Facebook Twiter Goole Plus Linked In YouTube Blogger

KM Logo - Learn, Document, Collaborate, Progress

Knowledge Management

Knowledge Management is the process of capturing, developing, sharing, and effectively using organizational Knowledge or Social Knowledge. It refers to a multi-disciplinary approach to achieving organizational objectives by making the best use of knowledge to improve services or products to the highest level of quality possible.

Previous SubjectNext Subject

Knowledge is the Key, it's time to unlock our Potential.

The main goal of KM is to Facilitate Learning and create a Learning Environment where everyone benefits from an organizations combined knowledge and experiences. Using the power of an organizations collective intelligence to solve problems, minimize mistakes, minimizing waste, eliminating pollution, accomplishing goals, making jobs easier and less stressful, while at the same time maximizing productivity.

Knowledge Management Interactions Knowledge Management Responsibilities
Freedom of Information - Rights to Access Information, and Knowledge.

Information Literacy
Big Data
Digital - Data
Organizing - Categorizing
Interfaces - Usability
Mind Maps - Visualizing Tools
Q and A
Technology Education

Business Intelligence is a set of techniques and tools for the acquisition and transformation of Raw Data into meaningful and useful information for business analysis purposes.

Intelligence Assessment is the development of forecasts of behavior or recommended courses of action to the leadership of an organization, based on a wide range of available information sources both overt and covert. Assessments are developed in response to requirements declared by the leadership in order to inform decision making. An intelligence assessment reviews both available information and previous assessments for relevance and currency. Where additional information is required, some collection may be directed by the analyst. Intelligence Cycle is when decision makers provide feedback and revised requirements.

Intellipedia is an online system for collaborative data sharing used by the United States Intelligence Community (IC). Consists of three wikis running on the separate JWICS (Intellipedia-TS), SIPRNet (Intellipedia-S), and Intelink-U (Intellipedia-U) networks. The levels of classification allowed for information on the three wikis are Top Secret, Secret, and Sensitive But Unclassified/For Official Use Only information, respectively. Each of the wikis is used by individuals with appropriate clearances from the 16
agencies of the US intelligence community and other national-security related organizations, including Combatant Commands and other federal departments. The wikis are not open to the public.

Intelligence Community is a federation of 16 separate United States government agencies that work separately and together to conduct intelligence activities considered necessary for the conduct of foreign relations and national security of the United States. Member organizations of the IC include intelligence agencies, military intelligence, and civilian intelligence and analysis offices within federal executive departments. The IC is headed by the Director of National Intelligence (DNI), who reports to the
President of the United States.

Organizational Learning is the process of creating, retaining, and transferring knowledge within an organization. An organization improves over time as it gains experience. From this experience, it is able to create knowledge.

Social Learning

Organizational Memory is the accumulated body of data, information, and knowledge created in the course of an individual organization’s existence. Falling under the wider disciplinary umbrella of knowledge management, it has two repositories: an organization's Archives, including its electronic data bases; and individuals’ memories.

Institutional Memory is a collective set of facts, concepts, experiences and know-how held by a group of people. As it transcends the individual, it requires the ongoing transmission of these memories between members of this group.

Organizing Knowledge Cognitively is a system of grouping and categorizing our brain to use, sort and store information. System changes and adapts as the amount of knowledge about a particular subject changes and grows.

Digital Asset Management (DAM) consists of management tasks and decisions surrounding the ingestion, annotation, cataloguing, storage, retrieval and distribution of digital assets.

Digital Asset is anything that exists in a binary format and comes with the right to use. Files that do not possess the aforementioned right are not considered assets. Digital assets are classified as images, multimedia and textual content files.

Data Visualization - Mind Maps

Knowledge Organization is a branch of Library and Information Science (LIS) concerned with activities such as document description, indexing and classification performed in libraries, databases, archives, etc.

Database is an organized body of related information.  Databases

Systems Knowledge Base is the content of a particular field of knowledge.

Knowledge Base is a technology used to store complex structured and unstructured information used by a computer system.

Information Architecture is the structural design of shared information environments; the art and science of organizing and labeling websites, intranets, online communities and software to support usability and findability; and an emerging community of practice focused on bringing principles of design and architecture to the digital landscape.

Knowledge Infrastructures
Knowledge Infrastructures

Employee Engagement is defined as one who is fully absorbed by and enthusiastic about their work and so takes positive action to further the organization's reputation and interests. This could help reduce Human Capital Flight or brain drain, which happens when highly skilled or well-educated individuals leave a company for what ever reason.

Gamification in Knowledge Management (PDF) - Learning Games

Human Capital refers to the stock of knowledge, habits, social and personality attributes, including creativity, embodied in the ability to perform labor so as to produce economic value.

Distributed Knowledge refers to all the knowledge that a community of agents possesses and might apply in solving a problem.

Technical Communications - Technical Writing

Tacit Knowledge is the kind of knowledge that is difficult to transfer to another person by means of writing it down or verbalizing it.

Implicit is something said indirectly and not clearly expressed so that the true meaning of the message can not be accurately understood. Generalizing

Explicit Knowledge is knowledge that can be readily articulated, codified, accessed and verbalized and easily transmitted to others. More Types of Knowledge - Document Writing

Information needs is relevant information needed for a person to complete a given task.

Knowledge Ecosystem is an approach to knowledge management that helps to foster the dynamic evolution of knowledge interactions between entities to improve decision-making and innovation through improved evolutionary networks of collaboration.

Knowledge-Based Systems is a computer program that reasons and uses a knowledge base to solve complex problems.

Knowledge Engineering refers to all technical, scientific and social aspects involved in building, maintaining and using knowledge-based systems.

Knowledge-Based Engineering is the application of knowledge-based systems technology to the domain of manufacturing design and production. Knowledge Base

Knowledge Acquisition is the process used to define the rules and ontologies required for a knowledge-based system.

Knowledge Extraction is the creation of knowledge from structured (relational databases, XML) and unstructured (text, documents, images) sources. The resulting knowledge needs to be in a machine-readable and machine-interpretable format and must represent knowledge in a manner that facilitates inferencing.

Information Extraction - Data Extraction (acquisition)

Knowledge Policy describes the institutional aspects of knowledge creation, management, and use within the context of an organization's mandate or business model. Social knowledge policies balance between progress in the knowledge economy to promote global competitiveness with social values, such as equity, unity, and the well-being of citizens.

Knowledge Principles for Government (PDF)

Information Governance is the set of multi-disciplinary structures, policies, procedures, processes and controls implemented to manage information at an enterprise level, supporting an organization's immediate and future regulatory, legal, risk, environmental and operational requirements.

Enterprise Information Management specializes in finding solutions for optimal use of information within organizations to support decision-making processes or day-to-day operations that require the availability of knowledge.

Enterprise Interoperability Framework is used as a guideline for collecting and structuring knowledge/solution for an enterprise to exchange and use information. The Enterprise Interoperability Framework defines the domain and sub-domains for interoperability research and development in order to identify a set of pieces of knowledge for solving enterprise interoperability problems by removing barriers to interoperability.

Service-Oriented Architecture (PDF)

"Whether you're connecting people with people, or connecting people to Documents that other people created, you are still making connections."

“Sharing knowledge is the greatest of all callings. There's nothing like it in the land” - The Satire of the Trades

"KM is organizing what we know, so that we can determine where we are and accurately predict where we're going."

The Power of the Internet

Questions to ask:
Do employees understand the acquisition of knowledge and information? Do employees know how to use the tools and software that will be used in the acquisition of knowledge and information? Do employees know how to organize and categorize knowledge and information in order to combine or compare knowledge with new knowledge, or compare knowledge or combine knowledge with the knowledge of fellow employees.

An organizations knowledge may be in the form of procedures, data, facts, unique processes used, and Information about those processes used, employee names with job titles, area of expertise and contact info, a list of functions provided by skilled employees, products used and Information about those products, machines used and information about those machines, resources used (electric, oil, gas, etc..), cost of operation, pay rates, cost of services provided, suppliers used and their contact information, and so on and so on. The KM platform may also include goals, objectives, milestones, performance indicators, and other important operation factors. This includes tagging and labeling information correctly so that it can be easily found in searches and inquires.

One of the first steps of KM is to provide the software platform, and interface, that will be used in the collecting, storing and the organizing all of the knowledge and information that the organization currently has. Then the organization must decide who will manage the knowledge? Who will organize its structure? Who will facilitate its input? How will the organizations knowledge and information be collected? How much training will it take to make everyone in the organization proficient in knowledge input, and also, proficient in the use of knowledge and information? Who will provide the training and how will it be verified? 

An organization must learn to Translate Tacit Knowledge that's been accumulated into lessons and Explicit Knowledge, while at the same time showing the value and the potential of Human Capital, Intangible Assets and Intellectual Capital. Organizing Knowledge should be made easily accessible by creating a User Friendly Interface with Menu that's easy to use and navigate through so that people can easily find the information they seek. This makes it easy to Transfer and Share information, knowledge and ideas with others, while at the same time, assisting people in decision making and Problem Solving.  Intelligence Assessment

KM also makes it easier to educate and train people by creating a Learning Pathway, which saves time, people and resources. Transfer of Learning Transfer & Retention of Implicit Critical Knowledge

Learning Management System is a software application for the administration, documentation, tracking, reporting and delivery of electronic educational technology courses or training programs. (also called e-learning)

Professional Development is learning to earn or maintain professional credentials such as academic degrees to formal coursework, conferences and informal learning opportunities situated in practice. It has been described as intensive and collaborative, ideally incorporating an evaluative stage. There are a variety of approaches to professional development, including consultation, coaching, communities of practice, lesson study, mentoring, reflective supervision and technical assistance

Synchronize - Integrate - Align
KM also reduces mistakes and errors that are associated with peoples lack of information by making information and knowledge more available. Like knowing what research has been done, Knowing what ideas have been pursued and knowing what type of help is available, and so on. As more information and knowledge is acquired KM also provides a platform that makes it easy to
add to your Knowledge Database. KM also helps you to visualize and understand what your accumulated knowledge and information means as a whole.

Personal Knowledge Management is a collection of processes that a person uses to gather, classify, store, search, retrieve, and share knowledge in his or her daily activities.

Systems Management for a small business startup with ten computers, automated centralized processes may take more time to learn how to use and implement than just doing the management work manually on each computer. A very large business with thousands of similar employee computers may clearly be able to save time and money, by having IT staff learn to do systems management automation. A small branch office of a large corporation may have access to a central IT staff, with the experience to set up automated management of the systems in the branch office, without need for local staff in the branch office to do the work.

Application Performance Management (APM) is the monitoring and management of performance and availability of software applications. APM strives to detect and diagnose complex application performance problems to maintain an expected level of service.

Knowledge Management Responsibilities

Maintain and Manage Knowledge Repository for Education Resources. Update it on a Daily, Weekly and Monthly Basis.

Knowledge Management Activities Include

Knowledge Audit to define what knowledge has been generated and if it's available for use, Define the knowledge that is required, acquire knowledge, Knowledge Extraction, Information Extraction, identify new knowledge, identify relevant knowledge, Terminology Extraction, identify old and existing knowledge, verify knowledge, validate knowledge, evaluate knowledge, register knowledge, create new knowledge, organize Knowledge, categorize knowledge, classify knowledge, manage knowledgecross-reference knowledge, develop knowledge, plan knowledge, use knowledge, reuse knowledge, edit knowledge, update knowledge, remove outdated knowledge, disseminate knowledge, create knowledge user friendly interface and search engine, analyze knowledge feedback. 

Subject-Matter Expert

Human Search Engine

Chief Knowledge Officer (CKO) - Database Guardian - Knowledge Bank Manager - Knowledge Inventory Specialist.

Chief Information Officer (CIO) - Knowledge Management Consultant.
Information Governance is the set of multi-disciplinary structures, policies, procedures, processes and controls implemented to manage information at an enterprise level, supporting an organization's immediate and future regulatory, legal, risk, environmental and operational requirements.

Information Broker (data mining - Illegal profiles)

National Information Officers Association

Information Sources 

Knowledge Management Strategy (PDF)

Develop Knowledge Management Strategy and Requirements

Create a knowledge sharing platform with easy to use interface. (Openplace Service)  

Reward people for knowledge input, especially when a persons knowledge input improves quality, productivity or safety.
Educate people about the benefits and the importance of knowledge sharing.

Educate and Train People about effective Knowledge Sharing Techniques, KS Principles, KS Responsibilities, KS Standards, Knowledge Validation Standards, Knowledge Dissemination Standards, Social Learning Techniques, KS Security Policies, KS Privacy Policies, Structured Socializing to increase communication between Departments, Collaboration Skills, Knowledge Transfer Software Tools and Skills, How to Resolve Issues, How to Innovate, How to Measure Knowledge Assets.

Knowledge Management Implementation (youtube)

Open Web Platform is a collection of Web technologies developed by the World Wide Web Consortium and other Web standardization bodies such as the Unicode Consortium, the Internet Engineering Task Force, and Ecma International.

Platform Service is a category of cloud computing services that provides a platform allowing customers to develop, run, and manage applications without the complexity of building and maintaining the infrastructure typically associated with developing and launching an app.

Lessons Learned - Best Practices

Knowledge-Based Engineering is the application of knowledge-based systems technology to the domain of manufacturing design and production. The design process is inherently a knowledge-intensive activity, so a great deal of the emphasis for KBE is on the use of knowledge-based technology to support computer-aided design (CAD) however knowledge-based techniques (e.g. knowledge management) can be applied to the entire product lifecycle.

Knowledge-Based Systems is a computer program that reasons and uses a knowledge base to solve complex problems.
A knowledge based system has two types of sub-systems: a knowledge base and an inference engine. The knowledge base represents facts about the world, often in some form of subsumption ontology. The inference engine represents logical assertions and conditions about the world, usually represented via IF-THEN rules.


Open Knowledge Base Management is a set of computer software for systems management of applications that use knowledge management techniques (the KBM in OpenKBM stands for Knowledge Based Management).

Object model for representing the systems to be managed.

Object-oriented Hierarchy of monitoring information types such as events, fault, and statistics.
Data acquisition, signal processing, and Event Processing Engines.

Forward chaining Event Correlation Engine.

Knowledge Based Management Language (KBML) for codifying event correlation rules, and signal and event processing logic.
Frameworks for both Thick Client and web-based graphical user interfaces. 

Expert System S.p.A. is a software company founded in Modena, Italy in 1989. It specializes in the analysis and management of unstructured information using a semantic approach.

Develop, Edit, and Publish Knowledge Base Content to Support Education Objectives.

Educational Consultant is an independent consultant who helps parents/students and organizations with educational planning. They are classed as "educational, vocational, and school counselors." Educational Consultants, however, are normally self-employed (or are part of consulting firms), while school counselors are employed by a school.

Use the Worlds Accumulated Knowledge as a Guide for Solving Problems and Making Improvements.

Managing Codified Knowledge

Knowledge Based Theory considers knowledge as the most strategically significant resource of a firm. Its proponents argue that because knowledge-based resources are usually difficult to imitate and socially complex, heterogeneous knowledge bases and capabilities among firms are the major determinants of sustained competitive advantage and superior corporate performance.

Learning Community

Create Knowledge Resources and Knowledge Bases that are valuable and easy to use. 
Human Search Engines

Create effective processes in strategy, planning, execution and improvement that are required for the capture, organization, dissemination, and utilization of knowledge. 

Strategy Development

Evidence-Based Practice (physical health questions)

Collate is to compare Information Critically and Assemble in proper sequence.

Tacit Knowledge versus Explicit Knowledge (PDF)

Analyzing the effectiveness of Knowledge Management Programs by observing its usage and evaluate its impact and benefits as well as by collecting insights, understandings, and practical know-how of the Environment and the Community.

Information Technology Consulting is a field of activity focuses on advising organizations on how best to use information technology (IT) in achieving their business objectives. In addition to providing advice, IT consultancies often estimate, manage, implement, deploy, and administer IT systems on behalf of their client organizations - a practice known as "outsourcing". (also called IT consulting, computer consultancy, business and technology services, computing consultancy, technology consulting, and IT advisory).

Knowledge Advisors

Demonstrate proficiency with Knowledge Management Principles and Tactics in adherence to Knowledge Management Methodology Guidelines to help improve Content Delivery.

Analyze technical processes to formulate and develop new and modified information processing systems.

Dynamic Knowledge Repository is a computerized system that systematically captures, organizes and categorizes an organization's knowledge. The repository can be searched and data can be quickly retrieved. The effective knowledge repositories include factual, conceptual, procedural and meta-cognitive techniques. The key features of knowledge repositories include communication forums. A knowledge repository can take many forms to "contain" the knowledge it holds. A customer database is a knowledge repository of customer information and insights – or electronic explicit knowledge. A Library is a knowledge repository of books – physical explicit knowledge. A community of experts is a knowledge repository of tacit knowledge or experience. The nature of the repository only changes to contain/manage the type of knowledge it holds. A repository (as opposed to an archive) is designed to get knowledge out. It should therefore have some rules of structure, classification, taxonomy, record management, etc., to facilitate user engagement.

Enhanced the creation and storage of information in databases. 

Content Management 

Check the availability of knowledge and its use for different projects. 

Information Sources

Use the available knowledge for new product development.


Use Knowledge Management System to transform ideas and implement appropriate solutions to efficiently manage the intelligence of the available resources of the community. 


Facilitate and drive the flow of knowledge across all local services by linking people and information, supporting collaborative working, promoting techniques to capture and share knowledge and by sharing answers, insights, expertise, ideas and information. Establishing principles and standards about knowledge sharing and acquiring.

Encourage, Mentor and Coach others on how to share knowledge effectively and efficiently. Increase awareness.

Provided guidance to people to help increase knowledge sharing within the community and assist people by showing them all the right questions to ask.  

Collaborative Communication (Knowledge Consulting)

Information Assistants

Act as a mediator to answer queries from people who wish to know more about knowledge management products and practices.

The Universal Knowledge Moderator for globally distributed and collaborative e-manufacturing

Analyze Social Networks and the formation of communities. 

Structured Socialization

Knowledge Network

Cyber Consulting

Manage current knowledge management practices as well as design new knowledge distribution policies and encourage use of new practices. 

Website Development

Utilize knowledge base resources and design a training module for people to help them access knowledge management tools. 
Online Training

EMC builds information infrastructures and virtual infrastructures.

Create the best ways to disseminate information and knowledge so that is easily accessible to everyone and easy to understand by anyone who uses the information and knowledge service.  

Decentralization is the process of redistributing or dispersing functions, powers, people or things away from a central location or authority. While centralization, especially in the governmental sphere, is widely studied and practiced, there is no common definition or understanding of decentralization. The meaning of decentralization may vary in part because of the different ways it is applied. Concepts of decentralization have been applied to group dynamics and management science in private businesses and organizations, political science, law and public administration, economics and technology.

Society for Technical Communication

Focus on improving database effectiveness and develop collaborative ways for improving productivity and skills.

My Database Gurus

Maintain in-depth information about managed databases.

Q&A System Implementation

Maintain good Communications Skills and expert planning skills.

Maintain good Analyzing Skills and maintain the ability to tackle critical situations.

Decision Support System

Maintain Constructive Relationships with people of all ages and races.


Maintain and improve Leadership Qualities and abilities that would help supervise and guide people.

Information Architecture

Work with project manager and project analysts to clarify and refine project goals, user goals, the target audience and measurement criteria.  Work with project team members to develop user scenarios in support of stated user goals, and, when appropriate, use cases. Analyze and communicate any results from competitive analysis completed for the project. Contribute to content and functional requirements.  Define site structure and create site maps.  Define global and local navigation. Create wireframe prototype of page mockups.  Identify and design for cross-site integration needs. Work with/as Visual Designer to create final designs. Direct Prototyper and Visual Designer in developing prototypes for Usability and Design Review. Site map (which should include a prototype page inventory indicating which pages will be prototyped) and or screen flow diagrams

The Knowledge Management Skill Set above is also part of a Subroutine in Artificial Intelligence Development.
It also encompasses Key factors that will become infused with the Development of the Human Operating System.

"Knowledge and information is uncharted territory, it's time that we learn are way around our most valuable resource."

Knowledge Management Tools
Qualities and Skills of a Worker
Human Search Engine
Social Learning

Job Titles

KM Resources
Knowledge Management Training
Knowledge Management Certification
Knowledge Management Professional Society
All KM  (Fellows Program)  
Global Knowledge Initiative
Global Knowledge Research
American Productivity and Quality Center
KM World
RealKM Magazine is a management discipline that aims to sustainably improve the effectiveness of organisations and social systems through deliberate and planned systems interventions.
Know Question
KM Gamification Collection (games)
Knowledge Management Software
Knowledge Management Software
Knowledgebase Software
DAML Language
Human System Biology-based Knowledge Management
KM Benefits


Organizing is putting things in a correct order or placement, or specific location, making things easier to find and learn from. The act of rearranging elements following one or more rules. Logical or comprehensible arrangement of separate elements.

is to give structure or order, operating according to some principle or idea. Plan and direct (a complex undertaking). Arrange by systematic planning and united effort. Form or join a union. Create (as an entity). Grouping. Making things easier to compare. The Law of Proximity states objects that are near or 'proximate' to each other tend to be grouped together. It is part of the Gestalt Laws of Perceptual Organization and Gestalt psychology.

Organizing Principle is a core assumption from which everything else by proximity can derive a classification or a value. It is like a central reference point that allows all other objects to be located, often used in a conceptual framework. Having an organizing principle might help one simplify and get a handle on a particularly complicated domain or phenomenon. On the other hand, it might create a deceptive prism that colors one's judgment.

Organizing Terms

Organizing (management) is a systematic process of structuring, integrating, co-ordinating task goals, and activities to resources in order to attain objectives. Viable System Model

Sort is a category of things distinguished by some common characteristic or quality. An operation that segregates items into groups according to a specified criterion. Arrange or order by classes or categories. An approximate definition or example.

is an orderly grouping (of things or persons) considered as a Unit; the result of arranging. An organized structure for arranging or classifying. The spatial property of the way in which something is placed.

Collection is several things grouped together or considered as a whole. A publication containing a variety of works. The act of gathering something together.

Documentation - Knowledge Base

Menu Navigation - Search Features

Directory (file systems) is a file system cataloging Structure which contains references to other computer files, and possibly other directories. A directory is an organizational unit, or container, used to organize folders and files into a hierarchical structure.

Directory (computing) is a file system cataloging structure which contains references to other computer files, and possibly other directories. On many computers, directories are known as Folders, or drawers to provide some relevancy to a workbench or the traditional office file cabinet. Files are organized by storing related files in the same directory. In a Hierarchical file system (that is, one in which files and directories are organized in a manner that resembles a tree), a directory contained inside another directory is called a subdirectory. The terms parent and child are often used to describe the relationship between a subdirectory and the directory in which it is cataloged, the latter being the parent. The top-most directory in such a filesystem, which does not have a parent of its own, is called the root directory.

Sorting Algorithm

Hierarchy is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in which the items are represented as being "above," "below," or "at the same level as" one another. Alphabetical

File System is used to control how data is stored and retrieved. Separating the data into pieces and giving each piece a name, the information is easily isolated and identified. Database

File Manager is a computer program that provides a user interface to manage files and folders.

Clustered File System
Journaling File System

Path (computing) the general form of the name of a file or directory, specifies a unique location in a file system. A path points to a file system location by following the directory tree hierarchy expressed in a string of characters in which path components, separated by a delimiting character, represent each directory.

Archive is an accumulation of historical records or the physical place they are located. Archives contain primary source documents that have accumulated over the course of an individual or organization's lifetime, and are kept to show the function of that person or organization.

Archival Science
Library Science
Curating Archives

Self-Archiving is the act of (the author's) depositing a free copy of an electronic document online in order to provide open access to it. The term usually refers to the self-archiving of peer-reviewed research journal and conference articles, as well as theses and book chapters, deposited in the author's own institutional repository or open archive for the purpose of maximizing its accessibility, usage and citation impact. The term green open access has become common in recent years, distinguishing this approach from gold open access, where the journal itself makes the articles publicly available without charge to the reader.

Archivist is an information professional who assesses, collects, organizes, preserves, maintains control over, and provides access to records and archives determined to have long-term value. The records maintained by an archivist can consist of a variety of forms, including letters, diaries, logs, various other writings, official documents, sound and/or picture recordings, etc.

Referencing is a relation between objects in which one object designates, or acts as a means by which to connect to or link to, another object. The first object in this relation is said to refer to the second object. The second object, the one to which the first object refers, is called the referent of the first object.

Cross-Referencing is an instance within a document which refers to related information elsewhere in the same document. In both printed and online dictionaries cross-references are important because they form a network structure of relations existing between different parts of data, dictionary-internal as well as dictionary external. In programming, "cross-referencing" means the listing of every file name and line number where a given named identifier occurs within the program's source tree. In a relational database management system, a table can have an xref as prefix or suffix to indicate it is a cross-reference table that joins two or more tables together via primary key. A cross reference helps strengthen a document's structure and supports the whole document. Index

Taxonomies are general principles of scientific classification.

Connections (Neural Network)

Replication (computing) in computing involves sharing information so as to ensure consistency between redundant resources, such as software or hardware components, to improve reliability, fault-tolerance, or accessibility.

Logical Volume Management provides a method of allocating space on mass-storage devices that is more flexible than conventional partitioning schemes. In particular, a volume manager can concatenate, stripe together or otherwise combine partitions (or block devices in general) into larger virtual ones that administrators can re-size or move, potentially without interrupting system use. Volume management represents just one of many forms of storage virtualization; its implementation takes place in a layer in the device-driver stack of an operating system (OS) (as opposed to within storage devices or in a network).

Partitioning a division of a hard disk drive. Or a subdivision of a computer's memory, usually for use by a single job. Or the division of a database.


Snapshot is the state of a system at a particular point in time. The term was coined as an analogy to that in photography. It can refer to an actual copy of the state of a system or to a capability provided by certain systems.

Human-Based Computation is a computer science technique in which a machine performs its function by outsourcing certain steps to humans, usually as microwork. This approach uses differences in abilities and alternative costs between humans and computer agents to achieve symbiotic human-computer interaction.

Intelligent Software Assistant

Ontology Learning is the automatic or semi-automatic creation of ontologies, including extracting the corresponding domain's terms and the relationships between those concepts from a corpus of natural language text, and encoding them with an ontology language for easy retrieval. As building ontologies manually is extremely labor-intensive and time-consuming, there is great motivation to automate the process.

Semantic Web is an extension of the Web through standards by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). The standards promote common data formats and exchange protocols on the Web, most fundamentally the Resource Description Framework (RDF).

Evidence Management - Intelligent Agent

Interdiscipline (simultaneous)

Document Management System
Association of Records Managers and Administrators
Concept Searching

Digital Library is a special library with a focused collection of digital objects that can include text, visual material, audio material, video material, stored as electronic media formats (as opposed to print, microform, or other media), along with means for organizing, storing, and retrieving the files and media contained in the library collection. Digital libraries can vary immensely in size and scope, and can be maintained by individuals, organizations, or affiliated with established physical library buildings or institutions, or with academic institutions. The digital content may be stored locally, or accessed remotely via computer networks. An electronic library is a type of information retrieval system.

Digital Library Software

Culling is the process of segregating organisms from a group according to desired or undesired characteristics. In animal breeding, culling is the process of removing or segregating animals from a breeding stock based on specific trait. This is done to exaggerate desirable characteristics, or to remove undesirable characteristics. For livestock and wildlife, culling often refers to the act of killing removed animals. In fruits and vegetables, culling is the sorting or segregation of fresh harvested produce into marketable lots, with the non-marketable lots being discarded or diverted into food processing or non-food processing activities. This usually happens at collection centres located at, or close to farms. Culling is sometimes used as a term to describe indiscriminate killing within one particular species which can be due to a range of reasons, for example, badger culling in the United Kingdom.

Media and Digital Curation (preservation)

Help: Category are intended to group together pages on similar subjects. They are implemented by a MediaWiki feature that adds any page with a text like [[Category:XYZ]] in its wikimarkup to the automated listing that is the category with name XYZ. Categories help readers to find, and navigate around, a subject area, to see pages sorted by title, and to thus find article relationships. Categories are normally found at the bottom of an article page. Clicking a category name brings up a category page listing the articles (or other pages) that have been added to that particular category. There may also be a section listing the subcategories of that category. The subcategorization feature makes it possible to organize categories into tree-like structures to aid navigation. The term category does refer to both the title of a category page—the category pagename—and the category itself. Keeping this in mind while reading about categorization, plus learning a category page layout is a worthwhile investment in research techniques.

National Association of Professional Organizers
Become a Professional Organizer 
Block Storage

Metadata Management involves managing data about other data, whereby this "other data" is generally referred to as content data. The term is used most often in relation to Digital media, but older forms of metadata are catalogs, dictionaries, and taxonomies. For example, the Dewey Decimal Classification is a metadata management system for books developed in 1876 for libraries.

Object Storage Device is a computer data storage architecture that manages data as objects, as opposed to other storage architectures like file systems which manage data as a file hierarchy and block storage which manages data as blocks within sectors and tracks. Each object typically includes the data itself, a variable amount of metadata, and a globally unique identifier. Object storage can be implemented at multiple levels, including the device level (object storage device), the system level, and the interface level. In each case, object storage seeks to enable capabilities not addressed by other storage architectures, like interfaces that can be directly programmable by the application, a namespace that can span multiple instances of physical hardware, and data management functions like data replication and data distribution at object-level granularity.

Digital Object Memory is a digital storage space intended to keep permanently all related information about a concrete physical object instance that is collected during the lifespan of this object and thus forms a basic building block for the Internet of Things (IoT) by connecting digital information with physical objects. Such memories require each object instance to be uniquely identified and this ID to be attached to the physical object. The underlying techniques to create identification codes and to attach them to objects are manifold but machine-readable techniques are mandatory. Commonly used are barcodes with one or two dimensions (e.g. QRcode or DataMatrix) and radio based tags like RFID or NFC. Such codes or tags are a low cost solution but demand an underlying server infrastructure to host the memory data.

Centralized Database in every country, with a backup in several different locations.

Databases - Database Index

Digital Executor

“For every minute spent in organizing, an hour is earned.” - Benjamin Franklin

Recordkeeping Principles:
Accountability - Integrity - Protection - Compliance - Availability - Retention - Disposition - Transparency.  
Recordkeeping Principles (wiki)

Records Management - Knowledge Base


Categorizing is the process in which ideas and objects are recognized, differentiated, and understood. Categorization implies that objects are grouped into categories, usually for some specific purpose. Ideally, a category illuminates a relationship between the subjects and objects of knowledge. Categorization is fundamental in language, prediction, inference, decision making and in all kinds of environmental interaction.

Category is a collection of things sharing a common attribute. A general concept that marks divisions or coordination's in a conceptual scheme.

Classify or Separate is to arrange or order by classes or categories. To identify an object, we also must classify it, without profiling. Private Information.

Order is a logical or comprehensible arrangement of separate elements.

Attribute is to decide as to where something belongs in a scheme. A construct whereby objects or individuals can be distinguished.

Classification is the act of distributing things into classes or categories of the same type. A group of people or things arranged by class or category. The basic cognitive process of arranging into classes or categories.
Classes is a collection of things sharing a common attribute. Arrange or order by classes or categories.

Category Theory is used to formalize concepts of other high-level abstractions such as sets, rings, and groups.

Group Theory studies the algebraic structures known as groups.

Group (mathematics) is an algebraic structure consisting of a set of elements equipped with an operation that combines any two elements to form a third element.

Index Term is a term that captures the essence of the topic of a document. Index terms make up a controlled vocabulary for use in bibliographic records. They are an integral part of bibliographic control, which is the function by which libraries collect, organize and disseminate documents. They are used as keywords to retrieve documents in an information system, for instance, a catalog or a search engine. A popular form of keywords on the web are tags which are directly visible and can be assigned by non-experts. Index terms can consist of a word, phrase, or alphanumerical term. They are created by analyzing the document either manually with subject indexing or automatically with automatic indexing or more sophisticated methods of keyword extraction. Index terms can either come from a controlled vocabulary or be freely assigned. Web Indexing

Index (publishing) is a list of words or phrases ('headings') and associated pointers ('locators') to where useful material relating to that heading can be found in a document or collection of documents.

Subject Indexing is the act of describing or classifying a document by index terms or other symbols in order to indicate what the document is about, to summarize its content or to increase its findability. In other words, it is about identifying and describing the subject of documents. Indexes are constructed, separately, on three distinct levels: terms in a document such as a book; objects in a collection such as a library; and documents (such as books and articles) within a field of knowledge.

Subject Documents are classified and searched by subject - as well as by other attributes such as author, genre and document type. This makes "subject" a fundamental term in this field. Library and information specialists assign subject labels to documents to make them findable. There are many ways to do this and in general there is not always consensus about which subject should be assigned to a given document. To optimize subject indexing and searching, we need to have a deeper understanding of what a subject is. The question: "what is to be understood by the statement 'document A belongs to subject category X'?"

Entity Linking is the task of determining the identity of entities mentioned in text. Links

Typology is classification according to general type.

Typology Archaeology is the classification of things according to their physical characteristics.

Tag (metadata) is a non-hierarchical keyword or term assigned to a piece of information (such as an Internet bookmark, digital image, or computer file). This kind of metadata helps describe an item and allows it to be found again by browsing or searching. Tags are generally chosen informally and personally by the item's creator or by its viewer, depending on the system.

Legal Coding is the process of creating summary or keyword data from a Document. It is widely used in the legal profession to create a fast-search index or database of documents for use in litigation. Objective Coding Definitions. The recording of basic data such as date, author, or document type, from documents into a database. Extracting information from electronic documents such as date created, author recipient, CC and linking each image to the information in pre-defined objective fields. In direct opposition to Subjective coding where legal interpretations of data in a document are linked to individual documents. Also called bibliographic coding. Extracting such information from a Document as its author, its mailing date, etc. Objective coding is usually done from the document text or image, because the metadata may be inaccurate. For example, a document written and signed by a partner might show the administrative assistant as the author in the metadata, because it was originally typed on the assistant’s computer.

Document Classification

Abstraction is a concept or idea not associated with any specific instance. The process of formulating general concepts by abstracting common properties of instances. A general concept formed by extracting common features from specific examples.
Abstraction in its main sense is a conceptual process by which general rules and concepts are derived from the usage and classification of specific examples, literal ("real" or "concrete") signifiers, first principles, or other methods. "An abstraction" is the product of this process — a concept that acts as a super-categorical noun for all subordinate concepts, and connects any related concepts as a group, field, or category. Conceptual abstractions may be formed by filtering the information content of a concept or an observable phenomenon, selecting only the aspects which are relevant for a particular purpose. For example, abstracting a leather soccer ball to the more general idea of a ball selects only the information on general ball attributes and behavior, eliminating the other characteristics of that particular ball. In a type–token distinction, a type (e.g., a 'ball') is more abstract than its tokens (e.g., 'that leather soccer ball').

Abstract and Concrete

Library Classification is a system by which library resources are arranged according to subject. Library classifications use a notational system that represents the order of topics in the classification and allows items to be stored in that order. Library classification systems group related materials together, typically arranged in a hierarchical tree structure. A different kind of classification system, called a faceted classification system, is also widely used which allows the assignment of multiple classifications to an object, enabling the classifications to be ordered in multiple ways. The library classification numbers can be considered identifiers for resources but are distinct from the International Standard Book Number (ISBN) or International
Standard Serial Number (ISSN) system.
Category: Subject (wiki)

Table of Contents are titles or descriptions of subjects or content to help speed up location of desired information.

Glossary, also known as a vocabulary or clavis, is an alphabetical list of terms in a particular domain of knowledge with the definitions for those terms. Traditionally, a glossary appears at the end of a book and includes terms within that book that are either newly introduced, uncommon, or specialized. While glossaries are most commonly associated with non-fiction books, in some cases, fiction novels may come with a glossary for unfamiliar terms.

Reference Book
Category Subject Tree

Knowledge Organization
Knowledge Visualization

Quantifier (logic) is a construct that specifies the quantity of specimens in the domain of discourse that satisfy an open

Set Theory is the branch of mathematical logic that studies sets, which informally are collections of objects. Although
any type of object can be collected into a set, set theory is applied most often to objects that are relevant to mathematics.

Set (mathematics) is a collection of distinct objects, considered as an object in its own right.

Predicate (mathematical logic) is the characteristic function or the indicator function of a relation.

Indicator Function defined on a set X that indicates membership of an element in a subset A of X, having the value 1 for all
elements of A and the value 0 for all elements of X not in A. It is usually denoted by a symbol 1 or I.

Coordination's is the skillful and effective interaction of movements. The regulation of diverse elements into an integrated and harmonious operation.

Subjects are the subject matter of a conversation or discussion. A branch of knowledge. The sum or range of what has been perceived, discovered, or learned. Academic.

Content is everything that is included in a collection and that is held or included in something. What a communication that is about something is about.
Index Publishing

Related Subject Pages
Artificial Neural Network
Human Search Engine
Learning Methods
Visual Maps
Time Management


System is a set of interacting or interdependent component parts forming a complex/intricate whole. Every system is delineated by its spatial and temporal boundaries, surrounded and influenced by its Environment, described by its structure and purpose and expressed in its functioning.

System is an instrumentality that combines interrelated interacting artifacts designed to work as a coherent entity. A group of independent but interrelated elements comprising a unified whole. A complex of methods or rules governing behavior. An organized structure for arranging or classifying. A procedure or process for obtaining an objective. The living body considered as made up of interdependent components forming a unified whole. An ordered manner; orderliness by virtue of being methodical and well organized.

Systems Science is an interdisciplinary field that studies the nature of systems—from simple to complex—in nature, society, cognition, and science itself. To systems scientists, the world can be understood as a system of systems. The field aims to develop interdisciplinary foundations that are applicable in a variety of areas, such as psychology, biology, medicine, communication, business management, engineering, and social sciences. Systems science covers formal sciences such as complex systems, cybernetics, dynamical systems theory, information theory, linguistics or systems theory. It has
applications in the field of the natural and social sciences and engineering, such as control theory, operations research, social systems theory, systems biology, system dynamics, human factors, systems ecology, systems engineering and systems psychology. Themes commonly stressed in system science are (a) holistic view, (b) interaction between a system and its embedding environment, and (c) complex (often subtle) trajectories of dynamic behavior that sometimes are stable (and thus reinforcing), while at various 'boundary conditions' can become wildly unstable (and thus destructive). Concerns about Earth-scale biosphere/geosphere dynamics is an example of the nature of problems to which systems science seeks to contribute meaningful insights.

Complex System is a system that exhibits some (and possibly all) of the following characteristics: feedback loops; some degree of spontaneous order; robustness of the order; emergent organization; numerosity; hierarchical organization. A complex system can be also viewed as a system composed of many components which may interact with each other. In many cases it is useful to represent such a system as a network where the nodes represent the components and the links their interactions. Examples of complex systems are Earth's global climate, organisms, the human brain, social organization, an ecosystem, a living cell, and ultimately the entire universe.

Systems Thinking involves the use of various techniques to study systems of many kinds. In nature, examples of the objects of systems thinking include ecosystems - in which various elements (such as air, water, movement, plants, and animals) interact. In organizations, systems consist of people, structures, and processes that operate together to make an organization "healthy" or "unhealthy". Systems engineering is the discipline that utilizes systems thinking to design, build, operate and maintain complex engineered systems. Expert System

Systems Theory is discovering patterns and elucidating principles that can be discerned from and applied to all types of systems at all nesting levels in all fields of research. Systems Theory is the interdisciplinary study of systems. A system is an entity with interrelated and interdependent parts; it is defined by its boundaries and it is more than the sum of its parts (subsystem). Changing one part of the system affects other parts and the whole system, with predictable patterns of behavior. Positive growth and adaptation of a system depend upon how well the system is adjusted with its environment, and systems often exist to accomplish a common purpose (a work function) that also aids in the maintenance of the system or the operations may result in system failure. The goal of systems theory is systematically discovering a system's dynamics, constraints, conditions and elucidating principles (purpose, measure, methods, tools, etc.) that can be discerned and applied to systems at every level of nesting, and in every field for achieving optimized equifinality. General systems theory is about broadly applicable concepts and principles, as opposed to concepts and principles applicable to one domain of knowledge. It distinguishes, dynamic or active systems and static or passive systems. Active systems are activity structures or components that interact in behaviours and processes. Passive systems are structures and components that are being processed. E.g. a program is passive when it is a disc file and active when it runs in memory. The field is related to systems thinking and systems engineering.

Systems Analysis is the process of studying a procedure or business in order to identify its goals and purposes and create systems and procedures that will achieve them in an efficient way.

Computer Systems Analyst specializes in analyzing, designing and implementing information systems.

Systemics refers to an initiative to study systems from a holistic point of view.

Systematic is done or acting according to a fixed plan or system; methodical. Characterized by order and planning.

Systems Science studies the nature of systems—from simple to complex—in nature, society, and science itself.

Systems Engineering focuses on how to design and manage complex engineering systems over their life cycles.

Physical System is a portion of the physical universe chosen for analysis. Everything outside the system is known as the environment. The environment is ignored except for its effects on the system. The split between system and environment is the analyst's choice, generally made to simplify the analysis. For example, the water in a lake, the water in half of a lake, or an individual molecule of water in the lake can each be considered a physical system. An isolated system is one that has negligible interaction with its environment. Often a system in this sense is chosen to correspond to the more usual meaning of system, such as a particular machine. In the study of quantum coherence, the "system" may refer to the microscopic properties of an object (e.g. the mean of a pendulum bob), while the relevant "environment" may be the internal degrees of freedom, described classically by the pendulum's thermal vibrations.

Isolated System in physical science, an isolated system is either of the following: A physical system so far removed from other systems that it does not interact with them. A thermodynamic system enclosed by rigid immovable walls through which neither matter nor energy can pass.

Systems Design is the process of defining the architecture, components, modules, interfaces, and data for a system to satisfy specified requirements.

Systems Architect defines the architecture of a computerized system in order to fulfill certain requirements. Such definitions include: a breakdown of the system into components, the component interactions and interfaces (including with the environment, especially the user), and the technologies and resources to be used in the design.

System Integration is defined as the process of bringing together the component subsystems into one system and ensuring that the subsystems function together as a system. In information technology, systems integration is the process of linking together different computing systems and software applications physically or functionally, to act as a coordinated whole.

Open System is thinking or organizing with a radically different way of thinking or organizing.

System Image is a serialized copy of the entire state of a computer system stored in some non-volatile form such as a file. A system is said to be capable of using system images if it can be shut down and later restored to exactly the same state. In such cases, system images can be used for backup. Hibernation is an example that uses an image of the entire machine's RAM.

Artificial Intelligence Systems Integration is making individual software components, such as speech synthesizers, interoperable with other components, such as common sense knowledge bases, in order to create larger, broader and more capable A.I. systems. The main methods that have been proposed for integration are message routing, or communication protocols that the software components use to communicate with each other, often through a middleware blackboard system.

Management Information System focuses on the management of information technology to provide efficiency and effectiveness or strategy decision making. The concept may include systems termed transaction processing system, decision support system, expert system, or executive information system.

Systems Management refers to enterprise-wide administration of distributed systems including (and commonly in practice) computer systems. Systems management is strongly influenced by network management initiatives in telecommunications. The application performance management (APM) technologies are now a subset of Systems management. Maximum productivity can be achieved more efficiently through event correlation, system automation and predictive analysis which is now all part of APM.

System Administration is a person who is responsible for the upkeep, configuration, and reliable operation of computer systems; especially multi-user computers, such as servers.

File System Permissions are methods to assign permissions or access rights to specific users and groups of users. These systems control the ability of the users to view, change, navigate, and execute the contents of the file system.

Certified Information Systems Security Professional is an independent information security certification governed by the International Information System Security Certification Consortium, also known as (ISC).

Technical Communication is a means to convey scientific, engineering, or other technical information. Individuals in a variety of contexts and with varied professional credentials engage in technical communication. Some individuals are designated as technical communicators or technical writers. These individuals use a set of methods to research, document, and present technical processes or products. Technical communicators may put the information they capture into paper documents, web pages, computer-based training, digitally stored text, audio, video, and other media. The Society for Technical Communication defines the field as any form of communication that focuses on technical or specialized topics, communicates specifically by using technology or provides instructions on how to do something. More succinctly, the Institute of Scientific and Technical Communicators defines technical communication as factual communication, usually about products and services. The European Association for Technical Communication briefly defines technical communication as "the process of defining, creating and delivering information products for the safe, efficient and effective use of products (technical systems, software, services)". Whatever the definition of technical communication, the overarching goal of the practice is to create easily accessible information for a specific audience.

Electronic Commerce is a transaction of buying or selling online.

System Safety concept calls for a risk management strategy based on identification, analysis of hazards and application of remedial controls using a systems-based approach. This is different from traditional safety strategies which rely on control of conditions and causes of an accident based either on the Epidemiological analysis or as a result of investigation of individual past accidents. The concept of system safety is useful in demonstrating adequacy of technologies when difficulties are faced with probabilistic risk analysis. The underlying principle is one of synergy: a whole is more than sum of its parts. Systems-based approach to safety requires the application of scientific, technical and managerial skills to hazard identification, hazard analysis, and elimination, control, or management of hazards throughout the life-cycle of a system, program, project or an activity or a product. "Hazop" is one of several techniques available for identification of hazards.

Steady State is a system or a process in a steady state, when the variables (called state variables) which define the behavior of the system or the process are unchanging in time. In continuous time, this means that for those properties p of the system, the partial derivative with respect to time is zero and remains so.

Decision Making 

Interfaces - Control Panels - Menu

Interface is a shared boundary across which two separate components of a computer system exchange information. The exchange can be between software, computer hardware, peripheral devices, humans and combinations of these. Some computer hardware devices such as a touchscreen can both send and receive data through the interface, while others such as a mouse or microphone may only provide an interface to send data to a given system.

Menu (navigation)

User Interface in the industrial design field of human–machine interaction, is the space where interactions between humans and machines occur. The goal of this interaction is to allow effective operation and control of the machine from the human end, whilst the machine simultaneously feeds back information that aids the operators' decision-making process.

Application Programming Interface is a set of subroutine definitions, protocols, and tools for building application software. In general terms, it is a set of clearly defined methods of communication between various software components. It defines methods of communication between various software components and provides access to data of an operating system, application, or other service. A good API makes it easier to develop a computer program by providing all the building blocks, which are then put together by the programmer. An API may be for a web-based system, operating system, database system, computer hardware or software library. An API specification can take many forms, but often includes specifications for routines, data structures, object classes, variables or remote calls. POSIX, Microsoft Windows API, the C++ Standard Template Library and Java APIs are examples of different forms of APIs. Documentation for the API is usually provided to facilitate usage.

Interactivity is many fields concerned with interactivity, including information science, computer science, human-computer interaction, communication, and industrial design, there is little agreement over the meaning of the term interactivity, although all are related to interaction with computers and other machines with a user interface. Multiple views on interactivity exist. In the "contingency view" of interactivity, there are three levels: No interactive, when a message is not related to previous messages; Reactive, when a message is related only to one immediately previous message; and Interactive, when a message is related to a number of previous messages and to the relationship between them. Virtual Reality.

Interactive is capable of acting on or influencing each other.

Usability is the ease of use and learnability of a human-made object such as a tool or device. In software engineering, usability is the degree to which a software can be used by specified consumers to achieve quantified objectives with effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction in a quantified context of use. The object of use can be a software application, website, book, tool, machine, process, vehicle, or anything a human interacts with. A usability study may be conducted as a primary job function by a usability analyst or as a secondary job function by designers, technical writers, marketing personnel, and others. It is widely used in consumer electronics, communication, and knowledge transfer objects (such as a cookbook, a document or online help) and mechanical objects such as a door handle or a hammer. Usability includes methods of measuring usability, such as needs analysis and the study of the principles behind an object's perceived efficiency or elegance. In human-computer interaction and computer science, usability studies the elegance and clarity with which the interaction with a computer program or a web site (web usability) is designed. Usability differs from user satisfaction and user experience because usability does not directly consider usefulness or utility. Usability User Experience. Utility - Overuse Dangers

Accessibility refers to the design of products, devices, services, or environments for people who experience disabilities. The concept of accessible design and practice of accessible development ensures both "direct access" (i.e. unassisted) and "indirect access" meaning compatibility with a person's assistive technology (for example, computer screen readers). Accessibility can be viewed as the "ability to access" and benefit from some system or entity. The concept focuses on enabling access for people with disabilities, or special needs, or enabling access through the use of assistive technology; however, research and development in accessibility brings benefits to everyone. Accessibility is not to be confused with usability, which is the extent to which a product (such as a device, service, or environment) can be used by specified users to achieve specified goals with effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction in a specified context of use. Accessibility is strongly related to universal design which is the process of creating products that are usable by people with the widest possible range of abilities, operating within the widest possible range of situations. This is about making things accessible to all people (whether they have a disability or not).

AI improves touchscreen interfaces for users with impairments. A new algorithmic approach to user interface optimization that takes individual differences into account.

Dashboard (management information systems) an easy to read, often single page, real-time user interface, showing a graphical presentation of the current status (snapshot) and historical trends of an organization’s or computer appliance's key performance indicators to enable instantaneous and informed decisions to be made at a glance.

Dashboard is a control panel placed in front of the driver of an automobile, housing instrumentation and controls for operation of the vehicle.

Control Panel allows computer users to view and manipulate basic system settings and controls via applets, such as adding hardware, adding and removing software, controlling user accounts, and changing accessibility options. Additional applets can be provided by third party software. Menu

Grow Dashboard Software to unify and blend your business data in real time.

Human Interface Guidelines is to improve the experience for the users by making application interfaces more intuitive, learnable, and consistent. Most guides limit themselves to defining a common look and feel for applications in a particular desktop environment. The guides enumerate specific policies.

Human-Centered Design is a design and management framework that develops solutions to problems by involving the human perspective in all steps of the problem-solving process. Human involvement typically takes place in observing the problem within context, brainstorming, conceptualizing, developing, and implementing the solution.

Human Computer Interaction researches the design and use of computer technology, focused on the interfaces between people (users) and computers. Researchers in the field of HCI both observe the ways in which humans interact with computers and design technologies that let humans interact with computers in novel ways.

Human Factors also known as comfort design, functional design, and systems, is the practice of designing products, systems, or processes to take proper account of the interaction between them and the people who use them.

Human Interface Device HID is a type of computer device that interacts directly with, and most often takes input from, humans and may deliver output to humans. Refactoring UI: Bad About (youtube)

The Humane Interface is a book about user interface design written by Jef Raskin and published in 2000.

Path of Least Resistance is the physical or metaphorical pathway that provides the least resistance to forward motion by a given object or entity, among a set of alternative paths. Balanced, Sustainable with Low Entropy. Action Physics

Principle of Least Effort postulates that animals, people, even well-designed machines will naturally choose the Path of least resistance or "effort". States that an information-seeking client will tend to use the most convenient search method, in the least exacting mode available. Information seeking behavior stops as soon as minimally acceptable results are found. This theory holds true regardless of the user's proficiency as a searcher, or their level of subject expertise. Also, this theory takes into account the user’s previous information-seeking experience. The user will use the tools that are most familiar and easy to use that find results. The principle of least effort is known as a “deterministic description of human behavior”. The principle of least effort applies not only in the library context, but also to any information-seeking activity. For example, one might consult a generalist co-worker down the hall rather than a specialist in another building, so long as the generalist's answers were within the threshold of acceptability.

Graphical User Interface GUI is a type of user interface that allows users to interact with electronic devices through graphical icons and visual indicators such as secondary notation, instead of text-based user interfaces, typed command labels or text navigation.

Interaction Design is defined as "the practice of designing interactive digital products, environments, systems, and services

Interactive Design is the design of user interfaces for machines and software, such as computers, home appliances, mobile devices, and other electronic devices, with the focus on maximizing usability and the user experience. The goal of user interface design is to make the user's interaction as simple and efficient as possible, in terms of accomplishing user goals (user-centered design).

User-Centered Design s a framework of processes (not restricted to interfaces or technologies) in which the needs, wants, and limitations of end users of a product, service or process are given extensive attention at each stage of the design process.

Interaction Design Pattern are a way to describe solutions to common usability or accessibility problems in a specific context. They document interaction models that make it easier for users to understand an interface and accomplish their tasks. A formal way of documenting a solution to a common design problem.

Analytical Dashboards

User Interface Design (UI) is the design of user interfaces for machines and software, such as computers, home appliances, mobile devices, and other electronic devices, with the focus on maximizing usability and the user experience. The goal of user interface design is to make the user's interaction as simple and efficient as possible, in terms of accomplishing user goals (user-centered design).

User Experience Design (UX) is the process of enhancing user satisfaction with a product by improving the usability, accessibility, and pleasure provided in the interaction with the product. User experience design encompasses traditional human–computer interaction (HCI) design, and extends it by addressing all aspects of a product or service as perceived by users.

Experience Design is the practice of designing products, processes, services, events, omnichannel journeys, and environments with a focus placed on the quality of the user experience and culturally relevant solutions.

Direct Manipulation Interface is a human–computer interaction style which involves continuous representation of objects of interest and rapid, reversible, and incremental actions and feedback. As opposed to other interaction styles, for example, a command language, the intention of direct manipulation is to allow a user to manipulate objects presented to them, using actions that correspond at least loosely to manipulation of physical objects. An example of direct-manipulation is resizing a graphical shape, such as a rectangle, by dragging its corners or edges with a mouse. Having real-world metaphors for objects and actions can make it easier for a user to learn and use an interface (some might say that the interface is more natural or intuitive), and rapid, incremental feedback allows a user to make fewer errors and complete tasks in less time, because they can see the results of an action before completing the action, thus evaluating the output and compensating for mistakes.

Touchscreen - Monitors

Cyber-Physical System is a mechanism controlled or monitored by computer-based algorithms, tightly integrated with internet and its users. In cyber physical systems, physical and software components are deeply intertwined, each operating on different spatial and temporal scales, exhibiting multiple and distinct behavioral modalities, and interacting with each other in a myriad of ways that change with context. Examples of CPS include smart grid, autonomous automobile systems, medical monitoring, process control systems, robotics systems, and automatic pilot avionics. typically designed as a network of interacting elements with physical input and output instead of as standalone devices. The notion is closely tied to concepts of robotics and sensor networks with intelligence mechanisms proper of computational intelligence leading the pathway.

Streamlining Internet of Things

Link is to make a logical or causal connection. The means of connection between things linked in series. Connect, fasten, or put together two or more pieces. Be or become joined or united or linked. (computing) an instruction that connects one part of a program or an element on a list to another program or list. Associations. A two-way radio communication system (usually microwave); part of a more extensive telecommunication network.

Hyperlink is a reference to data that the reader can directly follow either by clicking, tapping, touching, talking or hovering. A hyperlink points to a whole document or to a specific element within a document. Hypertext is text with hyperlinks. The text that is linked is called anchor text. A software system that is used for viewing and creating hypertext is a hypertext system, and to create a hyperlink is to hyperlink (or simply to link). A user following hyperlinks is said to navigate or browse the hypertext. The document containing a hyperlink is known as its source document. For example, in an online reference work such as Wikipedia, many words and terms in the text are hyperlinked to definitions of those terms. Hyperlinks are often used to implement reference mechanisms such as tables of contents, footnotes, bibliographies, indexes, letters and glossaries. In some hypertext hyperlinks can be bidirectional: they can be followed in two directions, so both ends act as anchors and as targets. More complex arrangements exist, such as many-to-many links. The effect of following a hyperlink may vary with the hypertext system and may sometimes depend on the link itself; for instance, on the World Wide Web most hyperlinks cause the target document to replace the document being displayed, but some are marked to cause the target document to open in a new window. Another possibility is transclusion, for which the link target is a document fragment that replaces the link anchor within the source document. Not only persons browsing the document follow hyperlinks; they may also be followed automatically by programs. A program that traverses the hypertext, following each hyperlink and gathering all the retrieved documents is known as a Web spider or crawler.

Hypertext is text displayed on a computer display or other electronic devices with references (hyperlinks) to other text
which the reader can immediately access, or where text can be revealed progressively at multiple levels of detail (also called StretchText). The hypertext pages are interconnected by hyperlinks, typically activated by a mouse click, keypress sequence or by touching the screen. Apart from text, hypertext is sometimes used to describe tables, images and other presentational content forms with hyperlinks. Hypertext is the underlying concept defining the structure of the World Wide Web, with pages often written in the Hypertext Markup Language (HTML). It enables an easy-to-use and flexible connection and sharing of information over the Internet.

Linking Data is a method of publishing structured data so that it can be interlinked and become more useful through semantic queries. It builds upon standard Web technologies such as HTTP, RDF and URIs, but rather than using them to serve web pages for human readers, it extends them to share information in a way that can be read automatically by computers. This enables data from different sources to be connected and queried.

Interlinked is linked or locked closely together. Fit together tightly as if by weaving. Interlaced or interwoven.

Interconnected is reciprocally connected. Operating as a unit.

Operating Systems - HOS

Virtual Desktop (computers)

Human Factors Ergonomics (good posture)

Networks (computers) - Matrix

Application Programming Interface an application programming interface (API) is a set of subroutine definitions, protocols, and tools for building application software. In general terms, its a set of clearly defined methods of communication between various software components. A good API makes it easier to develop a computer program by providing all the building blocks, which are then put together by the programmer. An API may be for a web-based system, operating system, database system, computer hardware, or software library. An API specification can take many forms, but often includes specifications for routines, data structures, object classes, variables, or remote calls. POSIX, Microsoft Windows API, the C++ Standard Template Library, and Java APIs are examples of different forms of APIs. Documentation for the API is usually provided to facilitate usage. The status of APIs in intellectual property law is controversial. PDF

Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (wiki)

Application Performance Management is the monitoring and management of performance and availability of software applications. APM strives to detect and diagnose complex application performance problems to maintain an expected level of service.

Apps (design software)

Application Layer is an abstraction layer that specifies the shared protocols and interface methods used by hosts in a communications network. The application layer abstraction is used in both of the standard models of computer networking: the Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) and the Open Systems Interconnection model (OSI model).

OSI Model is a conceptual model that characterizes and standardizes the communication functions of a telecommunication or computing system without regard to their underlying internal structure and technology. Its goal is the interoperability of diverse communication systems with standard protocols. The model partitions a communication system into abstraction layers. The original version of the model defined seven layers.

Thinking Layers

Text-Based User Interface is a retronym coined sometime after the invention of graphical user interfaces. TUIs display computer graphics in text mode. An advanced TUI may, like GUIs, use the entire screen area and accept mouse and other inputs. Retronym is a word introduced because an existing term has become inadequate.

Text Entry Interface is an interface that is used to enter text information into an electronic device. A commonly used device is a mechanical computer keyboard. Most laptop computers have an integrated mechanical keyboard, and desktop computers are usually operated primarily using a keyboard and mouse. Devices such as smartphones and tablets mean that interfaces such as virtual keyboards and voice recognition are becoming more popular as text entry systems.

Dark Patterns: User Interfaces Designed to Trick People (youtube)

Head-Up Display is any transparent display that presents data without requiring users to look away from their usual viewpoints. The origin of the name stems from a pilot being able to view information with the head positioned "up" and looking forward, instead of angled down looking at lower instruments. A HUD also has the advantage that the pilot's eyes do not need to refocus to view the outside after looking at the optically nearer instruments. Although they were initially developed for military aviation, HUDs are now used in commercial aircraft, automobiles and other, mostly professional applications. (HUD).

Computer Simulations
Brain Computer Interface

Human-Computer Interaction Laboratory
Dash Boards

End-User is a person who ultimately uses or is intended to ultimately use a product. The end user stands in contrast to users who support or maintain the product, such as sysops, system administrators, database administrators, information technology experts, software professionals and computer technicians. End users typically do not possess the technical understanding or skill of the product designers, a fact that is easy for designers to forget or overlook, leading to features with which the customer is dissatisfied. In information technology, end users are not "customers" in the usual sense—they are typically employees of the customer. For example, if a large retail corporation buys a software package for its employees to use, even though the large retail corporation was the "customer" which purchased the software, the end users are the employees of the company who will use the software at work.

Interactive Video usually refers to a technique used to blend interaction and linear film or video.

Multimedia is content that uses a combination of different content forms such as text, audio, images, animations, video and interactive content. Multimedia contrasts with media that use only rudimentary computer displays such as text-only or traditional forms of printed or hand-produced material.

E-Assessment (testing examinations)

Electronic Performance Support Systems is any computer software program or component that improves user performance.

Computer Assisted Instruction Terms (wiki)

Wireframe (website terminology)

Keystroke Dynamics is the detailed timing information which describes exactly when each key was pressed and when it was released as a person is typing at a computer keyboard.  Video Courses

Keyboard Shortcut is a series of one or several keys that invoke a software or operating system operation (in other words, cause an event) when triggered by the user.

Semiotics is the study of meaning-making, the study of sign processes and meaningful communication. This includes the study of signs and sign processes (semiosis), indication, designation, likeness, analogy, allegory, metonymy, metaphor, symbolism, signification, and communication.

Jeet Grid System
Content Organization

Workspace is a file or directory that allows a user to gather various source code files and resources and work with them as a cohesive unit. workspaces refer to the grouping of windows in some window managers. Grouping applications in this way is meant to reduce clutter and make the desktop easier to navigate.

Interfaces Info-Graph (image)


HPC Interface

Mind Maps (visualizing)

Model View Controller is a software architectural pattern mostly (but not exclusively) for implementing user interfaces on computers.

Knowledge Navigator describes a device that can access a large networked database of hypertext information, and use software agents to assist searching for information.

WebSphere Portal is a set of software tools that enables companies to build and manage web portals. It provides a single access point to web content and applications, while delivering differentiated, personalized experiences for each user.

Content Management System is a computer application that supports the creation and modification of digital content using a simpler interface to abstract away low-level details unless required, usually supporting multiple users working in a collaborative environment. Allows publishing, editing, modifying, organizing, deleting, and maintaining content from a central interface.

Content Management is a set of processes and technologies that supports the collection, managing, and publishing of information in any form or medium. When stored and accessed via computers, this information may be more specifically referred to as digital content, or simply as content. Digital content may take the form of text (such as electronic documents), multimedia files (such as audio or video files), or any other file type that follows a content lifecycle requiring management.

Content (media) is the information and experience(s) directed towards an end-user or audience.
Cognitive Content: The sum or range of what has been perceived, discovered, or learned.

C-Panel web hosting control panel.

Content Format is an encoded format for converting a specific type of data to displayable information. Content formats are used in recording and transmission to prepare data for observation or interpretation.

Web Browser is a software application for retrieving, presenting and traversing information resources on the World Wide Web. An information resource is identified by a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI/URL) that may be a web page, image, video or other piece of content. Hyperlinks present in resources enable users easily to navigate their browsers to related resources. Although browsers are primarily intended to use the World Wide Web, they can also be used to access information provided by web servers in private networks or files in file systems.

Navigation Structure
Navigation Types of Websites

Classic Shell is a perfect example of being able to modify an interface for personal preference.

Interface is a program that controls a display for the user (usually on a computer monitor) and that allows the user to interact with the system. The overlap where two theories or phenomena affect each other or have links with each other. Computer circuit consisting of the hardware and associated circuitry that links one device with another (especially a computer and a hard disk drive or other peripherals).

Interact is to act together or towards others or with others.
Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. The idea of a two-way effect is essential in the concept of interaction, as opposed to a one-way causal effect.

"The whole thing about interfaces is getting them to do what we want them to do, and also to have them work no matter what level of experience you have. We occasionally find ourselves trying to fit a square peg inside a round hole, and when it doesn't work, for some reason we keep trying anyway, and that is when we get frustrated. Everyone should learn to understand how interfaces work, and how our brain works too. So what would be the perfect interface? An interface that you can modify, so you should have a known standard of operation code, so if you needed to modify it, you can."

Open Source Software

User Needs
The user needs to know how to use the different features of the application easily.
The user needs to be able to explore details of specific content easily and intuitively.
The user needs to be able to seamlessly move between options.
The user needs to have quick access to additional options or actions they can perform.
The user needs to be able to perform different types of actions, so controls need to be easily accessed, but hidden when not in use.
The user needs a way to navigate between different sections of the app, so controls need to be easily accessed, but hidden when not in use.
The user needs a way to navigate between different sections of the app without being distracted in each individual section.
The user needs a consistent way of navigating through content without being distracted by additional content.
The user needs to navigate from one piece of content to the next without having to go back to the index.
The user needs to have access to the menus anytime while in the application.
The user needs to be able to view relevant information without losing their current place in the UI.
The user needs to see their current position in the context of an entire content set, or move to a specific section of a long list or gallery more quickly.

Navigation Design Patterns for Mobile

Requirements Elicitation is the practice of collecting the requirements of a system from users, customers and other stakeholder.

10 Usability Heuristics for User Interface Design

Visibility of system status: The system should always keep users informed about what is going on, through appropriate feedback within reasonable time.

Match between system and the real world: The system should speak the users' language, with words, phrases and concepts familiar to the user, rather than system-oriented terms. Follow real-world conventions, making information appear in a natural and logical order.

User control and freedom: Users often choose system functions by mistake and will need a clearly marked "emergency exit" to leave the unwanted state without having to go through an extended dialogue. Support undo and redo.

Consistency and standards: Users should not have to wonder whether different words, situations, or actions mean the same thing. Follow platform conventions.

Error prevention: Even better than good error messages is a careful design which prevents a problem from occurring in the first place. Either eliminate error-prone conditions or check for them and present users with a confirmation option before they commit to the action.

Recognition rather than recall: Minimize the user's memory load by making objects, actions, and options visible. The user should not have to remember information from one part of the dialogue to another. Instructions for use of the system should be visible or easily retrievable whenever appropriate.

Flexibility and efficiency of use: Accelerators -- unseen by the novice user -- may often speed up the interaction for the expert user such that the system can cater to both inexperienced and experienced users. Allow users to tailor frequent actions.

Aesthetic and minimalist design: Dialogues should not contain information which is irrelevant or rarely needed. Every extra unit of information in a dialogue competes with the relevant units of information and diminishes their relative visibility.

Help users recognize, diagnose, and recover from errors: Error messages should be expressed in plain language (no codes), precisely indicate the problem, and constructively suggest a solution.

Help and documentation: Even though it is better if the system can be used without documentation, it may be necessary to provide help and documentation. Any such information should be easy to search, focused on the user's task, list concrete steps to be carried out, and not be too large. 

Switch Control Overview
Switch Control, a new feature in iOS 7 that provides comprehensive switch access. Switch Control lets you control your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch using a single switch, or multiple switches. Use any of several methods to perform actions such as selecting, tapping, dragging, typing, and even freehand drawing. The basic technique is to use a switch to select an item or location on the screen, and then use the same (or a different) switch to choose an action to perform on that item or location.
Three basic methods are:
Item scanning (default): Highlights items on the screen until you select one.
Point scanning: Use scanning crosshairs to pick a screen location.
Manual selection: Move from item to item on demand (needs multiple switches).

Menu - Navigation

Interface Drop Down Menu for Water Menu Computing is graphical control element. It is a list of options or commands presented to an operator by a computer or communications system. Choices given from a menu may be selected by the operator by a number of methods (called interfaces).

Web Navigation refers to the process of navigating a network of information resources in the World Wide Web, which is organized as hypertext or hypermedia. The user interface that is used to do so is called a web browser. A central theme in web design is the development of a web navigation interface that maximizes usability.

Mode (computer interface) is a distinct setting within a computer program or any physical machine interface, in which the same user input will produce perceived results different to those that it would in other settings. The best-known modal interface components are probably the Caps lock and Insert keys on the standard computer keyboard, both of which put the user's typing into a different mode after being pressed, then return it to the regular mode after being re-pressed.
In computing and telecommunications, a menu is a list of options or commands presented to an operator by a computer, a Human or a communications system.

File System is used to control how data is stored and retrieved. Without a file system, information placed in a storage medium would be one large body of data with no way to tell where one piece of information stops and the next begins. By separating the data into pieces and giving each piece a name, the information is easily isolated and identified. Taking its name from the way paper-based information systems are named, each group of data is called a "file". The structure and logic rules used to manage the groups of information and their names is called a "file system".

Hierarchical File System is a proprietary file system developed by Apple Inc. for use in computer systems running Mac OS.

File System Hierarchy Standard defines the directory structure and directory contents in Unix-like operating systems.

Directory Computing is a file system cataloging structure which contains references to other computer files, and possibly other directories. On many computers, directories are known as folders, or drawers[1] to provide some relevancy to a workbench or the traditional office file cabinet.

Information Retrieval is the activity of obtaining information resources relevant to an information need from a collection of information resources. Searches can be based on full-text or other content-based indexing. Automated information retrieval systems are used to reduce what has been called "information overload". Many universities and public libraries use IR systems to provide access to books, journals and other documents. Web search engines are the most visible IR applications.

Metadata is "data [information] that provides information about other data, relating to emails, telephone calls, web pages, video traffic, IP connections and cell phone locations. Descriptive metadata describes a resource for purposes such as discovery and identification. It can include elements such as title, abstract, author, and keywords. Structural metadata indicates how compound objects are put together, for example, how pages are ordered to form chapters. Administrative metadata provides information to help manage a resource, such as when and how it was created, file type and other technical information, and who can access it.

Tagging is a keyword or term assigned to a piece of information (such as an Internet bookmark, digital image, database record, or computer file). This kind of metadata helps describe an item and allows it to be found again by browsing or searching. Tags are generally chosen informally and personally by the item's creator or by its viewer, depending on the system, although they may also be chosen from a controlled vocabulary.

Search Engines
Human Search Engine
Search Tips

File Viewer is application software that presents the data stored in a computer file in a human-friendly form. The file contents are generally displayed on the screen, or they may be printed. Also, they may be read aloud using speech synthesis.

Computer File is a computer resource for recording data discretely in a computer storage device. Just as words can be written to paper, so can information be written to a computer file. There are different types of computer files, designed for different purposes. A file may be designed to store a picture, a written message, a video, a computer program, or a wide variety of other kinds of data. Some types of files can store different several types of information at once. By using computer programs, a person can open, read, change, and close a computer file. Computer files may be reopened, modified, and copied an arbitrary number of times. Typically, computer files are organised in a file system, which keeps track of where the files are, and enables people to access them.

File Format (preservation)

File System Permissions are methods to assign permissions or access rights to specific users and groups of users. These systems control the ability of the users to view, change, navigate, and execute the contents of the file system.

Page Orientation is the way in which a rectangular page is oriented for normal viewing. The two most common types of orientation are portrait and landscape. The specific word definition comes from the fact that a close-up portrait of a person's face and upper body is more fitting for a canvas or photo where the height of the display area is greater than the width, and is more common for the pages of books. Landscape originally described artistic outdoor scenes where a wide view area is needed, but the upper part of the painting would be mostly sky and so is omitted. Page orientation is also used to describe the dimensions of a video display. The most common video display orientation is landscape mode, especially the 4:3 ratio, which is 4 units wide and 3 units tall, and the more recent 16:9 widescreen landscape display mode. Portrait screen orientation is also used for computer displays, though less commonly than landscape, and is the most popular orientation for mobile devices. Portrait is preferred for editing page-layout work, in order to view the entire page on the screen at once without wasted space along the sides, and for script-writing, legal work (in drafting contracts etc.), and other applications where it is useful to see a maximum number of lines of text. It is also common in public information displays.

Website Development
Q&A Website

Presentation  -  Summarization  -  Explanation  -  Navigation  -  Exploration

Decision Tree Learning - Decision Tree

Tree Structure is a way of representing the hierarchical nature of a structure in a graphical form. It is named a "tree structure" because the classic representation resembles a tree, even though the chart is generally upside down compared to an actual tree, with the "root" at the top and the "leaves" at the bottom.

Tree Mapping is a method for displaying hierarchical data using nested rectangles.

Alternating Decision Tree is a machine learning method for classification. It generalizes decision trees and has connections to boosting. An ADTree consists of an alternation of decision nodes, which specify a predicate condition, and prediction nodes, which contain a single number. An instance is classified by an ADTree by following all paths for which all decision nodes are true, and summing any prediction nodes that are traversed.

Logistic Model Tree is a classification model with an associated supervised training algorithm that combines logistic regression (LR) and decision tree learning.

Pruning Decision Trees is a technique in machine learning that reduces the size of decision trees by removing sections of the tree that provide little power to classify instances. Pruning reduces the complexity of the final classifier, and hence improves predictive accuracy by the reduction of overfitting.

Network Topology is the arrangement of the various elements (links, nodes, etc.) of a computer network. Essentially, it is the topological structure of a network and may be depicted physically or logically. Physical topology is the placement of the various components of a network, including device location and cable installation, while logical topology illustrates how data flows within a network, regardless of its physical design. Distances between nodes, physical interconnections, transmission rates, or signal types may differ between two networks, yet their topologies may be identical.

Computer Vision is an interdisciplinary field that deals with how computers can be made for gaining high-level understanding from digital images or videos. From the perspective of engineering, it seeks to automate tasks that the human visual system can do.

More Organizing Terms and Methods
Meeting Presentation
Word Matrix
Data Visualization
Mind Maps
Collaboration Tools
Simultaneous Subject Teaching
Learning Management System (HOPE PC)

Three-Click Rule is an unofficial web design rule concerning the design of website navigation. It suggests that a user of a website should be able to find any information with no more than three mouse clicks. It is based on the belief that users of a site will become frustrated and often leave if they cannot find the information within the three clicks. Although there is little analytical evidence that this is the case, it is a commonly held belief amongst designers that the rule is part of a good system of navigation. Critics of the rule suggest that the number of clicks is not as important as the success of the clicks or information sent.

Workflow consists of an orchestrated and repeatable pattern of business activity enabled by the systematic organization of resources into processes that transform materials, provide services, or process information. It can be depicted as a sequence of operations, declared as work of a person or group, an organization of staff, or one or more simple or complex mechanisms. From a more abstract or higher-level perspective, workflow may be considered a view or representation of real work. The flow being described may refer to a document, service or product that is being transferred from one step to another. Workflows may be viewed as one fundamental building block to be combined with other parts of an organization's structure such as information technology, teams, projects and hierarchies.

Flowchart is a type of diagram that represents an algorithm, workflow or process, showing the steps as boxes of various kinds, and their order by connecting them with arrows. This diagrammatic representation illustrates a solution model to a given problem. Flowcharts are used in analyzing, designing, documenting or managing a process or program in various fields
Site Map is a list of pages of a web site accessible to crawlers or users. It can be either a document in any form used as a planning tool for Web design, or a Web page that lists the pages on a website, typically organized in hierarchical fashion. Sitemaps make relationships between pages and other content components. It shows shape of information space in overview. Sitemaps can demonstrate organization, navigation, and labeling system.

Topic Map is a standard for the representation and interchange of knowledge, with an emphasis on the findability of information. Topic maps were originally developed in the late 1990s as a way to represent back-of-the-book index structures so that multiple indexes from different sources could be merged. However, the developers quickly realized that with a little additional generalization, they could create a meta-model with potentially far wider application. A topic map represents information using topics, representing any concept, from people, countries, and organizations to software modules, individual files, and events, associations, representing hypergraph relationships between topics, and occurrences, representing information resources relevant to a particular topic. Topic Maps are similar to concept maps and mind maps in many respects, though only Topic Maps are ISO standards. Topic Maps are a form of semantic web technology similar to RDF.

Bloom's Taxonomy is a set of three hierarchical models used to classify educational learning objectives into levels of complexity and specificity. The three lists cover the learning objectives in cognitive, affective and sensory domains.

Mind Maps (visual tools)

Interconnectivity - Interconnectedness - Networks

Spatial intelligence

Most subjects share common information and knowledge. That is why you will see the Cross Reference Links in Black.

Questions and Answers Help Desk

Questionnaire is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions and other prompts for the purpose of gathering information from respondents.

Questionnaire Construction refers to a series of questions asked to individuals to obtain statistically useful information about a given topic. When properly constructed and responsibly administered, questionnaires can provide valuable data about any given subject.

Q and A Website is a website where the site creators use the images of pop culture icons to answer input from the site's visitors, usually in question/answer format.

Comparison of Q&A Websites (wiki)

Question Manager is a system that allows institutional staff to manage questions from ‘clients’. Questions being offered to ‘experts’ to give answers. The answers are eventually packaged into a concise of question-answer pair that is made available to the client.

Self-Service Software allows people to secure answers to their inquiries and/or needs through an automated interview fashion instead of traditional search approaches.

Question Answering is a computer science discipline within the fields of information retrieval and natural language processing (NLP), which is concerned with building systems that automatically answer questions posed by humans in a natural language.
A structured database of knowledge or information, usually a knowledge Base

Self Teaching Machine
Feedback - Surveys

Answer Hub

Information Stations
Information Sources
Human Search Engines

3 Keys to Successful Enterprise Question and Answer System Implementation
Q & A Styles
Build and manage your own custom question and answer website like Quora or Stack Overflow
D Zone

Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing is an interviewing technique or surveying technique in which the respondent or interviewer uses a computer to answer the questions. It is similar to computer-assisted telephone interviewing, except that the interview takes place in person instead of over the telephone. This method is usually preferred over a telephone interview when the questionnaire is long and complex. It has been classified as a personal interviewing technique because an interviewer is usually present to serve as a host and to guide the respondent. If no interviewer is present, the term Computer-Assisted Self Interviewing (CASI) may be used. An example of a situation in which CAPI is used as the method of data collection is the British Crime Survey. Characteristics of this interviewing technique are: Either the respondent or an interviewer sits at a computer terminal and answers a questionnaire using the keyboard or mouse. Help screens and courteous error messages are provided.
Colorful screens and on and off-screen stimuli can add to the respondent's interest and involvement in the task. This approach is used in shopping malls, preceded by the intercept and screening process. It is also used to conduct business-to-business research at trade shows or conventions. The interviewer follows a script provided by a software application. It is a structured system of microdata collection by telephone that speeds up the collection and editing of microdata and also permits the interviewer to educate the respondents on the importance of timely and accurate data. The software is able to customize the flow of the questionnaire based on the answers provided, as well as information already known about the participant. It is used in B2B services and corporate sales. CATI may function in the following manner: A computerized questionnaire is administered to respondents over the telephone. The interviewer sits in front of a computer screen. Upon command, the computer dials the telephone number to be called. When contact is made, the interviewer reads the questions posed on the computer screen and records the respondent's answers directly into the computer. Interim and update reports can be compiled instantaneously, as the data are being collected. CATI software has built-in logic, which also enhances data accuracy. The program will personalize questions and control for logically incorrect answers, such as percentage answers that do not add up to 100 percent. The software has built-in branching logic, which will skip questions that are not applicable or will probe for more detail when warranted.

Answer Rank Algorithm 

Brainboost is a metasearch engine designed to provide specific answers to questions asked in natural language. Currently it only supports English. The Brainboost engine uses machine learning and natural language processing AI techniques to answer the questions.

Answers.com is an Internet-based knowledge exchange, which includes WikiAnswers, ReferenceAnswers, VideoAnswers, and five international language Q&A communities.

Voice Questions

Voice Command Device is a device controlled by means of the human voice. By removing the need to use buttons, dials and switches, consumers can easily operate appliances with their hands full or while doing other tasks.

Voice User Interface makes human interaction with computers possible through a voice/speech platform in order to initiate an automated service or process.

Speech Recognition enables the recognition and translation of spoken language into text by computers.
Speech Recognition Software

Translation (languages)

Interactive Voice Response is a technology that allows a computer to interact with humans through the use of voice and DTMF tones input via keypad.

Voice Browser is a software application that presents an interactive voice user interface to the user in a manner analogous to the functioning of a web browser interpreting Hypertext Markup Language (HTML).

Visible Speech is a system of phonetic symbols developed by Alexander Melville Bell in 1867 to represent the position of the speech organs in articulating sounds.

Speech Synthesis is the artificial production of human speech.

Speech Generating Device are electronic augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems used to supplement or replace speech or writing for individuals with severe speech impairments, enabling them to verbally communicate.


Phonetic Transcription is the visual representation of speech sounds (or phones).

International Phonetic Alphabet is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.

NATO Phonetic Alphabet is the most widely used radiotelephonic spelling alphabet.

Hearing Difficulties

ANNABELL (Artificial Neural Network with Adaptive Behavior Exploited for Language Learning)
2 mill. interconnected artificial neurons, able to learn to communicate using human language starting from a state of 'tabula rasa'.

Intelligent Avatar Personal Assistant Knowledge Navigator

Intelligent Agent is an autonomous entity which observes through sensors and acts upon an environment using actuators (i.e. it is an agent) and directs its activity towards achieving goals (i.e. it is "rational", as defined in economics). Intelligent agents may also learn or use knowledge to achieve their goals. They may be very simple or very complex: a reflex machine such as a thermostat is an intelligent agent. - PDF

Expert System is a computer system that emulates the decision-making ability of a human expert.

Rule-Based System are used as a way to store and manipulate knowledge to interpret information in a useful way.

Inference Engine is a component of the system that applies logical rules to the knowledge base to deduce new information.

Software Agent is a computer program that acts for a user or other program in a relationship of agency, which derives from the Latin agere (to do): an agreement to act on one's behalf. Such "action on behalf of" implies the authority to decide which, if any, action is appropriate.

Automated Online Assistant is a program that uses artificial intelligence to provide customer service or other assistance on a website. Such an assistant may basically consist of a dialog system, an avatar, as well as an expert system to provide specific expertise to the user.

Automated Attendant allows callers to be automatically transferred to an extension without the intervention of an operator/receptionist).

Smartphone Technologies

Avatar (teaching machine)

If you don't ask the right questions, you will most likely never get the correct answers that you need.

Question and Answer Website Guidelines

1st Option
If there is a match to the question..
Top questions people ask when seeking information about this subject, word or phrase.   (Filter Options)
This page is to help people to define the question more.
They will also see a second list that has things also related to this subject, this is to aid the person in defining what the question may be, and also help the person be more aware of other questions that might need to be asked in order to fully understand.
A person can also read comments from experts and non-experts.

2nd Option
If there is no exact match to the question then have a page appear to inform the user that there was no exact match.

3rd Option
24-Hr. Assistant or Avatar, if 24-Hr. Assistant or Avatar is not available then a phone# is posted.

4th Option
E-mail an Expert, or E-mail the knowledge community.

Ticketing System

Q&A Software
Stack Exchange
User Voice
Question 2 Answer

Do I need to setup a Database?

Wikimedia Discovery is building a trusted and relevant source of knowledge.

Knowledge Graph is a knowledge base used by Google to enhance its search engine's search results with semantic-search information gathered from a wide variety of sources. Knowledge Graph display was added to Google's search engine in 2012, starting in the United States, having been announced on May 16, 2012. It provides structured and detailed information about the topic in addition to a list of links to other sites. The goal is that users would be able to use this information to resolve their query without having to navigate to other sites and assemble the information themselves. The short summary provided in the knowledge graph is often used as a spoken answer in Google Now searches

Knowledge Visualization

"Which questions should you be asking? And when should you be asking questions? We can answer most of the simple questions with simple answers, but how do you know that full understanding has been verified? One way is by verifying the level of intelligence of the user, and knowing the user, and then showing more choices and possible questions that surround that particular question, like knowing why the person asked this question in the first place. So you have to know the difference between a simple question, and a more important question, one that needs more then just a simple answer. You have to  know the difference between someone asking a question for no real reason, and someone asking a question for a particular reason and for a particular purpose in mind. Listening is an ability that should not be over looked or be taken for granted."

Technology Education

Technology is the practical application of science to commerce or industry. The discipline dealing with the art or science of applying scientific knowledge to practical problems. Problem Solving

Mastering Digital Technology to Solve Problems, Organize Information and Disseminate Knowledge

Technology is the collection of techniques, skills, methods and processes used in the production of goods or services or in the accomplishment of objectives, such as scientific investigation. Technology can be the knowledge of techniques, processes, and the like, or it can be embedded in machines which can be operated without detailed knowledge of their workings. "art, skill, cunning of hand".

Applied Science Technologist is a Canadian professional title in engineering and applied science technology.
Architectural technologist is a specialist in the technology of building design and construction.
Cardiovascular technologist is a health specialist who uses imaging technology to help diagnose cardiac and vascular ailments.
Chemical technologist is a worker who provides technical support or services in chemical-related fields.
Civic technologist is a specialist capable of satisfying societal needs by exploiting technologies.
Educational technologist is a specialist in tools to enhance learning.
Electrical technologist is a person whose knowledge lies between that of an electrical engineer and an electrical tradesperson.
Engineering technologist is a specialist who implements technology within a field of engineering.
Industrial technologist is a specialist in the management, operation, and maintenance of complex operation systems.
Information technologist
Medical technologist is a healthcare professional who performs diagnostic analysis on a variety of body fluids.
Polysomnographic technologist is a health specialist who administers overnight polysomnograms.
Professional technologist is a Canadian professional title in engineering and technology related fields.
Radiologic technologist is a medical professional who applies doses of radiation for imaging and treatment.
Surgical technologist is a health specialist who facilitates the conduct of invasive surgical procedures.
Technologist is a European science magazine.
Technical Director is usually a senior technical person within e.g. a software company, engineering firm, film studio, theatrical company or television studio. This person usually possesses the highest level of skill within a specific technical field and may be recognized as an expert in that industry.

Technology is Just a Tool - Using Technology and KM to Improve Education

Computer Knowledge

Educational Technology is the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using, and managing appropriate technological processes and resources.

Technology-Based Instruction
Intelligent Tutoring System
Youth Learn
i Learn
i Skills
Computer Based Instructions
Improving Instruction Through Technology
The National Center for Academic Transformation
Center for Technology and Teacher Education
21st Century Educators
Search Engines
International Society for Technology in Education

Information Technology - IT

Technical Support refers to a plethora of services by which enterprises provide assistance to users of technology products such as mobile phones, televisions, computers, software products or other informatic, electronic or mechanical goods. In general, technical support services address specific problems with a product or service rather than the provision of training, customization, or other support services. Most companies offer technical support for the products they sell, either freely available or for a fee. Technical support may be delivered over by e-mail, live support software on a website, or a tool where users can log a call or incident. Larger organizations frequently have internal technical support available to their staff for computer-related problems. The Internet can also be a good source for freely available tech support, where experienced users help users find solutions to their problems. In addition, some fee-based service companies charge for premium technical support services.

Information Technology Management

IT Service Management

Information Management

Remote Desktop refers to a software or operating system feature that allows a personal computer's desktop environment to be run remotely on one system (usually a PC, but the concept applies equally to a server), while being displayed on a separate client device. Remote desktop applications have varying features. Some allow attaching to an existing user's session (i.e., a running desktop) and "remote controlling", either displaying the remote control session or blanking the screen. Taking over a desktop remotely is a form of remote administration.

Information and Communications Technology is an extended term for information technology (IT) which stresses the role of unified communications and the integration of telecommunications (telephone lines and wireless signals), computers as well as necessary enterprise software, middleware, storage, and audio-visual systems, which enable users to access, store, transmit, and manipulate information. The term ICT is also used to refer to the convergence of audio-visual and telephone networks with computer networks through a single cabling or link system. There are large economic incentives (huge cost savings due to elimination of the telephone network) to merge the telephone network with the computer network system using a single unified system of cabling, signal distribution and management.

Networks (computers)
Management Information Sciences (MIS)
Association of Computer Machinery
Master of Educational Technology Leadership

Mobile Device Management is an industry term for the administration of mobile devices, such as smartphones, tablet computers, laptops and desktop computers. MDM is usually implemented with the use of a third party product that has management features for particular vendors of mobile devices.

Computer Knowledge
Institute for Computer Based Learning
Tech and Learning
i learn technology Blog
Learning Technologies
Campus Technology
Fundación Proacceso ECO A.C
Computer Documentaries 
Archives and Research for Information Technology
The World Information Technology and Services Alliance
How Does Technology Impact Communication?
Online Education
Exploration of CBLT 

Art and Technology
Social Networks Etiquette
Learning Methods
Video Teacher

Future Trends in Education Technology (PDF)
Tech Liberation
Future of Education Technology
Future of Higher Ed (PDF)

A guide to classroom technologies that increase learning, an educators resource
Technology Classroom School Future

Smartphones as Tools for Education
Hope PC

Intelligent use of Information Technology
Report on Laptops for Learning (pdf)
Pew Internet Research
Internet Knowledge
The Learning Collective Instructional Designers

Interactive Whiteboard is a large interactive display in the form factor of a whiteboard. It can either be a standalone touchscreen computer used independently to perform tasks and operations, or a connectable apparatus used as a touchpad to control computers from a projector. They are used in a variety of settings, including classrooms at all levels of education, in corporate board rooms and work groups, in training rooms for professional sports coaching, in broadcasting studios, and others.

Digital Citizen refers to a person utilizing information technology (IT) in order to engage in society, politics, and government participation. K. Mossberger, et al. define digital citizens as "those who use the Internet regularly and effectively."

Digital Citizenship

Mature Technology is a technology that has been in use for long enough that most of its initial faults and inherent problems have been removed or reduced by further development. In some contexts, it may also refer to technology that has not seen widespread use, but whose scientific background is well understood. One of the key indicators of a mature technology is the ease of use for both non-experts and professionals. Another indicator is a reduction in the rate of new breakthrough advances related to it—whereas inventions related to a (popular) immature technology are usually rapid and diverse, and may change the whole use paradigm—advances to a mature technology are usually incremental improvements only.

Technology Fusion involves a transformation of core technologies. An example is the fusion of mechanical and electronic engineering to create mechatronics.

ITIL is a set of practices for IT service management (ITSM) that focuses on aligning IT services with the needs of business. In its current form (known as ITIL V3), ITIL is published as a series of five core volumes, each of which covers a different ITSM lifecycle stage. Although ITIL underpins ISO/IEC 20000 (previously BS 15000), the International Service Management Standard for IT service management, there are some differences between the ISO 20000 standard and the ITIL framework. ITIL describes processes, procedures, tasks, and checklists which are not organization-specific, but can be applied by an organization for establishing integration with the organization's strategy, delivering value, and maintaining a minimum level of competency. It allows the organization to establish a baseline from which it can plan, implement, and measure. It is used to demonstrate compliance and to measure improvement.

Internet Safety

Library and information Science

Technical Writing is any written form of writing or drafting technical communication used in a variety of technical and occupational fields, such as computer hardware and software, engineering, chemistry, aeronautics, robotics, finance, consumer electronics, and biotechnology. It encompasses the largest sub-field within technical communication.

Technical Writer is a professional writer who produces technical documentation that helps people understand and use a product or service. This documentation includes online help, manuals (system, end-user, training), white papers, design specifications, project plans, test plans, business correspondence, etc. With the rise of e-learning, technical writers are also charged with creating online training for their audience of learners. Technical writers explain technologies, processes, and products in many formats, including print, online, and other electronic means.

Writing Knowledge (writing tips)

Information Protection

Tests That Measure Technological Orientation
Technology Skills Assessment

Tool is a device or implement used to carry out a particular function. The means whereby some act is accomplished. Tool is any physical item that can be used to achieve a goal, especially if the item is not consumed in the process. Tool use by humans dates back millions of years, and other animals are also known to employ simple tools.

Machine is a tool containing one or more parts that uses energy to perform an intended action. Machines are usually powered by chemical, thermal, or electrical means, and are often motorized. Historically, a power tool also required moving parts to classify as a machine. However, the advent of electronics has led to the development of power tools without moving parts that are considered machines. A simple machine is a device that simply transforms the direction or magnitude of a force, but a large number of more complex machines exist. Examples include vehicles, electronic systems, molecular machines, computers, television, and radio.

Electrical Equipment includes any machine powered by electricity. It usually consists of an enclosure, a variety of electrical components, and often a power switch.

Medical Equipment is designed to aid in the diagnosis, monitoring or treatment of medical conditions.

Laboratory Equipment (chemistry)
Agricultural Machinery (farming)

Protective Equipment refers to protective clothing, helmets, goggles, or other garments or equipment designed to protect the wearer's body from injury or infection. The hazards addressed by protective equipment include physical, electrical, heat, chemicals, biohazards, and airborne particulate matter. Protective equipment may be worn for job-related occupational safety and health purposes, as well as for sports and other recreational activities. "Protective clothing" is applied to traditional categories of clothing, and "protective gear" applies to items such as pads, guards, shields, or masks, and others.

Device is an instrumentality invented for a particular purpose. Something in an artistic work designed to achieve a particular effect.

Instrument is a device that requires skill for proper use.
Scientific Instrument
Quality Control

Engineering is the practical application of science to commerce or industry. The discipline dealing with the art or science of applying scientific knowledge to practical problems.

Manufacture is to put something together out of artificial or natural components or parts. Produce naturally. Create or produce in a mechanical way. The organized action of making of goods and services for sale. The act of making something (a product) from raw materials.

Basic Computer Operations and Concepts
Do you understand the basic function of computer hardware components such as the CPU, monitor, keyboard, and file storage?
Do you know the type of personal computer you use or own?
Do you know what operating system is installed on your computer?
Can you find and start a program?
Can you navigate between programs?  Software
Can you select a word processing program that you have installed on your computer?
Can you save files to the hard drive or removable storage, such as a CD or flash drive?
Can you exit or quit an application?
Can you log off a computer?
Can you shut down a computer properly?

Computer Literacy is the ability to use computers and related technology efficiently, with a range of skills covering levels from elementary use to programming and advanced problem solving. Computer literacy can also refer to the comfort level someone has with using computer programs and other applications that are associated with computers. Another valuable component is understanding how computers work and operate. Computer literacy may be distinguished from computer programming which is design and coding of computer programs rather than familiarity and skill in their use.
How to Use a Computer (youtube)
Computer Basics
Learn to use Computers
Homer Simpson Any Key
Word Processing Skills
Can you create a new document?
Can you save a document?
Can you cut, copy and paste text?
Can you change font style and size?
Can you utilize spell-check?
Can you center text?
Can you change the line spacing in a document?
Can you set margins?
Can you change the page orientation from portrait to landscape?
Can you include page numbers?
Can you use headers and footers?
Can you create a numbered or bulleted list?
Can you create a table?
Worker Qualities / Working Skills

Spreadsheet Skills
Have you ever used Excel?
Can you use the Formula Bar to perform mathematical calculations?
Can you use the built-in Function capability to create equations?
Can you create charts?
Can you sort and filter information?

Do you know how to check if your computer is connected to Internet?
Do you know the type of Internet connection that you have on your computer?
Do you know how to check your Internet connection speed?
Do you know how to check which web browser are you utilizing?
Can you locate a website given the address?
Can you use a browser's capabilities to go back, forward, reload/refresh, print and stop?
Can you use a web browser to follow links to another website?
Do you know how to adjust browser settings and options?
Do you know what internet cookies are?
Can you save a website address in the bookmarks or favorites?
Can you find information using a search engine such as Google or Yahoo?
Can you download and save files, such as graphics, documents, or PDFs, from the Internet?
Can you download and install software from the Internet?
Can you install and update antivirus software?

Can you log in to a website?   Computer Code
Can you upload/download files to and from a website?
Can you insert graphics, images, or clip art to a website?

Do you know how to activate or setup an email account?
Can you read email messages?
Can you compose and send email messages?
Can you reply to an email message?
Can you manage your email by moving messages between folders, forwarding messages and deleting messages?
Can you send attachments through email?

Can you type at a good speed?
Can you write at a good speed?
Can you read at a good speed?
Can you listen at a good speed?
Are you comfortable with written instructions?
Can you comprehend what you're reading when you first read something or do you have to read something a few times in order to understand it?
Are you comfortable with asking questions?
Are you comfortable with asking for help?
Are you good at keeping yourself busy?
Are you good at problem solving?
Are you comfortable with trying different ways of doing things, and can you do one thing at a time?
Are you comfortable with being challenged with learning new things that seem complex and over whelming?
Are you comfortable with admitting that you made a mistake?
Can you stay calm in difficult and stressful situations?
Are you comfortable with working on your own?
Are you comfortable with leadership roles, and can you take the initiative when needed?
Do you consider yourself to be self-disciplined?
How well can you adapt to different personalities?
Do you have a sense of humor?

"Though these questions don't cover all the different scenarios, it does give you an idea"

Qualities and Skills that Employers and Organizations look for:

Verbal and Written Communication Skills:
Ability to Communicate, Listen, Speak, Read and Write Effectively. Body Language

Interpersonal Skills:
Gets along with Co-workers, Self-Starter and an Enthusiastic Team Player with the ability to multi-task and deal with constantly changing priorities in fast-paced environments. A person who has Networking Skills. Empathy and Emotional Intelligence. Self-Confidence and Assertiveness. Possess a high level of professionalism. Exercises discretion, sensitivity, tact and confidentiality.

Competence (skill level)
Counterproductive work Behavior (slacker)
Motivation (self motivated)

Work Etiquette is a code that governs the expectations of social behavior in a workplace, in a group or a society. Work etiquette tells the individual how to behave when dealing with situations in a working environment however difficult the situation is. Office etiquette in particular applies to co-worker interaction and communication with colleagues. There is no universal agreement about a standard work etiquette which may vary from one environment to another.

Employee Handbook contains information about company policies and procedures.

Work Ethic is a value based on hard work and diligence. A belief that work, hard work and diligence has a moral benefit and an inherent ability, virtue or value to strengthen character. It is about prioritizing work and putting it in the center of life. Social ingrainment of this value is considered to enhance character through hard work that is respective to an individuals field of work.
Factors are: Goal-Oriented actions: It is not about making plans or the next logical steps; it's about getting things done so that the work invested wouldn't be counter-productive. Dedicate on Priority: Focusing on qualitative activities that a person is capable and where they can make a difference or a high impact based on objectives. Being Available and Reliable: Spending time on the work and building oneself up for the task. Conscientiousness: A desire to do a task well, being vigilant and organized. Creating a rewarding routine/system: Engaging in tasks that provide strength and energy which can be transferred to your ultimate goals, creating a habit and a habitat for success. Embracing positivism.

Diligence is conscientiousness in paying proper attention to a task; giving the degree of care required in a given situation. Persevering determination to perform a task.

Workplace Politics is the process and behavior in human interactions involving power and authority. It is also a tool to assess the operational capacity and to balance diverse views of interested parties. It is also known by other names like office politics and organizational politics. It is the use of power and social networking within an organization to achieve changes that benefit the organization or individuals within it. Influence by individuals may serve personal interests without regard to their effect on the organization itself.

Dating - Relationships
Jobs of the Future
Employee Hiring
Employee Managing

Have experience with Knowledge Management Tools and understand Job Performance.

Organizational Skills:
Problem-Solving Skills, Decision Making, Reasoning, Fast Learner, Accurate, Organized, Analytical, Higher-Order Thinking Skills, Versatile, Multitasking abilities, Ability to Plan and Think ahead, Time Management Skills, Able to do Research, Synthesis, Has Multiple Skills in More Than One Area, Follows Company Policies and Procedures, Works Independently and Solves Problems in a timely and professional manner. Adept at networking and building consensus with all levels of society. Strong Analytical and Strategic Thinker, with ability to draw conclusions and determine strategies based on data. Has a Willingness to ask Questions, Willing to do more then Expected, Independent Learner, Self-Managed, Interested in Learning.

First Impressions

Honesty and integrity:
Openness, Shares Experience and Ideas, Accepts Responsibilities, Kuleana, Has Interest in the Job. Is Cooperative, Has a Positive Attitude, Is Mature, Conscientious, Considerate, Polite, Loyal, Helpful, Has Leadership Abilities, Is Open Minded, Well Groomed.  Morals and Ethics

Self-advocacy refers to people with disabilities taking control of their own lives, including being in charge of their own care in the medical system.

Job Responsibilities
Are You Seen as a Jerk at Work?
Personality and Personal Development
How to be a Good Waitress
How to be a Waiter with Respectful Attitude by Vitorino (youtube)
Choosing the Right Tie

On Time, Dependable, Reliable, Flexible, Adaptable, Self-Motivated, Disciplined.
Time Management Skills - Prioritizing

Computer Skills:
Technology Skills, Technologically Literate, Computer Software, Word Processing, E-Mail, Spreadsheets, Internet Navigation, Familiar with Computer Hardware and Maintenance.

Computer Keyboard Symbols Meanings

Computer Keyboard Keys Names &    ampersand or and
‘     apostrophe or single quote
`     back quote
"    Quotation mark
*     Asterisk
@   at sign
\     back slash
/     forward slash
{ }   braces or curly braces
{     open brace
}     close brace
[ ]   brackets
[     open bracket
]     close bracket
( )   parenthesis
(     open parenthesis
)     close parenthesis
^    carat
:     colon
;     semi-colon
,     comma
=    equal sign
–    minus or hyphen
+    plus sign
$    dollar sign
!     exclamation mark
>    greater than sign
<    less than sign
%   percent
|     pipe or bar
#    pound or number sign or sharp or hash
~    tilde
_    underscore

Function Key on a terminal may either generate short fixed sequences of characters, sending special character sequences interpreted directly by the application program.

Kira 99-key Mechanical Keyboard that is programmable with a open source firmware keyboard layout language. (Should make 3D printed replacement keys for any language).

Punctuation Marks
. is a period or full stop
, is a comma
? is a question mark
! is an exclamation mark
' is an apostrophe
" is a quotation mark/inverted comma
: is a colon
; is a semicolon
... is an ellipsis
- is a hyphen
– is a n-dash
— is an m-dash

Keyboard Designs

Addicted to Technology ? Or is it just an Addictive Personality?

Visual Graphics Tools - Flow Chart Software - Mind Maps Creator

KM Mind Map Visualization of Knowledge is any technique for creating images, diagrams, or animations to communicate a message.

Knowledge Visualization

Mind Map is a diagram used to visually organize information. A mind map is hierarchical and shows relationships among pieces of the whole. It is often created around a single concept, drawn as an image in the center of a blank page, to which associated representations of ideas such as images, words and parts of words are added. Major ideas are connected directly to the central concept, and other ideas branch out from those.

Mind Mapping KM
Mind Map Creator
Mind Map Maker
Mind Meister
The Brain Map Software
Thinking Maps (PDF)


Menus - Navigation

Presentations - Charts

Table of Contents are titles or descriptions of subjects or content to help speed up location of desired information.

Flowchart is a type of diagram that represents an algorithm, workflow or process, showing the steps as boxes of various kinds, and their order by connecting them with arrows.

Engineering Drawings - Models

Organizational Chart is a diagram that shows the structure of an organization and the relationships and relative ranks of its parts and positions/jobs.

Directory Information Tree is data represented in a hierarchical tree-like structure consisting of the Distinguished Names (DNs) of directory service entries.

Family Tree
Map Story is the free atlas of change tool that everyone can edit, how the world evolves geographically over time.

Template pre-formatted example on which to base other files and documents.

Website Terminology - Organizing Methods

Canva Graphs easier way to create compelling graphs and charts.
Chart Go
Online Chart Tool
Chart Porn
Time Glider
One Dataset, Visualized 25 Ways (flowing data)
Lovely Charts
High Charts
Graphiq contextually-rich visualizations.
Charts Bin
Smart Draw Flowchart Maker, Floor Plan, Chart Maker, Diagram Maker, Templates.
Scribble Maps
Bubbl is a mind map is a graphical representation of ideas and concepts.
Spider Scribe
Metric Maps
Things Made Thinkable
Using Automatic Show Me
NCH Software
Lucid Chart
Geographic Information Map Creator
Google knowledge Graph

Building Blocks - Bricks - Spatial intelligence (3D Smart)

Visual Thesaurus is a 3D interactive reference tool, powered by Thinkmap.

Tag Clouds is a visual representation of text data, typically used to depict keyword metadata (tags) on websites, or to visualize free form text. Tags are usually single words, and the importance of each tag is shown with font size or color. This format is useful for quickly perceiving the most prominent terms and for locating a term alphabetically to determine its relative prominence. When used as website navigation aids, the terms are hyperlinked to items associated with the tag.

Diagramming Software is software that is used to model, represent and visualize information.

Loopy tool to make interactive simulations that lets you draw the nodes and arrows of your system and give them definitions. Then, you can actually interact with the model you made: add inputs into the system and diagram animates. The "+" or "-" sign on the arrows denotes the effect one node has on the next, and the nodes grow or shrink accordingly. If you start by adding a positive input (hit the "up" arrow on the node) to "Kid downloads apps," you'll watch the "performance" and "joy" nodes shrink while "willingness to lend" grows. (Open Source and Public Domain).

Meaning (understanding symbols) -Art

Abstraction Layer is a way of hiding the implementation details of a particular set of functionality, allowing the separation of concerns to facilitate interoperability and platform independence. Layers (Levels).

Separation of Content and Presentation is a design principle under which visual and design aspects (presentation and style)
are separated from the core material and structure (content) of a document.

Object-Oriented Design is the process of planning a system of interacting objects for the purpose of solving a software problem.

Object-Relational Mapping is a programming technique for converting data between incompatible type systems in object-oriented programming languages. This creates, in effect, a "virtual object database" that can be used from within the programming language.

Sentence Diagram is a pictorial representation of the grammatical structure of a sentence. Parse Tree

Scientific Modeling is a scientific activity, the aim of which is to make a particular part or feature of the world easier to understand, define, quantify, visualize, or simulate by referencing it to existing and usually commonly accepted knowledge. It requires selecting and identifying relevant aspects of a situation in the real world and then using different types of models for different aims, such as conceptual models to better understand, operational models to operationalize, mathematical models to quantify, and graphical models to visualize the subject. Modelling is an essential and inseparable part of scientific activity, and many scientific disciplines have their own ideas about specific types of modelling.

Scientific Visualization concerned with the visualization of three-dimensional phenomena (architectural, meteorological, medical, biological, etc.), where the emphasis is on realistic renderings of volumes, surfaces, illumination sources, and so forth, perhaps with a dynamic (time) component".

3D Engineering Models (drawings)

Multidimensional Scaling is a means of visualizing the level of similarity of individual cases of a dataset. It refers to a set of related ordination techniques used in information visualization, in particular to display the information contained in a distance matrix.

A Study of Graphic Communication (PDF)

Labels for Food Meanings

Visual Classification - Visual Representation

Representation (psychology) is a hypothetical internal cognitive symbol that represents external reality, or else a mental process that makes use of such a symbol: "a formal system for making explicit certain entities or types of information, together with a specification of how the system does this.

Mental Representation is a hypothetical internal cognitive symbol that represents external reality, or else a mental process that makes use of such a symbol: "a formal system for making explicit certain entities or types of information, together with a specification of how the system does this." Mental representation is the mental imagery of things that are not actually present to the senses. In contemporary philosophy, specifically in fields of metaphysics such as philosophy of mind and ontology, a mental representation is one of the prevailing ways of explaining and describing the nature of ideas and concepts.

Knowledge Representation and Reasoning is representing information about the world in a form that a computer system can utilize to solve complex tasks such as diagnosing a medical condition or having a dialog in a natural language. Ai

Cognitive Model is an approximation to animal cognitive processes (predominantly human) for the purposes of comprehension and prediction.

Conceptual Model is a representation of a system, made of the composition of concepts which are used to help people know, understand, or simulate a subject the model represents. Some models are physical objects; for example, a toy model which may be assembled, and may be made to work like the object it represents.

Ideas - Development

Multiple Representations (mathematics) are ways to symbolize, to describe and to refer to the same mathematical entity.

Representation (mathematics) is a very general relationship that expresses similarities between objects.

Representation (arts) is the use of signs that stand in for and take the place of something else. It is through representation that people organize the world and reality through the act of naming its elements. Signs are arranged in order to form semantic constructions and express relations.

Creativity - Art

Depiction is a form of non-verbal representation in which two-dimensional images (pictures) are regarded as viable substitutes for things seen, remembered or imagined.

Direct and Indirect Realism arises in the philosophy of perception and of mind out of the debate over the nature of conscious experience; the epistemological question of whether the world we see around us is the real world itself or merely an internal perceptual copy of that world generated by neural processes in our brain. Virtual Reality

Decision Tree (problem solving)

Tree of Life

Graph Drawing to derive two-dimensional depictions of graphs arising from applications such as social network analysis, cartography, linguistics, and bioinformatics.

Graph Database is a database that uses graph structures for semantic queries with nodes, edges and properties to represent and store data.

Glossary of Graph Theory used to modify notation for graph invariants so that it applies to the line graph instead of the given graph.

Spreadsheet is an interactive computer application for organization, analysis and storage of data in tabular form.

Graphs - Plots

Analytics - Statistics

Information Graphics are graphic visual representations of information, data or knowledge intended to present information quickly and clearly. Also known as Info-Graphic.

Story Maps

Graphic Organizer is a communication tool that uses visual symbols to express knowledge, concepts, thoughts, or ideas, and the relationships between them. The main purpose of a graphic organizer is to provide a visual aid to facilitate learning and instruction.

Information Visualization is the study of (interactive) visual representations of abstract data to reinforce human cognition. The abstract data include both numerical and non-numerical data, such as text and geographic information.

Wolfram Mathematica is a Problem Generator for algebra, calculus, statistics, number theory, and R&D workflows.
Wolfram Knowledgebase across thousands of domains, the Knowledgebase contains carefully curated expert knowledge directly derived from primary sources. It includes not only trillions of data elements, but also immense numbers of algorithms
encapsulating the methods and models of almost every field.
Wolfram integrated technical computing software.
Wolfram Alpha Computational Knowledge Engine an Answer Engine developed in 16 May 2009. Vast collection of built-in data, algorithms, and methods. Systematic knowledge immediately computable and accessible to everyone.
Wolfram Research is a private company that creates computational technology.
Wolfram Cloud

Social Learning Tools (data sharing)

Information Literacy
Information is Beautiful Visualizing Data
Patricio Gonzalez Vivo

Data Visualization involves the creation and study of the visual representation of data, meaning "information that has been abstracted in some schematic form, including attributes or variables for the units of information.

Database Schema organization of data as a blueprint of how the database is constructed (divided into database tables in the case of relational databases).

Knowledge Visualization

Information and knowledge is not always in Chronological order. Sometimes you may find yourself to far ahead of what you need to know. You may have to go back and learn something again, or acquire more information about the subject. So you need to be aware of when more information and knowledge is needed before continuing to learn from your current level of knowledge. Knowing the Chronological order of information and knowledge makes it easy to navigate through knowledge and information, as well as, makes it easy to plan and manage your learning time efficiently and effectively.

Curriculum is broadly defined as the totality of student experiences that occur in the educational process. The term often refers specifically to a planned sequence of instruction, or to a view of the student's experiences in terms of the educator's or school's instructional goals. Timeline

Knowledge Visualization is the use of visual representations to transfer knowledge between at least two persons, aims to improve the transfer of knowledge by using computer and non-computer-based visualization methods complementarily.

Outline of Knowledge familiarity with someone or something, which can include facts, information, descriptions, and/or skills acquired through experience or education. It can refer to the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject. It can be implicit (as with practical skill or expertise) or explicit (as with the theoretical understanding of a subject); and it can be more or less formal or systematic.

Bloom's Taxonomy is a set of three hierarchical models used to classify educational learning objectives into levels of complexity and specificity. The three lists cover the learning objectives in cognitive, affective and sensory domains.

Tree Structure is a way of representing the hierarchical nature of a structure in a graphical form.

Topic Map is a standard for the representation and interchange of knowledge, with an emphasis on the findability of information.

Network Topology is the arrangement of the various elements (links, nodes, etc.) of a computer network. Essentially, it is the topological structure of a network and may be depicted physically or logically.

Computer Vision is an interdisciplinary field that deals with how computers can be made to gain high-level understanding from digital images or videos. From the perspective of engineering, it seeks to automate tasks that the human visual system can do

Decision Tree is a decision support tool that uses a tree-like graph or model of decisions and their possible consequences, including chance event outcomes, resource costs, and utility. It is one way to display an algorithm.

Spatial intelligence
Collaboration Tools
Human Search Engine

Most subjects share common information and knowledge. That is why you will see the Cross Reference Links in Black. 

Network Science studies complex networks such as telecommunication networks, computer networks, biological networks, cognitive and semantic networks, and social networks, considering distinct elements or actors represented by nodes (or vertices) and the connections between the elements or actors as links (or edges).

Visual Variables
Flowing Data
Ersatz 1
Alchemy Api

Word Matrix

Design Elements and the Perception of Information Structure (wiki)
Bars and Lines: A Study of Graphic Communication Jeff Zacks and Barbara Tversky (PDF)
The Science of what we do and don't know about data visualization
Processing electronic sketchbook for developing ideas.

Conceive  -  Imagine  -  Form  -  Visualize  -  Envision  -  Realize  -  Foresee

Form an idea in the mind. Form a mental picture of something that is invisible or abstract. A perceptual structure. Predict. A category of things distinguished by some common characteristic or quality. The spatial arrangement of something as distinct from its substance. An arrangement of the elements in a composition or discourse. The visual appearance of something or someone. To compose or represent. Give shape or form to. Establish or impress firmly in the mind. The phonological or orthographic sound or appearance of a word that can be used to describe or identify something. Form a mental image of something that is not present or that is not the case. Picture to oneself; imagine possible. Perceive an idea or situation mentally. Make real or concrete; give reality or substance to. Be fully aware or cognizant of. Bearing in mind. Having knowledge of.

Visual Metaphor is one image or set of images used in place of another to suggest an analogy between the two images or sets of images.

Graphic Arts (design)

Visual Tools (art)

Abstract and Concrete (when ideas exist only in the mind)

Physical Body is an identifiable collection of matter, which may be more or less constrained by an identifiable boundary, to move together by translation or rotation, in 3-dimensional space. In common usage an object is a collection of matter within a defined contiguous boundary in 3-dimensional space. The boundary must be defined and identified by the properties of the material. The boundary may change over time. The boundary is usually the visible or tangible surface of the object. The matter in the object is constrained (to a greater or lesser degree) to move as one object. The boundary may move in space relative to other objects that it is not attached to (through translation and rotation). An object's boundary may also deform and change over time in other ways.

Emblematic is to serve as a visible symbol for something abstract, existing only in the mind; separated from embodiment, or giving concrete form to an abstract concept. Being or serving as an illustration of a type.

Presentation is to bring forward and present to the mind. A visual representation of something. A show or display; the act of presenting something to sight or view. Cause to come to know personally. Represent abstractly, for example in a painting, drawing, or sculpture.

Represent is to take the place of or be parallel or equivalent to. Express indirectly by an image, form, or model; be a symbol. Serve as a means of expressing something. Describe or present, usually with respect to a particular quality. Bring forward and present to the mind.

Expressing is to articulate; either verbally or with a cry, shout, or noise. Indicate through a symbol, formula, etc. 

Articulate is to put into words or an expression. Express or state clearly. Speak, pronounce, or utter in a certain way.

Appearance is an outward or visible aspect of a person or thing. The act of appearing in public view.
Aesthetics (art)

A good example should be knowledgeable in itself, and a close relative that's closely related to other similar valuable knowledge.
Something that is representative of all such things in a group. Something that serves to illustrate or explain a rule. Something that serves as a pattern of behaviour to be imitated (a good example) or not to be imitated. (a bad example). A parallel or closely similar case, especially when serving as a precedent or model. A Simulation. An instance (as a problem to be solved) serving to illustrate the rule or precept or to act as an exercise in the application of the rule. Something to be imitated. A task performed or problem solved in order to develop skill or understanding. Make a reproduction or copy of. A representation of a physical object, usually in miniature. Similarities between objects relationships existing among the representing objects.
Having the same overall direction; the comparison is indicated with "to".

"Being able to visualize things are important. When you here something, it's good to be able to visualize it because it helps understand it and remember it. That is why abstract ideas are harder to imagine and understand."

Abstract - Abstraction

It all started in caves over 30,000 years ago.  Cave Painting (wiki)


"There is no end to what you can do once you start with the business of collecting facts." (Page 159, to be exact, from the book 'How to write, speak and think more effectively')

"All Libraries in the world should have Visualization Maps of their Books and Educational Materials, as seen from above. So you can see everything in the library before visiting. So as you search for Subjects and Categories the map will highlight the areas you are interested in, and then you can then zoom in and do a street view, or row aisle view, like you would with Google maps."
But of course with Automated Library Systems there will probably be no need for this

"People can not visualize or understand the value or the importance of knowledge and information, unless they have learned the necessary knowledge and information in order to understand it. Example, an engineer or an architect can visualize a building, like the empire state building, but if you don't have the necessary knowledge, skills and experience, you can not visualize that type of building, or would you know enough in order to build a complex building that high. Now lets imagine if you had the necessary knowledge and information that was needed in order to understand the value and the importance of knowledge and information, What would you see? What would you build?"

"One good thing about the digital world is that it doesn't take up a lot of space in the physical world. Imagine if it did, your head would increase in size as you got older to accommodate your growing brain, that's of course if you continued to educate yourself and learn new things, and not many people do. So in reality, some peoples heads would actually get smaller, which doesn't mean that the big headed people would take over the world, it just means that it would be easy to spot a big headed person in a crowd of people, "Hey, there's one now, ask her a question."

Job Titles

Chief Knowledge Officer is an organizational leader, responsible for ensuring that the organization maximizes the value it achieves through "knowledge". The CKO is responsible for managing intellectual capital and the custodian of Knowledge Management practices in an organization.

Competence - Professional - Qualities - Oaths

Knowledge Worker are workers whose main capital is knowledge, whose job is to "think for a living", like software engineers.

Knowledge Broker is an intermediary (an organization or a person), that aims to develop relationships and networks with, among, and between producers and users of knowledge by providing linkages, knowledge sources, and in some cases knowledge itself, (e.g. technical know-how, market insights, research evidence) to organizations in its network.

Chief Officers
Chief Administrative Officer, Chief Analytics Officer. " Audit ", Brand, Business, Channel, Commercial, Communications
Compliance, Content, Creative, Data, Digital, Executive (CEO), Experience, Financial, Human resources, Information
Information security, Innovation, Investment, Knowledge, Learning, Legal, Marketing, Medical, Networking, Operating, Procurement, Chief Product Officer - Product Architect, Research, Restructuring, Revenue, Risk, Science, Strategy, Chief Technology Officer, Visionary, Web.

President is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. In many organizations, it is the legally recognized highest "titled" corporate officer, ranking above the various Vice Presidents (e.g. Senior Vice President and Executive Vice President). The president may also be the chairperson. The relationship between the president and the Chief Executive Officer varies, depending on the structure of the specific organization.

Chairman is the highest officer of an organized group such as a board, a committee, or a deliberative assembly. The person holding the office is typically elected or appointed by the members of the group. The chairman presides over meetings of the assembled group and conducts its business in an orderly fashion. When the group is not in session, the officer's duties often include acting as its head, its representative to the outside world and its spokesperson. In some organizations, this position is also called president (or other title), in others, where a board appoints a president (or other title), the two different terms are used for distinctly different positions.

Creative Director is a position often found within the graphic design, film, music, video game, fashion, advertising, media, or entertainment industries, but may be useful in other creative organizations such as web development and software development firms as well.

Executive Director is a chief executive officer (CEO) or managing director of an organization, company, or corporation. The title is widely used in North American non-profit organizations, though many United States nonprofits have adopted the title president or CEO.

Non-Executive Director is a member of the board of directors of a company or organization who does not form part of the executive management team. They are not employees of the company or affiliated with it in any other way and are differentiated from inside directors, who are members of the board who also serve or previously served as executive managers of the company (most often as corporate officers). However they do have the same legal duties, responsibilities and potential liabilities as their executive counterparts.

Senior Management is generally a team of individuals at the highest level of Management of an organization who have the day-to-day tasks of managing that organization - sometimes a company or a corporation. They hold specific executive powers delegated to them with and by authority of a board of directors and/or the shareholders. Generally, higher levels of responsibility exist, such as a board of directors and those who own the company (shareholders) - but they focus on managing the senior or executive management instead of on the day-to-day activities of the business.

Manager operates through five basic functions: planning, organizing, coordinating, commanding, and controlling. Planning: Deciding what needs to happen in the future and generating plans for action (deciding in advance). Organizing (or staffing): Making sure the human and nonhuman resources are put into place. Coordinating: Creating a structure through which an organization's goals can be accomplished. Commanding (or leading): Determining what must be done in a situation and getting people to do it. Controlling: Checking progress against plans. Basic roles: Interpersonal: roles that involve coordination and interaction with employees. Informational: roles that involve handling, sharing, and analyzing information. Decision: roles that require decision-making. Skills: Management skills include: political: used to build a power base and to establish connections. Conceptual: used to analyze complex situations. Interpersonal: used to communicate, motivate, mentor and delegate. Diagnostic: ability to visualize appropriate responses to a situation, Leadership: ability to lead and to provide guidance to a specific group. Technical: expertise in one's particular functional area. Implementation of policies and strategies: All policies and strategies must be discussed with all managerial personnel and staff. Managers must understand where and how they can implement their policies and strategies. A plan of action must be devised for each department. Policies and strategies must be reviewed regularly. Contingency plans must be devised in case the environment changes. Top-level managers should carry out regular progress assessments. The business requires team spirit and a good environment. The missions, objectives, strengths and weaknesses of each department must be analyzed to determine their roles in achieving the business's mission. The forecasting method develops a reliable picture of the business's future environment. A planning unit must be created to ensure that all plans are consistent and that policies and strategies are aimed at achieving the same mission and objectives.

Supervisor is similar to foreman, foreperson, boss, overseer, cell coach, manager, facilitator, monitor, or area coordinator, is the job title of a Low level management position that is primarily based on authority over a worker or charge of a workplace. A Supervisor can also be one of the most senior in the staff at the place of work, such as a Professor who oversees a PhD dissertation. Supervision, on the other hand, can be performed by people without this formal title, for example by parents. The term Supervisor itself can be used to refer to any personnel who have this task as part of their job description. An employee is a supervisor if he has the power and authority to do the following actions (according to the Ontario Ministry of Labour): Give instructions and/or orders to subordinates. Be held responsible for the work and actions of other employees.

Supervisory Board often called board of directors, is a group of individuals chosen by the stockholders of a company to promote their interests through the governance of the company and to hire and supervise the executive directors and CEO.

Team Leader is someone who provides guidance, instruction, direction and Leadership to a group of other individuals (the team) for the purpose of achieving a key result or group of aligned results. The team leader reports to a manager (overseeing several teams). The team leader monitors the quantitative and qualitative result that is to be achieved. The leader often works within the team, as a member, carrying out the same roles but with the additional 'leader' responsibilities - as opposed to higher level management who often have a separate job role altogether. In order for a team to function successfully, the team leader must also motivate the team to "use their knowledge and skills to achieve the shared goals." When a team leader motivates a team, group members can function in a goal oriented manner. A "team leader" is also someone who has the capability to drive performance within a group of people. Team leaders utilize their expertise, their peers, influence, and/or creativeness to formulate an effective team.

Talent Management refers to the anticipation of required human capital for an organization and the planning to meet those needs.

General Counsel is the chief lawyer of a legal department, usually in a company or a governmental department.

Board of Directors is a recognized group of people who jointly oversee the activities of an organization, which can be either a for-profit business, nonprofit organization, or a government agency.

Corporate Governance is the mechanisms, processes and relations by which corporations are controlled and directed. Governance structures and principles identify the distribution of rights and responsibilities among different participants in the corporation (such as the board of directors, managers, shareholders, creditors, auditors, regulators, and other stakeholders) and includes the rules and procedures for making decisions in corporate affairs.

Executive Pay



Related Subjects and Categories
Computer Knowledge
Information Technology
Information Literacy 
Management Tools
Human Search Engine 
Internet Knowledge
Education Laptops
Independent Learning
Online Education
Artificial Intelligence
Open Knowledge
Open Source Education
Knowledge Storage

The Thinker Man