is to handle
, to achieve a
, to be
and to Supervise, to be
, to be
Whether you're managing a business or managing your life, Management
Skills can be applied to almost any problem.
So the question is, can you manage that?
"You cannot manage
what you do not measure
Best Practice Service
Documentation Employee Management
refers to the individuals who set the strategy of
and coordinate the efforts of
in the case of some voluntary organizations
) to accomplish
using available human, financial and other resources efficiently and
effectively. Resourcing encompasses the deployment and manipulation of
, financial resources, technological resources, natural
resources and other resources. Development
is the process of planning, organizing,
staffing, directing, coordinating and controlling the activities of
business enterprises. It is also described as the technique of leadership,
decision making and a mean of coordinating.
is the process of managing and
organizing the collection of
from various sources.
analyzes and synthesizes workflows to improve economic efficiency,
especially labor productivity
a structured, iterative process of robust decision making in the face of
uncertainty, with an aim to reducing uncertainty over time via system
monitoring. In this way, decision making simultaneously meets one or more
resource management objectives and, either passively or actively, accrues
information needed to improve future management. Adaptive management is a
tool which should be used not only to change a system, but also to learn
about the system (Holling 1978). Because adaptive management is based on a
learning process, it improves long-run management outcomes. The challenge
in using the adaptive management approach lies in finding the correct
balance between gaining knowledge to improve management in the future and
achieving the best short-term outcome based on current knowledge.
involves the formulation and implementation of the major goals
and initiatives taken by a company's top management on behalf of owners,
based on consideration of resources and an assessment of the internal and
external environments in which the organization competes. It involves
specifying the organization's objectives, developing policies and plans
designed to achieve these objectives, and then allocating resources to
implement the plans.Self-Manage
is a management style whereby a manager closely observes or controls the
work of subordinates or employees. Micromanagement generally has a
is a team of individuals at the highest level of management of an
organization who have the day-to-day tasks of managing that organization.
is a process dedicated to corporate renewal. It
uses analysis and planning to save troubled companies and returns them to
solvency, and to identify the reasons for failing performance in the
market, and rectify them. Turnaround management involves management
review, root failure causes analysis, and SWOT analysis to determine why
the company is failing. Once gdg analysis is completed, a long term
strategic plan and restructuring plan are created. These plans may or may
not involve a bankruptcy filing. Once approved, turnaround professionals
begin to implement the plan, continually reviewing its progress and make
changes to the plan as needed to ensure the company returns to solvency.
is the process of redistributing or
dispersing functions, powers, people or things away from a central
location or authority,
is the framework of policies, processes
and procedures used by an organization to ensure that it can fulfill all
the tasks required to achieve its objectives.
Content Management System
Subscription Business Model is a business model where a
customer must pay a subscription price to have access to a product or
service. The model was pioneered by magazines and newspapers, but is now
used by many businesses and websites.
Recurring Billing Management
Billing and Payments Software
Subscription Billing Solutions
is an "abstract representation of an organization, be it
conceptual, textual, and/or graphical, of all core interrelated
architectural, co-operational, and financial arrangements designed and
developed by an organization presently and in the future, as well as all
core products and/or services the organization offers, or will offer,
based on these arrangements that are needed to achieve its strategic goals
is the identification,
, and prioritization of
by coordinated and economical
application of resources to minimize, monitor, and control the
and/or impact of unfortunate events or to maximize the realization of
opportunities. Risk management’s objective is to assure uncertainty does
not deflect the endeavor from the business goals.
states that if an action or policy has a suspected
risk of causing harm to the public
or to the environment, in the absence of scientific consensus (that the
action or policy is not harmful), the burden of proof that it is not
harmful falls on those taking an action that may or may not be a
is a business professional who deals with the
measurement and management of risk and uncertainty.
- When the Risks far outweigh
is the determination of quantitative or
of risk related to a well-defined
situation and a recognized threat (also called
) Quantitative risk
assessment requires calculations of two components of risk (R): the
magnitude of the potential loss (L), and the
(p) that the loss will
occur. An acceptable risk
is a risk that is understood and tolerated
usually because the cost or difficulty of implementing an effective
countermeasure for the associated vulnerability exceeds the
. "Health risk assessment" includes variations, such as risk as the
type and severity of response, with or without a probabilistic context.
is the subjective
judgment that people make about the characteristics and severity of a
. The phrase is most commonly used in reference to
natural hazards and threats to the environment or health, such as nuclear
power. Several theories have been proposed to explain why different people
make different estimates of the dangerousness of risks.
Business Continuity Planning
is the process of creating
systems of prevention and recovery to deal with
company. Any event that could negatively impact operations is included in
the plan, such as supply chain
interruption, loss of or damage to critical
(major machinery or computing /network resource).
used for business training,
education or analysis. It can be scenario-based or numeric-based.
Business Simulation Game
accurate simulation of real-world events
, as well as the close tying of players' actions to
expected or plausible consequences
- Measuring True Cost
has an organizational structure with few or
of middle management between staff and executives. An
organization's structure refers to the nature of the
units and positions within it, also to the nature of the relationships
among those units and positions. Tall and flat organizations differ based
on how many levels of management are present in the organization, and how
much control managers are endowed with.
Employees - Workforce
to an endeavor of
an employer or of a person conducting a business or undertaking and is
usually hired to perform specific duties
which are packaged into a job.
is a person who is hired to provide services to a company on a
regular basis in exchange for compensation.
is a relationship between two parties, usually
based on a contract where work
refers to the overall process of attracting,
selecting and appointing suitable candidates for jobs
(either permanent or
) within an organization.
is a kind of
used in labour law to attribute
rights and responsibilities between parties to a bargain. The contract is
between an "employee" and an "employer". It has arisen out of the old
master-servant law, used before the 20th century. But generally, the
contract of employment
denotes a relationship of economic dependence and
mediates the relationship between workers,
employing entities, trade unions and the government. Collective labour law
relates to the tripartite relationship between employee, employer and
. Individual labour law concerns employees' rights at work and
through the contract for work. Employment standards are social norms (in
some cases also technical standards) for the minimum socially acceptable
conditions under which employees or contractors are allowed to work.
Government agencies (such as the former US Employment Standards
Administration) enforce labour law (legislative, regulatory, or judicial).
is a book given to employees by an
employer. Usually, the employee handbook contains information about
company policies and procedures. The employee handbook can be used to
bring together employment and job-related information which employees need
to know. It typically has three types of content: Cultural: A welcome
statement, the company's mission or purpose, company values, and more.
General Information: holiday arrangements,
, policies not
required by law, policy summaries, and more. Case-Specific: company
policies, rules, disciplinary and grievance procedures, and other
information modeled after employment laws or regulations
is a rule that defines or constrains some aspect of business and
always resolves to either true or false. Business rules are intended to
assert business structure or to control or influence the behavior of the
business. Business rules describe the operations, definitions and
constraints that apply to an organization. Business rules can apply to
people, processes, corporate behavior and computing systems in an
organization, and are put in place to help the organization achieve its
Human Resource Management
is the management of human resources. It is designed to maximize employee
performance in service of an employer's strategic objectives. HR is
primarily concerned with the management of people within organizations,
focusing on policies and on systems. HR departments are responsible for
overseeing employee benefits design, employee recruitment, training and
development, performance appraisal, and rewarding (e.g., managing pay and
benefit systems). HR also concerns itself with organizational change and
industrial relations, that is, the balancing of organizational practices
with requirements arising from collective bargaining and from governmental
Human Resource Management System
is a form of HR software that
combines a number of systems and processes to ensure the easy management
of a business’s employees and data. These systems could deal with
everything from payroll to performance evaluation, covering the whole
business. Human Resources Software is used by businesses to combine a
number of necessary HR functions, such as storing employee data, managing
payrolls, recruitment processes, benefits administration and keeping track
of attendance records. It ensures everyday Human Resources processes are
manageable and easy to access.
are the people who make up the workforce of an
organization, business sector, or economy. "Human capital" is sometimes
used synonymously with "human resources", although human capital typically
refers to a more narrow view (i.e., the knowledge the individuals embody
and economic growth). Likewise, other terms sometimes used include
"manpower", "talent", "labour", "personnel", or simply "people". A
human-resources department (HR department) of an organization performs
human resource management, overseeing various aspects of employment, such
as compliance with labour law and employment standards, administration of
employee benefits, and some aspects of recruitment and dismissal.Background
is a metaphor used to represent an invisible
barrier that keeps a given demographic (typically applied to women) from
rising beyond a certain level in a
Key Performance Indicator
is a type of performance
measurement. KPIs evaluate the success of an organization or of a
particular activity in which it engages. Often success is simply the
repeated, periodic achievement of some levels of operational goal (e.g.
zero defects, 10/10 customer satisfaction, etc.), and sometimes success is
defined in terms of making progress toward strategic goals.
is the relationship between equations for
experience and efficiency or between efficiency gains and investment in
is a method by which the job
performance of an employee is documented and evaluated. Performance
appraisals are a part of career development and consist of regular reviews
of employee performance within organizations. (also referred to as a
performance review, performance evaluation,(career) development
discussion, or employee appraisal).
Industrial and Organizational Psychology
is the science of
human behaviour relating to work and applies psychological theories and
principles to organizations and individuals in their places of work.
is the process and behavior in human interactions
involving power and authority. It is also a tool to assess the
operational capacity and to balance diverse views of interested parties.
It is also known as office politics and organizational politics. It is the
use of power and social networking within an organization to achieve
changes that benefit the organization or individuals within it. Influence
by individuals may serve personal interests without regard to their effect
on the organization itself.
Employee Work Principles
(employee qualities)Work Ethic
is the study of
settings, the interface between human behavior and the organization, and
the organization itself. OB research can be categorized in at least three
ways, including the study of (a) individuals in organizations
(micro-level), (b) work groups (meso-level), and (c) how organizations
means creating an environment that is relatively
enjoyable and productive. This also means creating a work schedule that
does not lead to emotional and physical distress.
encompasses values and behaviours
that "contribute to the unique social and psychological environment of an
organization." According to Needle (2004), organizational culture
represents the collective values, beliefs and principles of organizational
members and is a product of such factors as history, product, market,
technology, strategy, type of employees, management style, and national
culture; culture includes the organization's vision, values, norms,
systems, symbols, language, assumptions, beliefs, and habits.
is a form of training with the goal of
making people more aware of their own prejudices and more sensitive to
Hostile Work Environment
exists when one's behavior within a
workplace creates an environment that is difficult or uncomfortable for
another person to work in.
Positive Working Environment
Counterproductive Work Behavior
is employee behavior that
goes against the legitimate interests of an organization. These behaviors
can harm organizations or people in organizations including employees and
clients, customers, or patients. It has been proposed that a
person-by-environment interaction can be utilized to explain a variety of
counterproductive behaviors. For instance, an employee who is high on
trait anger (tendency to experience anger) is more likely to respond to a
stressful incident at work (being treated rudely by a supervisor) with CWB.
undertakes research and works with
employers to design, promote, and implement workplace policies that
personal/family well-being and general
Work Life Balance
. The CWLP is committed to
promoting policies that enable individuals to realize their full potential
across the divides of gender, race and class.
is learning to earn or
such as academic degrees to formal
coursework, conferences and informal learning opportunities situated in
practice. It has been described as intensive and collaborative, ideally
incorporating an evaluative stage.
is the practice of understanding,
developing and deploying people and their skills. Well-implemented skills
management should identify the skills that job roles require, the skills
of individual employees, and any gap between the two.
- Workplace Skills, Technology
and Management Practices.
is the act of replacing an employee with a new
employee. Partings between organizations and employees may consist of
termination, retirement, death, interagency transfers, and resignations.
An organization’s turnover is measured as a percentage rate, which is
referred to as its turnover rate. Turnover rate is the percentage of
employees in a workforce that leave during a certain period of time.
Organizations and industries as a whole measure their turnover rate during
a fiscal or calendar year. (Turnaround).
- Let Go
is when an employee is paid directly by
that employer. In addition to their wages, they often receive benefits
like subsidized health care, paid vacations, holidays, sick time, or
contributions to a retirement plan. Permanent employees are often eligible
to switch job positions within their companies.
is employment in which a person works a minimum
number of hours defined as such by his/her employer. (40 Hours)Full-time
employment often comes with benefits that are not typically offered to
part-time, temporary, or flexible workers, such as annual leave, sickleave,
and health insurance.
is a form of employment that carries fewer hours
per week than a full-time job. They work in shifts. The shifts are often
rotational. Workers are considered to be part-time if they commonly work
fewer than 30 hours per week.
is a diagram that shows the structure
of an organization and the relationships and relative ranks of its parts
and positions/jobs. The term is also used for similar diagrams, for
example ones showing the different elements of a field of knowledge or a
group of languages.
defines how activities such as task allocation, coordination and
supervision are directed toward the achievement of organizational aims.
Organizations need to be efficient, flexible, innovative and caring in
order to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage. Organizational
structure can also be considered as the viewing glass or perspective
through which individuals see their organization and its environment.
is a well-defined practice for conducting enterprise analysis, design,
planning, and implementation, using a holistic approach at all times, for
the successful development and execution of strategy. Enterprise
architecture applies architecture principles and practices to guide
organizations through the business, information, process, and technology
changes necessary to execute their strategies. These practices utilize the
various aspects of an enterprise to identify, motivate, and achieve these
- Grouping activities by functions performed.
Activities can be grouped according to function (work being done) to
pursue economies of scale by placing employees with shared skills and
knowledge into departments for example human resources, IT, accounting,
manufacturing, logistics, and engineering. Functional departmentalization
can be used in all t organizations.Product
- Grouping activities by product line. Tasks
can also be grouped according to a specific product or service, thus
placing all activities related to the product or the service under one
manager. Each major product area in the corporation is under the authority
of a senior manager who is specialist in, and is responsible for,
everything related to the product line. LA Gear is an example of company
that uses product departmentalization. Its structure is based on its
varied product lines which include women’s footwear etc.
activities on the basis of common customers or types of customers. Jobs
may be grouped according to the type of customer served by the
organization. The assumption is that customers in each department have a
common set of problems and needs that can best be met by specialists. The
sales activities in an office supply firm can be broken down into three
departments that serve retail, wholesale and government accounts.
activities on the basis of territory. If an organization's customers are
geographically dispersed, it can group jobs based on geography. For
example, the organization structure of Coca-Cola has reflected the
company’s operation in two broad geographic areas – the North American
sector and the international sector, which includes the Pacific Rim, the
European Community, Northeast Europe, Africa and Latin America groups.
activities on the basis of product or service or customer flow. Because
each process requires different skills, process departmentalization allows
homogenous activities to be categorized. For example, the applicants might
need to go through several departments namely validation, licensing and
treasury, before receiving the driver’s license.
- When the
firm develops independent lines of business that operate as separate
companies, all contributing to the corporation profitability, the design
is call divisional departmentalization or (M-FORM).
How can we
create organizations and governments that are cooperative, productive, and
Humanyze: Enhance teamwork and employee engagement, improve processes, and
plan for growth
Making people happy in their crappy jobs takes
paying them more money and giving them more benefits.
Background Checks are sometimes
Flawed and Unreliable.
Background checks don’t always reveal the truth about people.
Background checks are not always accurate with erroneous or
questionable information. Background checks are not always
complete and have missing information because not all applicable
government agencies and companies have reported complete
information on the individual in question. Background checks are
not always look at or considered. Background checks are not
always used correctly or interpreted correctly, unqualified
people can easily make Unfair Judgments when looking at
is the process of looking up and compiling
records, and financial records of an individual or an organization. A
means of judging a job candidate's
character, and fitness, and to identify potential hiring risks for safety
and security reasons. Background checks are also used to thoroughly
investigate potential government employees
order to be given a security clearance. However, these checks may
sometimes be used for illegal purposes, such as unlawful
employment discrimination), identity theft, and violation of privacy.
Credit Checks are not always
Everything is either black or white. There is no consideration
of a person’s basic character or allowance for the fact that people can
change their lives and their behaviors. A computer looks at data and
assigns a number. Negatives stay on your credit report for seven years or
have been known to walk out of prison on appeal or
probation in less time than it takes to clear one’s credit history.
represents the creditworthiness of the person
to determine who qualifies for a loan, at what interest rate, and what
credit limits. A credit score is primarily based on a credit report
information typically sourced from credit bureaus.
is a status granted to individuals
allowing them access to classified information (state or organizational
secrets) or to restricted areas, after completion of a thorough background
check. (4 Mill)
Need to Know
Projects - Process
is the discipline of initiating,
planning, executing, controlling, and closing the work of a team to
achieve specific goals and meet specific success criteria. A project is a
temporary endeavor designed to produce a unique product, service or result
with a defined beginning and end (usually time-constrained, and often
constrained by funding or deliverables) undertaken to meet unique goals
and objectives, typically to bring about beneficial change or added
is an organizational
company dealing with the planning, forecasting, and
, or marketing of a product or products at all stages of the
product lifecycle. Similarly, product lifecycle management (PLM)
integrates people, data, processes and business systems. It provides
product information for companies and their extended
Milestone (project management)
are tools used in project management to
mark specific points along a project timeline. These points may signal
anchors such as a project start and end date, a need for external review
or input and budget checks, among others. In many instances, milestones do
not impact project duration. Instead, they focus on major progress points
that must be reached to achieve success.
is the process of managing several related
projects, often with the intention of improving an organization's
performance. In practice and in its aims it is often closely related to
systems engineering, industrial engineering, change management, and
is a professional in the field of project
management. Project managers have the responsibility of the planning,
procurement and execution of a project, in any domain of
is the discipline of initiating, planning, executing, controlling, and
closing the work of a team to achieve specific goals and meet specific
success criteria. A project is a temporary endeavor designed to produce a
unique product, service or result with a defined beginning and end
(usually time-constrained, and often constrained by funding or
deliverables) undertaken to meet unique goals and objectives, typically to
bring about beneficial change or added value.
Program Evaluation and Review Technique
is a statistical
tool, used in project management, which was designed to analyze and
represent the tasks involved in completing a given project.
is the process of assuring that all systems and components of a building
or industrial plant are designed, installed, tested, operated, and
maintained according to the operational requirements of the owner or final
client. A commissioning process may be applied not only to new projects
but also to existing units and systems subject to expansion, renovation or
is an area of management concerned
with designing and controlling the process of production and redesigning
business operations in the production of goods or services. It involves
the responsibility of ensuring that business operations are efficient in
terms of using as few resources as needed and effective in terms of
meeting customer requirements. It is concerned with managing the process
that converts inputs (in the forms of raw materials, labor, and energy)
into outputs (in the form of goods and/or services).
Business Process Management
is a field in operations
management that focuses on improving corporate performance by managing and
optimizing a company's business processes. It can therefore be described
as a "process optimization process". It is argued that BPM enables
organizations to be more efficient, more effective and more capable of
change than a functionally focused, traditional hierarchical management
is a mnemonic acronym, giving criteria to guide in the
setting of objectives, for example in project management,
employee-performance management and personal development. The letters S
and M usually mean specific and measurable. The other letters have meant
different things to different authors, as described below. Additional
letters have been added by some authors.
is a discipline that deals with the
application of advanced analytical methods to help make better decisions.
Further, the term 'operational analysis' is used in the British (and some
British Commonwealth) military, as an intrinsic part of capability
development, management and assurance. In particular, operational analysis
forms part of the Combined Operational Effectiveness and Investment
Appraisals (COEIA), which support British defence capability acquisition
encompasses planning and
to ensure that an
organization can continue to operate
in case of serious incidents or
and is able to
recover to an operational state within a reasonably short period. As such,
business continuity includes three key elements and they are Resilience:
critical business functions and the supporting infrastructure must be
designed in such a way that they are materially unaffected by relevant
disruptions, for example through the use of redundancy and spare capacity;
Recovery: arrangements have to be made to recover or restore critical and
less critical business functions that fail for some reason. Contingency:
the organization establishes a generalized capability and readiness to
cope effectively with whatever major incidents and disasters occur,
including those that were not, and perhaps could not have been, foreseen.
Contingency preparations constitute a last-resort response if resilience
and recovery arrangements should prove inadequate in practice.
Business Continuity Management
is the process of creating systems of prevention and recovery to deal with
potential threats to a company. Any event that could negatively impact
operations is included in the plan, such as supply chain interruption,
loss of or damage to critical infrastructure (major machinery or computing
/network resource). As such, BCP is a subset of risk management. In the
US, government entities refer to the process as continuity of operations
Business Continuity Planning
is the management framework within which
project decisions are made. Project governance is a critical element of
any project since while the accountabilities and responsibilities
associated with an organization’s business as usual activities are laid
down in their organizational governance arrangements, seldom does an
equivalent framework exist to govern the development of its capital
Toyota Production System
is an integrated socio-technical
system, developed by Toyota, that comprises its management philosophy and
practices. The TPS organizes manufacturing and logistics for the
automobile manufacturer, including interaction with suppliers and
is a technique for reducing the Mura
(Unevenness) which in turn reduces muda (waste). It was vital to the
development of production efficiency in the Toyota Production System and
lean manufacturing. The goal is to produce intermediate goods at a
constant rate so that further processing may also be carried out at a
constant and predictable rate.
is the colloquial term for the tasks performed
when conducting due diligence on a financial model, in order to eliminate
spreadsheet error. Model audits are sometimes referred to as model
reviews, primarily to avoid confusion with financial audit.
is a systems engineering process
for establishing and maintaining consistency of a product's performance,
functional, and physical attributes with its requirements, design, and
operational information throughout its life.
is a technique used in manufacturing, in
which the object in question is created stage by stage over a series of
workstations, and different batches of products are made. Together with
job production (one-off production) and mass
(flow production or continuous production) it is one of the
three main production methods.
How to Document a Process
is the ensemble of activities of planning and
monitoring the performance of a business process. The term usually refers
to the management of business processes and manufacturing processes.
is a unique combination of tools, materials, methods, and people engaged
in producing a measurable output; for example a manufacturing line for
machine parts. All processes have inherent statistical variability which
can be evaluated by statistical methods.
is a collection of related, structured
activities or tasks that produce a specific service or product (serve a
particular goal) for a particular customer or customers. It may often be
visualized as a flowchart of a sequence of activities with interleaving
decision points or as a process matrix of a sequence of activities with
relevance rules based on data in the process.
Project Portfolio Management
(PPM) is the centralized
management of the processes, methods, and technologies used by
project managers and project management offices (PMOs) to
analyze and collectively manage current or proposed projects
based on numerous key characteristics. The objectives of PPM are
to determine the optimal resource mix for delivery and to
schedule activities to best achieve an organization’s
operational and financial goals, while honouring constraints
imposed by customers, strategic objectives, or external
Workflow Management System
provides an infrastructure for the set-up, performance and monitoring of a
defined sequence of tasks, arranged as a workflow application.
is the systematic, theoretical analysis of the
methods applied to a field of study. It comprises the theoretical analysis
of the body of methods and principles associated with a branch of
knowledge. Typically, it encompasses concepts such as paradigm,
theoretical model, phases and quantitative or qualitative techniques. A
methodology does not set out to provide solutions - it is, therefore, not
the same as a method. Instead, a methodology offers the theoretical
underpinning for understanding which method, set of methods, or best
practices can be applied to specific case, for example, to calculate a
specific result. It has been defined also as follows: "the analysis of the
principles of methods, rules, and postulates employed by a discipline";
"the systematic study of methods that are, can be, or have been applied
within a discipline"; "the study or description of methods".
Project Management Methodology
a harmonized combination of multiple resources and skills that
distinguish a firm in the marketplace". Core competencies fulfill three
criteria: Provides potential access to a wide variety of markets. Should
make a significant contribution to the perceived customer benefits of the
end product. Difficult to imitate by competitors.
Baseline Configuration Management
Process Performance Index
is an estimate of the process
capability of a process during its initial set-up, before it has been
brought into a state of statistical control.
Pareto Principle 80 20 Rule
states that, for many events,
roughly 80% of the effects come from 20% of the causes.
, Timeframes and
. Desired Outcomes, Possible Outcomes, Possible Setbacks and
Problems, Possible Delays,
Time Restrictions, Priorities, Calculations, Estimations,
or Product Scope
involves getting information required to start a project, and the features
the product would have that would meet its stakeholders requirements.
Project Scope: "The work that needs to be accomplished to deliver a
product, service, or result with the specified features and functions."
Product Scope: "The features and functions that characterize a product,
service, or result."
is the practice of developing
budgets based on the relationship between program funding levels and
expected results from that program. The performance-based budgeting
process is a tool that program administrators can use to manage more
cost-efficient and effective budgeting outlays
refers to an ongoing expense of operating a
business; it is also known as an operating expense. Overheads are the
expenditure which cannot be conveniently traced to or identified with any
particular cost unit. Therefore, overheads cannot be immediately
associated with the products or services being offered, thus do not
directly generate profits
Tracking and Quality Control.
Project Closeout and Evaluation:
report is often compiled to analyze how the
project is proceeding, before its final completion. Interim analysis is
important in medical trials, to ensure that the patients are not exposed
to unnecessary danger during the trial.
is a process, usually performed at
the conclusion of a project, to determine and analyze elements of the
project that were successful or unsuccessful. The Project Management Body
of Knowledge (PMBOK) refers to the process as lessons learned. Project
post-mortems are intended to inform process improvements which mitigate
future risks and to promote iterative best practices. Post-mortems are
often considered a key component of, and ongoing precursor to, effective
Make sure you start off
all the right questions so that you have all the
necessary information that will help guide you through your
Analyze all the information carefully.
and make sure that everyone is aware
of their responsibilities and
that everyone shares their
information correctly and efficiently.
Learn as much as you can from the project.
Project Management Software
Comparison of Project Management Software
The Project Management Process focuses on taking
the facts and happenings of a particular
and disseminating this information to all relevant
parties. These methods of information dissemination can come in
means including regularly scheduled
in which some or all
members of the project team participate, informal written
such as periodic updates via email and of other
short form, less formal means of communications, as well as
formal reports that may or may not have been requisite to the
completion of the project. Information distribution is essential
to assuring that everyone is fully aware of the progress
throughout the project as it helps to assure no surprises arise
at the time that deliverables are expected to be final.
app to manage all your tasks, files & notes. Mac, Windows,
Ubuntu, iOS & Android
Documentation - Record Keeping
is a set of documents provided on paper,
or online, or on digital or analog media, such as audio tape or CDs.
Examples are user guides, white papers, on-line help,
. It is becoming less common to see paper (hard-copy) documentation.
Documentation is distributed via websites, software products, and other
is the professional practice of
managing the records of an organization throughout their life cycle, from
the time they are created to their eventual disposal. This includes
, storing, securing, retrieving, tracking and
destroying or permanently preserving records
Document Management System
is a system (based on computer programs in
the case of the management of
) used to track, manage and store documents and
reduce paper. Most are capable of keeping a record of the various versions
created and modified by different users (history tracking). The term has
some overlap with the concepts of
content management systems
It is often viewed as a component of enterprise content management (ECM)
systems and related to digital asset management, document imaging,
workflow systems and records management systems.
written, drawn, presented or recorded representation of thoughts.
Documentation Writing Standards
(writing tips, precise without personal opinions)
is a document (hard copy or digital) that records a
business dealing. Business records include meeting minutes, memoranda,
employment contracts, and accounting source documents.
are documents or pieces of
that are not considered
confidential and generally pertain to the conduct of government.
is defined as the matching of some stated user query against
a set of free-text records. These records could be any type of mainly
unstructured text, such as newspaper articles, real estate records or
paragraphs in a manual. User queries can range from multi-sentence full
descriptions of an information need to a few words.
is the study of the
recording and retrieval
information. Documentation science gradually developed into the broader
field of information science.
is a problem in library science, information science
and computer science. The task is to assign a document to one or more
classes or categories. This may be done "manually" (or "intellectually")
or algorithmically. The intellectual classification of documents has
mostly been the province of library science, while the algorithmic
classification of documents is mainly in information science and computer
science. The problems are overlapping, however, and there is therefore
interdisciplinary research on document classification. The documents to be
classified may be texts, images, music, etc. Each kind of document
possesses its special classification problems. When not otherwise
specified, text classification is implied. Documents may be classified
according to their subjects or according to other attributes (such as
document type, author, printing year etc.). In the rest of this article
only subject classification is considered. There are two main philosophies
of subject classification of documents: the content-based approach and the
Presidential Records Act
is mandating the
preservation of all
. The PRA allows for public access to Presidential
records through the Freedom of
(FOIA) beginning five years after the end of the
Administration, but allows the President to invoke as many as six specific
restrictions to public access for up to twelve years. The PRA also
establishes procedures for Congress, courts, and subsequent
administrations to obtain special access to records that remain closed to
the public, following a 30‑day notice period to the former and current
National Archives and Records Administration
is an independent agency
of the United States government charged with preserving and documenting
government and historical records and with increasing public access to
those documents, which comprise the National Archives. NARA is officially
responsible for maintaining and publishing the legally authentic and
authoritative copies of acts of Congress, presidential proclamations and
executive orders, and federal regulations. The NARA also transmits votes
of the Electoral College to Congress.
Archivist of the United States
is the chief official overseeing the
operation of the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA).
is a legal term of art that is used for any formally
executed written document that can be formally attributed to its author,
records and formally expresses a legally enforceable act, process, or
contractual duty, obligation, or right, and therefore evidences that act,
process, or agreement. Examples include a certificate, deed, bond,
legislative act, notarial act, court writ or process, or any law passed by
a competent legislative body in municipal (domestic) or international law.
Many legal instruments were written under seal by affixing a wax or paper
seal to the document in evidence of its legal execution and authenticity
(which often removes the need for consideration in contract law); however,
today many jurisdictions have done away with the requirement of documents
being under seal in order to give them legal effect.
of a document or record as a
legal proof of authority or business transaction, enforceable rights or
obligations, or as the basis for a legal action.
Legal Documents Types
ContractsFree Legal Forms
is an order received by an organization from a
customer or client, or an order created internally within the
organization. A work order may be for products or services.
is the development of forecasts of
behavior or recommended courses of action to the leadership of an
organization, based on a wide range of available information sources both
overt and covert. Assessments are developed in response to requirements
declared by the leadership in order to inform decision making.
may be carried out on behalf of a state, military
or commercial organization with a range of available sources of
information available to each. An intelligence assessment reviews both
available information and previous assessments for relevance and currency.
Where additional information is required, some collection may be directed
by the analyst. Intelligence studies is the academic field concerned with
intelligence assessment, especially relating to international relations
and military science.
Supply Chain Management
Quality Control - Safety
is a way of
preventing mistakes or defects
manufactured products and avoiding problems when delivering solutions or
services to customers.
ensures that an
product or service is consistent. It has four main components: quality
planning, quality assurance, quality control and quality improvement.
Quality management is focused not only on product and service quality, but
also on the means to achieve it. Quality management, therefore, uses
quality assurance and control of processes as well as products to achieve
more consistent quality.
a process by which entities review the quality of
all factors involved in production
is careful examination or
. An organized
evaluation exercise. In engineering activities inspection involves the
measurements, tests, and gauges applied to
to an object or activity. The results are usually compared to specified
requirements and standards
determining whether the item or activity is in line with these targets,
often with a Standard Inspection Procedure in place to ensure consistent
checking. Inspections are usually non-destructive. Inspections may be a
visual inspection or involve sensing technologies such as ultrasonic
testing, accomplished with a direct physical presence or remotely such as
a remote visual inspection, and manually or automatically such as an
automated optical inspection. Non-contact optical measurement and
Photogrammetry have become common NDT methods for inspection of
manufactured components and design optimisation.
Smart Innovation )
(改善) is the
Japanese word for "Continuous Improvement " or "Change for Better".
(plan–do–check–act or plan–do–check–adjust) is an iterative four-step
management method used in business for the control and continual
improvement of processes and products.PLAN:
Establish the objectives and processes necessary to deliver results
in accordance with the expected output (the target or goals). By
establishing output expectations, the completeness and accuracy of the
specification is also a part of the targeted improvement. When possible
start on a small scale to test possible effects.
Implement the plan, execute the
process, make the product. Collect data for charting and analysis in the
following "CHECK" and "ACT" steps.CHECK:
Study the actual results (measured and collected in "DO" above) and
compare against the expected results (targets or goals from the "PLAN") to
ascertain any differences. Look for deviation in implementation from the
plan and also look for the appropriateness and completeness of the plan to
enable the execution, i.e., "Do". Charting data can make this much easier
to see trends over several PDCA cycles and in order to convert the
collected data into information. Information is what you need for the next
If the CHECK shows that
the PLAN that was implemented in DO is an improvement to the prior
standard (baseline), then that becomes the new standard (baseline) for how
the organization should ACT going forward (new standards are enACTed). If
the CHECK shows that the PLAN that was implemented in DO is not an
improvement, then the existing standard (baseline) will
place. In either case, if the CHECK showed something different than
expected (whether better or worse), then there is some more learning to be
done... and that will suggest potential future PDCA cycles. Note that some
who teach PDCA assert that the ACT involves making adjustments or
corrective actions... but generally it would be counter to PDCA thinking
to propose and decide upon alternative changes without using a proper PLAN
phase, or to make them the new standard (baseline) without going through
DO and CHECK steps.
is the process of replacing a product with a newer
version of the same product. In computing and consumer electronics an
upgrade is generally a replacement of hardware, software or firmware with
a newer or better version, in order to bring the system up to date or to
improve its characteristics.
is the duplication of critical components or
functions of a system with the intention of increasing reliability of the
system, usually in the form of a backup or fail-safe, or to improve actual
system performance, such as in the case of GNSS receivers, or
multi-threaded computer processing. In many safety-critical systems, such
as fly-by-wire and hydraulic systems in aircraft, some parts of the
control system may be triplicated, which is formally termed triple modular
redundancy (TMR). An error in one component may then be out-voted by the
other two. In a triply redundant system, the system has three sub
components, all three of which must fail before the system fails. Since
each one rarely fails, and the sub components are expected to fail
independently, the probability of all three failing is calculated to be
extraordinarily small; often outweighed by other risk factors, such as
human error. Redundancy may also be known by the terms "majority voting
systems" or "voting logic". Suspension bridge's numerous cables are a form
of redundancy. Redundancy sometimes produces less, instead of greater
reliability – it creates a more complex system which is prone to various
issues, it may lead to human neglect of duty, and may lead to higher
production demands which by overstressing the system may make it less
one's business processes and performance metrics to industry
bests and best practices from other companies. Dimensions typically
measured are quality, time and cost. In the process of best practice
benchmarking, management identifies the best firms in their industry, or
in another industry where similar processes exist, and compares the
results and processes of those studied (the "targets") to one's own
results and processes. In this way, they learn how well the targets
perform and, more importantly, the business processes that explain why
these firms are successful. According to National Council on Measurement
in Education, benchmark assessments are short assessments used by teachers
at various times throughout the school year to monitor student progress in
some area of the school curriculum. These also are known as interim
assessments. Benchmarking is used to measure performance using a specific
indicator (cost per unit of measure, productivity per unit of measure,
cycle time of x per unit of measure or defects per unit of measure)
resulting in a metric of performance that is then compared to others. Also
referred to as "best practice benchmarking" or "process benchmarking",
this process is used in management which particularly shows VEMR strategic
management, in which organizations evaluate various aspects of their
processes in relation to best practice companies' processes, usually
within a peer group defined for the purposes of comparison. This then
allows organizations to develop plans on how to make improvements or adapt
specific best practices, usually with the aim of increasing some aspect of
performance. Benchmarking may be a one-off event, but is often treated as
a continuous process in which organizations continually seek to improve
is a request to return a product after the discovery of
safety issues or product defects
that might endanger the consumer or
put the maker/seller at risk of legal action.
is a secondary
derived from a manufacturing process or chemical reaction. It
is not the primary product or service being produced. In the context of
production, a by-product is the 'output from a joint production process
that is minor in quantity and/or net realizable value (NRV) when compared
to the main products'. Because they are deemed to have no influence on
reported financial results, by-products do not receive allocations of
joint costs. By-products also by convention are not inventoried, but the
NRV from by-products is typically recognized as 'other income' or as a
reduction of joint production processing costs when the by-product is
produced. A by-product can be useful and marketable or it can be
Computerized Maintenance Management System
is a software
package that maintains a computer database of information about an
organization's maintenance operations. This information is intended to
help maintenance workers do their jobs more effectively (for example,
determining which machines require maintenance and which storerooms
contain the spare parts they need) and to help management make informed
decisions (for example, calculating the cost of machine breakdown repair
versus preventive maintenance for each machine, possibly leading to better
allocation of resources). CMMS data may also be used to verify regulatory
Capability Maturity Model
is a development model created
after study of data collected from organizations that contracted with the
U.S. Department of Defense, who funded the research. The term "maturity"
relates to the degree of formality and optimization of processes, from ad
hoc practices, to formally defined steps, to managed result metrics, to
active optimization of the processes. The model's aim is to improve
existing software development processes, but it can also be applied to
Implementation Maturity Model Assessment
is an instrument to help an
organization in assessing and determining the degree of maturity of its
implementation processes. This model consists of two important components,
namely the: five maturity levels, adopted from capability maturity model (CMM)
of the Software Engineering Institute (SEI). By assessing the maturity of
different aspects of implementation processes, it becomes clear what their
strengths and weaknesses are, and also where improvements are needed.
Implementation maturity matrix, which is an adjusted version of the test
maturity matrix found in the test process improvement (TPI) model
developed by Sogeti. The IMM matrix allows an organization to gain insight
into the current situation of its implementation processes, and how it
should pursue the desirable situation (i.e. a higher maturity level).
People Capability Maturity Model
is a maturity framework
that focuses on continuously improving the management and development of
the human assets of an organization. It describes an evolutionary
improvement path from ad hoc, inconsistently performed practices, to a
mature, disciplined, and continuously improving development of the
knowledge, skills, and motivation of the workforce that enhances strategic
business performance. Related to fields such as human resources, knowledge
management, and organizational development, the People CMM guides
organizations in improving their processes for managing and developing
their workforces. The People CMM helps organizations characterize the
maturity of their workforce practices, establish a program of continuous
workforce development, set priorities for improvement actions, integrate
workforce development with process improvement, and establish a culture of
is a globally recognized best-practice standard for
assessing and developing capabilities in executing strategy through
projects via Portfolio Management, Program Management, and Project
Failure Reporting, Analysis and Corrective Action System
a system, sometimes carried out using software, that provides a process
for reporting, classifying, analyzing failures, and planning corrective
actions in response to those failures. It is typically used in an
industrial environment to collect data, record and analyse system
failures. A FRACAS system may attempt to manage multiple failure reports
and produces a history of failure and corrective actions. FRACAS records
the problems related to a product or process and their associated root
causes and failure analyses to assist in identifying and implementing
corrective actions. The FRACAS method was developed by the US Govt. and
first introduced for use by the US Navy and all department of defense
agencies in 1985. The FRACAS process is a closed loop with the following
steps: Failure Reporting (FR). The failures and the faults related to a
system, an equipment, a software or a process are formally reported
through a standard form (Defect Report, Failure Report). Analysis (A).
Perform analysis in order to identify the root cause of failure.
Corrective Actions (CA). Identify, implement and verify corrective actions
to prevent further recurrence of the failure.
Productivity Quality Center
Mind My Business App
is a process used to manage
Its primary goal is to ensure that IT resources are right-sized to meet
current and future business requirements in a cost-effective manner. One
common interpretation of capacity management is described in the ITIL
framework. ITIL version 3 views capacity management as comprising three
sub-processes: business capacity management, service capacity management,
and component capacity management (known as resource capacity management
in ITIL version 2).
The End of Ownership
Occupational Safety and Health
is a multidisciplinary field
concerned with the safety, health, and welfare of people at work. These
terms of course also refer to the goals of this field, so their use in the
sense of this article was originally an abbreviation of occupational
safety and health program/department etc.
The goals of occupational safety and health programs
include to foster a safe and healthy work environment. OSH may also
protect co-workers, family members, employers, customers, and many others
who might be affected by the workplace environment. In the United States,
the term occupational health and safety is referred to as occupational
health and occupational and non-occupational safety and includes safety
for activities outside of work.
Workplace Safety Tips
Develop - Improve - Advance
is an ongoing effort to improve
, or processes
Business Process Improvement
strategic planning methodology aimed at identifying the operations or
employee skills that could be improved to encourage smoother procedures,
more efficient workflow and overall business growth.
are activities that continuously improve all
functions and involve all employees from the CEO to the assembly line
evaluates the success of an
organization or of a particular activity in which it engages. Making
progress toward strategic goals and understanding what is important.
determines an organization's behavior,
and the health of a
project, measuring criteria such as safety, time, cost, resources, scope,
quality, and actions.
is measuring the output of a particular business
process or procedure, then modifying the process or procedure to increase
the output, increase efficiency, or increase the effectiveness of the
process or procedure.
is a process that involves the
three steps of publicly entering a human system, collecting valid data
about experiences, and feeding back to the system toward promoting
Business Process Discovery
is a set of techniques that
automatically construct a representation of an organization’s current
business processes and its major process variations.
is a statistical analysis that combines the
results of multiple scientific studies.
is a method to analyze the environment in
which a business operates.
is an entrepreneurial venture which is
typically a newly emerged, fast-growing business that aims to meet a
marketplace need by developing or offering an innovative product, process
or service. A startup is usually a company such as a small business, a
partnership or an organization designed to rapidly develop scalable
is an iterative and incremental agile software development framework for
managing product development.
Research and Development
is work directed toward the innovation, introduction, and improvement of
products and processes, or the development of new products and procedures.
is the "ability of a business system to
rapidly respond to change by adapting its initial stable configuration".
Business agility can be maintained by maintaining and adapting goods and
services to meet customer demands, adjusting to the changes in a business
environment and taking advantage of human resources.
is a change implemented to address a
weakness in a management system that is not yet responsible for causing
nonconforming product or service.
Baseline Configuration Management
is an agreed description
of the attributes of a product, at a point in time, which serves as a
basis for defining change. A "change" is a movement from this baseline
state to a next state. The identification of significant changes from the
baseline state is the central purpose of baseline identification.
is a high-level integrative management
function, with particular application in the context of defense. Aims to
balance economy in meeting current operational requirements, with the
sustainable use of current capabilities, and the development of future
capabilities, to meet the sometimes competing strategic and current
operational objectives of an enterprise. Accordingly, effective capability
management: Assists organizations to better understand, and effectively
integrate the total enterprise ability or capacity to achieve strategic
and current operational objectives; and Develops and provides solutions
that focus on the management of the interlinking functions and activities
in the enterprise's strategic and current operational contextsProject Management
Modern Management Theories and Practices
transitioning individuals, teams, and
organizations using methods intended to re-direct the use of resources,
business process, budget allocations, or other modes of operation that
significantly reshape a company or organization.
is the practice of helping
organizations to improve their performance, operating primarily through
the analysis of existing organizational problems and the development of
plans for improvement. Organizations may draw upon the services of
management consultants for a number of reasons, including gaining external
(and presumably objective) advice and access to the consultants'
specialized expertise.Management Styles
is defined as "a blueprint of the
enterprise that provides a common understanding of the organization and is
used to align strategic objectives and tactical demands.
Enterprise Architecture Framework
provides principles and
practices for creating and using the architecture description of a system.
It structures architects' thinking by dividing the architecture
description into domains, layers or views, and offers models - typically
matrices and diagrams - for documenting each view. This allows for making
systemic design decisions on all the components of the system and making
long-term decisions around new design, requirements, sustainability and
is a set of techniques and tools for
the acquisition and transformation of raw data into meaningful and useful
information for business analysis purposes.
is a type of application software designed to retrieve,
analyze, transform and report data for business intelligence.
Business Intelligence 2.0
is a process that allows for the
querying of real-time corporate data by employees, but approaches the data
with a more web/browser
is a process and a set of procedures used
to estimate the economic value of an owner’s interest in a business.
is the strategy a business uses to
automate processes in order to contain costs. It consists of integrating
applications, restructuring labor resources and using software
applications throughout the organization.
is a set of techniques and tools for process
Enterprise Q&A System
Customer Relationship Management
(CRM) is an approach to managing a company's interaction with
current and potential future customers.
is the provision of service to customers before,
during and after a purchase.
is a measure of how products and services
supplied by a company meet or surpass customer expectation. Customer
satisfaction is defined as "the number of customers, or percentage of
total customers, whose reported experience with a firm, its products, or
its services (ratings
exceeds specified satisfaction goals.
is an approach to managing a company's interaction with current and
potential future customers. It tries to analyze data about customers'
history with a company and to improve business relationships with
customers, specifically focusing on customer retention and ultimately
driving sales growth.
refers to the influencing and
controlling of an individual's or group's reputation. Originally a public
relations term, the growth of the internet and social media, along with
reputation management companies, have made search results a core part of
an individual's or group's reputation. Online reputation management,
sometimes abbreviated as ORM, focuses on the management of product and
service search website results. Ethical grey areas include mug shot
removal sites, astroturfing review sites, censoring negative complaints,
and using search engine optimization tactics to influence results.
Know your Customer
is the process of a business identifying
and verifying the identity of its clients.
Enterprise Feedback Management
is a system of processes and
software that enables organizations to centrally manage deployment of
surveys while dispersing authoring and analysis throughout an
organization. EFM systems typically provide different roles and permission
levels for different types of users, such as novice survey authors,
professional survey authors, survey reporters and translators. EFM can
help an organization establish a dialogue with employees, partners, and
customers regarding key issues and concerns and potentially make
customer-specific real time interventions. EFM consists of data
collection, analysis and reporting. Modern EFM systems can track feedback
from a variety of sources including customers, market research, social
media, employees, vendors, partners and audits in a privatized or public
Issue Tracking System
is a computer software package that
manages and maintains lists of issues, as needed by an organization.
Issue tracking systems are commonly used in an organization's customer
support call center to create, update, and resolve reported customer
issues, or even issues reported by that organization's other employees. A
support ticket should include vital information for the account involved
and the issue encountered. An issue tracking system often also contains a
knowledge base containing information on each customer, resolutions to
common problems, and other such data. An issue tracking system is similar
to a "bugtracker", and often, a software company will sell both, and some
bugtrackers are capable of being used as an issue tracking system, and
vice versa. Consistent use of an issue or bug tracking system is
considered one of the "hallmarks of a good software team.
is a call-assignment strategy used in
call centers to assign incoming calls to the most suitable agent, instead
of simply choosing the next available agent. It is an enhancement to the
Automatic Call Distributor (ACD) systems found in most call centers. The
need for skills-based routing has arisen, as call centers have become
larger and dealt with a wider variety of call types.
in service organizations as 'demand caused by a failure to do something or
do something right for the customer'. the distinction between 'failure
demand' and 'value demand', which is what the service exists to provide.
Failure demand represents a common type of waste found in service
is a structured review or de-brief process for
analyzing what happened, why it happened, and how it can be done better by
the participants and those responsible for the project or event.
Customer Self Service
Remedy Action Request System
Lessons Learned Information Sharing
enterprise software solutions.
Business Support System
are the components that a telecommunications service provider (or telco)
uses to run its business operations towards customers.
is the application of disciplined
analytics that predict consumer behaviour at the micro-market level and
optimize product availability and price to maximize revenue growth. The
primary aim of Revenue Management is selling the right product to the
right customer at the right time for the right price and with the right
pack. The essence of this discipline is in understanding customers'
perception of product value and accurately aligning product prices,
placement and availability with each customer segment.
: 80% of a company's profits come from 20% of its
is the process of presenting a topic to an
audience. It is typically a demonstration, lecture, or speech meant to
inform, persuade, or build good will. The term can also be used for a
formal or ritualized introduction or offering, as with the presentation of
How to give a Poster Presentation
- Poster Board
How to give a Killer Presentation
are computer software packages used to
give presentations, usually in the form of a slide show.
Power Point Presentations
laptop to big screen TV.
is either of
two closely related
for generating random graphs.
Graphical Techniques of Quality
is a designation given to a
fixed set of graphical techniques identified as being most helpful in
troubleshooting issues related to quality. They are called basic because
they are suitable for people with little formal training in statistics and
because they can be used to solve the vast majority of
. The seven tools are: Cause-and-effect diagram
(also known as the "fishbone" or Ishikawa diagram). Check sheet. Control
chart. Histogram. Pareto chart. Scatter diagram. Stratification
(alternately, flow chart or run chart).
is a type of diagram that represents an
workflow or process, showing the steps as boxes of various kinds, and
their order by connecting them with arrows. This diagrammatic
representation illustrates a solution model to a given problem. Flowcharts
are used in analyzing, designing, documenting or managing a process or
program in various fields.
is the presentation of research
by an individual or representatives of research teams at a
congress or conference with an academic or professional focus.
is a type of plot or mathematical diagram
to display values
for typically two variables for a set of data. If the points are
color-coded, one additional variable can be displayed. The data is
displayed as a collection of points, each having the value of one variable
determining the position on the horizontal axis and the value of the other
variable determining the position on the vertical axis.
is a means of representing data.
is the study of graphs, which are mathematical structures
used to model
pairwise relations between objects. A graph in this context is made up of
vertices, nodes, or points which are connected by edges, arcs, or lines. A
graph may be undirected, meaning that there is no distinction between the
two vertices associated with each edge, or its edges may be directed from
one vertex to another.
is a graphical representation of data, in which "the
data is represented by symbols
, such as bars in a bar chart, lines in a
line chart, or slices in a pie chart". A chart can represent tabular
numeric data, functions or some kinds of qualitative structure and
provides different info.
is a type of plot or mathematical diagram using
to display values for typically two variables for a
set of data. If the points are color-coded, one additional variable can be
displayed. The data is displayed as a collection of points, each having
the value of one variable determining the position on the horizontal axis
and the value of the other variable determining the position on the
is a graph designed to check for the existence
of publication bias; funnel plots are commonly used in systematic reviews
and meta-analyses. In the absence of publication bias, it assumes that
studies with high precision will be plotted near the average, and studies
with low precision will be spread evenly on both sides of the average,
creating a roughly funnel-shaped distribution. Deviation from this shape
can indicate publication bias
is a graphical representation of the
distribution of numerical data
. It is an estimate
of the probability distribution of a continuous variable (quantitative
is a type of bar chart that illustrates a project schedule
is a graph that displays observed data in a time
sequence. Often, the data displayed represent some aspect of the output or
performance of a manufacturing or other business process. It is therefore
a form of
, which is a type of chart which
as a series
of data points called 'markers' connected by straight line segments.
is a type of chart that contains both bars and
a line graph, where individual values are represented in descending order
by bars, and the cumulative total is represented by the line.
is an average measure of the efficiency of
production. It can be expressed as the ratio of
output to inputs
the production process, i.e. output per unit of input.
When all outputs
and inputs are included
in the productivity measure it is called total
productivity. Productivity is increased by lowering the amount of
labor, capital, energy or materials that go into producing economic goods.
is a process of combining various material inputs
and immaterial inputs (plans, know-how) in order to make something for
consumption (the output). It is the act of creating output, a good or
service which has value and contributes to the utility of individuals. It
is the creation of value or wealth by producing goods
relates physical output of a production process to
physical inputs or factors of production. Industry
, which include human
power and means of
production (e.g. tools, equipment, buildings, technologies,
materials, and improved land).
Productivity Improving Technologies
is a ratio of output to input in
the production of goods and services. Productivity is increased by
lowering the amount of labor, capital, energy or materials that go into
producing economic goods. Increases in productivity are largely
responsible for the increase in per capita living standards.
is the production of large amounts of standardized products, including and
especially on assembly lines, such as household appliances and
automobiles. Together with job production and batch production, it is one
of the three main production methods. ("flow production" or "continuous
production"). Mass production's advantages
include simplification of the production process, efficiency in the
production process and consistency in the finished products. Mass
production frequently outpaces the slow, labor-intensive processes of
pre-industrial craftsmen and
We need large scale mass production, but more
importantly, we also need Small Scale Local
. This will help during
emergencies and catastrophes
and it's also more Sustainable
healthier for people
are a statistical process control tool used to
determine if a manufacturing or business process is in a state of control.
is the process of determining the production capacity needed
by an organization to meet changing demands for its products. In the
context of capacity planning, design capacity is the maximum amount of
work that an organization is capable of completing in a given period.
Effective capacity is the maximum amount of work that an organization is
capable of completing in a given period due to constraints such as quality
problems, delays, material handling, etc.
is the extent to which an enterprise or a nation actually
uses its installed
y, which is is the maximum possible output of an
Economies of Scale
are the cost advantages that enterprises obtain due
to size, output, or scale of operation, with cost per unit of output
generally decreasing with increasing scale as fixed costs are spread out
over more units of output. Often operational efficiency is also greater
with increasing scale, leading to lower variable cost as well.
involves producing custom work, such as a one-off product for a specific
customer or a small batch of work in quantities usually less than
those of mass-market products.
is a technique used in manufacturing, in which the object in question is
created stage by stage over a series of
workstations, and different
batches of products are made.
is a flow production method used to manufacture, produce,
or process materials without interruption. Continuous production is called
a continuous process or a continuous flow process because the materials,
either dry bulk or fluids that are being processed are continuously in
motion, undergoing chemical reactions or subject to mechanical or heat
treatment. Continuous processing is contrasted with batch production.
is a manufacturing process (most of the time called a progressive
assembly) in which parts (usually interchangeable parts) are added as the
semi-finished assembly moves from workstation to workstation where the
parts are added in sequence until the final assembly is produced. By
mechanically moving the parts to the assembly work and moving the
semi-finished assembly from work station to work station, a finished
product can be assembled faster and with less labor than by having workers
carry parts to a stationary piece for assembly.
is combining parts that fit together to form a working
unit that performs a particular function or service.
manufacturing plant or industrial site, usually consisting of
, or more commonly a complex having several buildings, where
manufacture goods or operate machines processing one product into
another. Factories arose with the introduction of machinery during the
Industrial Revolution when the capital and space requirements became too
great for cottage industry or workshops. Early factories that contained
small amounts of machinery, such as one or two spinning mules, and fewer
than a dozen workers have been called "glorified workshops
". Most modern
factories have large warehouses or warehouse-like facilities that contain
heavy equipment used for assembly line production. Large factories tend to
be located with access to multiple modes of transportation, with some
having rail, highway and water loading and unloading facilities.
is the organized action of making of goods and services for sale. It
is the value added production of merchandise for
or sale using
production of goods
within an economy. The organized action of making of goods and services for sale.
The people or companies engaged in a particular kind of commercial
enterprise. Persevering determination to perform a task.
is the optimization of complex
organizations. Industrial engineers
work to eliminate waste of time,
money, materials, man-hours, machine time, energy and other resources that
do not generate value. they figure out how to do things better, they
engineer processes and systems that improve quality
is the manufacturing approach of
using computers to control the entire production process. This integration
allows individual processes to exchange information with each other and
initiate actions. Although manufacturing can be faster and less
error-prone by the integration of computers, the main advantage is the
ability to create
Automated Manufacturing Processes
. Typically CIM relies on closed-loop
control processes, based on real-time input from sensors. It is also known
as flexible design
is the amount of work performed by the average
worker in one hour. It is used in written "estimates" for estimation of
the total amount of uninterrupted
perform a task.
Calculate Man Hours Lost Productivity
methodology that identifies activities in an organization and
assigns the cost of each activity with resources to all products and
services according to the actual consumption by each. This model assigns
more indirect costs (overhead) into direct costs compared to conventional
Return on Investment
is the benefit to an investor resulting
from an investment of some resource. A high ROI means the investment gains
compare favorably to investment cost. As a performance measure, ROI is
used to evaluate the efficiency of an investment or to compare the
efficiency of a number of different investments. In purely economic terms,
it is one way of considering profits in relation to capital invested. (ROI).
is the commitment of time,
energy, or effort to a project with the expectation of some
Rate of Return
is a profit
on an investment. It comprises any change in
or dividends or other such cash flows which the investor
receives from the investment. It may be measured either in absolute terms
(e.g., dollars) or as a percentage of the amount invested. The latter is
also called the holding period return.
Demand Flow Technology
is a strategy for defining and
deploying business processes in a flow, driven in response to customer
demand. DFT is based on a set of applied mathematical tools that are used
to connect processes in a flow and link it to daily changes in demand. DFT
represents a scientific approach to flow manufacturing for discrete
production. It is built on principles of demand pull where customer demand
is the central signal to guide factory and office activity in the daily
operation. DFT is intended to provide an alternative to schedule-push
manufacturing which primarily uses a sales plan and forecast to determine
a production schedule.
is a workplace organization method that describes how
to organize a work space for efficiency and effectiveness by identifying
and storing the items used, maintaining the area and items, and sustaining
the new order. The decision-making process usually comes from a dialogue
about standardization, which builds understanding among employees of how
they should do the work. In some quarters, 5S has become 6S, the sixth
element being safety.Five Japanese words
seiri, seiton, seiso, seiketsu, and shitsuke.
There are five 5S phases:
They can be translated from the Japanese as "sort", "set in order",
"shine", "standardize", and "sustain". Other translations are possible.
Make work easier by
eliminating obstacles. Reduce chances of being disturbed with unnecessary
items. Prevent accumulation of unnecessary items. Evaluate necessary items
with regard to cost or other factors. Remove all parts or tools that are
not in use. Segregate unwanted material from the workplace. Define Red-Tag
area to place unnecessary items that cannot immediately be disposed of.
Dispose of these items when possible. Need fully skilled supervisor for
checking on a regular basis. Waste removal. Make clear all working floor
except using material.Set In Order (Seiton)
Arrange all necessary items so that they can be easily selected for use.
Prevent loss and waste of time by arranging work station in such a way
that all tooling / equipment is in close proximity. Make it easy to find
and pick up necessary items. Ensure first-in-first-out FIFO basis. Make
workflow smooth and easy. All of the above work should be done on a
regular basis. Maintain safety. Place components according to their uses,
with the frequently used components being nearest to the work place.
Clean your workplace on daily
basis completely or set cleaning frequency. Use cleaning as inspection.
Prevent machinery and equipment deterioration. Keep workplace safe and
easy to work. Keep workplace clean and pleasing to work in. When in place,
anyone not familiar to the environment must be able to detect any problems
within 50 feet.Standardize (Seiketsu)
Standardize the best practices in the work area. Maintain high standards
in workplace organization at all times. Everything in its right place.
Every process has a standard.Sustain (Shitsuke)
Not harmful to anyone. Also translates as "do without being told". Perform
regular audits. Training and discipline. Training is goal-oriented
process. Its resulting feedback is necessary monthly. Self discipline to
maintain proper order.
is to keep safe and protect from
harm, decay, loss, or
. Involves casualty maintenance by performing
which keep the
in working order. Supply with necessities
. Activity involved in maintaining something in good working
order. The act of sustaining life
by food or providing a means
of subsistence. Means of maintenance of a
family or group
Maintain for use and service
. Maintain by writing regular
is the care and servicing by personnel for the purpose of
maintaining equipment and facilities in satisfactory operating condition
by providing for systematic inspection, detection, and correction of
incipient failures either before they occur or before they develop into
major defects. Maintenance, including tests, measurements
and parts replacement, performed specifically to prevent faults from
Maintenance, Repair, and Operations
involves fixing any sort of
mechanical, plumbing, or electrical device should it become out of order
or broken (known as repair, unscheduled, casualty or corrective
maintenance). In the aircraft maintenance market sector, maintenance,
repair and overhaul (MRO) services also include inspection, rebuilding,
alteration and the supply of spare parts, accessories and raw materials,
adhesives, sealants, coatings and consumables for aircraft manufacturing
and MRO. In all sectors, effective MRO involves performing routine actions
which keep devices, equipment, machinery, building infrastructure and
supporting utilities in working order (known as scheduled maintenance) and
prevent trouble from arising (preventive maintenance).
Positive Feed Back Loop
is to make
in order to
. Relieve pain.
is the act of correcting an
. Set straight or
. Provide relief for.
is a method or technique that has been generally accepted as superior to
any alternatives because it produces results that are superior to those
achieved by other means or because it has become
a standard way of doing
, e.g., a standard way of complying with legal or ethical
ensures that an organization, product or service is
consistent. It has four main components: quality planning,
, quality control and quality improvement. Quality
management is focused not only on product and service quality, but also on
the means to achieve it. Quality management, therefore, uses quality
assurance and control of processes as well as products to achieve more
The primary goal of maintenance is to avoid or mitigate the
of failure of equipment. This may be by preventing
the failure before it actually occurs which Planned Maintenance
and Condition Based Maintenance help to achieve. It is designed
to preserve and restore equipment reliability by replacing worn
components before they actually fail. Preventive maintenance
activities include partial or complete overhauls at specified
periods, oil changes, lubrication, minor adjustments, and so on.
In addition, workers can record equipment deterioration so they
know to replace or repair worn parts before they cause system
failure. The ideal preventive maintenance program would prevent
all equipment failure before it occurs.
are techniques designed to help determine the condition of
in-service equipment in order to
when maintenance should be performed. This approach promises
cost savings over routine or time-based preventive maintenance, because
tasks are performed only when warranted.
is any variety of
maintenance to an object or item of equipment. Specifically,
maintenance is a
scheduled service visit carried out by a competent and suitable agent, to
ensure that an item of equipment is operating correctly and to therefore
avoid any unscheduled breakdown and downtime.
is a process within many biological systems, resulting from an internal
that works to adjust (or mitigate) that system's response to
. While most
systems of the body show some degree of autoregulation, it is most clearly
observed in the kidney, the heart, and the brain. Perfusion of these
organs is essential for life, and through autoregulation the body can
divert blood (and thus, oxygen) where it is most needed.
Application Performance Management
is the monitoring and management of
performance and availability of software applications. APM strives to
detect and diagnose complex application performance problems to maintain
an expected level of service.
of situations that may cause the sinking of a
watercraft, or a company, or a country. Also refers to measures that need
to be taken to offset or minimize damage.
Planned Maintenance System in Shipping
paper/software-based system which allows ship owners or operators to carry
out maintenance in intervals according to manufacturers and
class/Classification society requirements.
is an organized, conscious effort by members
of a society to construct a more satisfying culture.
capital budget planning tool which identifies
the current status of the reserve fund and a stable and
equitable funding plan to offset ongoing
is a form of asset management concerned
with the successful and profitable maintenance, operation, and monitoring
of buildings or properties. It encompasses multiple disciplines to ensure
functionality of the built environment by integrating people, systems,
place, process, and technology.
is the operation, control, and oversight of real estate as used in its
most broad terms. Management indicates a need to be cared for, monitored
and accountability given for its useful life and condition. This is much
akin to the role of management in any business.
is a private association formed by a
real estate developer for the purpose of marketing, managing, and selling
homes and lots in a residential subdivision.
describes a cause of
that can be brought in court to address a change in condition
of real property brought about by a current tenant (or
Condo Home Associations
or City or State
that damages or destroys the value of that property. A lawsuit for waste
can be brought against a life tenant or lessee of a leasehold estate,
either by a current landlord or by the owner of a vested future interest.
The holder of an executory interest, however, has no standing to enforce
an action for waste, since his future interest is not vested. There are
several different kinds of waste under the law.
same thing as stealing
, which is punishable by law and
is activity involved in
something in good working
order. Attention and management implying
The work of providing treatment for or attending to someone or
something. Feel concern or interest. Judiciousness in avoiding
harm or danger.
Provide care for
. Be in charge of, act on, or dispose of. Be
concerned with. Keep informed.
Duty of Care
is a legal obligation, which is imposed on an
individual requiring adherence
to a standard of reasonable care while
performing any acts that could
foreseeably harm others
Standard of Care
is the only degree of prudence and caution required of an individual who
is under a duty of care. The requirements of the standard are closely
dependent on circumstances. Whether the standard of care has been breached
is determined by the trier of fact, and is usually phrased in terms of the
reasonable person. Whether the individual "proceed[ed] with such
reasonable caution as a prudent man would have exercised under such
how to apply the highest
every aspect of business, having a strong interest, as well as a
responsibility, to act with integrity at all times.
Management Due Diligence
and leadership skills while assessing team dynamics and
is something that is required, useful, just, or proper. Anything that is
but lacking. The psychological feature that arouses an organism
to action toward a desired goal; the reason for the action; that
which gives purpose and direction to behavior. A
is something that is necessary for an organism to live
a healthy life. Needs are distinguished from wants in that, in
the case of a need, a deficiency causes a clear
a dysfunction or death. Needs can be objective and physical,
such as the need for food, or psychological and subjective, such
as the need for self-esteem. There are also needs of a social or
societal nature. Needs and wants are a matter of interest in,
and form a common substrate for, the fields of philosophy,
biology, psychology, social science, and politics.
is to put into service; make work or employ for a particular purpose
or for its inherent or natural purpose.
"Use your head
and learn how to use a
is to keep or maintain in unaltered condition; cause to remain or last
. To keep up and reserve for personal or special use.
is something providing immaterial assistance to a person or cause
or interest. Supporting structure that holds up or provides a foundation.
The act of bearing the weight of or strengthening.
is to make something more
or stronger; Become or made better in quality.
is to make something better or more
Contribute to the progress or growth of. Obtain
advantages. Develop in a positive way.. Develop further. A change for the
better; progress in development. The act of moving forward (as toward a
is the gradual improvement or growth or
. The act of moving
forward (as toward a goal). Develop in a
Form or accumulate steadily.
is to reach a high point in
historical significance or importance.
is something that interests you because it is important or affects
you. A feeling of sympathy for someone or something.
Be relevant to. Be on the mind of.
Responsibility is the understanding that life needs
in order for a person, or
persons, to live comfortably and
without having things
continually degrade or get worse and become
Responsibilities are positive actions that help sustain
a healthy and good
quality life, while maintaining
, and reducing dependencies that increases vulnerabilities
. Responsibilities are the things that you need
to do in order
to enjoy the things that you want to do. Responsibilities are when people
count on you to perform certain functions
, so that others can
focus on other responsibilities that you also depend on.
is a form of trustworthiness; the trait of
yourself and to other people who depend on your services. It's being responsible
is when an organization or individual, has an
obligation to act for the benefit of society at large
responsibility is a duty every individual has to perform so as to
between the economy and the ecosystems.
is the state of being obligated to do or pay something. A written promise to
repay a debt. Example: The debt we owe the environment and to future generations from
who we borrow from, in the form of life sustaining resources
course of action that someone is required to take, whether legal or moral.
There are also obligations in other normative contexts, such as
obligations of etiquette,
, and possibly in terms of
, where obligations are
requirements which must be fulfilled. These are generally legal
obligations, which can incur a penalty
for non-fulfilment, although certain people are obliged to carry out
certain actions for other reasons as well, whether as a tradition or for
is a legal bond (vinculum iuris) by which one or more
parties (obligants) are bound to act or refrain from acting.
is work that you are obliged to perform
Standard of Care
is the only degree of prudence and caution required of an individual who
is under a duty of care. The requirements of the standard are closely
dependent on circumstances. Whether the standard of care has been breached
is determined by the trier of fact
is usually phrased in terms of the reasonable person.
Debt of Honor
is a promise and an
obligation to do what is Right
is a legal-bound obligation. Something that
is when a person's actions cause an event to
encompasses the duties to act in a
manner, obey the
, avoid conflicts of interest
, and put
the interests of people ahead of your own interests that are not as
is the doctrine that an individual
has substantial or total responsibility for the events and circumstances
that befall them in their personal life, to a considerably greater degree
than is normally thought. Strong adherents of responsibility assumption
consider that whatever situation they find themselves in, their own past
desires and choices must have led to that outcome.
is not ignoring
Duty of Care
, damages, injuries or losses.
But you also need to
know more then the definition of responsibility, you must also fully
understand life itself, the thing that you are responsible for. You can be
responsible, but if you don't understand
, or understand the
of your actions and inactions
, then the only thing that you will
be responsible for is destroying life and
, and that is
something you don't want on your resume.
Diffusion of Responsibility
We want Love, but we don't want the responsibilities that come with
having a relationship. We want to travel, but we don't want to be
responsible for its impacts. We want a lot of things, but we don't want to
deal with all the responsibilities, or have the responsibility of having
to maintain something so that it lasts a long time. But being a
thoughtless and selfish
scumbag is no way to go through life, because it never ends well, as we
can clearly see, or hopefully see. You can't solve a problem when you
don't believe that a problem exists, and there lies our first problem,
which is people not having enough knowledge and information so they are
fully aware of themselves and the world around them. It's almost
impossible to make good choices and good decisions when you don't know
what they are, or have the ability and opportunity to do so.
Corporate Social Responsibility
are the actions and activities assigned to or required or
expected of a person or group. A relation such that one thing is dependent
on another. Serve a Purpose
Perform duties attached to a particular office or place or function.
90% of our
Jobs need to be aligned
with Human Responsibilities
that insure our Survival, and
(of a policy or person or action)
is controlling a situation by causing something to happen rather than
waiting to respond to it after it happens.
is to serve a purpose, role, or function. A relation such that one
thing is dependent on another.
Work that you are obliged to perform for
or legal reasons. The actions and activities assigned
to or required or expected of a person or group. Normal or
of a person in a particular social
setting. A personal relation in which one is obligated for a
or favor. Owing
or recognition to another for
etc. The social force that binds you to the courses of action
demanded by that force. A set
sequence of steps
part of larger computer program. A form of trustworthiness.
is to give help or
assistance; be of service The activity of contributing to the fulfillment
of a need or furtherance of an effort or purpose.
is conduct that is relevant to the conduct
of individuals and entire organizations.
Service Level Agreement
aspects of the service – quality,
availability, responsibilities – are agreed between the service
and the service user. Contracts
is the performance of Duties
or provision of space and equipment
helpful to others.
Work done by one person or group that benefits another. An act
of help or assistance.
A company or agency that performs a
. A means of
serving. Make fit for use.
Something that aids or
. Contribute to the
or growth of.
Development of the mind
. Act of
improving by expanding or enlarging or refining.
is understanding and improving operational processes; identifying problems
quickly and systematically; establishing valid and reliable service
performance measures and measuring customer satisfaction and other
is an economic activity where an immaterial
exchange of value
occurs. When a
service such as labor is performed the buyer does not take exclusive
ownership of that which is purchased, unless agreed upon by buyer and
seller. The benefits of such a service, if priced, are held to be
self-evident in the buyer's willingness to pay for it.
are those, that society
(nation state, fiscal union, regional) as a whole pays for, through taxes
and other means. Using resources, skill, ingenuity, and experience,
service providers effect benefit to service consumers. Thereby, service
providers participate in an economy
the restrictions of carrying inventory (stock) or the need to concern
themselves with bulky raw materials. Furthermore, their investment in
expertise does require consistent service marketing and upgrading in the
face of competition.
is an anticipated outcome that is intended or that guides your
. The quality of being determined to do or
achieve something; firmness of purpose.
What something is used
. The goal
intended to be attained (and which is believed to be
attainable) Visualize expected results. Specific actions to
is something appropriate to a purpose
is a systematic process for determining and
addressing needs, or "gaps" between current conditions and desired
conditions or "wants". The discrepancy between the current condition and
wanted condition must be measured to appropriately identify the need. The
need can be a desire to improve current performance or to correct a
is something that is necessary for an organism to live
a healthy life. Needs are distinguished from wants in that, in the case of
a need, a deficiency causes a clear adverse outcome: a dysfunction or
is a person who has acquired
specialized skills and
knowledge through advanced learning
education so that they are proficient in their craft and produce
high quality work in their area of expertise. Someone who is
qualified to teach others
about their area of Knowledge.
(words that describe intelligence)
to the world by measuring
used in its
service or product.
is how the service or product benefits people, and how it benefits
holds that humans can, through their interference
with processes that would otherwise be
outcome which is an improvement over the aforementioned natural one.
Management Oaths - Business Philosophy
is the activity of providing goods and services. A rightful concern
. An immediate objective. Business concerns
Customers collectively. Business
is an organizational entity involved in the provision of goods
and services to consumers. Businesses serve as a form of economic
activity, and are prevalent in capitalist economies, where most of them
are privately owned and provide goods
and services allocated through a
to consumers and customers in exchange for other goods,
money, or other forms of exchange that hold intrinsic economic
Businesses may also be social non-profit enterprises or state-owned public
enterprises operated by governments with specific social and economic
objectives. A business owned by multiple private individuals may form as
an incorporated company or jointly organise as a
have different laws that may ascribe different rights to the various
business entities. The word "business" can refer to a particular
or to an entire market sector (for example: "the financial
sector") or to the sum of all economic activity ("the business sector").
Compound forms such as "agribusiness" represent subsets of the concept's
broader meaning, which encompasses all activity by suppliers of goods and
services. Businesses aim to maximize sales to have their income exceed
their expenditures, resulting in a profit, gain or surplus. (also known as
, a company, or a firm).
conduct business. A band of people associated temporarily in some
is to handle
Managing a Country
Oaths That Help Guide Us
As a manager, my purpose is to serve the greater good by
bringing people and resources together to create value that no single
individual can create alone. Therefore I will seek a course that enhances
the value my enterprise can create for society over the long term. I
recognize my decisions can have far-reaching consequences that affect the
well-being of individuals inside and outside my enterprise, today and in
the future. As I reconcile the interests of different constituencies, I
will face choices that are not easy for me and others.
United States Uniformed Services Oath of Office
I will Remember
Human Promise Manifesto
(to many scumbags take an oath but never follow it)
Therefore I promise:
I will act with utmost integrity and pursue my work in an
I will safeguard the interests of my shareholders, co-workers,
customers and the society in which we operate.
I will manage my enterprise in good faith, guarding against
decisions and behavior that advance my own narrow ambitions but
harm the enterprise and the societies it serves.
I will understand and uphold, both in letter and in spirit, the
laws and contracts governing my own conduct and that of my
I will take responsibility for my actions, and I will represent
the performance and risks of my enterprise accurately and
I will develop both myself and other managers under my
supervision so that the profession continues to grow and
contribute to the well-being of society.
I will strive to create sustainable economic, social, and
environmental prosperity worldwide.
I will be accountable to my peers and they will be accountable
to me for living by this oath.
This oath I make freely, and upon my honor.
Hippocratic Oath for Managers
1. I undertake, throughout my academic career, regardless of any
position I hold, to base all
of others on an
objective analysis of the available facts. When called upon to
do so, I shall cite the exact information upon which my
2. My judgments of others shall, wherever possible, be made
publicly. When anonymity is essential, I shall provide arguments
worthy of public scrutiny.
3. I shall endeavor always to distinguish between my judgments
on academic grounds and any personal interests. I shall always
declare the latter, even if they require my withdrawal from a
4. I shall at all times avoid in word and deed any form, of
discrimination against others in race, religion, ethnic
background, sex, marital status, age, political affiliation,
nationality, and physical condition. I shall encourage my
students and colleagues to do
likewise in my presence.
5. All requests for judgment of the work of others will be
treated by me as a matter for the utmost priority. If, for any
reason beyond my control, I am unable to give them urgent
attention I shall request to be relieved of my responsibility.
6. I recognize as an academic a basic obligation to use my
intellect and training by teaching or writing for the
illumination of the community
, following the truth fearlessly
wherever it may lead, regardless of vested interests. I accept
the intellectual requirements of my students as a prior claim on
my time, taking precedence over all other activities. I
undertake the continual re-evaluation of my teaching techniques
to ensure that students obtain the best education available.
commit towards the creation of value "responsibly
and ethically". To make a difference in the lives of the individual
students who take the oath, to challenge other classmates to work towards
a higher professional standard, whether they sign the oath or not, and to
create a public conversation in the press about professionalizing and
is a statement of fact or a promise with
relating to something considered sacred as a sign of actual
Oath of Office
is an oath or affirmation a person takes
before undertaking the duties of an office, usually a position in
government or within a religious body, although such oaths are sometimes
required of officers of other organizations.
- I, _____, do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I
will support and defend the
Constitution of the United States
against all enemies, foreign and
- Soldiers Creed
is to uphold specific
Historically, this oath is taken by physicians. It is one of the most
widely known of Greek medical texts.
Dereliction of Duty
is someone who has willfully refused to
perform his duties (or follow a given order) or has
himself in such a way
that he cannot perform his duties.
Police Officers Decision Making and Discretion
Code of Ethics
A Hippocratic Oath for Managers
The famous Hippocratic Oath is the earliest and most impressive
document in medical ethics.
One translation is:
I swear by Apollo the physician, by Æsculapius, by Hygeia,
Panacea, all the gods and goddesses, that, according to my best
ability and judgment, I will keep this oath and stipulation; to
reckon him who taught me this art equally dear to me as my
parents; to share my substance with him and relieve his
necessities if required; to regard his offspring as on the same
footing as my own brothers, and to teach them this art if they
shall wish to learn it, without fee or scipulation, and that by
teaching and every other mode of instruction, I will impart a
knowledge of the art to my own sons and to those of my teachers,
and to disciples bound by a stipulation and oath, according to
the law of medicine, but to no others.
I will follow that method of treatment, which, according to my
ability and judgment,
I consider for the benefit of my patients, and abstain from
whatever is deleterious and mischievous.
I will give no deadly medicine to anyone if asked, nor suggest
any such counsel;
With purity and with holiness I will pass my life and practice
my art. I will not cut a person who is suffering with a stone,
but will leave this to be done by practitioners of this work.
Into whatever houses I enter I will go into them for the benefit
of the sick and will abstain from every voluntary act of
mischief and corruption, and, further, from the seduction of
females or males, bond or free. Whatever in connection with my professional practice, or not in
connection with it, I may see or hear in the lives of men which
ought not to be spoken abroad, I will not divulge, as reckoning
that all such should be kept secret. While I continue to keep
this oath inviolate, may it be granted to me to enjoy life and
the practice of my art, respected always by, all men, but should
and violate this oath, may the reverse be my lot.
A modern version is the Declaration of Geneva (1948):
I solemnly pledge myself to consecrate my life to the service of
I will give to my teachers the respect and gratitude which is
their due; I will practice my profession with conscience and
dignity; the health of my patient will be my first
respect the secrets
which are confided in me;
I will maintain by all in means in my power the honor and the
noble traditions of the medical profession; my colleagues will
be my brothers; I will not permit considerations of religion,
nationality, race, party politics, or social standing to
intervene between my duty and my patient;
I will maintain the utmost respect for human life, from the time
of conception; even under threat,
I will not use my medical knowledge contrary to the
I make these promises solemnly, freely, and upon my honor.”
"Most of our decisions are generally based upon the measurement
of future benefits that come from making that decision, a decision that
hopefully makes us better then what we presently are."
"If you think that being stupid is part of your business,
then you are either in the wrong business or the wrong person
Most bosses are the same, they bark a lot but they never say
anything. Ignorance on how to use language effectively has
caused most of our problems. And as soon as we learn and
understand the incredible potential of language, the sooner we
will start solving all our problems. Communicating effectively,
efficiently, and with respect, can be something every person
could learn in school, online, or using a smartphone.
“Keep your friends for friendship, but work with the skilled and
- "A man's
depends upon his living up to
insofar as he can. It
is hard to fail, but it is worse never to have tried to succeed." ~
"The first question to ask is, Does the business your in
make a positive difference in peoples lives who are not related to the
business in any way, directly or indirectly? If not, then your business is
wasting time, people and resources. So you either find a new business or
create a new one.Money is not a Measurement of Worth
, so what are you really doing?"
There is no such thing as
, the feedback is either good, bad, right or wrong.
And it also needs the reasons why that explains its perceived
negativity. Just to call something negative does not explain why
it is considered negative. That's the same for positive
psychology. You simply can not call something positive without
explaining why it's thought to be positive. It's like an
ignorant politician who talks but never says anything
informative or insightful. Empty words create empty heads. You
either use your time to learn something or you learn nothing at
all. End the cycle of ignorance.
Causal Loop Diagram
"You don't want a business to grow, you
just want your business to increase its potential and increase
its service to the community. Growing is not for profit, for
is not a measurement of reality. Growing is for when the need
increases then your business increases, if the need decreases then your
business decreases. And when a better alterative comes up you have to make
adjustments, or change the business altogether."
Limits to Growth
Making a Difference
Most businesses are mainly local distribution centers for needed
products or services. Consisting of important things that people need
access too, or can have things delivered in a reasonable time at a
reasonable cost. So things should be close enough to supply the need
without wasting to much time and resources.
Viable System Model
Priorities - Responsibilities - Importance - Choices - Short Term Goals - Long Term Goals
is the act or process of
over the amount of
spent on specific activities,
especially to increase effectiveness, efficiency or productivity
you need to learn some important skills like
Maintaining Good Health
and having a good Memory
You need to keep reminding yourself on the task at hand and
discipline yourself to stay focused.
There are many Tools to help Manage Time
is the avoidance of doing a task which needs
to be accomplished. But putting off things is not bad, it only becomes bad
when the thing that you put off doing causes more stress. Most people
can't explain why they procrastinate, it's not because
, it's mostly
from not learning how to be life smart
You can't do everything
but you can manage time more effectively to do more things, and too have
You don’t have enough Time
What is the time right now?
What is the amount of
time that is needed at the present moment to complete a task?
much time is left?
Amount of time today?
Amount of time tomorrow?
Amount of time in the future?
is the lack of
You can say "I
don't feel like it
", but that doesn't explain anything, or does it answer the 5
lacking facts above. Don't make excuses, just make logical decisions.
Schedule and to-do list, Balancing Time,
Time spent on each responsibility and goal. Timeframe of when
goals and responsibilities should be accomplished. Be
reasonable, over demanding of yourself causes unnecessary
is a narrow field of time, or a particular
point in time, by which an objective or task must be accomplished. Once
that time has passed, the item may be considered overdue.
is a way of displaying a list of events in
, sometimes described as a project artifact. It is
typically a graphic design showing a long bar labeled with dates alongside
itself and usually events labeled on points where they would have
is a sequence of characters or encoded information
identifying when a certain event occurred
, usually giving date and time of
day, sometimes accurate to a small fraction of a second.
arranging events in their order of occurrence in
is a list arranged to show hierarchical
relationships and is a type of tree structure. It is used to present the
main points or topics of a given subject, often used as a rough draft or
summary of the content of a document.
Time Management Guide
Mayo Clinic - Time Management
Dartmouth - Managing Time Skills
Time and Task Planner
(Time Management Software)
Comparison of Time Tracking Software
Task Management Guide
How to Complete a Project on Time
Getting Things Done
12 Month Year Calendar
(can Print on 11 x 8.5 Paper)
Priority Check List
(can Print on 11 x 8.5 Paper)
Glance Clock. See what you need, when you need it
. A smart clock that
automagically shows you the right information at the right moment.
consists of a list of times at which possible
tasks, events, or actions are intended to take place, or of a sequence of
events in the chronological order in which such things are intended to
is a list of employees, and
associated information e.g. location, working times, responsibilities for
a given time period e.g. week, month or sports season.
Schedule (project management)
is a listing of a
project's milestones, activities, and deliverables, usually with intended
start and finish dates. Those items are often estimated by other
information included in the project schedule of resource allocation,
budget, task duration, and linkages of dependencies and scheduled events.
Schedule (computer science)
describe execution of
transactions running in the system. Often it is a list of operations
(actions) ordered by time, performed by a set of transactions that are
executed together in the system.
is the method by which work
specified by some means is assigned to resources that complete the work.
Duration (project management)
is the number of calendar
periods it takes from the time the execution of element starts to the
moment it is completed. Project Management
is the coordination of events to operate a
system in unison.
describes the participation by various roles in
completing tasks or deliverables for a project or business process. It is
especially useful in clarifying roles and responsibilities in
cross-functional/departmental projects and processes.
study of the role of time in communication
. It is one of several
subcategories of the study of nonverbal communication. Other prominent
subcategories include haptics (touch),
(paralanguage), and proxemics
(the use of space). generally defined as the
study of human tempo as it related to human communication. A persons use
of time, the way in which one perceives and values time, structures time,
and reacts to time frames.
means that things are done one at a time and time is
segmented into precise, small units. Under this system, time is scheduled,
arranged and managed.Polychronic time system
is a system where several things can be done at once
, and wider view of
time is exhibited and time is perceived in large fluid sections. Examples
of polychronic behaviors include: typing while answering telephones or
taking notes while sitting participating in meetings. Polychronicity is in
contrast to those who prefer monochronicity (doing one thing at a time)
There is a direct correlation
between the power of an individual in an organization and
. This includes
both length of conversation, turn-taking and who initiates and ends a
conversation. Extensive research indicates that those with more power in
an organization will speak more often and for a greater length of time.
The time of high status
individuals is perceived as valuable
and they control their own time. On the other hand, a subordinate with
less power has their time controlled by a higher status individual and are
in less control of their time – making them likely to report their time to
a higher authority. Such practices are more associated with those in
non-supervisory roles or in blue collar rather than white collar
professions. Instead, as power and status in an organization increases,
the flexibility of the work schedule also increases.
consists of an orchestrated and repeatable pattern of business activity
enabled by the systematic organization of resources into processes that
transform materials, provide services, or process information. It can be
depicted as a sequence of operations, declared as work of a person or
group, an organization of staff, or one or more simple or complex
designed to make use of, or provide service
across, all 24 hours of the clock each day of the week (often abbreviated
as 24/7). The practice typically sees the day divided into shifts, set
periods of time during which different groups of workers perform their
duties. The term "shift work" includes both long-term night shifts and
work schedules in which employees change or rotate shifts.
. Understanding the importance of
are trying to accomplish and how to protect yourself from
distractions and doubts.
Balancing Learning, Working and Living.
is a statement which is used as a way of communicating the
person or organization, which can be updated when an organization or
person evolves and learns more.
a broad overview or
skeleton of interlinked items which supports a particular
approach to a specific objective, and serves as a guide that can
be modified as required by adding or deleting items.
“Better late than never, but never late is better”
the action that
items or activities in order of
is a state of Equilibrium
which is a stable situation in which forces cancel one another.
arrangement or relation of parts or elements within a whole (as in a
design). Equality of distribution. Sustainable
is a state of being essentially equal or equivalent;
is having the
or measure as another.
quality of agreeing
being suitable and appropriate, like harmony, compatibility in opinion and
Work Life Balance
is a concept including proper prioritizing
between "work" (career and ambition) and "lifestyle" (health, pleasure,
leisure, family and spiritual development/meditation). This is related to
the idea of lifestyle choice.
Strategies for a Balanced Life
Tips to Create a Balanced Life
is avoiding dangerous extremes of austerities and sensual indulgence, and
choosing a more reasonable and balanced approach.
is used to mean a point between two opposite forces that is desirable over
purely one state or the other, such as a balance between the metaphysical
Law and Chaos — law by itself being overly controlling, chaos being overly
unmanageable, balance being the point that minimizes the negatives of
is the desirable middle between two
extremes, one of excess and the other of deficiency. For example, in the
Aristotelian view, courage is a virtue, but if taken to excess would
manifest as recklessness, and, in deficiency, cowardice.
Yin and Yang
describes how seemingly opposite or contrary forces may actually
be complementary, interconnected, and interdependent in the natural world,
and how they may give rise to each other as they interrelate to one
another. Many tangible dualities (such as light and dark, fire and water,
expanding and contracting) are thought of as physical manifestations of
the duality symbolized by yin and yang.
Take a Break
When should you
Delegate is to transfer power to someone. Give an assignment
to. A person appointed or elected to represent others.
who attends or communicates the ideas of or acts on behalf of an
organization at a meeting or conference between organizations, which may
be at the same level or involved in a common field of work or interest.
"You have to balance your time between finding temporary
solutions and solving the root of the problem. You have to be looking for
the cure as well as treating the problem. This way the problem does not
continue to cause afflictions, forever."
What Not To Do List
Remember not to let others control how you feel.
Remember not to let anything that's not needed control your
Remember not to overeat.
Remember not to give lame excuses.
Remember not to think negative of yourself.
Low priority problem, high priority
problem, new problem, old problem,
risks, threats and options.
Desktop Calendar - Personal Planner
Printable To Do Lists
D.I.Y. Planner Templates
Checkmark Location Based Reminders App
Note taking to do list organizing
I Done This
Toodledo Task Organizer
to make you more Productive
one app to
manage all your tasks, files & notes.
Schedules - Event Planner -
Apps for Smartphones
Acalendar SoftonicGoal Apps