
Today's education does not help us connect, we must correct
this. We need to be more aware. So the curriculum needs to be
expanded, and this curriculum will be intelligent, because one
of the main goals of this new improved and expanded curriculum,
is to create intelligent people.
about the Environment
Everything is Connected
a human takes there is a
in the world. Most reactions are unnoticed because the
impact is not so obvious, or in some cases not totally in sync
with the action of the human. So even doing nothing will still
have an effect on the world. So it is only logical that every
human understands these effects and understands their
to minimize negative effects and to maximize
positive effects. All actions and inactions have a reaction
is oneness in all things. All things are of a
single underlying substance and reality
, and that there is no true
separation deeper than appearances. Relation
refers to the state or quality of being
. The concept is widely used in various fields such as biology,
network theory, and ecology. It can be further elaborated as all parts of
a system, which interact with one another and cannot be analyzed if
considered alone. Despite subtle differences in meaning, interconnectivity
is often related to the ideas of interconnectedness and
are elements of human culture that must be understood in terms of their
relationship to a larger, overarching system or structure. It works to
uncover the structures
that underlie all the things that humans do, think, perceive, and feel.
is the study of living bodies and the study of
interaction among living organisms on the Earth operating under the
hypothesis that the Earth itself acts as a single living organism.
organisms interact with their
inorganic surroundings on Earth to form a synergistic self-regulating,
complex system that helps to maintain and perpetuate the conditions for
life on the planet.
Gaia is the ancestral mother of all
life: the primal Mother Earth goddess.
is the property of being present everywhere.
concepts that living organisms on a planet
will affect the nature of their environment in order to make the
environment more suitable for life.
is a common personification of nature that focuses on
the life-giving and nurturing
aspects of nature by embodying it, in the
form of the mother.
means "not two" or "one undivided without a second". In
Buddhist Madhyamaka it means that there is no absolute, transcendent
reality beyond our everyday reality, and while things exist, they are
ultimately "empty" of any existence on their own. In Yogacara, it refers
to the idea of nondualism of cognition and that which is cognized; Advaita,
which states that all of the universe is one essential reality, and that
all facets and aspects of the universe are ultimately an expression or
appearance of that one reality.
is the view that attributes
oneness or singleness.
an intrinsic connection between all living things on
the planet, which relates to our world in much the same way as the soul is
connected to the human body.
refers to a vision of cosmos where the part (microcosm) reflects the whole
(macrocosm) and vice versa. It is a feature "present in all esoteric
schools of thinking".
As Above, So Below
whatever happens on any level of reality (physical, emotional,
or mental) also happens on every other level.
Identity of Indiscernibles
is an ontological principle that
states that there cannot be separate objects or entities that have all
their properties in common
. That is,
entities x and y are identical if every predicate possessed by x is also
possessed by y and vice versa; to suppose two things indiscernible is to
suppose the same thing under two names. It states that no two distinct
things (such as snowflakes) can be exactly alike, but this is intended as
a metaphysical principle rather than one of natural science.
equal the same thing
are also equivalent to one another"
Is there such a thing as an
? A physical system so far removed from other systems
that it does not interact with them. Or a thermodynamic system enclosed by
rigid immovable walls through which neither matter nor energy can pass.
The Tree of Life
Cause and Effect
is a place where passengers and cargo are exchanged
between vehicles or between transport modes. Public transport hubs include
train stations, rapid transit stations, bus stops, tram stop, airports and
ferry slips. Freight hubs include classification yards, seaports and truck
terminals, or combinations of these. For private transport, the parking
lot functions as a hub.
Six Degrees of Separation
is the theory that everyone
and everything is six or fewer steps away, by way of introduction, from
any other person in the world, so that a chain of "a friend of a friend"
statements can be made to connect any two people in a maximum of six
Environmental Sayings and Quotes
Eco-Initiative Ideas and Actions
Most things we do have many
, whether the effects come from drugs, foods or
the actions we take. You must know all the side effects involved
in order to determine what the correct action is that you should
to take. You have to understand what each side effect means
separately, and you also have to understand what all the effects
mean as a whole, as well as determine which effect is the most
dangerous and most likely the one that could cause the most
"No man is an island, entire of itself,
is a piece of the continent, a part of the main. If a clod be
washed away by the sea, Europe is the less, as well as if a
promontory were, as well as if a manor of thy friends or of
thine own were, any man's death diminishes me, because I am involved in mankind
and therefore never send to know for whom the bell tolls
it tolls for thee."
literally 100's of important choices and decisions that we make
Changes and Improvements will only come from being aware of
the choices that we need to make everyday and not from the money
we give to charities. Face it,
will never solve our
problems. Being aware of what choices we need to make everyday
is the only sure way, and the only sustainable way, that we will
ever have lasting changes and Improvements. And passing on this
wisdom to people and future generations is the only way that we
will ever free ourselves from making these same mistakes over
and over again. A
Only asking for Money
is not a
A charity must have proven methods that clearly communicates the
ways that people can really help without relying on money.
should never have to depend on
. And the word Volunteer should never be used
when describing what someone needs to do or what society needs
to do. There is a huge difference between 'Work
Doing what's right and doing what's good should never need a
reason or should never need a word to describe it.
should just be a natural reaction that a human has
when a human interacts with the world.
A Charity should mostly be about giving knowledge and
Information and finding everyway possible to help people
understand this knowledge and Information so that people can
take action, make changes and make the right choices. Raising
awareness is more important then raising money as long as the
awareness can be translated into
We must allow time for
improvements and innovation.
Every business should give employees a half hour every
workday, or at least a half hour every week, to work on a community
project or a cause that will benefit people in some way. At the same time
every school should give every teacher, administrator and student a half
hour every school day or school week to work on a community project or a
cause that will benefit people in some way.
You don't have to own
everything, you just have to know where everything is. We can
share a lot of our tools and resources by having a community
rental place, like the ones they have now but better. But you
still have to use our tools resources responsibly for rebuilding
(Results Only Work Environment)
I Care America
Teach for America
Do Patents Encourage Innovation or Stifle
Remember, ending poverty, ending
hunger, providing healthcare, and even with all the greatest
advances and improvements that we make in this world, non of
these will mean nothing if we never increase the quality and
quantity of our education. Give a person a fish you feed them
for a day, teach that person how to fish and you feed them for a
Learn and Learn again until
Lambs become Lions
More Qualified Teachers and
increasing the Quality of Education will definitely help inspire
Stop Business as Usual
Are Zoos, Aquariums, Circuses and Rodeos Educational ?
misinform us as to the social and behavioral needs of
are regarded as exhibits or displays - as
mere commodities. This callous attitude contributes to society’s
failure to protect natural environments because of a false sense
of security -- if it’s in captivity, then it won’t become
extinct; it doesn’t need help. Students do not learn about the
and the history of the
Promoting the development of symbiotic relations between people,
animals the environment.
is studying the biology of animals that are
under the control of humankind.
is the end of an organism or of a group of
organisms (taxon), normally a species. The moment of extinction
generally considered to be the death of the last individual of the
species, although the capacity to breed and recover may have been lost
before this point.
is a species that has a disproportionately
large effect on its environment relative to its abundance. Such species
are described as playing a critical role in maintaining the structure of
an ecological community, affecting many other organisms in an ecosystem
and helping to determine the types and numbers of various other species in
killed an estimated 100,000 elephants across Africa
between 2010 and 2012, a huge spike in the continent's death
rate of the world's largest mammals because of an increased
demand for ivory in China and other Asian nations, a new study
published Monday found. This past January, China crushed six
tons of illegal ivory, and Hong Kong pledged to destroy 28 tons
over the next two years. Maybe we should have sold the ivory and
used the money to pay for more protection of Elephants?
Documenting Asia's Illegal Animal
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild
Fauna and Flora