Engineering - Design - Architecture
is the discipline dealing with the art or science of applying
scientific knowledge to practical problems
. Plan and direct a
complex undertaking. Someone who can correctly
the load capacities of
and assemble them correctly.
Engineering is the application of mathematics
, empirical evidence and scientific, economic,
, and practical knowledge in order to
, innovate, design,
, research, and improve structures,
systems, components, materials, and processes. The discipline of
engineering is extremely broad, and encompasses a range of more
specialized fields of engineering, each with a more specific emphasis on
particular areas of applied science
, technology and types of application.
to create something for a
specific role or purpose or effect. Create the design for;
or execute in an
or highly skilled
in the mind; invent.
is the processes of extracting knowledge or
anything man-made and re-producing it or
anything based on
the extracted information. The process often involves disassembling
something (a mechanical device, electronic component, computer program, or
biological, chemical, or organic matter) and analyzing its components and
workings in detail.
is the discipline dealing with the
principles of design, construction and ornamentation of fine buildings.
consideration for their
What are the differences between
Can all 3 disciplines be combined without sacrificing
"There's pretty and then there's
practicable, but if you can make practicable pretty, then that's
is something usable for a specific
. Capable of being done with means
at hand and circumstances as they are.
Engineering Types and Branches
Civil Engineering Body of Knowledge
Grady Hill House
of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Society of Mechanical Engineers
online community specifically for engineers
Center for Advanced
What Math Skills Are Needed to Become an Engineer?
is based on the idea that 1 plus 1 equals 2, and 1
minus 1 equals 0. Multiplication and division --2 times 2 and 4
divided by 2 -- are variations used to avoid multiple iterations
of either subtraction or addition. One example of an engineer's
use of basic arithmetic is the civil engineer's calculations for
describing water flow across an open basin. The flow is reckoned
in cubic feet per second, or Q, where Q equals the runoff
coefficient times the intensity of the rain for a specified
period, times the area of the basin. If the runoff coefficient
is 2, the intensity, in inches of rain, is 4 and the basin -- a
specified area of land -- is 1/2 acre, the engineer's formula
resembles this: (2x4)/(.5x43,560), or 8/21,780. The result,
0.0003673, is the volume of water, in cubic feet per second,
flowing across the land.
Next Generation Science Standards
Algebra and Geometry
When several of the factors of a problem are known and one or
more are unknown, engineers use
in cases when there are several unknowns. Because
engineers work to arrive at a solution to a physical problem,
-- with its planes, circles and angles -- determines
such diverse things as the torque used to turn a wheel, and
reduces the design of a roadway's curve to an accurate
engineering or construction drawing.
is the science of measuring triangles. Engineers
may use plane trigonometry to determine the size of an
irregularly shaped parcel of land. It may also be used or to
determine the height of an object based solely on the distance
to the object and the angle, up or down, from the observer.
Spherical trigonometry is used by naval engineers in ship design
and by mechanical engineers working on such arcane projects as
the design of mechanical hand for an underwater robot.
We all love
. They tell us where we stand in the
world, among our peers and even in our family. They tell us
who's winning. The engineer uses them for the same reasons -- by
statistical analysis of the design, the engineer can tell what
percentage of a design will need armor or reinforcement or where
any likely failures will occur. For the civil engineer,
statistics appear as the concentration of rainfall, wind loads
and bridge design. In many locations, engineers designing
drainage systems must design for a 50- or 100-year storm in
their calculations, a significant change from the normal rain
is used by engineers to
determine rates of change or rates by which factors, such as acceleration
or weight, change. It might tell NASA scientists at what point the change
in a satellite's orbit will cause the satellite to strike an object in
space. A more mundane task for calculus might be determining how large a
box must be to accommodate a specific number of things. An engineer who
designs packaging, for example, might know that a product of a certain
weight must be packaged in groups of no more than 10 because of their
weight. Using calculus, he can calculate both the optimum number of
objects per box, plus the optimum size of the box.
Math Skills needed to become an Engineer
Principles and Practice of Engineering Exam / PE Exam
Fundamentals of Engineering Exam
Building Codes - Rules for Building
is a set of rules that specify the standards
for constructed objects such as buildings and nonbuilding structures. The
main purpose of building codes is to protect public health, safety and
general welfare as they relate to the construction and occupancy of
buildings and structures. The building code becomes law of a particular
jurisdiction when formally enacted by the appropriate governmental or
private authority. City
describes the control by authority which designates
legal areas in a municipality to permit and prohibit land uses. Zoning may
specify a variety of outright and conditional uses of land. It may also
indicate the size and dimensions of land area as well as the form and
scale of buildings. These guidelines are set in order to guide urban
growth and development
Beautiful, Illegal Tiny House
(youtube) There are Cities that have no
Association of Certified Home Inspectors
of a building or built environment is
the efficiency of functioning of buildings and the construction industry,
its impact on natural environment, urban environment and its users. It is
achieved through means such as architectural design values, building
science, architectural engineering, efficient energy
use and sustainability
is the collection of scientific knowledge
and experience that focuses on the analysis and control of the physical
phenomena affecting buildings and architecture. It traditionally includes
areas such as building materials, building envelope, heating, ventilation
and air conditioning systems, natural and electrical lighting, acoustic,
indoor air quality, passive strategies, fire protection, and renewable
energies in buildings.
is the process of constructing a building or
is a structure with a roof and walls standing more
or less permanently in one place, such as a house or factory.
is a concept applicable to the testing of
Human Factors Ergonomics
Architecture Fails In The World
Earthquake Resistant Structures
are structures designed to
withstand earthquakes. While no structure can be entirely immune to damage
from earthquakes, the goal of earthquake-resistant construction is to
erect structures that fare better during seismic activity than their
Build an Earthquake Proof Building
Engineering Research Center
Earthquake Resistant Building
Largest Earthquake Test
Energy Absorbing Structure
is both the process and the product of
planning, designing, and constructing buildings and other physical
structures. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are
often perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art. Historical
civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural
achievements. Architecture" can mean: A general term to describe buildings
and other physical structures. The art and science of designing buildings
and (some) nonbuilding structures. The style of design and method of
construction of buildings and other physical structures. Knowledge of art,
science, technology, and humanity. The practice of the architect, where
architecture means offering or rendering professional services in
connection with the design and construction of buildings, or built
environments. The design activity of the architect, from the macro-level
(urban design, landscape architecture) to the micro-level (construction
details and furniture).
Outline of Architecture
Form Follows Function
Tuned Mass Damper
Architectural Model Building Kits
Building Information Modeling
Engineering Process Outsourcing
Architecture and Vision
is a craftsman who lays
is the building of structures from individual units,
which are often laid in and bound together by
; The common materials of
masonry construction are brick, building stone such as marble, granite,
travertine, and limestone, cast stone, concrete block, glass block, and
is creating buildings, structures, and sculpture using stone from the
Construction Craft Worker Foundations Program
Architectural Display Glass
She's a Brick House
Wally Wallington from Flint Michigan has
demonstrated that he can lift a Stonehenge-sized pillar weighing 22,000
lbs and moved a barn over 300 ft. What makes this so special is that he
does it using only himself, gravity, and his incredible ingenuity.
means of a lever rotating around a pivot, which is the point of
in a lever system;
consisting of a beam or rigid
rod pivoted at a fixed hinge, or fulcrum, which is the support about which
a lever pivots. A lever is a rigid body capable of rotating on a point on
itself. On the basis of the location of fulcrum, load and effort, the
lever is divided into three types. It is one of the six simple machines
identified by Renaissance scientists. A lever amplifies an input force to
provide a greater output force, which is said to provide leverage. The
ratio of the output force to the input force is the mechanical advantage
of the lever. Mechanical Advantage
ratio of the output force produced by a machine (especially a simple
machine) to the applied input force.
is a temporary structure used to support a work crew and
materials to aid in the construction, maintenance and repair of buildings,
bridges and all other man made structures. Scaffolding is also used in
adapted forms for formwork and shoring, grandstand seating, concert
stages, access/viewing towers, exhibition stands, ski ramps, half pipes
and art projects.
Pyramids of Egypt ...a detailed step by step guide
theory, limestone is soft when quarried, and when added to water it can be
easily shaped using the water as a constant level. Water Lift Shafts and
causeways and canal linking and high pressure water springs.
indicates that the upward buoyant force that is exerted on a
body immersed in a fluid, whether fully or partially submerged, is equal
to the weight of the fluid that the body displaces and it acts in the
upward direction at the centre of mass of the displaced fluid.
"Measure twice, cut once"
in which the primary work performed is the cutting,
shaping and installation of building materials during the construction of
buildings, ships, timber bridges, concrete formwork, etc. Carpenters
traditionally worked with natural wood and did the rougher work such as
framing, but today many other materials are also used and sometimes the
finer trades of cabinetmaking and furniture building are considered
involves joining together pieces of timber or
lumber, to produce more complex items. Some wood joints employ fasteners,
bindings, or adhesives, while others use only wood elements. The
characteristics of wooden joints - strength, flexibility, toughness,
appearance, etc. - derive from the properties of the materials involved
and the purpose of the joint. Therefore, different joinery techniques are
used to meet differing requirements. For example, the joinery used to
construct a house can be different from that used to make puzzle toys,
although some concepts overlap.
is the activity or skill of making items from
wood, and includes cabinet making (Cabinetry and Furniture), wood carving,
joinery, and carpentry.
is turned into a traditional post and rung stool
Wheel making, wheelwrights
Woodworking Tips & Techniques: Joinery - Strength of Glue Joints
The Samurai Workbench
Bow And Arrow
SPYNDI Sticks Furniture Invention
is a building technique with a "skeleton frame" of vertical steel columns
and horizontal I-beams, constructed in a rectangular grid to support the
floors, roof and walls of a building which are all attached to the frame.
The development of this technique made the construction of the skyscraper
Skyscrapers around the World
Metal and Plastic Machine Workers
Foundry Mold and Coremakers
Lasersysteme: TruLaser Cell 3000 - Hochflexibles Schneiden und Schweißen
Electron Beam Can Sculpt Textured Surfaces In Seconds
(Surfi-Sculpt on youtube)
is the process of manufacturing by shaping liquid or pliable raw material
using a rigid frame called a mold or matrix. This itself may have been
made using a pattern or model of the final object.
Thermoset Polymer Matrix
Recyclable, Strong Thermosets and Organogels via
Paraformaldehyde Condensation with Diamines
(youtube, Bill Hammack, UI)
Strength of Materials
Span Limits Calculator
Ultimate Tensile Strength
Strength of Materials
Vehicle Payload Capacities
Tensile Strength Calculator
Tensiometer (surface tension)
Disaster Proof Architecture Structures
Strong Structure Shapes
Structural Health Monitoring
is the use of various control
for operating equipment such as machinery, processes in
factories, boilers and heat treating ovens, switching on telephone
networks, steering and stabilization of ships, aircraft and other
applications with minimal or reduced human intervention.
Do Robots take Jobs
is the process of changing from working
largely or exclusively by hand or with animals to doing that work with
machinery. Every machine is constructed for the
certain mechanical operations
, each of which supposes the existence of two
other things besides the machine
in question, namely, a moving power, and
an object subject to the operation, which may be termed the
done. Machines, in fact, are interposed between the power and the work,
for the purpose of adapting the one to the other.
is the use of engineering and manufacturing
technology to make production faster, simpler and more efficient. The
industrial technology field employs creative and technically proficient
individuals who can help a company achieve efficient and profitable
Machine to Machine
refers to direct communication
between devices using any communications channel, including wired and
wireless. Machine to machine communication can include industrial
instrumentation, enabling a sensor or meter to communicate the data it
records (such as temperature, inventory level, etc.) to application
software that can use it (for example, adjusting an industrial process
based on temperature or placing orders to replenish inventory). Such
communication was originally accomplished by having a remote network of
machines relay information back to a central hub for analysis, which would
then be rerouted into a system like a personal computer
makes use of gas or
are machinery and tools that use liquid fluid power to do
simple work. Heavy equipment is a common example.
use of fluids under pressure to generate, control, and transmit power.
is a tool containing one or more parts that uses
to perform an intended action. Machines
are usually powered by mechanical, chemical,
, or electrical means, and are
often motorized. Historically, a power tool also required moving parts to
classify as a machine. However, the advent of electronics has led to the
development of power tools without moving parts that are considered
is an area of science concerned with the behaviour
of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements, and the
subsequent effects of the bodies on their environment.
is the value added production of merchandise
for use or sale using labour and machines, tools, chemical and biological
processing, or formulation.
is the process of managing the entire
lifecycle of a product from inception, through engineering design and
manufacture, to service and disposal of manufactured products.
Development MistakesQuality Control
Drawing - Blueprints - Design Software
composing drawings that visually communicate how something functions or is
to be constructed.
is a technical drawing of a building
used to develop a design idea into a coherent proposal, to communicate
ideas and concepts, to convince clients of the merits of a design, to
enable a building contractor to construct it, as a record of the completed
work, and to make a record of a building that already exists.
is a type of technical drawing, is used
to fully and clearly define requirements for engineered items.Hand
, model, or release of a product built to test a
or process or to act as a
thing to be replicated or learned from. A prototype is generally used to
evaluate a new design
enhance precision by system analysts and users. Prototyping serves to
provide specifications for a real, working system rather than a
is a representation of a system, made of the
composition of concepts which are used to help people know, understand, or
simulate a subject the model represents. Some models are physical objects;
for example, a toy model which may be assembled, and may be made to work
like the object it represents.
, from examining the model, of information about the
thing the model represents.
a physical representation of an object which enables it to
demonstrate some behavior or property of the original object without
examining the original object itself.
process of developing a mathematically representation of any
three-dimensional surface of an object (either inanimate or living) via
List of Computer-Aided Design Software
Mach 3 -
Engineers Without Borders
physical item that can be used to achieve a goal, especially if the item
is not consumed in the process. Tool use by humans dates back millions of
years, and other animals are also known to employ simple tools, such as
"instrument", "utensil", "implement", "machine", "device," or "apparatus".
The set of tools needed to achieve a goal is "equipment".
is the building of metal structures by cutting, bending, and assembling
processes. It is a value added process that involves the construction of
machines and structures from various raw materials.
is a philosophy that encourages the redesign of resource life cycles so
that all products are reused
is a manufacturing process where computer
numerically controlled tools that move in 4 or more ways are used to
manufacture parts out of metal or other materials by milling away excess
material, by water jet cutting or by laser cutting. Typical CNC tools
support translation in 3 axis; multiaxis machines also support rotation
around one or multiple axis. There are now many CAM (computer aided
manufacturing) software systems available to support multiaxis machining
including software that can automatically convert 3-axis toolpaths into
5-axis toolpaths. Five-axis machine tools are known to have 41 basic
geometric errors,The way you want the machine to move (when making a large
part) is different than the way it actually moves due to inherent
geometric errors." Because of these errors, manufacturers must make
adjustments in calibrating their CNC machines.
Researchers develop ways to improve machining, milling processes
is any of various processes in which a piece of
raw material is cut into a desired final shape and size by a controlled
material-removal process. The processes that have this common theme,
controlled material removal, are today collectively known as subtractive
manufacturing, in distinction from processes of controlled material
addition, which are known as
. Exactly what the "controlled" part of the
definition implies can vary, but it almost always implies the use of
machine tools (in addition to just power tools and hand tools).
is an instrument used in geometry, technical drawing, printing,
engineering and building to measure
distances or to rule
straight lines. The ruler is a straightedge which may also contain
calibrated lines to measure distances.
is a long-armed square that has additional uses for
, especially of angles, as well as simple right-angles.
Today the steel square is more commonly referred to as the framing square.
It consists of a long arm and a shorter one, which meet at an angle of 90
degrees (a right angle). It can also be made of metals like aluminum,
which is light and resistant to rust.
measuring angles. Most protractors measure angles in degrees (°).
Radian-scale protractors measure angles in radians. Most protractors are
divided into 180 equal parts.
is a device used to make measurements or in
order to display certain information, like time.
is a device incorporating a calibrated screw
widely used for precise measurement of components in mechanical
engineering and machining as well as most mechanical trades, along with
other metrological instruments such as dial, vernier, and digital
a lathe from scratch
to Read a Tape Measure
Design and order Custom Parts.
and Open-source PCB CAM, lets you take your designs to a
Hand Tools List
Tools and Equipment