Facebook Twiter Goole Plus Linked In YouTube Blogger

Child Development - Child Care - Pre-School Education

Education begins at Birth and starts with the Mother or Guardian. A baby starts learning even before it's born. Everything a baby sees, hears, touches, tastes, smells and feels, shapes the development of that child. In order to maximize a child's learning abilities a parent must be fully involved in the education process. It's very important to know how humans develop, and what influences effect your child's development and that human development continues throughout our entire lifetime.

Previous SubjectNext Subject

Pregnancy and NutritionBaby and Father
New Born Nutrition
Nutrition (food smart)
Early Development

Learning to Read

The Human Brain
Gifted - Advanced Learners
Special Needs
Educational Toys and Learning Games
Child Development Films

Everyone should learn Child Development and Child Psychology and learn about the inner workings of a child’s brain, which in turn will help you understand your own Brain. Especially knowing that the prefrontal cortex, which controls focus, planning, and efficient action, takes almost 20 years to mature. Humans are Altricial and have a much longer childhood then any other animal species. Child Development knowledge can also help people be prepared for interactions with children and also teach people about some of the difficulties of Parenting and Teaching

Cognitive Science

Childhood is the most critical time in every human’s life for learning. The human brain is built and designed to learn and built to be creative. So having learning strategies and Inquiry Based Curriculum for conceptual understanding is essential.

Independent Learning

It's what you teach, how you teach it, when you teach it, and why you teach it?

There is a lot of material to cover in Child Development so here are just a few things that will be covered: Understanding Brain and Neurological Mechanisms; Concepts of Cause and Effect; Understanding Sensory Data; Motor Skills; Understanding and Analyzing Statistical Patterns and Abstract Grammatical Patterns; Computations; Forming Intuitive Theories of the Physical, Biological and Psychological Realms; Object Permanence. Theory of Mind; Secondary Theory of Mind; Avoiding Egocentric and Amoral Behavior. Imagining the experiences of other people. Appreciating the difference between Reality and Fantasy

TV and Media Dangers (media literacy)

Why we need to end the era of Orphanages (video and interactive text) - The negative effects of Institutions.

Development Definitions

The most important thing that every human must learn is How to Learn on your Own and how to teach yourself. Continually learning is extremely important.

Interpersonal intelligence (people smart)

Knowledge Guide for the Formative years, the period of physical and psychological development from the onset of puberty to maturity.

Child Development Resources 

Child Development StagesBaby Walking and Mother Smiling are milestones of child development.
Child Development Stages (PDF)
Development Stages (PDF)

Developmental Stage Theories divide child development into distinct stages which are characterized by qualitative differences in behaviour.

Learning in Stages

Milestones (cdc)
Milestones Info-Graph (image)
Milestones Chart (image)
Milestones (PDF)

Critical Period states that if a child does not receive the appropriate stimulus during this "critical period" to learn a given skill or trait, it may be difficult and ultimately less successful later in life. Functions that are indispensable to an organism's survival, such as vision, are particularly likely to develop during critical periods. Critical Period Hypothesis states that the first few years of life is the crucial time in which an individual can acquire a first language if presented with adequate stimuli. If language input does not occur until after this time, the individual will find it more difficult to achieve a full command of language—especially grammatical systems.

Imprinting (psychology) is any kind of phase-sensitive learning (learning occurring at a particular age or a particular life stage) that is rapid and apparently independent of the consequences of behavior. Young children often acquire several of their behavioral characteristics from their parents early in life.

Behavioral Cusp is a special type of behavior change that provides the learner with opportunities to access new reinforcers, new contingencies, new environments, new related behaviors (generativeness) and competition with archaic or problem behaviors. It affects the people around the learner, and these people agree to the behavior change and support its development after the intervention is removed. The concept has far reaching implications for every individual, and for the field of developmental psychology, because it provides a behavioral alternative to the concept of maturation and change due to the simple passage of time, such as developmental milestones. The cusp is a behavior change that presents special features when compared to other behavior changes.

Potty Training for both boys and girls

Praise vs. Punishment

Piaget's theory of Cognitive Development (wiki)
Developmental Stage Theories (wiki)

The Foundation for Child Development
Society for Research in Child Development
12 Principles of Child Development and Learning that Inform Practice
Child Development Info 
Evaluations and Screenings (PDF)

Child Development Documentaries (films)

Child Development refers to the biological, psychological and emotional changes that occur in human beings between birth and the end of adolescence, as the individual Progresses from Dependency to increasing Autonomy.

Human Development Biology is the process of growing to Maturity. In biological terms, this entails growth from a one-celled zygote to an adult human being.

Neoteny is when the physiological (or somatic) development of an organism (typically an animal) is slowed or delayed.

Developmental Psychology is the scientific study of how and why human beings change over the course of their life.

Developmental Psychology Categories (wiki)

Developmental Psychopathology is the study of the development of psychological disorders, such as psychopathy, autism, schizophrenia and depression, with a life course perspective. Best understood as normal development gone awry.

Child Psychopathology refers to the scientific study of mental disorders in children and adolescents.

Developmental Biology is the study of the process by which animals and plants grow and develop, and is synonymous with ontogeny, which is the origination and development of an organism, usually from the time of fertilization of the egg to the organism's mature form.

Brain Development Knowledge

Interpersonal intelligence (people smart)

Zero to Three
Newborns and Toddlers Resources
Temple University Infant & Child Laboratory
Baby Centre

Books on Child Development

Child Birth (birth and reproduction)

Whole Child (PBS)

Speech and Language

Ten-week-old babies can learn from practising walking months before they begin walking themselves say researchers. They gave the infants experience at “reflex walking” which is a primitive instinct in babies which disappears around 12 weeks of age. When held by an adult at a slightly forward angle, and with the soles of their feet touching a flat surface, the infants will reflexively walk by placing one foot in front of the other. Psychologists at Lancaster University gave this “reflex walking” experience to one half of a group of 10 week old infants, who took an average of 23 steps in 3 minutes. The other half of the group did not share in the experience of walking.

Early Education

Kids Learning How to tell time Early Childhood Education relates to the teaching of young children (formally and informally) up until the age of about eight.

Preschool Education is children between the ages of three and five.

Everything Preschool
Early Intervention
Learning Specialist
Early Care & Education

Early Childhood includes toddlerhood and some time afterwards.
Early Childhood
Early Childhood News
Early Learning
Early Learning (PBS)
Learning for Life
Ounce of Prevention
Edu Care Schools
Child Health Booklets 
National Institute for Early Education Research
The Baby College

Early Childhood Preschool Education
Beyond Daycare | The Goddard School

Kindergarten is a preschool educational approach traditionally based on playing, singing, practical activities such as drawing, and social interaction as part of the transition from home to school.  "Garden for the children"

Kindergarten Ready Exam
Kindergarten Readiness
Pre K Smarties
Pre-kindergarten is a classroom-based preschool program for children at or below the age of five.

Parents as Teachers
Parent Teacher Association
Parent Involvement Education
Family Education
Fun Education
Miss Maggie
Fun Brain
Love and Logic
Talk With Kids
Children Now

Orphans - Mentoring - Adoption
Foster Care

Low-Income People
Baby in Car SeatPoverty Law
Center for Law & Education 
Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act

Boston Student Rights helps students, teachers and parents understand their rights, suspension and expulsion policies, and stay connected to other students in the district.

Crimes against Children
Refugees - Migration
Law Knowledge and Information

Child Protective Services (wiki)
Children's Aid Society
Children's Advocate
Harvard Family Research Project
Nat. Assoc. Education of Young Children
International Children's Education
Operation Respect
Happy Child
Teacher Quick Source
CDC Child
Integral Education
Child Development Media
National Geographic for Kids


Kids in a Pyramid Parenting is the process of promoting and supporting the physical, emotional, social, financial, and intellectual development of a child from infancy to adulthood. Parenting refers to the aspects of raising a child aside from the biological relationship.

Parent is a caregiver of the offspring in their own species. In humans, a parent is the caretaker of a child (where "child" refers to offspring, not necessarily age). A biological parent consists of a person whose gamete resulted in a child, a male through the sperm, and a female through the ovum. Parents are first-degree relatives and have 50% genetic meet. A female can also become a parent through surrogacy. Some parents may be adoptive parents, who nurture and raise an offspring, but are not actually biologically related to the child. Orphans without adoptive parents can be raised by their grandparents or other family members.

Single Parent is an uncoupled individual who shoulders most or all of the day-to-day responsibilities for raising a child or children. A mother is more often the primary caregiver in a single-parent family structure that has arisen due to death of the partner, divorce or unplanned pregnancy.

Mother is the female parent of a child. Mothers are women who inhabit or perform the role of bearing some relation to their children, who may or may not be their biological offspring. Children who were raised with Fathers perceive themselves to be more cognitively and physically competent than their peers without a father. Mothers raising children together with a father reported less severe disputes with their child.

Father is the male parent of a child. Besides the paternal bonds of a father to his children, the father may have a parental legal and social relationship with the child that carries with it certain rights and obligations. An adoptive father is a male who has become the child's parent through the legal process of adoption. A biological father is the male genetic contributor to the creation of the baby, through sexual intercourse or sperm donation. A biological father may have legal obligations to a child not raised by him, such as an obligation of monetary support. A putative father is a man whose biological relationship to a child is alleged but has not been established. A stepfather is a male who is the husband of a child's mother and they may form a family unit, but who generally does not have the legal rights and responsibilities of a parent in relation to the child.

Co-Parenting describes a parenting situation where two parents work together to raise a child even though they are not married, divorced, separated or no longer living together.

Legal Guardian is a person who has the legal authority (and the corresponding duty) to care for the personal and property interests of another person, called a ward. Guardians are typically used in three situations: guardianship for an incapacitated senior (due to old age or infirmity), guardianship for a minor, and guardianship for developmentally disabled adults.

Mums Net Parenting Tips
Parent Further
Good Examples
Pediatrician shows how to calm a crying baby (youtube)
I Parenting
Cafe Mom
Mom 365
Parents Connect
Punishment - Discipline - Praise
Positive Parenting Program
Free Range Parenting
Every Child Succeeds
Parental Guide
Behavior Techniques and Strategies
Tools for Getting Along Curriculum
Grand Rapids Parent University
The Learning Community
Baby Center
Sixty Second Parent

Child Care

Baby Sleeping in Hands Smiling Child Care is the caring for and supervision of a child or children, usually from age six weeks to age thirteen. Child care is the action or skill of looking after children by a day-care center, babysitter, or other providers.

Day Care is the care of a child during the day by a person other than the child's legal guardians, typically performed by someone outside the child's immediate family.

Child Care Info
Creative Play
Creative Play Plus
Whole Child Center
Childtime Learning Centers
Educational Play Care
Educational Daycare
National Network for Child Care
Little Hands Day Care $900 a month for four days a week.

Study of Early Child Care and Development (PDF)
PLEASE NOTE: This information in the PDF above was current at the time the document was published in 2006. The information is not being updated and may no longer be accurate. It is provided for historical purposes only.

Second Pillar Care Quality
National Association for Family Child Care
National Association for the Education of Young Children - Promoting excellence in early childhood education.

Pediatrics is the branch of medicine that deals with the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents, and the age limit usually ranges from birth up to 18 years of age.
American Academy of Pediatrics

Dangers of Television and Computers

Teaching at Home - Tutoring
Lesson Ideas - Worksheets
Reading - Writing - Literacy
Teaching Resources
Activity Ideas

Kaiser Family Foundation
Mothers Over 35

The Girl Project
Parents 4 Public Schools
Families and Schools
Teachers and Families

School Family Media
Kids Growth
Perceptual Skills
Discover This
Family Fun
Classical Academic Press

Birth - Reproduction
Human Brain
Educational Toys and Games
Trauma - Stress - Crimes

International Survey of Children’s Well-Being
Health Surveys

Interactive music device that reduces night-time crying and helps develop your baby's brain in one simple product

Gifted Precocious Advanced Learners

Children Reading Together Giftedness is an intellectual ability significantly higher than average.

Child Prodigy is defined as a person under the age of ten who produces meaningful output in some domain to the level of an adult expert performer.

Savant Syndrome is a condition in which a person with a developmental disability, such as an autism spectrum disorder, demonstrates profound and prodigious capacities or abilities far in excess of what would be considered normal.

Acquired Savant Syndrome is when a person acquires prodigious capabilities or skills following a head injury or severe blow to the head, or other disturbances like dementia.  Dormant Potential
The Acquired Savant | A Really Great Big Story (youtube)

Precocity is when Intelligence is achieved far ahead of normal developmental schedules.

Overachievement are individuals who "perform better or achieve more success than expected complete tasks above and beyond expectations and who set very high career goals for themselves.

Underachiever is a person and especially a student who fails to achieve his or her potential or does not do as well as expected. (Not their fault)

Mature Minor Doctrine (wiki)

Gifted Education is education of children who have been identified as gifted or talented.
Gifted Study  

Grade Skipping is a form of academic acceleration, often used for academically talented students, that involves the student entirely skipping the curriculum of one year of school. This is done when a student is sufficiently advanced in all school subjects, so that he or she can move forward in all subjects, rather than in only one or two areas.

Personalized Education

Academic Acceleration is the advancement of gifted students in subjects at a rate that places them ahead of where they would be in the regular school curriculum. Because it provides students with level-appropriate material, academic acceleration has been described as a "fundamental need" for gifted students.

Education Reform

Gifted Children
Gifted Children
Talented & Gifted
Gifted Development
Stepping Stone School 

Thinking to Learn
The Association of the Gifted
Gifted and Talented

Rasch Model (wiki)
Rasch Analysis

Council on Measurement in Education Child Reading a Book

American Psychological Association
Assessment Psychology

Birmingham Grid of Learning

Robinson Center Transition School
for young Scholars

Beautiful Young Minds (youtube) BBC2 2007 - You need to learn more then Math

DOCS: The World's Cleverest Child and Me (youtube)

Twice Exceptional, often abbreviated as 2e, has only recently entered educators' lexicon and refers to intellectually gifted children who have some form of disability. These children are considered exceptional both because of their intellectual gifts and because of their special needs.

Indigo Children are children who are believed to possess special, unusual, and sometimes supernatural traits or abilities.

There is no standard global definition of what a gifted student is.

"You're not binary, you can be decent and gifted at the same time"

Standardized Tests for Gifted Programs
Testing Mom
Testing Awareness

Gifted Education TeacherMother Reading with Child
Gifted Education
Gifted and Talented Education Program (GATE)
Education for the Gifted and Talented Certificate

National Association for Gifted Children

Psychometrics (wiki)

Kid Science Challenge
Posit Science
National Lab Day
National Academy of Sciences
Science Tools

The Johns Hopkins Center for Talented Youth
The Study of Mathematically Precocious Youth (SMPY)
The Munich Longitudinal Study of Giftedness

Duke Talent Program identifying academically gifted students and providing them with opportunities to support their development.

How to Raise a Genius: Lessons from a 45-year study of Super-Smart Children A long-running investigation of exceptional children reveals what it takes to produce the scientists who will lead the twenty-first century.

Brainy Child
Human Brain Knowledge
Brain Pop
Brain Metrix
Brain Storm USA
Connect a Million Minds
Connect for Kids
Bright Kids NYC
Whole Child Education
Van Damme Academy
Harlem Children Zone
Educational Toys 

Ability Grouping places students of similar skills and abilities in the same classes.

is most commonly known as grade skipping, subject acceleration, or early admission into kindergarten or college, gives students the chance access opportunities earlier or progress more rapidly.

Special Needs - Special Education - Disabilities

Child in wheelchair Special Needs describes individuals who require assistance for disabilities that may be medical, mental, or psychological.

Special Needs - Challenged Child

Intellectual Disability characterized by significantly impaired intellectual and adaptive functioning.

American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD)

Genetic study identifies 14 new developmental disorders in children

Fragile X syndrome neurons restored using CRISPR/Cas9-guided activation strategy. Fragile X syndrome is the most frequent cause of intellectual disability in males, affecting 1 out of 3600 boys born. For the first time, researchers have restored activity to the Fragile X Syndrome gene in affected neurons using a modified CRISPR/Cas9 system that removes the methylation -- the molecular tags that keep the mutant gene shut off -- suggesting that this method may be useful for targeting diseases caused by abnormal methylation. Fragile X syndrome is caused by mutations in the FMR1 gene on the X chromosome, which prevent the gene's expression. This absence of the FMR1-encoded protein during brain development has been shown to cause the overexcitability in neurons associated with the syndrome.

Savant-like skills exposed in normal people by suppressing the left fronto-temporal lobe - Brain Plasticity

I believe that eventually people will have the ability to Selectively De-Activate Parts of their Brain, or Turn Off Areas of their Brain that interfere with the processing of certain information, without using Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation or Electrical Brain Stimulation. They would be able to accomplish this by using mediation, or a cognitive exercise or a particular brain food. This way everyone will have the same abilities of a Savant or of a Gifted Person, and become a Prodigy in their chosen career.

Savant Skills (PDF) - Absolute Pitch (PDF)

Maldevelopment is the state of an organism or an organisation that did not develop in the "normal" way.

Microcephaly (wiki)
The Rat People of Pakistan (microcephalics)

Neurodevelopmental Disorder are impairments of the growth and development of the brain or central nervous system. A narrower use of the term refers to a disorder of brain function that affects emotion, learning ability, self-control and memory and that unfolds as the individual grows.

Zika Virus (wiki)

DNA - Genetics - 8 million children born with genetic defects every year.

Special Olympics let me be myself, a champion (video & Text) 

Special Needs Resources NYC

Disability is an impairment that may be physical, cognitive, intellectual, mental, sensory, developmental, or some combination of these that results in restrictions on an individual's ability to participate in what is considered "normal" in their everyday society. A disability may be present from birth or occur during a person's lifetime.

Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990

List of Disabilities (wiki)

What Are Learning Disabilities? (youtube)
Roberto d Angelo Francesca Fedeli: Baby's illness (video)

Learning Disability is a classification that includes several areas of functioning in which a person has difficulty learning in a typical manner, usually caused by an unknown factor or factors. Given the "difficulty learning in a typical manner", this does not exclude the ability to learn in a different manner. Therefore, some people can be more accurately described as having a "Learning Difference", thus avoiding any misconception of being disabled with a lack of ability to learn and possible negative stereotyping.

National Center for Learning Disabilities
Learning Disabilities Association of America
Dibels Dynamic Measurement Group
Progress Monitoring Outcomes-Driven Model (PDF)
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (wiki)

Developmental Disability is a diverse group of chronic conditions that are due to mental or physical impairments. Developmental disabilities cause individuals living with them many difficulties in certain areas of life, especially in "language, mobility, learning, self-help, and independent living". Developmentally Disabled (wiki)

Developmental Disorder is a group of psychiatric conditions originating in childhood that involve serious impairment in different areas. These disorders comprise language disorders, learning disorders, motor disorders and autism spectrum disorders. In broader definitions ADHD is included, and the term used is neurodevelopmental disorders.

Williams Syndrome is a microdeletion syndrome caused by the spontaneous deletion of genetic material from the region q11.23 of a chromosome 7, so that the person is hemizygous for those genes. The deleted region includes more than 25 genes, and researchers believe that being hemizygous for these genes probably contributes to the characteristic features of this disorder.

Microdeletion Syndrome is a syndrome caused by a chromosomal deletion smaller than 5 million base pairs (5 Mb) spanning several genes that is too small to be detected by conventional cytogenetic methods or high resolution karyotyping (2–5 Mb).  Detection is done by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Larger chromosomal deletion syndromes are detectable using
karyotyping techniques.

Karyotype is the number and appearance of chromosomes in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell. The term is also used for the complete set of chromosomes in a species or in an individual organism and for a test that detects this complement or measures the number.

Arrested Development is when mental development has slowed or stopped.

Assessment Flaws (observer effects)

Sometimes the most perfect person for the job is not the most perfect person, but for that particular job, they're perfect. Sometimes we perceive imperfections as hindrances, when in fact they are a perfect ability under some unique circumstances.

Individualized Education Program education that is tailored to the individual student's needs to help the student learn more effectively.

Rehabilitation Counseling is helping people who have disabilities achieve their personal, career, and independent living goals through a counseling process.

Special Education is the practice of educating students with special educational needs in a way that addresses their individual differences and needs. Ideally, this process involves the individually planned and systematically monitored arrangement of teaching procedures, adapted equipment and materials, and accessible settings. These interventions are designed to help learners with special needs achieve a higher level of personal self-sufficiency and success in school and their community, than may be available if the student were only given access to a typical classroom education.

Compensatory Education are supplementary programs or services designed to help children at risk of cognitive impairment and low educational achievement succeed.

Personalized Education

Mental Health Care for Children
American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry 
Mental Health Websites

Brain Balance Centers
Disadvantaged Youth
Eye Writer Invention (youtube)
Spinal Cord 
Children with Disabilities
Children with Disabilities
Disabled Children’s Relief Fund
Sheltered Workshop refers to an organization or environment that employs people with disabilities separately from others.
Production Unlimited
Handicapped Children Association
Learning Methods
Special Education Resources
Special Education Programs
Department of Developmental Services
Special Education

Blind (sight problems and testing)

Deaf (hearing problems)

Special Needs Trust is a trust designed for beneficiaries with disabilities, either physically or mentally challenged. It is written so the beneficiary can enjoy the use of property that is held in the trust for his or her benefit, while at the same time allowing the beneficiary to receive essential needs-based government benefits.

Council for Exceptional Children
Learning Disabilities Online
Technical Assistance Alliance
Special Needs Intervention and Customized Therapies
Applied Learning Processes

Physically Challenged Competitions

6.5 million now receiving some kind of special education service at an estimated cost of $74 billion a year

Child Abandonment is the practice of relinquishing interests and claims over one's offspring in an extralegal way with the intent of never again resuming or reasserting them. Causes include many social and cultural factors as well as mental illness. An abandoned child is called a foundling (as opposed to a runaway or an orphan). Baby dumping refers to parents abandoning or discarding a child younger than 12 months in a public or private place with the intent of disposing of them. It is also known as rehoming. Ct Child Law - Child Abuse

Intrapersonal intelligence (self smart)
Teaching Resources
Elderly Care - Disabled Care
Ignorance is a Disability


Child From Above Autism characterized by impaired social interaction, verbal and non-verbal communication, and restricted and repetitive behavior.

High-Functioning Autism is a term applied to people with autism who are deemed to be cognitively "higher functioning" (with an IQ of 70 or greater) than other people with autism.

Savant Syndrome is a condition in which a person with a developmental disability, such as an autism spectrum disorder, demonstrates profound and prodigious capacities or abilities far in excess of what would be considered normal.

Ami Klin: New way to Diagnose Autism (video)

How the Gut Microbiome affects the Brain and Mind (youtube)
Gut Health (microbial balance) - Antibiotics - Propionic Acid (wiki)
Clostridia (wiki) - Vancomycin (wiki)

How I use Minecraft to help kids with Autism: Stuart Duncan (video and text).

Autism Spectrum is a range of conditions classified as neurodevelopmental disorders. Individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder present with two types of symptoms: problems in social communication and social interaction, and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests or activities. Symptoms are typically recognized between one and two years of age. Long term issue may include creating and keeping relationships, maintaining a job, and performing daily tasks.

Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule is an instrument for diagnosing and assessing autism. The protocol consists of a series of structured and semi-structured tasks that involve social interaction between the examiner and the subject. The examiner observes and identifies segments of the subject's behavior and assigns these to predetermined observational categories. Categorized observations are subsequently combined to produce quantitative scores for analysis. Research-determined cut-offs identify the potential diagnosis of classic autistic disorder or related autism spectrum disorders, allowing a standardized assessment of autistic symptoms. The Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), a companion instrument, is a structured interview conducted with the parents of the referred individual and covers the subject's full developmental history.

Bandit Robot
The Reason I Jump: 13-Year-Old Boy with Autism (Book)
Life, Animated learned how to communicate with the outside world through his love of Disney films.
Mind Spark 
Autism Speaks
Autism Letter (image)

Autism and Dog Therapy - Pet Therapy

Rock your Speech uses music to overcome a speech disorder associated with autism spectrum

Applied Behavior Analysis - Teaching Methods

Kids Who Beat Autism (n.y.times)

Autism Therapy on Glass helps with identifying emotions.

Neurolex uses speech-analysis software to detect signs of autism, schizophrenia, and depression.

Affinity Therapy - Processing (computers)

1 in 88 US children are afflicted with autism–an increase of 25% between 2006-2008. On March 29, 2012, the CDC reported startling evidence: the number of children diagnosed with autism in the United States increased  25% between 2006 and 2008. The autism rate jumped from 1 in 100 (2006) to 1 in 88 children (2008). The autism rate is even higher for boys: one in 54 compared to girls, one in 252. Girls with autism have different behaviors then boys with autism. Why?

GABA Neurotransmitter (wiki)
Autism Update Report (PDF)
Autism Awareness Day 2016 - A Simple Test (youtube)
Weighted Blankets

Non-Speaking Autism
Gordy Baylinson Nonspeaking Autism Letter
Neurotypical (wiki)

Autism and the Smell of Fear. Odors that carry social cues seem to affect volunteers on the autism spectrum differently
Autism typically involves the inability to read social cues. But new research suggests that the sense of smell may also play a central role in autism. The autistic volunteers did not display an inability to read the olfactory social cues in smell, but rather they misread them.

Potential New Autism Drug Shows Promise in Mice. NitroSynapsin is intended to restore an electrical signaling imbalance in the brain found in virtually all forms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

Exposure to Specific Toxic Metals and Nutrients During Late Pregnancy and Early Life Correlated With Autism Risk. Mount Sinai found that differences in the uptake of multiple toxic and essential elements over the second and third trimesters and early postnatal periods are associated with the risk of developing autism spectrum disorders (ASD), according to a study published June 1 in the journal Nature Communications. The critical developmental windows for the observed discrepancies varied for each element, suggesting that systemic dysregulation of environmental pollutants and dietary elements may serve an important role in ASD. In addition to identifying specific environmental factors that influence risk, the study also pinpointed developmental time periods when elemental dysregulation poses the biggest risk for autism later in life. Previous research indicates that fetal and early childhood exposure to toxic metals and deficiencies of nutritional elements are linked with several adverse developmental outcomes, including intellectual disability and language, attentional, and behavioral problems. “We found significant divergences in metal uptake between ASD-affected children and their healthy siblings, but only during discrete developmental periods,” “Specifically, the siblings with ASD had higher uptake of the neurotoxin lead, and reduced uptake of the essential elements manganese and zinc, during late pregnancy and the first few months after birth, as evidenced through analysis of their baby teeth. During fetal and childhood development, a new tooth layer is formed every week or so, leaving an “imprint” of the micro chemical composition from each unique layer, which provides a chronological record of exposure.

Brain Maintenance - Brain Injuries

Cognitive Dysfunction are a category of mental health disorders that primarily affect learning, memory, perception, and problem solving, and include amnesia, dementia, and delirium. Cognitive Testing

Abnormality Behavior is something deviating from the normal or differing from the typical, is a subjectively defined behavioral characteristic, assigned to those with rare or dysfunctional conditions. Behavior is considered abnormal when it is atypical, out of the ordinary, causes some kind of impairment, or consists of undesirable behavior. Who is normal or abnormal is a contentious issue in abnormal psychology.

Emotional and Behavioral Disorders refer to a disability classification used in educational settings that allows educational institutions to provide special education and related services to students that have poor social or academic adjustment that cannot be better explained by biological abnormalities or a developmental disability. The classification is often given to students that need individualized behavior supports to receive a free and appropriate public education, but would not be eligible for an individualized education program under another disability category of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA).

Giving mums and dads the skills to become "super parents" can dramatically improve their child's autism, a long-term study has shown. In the training, parents watched films of themselves playing with their child while a therapist gave precise tips for helping their child communicate. Parent-mediated social communication therapy for young children with autism (PACT): long-term follow-up of a randomised controlled trial.

100-Year-Old Drug Produces Temporary Improved Learning Skills In Autistic Children. Tests of suramin on mice that display behavior analogous to autism have shown a reversal of some symptoms, inspiring Naviaux to test on humans. In Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology, Naviaux reports the boys who received the infusion all showed significant changes, developing better language and coping skills, with social behavior more similar to neurotypical children of the same age. The boys given the suramin were assessed as having a fall of 1.6 points on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule test, where a child is classified as autistic with a score of 9 or above. The scores for the boys given the placebos did not change. Some of the effects were remarkably rapid. The parents of a 14-year-old-boy who had not spoken a complete sentence in 12 years said in a statement: "Within an hour after the infusion, he started to make more eye contact with the doctor and nurses in the room....We saw our son advance almost three years in development in just six weeks." Two previously non-verbal children given the suramin spoke their first sentences within a week. Naviaux stressed treatment is more than a matter of providing an infusion. Instead the suramin “removed the roadblocks,” allowing children to benefit from enrichment programs and speech therapy. However, the effects did not last, and over weeks the participants largely returned to their previous behaviors.

Suramin is a medication used to treat African sleeping sickness and river blindness. It is the treatment of choice for sleeping sickness without central nervous system involvement. It is given by injection into a vein. Suramin causes a fair number of side effects. Common side effects include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, skin tingling, and weakness. Sore palms of the hands and soles of the feet, trouble seeing, fever, and abdominal pain may also occur. Severe side effects may include low blood pressure, decreased level of consciousness, kidney problems, and low blood cell levels. It is unclear if it is safe when breastfeeding. Suramin was made at least as early as 1916. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. In the United States it can be acquired from the Center for Disease Control (CDC). The cost of the medication for a course of treatment is about 27 USD. In regions of the world where the disease is common suramin is provided for free by the World Health Organization.

Teaching Special Needs

Every school needs to teach special needs to every student. This would help students understand what special needs means, and, this would also help students learn all the ways they can help people with disabilities, especially knowing that every person has some form of a disability. This would require every student to spend time with a special needs person. Helping people who need extra help has to be a whole school effort, as well as a community effort. This is the real meaning of "No Child Left Behind."

"Any form of Segregation will always have it's problems."

Classroom Management
Learning Methods

"I don't see people as having learning disabilities, I see them having temporary learning inabilities."

Inabilities is lacking the skills (especially mental skills) required to do something or get something done. Lack of ability (especially mental ability) to do something. Lacking the power to perform. Impairment. Something immaterial that interferes with or delays action or progress.

I think that everyone is Autistic to a certain degree and that Autistic people have the highest degree of this brain impairment so it's easier to notice. We know that the brain is not broken, we just haven't figured it out exactly how our brains work so that we can help autistic people utilize the brain, and train the brain to do what the brain needs to do in order to function accurately and effectively. So I believe that autism will someday soon teach everyone how the brain works and how we can correct any malfunctions that happen along the way. We can learn a lot from our impairments. People with disabilities are just as important as everyone else on the planet. There is something about struggle. When we struggle we see things and feel things that we never would have experienced unless we were struggling. But even though I don't believe that struggle is necessary for learning, or that you will always learn something from struggling, what I do believe is that if you do find yourself struggling, just remember that you could be learning something important, so keep your mind open, or you might just miss an opportunity of a lifetime.

"I believe that one day we will see people with disabilities as gifts from God. Without them, we would have never learned all the things that we did. The same thing with diseases. Without diseases we would have never realized how vulnerable we are, or how many dangers there are. We owe the world to these people." 

When we design for disability, we all benefit: Elise Roy (video and interactive text)

Florida Teacher Starts Each Day Complimenting Students One by One (youtube)

Normal is being approximately average or within certain limits in e.g. intelligence and development. In accordance with scientific laws. The actions and activities assigned to or required or expected of a person or group. Some one with good reasoning skills and good awareness. Carry out or perform an action. Perform as expected when applied, Carry out a process or program.
Serve a purpose, role, or function. Norm

Standard is a basis for comparison; a reference point against which other things can be evaluated. The ideal in terms of which something can be judged. Established or well-known or widely recognized as a model of authority or excellence.

Struggle is an energetic attempt to achieve something. Make a strenuous effort or labored effort at a mental or physical task. Working hard.

Effort is earnest and conscientious activity intended to do or accomplish something. Use of physical or mental energy; hard work
A series of actions for advancing.

It's Not Easy Teaching Special Ed

Joy in the classroom has been sucked out by ignorant administrators, who care more about paperwork then people. So even the kids who need the most help are being suffocated by administrated politics from ignorant people who have no right being involved in the education process, or any process it seems.

People with Disabilities are Gifts from God

The special education student population in Connecticut is rising, even though the total public school population is on the decline. Last year, 68,445 students in the state received special education services. That is up about 2,300 students — or 3.4 percent — since the 2007-08 school year. The overall school population has been on the decline since 2004 and last year stood at 542,236. In Connecticut, more boys than girls are identified for special education. 2012-13, the last year for which national figures are available. In that year, 6,429,331 students nationwide were getting special education services.

Here is a breakdown of the disabilities that make up the special education in Connecticut public schools in 2014-15:
Intellectual disability, 2,380 0.5%
Speech or language impairment, 10,058, 1.9 %
Emotional disturbance, 5,400, 1%
Autism, 7,778, 1.5 %
Other health impairments, 13,946, 2.6 %
Specific learning disability, 23,416, 4.4%
All other disabilities, 5,457, 1%

Learning Specialist

A Learning Specialist is an educator who is skilled and experienced in providing learning strategies to students who struggle with learning differences. These educators work one-on-one or in small groups to give students intensive support that meets their individual needs.

A Learning Specialist may assist a family in any of the following ways:
Conduct observations of the student in his/her work environment to identify problem areas.
Review previous assessments of a student to formulate a learning plan.
Identify research-based therapies that will benefit the student’s unique learning differences.
Use the above therapies to provide remediation to close any gaps that a student may have in his or her reading, writing or math skills. Work cooperatively with teachers to help them understand how students learn.
Guide parents and teachers to resources which may benefit the student.

Prekindergarten substantially reduces the likelihood that students will end up in special education programs later on

Children do best in school when they have a team of committed adults supporting them. This is true for all children but it is especially true for children who have psychiatric or learning disorders. Get to know the many professionals who are available
to help your child. 

Guide to Learning Specialists

Homework Helper provides structure and support to children who have trouble working on their own. They are particularly beneficial for children who struggle with executive functioning skills like organization, planning, and controlling impulsivity.

Study Help
Make sure that the Homework is beneficial and valuable, and not just about school testing

Tutor is knowledgeable in a particular subject area in school. Tutors offer individualized attention to students who benefit from more education and practice in a subject or need help getting caught up on material.

Learning Specialist - Educational Therapist:
These professionals, who often hold a master's degree, are trained to evaluate and aid children with learning disabilities. They work with you, your child, and your child's school to develop strategies to compensate for any learning deficits. They often work with children one-on-one to develop skills the child finds particularly challenging. The Association of Educational Therapists (AET) can steer you towards qualified therapists.

Educational Therapy is a form of therapy used to treat individuals with learning differences, disabilities, and challenges. This form of therapy offers a wide range of intensive interventions that are designed to remediate learning problems. These interventions are individualized and unique to the specific learner.

School Counselor:
School counselors are educators with a master's degree in school counseling. They work with students on their academic, personal, and college and career development needs. The American School Counselor Association has more information. Advising - career counseling

School Psychologist:
School psychologists are trained in psychology and education and receive a Specialist in School Psychology (SSP) degree. They can identify learning and behavior problems, evaluate students for special education services, and support social, emotional, and behavioral health. The National Association of School Psychologists has more information.

School Psychology is a field that applies principles of educational psychology, developmental psychology, clinical psychology, community psychology, and applied behavior analysis to meet children's and adolescents' behavioral health and learning needs in a collaborative manner with educators and parents.

Social Worker:
A licensed social worker has a master's degree, which involves 2 years of post-graduate training, and can perform psychotherapy and other interventions but can't prescribe medications. MSW is the common designation for masters in social work; LCSW means "licensed clinical social worker," and requires a clinician to have significant supervised clinical experience after graduate school. The National Association of Social Workers provides tools for locating help.
Services for the Public

Special Education Itinerant Teacher (SEIT):
A SEIT is a teaching specialist who helps children with behavioral, social/emotional, speech, language, or developmental issues integrate successfully into the classroom. A SEIT works with children one-on-one in the classroom or at home, and has a master's degree in special education, psychology, social work, or counseling.  

Itinerant Teacher are traveling schoolteachers. They are sometimes specialized to work in the trades, healthcare, or the field of special education, sometimes providing individual tutoring.

Paraprofessional (Para):
Paraprofessionals are trained to assist teachers and special educators, but they do not have a professional license. Paras frequently work with students who have special education needs in a variety of positions including classroom aide, tutor, and inclusion assistant.  
Paraprofessional Educator (wiki)

Special Education Attorney:
An attorney who specializes in special education law. Special educational attorneys can be hired or consulted if you are having trouble accessing educational services for your child. They can help you throughout the IEP process and represent you at a hearing when there is a conflict about what your child is entitled to and how the school should provide it.
Law Knowledge

Neuropsychologists are psychologists who specialize in the functioning of the brain and how it relates to behavior and cognitive ability. Most have completed post-doctoral training in neuropsychology. They may have either a PhD or a PsyD. Pediatric neuropsychologists have done post-doctoral training in testing and evaluation. Neuropsychology behaviors directly related to brain functioning. They perform neuropsychological assessments, which measure a child's strengths and weaknesses over a broad range of cognitive tasks, and they provide parents with a report that highlights those cognitive strengths and weakness, and forms the basis for developing a treatment plan. The report also serves as evidence for requesting school accommodations, and as a baseline for measuring whether interventions are effective. Neuropsychologists also work one-on-one with children struggling in school, to help them devise learning strategies to build on their strengths and compensate for their weaknesses. Neuropsychologists who have passed national proficiency exams are certified by the American Board of Professional Psychologists-Neuropsychology or "ABPP-N."

Speech-Language - Hearing Pathologist:
Audiologists and speech-language pathologists conduct testing to evaluate language delays and communication problems, and help address deficits symptomatic of certain learning and developmental disorders. These specialists can also identify non-psychiatric causes of troubling behaviors and delays. The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) provides information on that sort of testing and aid, and listings of specialists across the country.
Oral Expression Listening Comprehension (PDF)
Speech Pathology Services

Student Affairs - Disability Services:
Every college and place of higher learning is required to offer accommodations to qualifying students. Students can meet with a representative from the school who coordinates accommodations at the Student Affairs or Disability Services office at their school.

"Using the raw materials of teaching - time, space, things, and people - a teacher creates his designs, arranging, ordering and reordering those ingredients of education in a constant flow and in an intermingling way."
(Quoted from Creative Teaching, Belmont, CA, Wadsworth, 1961. pg.71)

Differentiated Instruction is providing different students with different avenues to learning so that all students within a classroom can learn effectively, regardless of differences in ability.

Effects on Children

It's really hard to know exactly what things effect a Childs Development and to know exactly how and why these effects happen. And more importantly, how would you tell when certain thought processes have been adversely effected? And what steps would you have to take to correct these particular thought processes, or Behaviors? What are these key moments in a Childs life that can have a profound effect on their thought processes? First you would have to be totally aware of everything in the Childs life that they are exposed to. Like everything that they see, touch, hear, taste and smell in their environment. The people they are in contact with. The amount of TV, and types of shows and other media they are exposed to. What types of Music do they listened to? And all the different things that they Eat, and so on and so on. Then you would have to Follow a Child Around all day and correctly examine how they interact with the environment and other people. And then when they're old enough to be able to speak in sentences, you would have to follow a child around all day and constantly ask them "So what are you thinking now?" But even then how would you be sure that a child could actually understand the question in order to answer it accurately? I know we have the abilities to understand how important child development is, but the question is, when will we start teaching it to everyone?

Every Human born is Altricial, which means that everyone needs to be totally taken care of for the first few years of life. We need to be fed, moved, bathed, educated, taught a language and kept free from danger, otherwise a new born baby would never survive, thus human life would not exist. Instincts are not enough.

Role Model is a person whose behavior or example can be emulated by others, especially by younger people.

"The Hand that Rocks the Cradle Rules the World" meaning the person who raises a child determines the character of that child and so influences the type of society that the next generation will create.

Imprinting is any kind of phase-sensitive learning (learning occurring at a particular age or a particular life stage) that is rapid and apparently independent of the consequences of behaviour. It was first used to describe situations in which an animal or person learns the characteristics of some stimulus, which is therefore said to be "imprinted" onto the subject. Imprinting is hypothesized to have a critical period.

Parents teach their children to walk and talk. Then parents send their children to school where the teachers tell the to shut up and sit-down. This does not end well.

is to strive to equal or match, especially by imitating.

Be the kind of parent you wish you had when you were a child.

Routines are Necessary for children and adults, as long as the child and the adult understands why routine is important and understands the benefits and responsibilities of following a routine. This way the child or the adult can improve or modify the routine in order to make it better.

Developmental and biological disruptions occurring during the early years of life. Structural connections between frontal and parietal areas in children's brains can predict their ability to reason later in life.

How your parenting style affects your child's future
Family Relationships Effect Children's Emotional Development (PDF)
Dads play key role in Child Development
Early Life Experiences influence DNA in the Adult Brain - In-Utero

Children who see movie characters use guns more likely to use them. Children who watched a PG-rated movie clip containing guns played with a disabled real gun longer and pulled the trigger more often than children who saw the same movie not containing guns. Effects of TV.

Helicopter Parent is a parent who pays extremely close attention to a child's or children's experiences and problems, particularly at educational institutions. Helicopter parents are so named because, like helicopters, they hover overhead, overseeing their child's life.

Observation Flaws and Effects

Black Sheep is lacking respectability in character or behavior or appearance.

Praise - Punishment - Bullying - Toxic Parents

Helping Kids to learn how to Relax and Breathe - Breathing Exercises

Experiences (benefits from adventures)

Babies can learn that hard work pays off. Study finds infants try harder after seeing adults struggle to achieve a goal.

Does Noise Affect Learning? A short review on noise effects on cognitive performance in children. Silence

Babies are forming 700 new neural connections every second.

When children hear their mothers speak, many more brain areas are activated than when kids hear other peoples’ voices. Scientists say kids’ brains are engaged at a higher level when they hear their mothers’ voices. The regions of the brain that are stimulated by a mother’s voice include those linked to emotion processing, reward processing, social functions, detecting what is personally relevant, and face recognition. One-day-old infants sucked more vigorously on their pacifiers when they heard the sound of their mother’s voices.

Listening to Language Boosts Infant Cognition - Mothers Tongue

Baby talk words with repeated sounds help infants learn language. Babies find it easier to learn words with repetitive syllables rather than mixed sounds. Assessments of language learning in 18-month-olds suggest that children are better at grasping the names of objects with repeated syllables, over words with non-identical syllables. Researchers say the study may help explain why some words or phrases, such as 'train' and 'good night', have given rise to versions with repeated syllables, such as mama, dada, choo-choo and night-night. Infants have a repetition bias in learning new words.

Mothers Consistently Alter Their Unique Vocal Fingerprints When Communicating with Infants - vocal timbre

Back-and-forth exchanges boost children's brain response to language. Study finds engaging young children in conversation is more important for brain development.

Sleep makes it possible for babies to associate words with content, and not with noise. Protowords which combine only simultaneously occurring visual and acoustic stimuli become real words that are connected to content.

are words that are similar to actual words, but not quite real words. Protowords are an early word-like utterance produced by an infant before it has acquired true language. (linguistics) A word-like utterance produced by early people who had yet to develop full language capability; a word from a proto-language.

Babies are exposed to a large amount of stimulation. Since no two situations are exactly the same, for babies every moment is a completely new experience— until the infant brain organizes the flood of stimuli. It has to save new information in long-term memory, to aggregate similar experiences and to categorize them. Only during sleep, when the infant brain is isolated from the surrounding world, can it extract and save relations incorporated in this information. And only the interaction of an alert state of experiencing the environment with the offline state of sleep, in which experiences are organised and stored, enables early cognitive and language development.”

Language Processing Areas of the Brain

Brain lays foundation for reason in childhood. Structural connections between frontal and parietal areas in children's brains can predict their ability to reason later in life. strong structural connectivity between rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (RLPFC) and inferior parietal lobe (IPL) in younger children is associated with both increased functional connectivity and improved reasoning in adolescence and adulthood.

Maternal language shapes infants' cry melodies. The very first cry of neonates is marked by their maternal language. This seems to be especially apparent in tonal languages, where pitch and pitch fluctuation determine the meaning of words.

Study shows Language Development starts in the Womb - Language and Thought

Learning to Speak (speech development and communication)

A study on Child Development found that the type of emotional support that a child receives during the first three and a half years has an effect on education, social life and romantic relationships even 20 or 30 years later.

Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation - Institute of Child Development - UofMN

"Babies learn best through playful interactions with people who love them, and also know what to teach and when."

Attachment Theory attempts to describe the dynamics of long-term and short-term interpersonal relationships between humans.

Attachment Parenting is a parenting philosophy that proposes methods which aim to promote the attachment of mother and infant not only by maximal maternal empathy and responsiveness but also by continuous bodily closeness and touch.

The Attachment Clinic
Adolescent Parent Attachment: Bonds that Support Healthy Development
Attachment and Adult Relationships
Five ways to create a secure attachment with your baby without sharing your bed
What is Secure Attachment and Bonding

Unhealthy Attachments (money and the material world)

The Dark Matter of Love (film)

Vāsanā is a behavioural tendency or karmic imprint which influences the present behaviour of a person.

The Time Paradox

Eye Contact with your Baby helps Synchronize your Brainwaves

Holding Infants -- or not -- Can Leave Traces on their Genes. Amount of close and comforting contact from caregivers changes children's molecular profile. The amount of physical contact between infants and their caregivers can affect children at the molecular level. The study of DNA methylation patterns showed that children who had been more distressed as infants and had received less physical contact had a molecular profile that was underdeveloped for their age. This is the first study to show in humans that the simple act of touching, early in life, has deeply-rooted and potentially lifelong consequences on genetic expression.

Playing with your child can many positive effects
When parents played with their 1-year-old children, they found that when a parent focused on a toy, their child paid attention to the toy for longer, continuing even after the parent had looked away. Monkey see monkey do. Mimicry is learning of a process without an understanding of why it works. Another definition implies the act of mimicry, usually with limited knowledge and/or concern of the consequences.

Object Permanence is the understanding that objects continue to exist even when they cannot be observed (seen, heard, touched, smelled or sensed in any way). This is a fundamental concept studied in the field of developmental psychology, the subfield of psychology that addresses the development of infants' and children's social and mental capacities. There is not yet scientific consensus on when the understanding of object permanence emerges in human development.

Language skills are not necessary for learning abstract relations. Analogical ability — the ability to see common relations between objects, events or ideas — is a key skill that underlies human intelligence and differentiates humans from other apes.

Three-month-old infants can learn abstract relations before language comprehension. Findings suggest humans' talent for relational learning doesn't depend on language.

Infants are able to learn abstract rules visually. Babies are doing really powerful abstraction from just their observation of the world. Three-month-old babies cannot sit up or roll over, yet they are already capable of learning patterns from simply looking at the world around them, according to a recent study. For the first time, the researchers show that 3- and 4-month-old infants can successfully detect visual patterns and generalize them to new sequences. Abstract Rule Learning for Visual Sequences in 8- and 11-Month-Olds. Infants were presented with simple rule-governed patterned sequences of visual shapes (ABB, AAB, and ABA) that could be discriminated from differences in the position of the repeated element (late, early, or nonadjacent, respectively). Eight-month-olds were found to distinguish patterns on the basis of the repetition, but appeared insensitive to its position in the sequence; 11-month-olds distinguished patterns over the position of the repetition, but appeared insensitive to the nonadjacent repetition. These results suggest that abstract pattern detection may develop incrementally in a process of constructing complex relations from more primitive components. One common approach in investigations of early pattern perception is to examine infants’ sensitivity to structured relations among stimulus features in visual or auditory input. Experiments on statistical learning, for example, have explored the extent to which infants detect and use distributional information in auditory or visual sequences to combine individual features into larger units. Typically in these experiments, infants are presented with a stream of input consisting of repeating multielement units with randomized order, but fixed internal structure. A Macintosh computer and 53-cm color monitor were used to generate the stimuli. An observer, blind to the stimulus on the screen at any given time, recorded looking times by pressing a key as the infant looked and releasing when the infant looked away. The computer presented stimuli, stored the observer’s data, calculated the habituation criterion for each infant, and changed displays after the criterion had been met. Stimuli consisted of 12 colored shapes (gray octagon, red square, green chevron, cyan diamond, blue bowtie, magenta four-pointed star, orange triangle, yellow circle, white five-pointed star, turquoise cross, pink clover, purple crescent) presented one at a time against a black background (see Figure 2). Each shape was shown for 1 sec in the center of the monitor and loomed from 4 to 24 cm in height (2.4°–14.6° visual angle). The shapes were organized into ABA, ABB, or AAB sequences, each followed by a 1-sec blank screen. Six unique shapes were presented during habituation (e.g., octagon–square–octagon, chevron–diamond–chevron., bowtie–star–bowtie) and six unique shapes were presented during test (e.g., triangle–circle–triangle, star–cross–star, clover–crescent–clover). In both habituation and test trials, triplet sequences were randomly ordered with the single constraint that no two sequences successively would be the same.

Observational Learning is learning that occurs through observing the behavior of others. It is a form of social learning which takes various forms, based on various processes. In humans, this form of learning seems to not need reinforcement to occur, but instead, requires a social model such as a parent, sibling, friend, or teacher.

Mirror Stage is based on the belief that infants recognize themselves in a mirror (literal) or other symbolic contraption which induces apperception (the turning of oneself into an object that can be viewed by the child from outside themselves) from the age of about six months. Body Image (comparisons).

Mirroring (psychology) is the behaviour in which one person subconsciously imitates the gesture, speech pattern, or attitude of another. Mirroring often occurs in social situations, particularly in the company of close friends or family. The concept often affects other individual's notions about the individual that is exhibiting mirroring behaviors, which can lead to the individual building rapport with others.

Mirror Neuron is a neuron that fires both when an animal acts and when the animal observes the same action performed by another.

Our Brains Synchronize during a Conversation. The rhythms of Brainwaves between two people taking part in a conversation begin to match each other.

Imitation is an advanced behavior whereby an individual observes and replicates another's behavior. Imitation is also a form of social learning that leads to the "development of traditions, and ultimately our culture.

Echolalia is defined as the unsolicited repetition of vocalizations made by another person (by the same person is called palilalia). In its profound form it is automatic and effortless. It is one of the echophenomena, closely related to echopraxia, the automatic repetition of movements made by another person; both are "subsets of imitative behavior" whereby sounds or actions are imitated "without explicit awareness". Echolalia may be an immediate reaction to a stimulus or may be delayed.

Social Influence

The importance of relating to others: why we only learn to understand other people after the age of 4. The maturation of fibres of a brain structure called the Arcuate Fascicle between the ages of three and four years establishes a connection between two critical brain regions: a region at the back of the temporal lobe that supports adult thinking about others and their thoughts, and a region in the frontal lobe that is involved in keeping things at different levels of abstraction and, therefore, helps us to understand what the real world is and what the thoughts of others are. Only when these two brain regions are connected through the arcuate fascicle can children start to understand what other people think.

Theory of Mind (Brain Knowledge) - Empathy

Deficits in development of the conscience and of empathy. In developing boys, the volume of the anterior insula or gray matter volume — a brain region implicated in recognising emotions in others and empathy — is larger in those with higher levels of callous-unemotional traits. The volume explained 19% of the variance in callous-unemotional traits seen only in, but not in girls with the same personality traits. The researchers found that the relationship between callous-unemotional traits and brain structure differs between boys and girls. Differences in reports of increased or decreased gray matter in anterior insula in community samples of boys, or boys as compared to girls, with elevated callous-unemotional-traits may reflect maturational effects (i.e. delayed maturation of this region in males), the study noted.

Like Adults, Children Show Bias in Attributing Mental States to Others. The data showed that 6 year-olds used more mental-state words overall and a more diverse range of these words compared with children who were one year younger, a finding that highlights the ongoing development of Theory of Mind  processes in early childhood. Both 5- and 6-year-olds used more mental-state terms when they believed the characters had the same gender or home town as opposed to when they had a different one. Six-year-olds also used more diverse mental-state words in describing characters from the same group relative to those from a different group. This group-based bias extended to direct ratings: Participants also preferred individuals who belonged to their own gender and geographic group. These findings hint at early origins for social phenomena including bias between social groups and dehumanization, the researchers argue.

Noncomplementary Behavior vs Complementary Behavior
If you are always warm to a cold person, you can become a pushover. Meeting dominance with dominance can result in a fight, whereas being submissive with a submissive person can lead to inaction and boredom.

Overprotective Parents may cause kids to have a Peter Pan Syndrome, which is an adult (usually male who is socially immature. Men Who Have Never Grown Up. Body of an adult but the mind of a child.

Dyadic Developmental Psychotherapy involves creating a "playful, accepting, curious, and empathic" environment in which the therapist attunes to the child's "subjective experiences" and reflects this back to the child by means of eye contact, facial expressions, gestures and movements, voice tone, timing and touch, "co-regulates" emotional affect and "co-constructs" an alternative autobiographical narrative with the child. Dyadic developmental psychotherapy also makes use of cognitive-behavioral strategies. The "dyad" referred to must eventually be the parent-child dyad. The active presence of the primary caregiver is preferred but not required. a psychotherapeutic treatment method for families that have children with symptoms of emotional disorders, including complex trauma and disorders of attachment.

The Specific Affect Coding System (SPAFF)

Momentary Patterns of Covariation Between Specific Affects and Interpersonal Behavior: Linking Relationship Science and Personality Assessment.

Parenting Websites
Child Care

Alison Gopnik: What do Babies Think? (youtube)
Michael Merzenich: The Elastic Brain (video)
Reticulon 4 Receptor

What Is It Like to Be a Baby: The Development of Thought (youtube)  Yale Course (PSYC 110)

Plasticity (brain changes)
Pre-Born Development

Interpersonal intelligence - People Smart

Witness - Kay Kay: The Girl from Guangzhou China growing up in a one child family (youtube)
Her final words are my favorite.

Influences of Sibling Relationships
Sibling influences on Childhood Development

Fear is not a good teaching method. There are other methods that can help make someone aware of danger without using scare tactics?

Children instinctively know there is a lot they don’t know, so children have to ask questions. Some children average more than a hundred questions every hour, but not all of those questions are expressed verbally. Children between the ages of 3 and 5 could ask up to 40,000 questions. And how these questions are answered is extremely important, extremely important. The less we know, the worse we are at processing new information, and the worse we are at asking the right questions. Intellectual exploration is extremely important, and knowing what questions to ask and how to ask them, are the keys to a successful journey. Knowledge doesn’t just fill our brains up; it makes our brains work better. 

When do you know enough?

Asking questions is a extremely important process for learning, so never discourage a child's need to learn.

Never discourage a child's need for answers. Questioning is one the most important skills to have, because a child needs to learn. But sometimes, you have to be very careful when you give an answer to a child's question. Sometimes you also need to know the reasons why the child is asking the question, because the child may need more information then originally thought. You also want to teach a child how to find answers on their own, and teach them that the process of looking for answers may reveal even more important questions, and also reveal even more answers then they were originally seeking. When you're looking for answers on your own you sometimes discover a lot more, a lot more then you would if someone just gave you the answer. Having the ability to find answers on your own gives you a lot more freedom, and a lot more power. Though getting answers to your questions very quickly is extremely valuable, sometimes when something is just given to you, you run the risk of not valuing that certain something. When you have to work for something, you value that something a lot more, because you worked for it. This is not to say that all work is valuable, just the work that is proven to be valuable. You also want to teach children about when to get a second opinion. There is a thin line between Trust and Gullible.

Infantilizing is to treat (someone) as a child or in a way that denies their maturity in age or experience.

When growing up there are 1,000's of things that make you the person that you currently are. Things like the relationships with family and friends, learning and reading, tragic moments, inspiring moments, just to name a few. You have a behavior that you can't fully explain, or, be fully aware at times.

Here are just some of the things I believed influenced me and made me the person I am today. The significance of these moments is hard to measure against all the different other things that you are exposed to during your entire life. But it's good idea to document as many experiences as you can. This is a unique type of learning.

When I was 3 years old, I was crying about one of my toys not working, but my mother just sat by and just ignored me and kept reading her book. So I eventually stopped crying. I guess that's when I learned that I would have to figure out things on my own. So does sympathy spoil a child and effect their ability to cope? When is the right time and place to ignore a child in need?

Growing up in a neighborhood is a great experience. But even neighborhood families can still experience suffering.

I was sexually molested at the age of 10 years old. My 16 year old sister committed suicide when I was 12 years old. I suffered from acne my whole life. My parents decided to get a divorce when I was 16 years old. I dropped out of high school in my junior year when I was 17 years old. I wandered for years until I was 48 years old. That's when I started BK101.

Another break through moment in my life was when I was around 15. I decided that I was not going to let my father upset me anymore, or get under my skin with his verbal abuse and ignorant and disrespectable behavior. I will never forget that moment, it was the most peaceful epiphany that I have ever experience, it was like a religious moment with my soul. Not to say that I always remembered what I learned, but most of the time I did, and it was beautiful. But that was just with my father. I did not know how to apply that same knowledge to other people in my life. So I still became angry and upset with other peoples ignorant behavior. And just because you don't let peoples ignorance upset you, this does not solve the problem or does it keep ignorant people from continuing the abuse or from abusing other people. So you just can't ignore peoples ignorance. You have to find ways to help educate people and you have to find ways to communicate more constructively with people, which means you have to educate yourself as well. A parent is supposed to give emotional support and provide a safe environment. If not, relationships degrade. It was sad to see that my father enjoyed antagonizing me. And I knew that it was mostly from his upbringing in the 30's, 40's and 50's, and also how he reacted to his relationship with his parents. So I forgave him and I still do. I have no Father Wound to heal because I have educated myself and now know that knowledge sets you free. I no longer suffer from my ignorance or blame others for their ignorance or for my own ignorance. Live, Learn, Love and Progress.

Estrange is to arouse hostility or show lack of understanding towards someone when there should be love, affection, compassion and friendliness. A person who is no longer close or affectionate to someone. A stranger; Alienated.

My father and mother were not unusual people or typical people. They were just people doing their best with the information that they were given and with their understanding of the personal experiences that they had in life, which is everyone on the planet. Some people are unusual, some people are typical, and most people are somewhere in between.

"Freedom is great and absolutely necessary, but without guidance, instructions and knowledge, having freedom can be more problematic because you will make a lot more mistakes that you don't need to make, and you will also suffer and struggle a lot more."

When I was around 16, I was working on my car and became extremely frustrated. But at that moment I decided not to get angry anymore during these circumstances, and I never forgot that moment. Now when things were not going my way, instead of having an angry outburst, or becoming completely frustrated, I would just step back, pause and take a break, and then calmly solve the problem. That's when I realize that anger doesn't help. You can still be passionate about things, but anger is a total waste of time and energy. And anger doesn't even benefit you in a fight, that's how worthless anger is. What a relief to let that go. Strength is not only physical, strength is mostly mental. But later in life I realized that not all my anger and frustration was totally gone. Some people were still the source of anger and frustration. But when I became exposed to someone with mental illness, I realized that everyone has some degree of mental illness, even myself. So one day when I was 53, I was exposed to another mental breakdown from a friend who suffers from mental health problems. But instead of getting angry or upset with that persons outrageous behavior, I calmly talked to the person, so I did not make the situation worse, like I have done in the past. This was a break through. Not only did my friend recover more quickly, I also was not traumatized or full of anger. I was now calm, happy and free from any kind of stress. An epiphany that I wish I had when I was younger. That would have saved me from many sleepless nights, and also saved me from wasting time feeling angry and miserable about other people. Things don't have to turn ugly or violent.

I grew up in a large family where everyone had to pretty much fend for themselves. That is where some of my selfishness comes from and still lingers in my subconscious. That's one of the reasons why I'm not a good host. It's hard to think of others when you have been conditioned to focus on survival, and also the fact that no one ever taught me how to be thoughtful towards others. And even though many years have passed, that behavior still surfaces now and then. But I am getting better, mostly because I'm a lot more aware and a lot more knowledgeable now.

Love is the next big moment. When I can finally have love rule my heart, to me, that will be success. But of course it's more then just Love. It's the accumulated effect of good knowledge, good information, and the perfect balance of both good and bad experiences. Love does not mean that you are a pushover. Love is the guide. And that guide is not alone in the decision making process. You still need good knowledge, good information, and the perfect balance of both good and bad experiences. Love is the guide, protect the guide.

"In order to recover and preserve normal learning abilities, you have to use other Learning Methods that allow information and knowledge to enter the brain where it can be correctly processed."

Parents have to realize that they are the most important teacher in their child's life, and sometimes they are the only teacher that matters. Teaching by example is incredibly difficult, especially with the numerous bad examples that are surrounding kids today. You need to weed out the bad examples, even if you're one of them. So where are the good examples? Find these good examples together, and explain why they're good examples, and explain how difficult being a good example is.
Teaching Methods

Teaching your Child to Speak

Teaching Babies to Talk - Teaching Language to Students

Talking Directly to Toddlers Strengthens their Language Skills
Normal Speech and Language Development

Toddler Language Gap 
The Power of Talk (pdf)
Teacher Child Conversations (pdf)
Word Gap
Thirty Million Words

The Genius of Babies (5 videos with text)  Deb Roy: The birth of a word.

Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics
Belle Project
LENA Research Foundation

Effective Teacher Student Interactions (pdf)
Early Education Research (pdf)
Learning Methods
Bilingual Families

Baby Talk is when babies try to talk but can not speak words clearly enough, usually delivered with a "cooing" pattern of intonation different from that of normal adult speech: high in pitch, with many glissando variations that are more pronounced than those of normal speech. It frequently displays hyperarticulation, which is an increase in the distances between peripheral vowels (such as [i], [u], and [a]). Baby talk is also characterized by the shortening and simplifying of words. Baby talk is similar to what is used by people when talking to their pets (pet-directed speech). When adults talk to each other using baby talk it is generally to either show affection by emulating the fondness shown by adults for children, or as a form of bullying or condescension as children are generally considered much less cognitively developed than adults, implying that the adult receiving the baby talk is less intelligent than the adult talking to them.

Telegraphic Speech is speech during the two-word stage of language acquisition in children, which is laconic or brief and to the point; effectively cut short and efficient.

The Top 10 Assumptions about Early Speech and Language Development

Language Delay is a failure in children to develop language abilities on the usual age appropriate for their developmental timetable. Language delay is distinct from speech delay, in which the development of the mechanical and motor aspects of speech production is delayed.

Speech - Language Pathology

Hearing Problems

Learning Language

Choose the Right Vocabulary

"What do you want to be when you grow up?" That is a stupid question to ask a kid. This is how the question should be asked, "When you grow up and you become fully educated and intelligent, what kind of things do you think you will do that will benefit the world?" And don't forget to tell them that they don't have to answer the question right now, and that the answers that they give will most likely not be the same answers they will give years from now. Everyone experiences change, and this is just one of many ways that people use that helps them to reflect on their lives as they get older. So it's not, "who do you want to be?" Or "what do you want to be when you grow up?" or "What do you want to major in when your in College?" Because that question explains very little about all the other possibilities that a person will have their life. Plus, the more you learn about yourself and the more you learn about world, the more you will understand that most all of your decisions are based on what you know, and how experienced you are. And if you are a young person you most likely don't know a lot, or have you experienced enough things in life in order to fully understand them. So that's why it's a silly question. Kids should give this answer "How the heck do I know, I'm just a kid, when did you know?" Remember, Kids should definitely have dreams and understand why dreams are necessary, but kids should also know the facts, because after all, the more they know about themselves and the world, the better. Learn together. 


Purpose of Education

Classroom Management

"All dreams come from some form of information, so the more you know, the better your dreams will be."

Choose your Children's Books very wisely. Children's Literature is for readers and listeners up to about age 12.

Child Development Books

Ages and Stages: A Parent's Guide to Normal Childhood Development Paperback – August 15, 2000 (amazon)

Parents Do Make a Difference: How to Raise Kids with Solid Character, Strong Minds, and Caring Hearts Paperback
May 7, 1999 (amazon)

Building Moral Intelligence: The Seven Essential Virtues that Teach Kids to Do the Right Thing Paperback
September 25, 2002 (amazon)

How to Raise a Human Being: a Parents' Guide to Emotional Health from Infancy Through Adolescence Paperback
August, 1977 (amazon)

Positive Pushing: How to Raise a Successful and Happy Child Paperback – April 23, 2003 (amazon)

Your Child's Growing Mind: Brain Development and Learning From Birth to Adolescence Paperback – May 25, 2004 (amazon)

Baby Minds: Brain-Building Games Your Baby Will Love Paperback – July 5, 2000 (amazon)

Child Development (8th Edition) Hardcover – July 28, 2008 (amazon)

The Scientist In The Crib: Minds, Brains, And How Children Learn Kindle Edition (amazon)

The Philosophical Baby: What Children's Minds Tell Us About Truth, Love, and the Meaning of Life Paperback
July 6, 2010 (amazon)

Causal Learning: Psychology, Philosophy, and Computation (Oxford Series in Cognitive Development) Hardcover
March 22, 2007 (amazon)

Causal Learning (google book)

Parent Hacks

Alison Gopnik (books)

Meaningful Differences in the Everyday Experience of Young American Children (amazon)

The Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care was written by Benjamin Spock, is a manual on infant and child care first published in 1946.

What Your Kindergartner Needs to Know: Preparing Your Child for a Lifetime of Learning (Core Knowledge Series) (amazon)

"Your children get only one childhood, so make it special."


The Thinker Man