Engineering - Design - Architecture
is the discipline dealing with the art or science of applying
scientific knowledge to practical problems
. Plan and direct a
complex undertaking. Someone who can correctly
the load capacities of
and assemble them correctly.
Engineering is the application of mathematics
, empirical evidence and scientific, economic,
, and practical knowledge in order to
, innovate, design,
, research, and improve structures,
systems, components, materials, and processes. The discipline of
engineering is extremely broad, and encompasses a range of more
specialized fields of engineering, each with a more specific emphasis on
particular areas of applied science
, technology and types of application.
to create something for a
specific role or purpose or effect. Create the design for;
or execute in an
or highly skilled
in the mind; invent.
is the processes of extracting knowledge or
anything man-made and re-producing it or
anything based on
the extracted information. The process often involves disassembling
something (a mechanical device, electronic component, computer program, or
biological, chemical, or organic matter) and analyzing its components and
workings in detail.
is the discipline dealing with the
principles of design, construction and ornamentation of fine buildings.
consideration for their
What are the differences between
? Can all 3 disciplines be combined without sacrificing
"There's pretty and then there's
practicable, but if you can make practicable pretty, then that's
is something usable for a specific
. Capable of being done with means
at hand and circumstances as they are.
Engineering Types and Branches
designs materials, structures, and systems while
considering the limitations imposed by practicality, regulation, safety,
is a field of engineering that
generally deals with the study and application of
, electronics, and
is the discipline that applies the principles of engineering, physics, and
materials science for the design, analysis, manufacturing, and maintenance
of mechanical systems. It is the branch of engineering that involves the
design, production, and operation of machinery. It is one of the oldest
and broadest of the engineering disciplines.
Civil Engineering Body of Knowledge
is the branch of engineering
concerned with the application of scientific and engineering principles
for protection of human populations from the effects of adverse
environmental factors; protection of environments, both local and global,
from potentially deleterious effects of natural and human activities; and
improvement of environmental quality.
was a Russian engineer who played a significant role
in the introduction of scientific management into Russian industry.
(1875–22 May 1929).
The Ghost of the Executed Engineer
that includes a combination of
, computer engineering
. As technology advances, the subfields of engineering
multiply and adapt. Mechatronics' aim is a design process that unifies
these subfields. Originally, mechatronics just included the combination of
mechanics and electronics, hence the word is a combination of mechanics
and electronics; however, as technical systems have become more and more
complex the definition has been broadened to include more technical areas.
is a specialist dedicated to the development,
design, and implementation of engineering and
technology education is more of a broad specialized and applied
is a branch of engineering which deals with the optimization of complex
processes, systems or organizations. Industrial engineers work to
eliminate waste of time, money, materials, man-hours, machine time, energy
and other resources that do not generate value.
is a device designed to transform input forces and movement into a desired
set of output forces and the movement. Mechanisms generally consist of
moving components such as gears and gear trains, belt and chain drives,
cam and follower mechanisms, and linkages as well as friction devices such
as brakes and clutches, and structural components such as the frame,
fasteners, bearings, springs, lubricants and seals, as well as a variety
of specialized machine elements such as splines, pins and key.
is engineering that emphasizes
dependability in the lifecycle management of a product. Dependability, or
reliability, describes the ability of a system or component to function
under stated conditions for a specified period of time. Reliability may
also describe the ability to function at a specified moment or interval of
time (Availability). Reliability engineering represents a sub-discipline
within systems engineering. Reliability is theoretically defined as the
probability of success.
is an engineering discipline which
assures that engineered systems provide acceptable levels of safety. It is
strongly related to industrial engineering/systems engineering, and the
subset system safety engineering. Safety engineering assures that a
life-critical system behaves as needed, even when components fail.
concept calls for a risk management strategy
based on identification, analysis of hazards and application of remedial
controls using a systems-based approach. This is different from
traditional safety strategies which rely on control of conditions and
causes of an accident based either on the Epidemiological analysis or as a
result of investigation of individual past accidents. The concept of
system safety is useful in demonstrating adequacy of technologies when
difficulties are faced with probabilistic risk analysis. The underlying
principle is one of synergy: a whole is more than sum of its parts.
Systems-based approach to safety requires the application of scientific,
technical and managerial skills to hazard identification, hazard analysis,
and elimination, control, or management of hazards throughout the
life-cycle of a system, program, project or an activity or a product. "Hazop"
is one of several techniques available for identification of hazards.
Grady Hill House
of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Society of Mechanical Engineers
online community specifically for engineers
Center for Advanced
What Math Skills Are Needed to Become an Engineer?
How much you use these skills will depend on the type of
engineering work that you will be doing. Reading
and problem solving
will always be your most used skills in every profession. In order to find
an engineering position that you like you may have to move to another a
state or country.
is based on the idea that 1 plus 1 equals 2, and 1
minus 1 equals 0. Multiplication and division --2 times 2 and 4
divided by 2 -- are variations used to avoid multiple iterations
of either subtraction or addition. One example of an engineer's
use of basic arithmetic is the civil engineer's calculations for
describing water flow across an open basin. The flow is reckoned
in cubic feet per second, or Q, where Q equals the runoff
coefficient times the intensity of the rain for a specified
period, times the area of the basin. If the runoff coefficient
is 2, the intensity, in inches of rain, is 4 and the basin -- a
specified area of land -- is 1/2 acre, the engineer's formula
resembles this: (2x4)/(.5x43,560), or 8/21,780. The result,
0.0003673, is the volume of water, in cubic feet per second,
flowing across the land.
Next Generation Science Standards
Algebra and Geometry
When several of the factors of a problem are known and one or
more are unknown, engineers use
in cases when there are several unknowns. Because
engineers work to arrive at a solution to a physical problem,
-- with its planes, circles and angles -- determines
such diverse things as the torque used to turn a wheel, and
reduces the design of a roadway's curve to an accurate
engineering or construction drawing.
is the science of measuring triangles. Engineers
may use plane trigonometry to determine the size of an
irregularly shaped parcel of land. It may also be used or to
determine the height of an object based solely on the distance
to the object and the angle, up or down, from the observer.
Spherical trigonometry is used by naval engineers in ship design
and by mechanical engineers working on such arcane projects as
the design of mechanical hand for an underwater robot.
We all love
. They tell us where we stand in the
world, among our peers and even in our family. They tell us
who's winning. The engineer uses them for the same reasons -- by
statistical analysis of the design, the engineer can tell what
percentage of a design will need armor or reinforcement or where
any likely failures will occur. For the civil engineer,
statistics appear as the concentration of rainfall, wind loads
and bridge design. In many locations, engineers designing
drainage systems must design for a 50- or 100-year storm in
their calculations, a significant change from the normal rain
is used by engineers to
determine rates of change or rates by which factors, such as acceleration
or weight, change. It might tell NASA scientists at what point the change
in a satellite's orbit will cause the satellite to strike an object in
space. A more mundane task for calculus might be determining how large a
box must be to accommodate a specific number of things. An engineer who
designs packaging, for example, might know that a product of a certain
weight must be packaged in groups of no more than 10 because of their
weight. Using calculus, he can calculate both the optimum number of
objects per box, plus the optimum size of the box.
Math Skills needed to become an Engineer
Principles and Practice of Engineering Exam / PE Exam
Fundamentals of Engineering Exam
Building Codes - Rules for Building
is a set of rules that specify the standards
for constructed objects such as buildings and nonbuilding structures. The
main purpose of building codes is to protect public health, safety and
general welfare as they relate to the construction and occupancy of
buildings and structures. The building code becomes law of a particular
jurisdiction when formally enacted by the appropriate governmental or
private authority. City
describes the control by authority which designates
legal areas in a municipality to permit and prohibit land uses. Zoning may
specify a variety of outright and conditional uses of land. It may also
indicate the size and dimensions of land area as well as the form and
scale of buildings. These guidelines are set in order to guide urban
growth and development
Beautiful, Illegal Tiny House
(youtube) There are Cities that have no
refers to the approval needed for
construction or expansion (including significant renovation) in some
is a limited, non-invasive examination of
the condition of a home, often in connection with the sale of that home.
Home inspections are usually conducted by a home inspector who has the
training and certifications to perform such inspections. The inspector
prepares and delivers to the client a written report of findings. The
client then uses the knowledge gained to make informed decisions about
their pending real estate purchase. The home inspector describes the
condition of the home at the time of inspection but does not guarantee
future condition, efficiency, or life expectancy of systems or components.
Association of Certified Home Inspectors
of a building or built environment is
the efficiency of functioning of buildings and the construction industry,
its impact on natural environment, urban environment and its users. It is
achieved through means such as architectural design values, building
science, architectural engineering, efficient energy
use and sustainability
is the collection of scientific knowledge
and experience that focuses on the analysis and control of the physical
phenomena affecting buildings and architecture. It traditionally includes
areas such as building materials, building envelope, heating, ventilation
and air conditioning systems, natural and electrical lighting, acoustic,
indoor air quality, passive strategies, fire protection, and renewable
energies in buildings.
is the process of constructing a building or
is a structure with a roof and walls standing more
or less permanently in one place, such as a house or factory.
is a concept applicable to the testing of
is a human-centered, interdisciplinary
process that seeks to create desirable and sustainable changes in behavior
and form – of individuals, systems and organizations – often for socially
Human Factors Ergonomics
, comfort design, functional design,
and systems, is the practice of designing products, systems, or processes
to take proper account of the interaction between them and the people who
Architecture Fails In The World
Earthquake Resistant Structures
are structures designed to
withstand earthquakes. While no structure can be entirely immune to damage
from earthquakes, the goal of earthquake-resistant construction is to
erect structures that fare better during seismic activity than their
Build an Earthquake Proof Building
Engineering Research Center
Earthquake Resistant Building
Largest Earthquake Test
Energy Absorbing Structure
is the modification of existing structures
to make them more resistant to seismic activity, ground motion, or soil
failure due to earthquakes.
is both the process and the product of
planning, designing, and constructing buildings and other physical
structures. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are
often perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art. Historical
civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural
achievements. Architecture" can mean: A general term to describe buildings
and other physical structures. The art and science of designing buildings
and (some) nonbuilding structures. The style of design and method of
construction of buildings and other physical structures. Knowledge of art,
science, technology, and humanity. The practice of the architect, where
architecture means offering or rendering professional services in
connection with the design and construction of buildings, or built
environments. The design activity of the architect, from the macro-level
(urban design, landscape architecture) to the micro-level (construction
details and furniture).
is the application of engineering
principles and technology to building design and construction. Definitions
of an architectural engineer may refer to: An engineer in the structural,
mechanical, electrical, construction or other engineering fields of
building design and construction. A licensed engineering professional in
parts of the United States. Architectural engineers are those who work
with other engineers and architects for the designing and construction of
is a method of styling the
joints in the formal elements of architectural design. Through degrees of
articulation, each part is united with the whole work by means of a joint
in such a way that the joined parts are put together in styles ranging
from exceptionally distinct jointing to the opposite of high
articulation—fluidity and continuity of joining. In highly articulated
works, each part is defined precisely and stands out clearly. The
articulation of a building reveals how the parts fit into the whole by
emphasizing each part separately.
is mainly a sub-division of civil engineering
where structural engineers are trained to understand, predict, and
calculate the stability, strength and rigidity of built structures for
buildings and non-building structures, to develop designs and integrate
their design with that of other designers, and to supervise construction
of projects on site. They can also be involved in the design of machinery,
medical equipment, vehicles etc. where structural integrity affects
functioning and safety. Structural engineering theory is based upon
applied physical laws and empirical knowledge of the structural
performance of different materials and geometries. Structural engineering
design utilizes a number of relatively simple structural elements to build
complex structural systems. Structural engineers are responsible for
making creative and efficient use of funds, structural elements and
materials to achieve these goals.
is the act of thinking, discussing, and
writing about architecture. Architectural theory is taught in most
architecture schools and is practiced by the world's leading architects.
Outline of Architecture
is a central principle of architectural theory
and an important connection between mathematics and art. It is the visual
effect of the relationships of the various objects and spaces that make up
a structure to one another and to the whole. These relationships are often
governed by multiples of a standard unit of length known as a "module".
Form Follows Function
is a principle associated with
modernist architecture and industrial design in the 20th century. The
principle is that the shape of a building or object should be primarily
based upon its intended function or purpose.
is the degree to which a structural element is
displaced under a load. It may refer to an angle or a distance.
Tuned Mass Damper
is a device mounted in structures to
reduce the amplitude of mechanical vibrations. Their application can
prevent discomfort, damage, or outright structural failure. They are
frequently used in power transmission, automobiles, and buildings.
demonstrates and promotes buildings before
they are constructed.
is most generally a physical representation of
an object, which maintains accurate relationships between all important
aspects of the model, although absolute values of the original properties
need not be preserved. This enables it to demonstrate some behavior or
property of the original object without examining the original object
itself. The most familiar scale models represent the physical appearance
of an object in miniature, but there are many other kinds.
Architectural Model Building Kits
is a type of scale model - a physical
representation of a structure - built to study aspects of an architectural
design or to communicate design ideas.
involves the three-dimensional reproduction of
architecture, geometric patterns, everyday objects, or other images, on
various scales, using cut-out and folded paper, usually thin paperboard.
Building Information Modeling
is a process involving the generation and management of digital
representations of physical and functional characteristics of places.
is the process of verifying, in new construction, all (or some, depending
on scope) of the subsystems for mechanical (HVAC), plumbing, electrical,
fire/life safety, building envelopes, interior systems (example laboratory
units), co-generation, utility plants, sustainable systems, lighting,
wastewater, controls, and building security to achieve the owner's project
requirements as intended by the building owner and as designed by the
building architects and engineers. Recommissioning is the methodical
process of testing and adjusting the aforementioned systems in existing
is a transdisciplinary approach for exploring
constraints, and possibilities.
Engineering Process Outsourcing
for the architecture,
engineering and construction (AEC) industry is a resource for the
industries of the built environment. The EPO industry supports
architecture, engineering and construction industries worldwide.
Architecture and Vision
is a property of engineering systems,
used in a variety of engineering disciplines, but most commonly found in
analog electronics and control systems. A passive component, depending on
field, may be either a component that consumes (but does not produce)
energy (thermodynamic passivity), or a component that is incapable of
power gain (incremental passivity).
Association of Architects
is a craftsman who lays
is the building of structures from individual units,
which are often laid in and bound together by
; The common materials of
masonry construction are brick, building stone such as marble, granite,
travertine, and limestone, cast stone, concrete block, glass block, and
is creating buildings, structures, and sculpture using stone from the
Construction Craft Worker Foundations Program
Architectural Display Glass
She's a Brick House
Wally Wallington from Flint Michigan has
demonstrated that he can lift a Stonehenge-sized pillar weighing 22,000
lbs and moved a barn over 300 ft. What makes this so special is that he
does it using only himself, gravity, and his incredible ingenuity.
means of a lever rotating around a pivot, which is the point of
in a lever system;
consisting of a beam or rigid
rod pivoted at a fixed hinge, or fulcrum, which is the support about which
a lever pivots. A lever is a rigid body capable of rotating on a point on
itself. On the basis of the location of fulcrum, load and effort, the
lever is divided into three types. It is one of the six simple machines
identified by Renaissance scientists. A lever amplifies an input force to
provide a greater output force, which is said to provide leverage. The
ratio of the output force to the input force is the mechanical advantage
of the lever. Mechanical Advantage
ratio of the output force produced by a machine (especially a simple
machine) to the applied input force.
is a temporary structure used to support a work crew and
materials to aid in the construction, maintenance and repair of buildings,
bridges and all other man made structures. Scaffolding is also used in
adapted forms for formwork and shoring, grandstand seating, concert
stages, access/viewing towers, exhibition stands, ski ramps, half pipes
and art projects.
Pyramids of Egypt ...a detailed step by step guide
theory, limestone is soft when quarried, and when added to water it can be
easily shaped using the water as a constant level. Water Lift Shafts and
causeways and canal linking and high pressure water springs.
indicates that the upward buoyant force that is exerted on a
body immersed in a fluid, whether fully or partially submerged, is equal
to the weight of the fluid that the body displaces and it acts in the
upward direction at the centre of mass of the displaced fluid.
"Measure twice, cut once"
in which the primary work performed is the cutting,
shaping and installation of building materials during the construction of
buildings, ships, timber bridges, concrete formwork, etc. Carpenters
traditionally worked with natural wood and did the rougher work such as
framing, but today many other materials are also used and sometimes the
finer trades of cabinetmaking and furniture building are considered
involves joining together pieces of timber or
lumber, to produce more complex items. Some wood joints employ fasteners,
bindings, or adhesives, while others use only wood elements. The
characteristics of wooden joints - strength, flexibility, toughness,
appearance, etc. - derive from the properties of the materials involved
and the purpose of the joint. Therefore, different joinery techniques are
used to meet differing requirements. For example, the joinery used to
construct a house can be different from that used to make puzzle toys,
although some concepts overlap.
is the activity or skill of making items from
wood, and includes cabinet making (Cabinetry and Furniture), wood carving,
joinery, and carpentry.
is the fitting together of pieces to give a
structure support and shape. Framing materials are usually wood,
engineered wood, or structural steel. Building framing is divided into two
broad categories, heavy-frame construction (heavy framing) if the vertical
supports are few and heavy such as in timber framing, pole building
framing, or steel framing or many and smaller called light-frame
construction (light framing) including balloon, platform and light-steel
framing. Light-frame construction using standardized dimensional lumber
has become the dominant construction method in North America and Australia
because of its economy. Use of minimal structural material allows builders
to enclose a large area with minimal cost, while achieving a wide variety
of architectural styles.
are methods of building with heavy timbers
(posts and beams) rather than dimensional lumber such as 2x4s. Traditional
timber framing is the method of creating structures using heavy
squared-off and carefully fitted and joined timbers with joints secured by
large wooden pegs (larger versions of the mortise and tenon joints in
furniture). It is commonplace in wooden buildings from the 19th century
and earlier. The method comes from making things out of logs and tree
trunks without modern high tech saws to cut lumber from the starting
material stock. Hewing with broadaxes, adzes, and draw knives and using
hand-powered braces and augers (brace and bit) and other laborious
woodworking, artisans or farmers could gradually assemble a building
capable of bearing heavy weight without excessive use of interior space
given over to vertical support posts. Since this building method has been
used for thousands of years in many parts of the world, many styles of
historic framing have developed. These styles are often categorized by the
type of foundation, walls, how and where the beams intersect, the use of
curved timbers, and the roof framing details. Three basic types of timber
frames in English-speaking countries are the box frame, cruck frame, and
is one of the oldest branches of engineering,
is concerned with constructing the hulls of boats and, for sailboats, the
masts, spars and rigging.
is a part of woodworking that involves joining
together pieces of timber or lumber, to produce more complex items. Some
wood joints employ fasteners, bindings, or adhesives, while others use
only wood elements. The characteristics of wooden joints - strength,
flexibility, toughness, appearance, etc. - derive from the properties of
the materials involved and the purpose of the joint. Therefore, different
joinery techniques are used to meet differing requirements. For example,
the joinery used to construct a house can be different from that used to
make puzzle toys, although some concepts overlap.
is a woodworking joint, similar to a mortise and tenon,
in that a tenon is cut on the end of one member and a mortise is cut into
the other to accept it. The distinguishing feature is that the tenon and
the mortise are cut to the full width of the tenon member. The corner
bridle joint (also known as a slot mortise and tenon) joins two members at
their respective ends, forming a corner. This form of the joint is
commonly used to house a rail in uprights, such as legs. It provides good
strength in compression and is fairly resistant to Stacking, although a
mechanical fastener or pin is often required. The bridle joint is very
popular in workbench construction. Corner bridles are often used to join
frame components when the frame is to be shaped. Material can be removed
from the joined members after assembly without sacrificing joint
integrity. A variation of the bridle joint is the T-bridle, which joins
the end of one member to the middle of another. The tee bridle joint is
very strong and good for joining 2 pieces together.
is turned into a traditional post and rung stool
Wheel making, wheelwrights
Woodworking Tips & Techniques: Joinery - Strength of Glue Joints
The Samurai Workbench
Bow And Arrow
SPYNDI Sticks Furniture Invention
is a building technique with a "skeleton frame" of vertical steel columns
and horizontal I-beams, constructed in a rectangular grid to support the
floors, roof and walls of a building which are all attached to the frame.
The development of this technique made the construction of the skyscraper
Skyscrapers around the World
Metal and Plastic Machine Workers
Foundry Mold and Coremakers
Lasersysteme: TruLaser Cell 3000 - Hochflexibles Schneiden und Schweißen
Electron Beam Can Sculpt Textured Surfaces In Seconds
(Surfi-Sculpt on youtube)
Electroplaters, anodizers, liquid and powder
coaters have all come to rely on Products Finishing magazine as their No.
1 source for surface finishing news and technology for more than 80 years.
is the process of manufacturing by shaping liquid or pliable raw material
using a rigid frame called a mold or matrix. This itself may have been
made using a pattern or model of the final object.
Thermoset Polymer Matrix
Recyclable, Strong Thermosets and Organogels via
Paraformaldehyde Condensation with Diamines
(youtube, Bill Hammack, UI)
Strength of Materials
are forces, deformations, or accelerations applied to a structure or its
components. Loads cause stresses, deformations, and displacements in
structures. Assessment of their effects is carried out by the methods of
structural analysis. Excess load or overloading may cause structural
failure, and hence such possibility should be either considered in the
design or strictly controlled. Mechanical structures, such as aircraft,
satellites, rockets, space stations, ships, and submarines, have their own
particular structural loads and actions. Engineers often evaluate
structural loads based upon published regulations, contracts, or
specifications. Accepted technical standards are used for acceptance
testing and inspection.
Span Limits Calculator
Ultimate Tensile Strength
is the capacity of a material or
structure to withstand loads tending to elongate, as opposed to
compressive strength, which withstands loads tending to reduce size.
Strength of Materials
is a subject which deals with the behavior of solid objects subject to
stresses and strains.
Vehicle Payload Capacities
Tensile Strength Calculator
Tensiometer (surface tension)
describes the pulling force transmitted axially by
means of a string, cable, chain, or similar one-dimensional continuous
object, or by each end of a rod, truss member, or similar
three-dimensional object; tension can also be described as the
action-reaction pair of forces acting at each end of said elements.
Tension is the opposite of compression.
Disaster Proof Architecture Structures
Strong Structure Shapes
Structural Health Monitoring
is the use of various control
for operating equipment such as machinery, processes in
, boilers and heat treating ovens, switching on telephone
networks, steering and stabilization of ships, aircraft and other
applications with minimal or reduced human intervention.
Do Robots take Jobs
is a tool containing one or more parts that uses
to perform an intended action. Machines
are usually powered by mechanical, chemical,
, or electrical means, and are
often motorized. Historically, a power tool also required moving parts to
classify as a machine. However, the advent of electronics has led to the
development of power tools without moving parts that are considered
is any mechanical or
that transmits or
modifies energy to perform or assist in the performance of human tasks. An
intricate organization that accomplishes its goals efficiently. A device
for overcoming resistance at one point by applying force at some other
is an area of science concerned with the behaviour
of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements, and the
subsequent effects of the bodies on their environment.
is the process of changing from working
largely or exclusively by hand or with animals to doing that work with
machinery. Every machine is constructed for the
certain mechanical operations
, each of which supposes the existence of two
other things besides the machine
in question, namely, a moving power, and
an object subject to the operation, which may be termed the
done. Machines, in fact, are interposed between the power and the work,
for the purpose of adapting the one to the other.
is the use of engineering and manufacturing
technology to make production faster, simpler and more efficient. The
industrial technology field employs creative and technically proficient
individuals who can help a company achieve efficient and profitable
Machine to Machine
refers to direct communication
between devices using any communications channel, including wired and
wireless. Machine to machine communication can include industrial
instrumentation, enabling a sensor or meter to communicate the data it
records (such as temperature, inventory level, etc.) to application
software that can use it (for example, adjusting an industrial process
based on temperature or placing orders to replenish inventory). Such
communication was originally accomplished by having a remote network of
machines relay information back to a central hub for analysis, which would
then be rerouted into a system like a personal computer.
makes use of gas or
are machinery and tools that use liquid fluid power to do
simple work. Heavy equipment is a common example.
is a mechanical actuator that is used to give a unidirectional force
through a unidirectional stroke. It has many applications, notably in
construction equipment (engineering vehicles), manufacturing machinery,
and civil engineering.
use of fluids under pressure to generate, control, and transmit power.
is the value added
for use or sale using labour
and machines, tools, chemical and biological
processing, or formulation.
is the process of managing the entire
lifecycle of a product
from inception, through engineering design and
manufacture, to service and disposal of manufactured products.
Development MistakesQuality Control
Drawing - Blueprints - Design Software
composing drawings that visually communicate how something functions or is
to be constructed.
is a technical
of a building
used to develop a design idea into a coherent proposal, to communicate
ideas and concepts, to convince clients of the merits of a design, to
enable a building contractor to construct it, as a record of the completed
work, and to make a record of a building that already exists.
is a type of technical drawing, is used
to fully and clearly define requirements for engineered items.Hand
is a reproduction of a technical drawing,
documenting an architecture or an engineering design, using a contact
print process on light-sensitive sheets.
, model, or release of a product built to test a
or process or to act as a
thing to be replicated or learned from. A prototype is generally used to
evaluate a new design
enhance precision by system analysts and users. Prototyping serves to
provide specifications for a real, working system rather than a
is a representation of a system, made of the
composition of concepts which are used to help people know, understand, or
simulate a subject the model represents. Some models are physical objects;
for example, a toy model which may be assembled, and may be made to work
like the object it represents.
, from examining the model, of information about the
thing the model represents.
a physical representation of an object which enables it to
demonstrate some behavior or property of the original object without
examining the original object itself.
process of developing a mathematically representation of any
three-dimensional surface of an object (either inanimate or living) via
List of Computer-Aided Design Software
consist of designers,
architects, filmmakers, and technologists deeply experienced in shaping
ideas from concept
to execution. interactive prototypes.
high-fidelity prototypes that look and work exactly like your app should.
No coding required.
Mach 3 -
Engineers Without Borders
physical item that can be used to achieve a goal, especially if the item
is not consumed in the process. Tool use by humans dates back millions of
years, and other animals are also known to employ simple tools, such as
"instrument", "utensil", "implement", "machine", "device," or "apparatus".
The set of tools needed to achieve a goal is "equipment".
is the building of metal structures by cutting, bending, and assembling
processes. It is a value added process that involves the construction of
machines and structures from various raw materials.
is a philosophy that encourages the redesign of resource life cycles so
that all products are reused
is a manufacturing process where computer
numerically controlled tools that move in 4 or more ways are used to
manufacture parts out of metal or other materials by milling away excess
material, by water jet cutting or by laser cutting. Typical CNC tools
support translation in 3 axis; multiaxis machines also support rotation
around one or multiple axis. There are now many CAM (computer aided
manufacturing) software systems available to support multiaxis machining
including software that can automatically convert 3-axis toolpaths into
5-axis toolpaths. Five-axis machine tools are known to have 41 basic
geometric errors,The way you want the machine to move (when making a large
part) is different than the way it actually moves due to inherent
geometric errors." Because of these errors, manufacturers must make
adjustments in calibrating their CNC machines.
Researchers develop ways to improve machining, milling processes
is any of various processes in which a piece of
raw material is cut into a desired final shape and size by a controlled
material-removal process. The processes that have this common theme,
controlled material removal, are today collectively known as subtractive
manufacturing, in distinction from processes of controlled material
addition, which are known as
. Exactly what the "controlled" part of the
definition implies can vary, but it almost always implies the use of
machine tools (in addition to just power tools and hand tools).
is an instrument used in geometry, technical drawing, printing,
engineering and building to measure
distances or to rule
straight lines. The ruler is a straightedge which may also contain
calibrated lines to measure distances.
is a long-armed square that has additional uses for
, especially of angles, as well as simple right-angles.
Today the steel square is more commonly referred to as the framing square.
It consists of a long arm and a shorter one, which meet at an angle of 90
degrees (a right angle). It can also be made of metals like aluminum,
which is light and resistant to rust.
measuring angles. Most protractors measure angles in degrees (°).
Radian-scale protractors measure angles in radians. Most protractors are
divided into 180 equal parts.
is a device used to make measurements or in
order to display certain information, like time.
is a device incorporating a calibrated screw
widely used for precise measurement of components in mechanical
engineering and machining as well as most mechanical trades, along with
other metrological instruments such as dial, vernier, and digital
a lathe from scratch
to Read a Tape Measure
Design and order Custom Parts.
and Open-source PCB CAM, lets you take your designs to a
Hand Tools List
Tools and Equipment