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Ideas - Innovation - Ingenuity - Inventiveness


"Small Moves, Smartly Made, Can Set Big Things in Motion." "Many of the things that seem impossible now will become realities tomorrow." "Necessity is the Mother of Invention", meaning that when the need for something becomes imperative, you are forced to find ways of getting or achieving it. The primary driving force for most new inventions is a need.

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Idea is a mental image or representation of some object. An abstract concept that is difficult to visualize but can be inferred. The process of using your mind to consider something carefully. Use or exercise the mind or one's power of reason in order to make inferences, decisions, or arrive at a solution or judgments. The content of cognition; the main thing you are Thinking about. Your intention; what you intend to do. Your Goal  Recall knowledge from memory; have a recollection Imagine or visualize. Focus one's attention on a certain state. Have in mind as a purpose. Have or formulate in the mind. Be capable of conscious thought. Decide by pondering, reasoning, or reflecting. Ponder; reflect on, or reason about. An approximate calculation of quantity or degree or worth.  Bring into a given condition by mental preoccupation, imagined. Imagine, conceive of; see in one's mind. Form a mental image of something that is not present or that is not the case.  

What does coming up with an idea mean?
What does it mean to Invent

Eureka Effect refers to the common human experience of suddenly understanding a previously incomprehensible problem or concept. Idea Info-Graph

Meme is "an idea, behavior, or style that spreads from person to person within a culture". A meme acts as a unit for carrying cultural ideas, symbols, or practices that can be transmitted from one mind to another through writing, speech, gestures, rituals, or other imitable phenomena with a mimicked theme. Supporters of the concept regard memes as cultural analogues to genes in that they self-replicate, mutate, and respond to selective pressures.
Internet Meme is an activity, concept, catchphrase or piece of media which spreads, often as mimicry, from person to person via the Internet.

Creative Industries refers to a range of economic activities which are concerned with the generation or exploitation of knowledge and information. Creativity
Imagination Age is when creativity and imagination will become the primary creators of economic value. This contrasts with the information age where analysis and thinking were the main activities.

Copy Rights
Intelligence
Inspiration
Taking a Walk for ideas
Resources for Ideas

Realize is to be fully aware or cognizant of. Perceive (an idea or situation) mentally. Make real or concrete; give reality or substance. Coming to understand something clearly and distinctly. Making real or giving the appearance of reality. 
Visualize

Dream is to have Imaginative thoughts indulged in while awake.  
Awareness

Epiphany is a sudden revelation. A moment of sudden understanding or revelation. An enlightening or astonishing disclosure.
Epiphany

Paradigm is the generally accepted perspective of a particular discipline at a given time. A model or pattern for something that may be copied. A theory or a group of ideas about how something should be done, made, or thought about.
Paradigm Shift is an important change that happens when the usual way of thinking about or doing something is replaced by a new and different way. A fundamental change in the basic concepts and experimental practices of a scientific discipline.

Intuition is instinctive knowing (without the use of Rational Processes)  An impression that something might be the case.

Feeling is when you come to believe on the basis of emotion, intuitions, or indefinite grounds. 
Independent Learning

Impression is a vague idea in which some confidence is placed. A clear and telling mental image.

Innovation is a creation (a new device or process) resulting from study and Experimentation. The Creation of something in the mind. The act of starting something for the first time; introducing something new. Innovation should come from Education, but not always, Why? When good ideas turn into great improvements and give inspiration to others.
Innovation (wiki)
Reverse Innovation is innovation seen first, or likely to be used first, in the developing world before spreading to the industrialized world.
Institutional Innovation
Measuring Innovation (PDF)
Measuring Science and Technology Innovation (PDF)
Enabling Technology is equipment and/or methodology that, alone or in combination with associated technologies, provides the means to increase performance and capabilities of the user, product or process.
General Purpose Technology has the potential to drastically alter societies through their impact on pre-existing economic and social structures. The introduction of a new GPT to an economy may, before improving productivity, actually decrease it: The obsolescence of old technologies and skills. Learning costs. Time required for development of new infrastructure. Readjustment of labor to new industries, causing temporary unemployment. This initial inability to exploit the benefits of the new technology is known as the Solow Paradox or Productivity Paradox, which refers to the slowdown in productivity growth in the United States in the 1970s and 80s despite rapid development in the field of information technology (IT) over the same period. Mostly because jobs going to other countries, and also that education did not improve enough to adapt to these new changes.
Innovation System
National Innovation System - NIS (wiki)
Science Technology and Innovation Indicators
A Global Perspective on Science, Technology and Innovation (STI)
International Innovation Index is a global index measuring the level of innovation of a country.
Innovation Hub

Smart Innovation
Sustainopreneurship is the use of business organizing to Solve Problems related to Social and environmental Sustainability.
Eco-innovation - Social Innovator
Frugal Innovation is the process of reducing the complexity and cost of a good and its production. Usually this refers to removing nonessential features from a durable good.
Market Analysis analyses the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. A documented investigation of a market that is used to inform a firm's planning activities, particularly around decisions of inventory, purchase, work force expansion/contraction, facility expansion, purchases of capital equipment, promotional activities, and many other aspects of a company.
Cradle-to-Cradle Design seeks to create systems that are not only efficient but also essentially waste free.
Life-Cycle Assessment is a technique to assess environmental impacts associated with all the stages of a product's life from cradle to grave (i.e., from raw material extraction through materials processing, manufacture, distribution, use, repair and maintenance, and disposal or recycling). Designers use this process to help critique their products. LCAs can help avoid a narrow outlook on environmental concerns by. Compiling an inventory of relevant energy and material inputs and environmental releases; Evaluating the potential impacts associated with identified inputs and releases; Interpreting the results to help make a more informed decision.
Backward Compatibility is a property of a system, product, or technology that allows for interoperability with an older legacy system, or with input designed for such a system, especially in telecommunications and computing. Utility - Purpose
Forward Compatibility is a design characteristic that allows a system to gracefully accept input intended for a later version of itself.
Capital Expenditure is an expense where the benefit continues over a long period, rather than being exhausted in a short
period. Such expenditure is of a non-recurring nature and results in acquisition of permanent assets. It is thus distinct from a recurring expense.
State of the Art refers to the highest level of general development, as of a device, technique, or scientific field achieved at a particular time.
Requirement is a singular documented physical and functional need that a particular design, product or process must be able to perform. Differentiation Strategy is to develop and market unique products for different customer segments.
Maintenance
Keeping things Simple

Development Mistakes

Entrepreneur:
Entrepreneur defined as the process of designing, launching and running a new business, which typically begins as a small business, such as a startup company, offering a product, process or service for sale or hire.
Entrepreneurship
Social Entrepreneurship
Social Entrepreneurship
Social Entrepreneur
Activism
Entrepreneur Training Courses Online – Free of Charge. HP LIFE - Learning initiative for Entrepreneurs

Ingenuity or Inventiveness is the Power of Creative Imagination.
Ingenuity (wiki)

Ingenious is showing inventiveness and skill.

Concept is an abstract or general idea inferred or derived from specific instances. A generalization or abstraction from experience or the result of a transformation of existing ideas. Concept is an abstract idea representing the fundamental characteristics of what it represents.
Concepts
Intelligence
Hakerspace

Representation is a presentation to the mind in the form of an idea or image. An activity that stands as an equivalent of something or results in an equivalent. A creation that is a visual or tangible rendering of someone or something. The act of representing; standing in for someone or some group and speaking with authority in their behalf. A statement of facts and reasons made in appealing or protesting. 
Depiction
Prototype
Mental Representation
Mind Maps
Arts
Spatial Intelligence
Knowledge

Abstract is to consider a concept without thinking of a specific example; consider abstractly or theoretically. Consider apart from a particular case or instance. Existing only in the mind; separated from embodiment. Not representing or imitating external reality or the objects of nature. Dealing with a subject in the abstract without practical purpose or intention. A concept or idea not associated with any specific instance. A sketchy summary of the main points of an argument or theory. An abstract idea is an idea that can be interpreted in many different ways, and doesn't seem to be connected or associated to anything, and is difficult to define alone, but easier when in context.
Conceptual Model is a representation of a system, made of the composition of concepts which are used to help people know, understand, or simulate a subject the model represents. Some models are physical objects; for example, a toy model which may be assembled, and may be made to work like the object it represents.
Abstraction
Visualize

Having a new idea or learning something new that benefits you, can give you a high as if you're on a drug. Maybe when your brain forms new connections that are created from new ideas and learning something new, the brain rewards you with dopamine or some other chemical reactions, so as to let you know that learning is good for you, so that you keep learning and dreaming.


Having a Big Idea


Remember, all great ideas, advancements and inventions from people are the direct result of other great ideas and inventions that came from other people. No single person can take credit for any idea, advancement or invention. No one did anything on their own, or did anyone do anything all by themselves.
Everyone Stands on the Shoulders of Giants

The most important thing that we need to avoid is Planned Obsolescence. Everything should be manufactured using the Cradle to Cradle design so that our products are built to last like the Centennial Light Bulb. Or at the least make them easily recycled, easily reused or easily repurposed.

Half of inventions “arise unexpectedly” from serendipity—not direct research, Roughly half of all inventions started as ideas or discoveries that people had while working on something else. idea evolved when they were working on an unrelated project
and often when they weren’t even trying to invent anything.

Serendipity is unexpected and fortunate discoveries, usually happening when looking for something unrelated. Finding something nice while looking for something else.
Serendipity (wiki)

There is no Failure

Luck is an unknown and unpredictable phenomenon that leads to a favorable outcome.

Do things happen for a reason/a>? 

You can increase your
Odds of Success, but there are still no Guarantees.

How Simple Ideas Lead to Scientific Discoveries (video)

Where Good Ideas Come From: The Natural History of Innovation Steven Johnson
FORA.tv Technology | Season 1 Episode 36 | 56:40  (video)
Where Good Ideas Come From by Steven Johnson (youtube)

Sometimes you have to look to the fringe and get close to the edge in order to see what you're looking at.
Fringe is the outside boundary or surface of something.
Edge is a line determining the limits of an area.



Some ideas take years to be accepted or understood.
So don't ever feel that your research or work was for nothing.

Diffusion of Innovations is a theory that seeks to explain how, why, and at what rate new ideas and technology spread.
Internet Meme

A Long Slow Sequence of Invention and Discovery

Douglas Engelbart created the first computer mouse prototype in 1963. It took almost 30 years for the mouse to reach a mass audience.

The first packet-switched network, the ARPANET, was launched in 1969. It took about 30 years for Internet access to be widely adopted by American consumers.

The first multi-touch computing display was introduced in 1984, but it took 23 years for the first high-profile multitouch product, the iPhone, to reach the market in 2007. And it took a few more years, with the introduction of Android in 2008 and the iPad in 2010, for multi-touch computing to become a ubiquitous standard for mobile computing. 
Touchscreen

Charles Babbage was an English polymath in the 1800's. A mathematician, philosopher, inventor and mechanical engineer, Babbage is best remembered for originating the concept of a programmable computer. Alan Turing 1950 
Computer History

Structural Biochemistry - Mental Inertia in the Biological Sciences

New discoveries are often not immediately made when new technologies, knowledge, or techniques become available. They are often delayed as a result of mental inertia. Mental inertia is defined as the basis that prevents a scientist from taking the most productive steps and the most adaptive reasoning available with the current level of scientific methods, approaches and techniques. In other words, mental inertia is basically simple ideas that scientists overlook because they do not think the idea warrants investigation. The scientist is often either unaware of these reasons or they believe that they are using the most productive experimental approaches. A scientist would readily change their reasoning if it was brought to his attention that the selected reasoning was wrong. Therefore, intentional repositioning, does not qualify as mental inertia.


Did you ever get that feeling that you have just thought of something that no one else has ever thought of before?

It really doesn't matter if someone has already thought of your idea, or has spoken of your idea before, the question is, has anyone put the idea into action, and if so, what did they learn?  Welcome to Basic Knowledge 101, I know that someone has already thought of doing this, It's just that I decided to put that idea into action. And here's what I have learned, I have only just begun.

Vujade
Like nothing you have ever seen or felt before. It's when something or somewhere that should be familiar is suddenly very different. Memory Flaws

Vujá dé
A propensity for discovering something new in something you've already seen a million times before.

vu jàdé
Noticing something for the first time that has been there all along; the realization that you've been unaware of something you should have noticed a long time ago

vuja de
Derived from deja vu, the phenomenon where an event happens and you feel that it has happened before or that you dreamed/predicted/instinctually

Art Types

Innatism a doctrine that holds that the mind is born with ideas/knowledge, and that therefore the mind is not a "blank slate" at birth.

Ephemera is lasting only one day, short-lived. Transitory written or printed matter not meant to be retained or preserved.


"A supermind will emerge that will produce ideas that are no longer comprehensible to the individual man."

"Fantasizing and Dreaming does not move you forward, only Learning followed by Actions move you forward."

Winning is not the same as being Lucky, or Losing when nothing is lost....

What would you rather have, something that you wished for, something happening unexpected, or something that you worked for?

Making something happen is a lot better then just waiting for something to happen, even if you make a mistake, at least the wait is over, and you can now move on, and explore other possibilities, instead of just hoping for that one thing to happen all on its own. 

You will have a lot of ideas growing up, and most of the ideas that you have in life will never pan out. To have a really great idea you need vision, foresight and the willingness to do most of the work. Having an idea is the easy part, bringing your idea to life is the hard part.

Deciding which idea you think will be a great one is sometimes all about luck. Being in the right place at the right time.

"An idea is the beginning of an incredible journey, where our imagination can take us places way beyond our physical self."

"Entrepreneurs do more then anyone thinks possible with less than anyone thinks possible"
Problem Solving

"Believe you can and you're halfway there" 
Inspiring Quotes

"The best way to predict the future is to invent it"

“Sometimes it’s the people that no one imagines anything of, who end up doing the things that no one can imagine.”

"The best way to be involved with life is to do something that the world needs."

"A common mistake that people make when trying to design something completely foolproof is to underestimate the ingenuity of complete fools."  Douglas Adams

" 90 percent of the greatest inventions in the world did not come from geniuses, they came from regular people searching for answers. Besides, all geniuses Stand on the Shoulders of Giants, just like the rest of us."

"Two of the reasons why people never pursue ideas. The first comes from never trying out your ideas because you are afraid, the second, you are waiting for the perfect time."

EEverything leading up to this point was a combination of many ideas, and these ideas created and sparked even more new ideas, and then all these ideas and observations together ultimately lead me to a point of action, which was to organize and disseminate information and knowledge...I believe the action was always there, it just took me a while to figure it out and to discover it.

Juxtaposition is the act or placement of two things (usually abstract concepts) near each other. A side-by-side position/a>.

We have experimented with a lot of different things in this world and we have tried a lot of different ideas. It's time to choose the best and let go of the rest. Our world has been a testing ground for our mistakes. But we have learned many things, so it's time to put them into practice and stop the abuse and waste. Ignorant Gimmicks that have no practical purpose are mostly targeted at children and ignorant consumers who believe that this new toy will make them more productive. A Corporate Lie and a Costly Con Game.

Patents and Copyrights
Knowledge Spillover

How to Write and Pitch an Idea for a TV Show (wikihow)

"In this revolution, research has become central, it also becomes more formalized, complex, and costly. A steadily increasing share is conducted for, by, or at the direction of, the Federal government. Today, the solitary inventor, tinkering in his shop, has been overshadowed by task forces of scientists in laboratories and testing fields. In the same fashion, the free university, historically the fountainhead of free ideas and scientific discovery, has experienced a revolution in the conduct of research. Partly because of the huge costs involved, a government contract becomes virtually a substitute for intellectual curiosity. For every old blackboard there are now hundreds of new electronic computers. The prospect of domination of the nation's scholars by Federal employment, project allocations, and the power of money is ever present – and is gravely to be regarded. Yet, in holding scientific research and discovery in respect, as we should, we must also be alert to the equal and opposite danger that public policy could itself become the captive of a scientific-technological elite." ~ Dwight D. Eisenhower

"I have always found that there is always something of value within a mistake. Even if something turns out to be a bad idea or if things end up transmitting the wrong message or end up transmitting misinformation or end up having negative effects. So don't ever throw something away or ignore something until you have examined it for anything useful. There might be that one word or that one piece that ends up having some kind of value, something that can be used someplace else where it was never intended to be used. This is what makes innovation so surprising sometimes. Ideas sometimes come from the strangest places where you least expect it. So there are many different ways that we can learn from our mistakes. So don't ever regret making mistakes, because we can always learn something.

Cuba's DIY Inventions from 30 Years of Isolation (youtube)  Technological Disobedience

Leapfrogging Small and incremental innovations lead the dominant firm to stay ahead. However, sometimes, radical innovations will permit to new firms to leapfrog the ancient and dominant firm. The phenomenon can occur to firms but also to leadership of countries, or cities.



40 of the Greatest Innovations

so far..by Ryan Allis

Invention (wiki)

1. Fire (400,000 BCE) – The controlled use of fire was an invention in the early Stone Age, with some of the earliest evidence dating back to hundreds of thousands of years ago. It’s not exactly certain when fire was first being used by humans, but most research puts it somewhere between 200,000 and 600,000 years ago.

2. Language (100,000 BCE) – True semantic, phonetic language was first being used around 100,000 BCE, making it a lot easier to pass on how-to knowledge from generation to generation and speeding the spread of innovation. Humans first wear clothes around 25,000– 50,000 BCE.

3. Trade and Specialization (17,000 BCE) – In Chapter 2 of the book The Rational Optimist, author Matt Ridley highlights just how important specialization and trade has been to our advancement as humans. Matt gives the example of two early humans Oz and Adam. Oz focuses on getting really good at catching fish and Adam focuses on getting really good at making fish hooks, and then they trade as needed for both to benefit. The first known instance of humans trading with other humans comes from New Guinea around 17,000 BCE, where locals exchanged obsidian, a black volcanic glass used to make hunting arrowheads, for other needed goods. By 3,000 BCE, trade routes across Asia and the Middle East developed, followed the domestication of the camel and the creation of the trade caravan. Trading merchants, who purchased goods up front and held the inventory as they transported it were, of course, the original entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurs rearrange land, labor, goods, and capital to enable the sum of the outputs to have high value than the sum of the inputs.

4. Farming (15,000 BCE) – Around 15,000 BCE (about 17,000 years ago), the first animal domestication began taking place, and around 10,000 BCE, the first domestication of plants. This step was critical for the advancement of the human species. Instead of having to be a nomadic species that continually moved around seeking new places to hunt and to gather, we could stay in one place. This allowed us to start to form communities and cities (the basis for civilizations), which have been critical in the development of human knowledge. Around 12,000 BCE, food preservation began as civilizations in the Middle East extended the life of their foods through drying them in the sun. With the ability keep food edible beyond the time that it would naturally go bad, and store it for the future, time and energy were made available to work on other things besides simply farming, hunting, and gathering, enabling a great advance in our ability to specialize and trade. With greater specialization and trade came a substantial increase in the variety of tools and goods available.

5. The Ship (4000 BCE) – Around 4,000 BCE, the ancient Egyptians were making wooden sailboats and around 1200 BCE the Phoenicians and the Greeks began to make even bigger sailing ships. The advent of the ship was a huge step forward from humanity because it was one of the first forms of transport that enabled commerce to begin happening between different parts of the world. Boating

6. The Wheel (3400 BCE) – The next significant step in the history of innovation came with the creation of the wheel, sometime between 3300 and 3500 BCE We know this thanks to the discovery in southern Poland of the earliest known depiction of a wheeled vehicle on a clay pot.

7. Money (3000 BCE) – The next critically important innovation that contributed to the development of a strong human civilization was money. Around 3000 BCE, the Sumerians were one of the first societies (if not the first) to begin using money to help the ease of commerce and exchanging of goods, replacing the barter system.

8. Iron, (3000 BCE) – The whole science of metallurgy began around 4400 BCE when human civilizations began to use copper and silver, and soon thereafter we figured out how to merge copper and tin to form bronze. Around 3000 BCE we found an even stronger substance called iron, which gave rise to a new age of human history.

9. Written Language (2900 BCE, and earlier) – Although language had been around for tens of thousands of years, the invention of written language was extremely important because it made written records and numerical calculations possible. The first recorded written language was Sumerian cuneiform, which started around 2900 BCE. First Computer 

10. The Legal System (1780 BCE) – In 1780 BCE, Hammurabi, the sixth king of Babylon, was one of the first to write down a formalized code of laws. He created a structure that enabled his people to understand what the societal norms were. Other examples include the Egyptian Book of the Dead, the Ten Commandments, the Twelve Tables of Rome, and the Book of Leviticus—early legal systems that enabled society to tackle dispute resolution at a lower cost and create an understanding of what the norms are. These systems helped create amazing advancement in our ability to conduct commerce in a frictionless environment.

11. The Alphabet (1050 BCE) – The first “true alphabet” (containing vowels as well as consonants) was created by the Phoenicians around 1050 BCE. Many modern alphabets evolved from the Phoenician alphabet.

12. Steel (650 BCE) – Steel is a compound, an alloy between iron and carbon, and one of the strongest substances we know. The earliest known production of steel is a piece of ironware excavated in Western Asia that is about 4,000 years old. The Spartans used steel extensively around 650 BCE, as did the Chinese from 400 BCE, and the Romans.

13. Water Power (200 BCE) – The next great innovation, around 200 BCE, was water power—first used in the Fertile Crescent area in the Middle East. This breakthrough enabled enormous transformations in our ability as a species to harness power, and water power continued to be used into the nineteenth century, when water-powered mills were still common in England and New England. Archimedes was an Ancient Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer who lived from 287 BC – c. 212 BC.

14. Paper (105) – Moving into the common era (CE) calendar, we saw the creation of paper, which was first used by the Chinese in around the year 105. Around the sixteenth century, wood pulp paper became more widely used, replacing rag paper. With wood paper, knowledge could spread much more easily.

15. Movable Type (1040) – Advancing about 900 years, we had the creation of movable type. While many people think that movable type began in 1436 with Gutenberg’s printing press, it actually goes back to imperial China in year 1040. Later, when Gutenberg invented his press, he was able to use special inks and tin, lead, and antimony to mass-produce books and get content to the educated folks of Europe in fifteenth century.

16. The Microscope (1592) – The microscope was an extremely important invention that has led to the more recent breakthroughs in the understanding of nanotechnology and the understanding of atomic structure. Back in 1592, Dutch spectacle makers Zacharias and Hans, a father and son team, discovered that nearby objects appeared greatly enlarged when looking through a specially shaped lens, creating the first known microscope.

17. Electricity (1600) – Going forward to 1600, English scientist William Gilbert coined the term electricity, which originated from the Greek word for amber. Later, in 1752, Ben Franklin showed that lightning and the spark from amber were one and the same substance: electricity.

18. The Telescope (1608) – In 1608, Hans Lippershey created a convex lens and concave eyepiece that enabled the creation of the telescope. The next year, Galileo Galilei built on these early designs to create a much more powerful telescope that enabled us to truly see the heavens and understand our place in the universe.

19. The Engine (1712) – The steam engine was first invented by Thomas Newcomen in 1712 building on the ideas on Denis Papin and Thomas Savery. Steam power was tremendously important to the development of seafaring navigation and to powering the machinery that drove the industrial revolution. The internal combustion engine followed, first made commercially successful by Etienne Lenoir in 1858.
Two-Stroke Engine
Part 1. First Attempt at Making an Internal Combustion Engine (youtube)

20. The Light Bulb (1800) – In 1800, Humphry Davy, an English scientist, created the first light bulb. It was improved in 1879 by Thomas Edison, who discovered that a certain type of carbon filament, when placed in bulb without oxygen, could glow for 40 hours. Later on, Edison would create a bulb that could last for over 1,500 hours—a tremendous advancement in our ability as a society to be able to do things even after the sun has set. LED's

21. The Telegraph (1809) – In 1809, the first crude telegraph was invented in Bavaria by Samuel Soemmering, and in 1828 the first telegraph in the United States was invented by Harrison Dyer. It was, of course, Samuel Morse, creator of the Morse code, who invented the telegraph communication system that ended up succeeding commercially.

22. The Electromagnet (1825) – In 1825, the electric magnet was discovered by British inventor William Sturgeon. His first magnet was an iron horseshoe wrapped with copper wire. When he passed an electric current through the wire, the 7 oz. horseshoe became a magnet and current life nine pounds. Electromagnets went on to be used in motors, generators, loudspeakers, hard drives, MRI machines, and particle accelerators.

23. Petroleum (1859) – In 1859, petroleum was discovered. The first natural gas well was created in Ohio and the first oil well was created and the first oil refined in Pennsylvania. Petroleum was one of the most efficient substances in terms of the amount of energy that could be expended per ounce of liquid when burned. The discovery of petroleum, of course, led to the gas-powered car half a century later as well as a substantial increase of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

24. The Telephone (1860) – In 1860, the telephone was invented by Johann Philipp Reis. He was the first to produce a functioning electromagnetic device that could transmit understandable sounds. Sixteen years later, Alexander Graham Bell received the first patent for telephones and invented the first commercially successful telephone.

25. The Vacuum Tube (1883) – In 1883, Thomas Edison discovered that an electrical current doesn’t need a wire through which to move—it could actually travel through gas or a vacuum. In 1893, ten years later, Lee De Forest invented the Audion, which could control the flow of and amplify the current—an innovation that became critically important to telecommunication later on in the twentieth century. Toilet Paper for hygiene purposes has been recorded in China in the 6th century AD, with specifically manufactured toilet paper being mass-produced in the 14th century. Modern commercial toilet paper originated in the 19th century, with a patent for roll-based dispensers being made in 1883.

26. Semiconductors (1896) – In 1896, the first semiconductors were discovered. A semiconductor is simply material that has electrical conductivity due to flowing electrons. Today, silicon serves as the main component for most commercially produced semiconductors. Germanium, gallium, arsenide, and silicon carbide can also be used but silicon is more common (which is the main reason that the area between San Francisco and San Jose is called Silicon Valley.) Jagadish Chandra Bose was the first to apply semiconductors for commercial purposes around 1896.

27. Penicillin (1896) - In 1896, the French medical student Ernest Duchesne originally discovered the antibiotic properties of Penicillium, however his research went mostly unnoticed. It took until 1928 for Scottish biologist Alexander Fleming to re-discovered penicillin. Penicillin enabling doctors to fight bacterial infections, save lives, and cure syphilis, gangrene and tuberculosis.

28. The Radio (1897) – The next great invention was the radio. In 1897, Nikolai Tesla applied for and received the first radio system patent after demonstrating it the year before at the World’s Fair. Radio took advantage of the amazing invisible parts of the electromagnetic spectrum to transmit information through waves. Today, we take it for granted that signals can travel invisibly through the air, but 130 years ago it was quite radical to demonstrate that there were things that we could not see that were still real. In fact, the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum is only a very small fraction. From the studies of the electromagnetic spectrum now know that there are gamma waves and x waves and radio and television, which have revolutionized human communication globally.

29. The Electron (1897) – That same year, 1897, J. Thomson discovered the electron. An electron is a negatively charged subatomic particle and it’s the primary carrier of electricity, which of course has revolutionized the world in the last 115 years.

30. Quantum Physics (1900) – The history of quantum physics is quite fascinating. It began with a number of discoveries going back all the way to 1838 with Michael Faraday’s discovery of cathode ray tube, and included 1887’s discovery by Heinrich Hertz of the photoelectric effect. But the real beginning of quantum physics was arguably in 1900 with Max Planck’s quantum hypothesis: that any energy-radiating atomic system can be divided into individual energy elements. Using that research in 1905, Albert Einstein theorized and later proved that light is made up of individual quantum particles which were later termed photons by Gilbert Lewis.

31. The Airplane, 1903 – In 1903, we saw the invention of the airplane by the Wright brothers, Orville and Wilbur, on the North Carolina coast with the first successful flight of a manned machine occurring on December 17.

32. Television, 1926 – The creation of television happened in 1926, but there were many inventions that led up to it, including the discovery of the photoconductivity of selenium in 1873 by Willoughby Smith and the 1884 invention of the scanning disk by Paul Nipkow. It was John Logie Baird who created the first televised moving images in 1926. Ten years later, the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) broadcast the first public television show.

33. The Transistor, 1947 – 1947 saw the creation of the transistor. A transistor is a device that’s used to amplify and switch electronic signals. It’s extremely important in the ability to exchange information over a distance. Once we could amplify electronic signals we could have global telecommunications. In 1906, Lee De Forest had developed the triode in a vacuum tube that could amplify signals, which had helped overseas telephone calls be made for the first time, but it was in 1947 at AT&T that Bill Shankly and his team created the first semiconductor transistor. Of course, it was Bill Shankly who later founded Shankly Semiconductor, out of which Fairchild Semiconductor and later Intel were born.

34. DNA (1953) – In 1953, James Watson and Francis Crick discovered DNA while working at Cambridge University. The duo suggested that the correct model for DNA structure was the double helix model and famously walked into a local pub and exclaimed, “We have found the secret of life.”

1955, on July 17th, Disneyland was the first theme park. Walt Disney (December 5, 1901 – December 15, 1966)
In 1965 Walt began development of another theme park, Walt Disney World. Epcot - Experimental Prototype Community Of Tomorrow (opened October 1, 1982) EPCOT (concept) was one of the first Futuristic City Designs.
Walt Disney Imagineering    Great Big Beautiful Tomorrow: The Futurism of Walt Disney (youtube)

35. The Integrated Circuit (1959)- In 1959, we saw the creation and discovery of the integrated circuit. Integrated circuits allow engineers to fit a lot more transistors, resistors, and capacitors in a smaller area. It was Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments and Robert Noyce of Fairchild Semiconductor, along with their teams, who created the first integrated circuits in 1959. All computers eventually ended up using integrated circuits, which later developed into microprocessors.

36. The Internet (1969) – In 1969, we saw the creation of the early Internet, called the ARPANET, which was built by the United States Department of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (then called ARPA, today called DARPA) to connect researchers at different locations. The ARPANET delivered its first message on October 29, 1969 between UCLA and Stanford. The first message was simply the word “log in.” The message crashed the network and only the first two letters, L and O, made it through. By the end of 1969, four computers were connected to the ARPANET. By the 1980s, the ARPANET had turned into a global network that was used to send files and data from one computer to another. But it took until 1991 for the creation of the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) by Tim Berners-Lee, which enabled the creation of a web of hyperlink documents. The World Wide Web became a communication tool that formed a constantly updating record of human knowledge and expression. A year later, in 1992, researchers of the University of Illinois developed a browser that created a user-friendly way to view the World Wide Web. Initially called Mosaic, that first browser turned into the company and product Netscape, which revolutionized the ability of individuals to access information globally.

37. Microprocessors (1971) – In 1971, Ted Hoff of Intel created the microprocessor, which was an integrated circuit. It had all the functions of the computer or a central processing unit (CPU) on it, in a tiny space. The first chip was called the Intel 4004. It had 2300 transistors on it. It had as much power in one single chip as the ENIAC supercomputer, a 30-ton computer built in 1946. The microprocessor led to the miniaturization and the creation of the PC industry in the late 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s, which enables us to have a supercomputer in our pockets today, connected to the global Internet–an amazingly important invention in human history that happened only a little more than four decades ago.

38. The Mobile Phone (1973) – In 1973, Motorola launched the first handheld mobile phone. The first prototype weighed 2.5 pounds, offered 30 minutes of talk time, and featured a battery that took ten hours to recharge.

39. The Smartphone (2007) – On January 9, 2007, the iPhone launched, the first widely available smartphone with multi-touch capabilities (the ability to detect two fingers at once, enabling more complex user interactions such as pinch-to-zoom). The lowly telephone had turned into a cloud-connected smartphone with built-in GPS, compass, voice recorder, camera, maps, and web browser with an app store that allowed the user to download from a selection of millions of specialty applications. The multitouch smartphone paved the way for the tablet and the coming convergence of the laptop/tablet/and smartphone and new hybrids such as cloud-connected glasses and smartwatches. A world with smartphones with sufficient processing power and memory to be used as full-featured computers connected via docking stations to flexible frame monitors with hand gesture inputs and a projected keypad was soon approaching.

40. The Quantum Computer (2011) – The last step in our brief history of innovation is the quantum computer. In 2011, the first quantum computer was brought to market by D-wave. It was called the Dwave One. Quantum computers use superposition and entanglement to solve some computing problems thousands of times faster than traditional computers. In May 2013 Google announced it was purchasing a D-wave Two quantum computer to be hosted at the Quantum Artificial Research Lab at the NASA Ames Research Center in Mountain View, CA.

Historic Inventions
Top 50
Top 10 Inventions of All Time (youtube)
Timeline of United States inventions (wiki)
Universe

Lists of Accomplishments  

National Collegiate Inventors and Innovators Alliance | NCIIA
List of Inventors
List of Prolific Inventors
More History

Yoshiro Nakamatsu
Innovation Fellows

Universe Timeline   
Corporate Takeover of America Timeline
Corporate Takeover of America's Education System
History

5 Brilliant Scientific Accidents Golden Mole Award (youtube)
Invention Awards/a> (wiki)




DDevelopment Process


Develop is to create by training/a> and teaching. Gain through experience. Grow emotionally or mature. Grow, progress, unfold, or evolve through a process of evolution, natural growth, differentiation, or a conducive environment. Make something new, such as a product or a mental or artistic creation. Become technologically advanced. Come to have or undergo a change of (physical features and attributes). Come into existence; take on form or shape. Work out. Change the use of and make available or usable. Be gradually disclosed or unfolded; become manifest. Expand in the form of a series. Cause to grow and differentiate in ways conforming to its natural development. Move into a strategically more advantageous position.

Prototype - Drawings
Process Improvement
Reverse Engineering
Innovation

Iterative Design is a Design methodology based on a cyclic process of prototyping, testing, analyzing, and refining a product or process. Based on the results of testing the most recent iteration of a design, changes and refinements are made. This process is intended to ultimately improve the quality and functionality of a design. In iterative design, interaction with the designed system is used as a form of research for informing and evolving a project, as successive versions, or iterations of a design are implemented.
Iterative and incremental Development is any combination of both iterative design or iterative method and incremental build model for software development.

Science
Practice
Train
Self-Directed Learning

Quantitative Research
QQuality Control
JIRA provides bug tracking, issue tracking, and project management functions. Jira software (wiki)
Maintenance

Development is the act of improving by expanding or enlarging or refining. A process in which something passes by degrees to a different stage (especially a more advanced or mature stage)  (biology) the process of an individual organism growing organically; a purely biological unfolding of events involved in an organism changing gradually from a simple to a more complex level. Elaborate by the unfolding of a musical idea and by the working out of the rhythmic and harmonic changes in the theme.
Development (wiki)
Software Development - Beta
Software Testing
Software Release Life Cycle

Enhance is to make better or more attractive. Increase. Value

Advance is to contribute to the progress or growth of. Obtain advantages. Develop in a positive way.. Develop further. A change for the better; progress in development. The act of moving forward (as toward a goal). 
Service/a> - Service Oaths
Beautifully Designed, Human-Centered Technologies

Things to Avoid when trying to invent something new
Reinventing the Wheel is to duplicate a basic method that has already previously been created or optimized by others
Anti-Pattern is any commonly reinvented product that is a bad solution to a problem, creating more bad consequences than good ones, when another solution exists that is documented, repeatable and proven to be effective.
Rube Goldberg Machine is a deliberately over-engineered product that performs a simple task in a complicated fashion, generally including a chain reaction. An example is Cars. Porter's Generic Strategies
Hype Cycle is a graphical and conceptual presentation of the maturity emerging technologies through five phases.
Vaporware is typically a computer hardware or software, that is announced to the general public but is never actually manufactured nor officially cancelled.
Digital Obsolescence is a situation where a digital resource is no longer readable because of its archaic format.

Planned Obsolescence is wasteful and criminal act of planning or designing a product with a limited useful life. Making cheap products hurts people and pollutes the environment, it wastes time, resources, people, money and potential. If a product can be made of higher quality, then we should make it. When we make products that last longer and are easily recyclable, then the extra cost of making that product would be more beneficial for everyone and everything on the planet. Using money as a reason to be ignorant and Negligent needs to stop. Don't do more Harm then Good. Don't trade convenience for the constant degradation of your health, or the planet. Don't trade a temporary gratification for a slow death. How can you feel good about slowly killing yourself, or killing other people? Ask an addict. When people don't have enough knowledge and information, people will always be less able to accurately understand cause and effect, and they will never know about better choices or better options. And there are always better choices, always. 
End-of-Life (product) indicates that the product is in the end of its useful life and that a vendor will stop marketing, selling, and end support for the product. Utility
Pyramids of Waste aka The Light bulb Conspiracy, 2010
Ratings - Cooperation instead of Competition
QVC - Quality, Value, Convenience - which was a lie. Should have been "HqZwIp" - Highest Quality, Zero Waste, Increased Potential.

Smart Innovation

"Humans have the ability to solve their own problems without having to steal from other people or stealing from the environment. Collective Intelligence

Pitfalls of Patents
Design Around
Not Invented Here
Patent Thicket
Copyrights - Patent Knowledge

Creativity
Management

Meliorism
Orenda
Regression Discontinuity Design
Top-down and bottom-up Design
Use Case
Unified Process
Rational Unified Process
Unit Testing
Development Processes
Evolve
Manufacturing Resource Planning is defined as a method for the effective planning of all resources of a manufacturing company. Ideally, it addresses operational planning in units, financial planning, and has a simulation capability to answer "what-if" questions and extension of closed-loop MRP.
Acronyms used in Manufacturing

Invention
 
Designing (creativity)
Design (engineering)

Co-Creation brings different parties together in order to jointly produce a mutually valued outcome.
Co-Design is an approach to design attempting to actively involve more people in the design process to help ensure the result meets their needs and is usable. Participatory design is an approach which is focused on processes and procedures of design and is not a design style.
Collaborations
Group Thinking
Hakerspace

On the Job Training
Introvert or Extrovert?
Child Development
Problem Solving  

Breakthrough Technologies 2015

Technology Roadmap
Stepwise Regression
Design Thinking (PDF)

The End of Ownership (VPRO Backlight, 47:52)



Design Method Process

Lessons Learned Feedback Checklist

Postmortem Documentation/a> (wiki)

Check Lists

Design Methodology
Testing Developement Stages

Consensus Flowchart

 


Innovation Resources  -  Change Makers


Funding your Ideas
Indie Gogo
Raise Money, Get Help
Kick Starter
Fundraising (wiki)
Crowd Funding (wiki)
Crowd Rise
Brain Storming
Venture Capital (wiki) List
Idea Funding
Crowd Funder
Go Fund Me
Space Hive
Carrot Mob
Micro Credit
Peer Backers Crowd Funding
Seed Money (wiki)
Financial Endowment Cent Up
Circle Up
Google Ventures
Funding Research Dangers
Robinhood
Funding Opportunity Databases
Funders Club

Money Alternatives
List of Venture Capital Firms (wiki)
VC 100
Grants from the Government 
Grant Money (wiki) 
Sponsor (wiki)
Sustaining Program (wiki)

Foundations / Institutes
Potsdam Institute
Fraser Institute
Urban Institute
Heartland Institute
Common Wealth Club
MacArthur Foundation
Park Foundation
Pew Charitable Trusts
Long Now Foundation
Surdna Foundation
Annenberg Foundation
Annie E. Casey Foundation
Kokua Hawaii Foundation
Helen Storey Foundation
Skoll Foundation
Copenhagen Institute
B612 Foundation 
Thiel Foundation
Karolinska Institute
Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers
Giving Pledge 400 Americans are worth over $2 trillion.

List of Charitable Foundations (wiki)
Lists of Education Institutions (wiki)
List of Technological Universities (wiki)
List of Institutes in India (wiki)

Info / How to Websites
Betaworks 
Simplicity Labs
Alan Siegel: Simplify Legal Jargon 
Edun

Future of Life
Mission: To catalyze and support research and initiatives for safeguarding life and developing optimistic visions of the future, including positive ways for humanity to steer its own course considering new technologies and challenges.
Future of Life Institute (wiki)

3D Printing

Recycle-Reuse-Reduce

Engineering Websites



Think Idea


"I got lucky, I was in the right place at the right time asking questions, then from there it was just a matter of working on the idea, and of course getting the support that I needed to chase my dream, which was pretty much the same for all inventors."



The Thinker Man