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Environmental Awareness - Naturalist Intelligence

Environment is the area in which we live. The thin layer of air that surrounds our planet that supports life. Humans are the only kind of life that we know of that exists in our universe.

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Pristine Waterfall in Lush Green Forest If we did not have our environment we could not exist. This environmental space in which we share with other life forms is a complex system. Though our environment can be an incredibly beautiful experience, the environment can also kill. Evidence of mass extinctions in our past reveals the vulnerabilities of our environment. And today we have millions of people and other living species dying every year from pollution and other pollution related problems. Humans have irresponsibly infected the only living space in our solar system. But we can recover, because science has taught us about the laws of nature and how everything is Cause and Effect. So we have a lot of work to do, and we have a lot to learn. Our lives depend on it. We will have to work together locally and globally in order to solve these problems that we are faced with, like with the problem of increased amounts of CO2. We have been given a beautiful gift. So let us preserve this gift for future generations and the trillions of people who will need to depend on this environment to live. Just like us and millions of other life forms do today.

Sustainable - Earth Protectors - Monitoring - Schools

Ecosystem Services is when Humankind benefits in a multitude of ways from ecosystems by providing clean drinking water production of food, decomposition of wastes, regulating the control of climate and disease; supporting nutrient cycles and crop pollination; and cultural, spiritual and recreational benefits, and economic values. Trees.

Natural Resource are resources that exist without actions of humankind. This includes all valued characteristics such as magnetic, gravitational, and electrical properties and forces. On Earth it includes: sunlight, atmosphere, water, land (includes all minerals) along with all vegetation and animal life that naturally subsists upon or within the heretofore identified characteristics and substances. Connected.

Hotspots (habitat loss)

Environment (biophysical) is the biotic and abiotic surrounding of an organism or population, and consequently includes the factors that have an influence in their survival, development and evolution marine environment, the atmospheric environment and the terrestrial environment. All life that has survived must have adapted to conditions of its environment. Temperature, light, humidity, soil nutrients, etc.

"There is no such thing as Free, Nothing is Free, so please don't Steal, especially from the Future". Environmental Sayings

Managing our surroundings is everyone’s responsibility, and those responsibilities must be defined and understood if we are ever going to succeed. And now that the world is flat again, means that our surroundings are not just local, they're also global.

Nature Smart enables human beings to Recognize, categorize and draw upon certain features of the environment.

Cause and Effect

Cycles Image with Arrows in Circular Motion Causality connects one process (the cause) with another process or state (the effect), where the first is understood to be partly responsible for the second, and the second is dependent on the first. Develop

Cause is the source of a process, where some action originates from. Root-Cause
Effect is the result of an action and what happens because of the cause, which can be good or bad.

Causal Model is an abstract model that describes the causal mechanisms of a system. The model must express more than correlation because correlation does not imply causation. Problem Solving

Correlation is a reciprocal relation between two or more things. A statistical relation between two or more variables such that systematic changes in the value of one variable are accompanied by systematic changes in the other.

Correlation and Dependence is any statistical relationship, whether causal or not, between two random variables or bivariate data. Patterns - Levels of Thinking

Domino Effect is the cumulative effect produced when one event sets off a chain of similar events. The environment is kind of like Jenga, it's all fun and games until that one crucial mistake brings the whole system crashing down. Domino Theory (wiki).

Snowball Effect is a process that starts from an initial state of small significance and builds upon itself, becoming larger (graver, more serious), and also perhaps potentially dangerous or disastrous. Tipping Point

Chain Reaction is a sequence of reactions where a reactive product or by-product causes additional reactions to take place. In a chain reaction, positive feedback leads to a self-amplifying chain of events. Chemical Reactions

Cascading Failure is a failure in a system of interconnected parts in which the failure of a part can trigger the failure of successive parts.

Tipping Point (physics) is an example of hysteresis in which the point at which an object is displaced from a state of stable equilibrium into a new equilibrium state that is qualitatively dissimilar from the first.
Tipping point is the value of the parameter in which the set of equilibria abruptly change in catastrophe theory.
Tipping Point (climatology) when global climate changes from one stable state to another possible stable or unstable state.

Cascade Effect is an inevitable and sometimes unforeseen chain of events due to an act affecting a system. If there is a possibility that the cascade effect will have a negative impact on the system, it is possible to analyze the effects with a consequence/impact analysis. Cascade effects are commonly visualized in tree structures, also called event trees, which is a top down, deductive failure analysis in which an undesired state of a system is analyzed using Boolean logic to combine a series of lower-level events. This analysis method is mainly used in the fields of safety engineering and reliability engineering to understand how systems can fail, to identify the best ways to reduce risk or to determine (or get a feeling for) event rates of a safety accident or a particular system level (functional) failure. Mobile Sculpture (balance).

Symmetry Breaking is a phenomenon in which (infinitesimally) small fluctuations acting on a system crossing a critical point decide the system's fate, by determining which branch of a bifurcation is taken. To an outside observer unaware of the fluctuations (or "noise"), the choice will appear arbitrary. This process is called symmetry "breaking", because such transitions usually bring the system from a symmetric but disorderly state into one or more definite states. Symmetry breaking is thought to play a major role in pattern formation.

Phenomenon is a fact or situation that is observed to exist or happen, especially one whose cause or explanation is in question.
Phenomenon is any state or process known through the senses rather than by intuition or reasoning. The object of a person's perception and what the senses or the mind notice.  A remarkable development that you can see happen.

Epiphenomena is a secondary phenomenon that occurs alongside or in parallel to a primary phenomenon.

Newtown's Third Law - Thermo Dynamics - Entropy - Particle Physics - Time

Adverse Effect is an undesired harmful effect resulting from pollution or harmful chemicals which result in morbidity or particular disease or unhealthy state of mind, mortality, alteration in body weight, levels of enzymes, loss of function, or as a pathological change detected at the microscopic, macroscopic or physiological level. Adverse effects may cause a reversible or irreversible change, including an increase or decrease in the susceptibility of the individual to other chemicals, foods, or procedures, such as drug interactions. Food Safety

List of Effects (PDF)

Side Effect is an effect that is secondary to the one intended, which can be Good or Bad.

Activation in (bio-)chemical sciences generally refers to the process whereby something is prepared or excited for a subsequent reaction.

Effect System is a formal system which describes the computational effects of computer programs, such as side effects. An effect system can be used to provide a compile-time check of the possible effects of the program.

Viruses - Cancers

Power Law is a functional relationship between two quantities, where a relative change in one quantity results in a proportional relative change in the other quantity, independent of the initial size of those quantities: one quantity varies as a power of another. For instance, considering the area of a square in terms of the length of its side, if the length is doubled, the area is multiplied by a factor of four. Rate of Change

Causal Loop Diagram visualizing how different variables in a system are interrelated. Feedback Loop

Causal Loop is a sequence of events (actions, information, objects, people) in which an event is among the causes of another event, which in turn is among the causes of the first-mentioned event. Such causally-looped events then exist in spacetime, but their origin cannot be determined. Time Loop.

Open-Loop Controller is when the control action from the controller is independent of the "process output", which is the process variable that is being controlled. It does not use feedback to determine if its output has achieved the desired goal of the input or process "set point". An open-loop system cannot engage in machine learning and also cannot correct any errors that it could make. It will not compensate for disturbances in the process being controlled.

Butterfly Effect is when small causes can have large effects. Latency

Connected (everything is connected) - Coexist


Pandora's Box means to perform an action that may seem small or innocent, but that turns out to have severely detrimental and far-reaching negative consequences. The action cannot be reversed, only repaired.

Progress Trap - Social Trap

is a perceived dilemma or difficult circumstance from which there is no escape because of mutually conflicting or dependent conditions that interfere with Logical Decision Making. But one choice is always going to be better than the other choice, so don't make up excuses. "Dammed if you do and dammed if you don't, but only if you can prove it." "What goes around comes around."

Setting up to Fail is a phrase denoting a no-win situation designed in such a way that the person in the situation cannot succeed at the task which they have been assigned. Planned obsolescence.

Emergence is a process whereby larger entities arise through interactions among smaller or simpler entities such that the larger entities exhibit properties the smaller/simpler entities do not exhibit. Develop.

Downward Causation is a causal relationship from higher levels of a system to lower-level parts of that system.

Pareto Principle states that, for many events, roughly 80% of the effects come from 20% of the causes. (80–20 rule).
Thucydides is strict standards of evidence-gathering and analysis of cause and effect . (c. 460 – c. 400 BC).

Ecocide is the extensive damage to, destruction of or loss of ecosystem(s) of a given territory, whether by human agency or by other, to such an extent that peaceful enjoyment by the inhabitants of that territory has been or will be severely diminished.

Homeostasis is the property of a system in which a variable (for example, the concentration of a substance in solution, or its temperature) is actively regulated to remain very nearly constant.

Self-Organization also called spontaneous order (in the social sciences), is a process where some form of overall order arises from local interactions between parts of an initially disordered system. The process is spontaneous, not needing control by any external agent. It is often triggered by random fluctuations, amplified by positive feedback. The resulting organization is wholly decentralized, distributed over all the components of the system. As such, the organization is typically robust and able to survive or self-repair substantial perturbation. Chaos theory discusses self-organization in terms of islands of predictability in a sea of chaotic unpredictability. Self-organization occurs in many physical, chemical, biological, robotic, and cognitive systems. Examples can be found in crystallization, thermal convection of fluids, chemical oscillation, animal swarming, and artificial and biological neural networks.

Synesthesia is a neurological phenomenon in which stimulation of one sensory or cognitive pathway leads to automatic, involuntary experiences in a second sensory or cognitive pathway.

Symbiosis - Coexist

Stewardship is being Responsible for the world by Maintaining it and taking care of it.
Green Schools (environmental education)

You Don't Know What You Got Till It's Gone - Cinderella (youtube)

Feedback occurs when outputs of a system are routed back as inputs as part of a chain of cause-and-effect that forms a circuit or loop. The system can then be said to feed back into itself. The notion of cause-and-effect has to be handled carefully when applied to Feedback systems. Agent - Loop

Positive Feedback is a process that occurs in a Feedback loop in which the effects of a small disturbance on a system include an increase in the magnitude of the disturbance. The enhancement or amplification of an effect by its own influence on the process that gives rise to it. The return of part of an output signal to the input, which is in phase with it, so that the amplifier gain is increased and the output is often distorted.

Negative Feedback occurs when some function of the output of a system, process, or mechanism is fed back in a manner that tends to reduce the fluctuations in the output, whether caused by changes in the input or by other disturbances. Negativity.

Social Feedback (surveys)

Thermal Runaway occurs in situations where an increase in temperature changes the conditions in a way that causes a further increase in temperature, often leading to a destructive result. It is a kind of uncontrolled positive feedback. Climate Change

Input - Output is the communication between an information processing system, such as a computer, and the outside world, possibly a human or another information processing system. Inputs are the signals or data received by the system and outputs are the signals or data sent from it. The term can also be used as part of an action; to "perform I/O" is to perform an input or output operation. I/O devices are used by a human (or other system) to communicate with a computer. For instance, a keyboard or mouse is an input device for a computer, while monitors and printers are output devices. Devices for communication between computers, such as modems and network cards, typically perform both input and output operations.

Race Condition is the behavior of an electronic, software, or other system where the output is dependent on the sequence or timing of other uncontrollable events. It becomes a bug when events do not happen in the order the programmer intended. The term originates with the idea of two signals racing each other to influence the output first. Race conditions can occur in electronics systems, especially logic circuits, and in computer software, especially multithreaded or distributed programs.

System Archetype are patterns of behavior of a system. Systems expressed by circles of causality have therefore similar structure.

Open System or Paradigm Shift is a fundamental change in the basic concepts and experimental practices of a scientific discipline.

Enactivism is when cognition arises through a dynamic interaction between an acting organism and its environment.

The Fixx - One Thing Leads To Another (youtube)

You Reap what you Sow, Give and Receive, or what goes around comes around, is only accurate when you measure the value of the input and the output. Just the facts, and not the perceived facts or assumed facts.

Consequence is the outcome of an event that is relative to an individual or group of people. Having important effects or influence.

Unintended Consequences are outcomes that are not the ones foreseen and intended by a purposeful action.

Ramification Problem is concerned with the indirect consequences of an action. It might also be posed as how to represent what happens implicitly due to an action or how to control the secondary and tertiary effects of an action. It is strongly connected to, and is opposite the qualification side of, the frame problem, describes an issue with using first-order logic (FOL) to express facts about a robot in the world.

We should Remake these game shows to be more reality based - Truth or Consequences (wiki) and Truth or Dare? (wiki)

Result is the final consequence of a sequence of actions or events expressed qualitatively or quantitatively. Possible results include advantage, disadvantage, gain, injury, loss, value and victory. There may be a range of possible outcomes associated with an event depending on the point of view, historical distance or relevance. Reaching no result can mean that actions are inefficient, ineffective, meaningless or flawed.

Outcome Bias is our preference to judge decisions based on the outcome, rather than how we made the decision. We weigh a one-time result more heavily than the decision-making process itself.

Hindsight Bias is our tendency to see past events as much more predictable than they actually were. While it’s often hard or impossible to actually predict certain things, after the fact we get an “I knew it all along” feeling. This leads to us misjudging our own and others’ abilities. Hindsight is 20/20 describes the fact that it is easy for one to be knowledgeable about an event after it has happened.

Entailment is a deduction or implication, that is, something that follows logically from or is implied by something else. In logic, an entailment is the relationship between sentences whereby one sentence will be true if all the others are also true. Something involved as a necessary part or consequence of something. An entailment can also mean a situation where the owner of property has limited power over his own property.

Coincidence is a remarkable concurrence of events or circumstances which have no apparent causal connection with each other. Freak of Nature

Anomaly is a deviation from the normal or common order or form or rule. Mutations

Anomaly (natural sciences) is the deviation in a quantity from its expected value. A deviation from the normal or common order or form or rule, e.g., the difference between a measurement and a mean or a model prediction. Similarly, a standardized anomaly equals an anomaly divided by a standard deviation. A group of anomalies can be analyzed spatially, as a map, or temporally, as a time series. There are examples in atmospheric sciences and in geophysics.

Stochastic is being or having a random variable.

Random is the lack of pattern or predictability in events. A random sequence of events, symbols or steps has no order and does not follow an intelligible pattern or combination. Individual random events are by definition unpredictable, but in many cases the frequency of different outcomes over a large number of events (or "trials") is predictable. For example, when throwing two dice, the outcome of any particular roll is unpredictable, but a sum of 7 will occur twice as often as 4. In this view, randomness is a measure of uncertainty of an outcome, rather than haphazardness, and applies to concepts of chance, Probability, and information entropy.

Random Number Generator is a device that generates random numbers from a physical process, rather than a computer program. Such devices are often based on microscopic phenomena that generate low-level, statistically random "noise" signals, such as thermal noise, the photoelectric effect, involving a beam splitter, and other quantum phenomena. These stochastic processes are, in theory, completely unpredictable, and the theory's assertions of unpredictability are subject to experimental test. A hardware random number generator typically consists of a transducer to convert some aspect of the physical phenomena to an electrical signal, an amplifier and other electronic circuitry to increase the amplitude of the random fluctuations to a measurable level, and some type of analog to digital converter to convert the output into a digital number, often a simple binary digit 0 or 1. By repeatedly sampling the randomly varying signal, a series of random numbers is attained. The main application for electronic hardware random number generators is in cryptography, where they are used to generate random cryptographic keys to transmit data securely. They are widely used in Internet encryption protocols such as Secure Sockets Layer (SSL). Random number generators can also be built from "random" macroscopic processes, using devices such as coin flipping, dice, roulette wheels and lottery machines. The presence of unpredictability in these phenomena can be justified by the theory of unstable dynamical systems and chaos theory. Even though macroscopic processes are deterministic under Newtonian mechanics, the output of a well-designed device like a roulette wheel cannot be predicted in practice, because it depends on the sensitive, micro-details of the initial conditions of each use.

Spontaneous is something happening or arising without apparent external cause.

Symmetry Breaking is a phenomenon in which (infinitesimally) small fluctuations acting on a system crossing a critical point decide the system's fate, by determining which branch of a bifurcation is taken. To an outside observer unaware of the fluctuations (or "noise"), the choice will appear arbitrary. This process is called symmetry "breaking", because such transitions usually bring the system from a symmetric but disorderly state into one or more definite states. Symmetry breaking is thought to play a major role in pattern formation.

Error Correction (Noise)

Miracle is an event not explicable by natural or scientific laws. Such an event may be attributed to a supernatural being (a deity), magic, a miracle worker, a saint or a religious leader.

Reason for Everything - Truth is Debatable - It's All Relative

Synchronicity states that events are "meaningful coincidences" if they occur with no causal relationship yet seem to be meaningfully related. Synchronicity is the relation that exists when things occur at the same time. Synchronous is existing or occurring at the same time. Simultaneous.

Continuity is an uninterrupted connection or union. The property of a continuous and connected period of time.

is the quality of being enduring and free from change or variation. Stable. (psychology) the tendency for perceived objects to give rise to very similar perceptual experiences in spite of wide variations in the conditions of observation.

Consistent is capable of being reproduced Reliably. Marked by an orderly, logical, and aesthetically consistent relation of parts. The same throughout in structure or composition.

Uniform is always the same; showing a single form or character in all occurrences. The same throughout in structure or composition. Evenly spaced. Conformity vs. Diversity.

Order is a logical or comprehensible arrangement of separate elements. System

Symmetry (Mathematics - Life)

Nonlinear System is a system in which the output is not directly proportional to the input. Nonlinear problems are of interest to engineers, physicists and mathematicians and many other scientists because most systems are inherently nonlinear in nature. Nonlinear systems may appear chaotic, unpredictable or counterintuitive, contrasting with the much simpler linear systems.

Nonlinear Regression is a form of regression analysis in which observational data are modeled by a function which is a nonlinear combination of the model parameters and depends on one or more independent variables. The data are fitted by a method of successive approximations. Research

Determinism is the philosophical doctrine that all events transpire in virtue of some necessity and are therefore inevitable. The philosophical position that for every event there exist conditions that could cause no other event.

Immutable is something that is not subject or susceptible to change or variation in form or quality or nature.

Kantianism states all actions are performed in accordance with some underlying maxim or principle, which are deeply different from each other; it is according to this that the moral worth of any action is judged.

Destiny sometimes referred to as Fate is a predetermined course of events. It may be conceived as a predetermined future, whether in general or of an individual.

Indeterminism is the concept that events (certain events, or events of certain types) are not caused, or not caused deterministically (cf. causality) by prior events. It is the opposite of determinism and related to chance. It is highly relevant to the philosophical problem of free will, particularly in the form of metaphysical libertarianism.

Chaos Theory is a branch of mathematics focused on the behavior of dynamical systems that are highly sensitive to initial conditions—a response popularly referred to as the butterfly effect. Small differences in initial conditions (such as those due to rounding errors in numerical computation) yield widely diverging outcomes for such dynamical systems, rendering long-term prediction of their behavior impossible in general. This happens even though these systems are deterministic, meaning that their future behavior is fully determined by their initial conditions, with no random elements involved. In other words, the deterministic nature of these systems does not make them predictable. This behavior is known as deterministic chaos, or simply chaos.

Regression Fallacy ascribes cause where none exists. The flaw is failing to account for natural fluctuations. It is frequently a special kind of the post hoc fallacy. Since event Y followed event X, event Y must have been caused by event X. Fallacies

Game Theory is "the study of mathematical models of conflict and cooperation between intelligent rational decision-makers."

Zero-Sum Game is a mathematical representation of a situation in which each participant's gain or loss of utility is exactly balanced by the losses or gains of the utility of the other participants. If the total gains of the participants are added up and the total losses are subtracted, they will sum to zero. Thus, cutting a cake, where taking a larger piece reduces the amount of cake available for others, is a zero-sum game if all participants value each unit of cake equally. Marginal utility

Non Zero Sum Game
is a situation where one decision maker's gain (or loss) does not necessarily result in the other decision makers' loss (or gain). In other words, where the winnings and losses of all players do not add up to zero and everyone can gain: a win-win game.

Circumstances are the set of facts that surround a situation or event. Information that should be kept in mind when making a decision. A condition that accompanies or influences some event or activity.

Precautionary Principle states that if an action or policy has a suspected risk of causing harm to the public, or to the environment, in the absence of scientific consensus (that the action or policy is not harmful), the burden of proof that it is not harmful falls on those taking an action that may or may not be a Risk.

Human Impact on the Environment includes impacts on biophysical environments, biodiversity, and other resources. PDF

Habitat Destruction

Everyone needs to see the whole picture. We need to see things from the beginning, and we need to see to the very end, or years from now. We need to understand all the different things that influence our actions and our decisions. And we need to see all the effects that are the result of our actions, even if the results from our actions happen years later. These are just some of the responsibilities that every human shares on this beautiful planet earth. You cannot ignore these responsibilities, and you cannot transfer these responsibilities to someone else, unless, there is an agreement or a contract that explains that this cooperation that you have with other people, states that this is the most logical, the most efficient, and the most effective way to fulfill these responsibilities that we all share to live. Everyone needs to be accountable for their actions, and accountable for all the results that come from their actions. Everyone also needs to be open and honest. It doesn't seem like a lot to ask, but it means a lot, it means a lot to everyone, and to every single thing that we hold dear.

You should always know the answers to these two questions...
What would Earth do? What natural processes have been working for millions of years?
What would Life do? How has life adapted to change in order to survive over the last 500 million years?

Environment Knowledge

Natural Environment encompasses all living and non-living things occurring naturally on Earth or some region thereof. It is an Canadian Rockies
environment that encompasses the interaction of all living species. Climate, weather, and natural resources that affect human survival and economic activity. The concept of the natural environment can be distinguished by components: Complete ecological units that function as natural systems without massive civilized human intervention, including all vegetation, microorganisms, soil, rocks, atmosphere, and natural phenomena that occur within their boundaries and their nature. Universal natural resources and physical phenomena that lack clear-cut boundaries, such as air, water, and climate, as well as energy, radiation, electric charge, and magnetism, not originating from civilized human activity. Naturalist Education

Nature is the natural, physical, or material world or universe. "Nature" can refer to the phenomena of the physical world, and also to life in general. The study of nature is a large part of science. Although humans are part of nature, human activity is often understood as a separate category from other natural phenomena. Parks

Ecology is the scientific analysis and study of interactions among organisms and their environment. It is an interdisciplinary field that includes biology, geography, and Earth science.

Ecosystem is a community of living organisms in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment (things like air, water and mineral soil), interacting as a system. These biotic and abiotic components are regarded as linked together through nutrient cycles and energy flows. As ecosystems are defined by the network of interactions among organisms, and between organisms and their environment, they can be of any size but usually encompass specific, limited spaces (although some scientists say that the entire planet is an ecosystem).

Biosphere also known as the ecosphere, is the worldwide sum of all ecosystems. Biosphere 2 - Air

Ecosphere is a planetary closed ecological system. In this global ecosystem, the various forms of energy and matter that constitute a given planet interact on a continual basis. The forces of the four Fundamental interactions cause the various forms of matter to settle into identifiable layers. These layers are referred to as component spheres with the type and extent of each component sphere varying significantly from one particular ecosphere to another. Component spheres that represent a significant portion of an ecosphere are referred to as a primary component spheres. For instance, Earth's ecosphere consists of five primary component spheres which are the Geosphere, Hydrosphere, Biosphere, Atmosphere, and Magnetosphere.
Geosphere the collective name for the lithosphere, the hydrosphere, the cryosphere, and the atmosphere.
Cryosphere is those portions of Earth's surface where water is in solid form, including sea ice, lake ice, river ice, snow cover, glaciers, ice caps, ice sheets, and frozen ground (which includes permafrost).
Lithosphere is the rigid, outermost shell of a terrestrial-type planet or natural satellite that is defined by its rigid mechanical properties.
Hydrosphere is the combined mass of water found on, under, and above the surface of a planet, minor planet or natural satellite. It's estimated that there are 1386 million cubic kilometers of water on Earth. Deserts.

Biome is a community of plants and animals that have common characteristics for the environment they exist in. They can be found over a range of continents. Biomes are distinct biological communities that have formed in response to a shared physical climate. "Biome" is a broader term than "habitat"; any biome can comprise a variety of habitats.

Environmental Epidemiology is the branches of epidemiology concerned with the discovery of the environmental exposures that contribute to or protect against injuries, illnesses, developmental conditions, disabilities, and deaths; and identification of public health and health care actions to manage the risks associated with harmful exposures.

Environmental Health is the branch of public health that is concerned with all aspects of the natural and built environment that may affect human health. Other terms referring to or concerning environmental health are environmental public health, and public health protection / environmental health protection.

Environmental Quality is a set of properties and characteristics of the environment, either generalized or local, as they impinge on human beings and other organisms. It is a measure of the condition of an environment relative to the requirements of one or more species and or to any human need or purpose.

Environmentalism regarding concerns for environmental protection and improvement of the health of the environment, particularly as the measure for this health seeks to incorporate the concerns of non-human elements.

Environmental Protection is a practice of protecting the natural environment on individual, organizational or governmental levels, for the benefit of both the environment and humans. Due to the pressures of overconsumption, population and technology, the biophysical environment is being degraded, sometimes permanently. Consent to Operate

Conservation (ethic) is an ethic of resource use, allocation, and protection. Its primary focus is upon maintaining the health of the natural world, its fisheries, habitats, and biological diversity. Secondary focus is on materials conservation, including non-renewable resources such as metals, minerals and fossil fuels, and energy conservation, which is important to protect the natural world. Those who follow the conservation ethic and, especially, those who advocate or work toward conservation goals are termed conservationists.

Environmental Psychology is an interdisciplinary field that focused on the interplay between individuals and their surroundings.

Eco-Psychology studies the relationship between human beings and the natural world through ecological and psychological principles. The field seeks to develop and understand ways of expanding the emotional connection between individuals and the natural world, thereby assisting individuals with developing sustainable lifestyles and remedying alienation from nature.

Ecological Psychology
Naturalist Intelligence

Built Environment refers to the manmade surroundings that provide the setting for human activity, ranging in scale from buildings and parks or green space to neighborhoods and cities that can often include their supporting infrastructure, such as water supply or energy networks. The built environment is a material, spatial and cultural product of human labor that combines physical elements and energy in forms for living, working and playing. It has been defined as "the humanitarian-made space in which people live, work, and recreate on a day-to-day basis.

City Development - Sustainability - Green Building - Activism

Environmental Movement is a diverse scientific, social, and political movement for addressing environmental issues.

Environmental Policy refers to the commitment of an organization to the laws, regulations, and other policy mechanisms concerning environmental issues. These issues generally include air and water pollution, solid waste management, ecosystem management, maintenance of biodiversity, the protection of natural resources, wildlife and endangered species. Policies concerning energy or regulation of toxic substances including pesticides and many types of industrial waste are part of the topic of environmental policy. This policy can be deliberately taken to direct and oversee human activities and thereby prevent harmful effects on the biophysical environment and natural resources, as well as to make sure that changes in the environment do not have harmful effects on humans.

Antiquities Act is a law that gives the President of the United States the authority to, by presidential proclamation, create national monuments from public lands to protect significant natural, cultural, or scientific features. The Act has been used over a hundred times since its passage. Its use occasionally creates significant controversy. Act passed by the United States Congress and signed into law by Theodore Roosevelt on June 8, 1906.

Social Environment refers to the immediate physical and social setting in which people live or in which something happens or develops. It includes the culture that the individual was educated or lives in, and the people and institutions with whom they interact.

Environmental Science is an interdisciplinary academic field that integrates physical, biological and information sciences (including ecology, biology, physics, chemistry, zoology, mineralogy, oceanology, limnology, soil science, geology, atmospheric science, and geodesy) to the study of the environment, and the solution of environmental problems.

Environment (systems) is the part of the universe that is being studied, while the environment is the remainder of the universe that lies outside the boundaries of the system. It is also known as the surroundings or neighborhood, and in thermodynamics, as the reservoir. Depending on the type of system, it may interact with the environment by exchanging mass, energy (including heat and work), linear momentum, angular momentum, electric charge, or other conserved properties. In some disciplines, such as information theory, information may also be exchanged. The environment is ignored in analysis of the system, except in regard to these interactions.

Environmental Education refers to organized efforts to teach how natural environments function, and particularly, how human beings can manage behavior and ecosystems to live sustainably. Lush Rain Forest Bridge over Stream

Environmental Impact Assessment assessment of the environmental consequences (positive and negative) of a plan, policy, program, or concrete projects prior to the decision to move forward with the proposed action.

Environmental Indicator measures that tell us what is happening in the environment.

Environmental Engineering - Trees

Environmental Performance Index is a method of quantifying and numerically marking the environmental performance of a state's policies.

Conservation Management System is a procedure for maintaining a species or habitat in a particular state.

Environmental Remediation deals with the removal of pollution or contaminants from environmental media such as soil, groundwater, sediment, or surface water. This would mean that once requested by the government or a land remediation authority, immediate action should be taken as this can impact negatively on human health and the environment.

Nanoremediation - Maintenance
IU scientists discover 'supramolecule' that could help reduce nuclear, agricultural waste (Sodium Bisulfate)

First evidence for new molecular structure could open doors to chemical solutions for environmental problems

People enhanced the environment, not degraded it, over past 13,000 years

Restoration is the process of restoring something to its former good condition. The Power of "RE"

Regenerative Design is a process-oriented systems theory based approach to design. The term "regenerative" describes processes that restore, renew or revitalize their own sources of energy and materials, creating sustainable systems that integrate the needs of society with the integrity of nature.

Biomimicry - Geo-Engineering

Regenerative Agriculture is a sub-sector practice of organic farming designed to build soil health or to regenerate unhealthy soils. The practices associated with regenerative agriculture are those identified with other approaches to organic farming, including maintaining a high percentage of organic matter in soils, minimum tillage, biodiversity, composting, mulching, crop rotation, cover crops, and green manures.

Regeneration (ecology) Not only are single organisms capable of regeneration but Ecosystems are regenerative as well, although not on a cellular level but rather - as a complex system composed of myriads of organisms and their habitat - on the level of interactions of whole populations and their environment. Resilience to minor disturbances is one characteristic feature of healthy ecosystems. Following major (lethal) disturbances, such as a fire or pest outbreak in a forest, an immediate return to the previous dynamic equilibrium will not be possible. Instead, pioneering species will occupy, compete for space, and establish themselves in the newly opened habitat. The new growth of seedlings and community assembly process is known as regeneration in ecology. As ecological succession sets in, a forest will slowly regenerate towards its former state within the succession (climax or any intermediate stage), provided that all outer parameters (climate, soil fertility availability of nutrients, animal migration paths, air pollution or the absence thereof, etc.) remain unchanged.

Restoration Ecology the practice of renewing and restoring degraded, damaged, or destroyed ecosystems and habitats in the environment by active human intervention and action. Self-Healing

Centre for Justice Governance and Environmental Action

Institute for Catastrophic Loss Reduction

Rewilding (conservation biology) is large-scale conservation aimed at restoring and protecting natural processes and core wilderness areas, providing connectivity between such areas, and protecting or reintroducing apex predators and keystone species.

Habitat Destruction

Re-Wilding (anarchism) means to return to a more wild or natural state; it is the process of undoing domestication.

Animals - Plants

World's Largest Reforestation Program Overlooks Wildlife Seeing the Forest for the Trees: After years of environmental destruction, China has spent billions of dollars on the world's largest reforestation program, converting a combined area nearly the size of New York and Pennsylvania back to forest. (69.2 million acres) Must avoid Monoculture.

Grain for Green program in 1999 as an ambitious conservation program designed to mitigate and prevent soil erosion. It is an example of Payment for ecosystem services which is helping to solve Environmental issues in China. The program is designed to retire farmland that is susceptible to soil erosion, although some farmers may go back to farming the land after the program ends.

Payment for Ecosystem Services are incentives offered to farmers or landowners in exchange for managing their land to provide some sort of ecological service. They have been defined as "a transparent system for the additional provision of environmental services through conditional payments to voluntary providers." These programmes promote the conservation of natural resources in the marketplace. Consent to Operate

Habitat Conservation is a management practice that seeks to conserve, protect and restore habitat areas for wild plants and animals, especially conservation reliant species, and prevent their extinction, fragmentation or reduction in range.

Habitat Conservation
Conservation Reliant Species

Creating and Restoring Wildlife Habitat
Alert Conservation
The Ecology Global Network

Environmental Degradation is the deterioration of the environment through depletion of resources such as air, water and soil; the destruction of ecosystems and the extinction of wildlife.

Environmental Migrant are people who are forced to leave their home region due to sudden or long-term changes to their local environment which compromise their well being or secure livelihood, such changes are held to include increased droughts, desertification, sea level rise, and disruption of seasonal weather patterns such as monsoons.

Nature Deficit Disorder is when human beings, especially children, are spending less time outdoors resulting in a wide range of behavioral problems.

Natural Law
Earth Savers

Natural Capital is the world's stock of natural resources, which includes geology, soils, air, water and all living organisms. Natural capital assets provide people with a wide range of free goods and services, often called ecosystem services, which underpin our economy and society and some of which even make human life possible.

Ecological Footprint is a measure of human impact on Earth's ecosystems. It's typically measured in area of wilderness or amount of natural capital consumed each year. A common way of estimating footprint is, the area of wilderness of both land and sea needed to supply resources to a human population; This includes the area of wilderness needed to assimilate human waste.

Sustainable Development

Ecological Design is any form of design that minimizes environmentally destructive impacts by integrating itself with living processes." Ecological design is an integrative ecologically responsible design discipline.

Land Improvement refers to altering the landscape in any number of ways such as: Changing landforms from a natural or semi-natural state for a purpose such as agriculture or housing. Subdividing real estate into lots, typically for the purpose of building homes. Real estate development or changing its purpose, for example by converting an unused factory complex into condominia.

Nature Reserve is a protected area of importance for wildlife, flora, fauna or features of geological or other special interest, which is reserved and managed for conservation and to provide special opportunities for study or research.

Exponential Growth
Scalability - Scale

Open Source Ecology is a network of farmers, engineers, architects and supporters, whose main goal is the eventual manufacturing of the Global Village Con-struction Set (GVCS).

Ephemeralization is to do more and more with less and less until eventually you can do everything with nothing.

Ephemeral is the concept of things being transitory, existing only briefly.

Soil Knowledge

Carrying Capacity is the maximum population size of the species that the environment can sustain indefinitely, given the food, habitat, water, and other necessities available in the environment.

Overshoot (population) occurs when a population temporarily exceeds the long term carrying capacity of its environment. The consequence of overshoot is called a collapse, a crash or a die-off in which there is a decline in population density. The entire sequence or trajectory undergone by the population and its environment is often termed 'overshoot-and-collapse'.

Quorum Sensing is a system of stimuli and response correlated to population density.

Anthropocene is a proposed epoch that begins when human activities started to have a significant global impact on Earth's geology and ecosystems.

Keystone Species is a species that has a disproportionately large effect on its environment relative to its abundance.

Working Together
Environmental Policy

Gap Minder Trends and Stats

Green Products

Potential Theory local behavior of harmonic functions.
Resource Efficiency Experts
Footprint Network

Mutualism is the way two organisms of different species exist in a relationship in which each individual benefits from the activity of the other. Similar interactions within a species are known as co-operation. Mutualism can be contrasted with interspecific competition, in which each species experiences reduced fitness, and exploitation, or parasitism, in which one species benefits at the "expense" of the other. Symbiosis involves two species living in close proximity and includes relationships that are mutualistic, parasitic, and commensal. Mutualism (PDF)

Co-operation (evolution) is the process where groups of organisms work or act together for common or mutual benefits. It is commonly defined as any adaptation that has evolved, at least in part, to increase the reproductive success of the actor’s social partners.

Coexistence the state of two or more things existing together, usually in a temporal or spatial sense, with or without mutual interaction. Connected

Interrelated is reciprocally connected. A mutual relationship. A back-and-forth interaction, doing something in return.

Compatible is able to exist and perform in harmonious or agreeable combination. Capable of forming a homogeneous mixture that neither separates nor is altered by chemical interaction. Capable of being used with or connected to other devices or components without modification.

Parasites - Microbes and Humans

Interspecies Friendship is a bond that is formed between animals of different species.

Interdependence is the mutual reliance between two or more groups. This concept differs from the reliance in a dependent relationship, where some members are dependent and some are not. There can be various degrees of interdependence.

Symbiosis is a close and often long-term interaction between two different biological species. "if you help me to stay alive then I will help you to stay alive, for if one of us dies, we both die."

Symbiotic Relationships List (wiki)
List of Symbiotic Organisms (wiki)

Transcriptome analysis illuminates the nature of the intracellular interaction in a vertebrate-algal symbiosis

Symbiogenesis holds that the organelles distinguishing eukaryote cells evolved through symbiosis of individual single-celled prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea).

Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to secure a more predictable supply of resources from that second group. Heredity (human nature)

System Integration is defined as the process of bringing together the component subsystems into one system and ensuring that the subsystems function together as a system.

Synergetics is the empirical study of systems in transformation, with an emphasis on total system behavior unpredicted by the behavior of any isolated components, including humanity's role as both participant and observer.


Sociology (social intelligence)

Non-Linear is a system in which the output is not directly proportional to the input.

Sigmoid Function is a mathematical function having an "S" shaped curve (sigmoid curve).

Green Economy (sustainability)

Convention on Biological Diversity
Biodiversity Indicators Partnership (wiki)
Biodiversity Hotspot

International Union for Conservation of Nature

The Limits to Growth - Energy

Restoration Ecology - Geotechnical Engineering

National Ecological Observatories Network
National Ecological Observatory Network (wiki)

STReam Experimental Observatory Network (STREON)

The Goldman Environmental Prize honoring grassroots environmental activists "There is no Planet B"

Awareness - Problem Solving

Eyes in the Sky

Drone Monitor Environmental Monitoring describes the processes and activities that need to take place to monitor the quality of the environment. Environmental monitoring is used in the preparation of environmental impact assessments, as well as in many circumstances in which human activities carry a risk of harmful effects on the natural environment. Trees - Fires

Participatory Monitoring is the regular collection of measurements or other kinds of data (monitoring), usually of natural resources and biodiversity, undertaken by local people who live in the area being monitored, who rely on local natural resources, and consequently have great local knowledge of those resources. The people involved usually live in communities with considerable social cohesion where they regularly work together on shared projects.(also known as collaborative monitoring, community-based monitoring, locally based monitoring or volunteer monitoring).

Energy Monitoring - Pollution Monitoring - Sensors

Environmental Analysis - Research and Monitoring - R&M
Environmental analysis is a strategic tool. It is a process to identify all the external and internal elements, which can affect the organization's performance. The analysis entails assessing the level of threat or opportunity the factors might present.
Scanning: Identifying early signals of environmental changes and trends.
Detecting meaning through ongoing observations of environmental changes and trends.
Forecasting: Developing projections of anticipated outcomes based on monitored changes and trends.
Assessing: Determining the timing and importance of environmental changes and trends for strategies and their management.

Remote Sensing is the acquisition of information about an object or phenomenon without making physical contact with the object and thus in contrast to on-site observation. Remote sensing is used in numerous fields, including geography, land surveying and most Earth Science disciplines.

Wildlife Enforcement Monitoring System assists in monitoring the effectiveness of enforcement and compliance of wildlife law at a national level.

Risk Management - Home Monitors - Real-Time Computing

Custodian is someone responsible for maintaining buildings or grounds or animals.
Steward is someone who manages property or other affairs for someone else.

Carnegie Airborne Observatory 3-D spectral and laser imaging technology.

We have Radar, Motion Sensors, high resolution cameras and thermal imaging systems to see at night. Se we can monitor almost everything, even Poachers. Flir Night Vision Systems - Surveillance

Graphene and Quantum Dots put in motion a CMOS-integrated camera that can see the invisible capable of imaging visible and infrared light at the same time.

Conservation Drones
Radio Controlled Drones
Drone Knowledge - UAV- Unmanned Aerial Vehicle.
Tiny Jedi drone (youtube)

Global Hawk is an unmanned (UAV) surveillance aircraft. Provides a broad overview and systematic surveillance using high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and long-range electro-optical/infrared (EO/IR) sensors with long loiter times over target areas. It can survey as much as 40,000 square miles (100,000 km2) of terrain a day.

Zip Line lifesaving deliveries by drone. More than two billion people lack adequate access to essential medical products, such as blood and vaccines, due to challenging terrain and gaps in infrastructure. Zipline improves access to these supplies by flying over impassable mountains and washed-out roads, delivering directly to clinics. All on its own.

Photos of Africa, taken from a flying lawn chair: George Steinmetz 2017 (video and text) - Powered Parachutes

Robots - Robotics

GPS Trackers - GPS Collars - Wireless Trackers

Monitoring Birds by Drone
Sky Truth
Eyes on the Seas
Cultural Protection Using Satellites and Citizen Scientists
Satellite Images

Unmanned Port Security Vessel (UPSV) Autonomously surveys the seabed and is a sensor platform for other optical, chemical and environmental sensors, including real-time video.

Gladius Submersible Underwater Drone is the most affordable, easy to use underwater photography drone w 4k camera, 100m depth & 500m range.

New Underwater Drone Flies AND Swims (youtube)

MantaDroid is a Manta Ray Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Robot that swims 0.7m per second and operates up to 10
hours underwater surveillance turbulent seas.

PowerRay underwater robot combines fishfinder, mobile app, and VR goggle which provides real-time visualization of finding and catching fish.

Kayaks with Underwater Environmental Sensors and Speakers. Researchers have rigged kayaks with underwater environmental sensors and speakers to create an environmental monitoring tool suitable for citizen scientists. Instructions for the hardware and open-source software for making the 'Sonic Kayak' are available.

Human Flying Drone is Powerful enough to Lift a Human (youtube)

Cooperative Ecosystem Studies Units
Environmental Audit
Ecological Deficit

Virunga Official Trailer 1 (2014) - Netflix Documentary HD (youtube)

Soundscape Ecology
Detection of Deforestation (DETER)

Telemetry is an automated communications process by which measurements and other data are collected at remote or inaccessible points and transmitted to receiving equipment for monitoring. The word is derived from Greek roots: tele = remote, and metron = measure. Systems that need external instructions and data to operate require the counterpart of telemetry, telecommand. Although the term commonly refers to wireless data transfer mechanisms (e.g., using radio, ultrasonic, or infrared systems), it also encompasses data transferred over other media such as a telephone or computer network, optical link or other wired communications like power line carriers. Many modern telemetry systems take advantage of the low cost and ubiquity of GSM networks by using SMS to receive and transmit telemetry data. A telemeter is a device used to remotely measure any quantity. It consists of a sensor, a transmission path, and a display, recording, or control device. Telemeters are the physical devices used in telemetry. Electronic devices are widely used in telemetry and can be wireless or hard-wired, analog or digital. Other technologies are also possible, such as mechanical, hydraulic and optical. Telemetry may be commutated to allow the transmission of multiple data streams in a fixed frame.

Geographic Information Science is the scientific discipline that studies data structures and computational techniques to capture, represent, process, and analyze geographic information. It can be contrasted with geographic information systems, which are software tools. Geography

National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency is both a combat support agency, under the United States Department of Defense, and an intelligence agency of the United States Intelligence Community, with the primary mission of collecting, analyzing, and distributing geospatial intelligence (GEOINT) in support of national security. NGA was known as the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) until 2003.

Geospatial Intelligence is intelligence about the human activity on earth derived from the exploitation and analysis of imagery and geospatial information that describes, assesses, and visually depicts physical features and geographically referenced activities on the Earth. GEOINT, as defined in US Code, consists of imagery, imagery intelligence (IMINT) and geospatial information.

Geospatial Analysis is an approach to applying statistical analysis and other analytic techniques to data which has a geographical or spatial aspect. Such analysis would typically employ software capable of rendering maps processing spatial data, and applying analytical methods to terrestrial or geographic datasets, including the use of geographic information systems and geomatics.

Geographic Information System is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present spatial or geographic data. The acronym GIS is sometimes used for geographic information science (GIScience) to refer to the academic discipline that studies geographic information systems and is a large domain within the broader academic discipline of geoinformatics. What goes beyond a GIS is a spatial data infrastructure, a concept that has no such restrictive boundaries.

Geoinformatics is the science and the technology which develops and uses information science infrastructure to address the problems of geography, cartography, geosciences locations and related branches of science and engineering.

Science to quickly and accurately identify fish species in streams using new environmental DNA (eDNA).

Environmental DNA is collected from a variety of environmental samples such as soil, seawater, or even air rather than directly sampled from an individual organism. As various organisms interact with the environment, DNA is expelled and accumulates in their surroundings. Example sources of eDNA include, but are not limited to, feces, mucus, gametes, shed skin, carcasses and hair. Such samples can be analyzed by high-throughput DNA Sequencing methods, known as metagenomics, for rapid measurement and monitoring of biodiversity. In order to better differentiate between organisms within a sample, DNA metabarcoding is used in which the sample is analyzed and uses previously studied DNA libraries to determine what organisms are present (e.g. BLAST. The analysis of eDNA has great potential, not only for monitoring common species, but to genetically detect and identify other extant species that could influence conservation efforts. This method allows for Biomonitoring without requiring collection of the living organism, creating the ability to study organisms that are invasive, elusive, or endangered without introducing anthropogenic stress on the organism. Access to this genetic information makes a critical contribution to the understanding of population size, species distribution, and population dynamics for species not well documented. The integrity of eDNA samples is dependent upon its preservation within the environment. Soil, permafrost, freshwater and seawater are well-studied macro environments from which eDNA samples have been extracted, each of which include many more conditioned subenvironments. Because of its versatility, eDNA is applied in many subenvironments such as freshwater sampling, seawater sampling, terrestrial soil sampling (tundra permafrost), aquatic soil sampling (river, lake, pond, and ocean sediment), or other environments where normal sampling procedures can become problematic.

Metagenomics is the study of genetic material recovered directly from environmental samples. The broad field may also be referred to as environmental genomics, ecogenomics or community genomics. While traditional microbiology and microbial genome sequencing and genomics rely upon cultivated clonal cultures, early environmental gene sequencing cloned specific genes (often the 16S rRNA gene) to produce a profile of diversity in a natural sample. Such work revealed that the vast majority of microbial biodiversity had been missed by cultivation-based methods. Recent studies use either "shotgun" or PCR directed sequencing to get largely unbiased samples of all genes from all the members of the sampled communities. Because of its ability to reveal the previously hidden diversity of microscopic life, metagenomics offers a powerful lens for viewing the microbial world that has the potential to revolutionize understanding of the entire living world. As the price of DNA sequencing continues to fall, metagenomics now allows microbial ecology to be investigated at a much greater scale and detail than before.

Optical Mapping is a technique for constructing ordered, genome-wide, high-resolution restriction maps from single, stained molecules of DNA, called "optical maps". By mapping the location of restriction enzyme sites along the unknown DNA of an organism, the spectrum of resulting DNA fragments collectively serves as a unique "fingerprint" or "barcode" for that sequence.

Ultra-Thin Camera Creates Images Without Lenses. New design substitutes an array of light receivers for a lens, making cameras thin, light, cheap, and flexible.

Spatial Intelligence

Phased-Array Optics is the technology of controlling the phase of light waves transmitting or reflecting from a two-dimensional surface by means of adjustable surface elements. It is the optical analogue of phased array radar. By dynamically controlling the optical properties of a surface on a microscopic scale, it is possible to steer the direction of light beams, or the view direction of sensors, without any moving parts. Hardware associated with beam steering applications is commonly called an optical phased array (OPA). Phased array beam steering is used for optical switching and multiplexing in optoelectronic devices, and for aiming laser beams on a macroscopic scale. Complicated patterns of phase variation can be used to produce diffractive optical elements, such as dynamic virtual lenses, for beam focusing or splitting in addition to aiming. Dynamic phase variation can also produce real-time holograms. Devices permitting detailed addressable phase control over two dimensions are a type of spatial light modulator (SLM). In nanotechnology, phased array optics refers to arrays of lasers or SLMs with addressable phase and amplitude elements smaller than a wavelength of light. While still theoretical, such high resolution arrays would permit extremely realistic three-dimensional image display by dynamic holography with no unwanted orders of diffraction. Applications for weapons, space communications, and invisibility by optical camouflage have also been suggested.

Silicon Photonics is the study and application of photonic systems which use silicon as an optical medium. The silicon is usually patterned with sub-micrometre precision, into microphotonic components. These operate in the infrared, most commonly at the 1.55 micrometre wavelength used by most fiber optic telecommunication systems. The silicon typically lies on top of a layer of silica in what (by analogy with a similar construction in microelectronics) is known as silicon on insulator (SOI).

Weather - Atmosphere - Monitors


Mining is extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, which are Non-renewable resources that do not renew and are there for unsustainable. But if theses extractions were to be used effectively and efficiently our resources would benefit mankind, instead of poisoning the environment and killing people and other life forms.

Mineral Policy Institute specializes in preventing environmentally and socially destructive mining, minerals and energy projects in Australia, Asia and the Pacific.

Progress Trap - Social Trap - Destructive Mining (Consent to Operate)

Overconsumption is a situation where resource use has outpaced the sustainable capacity of the ecosystem. A prolonged pattern of overconsumption leads to environmental degradation and the eventual loss of resource bases.

Source International works with communities facing environmental pollution issues and health problems. who suffer Human Rights violations, especially linked to extractive industries. Any processes that involve the extraction of raw materials from the earth to be used by consumers. The extractive industry consists of any operations that remove metals, mineral and aggregates from the earth. Examples of extractive processes include oil and gas extraction, mining, dredging and quarrying.

Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative is a global standard to promote the open and accountable management of extractive resources. It seeks to address the key governance issues in the oil, gas and mining sectors. EITI promots public awareness about how countries manage their oil, gas and mineral resources.

Strip Coal Mining Destructive Mining

Vandalism is an action involving deliberate destruction of or damage to public or private property.

Environmental Crime is an illegal act which directly harms the environment.


Toxins - Pollution
Groundwater Contamination
Toxics Release Inventory Tri-Program
Toxics Release Inventory
Waste Materials from Mines
Waste Types
Toxic Mine Waste Threatens Worlds Waters - Toxins

Conflict Mineral are natural resources extracted in a conflict zone and sold to perpetuate the fighting. Conflict Free does not mean free from other problems.

Congo Conflict Minerals (PDF)
Indigenous People are Left Poor as Tech World takes Lithium from under their Feet
Atacama People - Atacama Desert

Brine Mining is the extraction of useful materials (elements or compounds) which are naturally dissolved in brine. The brine may be seawater, other surface water, or groundwater. It differs from solution mining or in-situ leaching in that those methods inject water or chemicals to dissolve materials which are in a solid state; in brine mining, the materials are already dissolved. Brines are important sources of salt, iodine, lithium, magnesium, potassium, bromine, and other materials, and potentially important sources of a number of others.

Investigating BHP's $5bn Mining Disaster In Brazil (youtube)

Damian Palin: Mining Minerals from Seawater (video)
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH)
The Hidden Cost of Fossil Fuels 
Hambach Surface Mine
Mining Technology
Mineral Resource
Metals used in high-tech products face future supply risks
Abandoned Mines
Resource Shortages

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health is responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness. NIOSH is part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Progressive Massive Fibrosis is the disease arises firstly through the deposition of silica or coal dust (or other dust) within the lung, and then through the body's immunological reactions to the dust.

Coal worker's Pneumoconiosis is also known as black lung disease or black lung, is caused by long exposure to coal dust. Similar to both silicosis from inhaling silica dust and to the long-term effects of tobacco smoking. Inhaled coal dust progressively builds up in the lungs and cannot be removed by the body; this leads to inflammation, fibrosis, and in worse cases, necrosis.

Silicosis is a form of occupational lung disease caused by inhalation of crystalline silica dust, and is marked by inflammation and scarring in the form of nodular lesions in the upper lobes of the lungs. It is a type of pneumoconiosis. Silicosis resulted in 46,000 deaths globally in 2013 down from 55,000 deaths in 1990.

Exploitation of Natural Resources is the use of natural resources for economic growth, sometimes with a negative connotation of accompanying environmental degradation.

Rare Earth Elements - Precious Metals - Geology

Convenience should never be a reason to commit murder or as a reason to destroy resources.


Energy Returned on Energy Invested is the ratio of the amount of usable energy delivered from a particular energy resource to the amount of energy used to obtain that energy resource. It is a distinct measure from energy efficiency as it does not measure the primary energy inputs to the system, only usable energy.

Divesting from companies related to fossil fuel abuses. We just don't want to Pool Resources, we need to correctly measure the resources the world has so that we can then use them effectively and fairly without waste and abuse. Resources belong to the people of the earth, and not to individuals, governments or corporations. 

Boycott - Carbon Bubble

Resource Depletion is the consumption of a resource faster than it can be replenished. Natural resources are commonly divided between renewable resources and non-renewable resources (see also mineral resource classification). Use of either of these forms of resources beyond their rate of replacement is considered to be resource depletion.

Tradable Energy Quotas is a proposal for a national emissions and energy trading scheme that includes personal carbon trading as a central element. It is the subject of significant interest from the UK Government, and is explicitly designed to address both climate change and peak oil.

Habitat Destruction
Go Fossil Free: Divestment Day February 13 and 14:
Divest from fossil fuels.

In the valuation of companies dependent on fossil-fuel-based energy production, because the true costs of carbon dioxide in intensifying global warming are not yet taken into account in a company's stock market valuation. Currently the price of fossil fuels companies' shares is calculated under the assumption that all fossil fuel reserves will be consumed. An estimate made by Kepler Chevreux puts the loss in value of the fossil fuel companies due to the impact of the growing renewables industry at US$28 trillion over the next two decades-long. A more recent analysis made by Citi puts that figure at $100 trillion. Analysts in both the petroleum and financial industries are concluding that the "age of oil" has already reached a new stage where the excess supply that appeared in late 2014 may continue to prevail in the future. A consensus appears to be emerging that an international agreement will be reached to introduce measures to constrain the combustion of hydrocarbons in an effort to limit global temperature rise to the nominal 2 °C that is consensually predicted to limit environmental harm to tolerable levels.


Ray Anderson: The Business Logic of Sustainability (youtube)
Ecology of Commerce (amazon)
Amory Lovins: We Must Win the Oil Endgame (youtube)
Oil End Game 
Johan Rockstrom let the Environment Guide our Development (video)
James Hansen: Why I must Speak Out about Climate Change (video)
Steve Howard: Lets Go All in on Selling Sustainability (video)
Aluna (2014) 1:29.01
Kogi People (wiki)
MOMENTA  38:20 (proposed coal exports)
Paul Gilding: The Earth is Full (video)
Pavan Sukhdev: What is the Price of Nature (video)  PS
E. O. Wilson on Saving life on Earth (video)
Encyclopedia of Life 
Garth Lenz: The True Cost of Oil (video)
Witness : To the Last Drop - Part 1 (youtube)

Keystone Pipeline (wiki)
Stop Keystone XL 
Oil Sands
Dirty Oil Sands
Murder by Oil
Above All Else (09/20/2014 - 1:35)  This movie shows the criminals, the murderers, the liars, the polluters, and the thieves of the Keystone Pipeline. All who work for the Keystone Pipeline are Accessories to these crimes.
List Of Corporate Crimes being Committed

Idle no More
Idle No More (wiki)
First Nations
Sacred Spirit Of Water (youtube)

Environmental Films
Environmental News
Environmental Journalism

Green Building
Green Fuels - Alternate Fuels - Electric Cars
Green Products

Land Conservation Websites
Ocean Protection Websites
River Protection Websites

Norman Borlaug
Green Revolution
Nature Sound Map Sounds of Nature around the world

Problem Solving

Laws of Nature are recurring facts or events in nature. Reality

Order is a logical or comprehensible arrangement of separate elements. A condition of regular or proper arrangement.

Interdependence is a reciprocal relation between interdependent entities.

"Whatever we do to the Earth, we do to ourselves."   Environment Quotes

"It's not just our actions that do damage, it's also our inactions that do damage."

inactive is not progressing, or progressing to slowly. Not exerting influence or change. Lacking activity. Lacking in energy or will. Lying idle or unused. Not active physically or mentally.

Earth Biology

Earth Science is the study of geology, the lithosphere, and the large-scale structure of the Earth's interior, as well as the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. Typically, Earth scientists use tools from geography, physics, chemistry, biology, chronology, and mathematics to build a quantitative understanding of how the Earth system works and evolves.

Naturalist Intelligence
Kingdom Biology
Earth Timeline

Rocks - Dirt

Metamorphic Minerals Geology is the study of Rocks and Solid Earth. A science that deals with the history of the earth as recorded in rocks.

Mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and abiogenic in origin. A mineral has one specific chemical composition, whereas a rock can be an aggregate of different minerals or mineraloids. The study of minerals is called mineralogy.

Mineralogy is a subject of geology specializing in the scientific study of chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals and mineralized artifacts. Specific studies within mineralogy include the processes of mineral origin and formation, classification of minerals, their geographical distribution, as well as their utilization.

Soil - Metals - Elements

208 species of minerals exist today solely due to human Mining in locations around the world. These minerals represent nearly 4 percent of the 5,200 mineral species recognized by the International Mineralogical Association, which is an international group of 38 national societies. The goal is to promote the science of mineralogy and to standardize the nomenclature of the 4000 plus known mineral species. The IMA is affiliated with the International Union of Geological Sciences, which is devoted to international cooperation in the field of geology.

There are around 5,200 Minerals

Zircon is a mineral belonging to the group of nesosilicates. Its chemical name is zirconium silicate and its corresponding chemical formula is ZrSiO4.

Guide to Rocks, Minerals, & Gemstones
List of U.S. State Minerals, Rocks, Stones and Gemstones (wiki)

Silicate Minerals are rock-forming minerals made up of silicate groups. They are the largest and most important class of rock-forming minerals and make up approximately 90 percent of the Earth's crust. They are classified based on the structure of their silicate groups, which contain different ratios of silicon and oxygen.

Rock is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids. For example, granite, a common rock, is a combination of the minerals quartz, feldspar and biotite. The Earth's outer solid layer, the lithosphere, is made of rock. Three major groups of rocks are defined: igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic. The scientific study of rocks is called petrology, which is an essential component of geology. Earth’s rocks contain more than 4,000 different minerals (the crystalline molecules that make up rocks).

Igneous Rock or magmatic rock, is formed through the cooling and solidification of magma or lava. The magma can be derived from partial melts of existing rocks in either a planet's mantle or crust. Typically, the melting is caused by one or more of three processes: an increase in temperature, a decrease in pressure, or a change in composition. Solidification into rock occurs either below the surface as intrusive rocks or on the surface as extrusive rocks. Igneous rock may form with crystallization to form granular, crystalline rocks, or without crystallization to form natural glasses.

Volcanic Rock is a rock formed from magma erupted from a volcano. In other words, it differs from other igneous rock by being of volcanic origin. Like all rock types, the concept of volcanic rock is artificial, and in nature volcanic rocks grade into hypabyssal and metamorphic rocks and constitute an important element of some sediments and sedimentary rocks. For these reasons, in geology, volcanics and shallow hypabyssal rocks are not always treated as distinct. In the context of Precambrian shield geology, the term "volcanic" is often applied to what are strictly metavolcanic rocks. Volcanic rocks are among the most common rock types on Earth's surface, particularly in the oceans. On land, they are very common at plate boundaries and in flood basalt provinces. It has been estimated that volcanic rocks cover about 8% of the Earth's current land surface.

Metamorphic Rock arises from the transformation of existing rock types, in a process called metamorphism, which means "change in form". The original rock (protolith) is subjected to heat (temperatures greater than 150 to 200 °C) and pressure (1500 bars), causing profound physical and/or chemical change. The protolith may be a sedimentary rock, an igneous rock or another older metamorphic rock. Metamorphism is the change of minerals or geologic texture (distinct arrangement of minerals) in pre-existing rocks (protoliths), without the protolith melting into liquid magma (a solid-state change). The change occurs primarily due to heat, pressure, and the introduction of chemically active fluids. The chemical components and crystal structures of the minerals making up the rock may change even though the rock remains a solid. Changes at or just beneath Earth's surface due to weathering and/or diagenesis are not classified as metamorphism.Metamorphism typically occurs between diagenesis (max. 200°C), and melting (~850°C). Three types of metamorphism exist: contact, dynamic, and regional. Metamorphism produced with increasing pressure and temperature conditions is known as prograde metamorphism. Conversely, decreasing temperatures and pressure characterize retrograde metamorphism.

Sedimentary Rock are types of rock that are formed by the deposition and subsequent cementation of that material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water. Sedimentation is the collective name for processes that cause mineral and/or organic particles (detritus) to settle in place. The particles that form a sedimentary rock by accumulating are called sediment. Before being deposited, the sediment was formed by weathering and erosion from the source area, and then transported to the place of deposition by water, wind, ice, mass movement or glaciers, which are called agents of denudation. Sedimentation may also occur as minerals precipitate from water solution or shells of aquatic creatures settle out of suspension.

Sediment is a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering and erosion, and is subsequently transported by the action of wind, water, or ice, and/or by the force of gravity acting on the particles. For example, sand and silt can be carried in suspension in river water and on reaching the sea be deposited by sedimentation and if buried this may eventually become sandstone and siltstone, ( sedimentary rocks).

Sand is a naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles. It is defined by size, being finer than gravel and coarser than silt. Sand can also refer to a textural class of Soil or soil type; i.e. a soil containing more than 85% sand-sized particles by mass. The composition of sand varies, depending on the local rock sources and conditions, but the most common constituent of sand in inland continental settings and non-tropical coastal settings is Silica (silicon dioxide, or SiO2), usually in the form of Quartz. The second most common type of sand is Calcium Carbonate, for example aragonite, which has mostly been created, over the past half billion years, by various forms of life, like coral and shellfish. For example, it is the primary form of sand apparent in areas where reefs have dominated the ecosystem for millions of years like the Caribbean.

Quicksand is a colloid hydrogel consisting of fine granular material (such as sand, silt or clay), and water. Quicksand forms in saturated loose sand when the sand is suddenly agitated. When water in the sand cannot escape, it creates a liquefied soil that loses strength and cannot support weight. Quicksand can form in standing water or in upwards flowing water (as from an artesian spring). In the case of upwards flowing water, seepage forces oppose the force of gravity and suspend the soil particles. The saturated sediment may appear quite solid until a sudden change in pressure or shock initiates liquefaction. This causes the sand to form a suspension and lose strength. The cushioning of water gives quicksand, and other liquefied sediments, a spongy, fluidlike texture. Objects in liquefied sand sink to the level at which the weight of the object is equal to the weight of the displaced soil/water mix and the submerged object floats due to its buoyancy. Liquefaction is a special case of quicksand. In this case, sudden earthquake forces immediately increase the pore pressure of shallow groundwater. The saturated liquefied soil loses strength, causing buildings or other objects on that surface to sink or fall.
Liquid Earth (youtube)

Diamonds are hard and strong because Diamonds carbon shares electrons with four other carbon atoms - forming four single bonds operating in 3-dimensions making a structure. Diamonds don't conduct electricity. All the electrons are held tightly between the atoms, and aren't free to move. Graphite has layers that leaves out the fourth electron in the bonding level, making it soft and brittle.


Soil Science - Soil

Stratigraphy is a branch of geology which studies rock layers (strata) and layering (stratification). It is primarily used in the study of sedimentary and layered volcanic rocks. Stratigraphy has two related subfields: lithologic stratigraphy or lithostratigraphy, and biologic stratigraphy or biostratigraphy.

Geologist is a scientist who studies the solid and liquid matter that constitutes the Earth as well as the processes and history that have shaped it.

Ecology - Ecosystem

Geophysiology (connected)


Hydrosphere is the combined mass of water found on, under, and above the surface of a planet, minor planet or natural satellite.

Hydrogeology is the area of geology that deals with the distribution and movement of groundwater in the soil and rocks of the Earth's crust (commonly in aquifers). The term geohydrology is often used interchangeably. Some make the minor distinction between a hydrologist or engineer applying themselves to geology (geohydrology), and a geologist applying themselves to hydrology (hydrogeology).

Oceanography is the study of physical conditions and physical processes within the ocean, especially the motions and physical properties of ocean waters.


Geography is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth.

The True Size of Countries

Topography (earth surface) - Maps - Tools - Navigation

U.S. Geological Survey

Geographic Information System is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present spatial or geographic data. The acronym GIS is sometimes used for geographic information science (GIScience) to refer to the academic discipline that studies geographic information systems and is a large domain within the broader academic discipline of geoinformatics. What goes beyond a GIS is a spatial data infrastructure, a concept that has no such restrictive boundaries.

Earth (planet)

Geochemistry is the science that uses the tools and principles of chemistry to explain the mechanisms behind major geological systems such as the Earth's crust and its oceans. The realm of geochemistry extends beyond the Earth, encompassing the entire Solar System and has made important contributions to the understanding of a number of processes including mantle convection, the formation of planets and the origins of granite and basalt

Geomorphology is the scientific study of the origin and evolution of topographic and bathymetric features created by physical, chemical or biological processes operating at or near the Earth's surface.

Geotechnical Engineering is the branch of civil engineering concerned with the engineering behavior of earth materials.

Geological Engineering is a hybrid discipline that comprises elements of civil engineering, mining engineering, petroleum engineering, and earth sciences.

Geophysical Engineering is the application of geophysics to the engineering design of facilities including roads, tunnels, and mines.

Global Environment Facility was established on the eve of the 1992 Rio Earth Summit to help tackle our planet’s most pressing environmental problems. Since then, the GEF has provided over $17 billion in grants and mobilized an additional $88 billion in financing for more than 4000 projects in 170 countries. Today, the GEF is an international partnership of 183 countries, international institutions, civil society organizations and the private sector that addresses global environmental issues.

Engineering Geology is the application of the geological sciences to engineering study.

We are already doing Geo-Engineering, we polluted the air, land and water, we over fish, we cut down too many trees, we raise too many farm animals just for meat, and we added lots of CO2 into the air. Climate Change

Restoration - Environmental Engineering

Core Sample is a cylindrical section of (usually) a naturally occurring substance. Most core samples are obtained by drilling with special drills into the substance, for example sediment or rock, with a hollow steel tube called a core drill. The hole made for the core sample is called the "core bowling". A variety of core samplers exist to sample different media under different conditions. More continue to be invented on a regular basis. In the coring process, the sample is pushed more or less intact into the tube. Removed from the tube in the laboratory, it is inspected and analyzed by different techniques and equipment depending on the type of data desired. Core samples can be taken to test the properties of manmade materials, such as concrete, ceramics, some metals and alloys, especially the softer ones. Core samples can also be taken of living things, including human beings, especially of a person's bones for microscopic examination to help diagnose diseases.

Surface Exposure Dating
The Encyclopedia of Earth

Land Development
Sustainable Landscapes
Spatial Awareness

Eratosthenes invented the discipline of geography, including the terminology used today. A Greek mathematician and astronomer who estimated the circumference of the earth and the distances to the Moon and sun (276-194 BC)


Animals Zoology is the branch of biology that studies the animal kingdom, including the structure, embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and distribution of all animals, both living and extinct, and how they interact with their ecosystems.

Ethology is the scientific and objective study of animal behaviour, usually with a focus on behaviour under natural conditions, and viewing behaviour as an evolutionarily adaptive trait.

Animals are multicellular, eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom Animalia (also called Metazoa). The animal kingdom emerged as a basal clade within Apoikozoa as a sister of the choanoflagellates. Sponges are the most basal clade of animals. Animals are motile, meaning they can move spontaneously and independently at some point in their lives. Their body plan eventually becomes fixed as they develop, although some undergo a process of metamorphosis later on in their lives. All animals are heterotrophs: they must ingest other organisms or their products for sustenance.

Animal Photos

Megafauna are large or giant animals.

Mammals are any vertebrates within the class Mammalia distinguished from reptiles and birds by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones and mammary glands.

Zoos - Aquariums

Biophony refers to the collective sound that vocalizing animals create in each given environment.

Ways to Save some of the Worlds Rarest Species
Eggs (image)


Insects Entomology is the scientific study of insects, a branch of zoology.

Insects are a class of invertebrates within the arthropod phylum that have a chitinous exoskeleton, a three-part body (head, thorax and abdomen), three pairs of jointed legs, compound eyes and one pair of antennae. Insects are the most diverse group of animals on the planet, including more than a million described species and representing more than half of all known living organisms. The number of extant species is estimated at between six and ten million, and potentially represent over 90% of the differing animal life forms on Earth. Insects may be found in nearly all environments, although only a small number of species reside in the oceans, a habitat dominated by another arthropod group, crustaceans.

Egg is the organic vessel containing the zygote in which an animal embryo develops until it can survive on its own; at which point the animal hatches. An egg results from fertilization of an ovum. Most arthropods, vertebrates, and mollusks lay eggs, although some, such as scorpions and most mammals, do not.

Larva is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults. Animals with indirect development such as insects, amphibians, or cnidarians typically have a larval phase of their life cycle.

Pupa is the life stage of some insects undergoing transformation between immature and mature stages. The pupal stage is found only in holometabolous insects, those that undergo a complete metamorphosis, with four life stages: egg, larva, pupa and imago. The processes of entering and completing the pupal stage are controlled by the insect's hormones, especially juvenile hormone, prothoracicotropic hormone, and ecdysone.

Metamorphosis is a biological process by which an animal physically develops after birth or hatching, involving a conspicuous and relatively abrupt change in the animal's body structure through cell growth and differentiation. Metamorphosis is iodothyronine-induced and an ancestral feature of all chordates. Some insects, fishes, amphibians, mollusks, crustaceans, cnidarians, echinoderms, and tunicates undergo metamorphosis, which is often accompanied by a change of nutrition source or behavior. Animals that go through metamorphosis are called metamorphoses. Animals can be divided into species that undergo complete metamorphosis ("holometaboly"), incomplete metamorphosis ("hemimetaboly"), or no metamorphosis ("ametaboly").

Imago is the last stage an insect attains during its metamorphosis, its process of growth and development; it also is called the imaginal stage, the stage in which the insect attains maturity. It follows the final ecdysis of the immature instars.

Phylogeny of insects is based on genome sequencing data, it is estimated that the class of insects originated on Earth about 480 million years ago, in the Ordovician, at about the same time terrestrial plants appeared.

Insect Agriculture is a specialized form of Symbiosis
Insect Photos
Physiology is the scientific study of the normal function in living systems.


Bottle Garden Botany is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. Earth System Science.

Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. The term is today generally limited to the green plants, which form an unranked clade Viridiplantae (Latin for "green plants"). This includes the flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms, ferns, Grass, clubmosses, hornworts, liverworts, mosses and the green algae, and excludes the red and brown algae. Historically, plants formed one of two kingdoms covering all living things that were not animals, and both Algae and Fungi were treated as plants; however all current definitions of "plant" exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria). Green plants have cell walls with cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts, derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria. Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color. Some plants are parasitic and have lost the ability to produce normal amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize. Plants are characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations, although asexual reproduction is also common. There are about 300–315 thousand species of plants, of which the great majority, some 260–290 thousand, are seed plants. Green plants provide most of the world's molecular oxygen and are the basis of most of Earth's ecologies, especially on land. Plants that produce grains, fruits and vegetables form humankind's basic foodstuffs, and have been domesticated for millennia. Plants play many roles in culture. They are used as ornaments and, until recently and in great variety, they have served as the source of most medicines and drugs. The scientific study of plants is known as botany, a branch of biology. Plants dominate every terrestrial environment, composing ninety-nine per cent of the biomass on earth. By comparison, humans and all the other animals are, in the words of one plant neurobiologist, “just traces.” Plants are able to sense and optimally respond to so many environmental variables—light, water, gravity, temperature, soil structure, nutrients, toxins, microbes, herbivores, chemical signals from other plants—that there may exist some brainlike information-processing system to integrate the data and coördinate a plant’s behavioral response.

Plant Biologists

Plant Physiology is a subdiscipline of botany concerned with the functioning, or physiology, of plants. Closely related fields include plant morphology (structure of plants), plant ecology (interactions with the environment), phytochemistry (biochemistry of plants), cell biology, genetics, biophysics and molecular biology.

Plant Physiology
Plant Genomics
Developmental Biology

Plant Intelligence are the reactions within signalling pathways may provide a biochemical basis for learning and memory in addition to computation and problem solving. Controversially, the brain is used as a metaphor in plant intelligence to provide an integrated view of signaling.

Study shows Plants talk through the Roots

Plant Neurobiology is the sensory adaptive behaviour of plants and plant electrophysiology. A plant's sensory and response system has been compared to the neurobiological processes of animals.

Hormonal Sentience describes the information processing rate in plants, which are mostly based on hormones instead of neurons like in all major animals (except sponges). Plants can to some degree communicate with each other and there are even examples of one-way-communication with animals.

Plants reveal Decision-Making Abilities under Competition. Plants can choose between alternative competitive responses according to the stature and densities of their opponents, biologists have discovered. A new study reveals that plants can evaluate the competitive ability of their neighbors and optimally match their responses to them.

Videos about Plants - The Intelligence of Plants
Mind of Plants : Documentary on The Intelligence of Plants (youtube) Season 1 Episode 3 | Aired on 07/02/2010 | TV-G | 52:16.
Jonathan Drori: The Beautiful Tricks of Flowers (video)
Stefano Mancuso: The Roots of Plant Intelligence, root brain theory (video)
Ameenah Gurib Fakim: Humble Plants that hide Surprising Secrets
The Secret Life Of Plants with Music by Stevie Wonder (youtube)
The Private Life of Plants (video)
Roger Roger - Rhapsody In Green I - Effluves Plant Music Sound Track (youtube)
The Private Life of Plants with David Attenborough (vimeo)
The Beauty of Pollination - Moving Art (youtube)
How trees talk to each other: Suzanne Simard (video and text)
Electrical Experiments with Plants that Count and Communicate (video and text)

Thigmomorphogenesis is the response by plants to mechanical sensation (touch) by altering their growth patterns. In the wild, these patterns can be evinced by wind, raindrops, and rubbing by passing animals.

is to give expression to. (communication).

Plant Behavior (neuro)
International Laboratory of Plant Neurobiology
Plant Molecular Biology
Plant Cell

Heliotropism is the diurnal motion or seasonal motion of plant parts (flowers or leaves) in response to the direction of the sun.
Why sunflowers follow the sun (youtube)

Tropism indicating growth or turning movement of a biological organism, usually a plant, in response to an environmental stimulus.

6 Kingdoms of Biology Plant Genetics is different from that of animals in a few ways. Like mitochondria, chloroplasts have their own DNA, complicating pedigrees somewhat. Like animals, plants have somatic mutations regularly, but these mutations can contribute to the germ line with ease, since flowers develop at the ends of branches composed of somatic cells. People have known of this for centuries, and mutant branches are called "sports". If the fruit on the sport is economically desirable, a new cultivar may be obtained.

Plant Genomes
Bioinformatics for Plant Biotechnology

Hermaphrodite is an organism (plant or animal) having both male and female reproductive organs. (2) An organism having both male and female organs. Therefore, is capable of producing both male and female gametes. Sometimes the cannabis plant will produce male organs on a female plant. Hermaphrodite is an organism that has reproductive organs and produces gametes normally associated with both male and female sexes.

Plant Reproductive Morphology is the study of the physical form and structure (the morphology) of those parts of plants directly or indirectly concerned with sexual reproduction.

Ethnobotany is the study of a region's plants and their practical uses through the traditional knowledge of a local culture and people. An ethnobotanist thus strives to document the local customs involving the practical uses of local flora for many aspects of life, such as plants as medicines, foods, and clothing. Richard Evans Schultes, often referred to as the "father of ethnobotany", explained the discipline in this way: Ethnobotany simply means [...] investigating plants used by primitive societies in various parts of the world.

Photosynthesis (solar energy)

How important are Flowers?

Most of our Foods and Medicines are derived from Flowers. Flower Photos

Flower also known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flower plants, the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms. The flower structure contains the plant's organs, and its function is to produce seeds through reproduction. For the higher plants, seeds are the next generation, and serve as the primary means by which individuals of a species are dispersed across the landscape either by pollination from insects, birds, bats or the wind. After fertilization, portions of the flower develop into a fruit containing the seeds. The grouping of flowers on a plant is called the inflorescence. In addition to serving as the reproductive organs of flowering plants, flowers have long been admired and used by humans, mainly to beautify their environment but also as a source of food.  Many flowers in nature have evolved to attract animals to pollinate the flower, the movements of the pollinating agent contributing to the opportunity for genetic recombination within a dispersed plant population. Flowers that are insect-pollinated are called entomophilous (literally "insect-loving"). Flowers commonly have glands called nectaries on their various parts that attract these animals. Birds and bees are common pollinators: both having color vision, thus opting for "colorful" flowers. Some flowers have patterns, called nectar guides, that show pollinators where to look for nectar; they may be visible to us or only under ultraviolet light, which is visible to bees and some other insects. Flowers also attract pollinators by scent. Many of their scents are pleasant to our sense of smell, but not all. Some plants, such as Rafflesia, the titan arum, and the North American pawpaw (Asimina triloba), are pollinated by flies, so they produce a scent imitating rotting meat. Flowers pollinated by night visitors such as bats or moths are especially likely to concentrate on scent which can attract pollinators in the dark rather than color: Most such flowers are white. (French flo(u)r) (Latin florem flos).

The first evidence of a flower was found in a fossil, named Archaefructus, believed to be 125 million years old. Hengduan Mountain Region in southwest China is believed to be the birthplace of all flowers. Hengduan Mountain Region contains about 30,000 species of flowering plants and ferns, compared to about 20,000 for all of North America north of Mexico. Amborella trichopoda is believed to be the first flower based on DNA evidence. Flowering plants are the most abundant and ecologically successful group of plants on earth. And ever since then, flowers have been an essential part of our history, our spiritual growth and an inspiration for millions. They have found a way into our hearts, by sight and smell, giving enlightenment and self realization. So it is no surprise that flowers are National Symbols, State Symbols and symbolic to many beliefs and teachings around the world. Rafflesia arnoldii (titan arum) is the world's largest flower at 3 feet across. Found in the Sumatra and Borneo regions of Indonesia. Its odor has been described as similar to rotting flesh.

Another large flower is the rare and threatened Amorphophallus titanum plant that grows an incredible 6 to 7 inches a day & also emits a strong odor, thus the name 'corpse flower'. Wolffia flower is the worlds smallest flower which floats on the surface of quiet streams and ponds. The entire plant, flower and all, is less than a millimeter long. A bouquet of a dozen could fit on the head of a pin These are just some of the things that I have learned about flowers, and all because of that one day in the spring of 2004, I decided to take a super macro close up of a flower, and after viewing it on my computer screen I realized I have been over looking one of the most fascinating things this world has ever created, flowers. There are about 300,000 plant species on Earth. Plants are the only life forms that can produce their own food using energy from sunlight. Plants produce almost all of the oxygen in the air that humans and other animals breathe. Plants are also an important source of food, building materials, and other resources that make life possible for Earth’s animals.

Stoma is a pore, found in the epidermis of leaves, stems, and other organs, that is used to control gas exchange.

"Find the seed at the bottom of your heart and bring forth a flower."  (Shigenori Kameoka)
"All plants are our brothers and sisters. "
"They talk to us and if we listen, we can hear them." (Arapaho)
"If one really loves nature, one can find beauty everywhere." (Vincent van Gogh)
"The best and most beautiful things in the world cannot be seen, nor touched but are felt in the heart." (Helen Keller)

Biological Systems is a significant task of systems biology and mathematical biology.[a] Computational systems biology[b] aims to develop and use efficient algorithms, data structures, visualization and communication tools with the goal of computer modelling of biological systems. It involves the use of computer simulations of biological systems, including cellular subsystems (such as the networks of metabolites and enzymes which comprise metabolism, signal transduction pathways and gene regulatory networks), to both analyze and visualize the complex connections of these cellular processes. Artificial life or virtual evolution attempts to understand evolutionary processes via the computer simulation of simple (artificial) life forms.

Trees (planting)

Plant Identifier Phone App
Wild Edible Plant Identifier App

Plant Pathology (diseases of plants)

Logarithmic Spiral is a self-similar spiral curve which often appears in nature. The logarithmic spiral was first described by Descartes and later extensively investigated by Jacob Bernoulli, who called it Spira mirabilis, "the marvelous spiral".

Self-Assembly is a process in which a disordered system of pre-existing components forms an organized structure or pattern as a consequence of specific, local interactions among the components themselves, without external direction. When the constitutive components are molecules, the process is termed molecular self-assembly. Self-assembly can be classified as either static or dynamic. In static self-assembly, the ordered state forms as a system approaches equilibrium, reducing its free energy. However, in dynamic self-assembly, patterns of pre-existing components organized by specific local interactions are not commonly described as "self-assembled" by scientists in the associated disciplines. These structures are better described as "self-organized".

Li is a concept found in Neo-Confucian Chinese philosophy. It refers to the underlying reason and order of nature as reflected in its organic forms.

Environmental Awareness Books

The Animal That Wouldn't Die (w/Robert Krulwich) (youtube)

Hydra is a genus of small, fresh-water animals of the phylum Cnidaria and class Hydrozoa. They are native to the temperate and tropical regions. Biologists are especially interested in Hydra because of their regenerative ability – they appear not to age or die of old age.

Information on Plant Protection Products

Forest Garden - Permaculture

Thriving Bottle Garden Hasn't Been Watered in Over 40 Years (youtube)

Environmental Preservation Ideas

Summer Rayne Oaks keeps over 500 plants with 150 Types alive inside of her Williamsburg 1,200 foot Apartment (youtube)

Hardiness Zone is a geographically defined area in which a specific category of plant life is capable of growing, as defined by climatic conditions, including its ability to withstand the minimum temperatures of the zone (see the scale on the right or the table below). For example, a plant that is described as "hardy to zone 10" means that the plant can withstand a minimum temperature of -1°C (30.2°F) to 3.9°C (39.0°F). First developed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) as a rough guide to landscaping and gardening, the use of the zones has been adopted by other countries.

Royal Botanic Garden there are 391,000 vascular plant species known to science, with an average of 2,000 new ones being discovered and named each year. 21 percent of global plant species are currently threatened with extinction.


Air Meteorology is the Study of the Atmosphere.

Air in Earths Atmosphere is a mixture of 21% oxygen, 78% nitrogen, and approximately 1% other trace gases, primarily Argon, which is a noble gas and the third-most abundant gas in the Earths atmosphere and more than twice as abundant as water vapor, which is lighter than air and triggers convection currents that can lead to clouds.

Biosphere is the global sum of all ecosystems. Biosphere 2

Noosphere is the sphere of human thought.

Weather is the state of the atmosphere, to the degree that it is hot or cold, wet or dry, calm or stormy, clear or cloudy. Most weather phenomena occur in the troposphere, just below the stratosphere. Weather refers to day-to-day temperature and precipitation activity, whereas climate is the term for the statistics of atmospheric conditions over longer periods of time. When used without qualification, "weather" is generally understood to mean the weather of Earth.

Weather Forecasting

Air Quality Report - Pollution

Hydrochlorofluorocarbon is an organic compound that contains only carbon, chlorine, and fluorine, produced as volatile derivative of methane, ethane, and propane.

Climate - Climate Change

This Website is Hosted on Servers that are Powered by 100% Wind Energy

Indoor Air Assessment

Physical Geography is one of the two major sub-fields of geography. Physical geography is that branch of natural science which deals with the study of processes and patterns in the natural environment like the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and geosphere, as opposed to the cultural or built environment, the domain of human geography.

Art made of the Air we Breathe: Emily Parsons-Lord (video and interactive text)
Air is the combination of the invisible gases that envelop the Earth, attracted by the Earth's gravitational pull. That air that you just exhaled, you enriched a hundred times in carbon dioxide. So roughly five liters of air per breath, 17 breaths per minute of the 525,600 minutes per year, comes to approximately 45 million liters of air, enriched 100 times in carbon dioxide, just for you. Now, that's equivalent to about 18 Olympic-sized swimming pools. Carboniferous air. It's from about 300 to 350 million years ago. It's an era known as the time of the giants. So for the first time in the history of life, lignin evolves. That's the hard stuff that trees are made of. So trees effectively invent their own trunks at this time, and they get really big, bigger and bigger, and pepper the Earth, releasing oxygen, releasing oxygen, releasing oxygen, such that the oxygen levels are about twice as high as what they are today. And this rich air supports massive insects -- huge spiders and dragonflies with a wingspan of about 65 centimeters. To breathe, this air is really clean and really fresh. It doesn't so much have a flavor, but it does give your body a really subtle kind of boost of energy. It's really good for hangovers.

When you blow a bubble, the air in the bubble has 4% to 5% by volume more carbon dioxide and 4% to 5% by volume less oxygen than was inhaled. Your exhaled air is typically composed of: 78.04% nitrogen. 13.6% – 16% oxygen.

Plants that Purify Indoor Air 

Breathing Gas is a mixture of gaseous chemical elements and compounds used for respiration. Air is the most common, and only natural, breathing gas - but a range of pure gases or mixtures of gases are used in breathing equipment and enclosed habitats such as scuba equipment, surface supplied diving equipment, recompression chambers, submarines, space suits, spacecraft, medical life support and first aid equipment, high-altitude mountaineering and anaesthetic machines. Oxygen is the essential component for any breathing gas, at a partial pressure of between roughly 0.16 and 1.60 bar at the ambient pressure. The oxygen is usually the only metabolically active component unless the gas is an anaesthetic mixture. Some of the oxygen in the breathing gas is consumed by the metabolic processes, and the inert components are unchanged, and serve mainly to dilute the oxygen to an appropriate concentration, and are therefore also known as diluent gases. Most breathing gases therefore are a mixture of oxygen and one or more inert gases. Other breathing gases have been developed to improve on the performance of ordinary air by reducing the risk of decompression sickness, reducing the duration of decompression stops, reducing nitrogen narcosis or allowing safer deep diving. A safe breathing gas for hyperbaric use has three essential features: it must contain sufficient oxygen to support life, consciousness and work rate of the breather. It must not contain harmful gases. Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide are common poisons which may contaminate breathing gases. There are many other possibilities. It must not become toxic when being breathed at high pressure such as when underwater. Oxygen and nitrogen are examples of gases that become toxic under pressure. The techniques used to fill Diving Cylinders with gases other than air are called gas blending. Breathing gases for use at ambient pressures below normal atmospheric pressure are usually air enriched with oxygen to provide sufficient oxygen to maintain life and consciousness, or to allow higher levels of exertion than would be possible using air. It is common to provide the additional oxygen as a pure gas added to the breathing air at inhalation, or though a life-support system.

Nitrox refers to any gas mixture composed (excepting trace gases) of nitrogen and oxygen. This includes atmospheric air, which is approximately 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, and 1% other gases, primarily argon.

Rebreather is a breathing apparatus that absorbs the carbon dioxide of a user's exhaled breath to permit the rebreathing (recycling) of the substantially unused oxygen content, and unused inert content when present, of each breath. Oxygen is added to replenish the amount metabolised by the user. This differs from an open-circuit breathing apparatus, where the exhaled gas is discharged directly into the environment. As a person breathes, the body consumes oxygen and produces carbon dioxide. Base metabolism requires about 0.25 L/min of oxygen from a breathing rate of about 6 L/min, and a fit person working hard may ventilate at a rate of 95 L/min but will only metabolise about 4 L/min of oxygen The oxygen metabolised is generally about 4% to 5% of the inspired volume at normal atmospheric pressure, or about 20% of the available oxygen in sea level air. Exhaled air at sea level still contains roughly 16% oxygen. Even a small buildup of CO2 in the inhaled gas quickly becomes intolerable; if a person tries to directly rebreathe their exhaled breathing gas, they will soon feel an acute sense of suffocation, therefore rebreathers must chemically remove the CO2 in a component known as a carbon dioxide scrubber.

Naturalist intelligence

Nature Smart:  To recognize, categorize and draw upon certain features of the environment.

Life Sciences comprise the fields of science that involve the scientific study of living organisms – such as microorganisms, plants, animals, and human beings – as well as related considerations like bioethics.

Environmental Science - Restoration

Natural Science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on observational and empirical evidence. Habitat Destruction

Naturalism natural laws are the rules that govern the structure and behavior of the natural universe, that the changing universe at every stage is a product of these laws.

Brower Youth Awards recognizes the work of six young leaders who are making strides in the environmental movement.

Physical Science is a branch of natural Science that studies non-living systems, in contrast to life science. It in turn has many branches, each referred to as a "physical science", together called the "physical sciences". However, the term "physical" creates an unintended, somewhat arbitrary distinction, since many branches of physical science also study biological phenomena and branches of chemistry such as organic chemistry.

Outline of Earth Science (PDF)

Environmental Education

Naturalism Literature is a literary movement that emphasizes observation and the scientific method in the fictional portrayal of reality.

Life - Awareness - Purist

Sustainability Science
Sustainable Development
Limits to Growth
Green Building
Is the Eco-System our Teacher?
Waste to Energy
Earth Protectors (organizations)

Bio-Based Economy refers to all economic activity derived from scientific and research activity focused on biotechnology. In other words, understanding mechanisms and processes at the genetic and molecular levels and applying this understanding to creating or improving industrial processes.

Emergence is a process whereby larger entities, patterns, and regularities arise through interactions among smaller or simpler entities that themselves do not exhibit such properties.

Natural Capital is the world's stock of natural resources, which includes geology, soils, air, water and all living organisms. Natural capital assets provide people with a wide range of free goods and services, often called ecosystem services, which underpin our economy and society and some of which even make human life possible. Natural Law

Systems Science studies the nature of systems—from simple to complex—in nature, society, and science itself.

Physiology the scientific study of the normal function in living systems.

Outdoor Courses, Wilderness Schools, Experiential Education
Survival Books and Info
Foraging for Edible and Medicinal Wild Plants
Hunter Gatherer
Natural Medicine

Homogeneity relating to the uniformity in a substance or organism.

Alchemy to purify, mature, and perfect certain objects.

Biomechanics is the study of the structure and function of biological systems such as humans, animals, plants, organs, fungi, and cells by means of the methods of mechanics.

Anthropology (Humans)

Physical Law is typically conclusions based on repeated scientific experiments and observations over many years and which have become accepted universally within the scientific community. The production of a summary description of our environment in the form of such laws is a fundamental aim of science. These terms are not used the same way by all authors.

Metamorphism is the change of minerals or geologic texture.

Instituto Terra
Global Green Carbon

Paleobotany is the branch of paleontology or paleobiology dealing with the recovery and identification of plant remains from geological contexts, and their use for the biological reconstruction of past environments (paleogeography), and both the evolutionary history of plants, with a bearing upon the evolution of life in general.

Paleoethnobotany is the study of remains of plants cultivated or used by man in ancient times, which have survived in archaeological contexts. Paleoethnobotany is the archaeological sub-field that studies plant remains from archaeological sites. Basing on the recovery and identification of plant remains and the ecological and cultural information available for modern plants, the major research themes are the use of wild plants, the origins of agriculture and domestication, and the co-evolution of human-plant interactions.

Paleoclimatology is the study of changes in climate taken on the scale of the entire history of Earth. It uses a variety of proxy methods from the Earth and life sciences to obtain data previously preserved within things such as rocks, sediments, ice sheets, tree rings, corals, shells and microfossils. It then uses the records to determine the past states of the Earth's various climate regions and its atmospheric system. Studies of past changes in the environment and biodiversity often reflect on the current situation, specifically the impact of climate on mass extinctions and biotic recovery.

Environmental Monitoring

Systematics is the study of the diversification of living forms, both past and present, and the relationships among living things through time.

Cultural Knowledge

Environmental Stewardship refers to responsible use and protection of the natural environment through conservation and sustainable practices. Aldo Leopold (1887–1949) championed environmental stewardship based on a land ethic "dealing with man's relation to land and to the animals and plants which grow upon it.

Environmental Knowledge

Study shows some Biodiversity Losses can be Reversed
Green Festivals

"It's not the strongest of species that survives, nor the most intelligent, but the one most adaptable to change." 
Charles Darwin  

About the quote above: Charles was assuming that there was intelligence and that it was not intelligent enough to adapt, then I guess it was not so intelligent after all? If you are not intelligent enough to adapt, then your not intelligent, just like we are now. So maybe Charles is just mocking our perceived intelligence, which doesn't really matter because the message still stands true, you have to adapt, if not, you die. HP   Homophony

"Don't shit where you eat, and Don't shit where you drink"..meaning, be extremely careful with sanitation, poor sanitation kills thousands everyday.


Agro Ecology is the study of ecological processes that operate in agricultural production systems.

Agriculture (Farming) - Everything about Farming
Forest Gardens - Organic Farmer - Sustainable Farming
Nutrition - Food Safety - Food Photos
Fungi - Mushrooms 

Bio-mimicry - Biology

Green Schools - Clean Technology Schools

Sustainability Studies Programs include instruction in sustainable development, geography, environmental policies, ethics, ecology, landscape architecture, city and regional planning, economics, natural resources, sociology, and anthropology.

Sustainability Management - Arborist (trees)

Resource Depletion is the consumption of a resource faster than it can be replenished. Natural resources are commonly divided between renewable resources and non-renewable resources (see also mineral resource classification). Use of either of these forms of resources beyond their rate of replacement is considered to be resource depletion. Exponential Decay

Habitat Destruction - Geo-Engineering 

Environmental Engineering is the branch of engineering concerned with the application of scientific and engineering principles for protection of human populations from the effects of adverse environmental factors; protection of environments, both local and global, from the potentially deleterious effects of natural and human activities; and improvement of environmental quality.

Ecological Engineering is an emerging study of integrating ecology and engineering, concerned with the design, monitoring, and construction of ecosystems. According to Mitsch (1996) "the design of sustainable ecosystems intends to integrate human society with its natural environment for the benefit of both".

Biological Engineering is the application of concepts and methods of biology (and secondarily of physics, chemistry, mathematics, and computer science) to solve real-world problems related to life sciences or the application thereof, using engineering's own analytical and synthetic methodologies and also its traditional sensitivity to the cost and practicality of the solution(s) arrived at. In this context, while traditional engineering applies physical and mathematical sciences to analyze, design and manufacture inanimate tools, structures and processes, biological engineering uses primarily the rapidly developing body of knowledge known as molecular biology to study and advance applications of organisms and to create biotechnology.

Clean Technology includes recycling, renewable energy (wind power, solar power, biomass, hydropower, biofuels, etc.), information technology, green transportation, electric motors, green chemistry, lighting, Greywater, and many other appliances that are now more energy efficient. It is a means to create electricity and fuels, with a smaller environmental footprint and minimize pollution.

Ethnobotany the scientific study of the relationships that exist between peoples and plants.

Experiential Education is the process that occurs between a teacher and student that infuses direct experience with the learning environment and content. The term is not interchangeable with experiential learning; however experiential learning is a sub-field and operates under the methodologies of experiential education.

Environmental Education refers to organized efforts to teach how natural environments function, and particularly, how human beings can manage behavior and ecosystems to live sustainably. It is a multi-disciplinary field integrating disciplines such as biology, chemistry, physics, ecology, earth science, atmospheric science, mathematics, and geography.

Environmental Education
Environmental Education 
Environmental Education

Teleology is the study of nature by attempting to describe things in terms of their apparent purpose, directive principle, or goal.

Outdoor Education refers to organized learning that takes place in the outdoors. Outdoor education programs sometimes involve residential or journey wilderness-based experiences in which students participate in a variety of adventurous challenges and outdoor activities such as hiking, climbing, canoeing, ropes courses and group games.

Progressive Education is the Emphasis on learning by doing – hands-on projects, expeditionary learning, experiential learning. Integrated curriculum focused on thematic units. Integration of entrepreneurship into education. Strong emphasis on problem solving and critical thinking. Group work and development of social skills. Understanding and action as the goals of learning as opposed to rote knowledge. Collaborative and cooperative learning projects. Education for social responsibility and democracy Highly personalized learning accounting for each individual's personal goals. Integration of community service and service learning projects into the daily curriculum. Selection of subject content by looking forward to ask what skills will be needed in future society. De-emphasis on textbooks in favor of varied learning resources. Emphasis on lifelong learning and social skills Assessment by evaluation of child's projects and productions.

Project Learning Tree
Greene School
Green Charter School
Green Education
The Holistic Life Foundation
Whole Earth
Tree People
Children of the Earth
Environmental Education
Eco Literacy
Good Clean Tech
Eco-Tech Institute
Earth Adventure
Environmental Outreach
Green Mountain College
Green Student
World Watch Institute 
College of Agricultural Engineering was opened in 1962. It was closed as a separate entity at the end of 2007 and the land sold for housing.
Environmental Integrity Project
Singularity University
Development Alternatives
Natural Step
The Green Workplace
Green Careers
Action Competence
Green Jobs
Global Community

Earth Protection Organizations

Environmental Crime - Cynicism virtue is the only good and that the essence of virtue is self-control.

Outdoor Schools
Adventurer Schools
Survival Books and Info
Foraging Wild Foods
Outdoor Gear Check List and Camping List
Recommended Gear 
Backpacking Tips

"Support wildlife, throw a party."

"Nature teaches beasts to know their friends". - (Act II, Scene I). Coriolanus  1607

Learning Outside the Classroom

Nature is everywhere we just need to learn to see it: Emma Marris (video and interactive text)

Novel Ecosystem are human-built, modified, or engineered niches of the Anthropocene. They exist in places that have been altered in structure and function by human agency. Novel ecosystems are part of the human environment and niche (including urban, suburban, and rural), they lack natural analogs, and they have extended an influence that has converted more than three-quarters of wild Earth. These anthropogenic biomes include technoecosystems that are fuelled by powerful energy sources (fossil and nuclear) including ecosystems populated with technodiversity, such as roads and unique combinations of soils called technosols. Vegetation associations on old buildings or along field boundary stone walls in old agricultural landscapes are examples of sites where research into novel ecosystem ecology is developing.

Anthropocene is human impact on the Earth's geology and ecosystems.

Habitat Destruction is the process in which natural habitat is rendered unable to support the species present. In this process, the organisms that previously used the site are displaced or destroyed, reducing biodiversity.

Environmental Crime is an illegal act which directly harms the environment.

Biodiversity falls below ‘safe levels’ globally

Biodiversity refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth. One of the most widely used definitions defines it in terms of the variability within species, between species and between ecosystems. It is a measure of the variety of organisms present in different ecosystems. This can refer to genetic variation, ecosystem variation, or species variation (number of species) within an area, biome, or planet. Terrestrial biodiversity tends to be greater near the equator, which seems to be the result of the warm climate and high primary productivity. Biodiversity is not distributed evenly on Earth. It is richest in the tropics. Marine biodiversity tends to be highest along coasts in the Western Pacific, where sea surface temperature is highest and in the mid-latitudinal band in all oceans. There are latitudinal gradients in species diversity. Biodiversity generally tends to cluster in hotspots, and has been increasing through time, but will be likely to slow in the future. The number and variety of plants, animals and other organisms that exist is known as biodiversity. It is an essential component of nature and it ensures the survival of human species by providing food, fuel, shelter, medicines and other resources to mankind. The richness of biodiversity depends on the climatic conditions and area of the region. All species of plants taken together are known as flora and about 300,000 species of plants are known to date. All species of animals taken together are known as fauna which includes birds, mammals, fish, reptiles, insects, crustaceans, molluscs, etc..

Biology - Balance - Risk Assessments

Biodiversity Hotspot is a biogeographic region with significant levels of biodiversity that is under threat from humans.

Hotspot Maps

Loss of Species Destroys Ecosystems. Better ecosystem services through biodiversity. High-diversity areas achieved better carbon storage. The number of insects and other species was significantly higher. Reciprocal interactions between species such as pollination took place more frequently. Higher-diversity meadows transported surface water into the soil better. High-diversity ecosystems were more stable in the case of disruptions such as droughts or floods than low-diversity ecosystems.

Ecological Threshold is the point at which a relatively small change or disturbance in external conditions causes a rapid change in an ecosystem. When an ecological threshold has been passed, the ecosystem may no longer be able to return to its state by means of its inherent resilience. Crossing an ecological threshold often leads to rapid change of ecosystem health. Ecological threshold represent a non-linearity of the responses in ecological or biological systems to pressures caused by human activities or natural processes. Critical load, tipping point and regime shift are examples of other closely related terms.

Invisible Web of the Rainforest. If we change the interactions inside this one species of plant, that it would effect plant diversity in the rainforest. There's these little caterpillars that can actually kill the plant. And then there are these ants that live inside the plant that kill the caterpillars. And then there's a beetle that kills the ants. The experiments that we did, for the most part involved adding beetles to patches of plants where these beetles didn't exist. When we did that what happened is they suppressed populations of ants, which normally suppress the caterpillars. So with the ants gone, caterpillar populations exploded and the leaf biomass declined really quickly of this plant. And what happened in this case is that other caterpillars were also released from control by the ants and they ate other species of plants, including plants that were destined to be big trees. They were seedlings of these plants that are normally these huge 40-meter tall trees that extend out from the canopy of the rainforest. The end result was that several years of just barely increasing the population of these beetles changed the diversity of plants in the understory." Cohabitation (coexist, symbiosis).

Investing in Conservation Pays Off. The study by an international team of researchers found that the $14.4 billion that countries spent on conservation from 1992 to 2003 reduced expected declines in global biodiversity by 29 percent.

Top 10 Dangers Facing Our Planet (video)


Genetic Variation is a fact that a biological system – individual and population – is different over space. It is the base of the Genetic variability of different biological systems in space.

Transient State is when a process variable or variables has been changed and the system has not yet reached a steady state. A transient process is a process in which process variables change over time. Transient analysis is a study of transient processes.

Transient Response is the response of a system to a change from an equilibrium or a steady state. The transient response is not necessarily tied to "on/off" events but to any event that affects the equilibrium of the system. The impulse response and step response are transient responses to a specific input (an impulse and a step, respectively).

Steady State is when the variables (called state variables) which define the behavior of the system or the process are unchanging in time.

Biological Interaction are the effects that the organisms in a community have on one another. In the natural world no organism exists in absolute isolation, and thus every organism must interact with the environment and other organisms. An organism's interactions with its environment are fundamental to the survival of that organism and the functioning of the ecosystem as a whole.

Biological Network is any network that applies to biological systems. A network is any system with sub-units that are linked into a whole, such as species units linked into a whole food web. Biological networks provide a mathematical representation of connections found in ecological, evolutionary, and physiological studies, such as neural networks. The analysis of biological networks with respect to human diseases has led to the field of network medicine. Soil

Carbon Dioxide CO2 Concentrations

"Every child must know that we are still learning and that we still have much to learn. Our future depends on you learning what people have still not learned."

"Remember, it's our responsibility to maintain our natural environment and preserve what we have left. The reason why we have parks and open land is because we learned how extremely valuable our  natural world is to us. But too many people do not fully understand the value of our natural world. So we have to find ways to spread this message and offer free information and knowledge so that people can educate themselves and learn what ever they need to learn. This way, people can make good choices that would continually improve their lives, as well as learn more and more about all the other possibilities that life offers us."

Permaculture - Forest Gardens

"The only resource that this world is short of is intelligence, and intelligence is one resource that we have the power to create ourselves."

Carbon Capture

Caring about People and the Planet can be Dangerous

Environmental Activists Murdered by Country 116 environmental activists were murdered in 2014 - that's almost double the number of journalists killed in the same period.

Environmental activists across 16 countries were murdered last year in 2015 trying to protect their communities and protecting forest, water, and land rights from illegal mining, logging, palm oil agriculture and industrial development projects.

200 killings in 2016 of people defending their land, forests and rivers against destructive industries.

Killings of Environmental Activists are Increasing

Activism - Journalism Hero's

Earth Defenders - Earth Protectors

Everyone person on this planet has benefited from people who were activists. All the freedoms we have came from activists, yet we still have ignorant criminals who are blinded by money, so much so, they can no longer see the truth.

Ocean Protectors

Environmental Activists Murdered by Year Wildlife biologists can now cover vastly more territory with the help of listening devices, camera traps, drones, satellites, remote DNA testing, and other technological timesavers.

"Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs."- United Nations

"If there's a more efficient way of doing something then you should do it. We should be thriving from our use of energy, and not waste our energy and poison ourselves because of it."

"I'm seeing a lot of advancements but not a lot of improvements. Why?" - Environmental Quotes

"Working with the land is a lot easier then working against it" - Maintenance

"When things are are used by many people in many places all over the world continuously, they can have an incredible impact on the earth and it's inhabitants. So we must make sure that the things we use a lot of have Positive effects, because if they have negative effects the results will be catastrophic, as clearly seen." 


Hiker with Trees By adding the value of the various services that Forests perform, such as providing clean water and absorbing Carbon dioxide, an EU-commissioned study estimates that the annual cost of forest loss is between $2 trillion and $5 trillion, which is not including the loss of humans or animal life. Air pollution now kills around seven million people every year globally. Trees help people live longer, healthier, happier lives. Trees and forests help remove 17 tonnes of air pollution, physically intercepting particulate matter and absorbing gasses through their leaves. Tree-based ecosystem benefits had a median annual value of $505 million. Ecological Modelling - Increasing ecosystem services and urban wellbeing.

Land and Forest Conservation Websites
Environmental Crime

15.3 billion trees are cut down each year, 45% of all trees on planet earth have been cut down. Trees create oxygen, sequester carbon, purify the air of pollutants, and help keep temperatures cooler.
Bio-Char Carbon Reduction  

How Trees Talk to Each Other: Suzanne Simard (video and interactive text)

We Forest
Green Belt Movement
Afforestt creating natural, wild, maintenance free, native forests. 
Global Forest Watch

Arboriculture is the cultivation, management, and study of individual trees, shrubs, vines, and other perennial woody plants. The science of arboriculture studies how these Plants grow and respond to cultural practices and to their environment. The practice of arboriculture includes cultural techniques such as selection, planting, training, fertilization, pest and pathogen control, pruning, shaping, and removal. A person who practices or studies arboriculture can be termed an 'arborist' or an 'arboriculturist'. A 'tree surgeon' is more typically someone who is trained in the physical maintenance and manipulation of trees and therefore more a part of the arboriculture process rather than an arborist. Risk management, legal issues, and aesthetic considerations have come to play prominent roles in the practice of arboriculture. Businesses often need to hire arboriculturists to complete "tree hazard surveys" and generally manage the trees on-site to fulfill occupational safety and health obligations. Arboriculture is primarily focused on individual woody plants and trees maintained for permanent landscape and amenity purposes, usually in gardens, parks or other populated settings, by arborists, for the enjoyment, protection, and benefit of people. Wood Working and Carpentry.

Arborist is a professional in the practice of arboriculture, which is the cultivation, management, and study of individual trees, shrubs, vines, and other perennial woody Plants in dendrology and Horticulture. Arborists generally focus on the health and safety of individual plants and trees, rather than managing forests (the domains of forestry and silviculture) or harvesting wood. An arborist's scope of work is therefore distinct from that of either a forester or a logger, though the professions share much in common. Environmental Studies

There are 60,065 species of trees in the world, according to a comprehensive study of the world's plants. The data revealed that Brazil was the nation with the greatest number of tree species, home to 8,715 varieties. Botanical Gardens Conservation International (BGCI) compiled the tree list by using data gathered from its network of 500 member organizations.

Plant for the Planet
Plant a Billion Trees
Plant for the Planet Billion Tree Campaign

Plant Trees while you Search the Web. Ecosia search engine has helped plant almost 18 million trees.

Trees for a Change is a tree or a group of trees is planted in an area of a U.S. Forest that's been damaged by fire. Information about where the tree is located and photos of it are posted online. The recipient of your gift can go online and learn about the tree. They can even use a map to find it and plan a trip to visit it!

Norway commits to zero deforestation and has become the first country in the world to commit to zero deforestation.

i Tree Tools for Assessing and Managing Community Forests.
Want Your City to Thrive? Look to Its Trees
Alliance for Community Trees

Who Bombed Judi Bari? (2012) Aired: 03/02/2012 | 1 hr. 32 min.
who bombed judi bari.com
Trees Foundation

Ecological Security Over 64,000 trees were planted in 15 minutes, breaking the world record for the most trees planted simultaneously. 7,000 people helped to plant Saplings in the Philippines province of Camarines Sur. Forests in the Philippines are considered to be one of the ten most threatened forests in the world. Conservation International reports that these threatened forests store over 25 gigatons of Carbon. Meanwhile, 15% of the world's Greenhouse Gas emissions are due to Deforestation. China has reportedly increased its forests by an unprecedented three million Hectares per year. But many conservationists are concerned that Old-Growth Forests are still disappearing as new forests are deliberately planted. As Conservation International's Olivier Langrand explains, "Forests must be seen as more than just a group of trees."

1000s in Ecuador pitch in to plant nearly 650,000 trees in One Day

India plans to plant 2 billion trees along the nation’s highway. India plants 66 million trees in 12 hours as part of record-breaking environmental campaign. More than 1.5 million volunteers were involved in the huge operation.

Drone That’s On A Mission To Plant One Billion Trees using biodgradble seed pods (youtube) - Drones

The Great Green Wall an African-led project with an epic ambition: to grow an 8,000 km natural wonder of the world across the entire width of Africa. Its goal is to provide food, jobs and a future for the millions of people who live in a region on the frontline of climate change. Once completed, the Great Green Wall will be the largest living structure on Earth and a new Wonder of the World. Great Green Wall initiative to combat the effects of climate change and desertification.
Why is Africa building a Great Green Wall? BBC News (youtube)

"The great green wall will defend us from the desert and The Great Wall of Intelligence that will defend us from ignorance".

Afforestation is the establishment of a forest or stand of trees in an area where there was no previous tree cover.

Terraforming (intelligent design)

Two Become ONE: Blind Man and friend with No Arms plant 10.000 trees in 10 years in China (youtube)

Newly grown tropical forests can capture harmful carbon from the atmosphere at a rate up to 11 times faster than older forests. We need to actively promote protection of old-growth forests as well as to promote natural forest regeneration.

Nature can provide services on par with traditional infrastructure. On average, forests make up just 40 percent of urban watersheds, with 30 percent of the area being used for crops and 20 percent for pasture. Replanting forests, restoring rivers, and changing farming practices to limit runoff.

Tropical forests covering an area nearly the size of India are set to be destroyed in the next 35 years.
Center for Global Development

China is building a belt of trees that will stretch some 2,800 miles across north and northwest China in an attempt to stop the advance of the Gobi Desert. Overall, the country has planted 13 million hectares (32 million acres) of new forest since 2008, according to the State Forestry Administration. Global Forest Watch, China has been suffering a net loss of about 523,248 hectares (1.29 million acres) of tree cover a year since 2011. Since 2008, that yearly amount appears to be dropping.

Saihanba National Forest Park is a national forest park located in Weichang Manchu and Mongol Autonomous County, Chengde, Hebei, China, with Inner Mongolian Plateau standing in the northwest, covering an area of 200.29-square-kilometre (77.33 sq mi). Established in 1962, this is a multifunctional botanical park integrating scientific research, plant species collection and display as well as tourism. Saihanba is often called "the Green Lung of north China". There are more than 618 species and 312 genera vascular plants cultivated in the park, including Eleutherococcus gracilistylus, Astragalus propinquus, Glycine, and Agropyron. Within the boundaries of the park, the following number of species are known to live: 261 species of mammals, 39 species of birds, 32 species of fish, and about 660 species of insects.

How pervasive is biotic homogenization in human-modified tropical forest landscapes. The paper suggests that creating a network of forest reserves nestled inside agricultural areas would be the most beneficial way to preserve biodiversity. These would include a mix of undisturbed and partially degraded forests.  National Forest Management Act of 1976

How many Trees can be grown in one acre depends on the space between each tree, and the type of tree.
1'x1' foot spacing can have 43,560 trees -  10'x10' 436 trees -  30'x30' 48 trees  -  250'x250'  1 tree

Farming Knowledge
How to Save Forests
Growing the Wood Raw Material

Flourishing faster: How to make Trees Grow Bigger and Quicker

Tree Planting is the process of transplanting tree seedlings, generally for forestry, land reclamation, or landscaping purpose. It differs from the transplantation of larger trees in arboriculture, and from the lower cost but slower and less reliable distribution of tree seeds.

Tree Planting Tips
Tree Planting
Food Forest
Native Forest Council
Native Forest Action

Friends of Trees
Arbor Day
Tree People
Plant Trees
Health in Harmony

Tree Relocation Machine (youtube)
Tree Relocation University of Michigan (youtube)
Enhanced Tree Removal - Enhanced Tree Trimming by Electric Companies
40 Metre Tree Removal (youtube)

Fall Photos - Autumn Facts

Living near trees can make you feel healthier.
Neighborhood greenspace and health in a large urban center
Nature experience reduces rumination and subgenual prefrontal cortex activation
Brodmann area 25 (brain cortex)
Rumination (worrying instead of problem solving)
11 scientifically proven reasons you should be spending less time in the office

Bioengineering Trees to be more resilient.

Chestnut Blight is a devastating disease of the American chestnut tree that in the early 1900s caused a rapid, widespread die-off of the once plentiful tree from its historic range, in the Eastern United States.
American Chestnut for Restoration
Transgenic American chestnuts show enhanced blight resistance and transmit the trait to T1 progeny

Plant a Tree in someone's Memory: 
Seeds of Life
Plant a Memory
New Growth
Green Burials

"There is something special when the tree leaves finally come out, it's like a breath of fresh air and a burst of energy."

Recognizing Hazardous Defects In Trees
Saving the Ash Tree

Fraxinus is a genus of flowering plants in the olive and lilac family, Oleaceae. It contains 45–65 species of usually medium to large trees, mostly deciduous though a few subtropical species are evergreen. The genus is widespread across much of Europe, Asia and North America.

Rapid Ohi'a Death | Ceratocystis Wilt of Ohi'a Native Hawaiian Trees
Sudden Oak Death Pathogen

Blight - Plant Diseases

Emerald Ash Borer

Emerald Ash Borer Under Bark

Potential effect of Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) on urban trees in the United States. Beetle could have killed a third of the trees in cities nationwide, at a loss of up to $669 billion.

New Aerial Survey Identifies More Than 100 Million Dead Trees in California

There used to be 4 billion American chestnut trees, but they all disappeared.

Phytophthora ramorum is the oomycete plant pathogen known to cause the disease sudden oak death (SOD). The disease kills oak and other species of trees and has had devastating effects on the oak populations in California and Oregon, as well as being present in Europe. Symptoms include bleeding cankers on the tree's trunk and dieback of the foliage, in many cases eventually leading to the death of the tree.

Chemicals from wood waste: Vitamins, medication, solvents, crop protection products and polymers cost-effective, environmentally friendly and safe manner -- using bacteria to create Succinic Acid.

Amazon Rain Forest - The Largest Rain Forest in the World

1.5 million square miles (1.7 billion-acre jungle), covering about 40 percent of South America. Makes up more than half of the Rainforest remaining on the planet, producing over 20 percent of the world’s oxygen and home to more than one-third of all living species in the world. It is the source of one-fifth of the Earth’s river water. The Amazon is situated in nine countries: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela. The Amazon River pushes so much water into the Atlantic Ocean that, more than one hundred miles at sea off the mouth of the river, one can dip fresh water out of the ocean. The volume of water in the Amazon river is greater than the next eight largest rivers in the world combined and three times the flow of all rivers in the United States.

Amazonas Images
Sebastiao Salgado
Global Forest Watch 2.0
Global Forest Watch
Forest Gardens
American Forests  

DETERring Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

Old-Growth Forest also termed primary forest, virgin forest, primeval forest, late seral forest, or (in Great Britain) ancient woodland — is a forest that has attained great age without significant disturbance and thereby exhibits unique ecological features and might be classified as a climax community. Old-growth features include diverse tree-related structures that provide diverse wildlife habitat that increases the biodiversity of the forested ecosystem. The concept of diverse tree structure includes multi-layered canopies and canopy gaps, greatly varying tree heights and diameters, and diverse tree species and classes and sizes of woody debris. Old-growth forests are valuable for economic reasons and for the ecosystem services they provide. This can be a point of contention when some in the logging industry may desire to cut down the forests to obtain valuable timber, while environmentalists seek to preserve the forests for benefits such as maintenance of biodiversity, water regulation, and nutrient cycling.

Environmental Monitoring and Law Enforcement. (eyes in the sky)

Detection of Deforestation (DETER) is a satellite-based system that enables frequent and quick identification of deforestation hot spots, greatly enhanced monitoring and targeting capacity, making it easier for law enforcers to act upon areas with illegal deforestation activity.

Paying People Not to Cut Down their Trees could be cost-effective way to reduce carbon emissions.
Cash for carbon:
A cost-effective way to reduce deforestation.

Payments For Ecosystem Services are incentives offered to farmers or landowners in exchange for managing their land to provide some sort of ecological service. They have been defined as "a transparent system for the additional provision of environmental services through conditional payments to voluntary providers." These programmes promote the conservation of natural resources in the marketplace. Alone in the Wild

Chevron vs. the Amazon - Full Documentary // Empire Files (youtube - 1 hour) Abby launches a deep investigation into Chevron Texaco's intentional spilling of 19 billion gallons of oil and waste in Ecuador's pristine Amazon.

Antonio donato Nobre: The Magic of the Amazon (video and text) 
Mark Plotkin: what the people of the Amazon know that you don't (video and text)
Akuntsu (youtube)
Amazônia Eterna The Amazon rainforest is a vast laboratory for experiments that are unveiling new relationships among human beings, corporations and natural heritage that is crucial for life on the planet. (12/05/2012 | 1 hr. 23 min.)

With more than 80 percent of Earth's forests already destroyed, The United Nations Environment Program recently released an alarming report indicating organized crime is responsible for 50 to 90 percent of illegal Logging in tropical countries in the Amazon basin, Central Africa and South East Asia. 
illegal Logging info
Palm-Oil Products 

Willie Smits: How to Restore a Rainforest (youtube)
TED Video 
Masarang Foundation
Burning Wood

Almost 19 million Hectares of Forests are destroyed every year due to Deforestation and illegal Logging? This is a direct result of people being forced to do horrible things by way of Economic Slavery and also a result of peoples ignorance and lack of education about Land Management. Land does not need to be cleared for our survival, it's the other way around. On top of that the planet is losing almost 20 million hectares of existing Arable Land due to degradation and bad Land Management and Bad Farming practices? So you see the the main problem still exists, economic slavery and peoples lack of education and information about Land Management.

Environmental Management Scheme
Sustainable Land Management
Earth Policy

Scientists estimate that humans burn an average of 175 million acres of forest and grassland every year, often to make room for agriculture and living space.

Deep In The Amazon, An Unseen Battle Over The Most Valuable Trees rubber tappers
Rubber Tapping (wiki)

Help Save Ecuador's Indigenous Peoples Ancestral Lands that includes Rain Forests from Destructive Oil Drilling

World Map of Tree Density

World in tree density: dark green represents a million or more trees per square kilometer. There are fewer trees in the lighter shades of green. The buff color has very few trees and darkest brown represents areas with no trees.

A team of 38 scientists finds that the planet is home to 3.04 trillion trees, blowing away the previously estimate of 400 billion. That means, the researchers say, that there are 422 trees for every person on Earth. More Earth Info

Conifers evolved before the Broadleaf Trees. Conifers produce their seeds in woody cones.
Broadleaf's produce their seeds in more fleshy fruits.

Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests

Coniferous means bearing pinecones, most coniferous are evergreen.
Needle is a thin, long modified leaf typical of conifers.
Evergreen means retaining leaves year round, therefore remaining “forever green”.
Softwood usually refers to coniferous trees. Wood Working.
Broadleaf is a thin, broad leaf structure with a good deal of surface area.
Deciduous is the dropping of a part that is no longer needed, in this case leaves.
Hardwood is another commonly used word for deciduous, broadleaf trees.

Tree Resin is where Amber comes from, which is fossilized tree resin.

Resin is a "solid or highly viscous substance" of plant or synthetic origin that is typically convertible into polymers. They are often mixtures of organic compounds, principally terpenes. Many plants, particularly woody plants, produce resin in response to injury. The resin acts as a bandage protecting the plant from invading insects and pathogens.

North Atlantic Oscillation and synchronized tree reproduction across Europe plays a greater role in large scale masting, the process whereby forest trees produce large numbers of seeds in the same year.

Norfolk Island Pine

Carbon Capture


Oil Spills and Leaks Happen Daily across U.S.

Pipeline Spills Each year there are more than 10,000 spills of oil and hazardous substances, according to federal estimates, many that get into water supplies. A six month CBS News investigation found that spills of crude oil and Toxic Chemicals last year alone were three times the amount of the Exxon Valdez spill. CBS News collected reported incidents for 2010 at wells and pipelines from three federal agencies and 23 of 33 oil and gas producing states. Not counting the BP disaster, we found at least 6,500 spills, leaks, fires or explosions nationwide - that's 18 a day. Overall, at least 34 million gallons of crude oil and other potentially toxic chemicals were spilled. That's triple the size of the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill. Poisoned Drinking Water. Dead wildlife, destroyed land, illness, injury, and people being forced from their homes. 

CO2 Poisoning - Global Warming - Air Pollution (Consent to Operate)

Environmental Crime is an illegal act which directly harms the environment. Lawsuit

Chemical Warfare (pesticides) - Nuclear Waste

Pipeline Spills Pollution kills 9 million a year and costs $4.6 trillion. The number of people killed by pollution is undoubtedly higher. Premature deaths, 16 percent of all deaths worldwide, most often the world's poorest who suffer.

Polluters are Suicide Bombers who mass murder people everyday in the name of money. It's time to change the meaning of the phrase "Trophy Hunting", it will now mean shutting down polluting businesses who poison the environment and mass murder people for money. Decorate your wall with that.

Suburban Ponds are a Septic Buffet. A new study by Yale shows that human waste accounts for a high percentage of nutrients consumed by some animals and plants in suburban ponds.

Pipeline Spills, 1986-2016 in the last 30 years, there have been over 8,700 liquid pipeline spills, averaging nearly one every day. 4.2 million barrels (176 million gallons) that have spilled in the last 30 years.

Dakota Access Pipeline Project - Bakken Pipeline Map

Neil Young's New Anti-Pipeline Protest Song Dakota Access Pipeline supports the Standing Rock Sioux Reservation.
Indian Givers...Young, Neil (youtube)

Voice Of Baceprot - The Enemy of Earth is You (youtube)

Contaminates - Toxins

Residual is remaining after the greater part or quantity has gone. Relating to or indicating a remainder. Something left after other parts have been taken away.

The Big Fix - BP epwater Horizon Oil Spill Cover up (youtube) 06/19/2012 | 02:07.  On April 22, 2010 the Deepwater Horizon offshore drilling rig sank into the Gulf of Mexico creating the worst oil spill in history. 205 million gallons of crude oil and over 1.8 millions gallons of chemical dispersant Corexit went into the sea. *Criminals*

OIL & WATER (full documentary HD) oil industry Cajun Deepwater Horizon Feature Film 
(youtube Published 8/3/2015  =  1:14:10)    Cajun (wiki) - Acadia (wiki)

Chevron vs. the Amazon - Full Documentary // Empire Files (youtube - 1 hour) Abby launches a deep investigation into Chevron Texaco's intentional spilling of 19 billion gallons of oil and waste in Ecuador's pristine Amazon.

The Empire Files: The Tyranny of Big Oil (youtube 28:25 mins.)  Son of a Snake Oil Salesman. 

How Big Oil Conquered the World (youtube, 1:11 mins.)

Documentaries Page

NASA CSI: On the Trail of a Hazy Global Killer Map shows concentrations of nitrogen dioxide in the lower atmosphere as detected by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument aboard the Aura satellite. 
OMI instrument

Oil and Water Don't Mix Aging oil pipelines threaten the pristine waters of the Straits of Mackinac in the Great lakes.

Tiny shrimplike amphipods living in the Mariana Trench were contaminated at levels similar to those found in crabs living in waters fed by one of China's most polluted rivers. The amphipods were contaminated with PCBs — polychlorinated biphenyls toxic chemicals used for decades in industry, as well as other industrial pollutants known as persistent organic pollutants.

MAGELLO User-friendly, high-resolution atmospheric and ocean data to identify movement of spills or toxic releases in rivers, ocean and air.

Oil demand in 2012 was 89.17 million barrels per day worldwide, an increase of 1.07 million barrels per day over 2011. Demand is projected to increase to 90.11 million barrels per day in 2013 and 91.46 million barrels per day in 2014. Statistics
Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration

Energy Alternatives

CBS News Video
Oil Spill Cleanup Equipment
Toxins in Products
Hazardous Waste

What BP Doesn't want you to know about the 2010 Gulf Spill
Corexit is a product line of oil dispersants used during oil spill response operations. Warnings from the Hazardous Substance Fact Sheet for 2-butoxyethanol include: "Cancer Hazard: 2-Butoxy Ethanol may be a carcinogen in humans since it has been shown to cause liver cancer in animals. Many scientists believe there is no safe level of exposure to a carcinogen...

Acid Rain is a rain or any other form of precipitation that is unusually acidic, meaning that it possesses elevated levels of hydrogen ions (low pH). It can have harmful effects on plants, aquatic animals and infrastructure. Acid rain is caused by emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide, which react with the water molecules in the atmosphere to produce acids. Some governments have made efforts since the 1970s to reduce the release of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide into the atmosphere with positive results. Nitrogen oxides can also be produced naturally by lightning strikes, and sulfur dioxide is produced by volcanic eruptions. Acid rain has been shown to have adverse impacts on forests, freshwaters and soils, killing insect and aquatic life-forms, causing paint to peel, corrosion of steel structures such as bridges, and weathering of stone buildings and statues as well as having impacts on human health.

What Ever Happened To Acid Rain? (youtube)

Toxin - Poison - Terrorism

8 Fossil Fuel Companies Responsible for 15% of Global Carbon Emissions Since 1850s
Royal Dutch Shell
Peabody Energy
Consol Energy
Arch Coal
Climate Accountability Scorecard Ranking - article

The Sleepy Texan Town Suffering In The Shadow Of Big Oil (youtube)
Petroleum Statistics

Fuel Oil is a fraction obtained from petroleum distillation, either as a distillate or a residue. Broadly speaking, fuel oil is any liquid fuel that is burned in a furnace or boiler for the generation of heat or used in an engine for the generation of power, except oils having a flash point of approximately 42 °C (108 °F) and oils burned in cotton or wool-wick burners. In this sense, diesel is a type of fuel oil. Fuel oil is made of long hydrocarbon chains, particularly alkanes, cycloalkanes and aromatics. The term fuel oil is also used in a stricter sense to refer only to the heaviest commercial fuel that can be obtained from crude oil, i.e., heavier than gasoline and naphtha.


Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty which extends the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that commits State Parties to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, based on the scientific consensus that (a) global warming is occurring and (b) it is extremely likely that human-made CO2 emissions have predominantly caused it. The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in Kyoto, Japan, on December 11, 1997 and entered into force on February 16, 2005. There are currently 192 parties (Canada withdrew effective December 2012) to the Protocol. Key Documents.

Global Alliance on Health and Pollution
Pollution Facts 

Exposures to polluted soil, water and air (both household and ambient) killed 8.4 million people in these countries in 2012.

World Health Organization statistics show that 56 million people died in 2012 — that’s every person who passed away on the planet, whether from car accidents, suicides, old age, cancer, hospital errors, lightning strike, infectious diseases, parachute failures, war or any number of other reasons. So, pollution killed nearly one in seven of them.

Other things that Kill Humans

It cost a "staggering" $76.6 billion to cover the health expenses of American children who were sick because of exposure to Toxic Chemicals and Air Pollutants in 2008, according to new research by senior scientists at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York

Warning: Mafia May Cause Cancer (youtube)

90% of all Cancers are caused by some form of Pollution.

California could save $7.2 billion in healthcare costs -- and prevent more than 400 premature deaths -annually if the state adopts a 64 miles- per-gallon equivalent fuel economy standard, according to a report released Tuesday by the American Lung Assn. in California. 

Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or light. Pollutants, the components of pollution, can be either foreign substances/energies or naturally occurring contaminants. Pollution is often classed as point source or nonpoint source pollution. Higher Levels of Airborne Organic Hydroperoxides

Environmental Damage is the deterioration of the environment through depletion of resources such as air, water and soil; the destruction of ecosystems; habitat destruction; the extinction of wildlife; and pollution. It is defined as any change or disturbance to the environment perceived to be deleterious or undesirable. As indicated by the I=PAT equation, environmental impact (I) or degradation is caused by the combination of an already very large and increasing human population (P), continually increasing economic growth or per capita affluence (A), and the application of resource depleting and polluting technology (T). Environmental degradation is one of the ten threats officially cautioned by the High-level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change of the United Nations. The United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction defines environmental degradation as "The reduction of the capacity of the environment to meet social and ecological objectives, and needs". Environmental degradation is of many types. When natural habitats are destroyed or natural resources are depleted, the environment is degraded. Efforts to counteract this problem include environmental protection and environmental resources management.

Farm land Poisoned by Pollution in China Superfund Sites (wiki) - Flooding Dangers

Destructive Mining

The Hidden Cost of Fossil Fuels

The Secret of the Seven Sisters - Special series - Al Jazeera (youtube)
Seven Sisters Oil Companies (wiki)

The Biggest and Most Damaging Disasters in Human History
Boom: North America's Explosive Oil-By-Rail Problem (youtube)

Counter Spill Lists Pollution Disasters around the World.

Just because people use products that are made from oil does not mean we don't have other choices and options. Just because some criminal takes away our choices and options does not mean that options don't exist anymore. When they are people living a life that you believe doesn't exist, that means that there is choices. People say that we are dependent on oil, but that is clearly a lie. That is like saying that the drug addict needs drugs, or that the soldier needs people to kill. To say that we need oil for jobs is a lie, that's like saying that we need war to live, or that we need to poison the environment, and that we need to kill people and destroy peoples health just because it creates jobs.

Ignorance is killing us.

Air Pollution

Causes of Death By State Air pollution kills an estimated 7 million people worldwide every year. 4.3 million deaths in 2012 caused by indoor air pollution, mostly people cooking inside using wood and coal stoves in Asia. WHO said there were about 3.7 million deaths from outdoor air pollution in 2012, of which nearly 90 percent were in developing countries. 


9 out of 10 or 92 Percent Of The World's Population Breathes Substandard Air Nearly 600,000 Children under 5 Die From Breathing Toxic Air Every Year.

Children and teens exposed to high levels of traffic-related air pollution have evidence of a specific type of DNA damage called telomere shortening.

Causes of Death By State Air Pollution Exposure on Home-to-School Walking Routes Reduces the Growth of Working Memory in Children

People who live close to high-traffic roadways face a higher risk of developing dementia than those who live further away.

Air Quality Maps - Air Quality Alerts

Indoor Air Quality Monitors (air filters)

Household Air Pollution and Health

Rolling Coal is the practice of modifying a diesel engine to increase the amount of fuel entering the engine in order to emit large amounts of black or grey sooty exhaust fumes into the air. It also may include the intentional removal of the particulate filter. Practitioners often additionally modify their vehicles by installing smoke switches and smoke stacks. Modifications to a vehicle to enable rolling coal may cost from $200 to $5,000.

Study shows how Air Pollution fosters Heart Disease

Air Pollution Particles Linked To Alzheimer's Found In Human Brain: Nanoparticles, linked to neurodegenerative diseases, are found in the human brain - and appear to come from an outside source. Video

American Lung Association 
Electric Cars - Alternate Fuel Cars
Clean Air Council
National Association of Clean Air Agencies

Infrared camera reveals 'invisible' air pollution (youtube)

More Causes of Death

Health Risks from Wildfires in U.S. climate change will expose tens of millions of Americans to high levels of air pollution in the coming decades. Air pollution from past and projected future wildfires in 561 western counties, and found that by mid-century more than 82 million people will experience “smoke waves,” or consecutive days with high air pollution related to Fires.

Wood Stoves

Particulates also known as particulate matter (PM) or particulates – are microscopic solid or liquid matter suspended in the Earth's atmosphere. Suspended particulate matter (SPM). Thoracic and respirable particles. Inhalable coarse particles, which are [coarse] particles with a diameter between 2.5 and 10 micrometres (µm). Fine particles with a diameter of 2.5 µm or less. PM2.5. PM10. Ultrafine particles. Soot.

More than 80% of the world’s urban population lives in areas where air quality does not meet standards set by the World Health Organization

Association between neighborhood air pollution concentrations and dispensed medication for psychiatric disorders in a large longitudinal cohort of Swedish children and adolescents.

Air Pollution Global Map of Deaths Nearly 138.5 million Americans, nearly 44 percent, are inhaling unhealthy air. Particulate Matter (PM) 2.5 means microscopic particles about 25 times thinner than a human hair; they can be dust, dirt, soot, smoke or liquid droplets. Ground-level ozone can trigger asthma attacks. 

Clean Air Act is a United States federal law designed to control air pollution on a national level. It is one of the United States' first and most influential modern environmental laws, and one of the most comprehensive air quality laws in the world. The 1955 Air Pollution Control Act was the first U.S federal legislation that pertained to air pollution; it also provided funds for federal government research of air pollution.

Environmental Justice Screening and Mapping Tool

Environmental Crime is an illegal act which directly harms the environment. International bodies such as the G8, Interpol, European Union, United Nations Environment Programme and the United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute have recognised the following environmental crimes: Illegal wildlife trade in endangered species in contravention to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Fauna and Flora (CITES); Smuggling of ozone-depleting substances (ODS) in contravention to the 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer; Dumping and illicit trade in hazardous waste in contravention of the 1989 Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes and Other Wastes and their Disposal; Illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing in contravention to controls imposed by various regional fisheries management organisations; Illegal logging and the associated trade in stolen timber in violation of national laws. These crimes are liable for prosecution. Interpol facilitates international police cooperation and assists its member countries in the effective enforcement of national and international environmental laws and treaties. Interpol began fighting environmental crime in 1992.

NASA Satellite Maps Show Human Fingerprint on Global Air Quality
Global Air Quality: the Impact of People and Cities 
Air Quality Maps

India's Smog Destroyed Enough Crops In A Year To Feed 94 Million People, worth an estimated $1.3 billion. The top four the 20 worst polluted cities worldwide are in India. Delhi is now the most polluted major city. India has the highest rate of deaths caused by respiratory disease. Indian air quality standards would save 2.1 billion life-years. If India curbs the pollution and meets its air quality standards, those 660 million people would add some 3.2 years onto their lives.

MILAN - Bicyclists had free rein of Milan's streets Monday during a six-hour ban on private cars in a bid to alleviate persistent smog. Health officials say vehicle emissions account for half of the pollution in Milan and 70 percent in Rome, and that the high pollution levels have increased reports of acute cardiovascular disease in recent days. Pollution levels in Italy's business capital have exceeded levels considered healthy for more than 30 days straight, prompting officials to ban private cars from 10 a.m. until 4 p.m. Monday through Wednesday this week. Rome, which is also battling smog, has been enforcing alternate day driving based on odd and even numbers on license plates, while Florence has announced limits on automobile access to the historic center through New Year's Eve.

Ozone Air Pollution are a group of pollutants, predominantly those emitted during the combustion of fossil fuels.
Ozone Pollution
Ozone-Pollution (EPA)

Ground-Level Ozone is a colorless and highly irritating gas that forms just above the earth's surface. It is called a "secondary" pollutant because it is produced when two primary pollutants react in sunlight and stagnant air. These two primary pollutants are nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

Leaded Gasoline used in piston-engine Airplanes
Once burned and emitted from the tail of a car or plane, lead from gasoline can contaminate not only the air but also waterways, livestock, crops and soil. What's more, the metal doesn't dissipate in the environment. The EPA reports increases in lead concentrations near airports that host piston-engine planes, including the Santa Monica Airport. The agency also echoes the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's warning that there is no safe level of lead exposure, and it estimates that 16 million people live, and more than 3 million children attend school, within a kilometer of airports where avgas is used. 

Avgas is an aviation fuel used in spark-ignited internal-combustion engines to propel aircraft. 


Coal supplies over 40 percent of global electricity needs. 1,200 big new coal facilities in 59 countries are proposed for construction, 7,000 coal-fired power plants, including almost 600 in the US.. 7.6 billion tons of coal consumed worldwide last year in 2014.  2 pounds of carbon dioxide emitted for each kilowatt-hour of electricity generated via coal. 1 billion tons of coal used in global industrial steel production each year. At the moment there are Zero alternatives to coal in the industrial steel-making process. 44 degrees Fahrenheit is the potential average global temperature rise if all remaining coal were burned. That means we're all dead.

Coal: Last Week Tonight with John Oliver (HBO) (youtube, 24 mins.)

Coal jobs have been declining since 1923, mostly because of automation and the fact that there are other energy sources.

U.S. Coal Production Peaked in 2008

Climate Change


Pollution World Map China is the largest emitter of green house gases, more then Europe and north America combined. China already emits one-quarter of the world’s greenhouse gases, more than any other country. 16 million tons of carbon every year. Outdoor air pollution annually contributes to about 1.2 million premature deaths in China. 70% of china's energy comes from coal. China consumes half of the worlds coal. China builds a new coal burning plant every week. Every second 100 tons of coal are burned. 3 billion tons a year. But china only uses 1 fifth of the electricity then the average American. More than three-quarters of China’s electricity comes from coal. China's energy demand has tripled in the last 20 years. China Produces 480 tons of garbage every minute. 1 in 5 people live in china. China sells 35,000 cars a day. China builds 1,800 new cars in one hour. China has 160 cities with a million people or more. Chongqing has over 30 million people. By 2025 will have 10 NYC size cities. Half of the worlds buildings that are built are built in China.

Bouts of acrid smog enveloping Beijing prompted authorities in the Chinese capital to declare two unprecedented "red alerts" in December 2015 — a warning to the city's 22 million inhabitants that heavy pollution is expected for more than three days.

A safe level of airborne particulate matter, air quality index, measures 25 micrograms per cubic meter. Beijing's index hit 608, that is more than 24 times the safe level estimated by the WHO

Air Quality Reports 

China, 4,400 people die from air pollution each day, according to an August 2015 study by the U.S. nonprofit Berkeley Earth.

Pure Science Specials - Green China Rising (youtube 05/13/2013 | 45 min.)

Renewable Clean Energy Progress Reports

Smog Free Project
Glowing Lines

More than 46.2 million people (14.7%) in the United States live in an area with unhealthful year-round levels of particle pollution.

Top 10 U.S. Cities Most Polluted by Short-Term Particle Pollution

1. Bakersfield, California
2. Fresno-Madera, California
3. Visalia-Porterville-Hanford, California
4. Modesto-Merced, California
5. Fairbanks, Alaska
6. Salt Lake City-Provo-Orem, Utah
7. Logan, Utah-Idaho
8. San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, California
9. Los Angeles-Long Beach, California
10. Missoula, Montana

Top 10 U.S. Cities Most Polluted by Year-Round Particle Pollution

1. Bakersfield, California
2. Visalia-Porterville-Hanford, California
3. Fresno-Madera, California
4. Los Angeles-Long Beach, California
5. El Centro, California
6. Modesto-Merced, California
7. San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, California
8. Pittsburgh-New Castle-Weirton, Pennsylvania-Ohio-West Virginiar
9. Harrisburg-York-Lebanon, Pennsylvania
10. Louisville-Jefferson County-Elizabethtown-Madison, Kentucky-Indiana

Top 10 Most Ozone-Polluted Cities

1. Los Angeles-Long Beach, California
2. Bakersfield, California
3. Visalia-Porterville-Hanford, California
4. Fresno-Madera, California
5. Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale, Arizona
6. Sacramento-Roseville, California
7. Modesto-Merced, California
8. Denver-Aurora, Colorado
9. Las Vegas-Henderson, Nevada-Arizona
10. Fort Collins, Colorado

Carbon Capture - CO2

CO2 Molecule Carbon Dioxide or CO2, is a carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. A colorless and odorless gas that is vital to life on Earth. Carbon dioxide is a significant greenhouse gas. Since the Industrial Revolution, anthropogenic emissions - including the burning of carbon-based fossil fuels and land use changes (primarily deforestation) - have rapidly increased its concentration in the atmosphere, leading to global warming. Carbon dioxide also causes ocean acidification because it dissolves in water to form carbonic acid. Ocean's worldwide oxygen content declined by more than 2% between 1960 and 2010.

CO Molecule Carbon Monoxide or CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air. It is toxic to hemoglobic animals (both invertebrate and vertebrate, including humans) when encountered in concentrations above about 35 ppm, although it is also produced in normal animal metabolism in low quantities, and is thought to have some normal biological functions. In the atmosphere, it is spatially variable and short lived, having a role in the formation of ground-level ozone. Carbon monoxide consists of one carbon atom and one oxygen atom, connected by a triple bond that consists of two covalent bonds as well as one dative covalent bond. It is the simplest oxocarbon and is isoelectronic with the cyanide anion, the nitrosonium cation and molecular nitrogen. In coordination complexes the carbon monoxide ligand is called carbonyl.

Carbon Capture and Storage is the process of capturing waste carbon dioxide (CO2) from large point sources, such as fossil fuel power plants, transporting it to a storage site, and depositing it where it will not enter the atmosphere, normally an underground geological formation. Methane

Carbon Bubble is when the true market value of oil is over exaggerated and criminally inflated because the true costs of carbon dioxide in intensifying global warming are not yet taken into account. Thus when the truth comes out, those company stocks who are vested in oil and coal will plummet unless switch their investments towards technologies that reduce Global Warming and Pollution.

Artificial Photosynthesis turns CO2 into Energy - Geo-Thermal Energy

Carbon Dioxide Scrubber is a device which absorbs carbon dioxide (CO2). It is used to treat exhaust gases from industrial plants or from exhaled air in life support systems such as rebreathers or in spacecraft, submersible craft or airtight chambers. Carbon dioxide scrubbers are also used in controlled atmosphere (CA) storage. They have also been researched for carbon capture.

Blowing Bubbles to Catch Carbon Dioxide using a bio-inspired liquid membrane that could make clean coal a reality.

Clime Works remove CO2 directly from the air.

Net Power lower-cost electricity from fossil fuels than current power systems while producing zero air emissions.

Global Thermostat - Warming Dangers (methane)

We can convert Atmospheric Carbon into Soil Carbon. More carbon resides in soil than in the atmosphere and all plant life combined; there are 2,500 billion tons of carbon in soil, compared with 800 billion tons in the atmosphere and 560 billion tons in plant and animal life. And compared to many proposed geoengineering fixes, storing carbon in soil is simple: It’s a matter of returning carbon where it belongs. Through Photosynthesis, a plant draws carbon out of the air to form carbon compounds. Bolstering soil microbiology by adding beneficial microbes to stimulate the soil cycles where they have been interrupted by use of insecticides, herbicides, or fertilizers. 

Soil Knowledge - Biochar

Carbon Fixation or carbon assimilation refers to the conversion process of inorganic carbon (carbon dioxide) to organic compounds by living organisms.

Carbon Sequestration is the process involved in carbon capture and the long-term storage of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2).

Key to Speeding Up Carbon Sequestration Discovered by adding a common enzyme to the mix, the researchers have found, can make that rate-limiting part of the process go 500 times faster.

Just 100 Companies Responsible for 71% of Global Emissions, study says

Climate Case 2015 Urgenda (Dutch Goverment Sued). Together with 900 citizens the Urgenda Foundation filed the Climate Case against the Dutch Government. On 24 June 2015, Urgenda won a lawsuit against the Dutch State, forcing it to take more measures against climate change.

Study finds increased ocean acidification due to human activities More anthropogenic carbon in the northeast Pacific means weaker shells for many marine species.

When you take your next breath, you'll be breathing in 42 percent more carbon dioxide than if you were breathing in 1750.
Tell me how I'm supposed to Breathe with No Air (youtube) 

The concentration of CO2 reached 400 ppm for the first time in recorded history in 2013.

Oxygen Levels Decreasing
Carbon Dioxide Passes 400 PPM Threshold. never to return below it in our lifetime
Earth's Atmosphere
Air Knowledge (every breath you take)

CO2 concentrations of 7% to 10% (70,000 to 100,000 ppm) may cause suffocation, even in the presence of sufficient oxygen. Manifesting as dizziness, headache, visual and hearing dysfunction, and unconsciousness within a few minutes to an hour. The physiological effects of acute carbon dioxide exposure are grouped together under the term hypercapnia, a subset of asphyxiation. Symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning include a pressure on your chest, auditory hallucinations — whoosh — and an unexplained feeling of dread.

3 Molecules of Oxygen are Lost for every 1 CO2 Molecule Produced. Less oxygen in the atmosphere allows more sunlight to reach the earth, allowing more moisture to evaporate, which increases temperatures and the intensity of storms.

Calvin Cycle is the set of chemical reactions that take place in chloroplasts during photosynthesis. The cycle is light-independent because it takes place after the energy has been captured from sunlight. Khan Academy

Carbon Reactions of photosynthesis are chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and other compounds into glucose.

High CO2
Acid/Alkaline Balance and the Immune System: Carbon dioxide, through its conversion to carbonic acid, is a primary regulator of the acid/alkaline balance of the blood. The body (organs) has several needs for different levels of pH). A reduction in carbon dioxide shifts the body's pH toward alkalinity, which alters the rate of activity of other biochemical processes. An blood alkaline state weakens the immune system, thus making the body more susceptible to viruses and allergies. Higher levels of CO2 also lead to an immediate drop in blood and extracellular fluid pH levels through the formation of carbonic acid, thus obliging the hemoglobin to more readily distribute its oxygen to meet local metabolic requirements. Lower levels of CO2, as a result of lower metabolism, lead to blood vessel constriction (e.g. reduction in the diameter of the coronaries) and to higher levels of blood and extracellular fluid pH (less carbonic acid), thus permitting oxygen and glucose to go elsewhere where metabolic requirements are greater. In the simplest of terms, this is the biochemistry of healthy respiration.

Low CO2
Vessels: Carbon dioxide in the plasma helps to dilate smooth muscle tissue. Insufficient carbon dioxide can cause spasms throughout the body, including the brain, the bronchi, and other smooth muscle tissues. Good examples are the spasms that take place during asthma attacks and migraines. The Cardiovascular System: Carbon dioxide helps regulate the cardiovascular system. Too little carbon dioxide can result in many problems, including angina, high blood pressure, chest pain, myocardial infarcts, strokes, and so on. The Digestive System: A direct relationship exists between the level of carbon dioxide in the body and the functioning of the digestive glands—especially between the level of carbon dioxide and the intensity of gastric secretion. Too little carbon dioxide can eventually lead to poor digestion and eventually to ulcers.

Though having more carbon dioxide in the air yields 10 percent more crops, when compared to plants in normal atmosphere, they have five to ten percent reductions in nutrients like iron, zinc, and protein. 2 billion people already are getting too little iron and zinc in their diets, and it's damaging their health.

Why does CO2 get most of the attention when there are so many other heat-trapping gases (greenhouse gases)?

Ice cores reveal a slow decline in atmospheric Oxygen over the last 800,000 years

Molecular signature shows plants are adapting to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide, but not humans.

Warming Planet

Paleoclimatology is the study of changes in climate taken on the scale of the entire history of Earth.

List of countries by carbon dioxide emissions per capita (wiki)

Climate Change Information and Resources

Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle is a technology that uses a high pressure gasifier to turn coal and other carbon based fuels into pressurized gas—synthesis gas (syngas). It can then remove impurities from the syngas prior to the power generation cycle. Some of these pollutants, such as sulfur, can be turned into re-usable byproducts through the Claus process. This results in lower emissions of sulfur dioxide, particulates, mercury, and in some cases carbon dioxide.

Carbon Cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged among the biosphere, pedosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere of the Earth. Along with the nitrogen cycle and the water cycle, the carbon cycle comprises a sequence of events that are key to making the Earth capable of sustaining life; it describes the movement of carbon as it is recycled and reused throughout the biosphere, including carbon sinks. Image (carbon cycle)

Deep Carbon Observatory is a global research program designed to transform understanding of carbon's role in Earth. DCO is a community of scientists, including biologists, physicists, geoscientists and chemists, whose work crosses several traditional disciplinary lines to develop the new, integrative field of deep carbon science. To complement this research, the DCO’s infrastructure includes public engagement and education, online and offline community support, innovative data management, and novel instrumentation development.

Scientists probe underground depths of Earth’s carbon cycle Carbon in the fluid of the Earth’s mantle is not in the form of carbon dioxide, but rather in carbonate and bicarbonate ions. Carbonate is a salt of carbonic acid (H2CO3), characterized by the presence of the carbonate ion, CO2−3.

Carbon Sink is a natural or artificial reservoir that accumulates and stores some carbon-containing chemical compound for an indefinite period. The process by which carbon sinks remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere is known as carbon sequestration.

Earth's upper mantle may be up to 100 trillion metric tons of carbon dioxide. There is 1.8 million square kilometers reservoir of melting carbon under Western United States.

Future Gen Alliance
FutureGen (wiki)
Gem Energy Greengem
CO2-eating Microalgae as a Biofuel Feedstock 

Engineering a More Efficient System for Harnessing Carbon Dioxide

Retrosynthetic Analysis is a technique for solving problems in the planning of organic syntheses. This is achieved by transforming a target molecule into simpler precursor structures without assumptions regarding starting materials. Each precursor material is examined using the same method. This procedure is repeated until simple or commercially available structures are reached.

RuBisCO is an enzyme involved in the first major step of carbon fixation, a process by which atmospheric carbon dioxide is converted by plants and other photosynthetic organisms to energy-rich molecules such as glucose.

Surveying Rubisco diversity and temperature response to improve crop photosynthetic efficiency
Discoveries in Rubisco (Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase): a historical perspective

Diamonds from the sky, approach turns CO2 into valuable products
Capturing Carbon Dioxide From Air (PDF)

Global CCS Institute
Carbamate (wiki)
Waste to Energy
Carbon Offsets

A forgotten Space Age technology could change how we grow food: Lisa Dyson (video and interactive text).
Digital Food (youtube)

Hydrogenotroph are organisms that are able to metabolize molecular hydrogen as a source of energy. An example of hydrogenotrophy is performed by carbon dioxide reducing organisms. They utilize CO2 and H2 to produce methane, CH4, by the following reaction: CO2 + 4H2 → CH4 + 2H2O. Other hydrogenotrophic metabolic pathways include acetogenesis and sulfate reduction

Carbon Recycling to produce renewable methanol from carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and electricity for energy storage, fuel applications, and efficiency enhancement.

Breakthrough solar cell captures carbon dioxide and sunlight, produces burnable fuel: 1,000-fold improved chemistry leads to 'artificial leaf' that makes syngas. Solar cell that cheaply and efficiently converts atmospheric carbon dioxide directly into usable hydrocarbon fuel, using only sunlight for energy.

Nanostructured transition metal dichalcogenide electrocatalysts for CO2 reduction in ionic liquid

CO2 Conversion

CO2 Electro-Chemical Cell Cornell scientists convert carbon dioxide, create electricity

Splitting carbon dioxide using low-cost catalyst materials. EPFL scientists have built the first Earth-abundant and low-cost catalytic system for splitting CO2 into CO and oxygen, an important step towards achieving the conversion of renewable energy into hydrocarbon fuels

Recycling carbon dioxide: U of T researchers efficiently reduce climate-warming CO2 into building blocks for fuels

A chemistry professor in Florida has just found a way to trigger the process of photosynthesis in a synthetic material, turning greenhouse gases into clean air and producing energy all at the same time.

Artificial Photosynthesis turns CO2 into Energy

Metal-Organic Framework are compounds consisting of metal ions or clusters coordinated to organic ligands to form one-, two-, or three-dimensional structures. They are a subclass of coordination polymers, with the special feature that they are often porous. The organic ligands included are sometimes referred to as "struts", one example being 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid (BDC)

Nano-spike catalysts convert carbon dioxide directly into ethanol

High-Selectivity Electrochemical Conversion of CO2 to Ethanol using a Copper Nanoparticle/N-Doped Graphene Electrode

Chemists create Molecular 'Leaf' that collects and stores Solar Power without Solar Panels. Uses light or electricity to convert the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide into carbon monoxide -- a carbon-neutral fuel source -- more efficiently than any other method of "carbon reduction." quest to recycle carbon dioxide in the Earth’s atmosphere into carbon-neutral fuels and others materials.

Solar conversion of CO2 to CO using Earth-abundant electrocatalysts prepared by atomic layer modification of CuO. École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) describe a new catalyst for splitting carbon dioxide that, in their words, is the foundation for the first ever low-cost carbon-dioxide splitting system. It relies on two materials, tin oxide and copper oxide, both of which are readily abundant on Earth, and offers a CO2 to CO conversion efficiency of nearly 14 percent.

Well-Defined Nanographene–Rhenium Complex as an Efficient Electrocatalyst and Photocatalyst for Selective CO2 Reduction

Measuring CO2

Carbon Counter
Go Ever Green
Carbon Disclosure
350 ppm 
Post Carbon

Carbon War Room
Be Green Now

Potassium Carbonate is a white salt, soluble in water (insoluble in ethanol) which forms a strongly alkaline solution. It can be made as the product of potassium hydroxide's absorbent reaction with carbon dioxide. It is deliquescent, often appearing a damp or wet solid. Potassium carbonate is used in the production of soap and glass.

Carbon Offset is a reduction in emissions of carbon dioxide or greenhouse gases made in order to compensate for or to offset an emission made elsewhere.

Carbon Offsets
My Offsets
Carbon Fund

Low Impact Living
Media Distortion (youtube)
Media Literacy

Sustainable Living
Green Building Ideas

What's the difference between Climate Change and Global Warming

Rankings Countries Carbon Dioxide Emissions
List of Countries by Carbon Dioxide Emissions (wiki)

Cap & Trade (youtube)

Carbon Tax is when Green House Gas emissions caused by the combustion of fossil fuels are closely related to the carbon content of the respective fuels, a tax on these emissions can be levied by taxing the carbon content of fossil fuels at any point in the product cycle of the fuel.

Carbon Price the method favored by many economists for reducing global-warming emissions — charges those who emit carbon dioxide (CO2) for their emissions. That charge, called a carbon price, is the amount that must be paid for the right to emit one tonne of CO2 into the atmosphere. Carbon pricing usually takes the form either of a carbon tax or a requirement to purchase permits to emit, generally known as cap-and-trade, but also called "allowances". Carbon Bubble

Carbon Dioxide Equivalent are two related but distinct measures for describing how much global warming a given type and amount of greenhouse gas may cause, using the functionally equivalent amount or concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) as the reference.


Global warming Potential is a relative measure of how much heat a greenhouse gas traps in the atmosphere. It compares the amount of heat trapped by a certain mass of the gas in question to the amount of heat trapped by a similar mass of carbon dioxide. A GWP is calculated over a specific time interval, commonly 20, 100 or 500 years. Air Pollution

Greenhouse Gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiation within the thermal infrared range. This process is the fundamental cause of the greenhouse effect. The primary greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere are water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone. Without greenhouse gases, the average temperature of Earth's surface would be about −18 °C (0 °F), rather than the present average of 15 °C (59 °F). In the Solar System, the atmospheres of Venus, Mars and Titan also contain gases that cause a greenhouse effect. Human activities since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution (taken as the year 1750) have produced a 40% increase in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide, from 280 ppm in 1750 to 400 ppm in 2015. This increase has occurred despite the uptake of a large portion of the emissions by various natural "sinks" involved in the carbon cycle. Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions (i.e., emissions produced by human activities) come from combustion of fossil fuels, coal, oil, and natural gas, along with deforestation, soil erosion and animal agriculture. It has been estimated that if greenhouse gas emissions continue at the present rate, Earth's surface temperature could exceed historical values as early as 2047, with potentially harmful effects on ecosystems, biodiversity and the livelihoods of people worldwide. Recent estimates suggest that on the current emissions trajectory the Earth could pass a threshold of 2 °C global warming (3.5 °F) which the United Nations' IPCC designated as the upper limit to avoid "dangerous" global warming, by 2036. Human Impact on the Environment anthropogenic impact on the environment includes impacts on biophysical environments. Specific Carbon Dioxide Emissions of Various Fuels: Wood, Oil and Gas

Global Warming Activism

Humidity May Prove Breaking Point for Some Areas as Temperatures Rise

Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula CH4 (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
methane waste reducing methods.

Many oil wells burn off Methane -- the largest component of natural gas -- in a process called flaring, which currently wastes 150 billion cubic meters of the gas each year and generates a staggering 400 million tons of carbon dioxide, making this process a significant contributor to global warming. Methane is captured and used to generate electrical power or produce chemicals. However, special equipment is needed to cool and pressurize methane gas, and special pressurized containers or pipelines are needed to transport it. Convert methane into derivatives of methanol, a liquid that can be made into automotive fuel or used as a precursor to a variety of chemical products. This new method may allow for lower-cost methane conversion at remote sites.

Arctic Methane Emissions is the release of methane from seas and soils in permafrost regions of the Arctic. While a long-term natural process, it is exacerbated by global warming. This results in a positive feedback effect, as methane is itself a powerful greenhouse gas. (5000 Gigatons or a Billion tons being released, 5 Gigatons in the atmosphere in 2017). Decays slowly.

Arctic Methane Emergency: Methane released by the Gigaton! (youtube Published on Oct 13, 2016)
Methane traps up to 100 times more heat in the atmosphere than carbon dioxide. Siberian Shelf (wiki)

MIT scientists have determined the structure of an enzyme that is found in ocean microbes and can produce a precursor to methane. Industrial and agricultural activities produce large amounts of methane. Many bacteria also produce methane as a byproduct of their metabolism.

Exponential Growth (doubling time)

Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006. Assembly Bill AB32 is a California State Law that fights global warming by establishing a comprehensive program to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from all sources throughout the state.

How to Reduce Heat Extremes by 2-3 Degrees Celsius. How changing crops, moving to no till agriculture and lightening infrastructure can reduce extreme temperatures.

7,000 Underground Methane Permafrost Gas Bubbles in Siberia Are About to Burst

Domes of frozen methane may be warning signs for new blow-outs. Several methane domes, some 500m wide, have been mapped on the Arctic Ocean floor. They may be signs of soon-to-happen methane expulsions that have previously created massive craters in a near-by area they are still more stable than the pingos found in sub- sea permafrost in Canadian and Russian Arctic. “The gas hydrate pingos in permafrost are formed because of the low temperatures. But the water-depth that supports gas hydrates in sub-sea permafrost is only 40 to 50 meters. There is no significant pressure there to keep them in check. Sub-seabed permafrost is deteriorating constantly and quickly” notes Serov. Even though they are more stable than the permafrost pingos, the Barents Sea domes are on the limit of their existence. “A relatively small change in the water temperature can destabilise these hydrates fairly quickly. We were actually very lucky to observe them at this point. And we will probably be able to observe significant changes to these domes during our lifetime.

More than 50 million years ago, when the Earth experienced a series of extreme global warming events, early mammals responded by shrinking in size. While this mammalian dwarfism has previously been linked to the largest of these events.

Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 was a transient period of global warming that occurred approximately 53.7 million years ago (Ma). It appears to be the second major hyperthermal that punctuated the long-term warming trend from the Late Paleocene through the early Eocene (58 to 50 Ma). The hyperthermals were geologically brief time intervals (<200,000 years) of global warming and massive carbon input. The most extreme and best-studied event, the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM or ETM-1), occurred about 1.8 million years before ETM-2, at approximately 55.5 Ma. Other hyperthermals likely followed ETM-2 at nominally 53.6 Ma (H-2), 53.3 (I-1), 53.2 (I-2) and 52.8 Ma (informally called K, X or ETM-3). The number, nomenclature, absolute ages and relative global impact of the Eocene hyperthermals are the source of much current research. In any case, the hyperthermals appear to have ushered in the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum, the warmest interval of the Cenozoic Era. They also definitely precede the Azolla event at about 49 Ma.

Rapid Climate Change in the Arctic. Diminishing sea ice near the Arctic coast leaves more open water near the coast for winds to create waves. The increased wave action reaches down and stirs up sediments on shallow continental shelves, releasing radium-228 and other chemicals that are carried up to the surface and swept away into the open ocean by currents such as the Transpolar Drift.

Declining numbers of soil fauna, nematodes and other animal species in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, one of the world's driest and coldest deserts.


Emergencyroom Reasons for Visit

Coal Burning Locations in the U.S.

Annual CO2 Emissions by the Ton

Coal Seam Fire (wiki)
Centralia | 100 Wonders | Atlas Obscura (youtube)
Rising of Global Coal Fires

Hazardous Waste

Biological Warfare, Bioterrorism and the release of Pathogens happens everyday, except we call it Pollution. Pollution has murdered more people and created more diseases then all wars combined. Billions of dollars are spent every year in healthcare to treat all these pollution related diseases. Think about all the time people and resources that are wasted treating this disease called pollution, and none for fixing the causes of pollution, you can't win a war if you are only treating the disease, you have to find a cure. And improving peoples access to important information and knowledge is the first step.

Witness : Invisible Threat (youtube)
Operation Whitecoat
Environmental Crime
Depleted Uranium
Toxins in Products

The real terrorists are the government agency's that allow big corporations to kill people and to poison the environment. They are responsible for more murders, more attacks on human rights, and poisoning more food, water, land and air then anything else. And since these criminals own the media you will never have enough knowledge and information that is needed to understand what is happening to you, or the world.

Coal Combustion Waste (PDF)

EPA’s 1998 Chemical Hazard Data Availability Study revealed that although nearly 3,000 chemicals have High Production Volume status in the United States (defined by the EPA as imported or produced at one million pounds per year or more), complete basic toxicity profiles (covering acute, sub-chronic, chronic, developmental, and reproductive toxicity, as well as mutagenicity) were available for only 7% of these.

Confronting Toxic Chemical Management
Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976
Importing and Exporting Hazardous Chemicals

It's not what you believe. The question is do you understand knowledge and information? Do you understand research and historical evidence? Do you know the difference between a fact and an opinion? So it does not matter what you believe, what matters is what you know, and can you prove what you know? If you don't know enough, and if you know something but have no way of proving it, then what you believe is useless and irrelevant. You are simply ignorant. So the only logical answer that you can give is "I don't know enough to have an opinion on that matter,  but if it is true, I can make adjustments in my life that will guarantee that either way, I am safe. And these adjustments are good either way, so I can't lose even if I'm wrong.


Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

Food Safety

Soil Testing

According to the EPA, more than half of all toxic water pollution in the country comes from coal-fired power plants. 


Hazardous Waste

EPA List of Hazardous Waste

Annenberg Foundation

Lipstick on a Pig 

Radioactive Waste
Radioactive Decay (space)
Radioactive Contamination
Radioactive Isotopes by half-life

Hazardous Waste in the United States (wiki)
Half-Life Calculator

"Exposure to pesticides and their residues causes farmworkers to suffer more chemical-related injuries and illnesses than any other workforce nationwide."

"There are many toxins in our foods, in our homes and in our environment. If you don't stand up for healthier products and a healthier environment, then you will have to get use to eating poison and getting diseases, like cancer."

"How can we be an accessory to the worlds largest mass murder in our history. People seem comfortable with knowing their life is ending, but they have no compassion for the millions of lives that they are responsible for killing. How did we become so disconnected?..So many people have blood on their hands, some people don't even know it and others know it but ignore it."

"Humans are killing the planet, but if we combine our efforts and make better decisions together, humans can save the plane and save the lives of millions of people. The Choice is ours."

"Money is just one of many tools that humans have. And when it comes to solving a problem you will need more then just money to solve it. Money doesn't solve problems, people solve problems."

Noise Pollution

Noise Pollution (epa)

Noise Pollution (is the disturbing or excessive noise that may harm the activity or balance of human or animal life. The source of most outdoor noise worldwide is mainly caused by machines and transportation systems, motor vehicles engines, aircraft, and trains. Outdoor noise is summarized by the word environmental noise. Poor urban planning may give rise to noise pollution, since side-by-side industrial and residential buildings can result in noise pollution in the residential areas. Documented problems associated with urban noise go back as far as Ancient Rome. Outdoor noise can be caused by machines, construction activities, and music performances, especially in some workplaces. Noise-induced hearing loss can be caused by outside (e.g. trains) or inside (e.g. music) noise. High noise levels can contribute to cardiovascular effects in humans and an increased incidence of coronary artery disease. In animals, noise can increase the risk of death by altering predator or prey detection and avoidance, interfere with reproduction and navigation, and contribute to permanent hearing loss.

Underwater Noise Pollution

"Mountains don't grow back, besides that, you have nothing to show for the energy you used except 1,000's of acres of poison ground and water that will last 10's of thousands of years. This is a horrific crime and a total waste of resources, land and people."

Could you be evil and not even know it, of course, that is why improving education is a must, but just in case, here's the prayer; "We're taking back Gabriel, Lucifer, Satan and all the other Fallen Angels, the people you refer to as your so called friends, and we will let them know that you are truly the enemy and that it would be in their best interest if they would return to heaven to help us end your insanity instead of fueling it, because everyone knows that this will ultimately end badly for everyone, and everything."

The Eco-System is our Teacher

And this teacher is clearly showing us the way to survive and to sustain a Happy and Healthy Life Style. This knowledge is Priceless.


The Natural Beauty of the Great Outdoors in Perfect Harmony National Parks are a beautiful reminder of what God was doing for hundreds of millions of years before humans were even created. Just think about it, hundreds of millions of years creating magnificent mountains, beautiful oceans, streams and rivers, in a perfect balanced Ecosystem that has built to sustain itself for millions of years, living in harmony with all kinds of amazing life forms, to roam her land, to fly through her skies and to swim in her seas.

Evolution or Intelligent Design?

I couldn’t even begin to imagine a greater place then earth, and we can see hundreds millions of light years away. Even if there were another living planet, I doubt it would be as nice as earth.

Nature is more then just visual it’s a feeling of Serenity, Tranquility, Peacefulness, Harmony and Calm. If you lose this feeling it means that you are simply lost and out of touch. It's like the Six degrees of Separation, everybody in one way or another is related to Mother Earth.

It’s easy to describe how beautiful our earth is, especially now with photos and video, but when try to describe what you feel when you see a National Park, like Glacier National Park in Wyoming for instance, it’s really hard to find the words that do it justice, it’s like trying to describe life. It’s has to be the oldest living feeling in our human history. Knowing that millions of eyes before you have witnessed what you are seeing, it’s like being connected to all our ancestors, especially the American Indians, who have loved this land for thousands of years before America was even a country. When you read all the beautiful words that people have written about National Parks, it’s like you are reading a love story, and that’s what it truly is, a love story. I have always loved the outdoors and our natural environment, and when I see it being destroyed, it’s like someone destroying your home with your family still inside. Even amongst all the devastation, we are so fortunate that we had some great people who stood up and fought to protect our natural environments.

Documentary by Ken Burns: National Parks - America's Best Idea

Humans are the caretakers of this earth, the only living planet around. So it is everyone’s responsibility to protect our earth and all its life forms, because believe it or not, our life actually depends on it.

Mass Extinction Number 6

Scientists estimate that 150-200 species of plant, insect, bird and mammal become Extinct every 24 hours. This is nearly 1,000 times the "natural" or "background" rate and, say many biologists, is greater than anything the world has experienced since the vanishing of the dinosaurs nearly 65 Million years ago. Mathematics predicts a sixth mass extinction. By 2100, oceans may hold enough carbon to launch mass extermination of species in future millennia.

Population of Vertebrate Animals Fell 58% From 1970-2012. The largest drop was in freshwater species, which fell on average 81 percent in that time period.

Accelerated Modern Human–Induced Species Losses: Entering the Sixth Mass Extinction

Climate Change

Canary in a Coal Mine is something whose sensitivity to adverse conditions makes it a useful early indicator of such conditions; something which warns of the coming of greater danger or trouble by a deterioration in its health or welfare. Name originated from miners who use to carry down caged canaries (birds) into the mine tunnels with them. If dangerous gases such as carbon monoxide collected in the mine, the gases would kill the canary before killing the miners, thus providing a warning to exit the tunnels immediately. Except in our case we don't have a way out of our tunnel because we have only one planet.

"We are destroying the book of life before we even had a chance to finish reading it."

"We can either be part of this miracle called the eco-system or just Go Extinct like 99.9% of other species have done before. We just happen to be the only species in the history of our planet who actually might have a choice." 

Holocene Extinction, the Sixth Extinction or Anthropocene Extinction, is a name for the ongoing extinction event of species during the present Holocene epoch (11,700 years before AD 2000) mainly due to human activity.

ANTHROPOCENE the New Geological Epoch ABC TV Catalyst (youtube)

Epoch (geology) is a subdivision of the geologic timescale that is longer than an age and shorter than a period.

Geologic Time Scale is a system of chronological dating that relates geological strata (stratigraphy) to time, and is used by geologists, paleontologists, and other Earth scientists to describe the timing and relationships of events that have occurred during Earth’s history. The table of geologic time spans, presented here, agrees with the nomenclature, dates and standard color codes set forth by the International Commission on Stratigraphy.

Mass Extinctions in the Past

Extinction is the end of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species. The moment of extinction is generally considered to be the death of the last individual of the species.

Fern Spike is the occurrence of abundant fern spores in the fossil record, usually immediately (in a geological sense) after an extinction event. The spikes are believed to represent a large, temporary increase in the number of ferns relative to other terrestrial plants after the extinction or thinning of the latter, probably because fern dispersal is more rapid over large geographic areas, since single-celled fern spores are more easily distributed by the wind than are seeds. Fern spikes are most associated with the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event, although they have been found at other events such as at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary. Away from the fossil record, fern spikes have also been observed to occur in response to local extinction events, for instance the 1980 Mount St. Helens eruption.

Extinction Event is a widespread and rapid decrease in the biodiversity on Earth. Such an event is identified by a sharp change in the diversity and abundance of multicellular organisms. It occurs when the rate of extinction increases with respect to the rate of speciation. Because the majority of diversity and biomass on Earth is microbial, and thus difficult to measure, recorded extinction events affect the easily observed, biologically complex component of the biosphere rather than the total diversity and abundance of life. Extinction occurs at an uneven rate. Based on the fossil record, the background rate of extinctions on Earth is about two to five taxonomic families of marine animals every million years. Marine fossils are mostly used to measure extinction rates because of their superior fossil record and stratigraphic range compared to land organisms.

Extinction Threshold is a term used in conservation biology to explain the point at which a species, population or metapopulation, experiences an abrupt change in density or number because of an important parameter, such as habitat loss. It is at this critical value below which a species, population, or metapopulation, will go extinct, though this may take a long time for species just below the critical value, a phenomenon known as extinction debt. Extinction thresholds are important to conservation biologists when studying a species in a population or metapopulation context because the colonization rate must be larger than the extinction rate, otherwise the entire entity will go extinct once it reaches the threshold. Extinction thresholds are realized under a number of circumstances and the point in modeling them is to define the conditions that lead a population to extinction. Modeling extinction thresholds can explain the relationship between extinction threshold and habitat loss and habitat fragmentation.

How Many Species Are There on Earth and in the Ocean? 8.7 million (±1.3 million SE) eukaryotic species globally, of which 2.2 million (±0.18 million SE) are marine. In spite of 250 years of taxonomic classification and over 1.2 million species already catalogued in a central database, our results suggest that some 86% of existing species on Earth and 91% of species in the ocean still await description.

Armageddon refers to any end of the world scenario.
Eschatology are the final events of history, or the ultimate destiny of humanity.
End Time is where world events achieve a final climax.

Societal Collapse (historical cities abandoned)

Eco-Ideas - Environmental Education

A staggering 80 percent of 94 ecological processes that form the foundation for healthy marine, freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems already show signs of distress and response to climate change. 82 percent of key biological processes necessary for healthy ecosystems had been impacted by the phenomenon. The changes have been felt even though the world is just 1 degree Celsius warmer than pre-industrial levels.

More than 75 percent decline over 27 years in total flying insect biomass in protected areas.

"I'm not sad to know that I will die someday, what truly makes me sad is knowing that the entire human race could die and go extinct. So I'm going to do everything in my power to stop this from happening. We can not have a mutiny on a sinking ship, that's just freaking stupid. We need to stop the ship from sinking first, then we can work on solving our other problems too."

The human body is in fact very much like the earths eco-system, it grows, it regenerates, it sustains, it dies and then it’s reborn. So in a sense the earth is an extension of our body for it too keeps us alive. The earth can live without humans but humans cannot live without the earth.

We are all Connected

The Earth is our Greatest Teacher. Everything that our earth has taught us, through her many lessons and examples, has given us the abilities and knowledge to survive and grow for ten’s of thousands of years. But for some strange reason humans have stopped paying attention to their teacher. Blame it on emotions, superficial distractions or an undisciplined brain. This Attention Deficit is every humans Achilles Heal. We cannot allow ourselves to be distracted or blinded from knowing our responsibilities, our priorities and our own reality. One of earth’s greatest lessons is upon us, “Learn to Live Together or Die”. And not just learn to live each other as humans, but learn to live together with our planet. There’s nothing more damaging to the human spirit then suffering. And there’s no need to suffer in order to learn a lesson. Though survival is a great motivator, motivation without a clear direction or understanding will always lead to more confusion and then more suffering. Our fellow humans are suffering and so is our earth. It’s time that we start paying more attention to what we need to do and not just what we want to do.

Every living thing on this planet is in some way affected by the environment in which they live. The number of environmental effects that Humans have to deal with is much higher then any other species on the planet. That is because we have added most of theses environmental effects ourselves. We are not totally aware of most of these environmental effects but we are aware of a lot of them. Everyone needs to be more informed in order to be aware of these effects and to be aware if they are contributing to these effects. Also everyone needs to be more informed in order to understand and become more aware of the effects that we know little about. If we minimize our affects on the environment while at the same time educate ourselves about the ones that we need to contend with, we will definitely improve life to a degree because we all know that things have a cumulative effect, whether they are good or bad. 

"You have to learn to understand the Soil, what it needs and what it offers. The earth is our Mother and she’s the reason why we are all here. Take care of her and she’ll take care of you. And please don’t mind the occasional outbursts from Mother Nature, she’s just reminding us that we should never take Life for Granted. Thank You Mom.."

Our Souls are Seeds, our Words are its Soil.
Spreading the seeds of knowledge like a flower spreading its seeds in the wind,
education is the first step so let us begin.
Our evolution is upon us and has already begun,
it's time for all to realize we too can shine like the sun.
- Howard Polley

To learn more about how earth is our greatest teacher watch the documentary 

NatureTech (youtube)


The universe is our home. The earth is our teacher and the animals are the students. Since most animals have been here longer then humans they have become the teachers assistant. Animals have taught us many things on how to survive and the reasons to migrate.

There are a lot of things in nature that make sense, except for humans. Too many Humans are not making any sense of the world, and when you don't make sense, you do things that are insensible. Nature understands adaptation, nature understands trends. And this intelligence is one of the main reasons why plant life has survived for millions of years. We also see intelligence in animal life, especially humans. But too many humans make no sense of the environment, like plants do. So why are we so disconnected? And not just disconnected from ourselves, why are we so disconnected from other intelligent life on our planet? Somehow we got lost, we went of track. We have the bigger brain, so why don't we use it? Oh ya, that stupid education problem that we have. What we think is education, is not education. Today's education does not help us connect, we must correct this. We need to be more aware. So the curriculum needs to be expanded, and this curriculum will be intelligent, because one of the main goals of this new improved and expanded curriculum, is to create intelligent people.

Environmental Quotes - Famous Sayings about the Environment

Everything is Connected

For every Action a human takes there is a Reaction in the world. Most reactions are unnoticed because the impact is not so obvious, or in some cases not totally in sync with the action of the human. So even doing nothing will still have an effect on the world. So it is only logical that every human understands these effects and understands their responsibilities to minimize negative effects and to maximize positive effects. All actions and inactions have a reaction.

Interconnectedness is oneness in all things. All things are of a single underlying substance and reality, and that there is no true separation deeper than appearances. Relation of Subjects.

Interconnectivity refers to the state or quality of being connected together. The concept is widely used in various fields such as biology, network theory, and ecology. It can be further elaborated as all parts of a system, which interact with one another and cannot be analyzed if considered alone. Despite subtle differences in meaning, interconnectivity is often related to the ideas of interconnectedness and interdependence. Coexist

Biophilia Hypothesis suggests that humans possess an innate tendency to seek connections with nature and other forms of life. Edward O. Wilson introduced and popularized the hypothesis in his book, Biophilia (1984). He defines biophilia as "the urge to affiliate with other forms of life".

Biological Network - Networks

Quantum Entanglement is a physical phenomenon that occurs when pairs or groups of particles are generated or interact in ways such that the quantum state of each particle cannot be described independently of the others, even when the particles are separated by a large distance—instead, a quantum state must be described for the system as a whole. (could make communication over long distances possible, instant transmission).

Teleportation is the theoretical transfer of matter or energy from one point to another without traversing the physical space between them. The way it works is based on the idea of quantum entanglement. Two photons that are created at the same moment share the same existence and are linked in such a way that no matter how far the distance, any changes happening to one of the objects happens instantaneously to the other. Using this technology, scientists hope to be able to communicate across vast distances of space without any delay, making manned missions to Mars and other planets much more feasible.

Action at a Distance is the concept that an object can be moved, changed, or otherwise affected without being physically touched (as in mechanical contact) by another object. That is, it is the nonlocal interaction of objects that are separated in space. Pioneering physicist Albert Einstein described the phenomenon as "spooky action at a distance".

Structuralism are elements of human culture that must be understood in terms of their relationship to a larger, overarching system or structure. It works to uncover the structures that underlie all the things that humans do, think, perceive, and feel.

Geophysiology is the study of living bodies and the study of interaction among living organisms on the Earth operating under the hypothesis that the Earth itself acts as a single living organism. Topology.

Gaia Hypothesis organisms interact with their inorganic surroundings on Earth to form a synergistic self-regulating, complex system that helps to maintain and perpetuate the conditions for life on the planet.

Overview Effect (when people view the earth from space)

Gaia (Mythology) is the ancestral mother of all life: the primal Mother Earth goddess.
Omnipresence is the property of being present everywhere.

Gaia Philosophy believes that living organisms on a planet will affect the nature of their environment in order to make the environment more suitable for life.

"If Humans make Earth Less Inhabitable, then Earth will not be able to sustain life, not even our own. Earth is a living entity. Earth needs to feed, Earth needs to erupt, Earth has stormy reactions to environmental pressures. Earth gets sick and Earth needs time to heal. But Earth gives Humans life, so that makes Earth our best friend. So we need to show our friend some respect and appreciation. And we need to pay attention to our friend. We need to have a good relationship with our friend Earth. Earth loves us. But if we turn our back on Earth, then Earth can no longer protect us or provide for us. My friend is Earth, and Earth is my Friend. And I will stick by my friend till the end. I hope you too will be our friend. So please, don't let all this incredible Love go to waste. There is no other Earth. Earth is totally unique and incredibly special, which happens to be the kind of friends I like the most, people who are unique and special, just Like Earth."

Mother Nature is a common personification of nature that focuses on the life-giving and nurturing aspects of nature by embodying it, in the form of the mother.

World is everything that exists anywhere. All of your experiences that determine how things appear to you. People in general considered as a whole. All of the Living human inhabitants of the Earth.

Nondualism means "not two" or "one undivided without a second". In Buddhist Madhyamaka it means that there is no absolute, transcendent reality beyond our everyday reality, and while things exist, they are ultimately "empty" of any existence on their own. In Yogacara, it refers to the idea of nondualism of cognition and that which is cognized; Advaita, which states that all of the universe is one essential reality, and that all facets and aspects of the universe are ultimately an expression or appearance of that one reality.

Monism is the view that attributes oneness or singleness.

Anima Mundi an intrinsic connection between all living things on the planet, which relates to our world in much the same way as the soul is connected to the human body.

Holistic is emphasizing the organic or functional relation between parts and the whole.
Intrinsic is belonging to a thing by its very nature.
Homogeneous is of the same kind; alike. Similar kind or nature.
Continuity is an uninterrupted connection or union. The property of a continuous and connected period of time.
Conjunction is the state of being joined together. The temporal property of two things happening at the same time. Something that joins or connects.

Macrocosm refers to a vision of cosmos where the part (microcosm) reflects the whole (macrocosm) and vice versa. It is a feature "present in all esoteric schools of thinking". 

As Above, So Below whatever happens on any level of reality (physical, emotional, or mental) also happens on every other level.

Identity of Indiscernibles is an ontological principle that states that there cannot be separate objects or entities that have all their properties in common. That is, entities x and y are identical if every predicate possessed by x is also possessed by y and vice versa; to suppose two things indiscernible is to suppose the same thing under two names. It states that no two distinct things (such as snowflakes) can be exactly alike, but this is intended as a metaphysical principle rather than one of natural science.

Relevance is the concept of one topic being connected to another topic in a way that makes it useful to consider the second topic when considering the first.

Gestalt is a configuration or pattern of elements so unified as a whole that it cannot be described merely as a sum of its parts.

Gestalt Psychology is an attempt to understand the laws behind the ability to acquire and maintain meaningful perceptions in an apparently chaotic world. The central principle of gestalt psychology is that the mind forms a global whole with self-organizing tendencies. This principle maintains that when the human mind (perceptual system) forms a percept or "gestalt", the whole has a reality of its own, independent of the parts.

Principles of Grouping are a set of principles in psychology, first proposed by Gestalt psychologists to account for the observation that humans naturally perceive objects as organized patterns and objects, a principle known as Prägnanz. Gestalt psychologists argued that these principles exist because the mind has an innate disposition to perceive patterns in the stimulus based on certain rules. These principles are organized into five categories: Proximity, Similarity, Continuity, Closure, and Connectedness.

"The whole is greater than the sum of its parts, but the whole is nothing without its parts"

"Things which equal the same thing are also equivalent to one another"

"We are all independent cells within the super-organism called humanity"

Is there such a thing as an Isolated System? A physical system so far removed from other systems that it does not interact with them. Or a thermodynamic system enclosed by rigid immovable walls through which neither matter nor energy can pass.

Working Together - Interdependence - Associations

Matrix - Network - The Tree of Life - Pyramid of Complexity

Symbiosis - Cause and Effect

Transport Hub is a place where passengers and cargo are exchanged between vehicles or between transport modes. Public transport hubs include train stations, rapid transit stations, bus stops, tram stop, airports and ferry slips. Freight hubs include classification yards, seaports and truck terminals, or combinations of these. For private transport, the parking lot functions as a hub.

Six Degrees of Separation is the theory that everyone and everything is six or fewer steps away, by way of introduction, from any other person in the world, so that a chain of "a friend of a friend" statements can be made to connect any two people in a maximum of six steps.


Environmental Sayings and Quotes

Eco-Initiative Ideas and Actions

The worst type of disconnect is when people have no real connection to life. People are so distracted and so consumed by things in their life that they never realize their own potential, or do they realize how incredible life is and how incredible our planet is. This disconnect is related to the lack of knowledge and information that people have. You have to learn how to be connected to life and learn how to stay connected to life, if not, then you will live your entire life without ever being truly connected to life itself, as if you have never lived. This doesn't have to happen. We can improve education and improve peoples access to valuable knowledge and information. Humans have a right to be humans and the right to reach for their fullest potential. No one has a right to treat people like they are insignificant to life.

Most things we do have many Side-Effects, whether the effects come from drugs, foods or the actions we take. You must know all the side effects involved in order to determine what the correct action is that you should to take. You have to understand what each side effect means separately, and you also have to understand what all the effects mean as a whole, as well as determine which effect is the most dangerous and most likely the one that could cause the most damage.

The Earth does not belong to man; Man belongs to the Earth. This we know. All things are connected like the blood which unites one family. Whatever befalls the Earth befalls the sons of the Earth. Man did not weave the web of life, he is merely a strand in it. Whatever he does to the web, he does to himself.” — Chief Seattle

Web is an intricate network suggesting something that was formed by weaving or interweaving. An interconnected system of things or people. Computer network consisting of a collection of internet sites that offer text and graphics and sound and animation resources through the hypertext transfer protocol.

Humans need to remember that they do not create or sustain Mother Earth. Mother Earth creates and sustains us. Instead of seeking to dominate and control Earth, we need to respect and cooperate with Earth and our fellow inhabitants (including animals and plants).

"Apparently there is a great discovery or insight which our culture is deliberately designed to suppress, distort and ignore. That is that Nature is some kind of minded entity. That Nature is not simply the random flight of atoms through electromagnetic fields. Nature is not the empty, despiritualized lumpen matter that we inherit from modern physics. But it is instead a kind of intelligence, a kind of mind." ~ Terence McKenna

"No man is an island, entire of itself, every man is a piece of the continent, a part of the main. If a clod be washed away by the sea, Europe is the less, as well as if a promontory were, as well as if a manor of thy friends or of thine own were, any man's death diminishes me, because I am involved in mankind and therefore never send to know for whom the bell tolls
it tolls for thee." - Ernest Hemingway 

There is literally 100's of important choices and decisions that we make everyday.

Problem Solving

Changes and Improvements will only come from being aware of the choices that we need to make everyday and not from the money we give to charities. Face it, Money will never solve our problems. Being aware of what choices we need to make everyday is the only sure way, and the only sustainable way, that we will ever have lasting changes and Improvements. And passing on this wisdom to people and future generations is the only way that we will ever free ourselves from making these same mistakes over and over again.  A Charity that's Only asking for Money is not a Charity.  A charity must have proven methods that clearly communicates the ways that people can really help without relying on money. Philanthropy should never have to depend on Volunteering. And the word Volunteer should never be used when describing what someone needs to do or what society needs to do. There is a huge difference between 'Work' and 'Life'. Doing what's right and doing what's good should never need a reason or should never need a word to describe it.

Gift - Generosity

Helping should just be a natural reaction that a human has when a human interacts with the world. A Charity should mostly be about giving knowledge and Information and finding everyway possible to help people understand this knowledge and Information so that people can take action, make changes and make the right choices. Raising awareness is more important then raising money as long as the awareness can be translated into Action.

We must allow time for improvements and innovation.  Autonomy

Every business should give employees a half hour every workday, or at least a half hour every week, to work on a community project or a cause that will benefit people in some way. At the same time every school should give every teacher, administrator and student a half hour every school day or school week to work on a community project or a cause that will benefit people in some way.

Social Innovation

You don't have to own everything, you just have to know where everything is. We can share a lot of our tools and resources by having a community rental place, like the ones they have now but better. But you still have to use our tools resources responsibly for rebuilding and maintaining. 

Be the Change
ROWE (Results Only Work Environment)

National Service
I Care America
USA Service
Teach for America
All For Good

Do Patents Encourage Innovation or Stifle Innovation?

Remember, ending poverty, ending hunger, providing healthcare, and even with all the greatest advances and improvements that we make in this world, non of these will mean nothing if we never increase the quality and quantity of our education. Give a person a fish you feed them for a day, teach that person how to fish and you feed them for a lifetime. Action

Learn and Learn again until Lambs become Lions

More Qualified Teachers and increasing the Quality of Education will definitely help inspire change"

Inspiration 101
Information Sources 

Climate Change

Stop Business as Usual

Are Zoos, Aquariums, Circuses and Rodeos Educational ?

Zoos, Aquariums, Circuses and Rodeos misinform us as to the social and behavioral needs of animals. Sentient Beings are regarded as exhibits or displays - as mere commodities. This callous attitude contributes to society’s failure to protect natural environments because of a false sense of security -- if it’s in captivity, then it won’t become extinct; it doesn’t need help. Students do not learn about the Natural Habitats and the history of the Species.

Lifeforce Foundation  Promoting the development of symbiotic relations between people, animals the environment.

Animal Science is studying the biology of animals that are under the control of humankind. Livestock
Temple Grandin 

Extinction is the end of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species. The moment of extinction is generally considered to be the death of the last individual of the species, although the capacity to breed and recover may have been lost before this point. De-Extinction

Keystone Species is a species that has a disproportionately large effect on its environment relative to its abundance. Such species are described as playing a critical role in maintaining the structure of an ecological community, affecting many other organisms in an ecosystem and helping to determine the types and numbers of various other species in the community.

Endangered Animals
Earth Botany 

Poachers killed an estimated 100,000 elephants across Africa between 2010 and 2012, a huge spike in the continent's death rate of the world's largest mammals because of an increased demand for ivory in China and other Asian nations, a new study published Monday found. This past January, China crushed six tons of illegal ivory, and Hong Kong pledged to destroy 28 tons over the next two years. Maybe we should have sold the ivory and used the money to pay for more protection of Elephants?

Monitoring Technology

Documenting Asia's Illegal Animal Trade (youtube)

Poaching is the illegal hunting or capturing of wild animals, usually associated with land use rights.

Wildlife Trade refers to the commerce of products that are derived from non-domesticated animals or plants usually extracted from their natural environment or raised under controlled conditions. It can involve the trade of living or dead individuals, tissues such as skins, bones or meat, or other products.

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora is a multilateral treaty to protect endangered plants and animals. It was drafted as a result of a resolution adopted in 1963 at a meeting of members of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).

Animal Welfare  

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora

Illegal Fishing, Logging and Poaching are impacting two-thirds of the 57 natural World Heritage sites monitored by the International Union for Conservation of Nature this year in 2017, putting some of the world's most precious and unique ecosystems and species at risk.

Three People Running through a large field of green grass

The Thinker Man