Ideas - Innovation - Ingenuity - Inventiveness
"Big things have small beginnings."
"Small Moves, Smartly Made, Can Set Big Things in Motion."
"Many of the things that seem impossible now will become realities
is the Mother of Invention
", meaning that when the need for something
becomes imperative, you are forced to find ways of getting or achieving
it. The primary driving force for most new inventions is a
. "Impossible happens all
(problem solving) -
is a mental image or
of some object. An
that is difficult to visualize but can be inferred. The
of using your mind to consider
something carefully. Use or exercise the mind or one's
power of reason
order to make inferences,
, or arrive at a
The content of
; the main thing
intention; what you intend to do.
. Recall knowledge from
; have a recollection Imagine or
Focus one's attention
on a certain state. Have in mind as a purpose. Have or formulate in the mind. Be capable of
Decide by pondering, reasoning, or reflecting.
Ponder; reflect on, or
reason about. An approximate calculation of quantity or
degree or worth
. Bring into a given condition by mental preoccupation,
conceive of; see in one's mind. Form a mental image of something that is
not present or that is not the case. Figment
is a contrived or fantastic idea.
What does coming up with an idea mean? What does it mean
Standing on the
Shoulders of Giants
refers to the common human experience of
suddenly understanding a previously incomprehensible problem or concept.
"an idea, behavior, or style that spreads from person to person within a
culture". A meme acts as a unit for carrying cultural ideas, symbols, or
practices that can be transmitted from one mind to another through
writing, speech, gestures, rituals, or other imitable phenomena with a
mimicked theme. Supporters of the concept regard memes as cultural
analogues to genes in that they self-replicate, mutate, and respond to
is an activity, concept, catchphrase or piece of media
which spreads, often as mimicry, from
person to person
is an instrumentality
in an artistic work
designed to achieve
a particular effect. Any clever maneuver. Any ornamental pattern or
Alphabet of Human Thought
provides a universal way to
represent and analyze ideas and relationships by breaking down their
component pieces. All ideas are compounded from a very small number of
simple ideas which can be represented by a unique character.
refers to a range of economic activities which are
concerned with the generation or exploitation of knowledge and
is when creativity and imagination will become the primary creators of
contrasts with the information age where analysis and thinking were the
main activities.Copy Rights
Taking a Walk for ideasResources
barriers for underrepresented kids
could quadruple America’s pool of
is to be fully aware or cognizant of.
(an idea or situation) mentally. Make real or concrete;
give reality or substance.
Coming to understand something clearly and distinctly. Making
real or giving the appearance of reality.
is to have
indulged in while
is a sudden revelation. A moment of sudden understanding or
revelation. An enlightening or astonishing disclosure.
- A Holy
F*cking Sh*t moment! I can't believe it. Wow!
is the generally accepted
of a particular discipline at a given time. A model or
for something that may be copied. A theory or a group of ideas about how
something should be done, made, or thought about.
is an important change that happens when the usual way
of thinking about or doing something is replaced by a new and different
way. A fundamental change in the basic concepts and
the use of
An impression that something might be the case.
is when you come to believe on the basis of
, intuitions, or indefinite grounds.
is a vague idea in which some
confidence is placed. A clear and telling
is a creation (a new device or
) resulting from study and
of something in
the mind. The act of starting something for the first time;
introducing something new.
Innovation should come from
Education, but not always, Why? When good ideas turn into great
improvements and give inspiration to others.
can be defined simply as a "new idea, device or method".
is innovation seen first, or likely to
be used first, in the developing world before spreading to the
Measuring Science and Technology Innovation
is equipment and/or methodology that, alone or in
combination with associated technologies, provides the means to
and capabilities of the user, product or process.
has the potential to drastically alter societies
through their impact on pre-existing economic and social structures. The
introduction of a new GPT to an economy may, before improving
productivity, actually decrease it: The obsolescence of old technologies
and skills. Learning costs. Time required for development of new
infrastructure. Readjustment of labor to new industries, causing temporary
unemployment. This initial inability to exploit the benefits of the new
technology is known as the Solow Paradox or
, which refers to the slowdown in productivity growth in the
United States in the 1970s and 80s despite rapid development in the field
of information technology
(IT) over the same period. Mostly because jobs going to other countries,
and also that education did not improve
to adapt to these new changes.
National Innovation System - NIS
Science Technology and Innovation Indicators
A Global Perspective on Science, Technology and Innovation
International Innovation Index
is a global index measuring the level of innovation of a country.
"Having an idea and exploring and researching an idea are two
different things. Just having an idea is just a dream, but exploring an
idea is to make that dream come true. So you're not just thinking about
doing something, you're actually doing and learning something, something
is the use of business organizing to
is the process of reducing the complexity
and cost of a good and its
this refers to removing nonessential features from a durable good.
analyses the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. A
documented investigation of a market that is used to inform a firm's
planning activities, particularly around decisions of inventory, purchase,
work force expansion/contraction, facility expansion, purchases of capital
equipment, promotional activities, and many other aspects of a company.
seeks to create systems that are not only
efficient but also essentially waste free.
is a technique to assess environmental impacts associated
with all the stages of a product's life from cradle to grave (i.e., from
raw material extraction through materials processing, manufacture,
distribution, use, repair and maintenance, and disposal or recycling).
Designers use this process to help critique their products. LCAs can help
avoid a narrow outlook on environmental concerns by. Compiling an
inventory of relevant energy and material inputs and environmental
releases; Evaluating the potential impacts associated with identified
inputs and releases; Interpreting the results to help make a more informed
is the process of managing the entire lifecycle of
a product from inception, through engineering design and manufacture, to
service and disposal of manufactured products. PLM integrates people,
data, processes and business systems and provides a product information
backbone for companies and their extended enterprise.
Product Life-Cycle Management
is the succession of
strategies by business management as a product goes through its
life-cycle. The conditions in which a product is sold (advertising,
saturation) changes over time and must be managed as it moves through its
succession of stages.
Systems Development Life Cycle
describes a process for
planning, creating, testing, and deploying an information system. The
systems development life-cycle concept applies to a range of hardware and
software configurations, as a system can be composed of hardware only,
software only, or a combination of both.
is a style of software design where services
are provided to the other components by application components, through a
communication protocol over a network. The basic principles of service
oriented architecture are independent of vendors, products and
technologies. A service is a discrete unit of functionality that can be
accessed remotely and acted upon and updated independently, such as
retrieving a credit card statement online. A service has four properties
according to one of many definitions of SOA: It logically represents a
business activity with a specified outcome. It is self-contained. It is a
black box for its consumers. It may consist of other underlying services.
Enterprise Life Cycle
in enterprise architecture is the
dynamic, iterative process of changing the enterprise over time by
incorporating new business processes, new technology, and new
capabilities, as well as maintenance, disposition and disposal of existing
elements of the enterprise.
is the time between an object's creation and its destruction. Rules for
object lifetime vary significantly between languages, in some cases
between implementations of a given language, and lifetime of a particular
object may vary from one run of the program to another.
is a property of a system, product, or
technology that allows for interoperability with an older legacy system,
or with input designed for such a system, especially in telecommunications
is when certain software that runs on one of
the models can also be run on all other models of the family. The computer
models may differ in performance, reliability or some other
characteristic. These differences may affect the outcome of the running of
is a design characteristic that allows a system
to gracefully accept input intended for a later version of itself.
is a characteristic of a product or
completely understood, to work with other products or systems, present or
future, in either implementation or access, without any restrictions.
describes designs which cannot be misused either inherently, or
by use of defensive design principles. The implication is that the design
is usable even by someone of low intelligence who would not use it
is an expense where the benefit continues over a
long period, rather than being exhausted in a short
expenditure is of a non-recurring nature and results in acquisition of
permanent assets. It is thus distinct from a
State of the Art
refers to the highest level of general
, as of a device, technique, or scientific field achieved at a
is a singular documented physical and
particular design, product or process must be able to perform.
is to develop and
market unique products for different customer segments.
Well Enough Alone?
is the property that enables a system to continue
operating properly in the event of the failure of (or one or
faults within) some of its components. If its operating quality decreases
at all, the decrease is proportional to the severity of the failure, as
compared to a naively designed system in which even a small failure can
cause total breakdown. Fault tolerance is particularly sought after in
high-availability or life-critical systems. The ability of maintaining
functionality when portions of a system break down is referred to as
Keeping things Simple
(innovation gone bad)
is defined as the process of designing, launching
and running a new business, which typically begins as a small business,
such as a startup company, offering a product, process or
is the capacity and willingness to develop,
organize and manage a business venture along with any of its
in order to make a
is the use of the techniques by
start up companies and other entrepreneurs to develop, fund and implement
solutions to social, cultural, or environmental issues. This concept may
be applied to a variety of organizations with different sizes, aims, and
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is the Power of Creative Imagination
the quality of being clever, original, and inventive, often in the process
of applying ideas to solve problems or meet challenges.
is showing inventiveness and
is an abstract or general idea inferred
or derived from specific instances. A generalization or
abstraction from experience or the result of a transformation of existing
is an abstract idea representing the
fundamental characteristics of what it represents.
is a presentation
to the mind in the form of an idea or
An activity that stands as an equivalent of something or results in an
equivalent. A creation that is a visual or tangible rendering of someone
or something. The act of representing; standing in for someone or some
group and speaking with authority in their behalf. A statement of facts
and reasons made in appealing or protesting.
is to consider a concept without thinking of a specific
example; consider abstractly or theoretically. Consider apart
from a particular case or instance. Existing only in the mind;
separated from embodiment. Not representing or imitating
external reality or the objects of nature. Dealing with a
in the abstract without practical purpose or intention.
A concept or idea not associated with any specific instance. A
sketchy summary of the main points of an argument or theory.
An abstract idea is an idea that can be interpreted in many
different ways, and doesn't seem to be
to anything, and is difficult to define alone, but easier when
Abstract and Concrete
are classifications that denote
whether a term describes an
physical referent or one with no physical referents. They are most
commonly used in philosophy and semantics. Abstract objects are sometimes
called abstracta (sing. abstractum) and concrete objects are sometimes
called concreta (sing. concretum). An abstract object is an object which
does not exist
at any particular
time or place, but rather exists as a type of thing, i.e., an idea, or
abstraction. The term 'abstract object' is said to have been coined by
Willard Van Orman Quine. The study of abstract objects is called abstract
is a representation of a system, made
of the composition of concepts which are used to help people know,
understand, or simulate a subject the model represents. Some models are
example, a toy model which may be assembled, and may be made to work like
the object it represents.
Object of the
is an object that exists in the imagination, but which, in the
real world, can only be represented or modeled. Some such objects are
mathematical abstractions, literary concepts, or fictional scenarios.
Closely related are intentional objects, which are what thoughts and
feelings are about, even if they are not about anything real (such as
thoughts about unicorns, or feelings of apprehension about a dental
appointment which is subsequently cancelled). However, intentional objects
may coincide with real objects (as in thoughts about horses, or a feeling
of regret about a missed appointment).
is a hypothetical internal cognitive symbol that
represents external reality, or else a mental process that makes use of
such a symbol: "a formal system for making explicit certain entities or
types of information, together with a specification of how the system does
this." Mental representation is the mental imagery of things that are not
actually present to the senses. In contemporary philosophy, specifically
in fields of metaphysics such as philosophy of mind and ontology, a mental
representation is one of the prevailing ways of explaining and describing
the nature of ideas and concepts.
- Abstract (summary)
is the combination of ideas into a complex whole.
Having a new idea or learning something new that benefits you, can
give you a high as if you're on a drug. Maybe when your brain forms new
connections that are created from new ideas and learning something new,
the brain rewards you with dopamine or some other chemical reactions, so
as to let you know that learning is good for you, so that you keep
learning and dreaming.
Having a Big Idea
, all great ideas, advancements and inventions from
people are the direct result of other great ideas and inventions
that came from other people. No single person can take credit
for any idea, advancement or invention. No one did anything on
their own, or did anyone do anything all by themselves.
Everyone Stands on the Shoulders of Giants
The most important thing that we need to avoid is
Everything should be manufactured using
Cradle to Cradle
so that our products are built to last like the
. Or at the least make them
easily recycled, easily reused or
Half of inventions “arise unexpectedly” from
—not direct research, Roughly half of all
inventions started as ideas or discoveries that people had while
working on something else. idea evolved when they were working
on an unrelated project
and often when they weren’t even trying to invent anything.
is unexpected and fortunate discoveries, usually happening when
looking for something unrelated. Finding something nice while
looking for something else.
means a "fortunate happenstance" or "pleasant
There is no
is an unknown and
that leads to a favorable outcome.
Do things happen for a
You can increase your
, but there
are still no
How Simple Ideas Lead to Scientific Discoveries
Good Ideas Come From: The Natural History of Innovation
FORA.tv Technology |
Season 1 Episode 36 | 56:40 (video).
Where Good Ideas Come From by Steven Johnson
Sometimes you have to look to the fringe and get close
to the edge in order to see what you're looking at.
is the outside
is a line determining
the limits of an area
Some Ideas take years
to be Accepted or Understood
So don't ever feel that your research or work was for
Diffusion of Innovations
is a theory that seeks to explain how, why, and at what rate new
ideas and technology spread.Diffusion
A Long Slow Sequence of Invention and Discovery
created the first computer mouse prototype
. It took almost 30 years for the mouse to reach a mass
The first packet-switched network, the
, was launched in 1969. It took about 30 years for
Internet access to be widely adopted by American consumers.
multi-touch computing display
was introduced in 1984, but it
took 23 years for the first high-profile multitouch product, the
iPhone, to reach the market in 2007. And it took a few more
years, with the introduction of Android in 2008 and the iPad in
to become a ubiquitous standard
for mobile computing. Touchscreen
was an English polymath in the 1800's. A
mathematician, philosopher, inventor and mechanical engineer, Babbage is
best remembered for originating the concept of a
Structural Biochemistry - Mental Inertia in the Biological Sciences
New discoveries are often not immediately made when new technologies,
knowledge, or techniques become available. They are often delayed as a
result of mental inertia. Mental inertia is defined as the
that prevents a
scientist from taking the most productive steps and the most adaptive
reasoning available with the current level of scientific methods,
approaches and techniques. In other words, mental inertia is basically
simple ideas that scientists overlook because they do not think the idea
warrants investigation. The scientist is often either unaware of these
reasons or they believe that they are using the most productive
experimental approaches. A scientist would readily change their reasoning
if it was brought to his attention that the selected reasoning was wrong.
Therefore, intentional repositioning, does not qualify as mental inertia.
Just because things were discovered in
history, that does not mean that everyone alive at that time knew about
. And today, just because things are being discovered
everyday, this does not mean that everyone knows about these particular
discoveries, and even if they did know, this does not mean that people
fully understand the meaning of this new discovery. Though we have been
alive for years, we literally just got here
and everyone knows very little, which is a major problem, because
no life form can survive with
that it learns from its existence.Internet Meme
Did you ever get that feeling that you have just thought
of something that no one else has ever thought of before?
It really doesn't matter if someone has already thought of your
idea, or has spoken of your idea before, the question is, has
anyone put the idea into action, and if so, what did they learn?
Welcome to Basic Knowledge 101, I know that someone has already
thought of doing this, It's just that I decided to put that idea
into action. And here's what I have learned,
I have only just begun
is like nothing you have ever
or felt before
. It's when something or somewhere that should be familiar
is suddenly very different.
means "never seen", the phenomenon of experiencing a situation that
one recognizes in some fashion, but that, nonetheless, seems very
is a propensity for discovering something new in something you've already
seen a million times before. vu jàdé
noticing something for the first time that has been there all along; the
realization that you've been unaware of something you should have noticed
a long time ago.vuja de
from deja vu, the phenomenon where an event happens and you feel that it
has happened before or that you dreamed/predicted/instinctually.
is the feeling of having "already lived through" something, a feeling of
familiarity. The phenomenon of having the strong sensation that an event
or experience currently being experienced has already been experienced in
a doctrine that holds that the mind is born with ideas/knowledge, and that
therefore the mind is not a "blank slate" at birth.
lasting only one day, short-lived. Transitory written or printed matter not meant to be retained
will emerge that will produce ideas that are no longer comprehensible to the
"Fantasizing and Dreaming does not move you forward, only
Learning followed by Actions move you forward."
Winning is not the same as being
Lucky, or Losing when nothing is lost....
What would you rather have:
something that you wished for? something happening unexpected?
or something that you worked for?
Making something happen is a lot
better then just waiting for something to happen
, even if you
make a mistake, at least the wait is over, and you can now move
on, and explore other possibilities, instead of just hoping for
that one thing to happen all on its own.
You will have a lot of ideas growing up, and most of the
ideas that you have in life will never pan out. To have a really great
idea you need vision, foresight and the willingness to do most of the
. Having an idea is the easy part, bringing your idea to life is the
Deciding which idea you think will be a great one is
sometimes all about luck. Being in the right place at the right time.
"An idea is the beginning of an incredible journey, where our
can take us
places way beyond our physical self."
"Entrepreneurs do more then anyone thinks possible with less
than anyone thinks possible"
"Believe you can and you're halfway there"
"The best way to predict the future is to invent it"
“Sometimes it’s the people that no
one imagines anything of, who end up doing the things that no
one can imagine.”
"The best way to be involved with life is to do something that
the world needs."
"A common mistake that people make when trying to design
is to underestimate the ingenuity
of complete fools." -
"Ninety percent of the greatest inventions in the world did not
come from geniuses, they came from regular people searching for
answers. Besides, all geniuses
Stand on the Shoulders of Giants
, just like the rest of us."
"Two of the reasons why people never pursue ideas. The first
comes from never trying out your ideas because you are afraid,
the second, you are waiting for the perfect time."
Everything leading up to this point
was a combination of many ideas
, and these ideas created and
sparked even more new ideas, and then all these ideas and
observations together ultimately lead me to a point of action,
which was to organize and disseminate information and
knowledge...I believe the action was always there, it just took
me a while to figure it out and to discover it.
is the act or placement of two things (usually abstract
concepts) near each other.
A side-by-side position
We have experimented with a lot of
different things in this world and we have tried a lot of
It's time to choose the best and let go of the rest.
Our world has been a testing ground for our mistakes. But we have
learned many things, so it's time to put them into practice and
stop the abuse and waste. Ignorant
that have no practical purpose are mostly targeted
at children and ignorant consumers who believe that this new toy will
make them more productive.
A Corporate Lie
and a Costly
Patents and Copyrights
How to Write and Pitch an Idea for a TV Show
"In this revolution, research has become central, it also
becomes more formalized, complex, and costly. A steadily
increasing share is conducted for, by, or at the direction of,
the Federal government.
Today, the solitary inventor, tinkering in his shop, has been
overshadowed by task forces of scientists in laboratories and
testing fields. In the same fashion, the free university,
historically the fountainhead of free ideas and scientific
discovery, has experienced a revolution in the conduct of
research. Partly because of the huge costs involved, a
government contract becomes virtually a substitute for
intellectual curiosity. For every old blackboard there are now
hundreds of new electronic computers.
The prospect of domination of the nation's scholars by Federal
employment, project allocations, and the power of money is ever
present – and is gravely to be regarded.
Yet, in holding scientific research and discovery in respect, as
we should, we must also be alert to the equal and opposite
danger that public policy could itself become the captive of a
scientific-technological elite." ~
Dwight D. Eisenhower
"I have always found that there is always something of value
. Even if something
turns out to be a bad idea or if things end up transmitting the
wrong message or end up transmitting misinformation or end up
having negative effects. So don't ever
throw something away or ignore something until you have examined
it for anything useful. There might be that one word or that one
piece that ends up having some kind of value, something that can
be used someplace else where it was never intended to be used.
This is what makes innovation so surprising sometimes. Ideas
sometimes come from the strangest places where you least expect
it. So there are many different ways that we can learn from our
mistakes. So don't ever regret making mistakes, because we can
always learn something.
Inventions from 30 Years of Isolation
is to surpass or overtake another to move into a leading
or dominant position. An advancement that is a big step forward. Making
many steps that leap beyond the first prototype, making the new idea seem
ahead of it's time and futuristic.
Small and incremental innovations lead the dominant firm
to stay ahead. However, sometimes, radical innovations will permit to new
firms to leapfrog the ancient and dominant firm. The phenomenon can occur
to firms but also to leadership of countries, or cities.
41 of the Greatest Innovations
so far..by Ryan Allis
) The controlled use of fire was an invention in
the early Stone Age
, with some of the earliest evidence dating
back to hundreds of thousands of years ago. It’s not exactly
certain when fire
was first being used by humans, but most
research puts it somewhere between 200,000 and 600,000 years
(100,000 BCE) True semantic, phonetic language
was first being used around 100,000 BCE, making it a lot easier
to pass on how-to knowledge from generation to generation and
speeding the spread of innovation
Humans first wear
around 25,000– 50,000 BCE.
Trade and Specialization
(17,000 BCE) In Chapter 2 of the
book The Rational Optimist, author Matt Ridley highlights just
how important specialization and trade has been to our
advancement as humans. Matt gives the example of two early
humans Oz and Adam. Oz focuses on getting really good at
catching fish and Adam focuses on getting really good at making
fish hooks, and then they trade as needed for both to benefit.
The first known instance of humans trading with other humans
comes from New Guinea around 17,000 BCE, where locals exchanged
obsidian, a black volcanic glass used to make hunting
arrowheads, for other
needed goods. By 3,000 BCE, trade routes across Asia and the
Middle East developed, followed the domestication of the camel
and the creation of the trade caravan.
purchased goods up front and held the inventory as they
transported it were, of course, the original entrepreneurs.
Entrepreneurs rearrange land, labor, goods, and capital to
enable the sum of the outputs to have high value than the sum of
(15,000 BCE) Around 15,000 BCE (about 17,000 years ago), the
first animal domestication began taking place, and around 10,000
BCE, the first domestication of plants. This step was critical
for the advancement of the human species. Instead of having to
be a nomadic species that continually moved around seeking new
places to hunt and to gather, we could stay in one place. This
allowed us to start to form
communities and cities
for civilizations), which have been critical in the development
of human knowledge. Around 12,000 BCE,
as civilizations in the Middle East extended the life of their
foods through drying them in the sun. With the ability keep food
edible beyond the time that it would naturally go bad, and store
it for the future, time and energy were made available to work
on other things besides simply farming, hunting, and gathering,
enabling a great advance in our ability to specialize and
With greater specialization and trade came a substantial
increase in the variety of
and goods available.
(4000 BCE) Around 4,000 BCE, the ancient Egyptians
and around 1200 BCE the Phoenicians
and the Greeks began to make even bigger sailing ships. The
advent of the ship was a huge step forward from humanity because
it was one of the first forms of
that enabled commerce
to begin happening between different parts of the world.
(3400 BCE) The next significant step in the
history of innovation came with the creation of the wheel,
sometime between 3300 and 3500 BCE We know this thanks to the
discovery in southern Poland of the earliest known depiction of
a wheeled vehicle on a clay pot.
(3000 BCE) The next critically important innovation
that contributed to the development of a strong human
civilization was money. Around 3000 BCE, the Sumerians were one
of the first societies (if not the first) to begin using money
to help the ease of commerce and exchanging of goods, replacing
the barter system
, (3000 BCE) The whole science of metallurgy began
around 4400 BCE when human civilizations began to use copper and
silver, and soon thereafter we figured out how to merge copper
and tin to form bronze. Around 3000 BCE we found an even
stronger substance called
, which gave rise to a new age of
and earlier) Although language had been
around for tens of thousands of years, the invention of written
language was extremely important because it made written records
and numerical calculations possible. The first recorded written
, which started around 2900 BCE.
The Legal System
(1780 BCE) Hammurabi, the
sixth king of
, was one of the first to write down a
formalized code of laws. He created a structure that enabled his
people to understand what the societal norms were. Other
examples include the
Egyptian Book of the Dead
Twelve Tables of Rome
, and the
—early legal systems that enabled society to tackle
dispute resolution at a lower cost and create an understanding
of what the norms are. These systems helped create amazing
advancement in our ability to conduct commerce in a frictionless
(1050 BCE) The first “true alphabet”
(containing vowels as well as consonants) was created by the
around 1050 BCE. Many modern alphabets evolved from
(650 BCE) – Steel is a compound, an alloy between
and carbon, and one of the strongest substances we know. The
earliest known production of steel is a piece of ironware
excavated in Western Asia that is about 4,000 years old. The
Spartans used steel extensively around 650 BCE, as did the
Chinese from 400 BCE, and the Romans.
(200 BCE) The next great innovation, around 200 BCE,
was water power—first used in the Fertile Crescent area in the
Middle East. This breakthrough enabled enormous transformations
in our ability as a species to harness power, and water power
continued to be used into the nineteenth century, when
water-powered mills were still common in England and New
was an Ancient Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer,
inventor, and astronomer who lived from 287 BC – c. 212 BC.
(105) Moving into the common era (CE)
saw the creation of paper, which was first used by the Chinese
in around the year 105. Around the sixteenth century, wood pulp
paper became more widely used, replacing rag paper. With
, knowledge could spread much more easily.
(1040) Advancing about 900 years, we had the creation
of movable type. While many people think that movable type began
, it actually goes back
to imperial China in year 1040
. Later, when Gutenberg invented
his press, he was able to use special inks and tin, lead, and
antimony to mass-produce books
and get content to the educated
folks of Europe in fifteenth century.
is a concept used by historians to describe the
emergence of modern science during the early modern period, when
developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology (including human
anatomy) and chemistry transformed the views of society about nature.
(1592) The microscope was an extremely
important invention that has led to the more recent
breakthroughs in the understanding of
understanding of atomic structure
. Back in 1592, Dutch spectacle
makers Zacharias and Hans, a father and son team, discovered
that nearby objects appeared greatly enlarged when looking
through a specially shaped lens, creating the first known
(1600) Going forward to 1600, English
scientist William Gilbert coined the term electricity, which
originated from the Greek word for amber. Later, in 1752, Ben
Franklin showed that lightning and the spark from amber were one
and the same substance: electricity.
(1608) Hans Lippershey created a
convex lens and concave eyepiece that enabled the creation of
the telescope. The next year, Galileo Galilei built on these
early designs to create a much more powerful telescope that
enabled us to truly see the heavens and understand our place in
was first invented by
Thomas Newcomen in 1712 building on the ideas on Denis Papin and
Thomas Savery. Steam power was tremendously important to the
development of seafaring navigation and to powering the
machinery that drove the industrial revolution. The
followed, first made commercially successful
by Etienne Lenoir in 1858.
1. First Attempt at Making an Internal Combustion Engine
The Light Bulb
(1800) Humphry Davy, an English
scientist, created the first light bulb. It was improved in 1879
by Thomas Edison, who discovered that a certain type of carbon
filament, when placed in bulb without oxygen, could glow for 40
hours. Later on, Edison would create a bulb that could
over 1,500 hours
—a tremendous advancement in our ability as a
society to be able to do things even after the sun has set.
(1809) the first crude
was invented in Bavaria by Samuel Soemmering, and in 1828 the
in the United States was invented by Harrison
Dyer. It was, of course, Samuel Morse, creator of the
, who invented the telegraph communication system that ended
up succeeding commercially.
(1825) the electric magnet was
discovered by British inventor William Sturgeon. His first
magnet was an iron horseshoe wrapped with copper wire. When he
passed an electric current through the wire, the 7 oz. horseshoe
became a magnet and current life nine pounds. Electromagnets
went on to be used in motors, generators, loudspeakers, hard
drives, MRI machines, and
(1859) petroleum was discovered. The
first natural gas well was created in Ohio and the first oil
well was created and the first oil refined in Pennsylvania.
Petroleum was one of the most efficient substances in terms of
the amount of
energy that could be expended per ounce of liquid when burned.
The discovery of petroleum, of course, led to the gas-powered
car half a century later as well as a substantial increase of
carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
(1860) the telephone was invented
Johann Philipp Reis
. He was the first to produce a
functioning electromagnetic device that could transmit
understandable sounds. Sixteen years later,
received the first patent for telephones and invented the
first commercially successful telephone.
(1883) Thomas Edison discovered that
an electrical current
doesn’t need a wire through which to
move—it could actually travel through gas or a vacuum. In 1893,
ten years later, Lee De Forest invented the Audion, which could
control the flow of and amplify the current—an innovation that
became critically important to telecommunication later on in the
for hygiene purposes has been recorded in China in the
6th century AD, with specifically manufactured toilet paper being
mass-produced in the 14th century. Modern commercial toilet paper
originated in the 19th century, with a patent for roll-based dispensers
being made in 1883.
John Kemp Starley
is widely considered the inventor of the modern
, and also originator of the name Rover. In 1885 Starley made
history when he produced the Rover Safety Bicycle. – a rear-wheel-drive,
chain-driven cycle with two similar-sized wheels, making it more stable
than the previous high wheeler designs. English inventor and industrialist
(1896) the first semiconductors
were discovered. A semiconductor is simply material that has
electrical conductivity due to flowing electrons. Today, silicon
serves as the main component for most commercially produced
semiconductors. Germanium, gallium, arsenide, and silicon
carbide can also be used but silicon is more common (which is
the main reason that the area between San Francisco and San Jose
is called Silicon Valley.) Jagadish Chandra Bose was the first
to apply semiconductors for commercial purposes around 1896.
(1896) the French medical student
Ernest Duchesne originally discovered the
of Penicillium, however his research went mostly unnoticed. It
took until 1928 for Scottish biologist Alexander Fleming to
re-discovered penicillin. Penicillin enabling doctors to fight
bacterial infections, save lives, and cure syphilis, gangrene
(1897) The next great invention was the radio.
In 1897, Nikolai Tesla applied for and received the first radio
system patent after demonstrating it the year before at the
World’s Fair. Radio took advantage of the amazing invisible
parts of the
to transmit information through waves.
Today, we take it for granted that signals can travel invisibly
through the air, but 130 years ago it was quite radical to
demonstrate that there were things that we could not see that
were still real. In fact, the visible part of the
electromagnetic spectrum is only a very small fraction. From the
studies of the electromagnetic spectrum now know that there are
gamma waves and x waves and radio and television, which have
revolutionized human communication globally.
(1897) That same year, 1897, J. Thomson
discovered the electron. An electron is a negatively charged
subatomic particle and it’s the primary carrier of electricity,
which of course has revolutionized the world in the last 115
(1900) The history of quantum physics is
quite fascinating. It began with a number of discoveries going
back all the way to 1838 with Michael Faraday’s discovery of
cathode ray tube
, and included 1887’s discovery by Heinrich
Hertz of the photoelectric effect. But the real beginning of
quantum physics was arguably in 1900 with Max Planck’s quantum
hypothesis: that any energy-radiating atomic system can be
divided into individual energy elements. Using that research in
1905, Albert Einstein theorized and later proved that
made up of individual quantum particles which were later termed
photons by Gilbert Lewis.
(1903) We saw the invention of the
by the Wright brothers, Orville and Wilbur, on the
North Carolina coast with the first successful flight of a
manned machine occurring on December 17.
(1926) The creation of television happened in
1926, but there were many inventions that led up to it,
including the discovery of the
of selenium in
1873 by Willoughby Smith and the 1884 invention of the scanning
disk by Paul Nipkow. It was John Logie Baird who created the
first televised moving images in 1926. Ten years later, the
British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) broadcast the first
public television show.
(1947) We saw the creation of the transistor.
A transistor is a device that’s used to amplify and switch
electronic signals. It’s extremely important in the ability to
exchange information over a distance. Once we could amplify
electronic signals we could have
1906, Lee De Forest had developed the triode in a vacuum tube
that could amplify signals, which had helped overseas telephone
calls be made for the first time, but it was in 1947 at AT&T
that Bill Shankly and his team created the first semiconductor
transistor. Of course, it was Bill Shankly who later founded
Shankly Semiconductor, out of which Fairchild Semiconductor and
later Intel were born.
(1953) James Watson and Francis Crick
discovered DNA while working at Cambridge University. The duo
suggested that the correct model for DNA structure was the
double helix model and famously walked into a local pub and
exclaimed, “We have found the secret of life.”
first theme park
(December 5, 1901 – December 15, 1966)
In 1965 Walt began
development of another theme park,
Walt Disney World
Experimental Prototype Community Of Tomorrow (opened October 1, 1982)
) was one of the first
Futuristic City Designs
Walt Disney Imagineering
Great Big Beautiful
Tomorrow: The Futurism of Walt Disney
The Integrated Circuit
(1959) we saw the creation
and discovery of the integrated circuit. Integrated circuits
allow engineers to fit a lot more transistors, resistors, and
capacitors in a smaller area. It was Jack Kilby of Texas
Robert Noyce of Fairchild Semiconductor, along with their teams,
who created the first integrated circuits in 1959. All
eventually ended up using integrated circuits, which later
developed into microprocessors.
(1969) we saw the creation of the early
Internet, called the
, which was built by the United
States Department of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
(then called ARPA, today called DARPA) to connect researchers at
different locations. The ARPANET delivered its first message on
October 29, 1969 between UCLA and Stanford. The first message
was simply the word “log in.” The message crashed the network
and only the first two letters, L and O, made it through. By the
end of 1969, four computers were connected to the ARPANET. By
the 1980s, the ARPANET had turned into a global network that was
used to send files and data from one computer to another. But it
took until 1991 for the creation of the
(HTTP) by Tim Berners-Lee, which enabled the creation
of a web of
World Wide Web
communication tool that formed a constantly updating record of
human knowledge and expression. A year later, in 1992,
researchers of the University of Illinois developed a
that created a user-friendly way to view the World Wide Web.
, that first browser turned into the
company and product Netscape, which revolutionized the ability
of individuals to access information globally.
(1971) Ted Hoff of Intel created
the microprocessor, which was an
. It had all
the functions of the computer or a central processing unit (CPU)
on it, in a tiny space. The first chip was called the Intel
4004. It had 2300 transistors on it. It had as much power in one
single chip as the ENIAC supercomputer
, a 30-ton computer built
in 1946. The microprocessor led to the miniaturization and the
creation of the PC industry in the late 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s,
which enables us to have a supercomputer in our pockets today,
connected to the global Internet–an amazingly important
invention in human history that happened only a little more than
four decades ago.
(1973) Motorola launched the first handheld
mobile phone. The first prototype weighed 2.5 pounds, offered 30
minutes of talk time, and featured a battery that took ten hours
(2007) On January 9, the iPhone launched,
the first widely available smartphone with multi-touch
capabilities (the ability to detect two fingers at once,
enabling more complex user interactions such as pinch-to-zoom).
The lowly telephone had turned into a cloud-connected smartphone
with built-in GPS, compass, voice recorder, camera, maps, and
web browser with an app store that allowed the user to download
from a selection of millions of specialty applications. The multitouch smartphone paved the way for the tablet and the
coming convergence of the laptop/tablet/and smartphone and new
hybrids such as cloud-connected glasses and smartwatches. A
world with smartphones with sufficient processing power and
memory to be used as full-featured computers connected via
docking stations to flexible frame monitors with hand gesture
inputs and a projected keypad was soon approaching.
The Quantum Computer
(2011) The last step in our brief
history of innovation is the quantum computer. In 2011, the
first quantum computer was brought to market by D-wave. It was
called the Dwave One. Quantum computers use superposition and
entanglement to solve some computing problems thousands of times
faster than traditional computers. In May 2013 Google announced
it was purchasing a D-wave Two quantum computer to be hosted at
the Quantum Artificial Research Lab at the NASA Ames Research
Center in Mountain View, CA.One
Person can make all the Difference
..even knowing that no one does
it totally all by themselves..Batons
is a unique or novel device, method,
composition or process. The invention process is a process within an
overall engineering and product development process
It may be an improvement upon a machine or product or a new process for
creating an object or a result. An invention that achieves a completely
unique function or result may be a radical breakthrough. Such works are
novel and not obvious to others skilled in the same field. An inventor may
be taking a big step in success or failure.
Some Inventions take a long time before they are fully utilized and their
Historic Inventions Timeline
Timeline of United States inventions
Inventions of All Time
List of Inventors
List of Prolific Inventors
Collegiate Inventors and Innovators Alliance | NCIIA
Brilliant Scientific Accidents
Golden Mole Award (youtube)
the very first inventions)
Corporate Takeover of America
Takeover of America's Education System
progress and learn gradually in order to
make something new
better, such as a product, or a mental or
. To progress and learn gradually
in a series of steps or stages. To become technologically advanced. To grow
emotionally or to mature through experiences. To undergo changes or
improvements. To create by training
and teaching. Gain through
, unfold, or evolve through a
evolution, natural growth, differentiation, or a conducive
Come to have or undergo a change of (physical features and
Come into existence; take on form or shape. Work out. Change the
use of and make available or
Be gradually disclosed or unfolded; become manifest. Expand in
the form of a series.
Cause to grow and differentiate in ways conforming to its
Move into a strategically more advantageous position.
"The Process of
Development is in our DNA
, we are
born to develop."
New Product Development
covers the complete process
of bringing a new product to market. New
product development is described in the literature as the transformation
of a market opportunity into a product available for sale. The product can
be tangible (something physical which one can touch) or intangible (like a
service, experience, or belief). A good understanding of customer needs
and wants, of the competitive environment and of the nature of the market
represents the top required factor for the success of a new product. Cost,
time and quality
are the main variables that drive customer needs. Aiming
at these three variables, companies develop continuous practices and
strategies to better satisfy customer requirements and to increase their
own market share by a regular development of new products. There are many
uncertainties and challenges which companies must face throughout the
process. The use of best practices and the elimination of barriers to
communication are the main concerns for the management of the NPD process.
Design Science (methodology)
is an outcome based information
technology research methodology, which offers specific
for evaluation and
iteration within research
. Design science research focuses on the development and
performance of (designed) artifacts with the explicit intention of
improving the functional performance of the artifact. Design science
research is typically applied to categories of artifacts including
, design methodologies (including process models) and
languages. Its application is most notable in the Engineering and Computer
Science disciplines, though is not restricted to these and can be found in
many disciplines and fields. In design science research, as opposed to
explanatory science research, academic research objectives are of a more
pragmatic nature. Research in these disciplines can be seen as a quest for
improving human performance
is a design and
develops solutions to problems by involving the human perspective in all
steps of the problem-solving
. Human involvement typically takes place in observing the
problem within context,
conceptualizing, developing, and implementing the solution. Human-centered
design is an approach to
systems development that aims to make systems usable and useful by
focusing on the users, their needs and requirements, and by applying human
usability knowledge, and techniques. This approach enhances effectiveness
and efficiency, improves human well-being, user satisfaction,
accessibility and sustainability
and counteracts possible adverse effects of use on human health,
9241-210:2010(E). Human-centered design builds upon participatory action
research by moving beyond participant's involvement and producing
solutions to problems rather than solely documenting them. Initial stages
usually revolve around immersion, observing, and contextual framing in
which innovators immerse themselves with the problem and community.
Consequent stages may then focus on community brainstorming,
modeling and prototyping
and implementation in community spaces. Further, human-centered design
typically focuses on integrating technology or other useful tools in order
to alleviate problems, especially around issues of health. Once the
solution is integrated, human-centered design usually employ system
usability scales and community feedback in order to determine the success
of the solution.
Human-centered design is key to forming partnerships for large-scale
is a Design
based on a cyclic process of prototyping, testing, analyzing, and refining
a product or process. Based on the results of testing the most recent
iteration of a design, changes and refinements are made. This process is
intended to ultimately improve the quality and functionality of a design.
In iterative design, interaction with the designed system is used as a
form of research for informing and evolving a project, as successive
versions, or iterations of a design are implemented.
Iterative and incremental Development
combination of both iterative design or iterative method and incremental
build model for software development.
is the act of repeating a process, either to
generate an unbounded sequence
of outcomes, or with the aim of approaching
a desired goal, target or result. Each repetition of the process is also
called an "iteration", and the results of one iteration are used as the
starting point for the next iteration or
is something a little different from others of the same
type. A written work (as a novel) that has been recast in a new form.
corresponds to new developments in the software
incrementally different versions of electronic information.
is the management of
changes to documents, computer programs, large web sites, and other
collections of information. Changes are usually identified by a number or
letter code, termed the "revision number", "revision level", or simply
"revision". For example, an initial set of files is "revision 1". When the first change is made, the resulting set is "revision 2", and so on.
Each revision is associated with a
and the person
making the change. Revisions can be compared, restored, and with some
types of files, merged. (also known as revision control or source
is to make
partial or minor changes to (something), typically so as to improve it or
to make it less extreme. An event that occurs when something passes from
one state or phase to another.
is a popular iterative and incremental software development
Rational Unified Process
is an iterative software
development process framework created by the Rational Software
Corporation, a division of IBM since 2003.
bug tracking, issue tracking, and project management functions.
is the act of improving by expanding or enlarging or refining.
in which something passes by degrees to a different
stage (especially a more advanced or mature stage)
(biology) the process of an individual organism growing
organically; a purely biological unfolding of events involved in
an organism changing gradually from a simple to a more complex
Elaborate by the unfolding of a musical idea and by the working
out of the rhythmic and harmonic changes in the theme.
(self smart) Software Development
is to make better or more attractive. Increase.
is to contribute to the progress or growth of. Obtain advantages.
Develop in a positive way.. Develop further. A change for the
better; progress in development. The act of moving forward (as
toward a goal).
is to undergo a change or
development. Come into existence. Enhance the appearance of. Enter or
assume a certain state or condition.
is the process
of coming into being, or of becoming important or prominent. The process
of coming into view or becoming exposed after being concealed.
phenomenon whereby larger entities arise through interactions among
smaller or simpler entities such that the larger entities exhibit
properties the smaller/simpler entities do not exhibit.
or level of
is a set of phenomena emerging on pre-existing phenomena of lower level.
Typical examples include life emerging from non-living substances, and
consciousness emerging from nervous systems.
is the process by which a new idea or new product
is accepted by the market
. The rate of diffusion
is the speed with which the new idea spreads
consumer to the next. Adoption (the reciprocal process as viewed from a
consumer perspective rather than distributor) is similar to diffusion
except that it deals with the psychological processes an individual goes
through, rather than an aggregate market process. In economics it is more
often named "technological change". There are
several theories that purport to explain the mechanics of diffusion:
The two-step hypothesis – information and acceptance flows, via the media,
first to opinion leaders, then to the general population. The trickle-down
effect – products tend to be expensive at first, and therefore only
accessible to the wealthy social strata – in time they become less
expensive and are diffused to lower and lower strata. The Everett Rogers
Diffusion of innovations theory – for any given product category, there
are five categories of product adopters: Innovators – venturesome,
educated, multiple info sources; Early adopters – social leaders, popular,
educated; Early majority – deliberate, many informal social contacts; Late
majority – skeptical, traditional, lower socio-economic status; Laggards –
neighbours and friends are main info sources, fear of debt. Crossing the
Chasm model developed by Geoffrey Moore – This model overlays the Everett
Rogers' adoption curve with a 'chasm'. According to Moore, the marketer
should focus on one group of customers at a time, using each group as a
base for marketing to the next group. The most difficult step is making
the transition between visionaries (early adopters) and pragmatists (early
majority). This is the chasm that he refers to. Technologies or products
that cannot cross this chasm will die or remain niche. If successful, a
firm can create a bandwagon effect in which the momentum builds and the
product becomes ubiquitous. Technology driven models – These are
particularly relevant to software diffusion. The rate of acceptance of
technology is determined by factors such as ease of use and usefulness.
According to Everett M. Rogers, the rate of diffusion is influenced by:
The product's perceived
advantage or benefit
. Riskiness of purchase. Ease of product use –
complexity of the product.
Immediacy of benefits
. Observability. Trialability.
. Extent of behavioural
changes required. Return on investment in the case of industrial products.
There are several types of
diffusion rate models: Penetration models – use test market data to
develop acceptance equations of expected sales volume as a function of
time. Three examples of penetration models are: Bass trial only model.
Bass declining trial model. Fourt and Woodlock model. Trial/Repeat models
– number of repeat buyers is a function of the number of trial buyers.
Deterministic models – assess number of buyers at various states of
acceptance – later states are determined from calculations to previous
states. Stochastic models – recognize that many elements of the diffusion
process are unknown but explicitly incorporate probabilistic terms.
Technology Readiness Level
are a method of estimating technology
maturity of Critical Technology Elements (CTE) of a program during the
acquisition process. They are determined during a Technology Readiness
Assessment (TRA) that examines program concepts, technology requirements,
and demonstrated technology capabilities. TRL are based on a scale from 1
to 9 with 9 being the most mature technology. The use of TRLs enables
consistent, uniform discussions of technical maturity across different
types of technology.
Level 0: Idea. Unproven Concept, no testing
has been performed.
Level 1: Basic Research. Principles postulated and
observed but no experimental proof
available. (similar ideas may
already be in use? what was the feedback?).
Level 2: Technology
Formulation. Concept application have been formulated.
Level 3: Applied
Research. First laboratory tests completed. Proof of concept.
Small Scale Prototype built in laboratory environment (crude prototype).
Level 5: Large Scale Prototype. Tested in Intended Environment.
6: Prototype System tested in intended environment close to expected
Level 7: Demonstration System operating in operational
environment at pre-commercial
Level 8: First of a kind
commercial system. Manufacturing issues solved.
Level 9: Full
commercial application, technology available for consumers.
is something that was not carefully
or expertly made and belonging to an early stage of technical development
that is characterized by a simplistic example of a much more advanced
design that has not yet been built.
Proof of Concept
is a realization of a certain method or idea in order to
feasibility, or a demonstration in principle with the aim of verifying
that some concept or theory has practical potential. A proof of concept is
usually small and may or may not be complete.
Real Life Example
Technology Adoption Life Cycle
is a sociological model that describes
the adoption or acceptance of a new product or innovation, according to
the demographic and psychological characteristics of defined adopter
groups. The process of adoption over time is typically illustrated as a
classical normal distribution or "bell curve". The model indicates that
the first group of people to use a new product is called "innovators",
followed by "early adopters". Next come the early majority and late
majority, and the last group to eventually adopt a product are called "phobics."
Phobics use the cloud without knowing they are doing. The demographic and
psychological (or "psychographic") profiles of each adoption group were
originally specified by the North Central Rural Sociology Committee,
Subcommittee for the Study of the Diffusion of Farm Practices, by
agricultural researchers Beal and Bohlen in 1957. The report summarized
the categories as: innovators – had larger farms, were more educated, more
prosperous and more risk-oriented. Early adopters – younger, more
educated, tended to be community leaders, less prosperous early majority –
more conservative but open to new ideas, active in community and influence
to neighbours. Late majority – older, less educated, fairly conservative
and less socially active. Laggards – very conservative, had small farms
and capital, oldest and least educated. The model has subsequently been
adapted for many areas of technology adoption in the late 20th century.
Things to Avoid when trying to Invent
Reinventing the Wheel
is to duplicate a basic method that
has already previously been created or optimized by others
is any commonly reinvented product that is a
bad solution to a problem
, creating more bad consequences than good ones,
when another solution exists that is documented, repeatable and proven to
Rube Goldberg Machine
is a deliberately over-engineered
product that performs a simple task in a complicated fashion, generally
. An example is Cars.
Porter's Generic Strategies
is a graphical and conceptual presentation of the maturity emerging
technologies through five phases.
is typically a computer hardware or software, that
is announced to the general public but is never actually manufactured nor
is a situation where a
is no longer
readable because of its archaic format.
is wasteful and criminal act of planning or designing a
product with a limited useful life. Making cheap products hurts people and
pollutes the environment, it wastes time, resources, people, money and
. If a product can be made of higher quality, then
we should make it. When we make products that last longer and are easily
, then the
extra cost of making that product would be more beneficial for everyone
and everything on the planet. Using money
as a reason to be ignorant and
needs to stop.
more Harm then Good
. Don't trade convenience for the constant degradation
of your health
, or the
planet. Don't trade a
for a slow death. How can you feel good about
slowly killing yourself, or killing other people? Ask an
. When people don't have
enough knowledge and information, people will always be less able to accurately
, and they will never know about
options. And there
are always better choices, always.
indicates that the product is in the end of its
that a vendor will stop marketing, selling, and end support for the
of Waste aka The Light bulb Conspiracy, 2010
occurs when an object, service, or practice is no longer wanted even
though it may still be in good working order. Obsolescence frequently
occurs because a replacement has become available that has, in sum, more
advantages compared to the disadvantages incurred by maintaining or
repairing the original. Obsolete refers to something that is already
disused or discarded, or antiquated. Typically, obsolescence is preceded
by a gradual decline in
instead of Competition
is an innovation that creates a new market and
value network and eventually disrupts an existing market and value
network, displacing established market leading firms, products and
Quality, Value, Convenience - which was a lie. Should have been "HqZwIp" -
Highest Quality, Zero Waste, Increased Potential.Smart
"Humans have the ability to solve their own problems
without having to steal from other people or stealing from the
Pitfalls of Patents
means to invent an alternative to a
invention that does not infringe the
phrase can also refer to the invention itself.
Not Invented Here
is the behavior to avoid using or buying
already existing products, research, standards, or knowledge because of
their external origins and costs and the fear of patent infringement, lack
of understanding of the foreign work, an unwillingness to acknowledge or
value the work of others, jealousy, or forming part of a wider turf war.
As a social phenomenon, this philosophy manifests as an unwillingness to
adopt an idea or product because it originates from another culture, a
form of tribalism.
is a dense web of overlapping intellectual
property rights that a company must hack its way through in order to
actually commercialize new technology," or, in other words, "an
overlapping set of patent rights” which requires innovators to reach
licensing deals for multiple patents from multiple sources."
is an idea in metaphysical thinking holding that
progress is a real concept leading to an improvement of the world. It
holds that humans can, through their interference with processes that
would otherwise be natural, produce an outcome which is an improvement
over the aforementioned natural one.
Regression Discontinuity Design
is a quasi-experimental
pretest-posttest design that elicits the causal effects of interventions
by assigning a cutoff or threshold above or below which an intervention is
assigned. By comparing observations lying closely on either side of the
threshold, it is possible to estimate the local Average treatment effect
in environments in which randomization was unfeasible.
Top-down and bottom-up Design
are both strategies of information
(also known as stepwise design and in some cases used as a synonym of
decomposition) is essentially the breaking down of a system to gain
insight into its compositional sub-systems in a reverse engineering
fashion. In a top-down approach an overview of the system is formulated,
specifying, but not detailing, any first-level subsystems. Each subsystem
is then refined in yet greater detail, sometimes in many additional
subsystem levels, until the entire specification is reduced to base
elements. A top-down model is often specified with the assistance of
"black boxes", which makes it easier to manipulate. However, black boxes
may fail to clarify elementary mechanisms or be detailed enough to
realistically validate the model. Top down approach starts with the big
picture. It breaks down from there into smaller segments.
is the piecing together
of systems to give rise to more complex
making the original systems sub-systems of the emergent system. Bottom-up
processing is a type of information processing based on incoming data from
the environment to form a perception. From a cognitive psychology
perspective, information enters the eyes in one direction (sensory input,
or the "bottom"), and is then turned into an image by the brain that can
be interpreted and recognized as a perception (output that is "built up"
from processing to final cognition). In a bottom-up approach the
individual base elements of the system are first specified in great
detail. These elements are then linked together to form larger subsystems,
which then in turn are linked, sometimes in many levels, until a complete
top-level system is formed. This strategy often resembles a "seed" model,
by which the beginnings are small but eventually grow in complexity and
completeness. However, "organic strategies" may result in a tangle of
elements and subsystems, developed in isolation and subject to local
optimization as opposed to meeting a global purpose.
is a list of actions or event steps, typically
defining the interactions between a role (known in the Unified Modeling
Language as an actor) and a system, to achieve a goal. The actor can be a
human or other external system.
is a software testing method by which
individual units of source code, sets of one or more computer program
modules together with associated control data, usage procedures, and
operating procedures, are tested to determine whether they are fit for
Manufacturing Resource Planning
is defined as a method for the
effective planning of all resources of a
it addresses operational planning in units, financial planning, and has a
simulation capability to answer "what-if" questions and extension of
Acronyms used in Manufacturing
brings different parties together in order to
a mutually valued
is an approach to design attempting to actively involve more people in the
design process to help ensure the result meets their needs and is usable.
is an approach which is focused on processes and procedures of design and
is not a design style.
On the Job Training
Introvert or Extrovert
Breakthrough Technologies 2015
is a plan that matches short-term and
long-term goals with specific technology solutions to help meet those
goals. It is a plan that applies to a new product or process, or to an
emerging technology. Developing a roadmap has three major uses. It helps
reach a consensus about a set of needs and the technologies required to
satisfy those needs, it provides a mechanism to help forecast technology
developments, and it provides a framework to help plan and coordinate
is a method of fitting regression models
in which the choice of predictive variables is carried out by an automatic
procedure. In each step, a variable is considered for addition to or
subtraction from the set of explanatory variables based on some
prespecified criterion. Usually, this takes the form of a sequence of
F-tests or t-tests, but other techniques are possible, such as adjusted R2,
Akaike information criterion, Bayesian information criterion, Mallows's Cp,
PRESS, or false discovery rate. The frequent practice of fitting the final
selected model followed by reporting estimates and confidence intervals
without adjusting them to take the model building process into account has
led to calls to stop using stepwise model building altogether or to at
least make sure model uncertainty is correctly reflected.
is a process, usually performed at the conclusion of a project,
to determine and analyze elements of the project that were successful or
unsuccessful. The Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) refers to
the process as lessons learned. Project post-mortems are intended to
inform process improvements which mitigate future risks and to promote
iterative best practices. Post-mortems are often considered a key
component of, and ongoing precursor to, effective
The End of Ownership
(VPRO Backlight, Video, 47:52)
There is a process. In order to take the next step in development you need to have certain things
in place. Like a Key that activates the
tumblers on a lock
to unlock a door. All tumblers must be activated in
order for you to take the next step.
And some of those steps are big steps that happen fast. Don't
forget you still have the Key
How did I get Here?
I got lucky
. I was in the right place at
the right time asking questions. Then from there it was just a matter of
working on the idea. And of course, getting the support and resources that
I needed to chase my dream, which is pretty much the same for all
. There's only a handful of
people on this planet who could have done what I have done in the same way
that I did it. I was incredibly effective and efficient in collecting the
most valuable knowledge and Information that was currently available. I
knew the internet, I knew where to look for information, I knew the right
questions to ask, and I knew how to document and record and I knew how to
organizing and categorize. And then I taught myself website development so
that I could disseminate everything using the internet. I was made for
this particular job. But it wasn't always perfect, I made a lot of
mistakes, but I did not let my mistakes slow me down or distract me. I
kept going. Because I knew what I was doing was right thing to do, and no
doubt, it was the most important thing in my life. I knew this was it,
this is what I would do for the rest of my life.
or products disbursed or
party (grant makers), often a government department, corporation,
foundation or trust, to a recipient, often (but not always) a nonprofit
entity, educational institution, business or an individual. In order to
receive a grant, some form of "Grant Writing
" often referred to as either
or an application is required. Most grants are made to fund a
specific project and
require some level of compliance and reporting
grant writing process
involves an applicant submitting a proposal (or
submission) to a potential funder, either on the applicant's own
initiative or in response to a Request for Proposal from the funder. Other
grants can be given to individuals, such as
victims of natural disasters
individuals who seek to open a small business. Sometimes grant makers
require grant seekers to have some form of tax-exempt status, be a
registered nonprofit organization or a local government. For example,
tiered funding for a freeway are very large grants negotiated at
government policy level. However smaller grants may be provided by a
government agency (e.g. municipal government). Project-related funding
involving business, communities, and individuals is often arranged by
either in writing or online.
Grants from the
. Guaranteed Loan
is a loan guaranteed by a third party in the event that the borrower
defaults. The Loan
often guaranteed by a government agency which will purchase the debt from
the lending financial institution and take on
the loan. Accountable
is the act of supporting an event, activity,
person, or organization financially or through the provision of products
or services. The individual or group that provides the support, similar to
a benefactor, is known as sponsor. Sponsorship is a cash and/or in-kind
fee paid to a property (typically in sports, arts, entertainment or
causes) in return for access to the exploitable commercial potential
associated with that property. While the sponsoree (property being
sponsored) may be nonprofit, unlike philanthropy, sponsorship is done with
the expectation of
a commercial return
. While sponsorship can deliver increased
awareness, brand building and propensity to purchase, it is different from
advertising. Unlike advertising, sponsorship can not communicate specific
product attributes. Nor can it stand alone, as sponsorship requires
is a type of private equity, a form of financing that
is provided by firms or funds to small, early-stage, emerging firms that
are deemed to have high
or which have demonstrated high
growth (in terms of number of employees, annual revenue, or both). Venture
capital firms or funds invest in these early-stage companies in exchange
for equity, or an ownership stake, in the companies they
Venture capitalists take on the risk of financing
start-ups in the
hopes that some of the firms they support will become successful. The
start-ups are usually based on an innovative technology or business model
and they are usually from the high technology industries, such as
information technology (IT), clean technology or biotechnology.
List of Venture Capital Firms
Funding Opportunity Databases
Funding Research Dangers
is a type of equity and one of the asset classes consisting of equity
securities and debt
in operating companies that are not publicly traded on
a stock exchange. However the term has come to be used to describe the
business of taking a company into private ownership in order to reform it
before selling it again at a hoped-for
is a Donation
money or property to a nonprofit organization for the ongoing support of
that organization. Usually the endowment is structured so that the
principal amount is kept intact while the
for use, or part of the principal is released each year, which allows for
their donation to have an impact over a longer period than if it were
spent all at once. An endowment may come with stipulations regarding its
usage. The total value
of an institution's investments is often referred to as the institution's
endowment and is typically organized as a public
foundation, or trust. Among the institutions that commonly manage
endowments are academic institutions (e.g., colleges, universities, and
private schools), cultural institutions (e.g., museums, libraries, and
theaters), service organizations (e.g., hospitals, retirement homes, the
Red Cross, the SPCA), and religious organizations (e.g., churches,
is the difference between the value of the assets and
of the liabilities of something owed. It is governed by the
following equation: Equity=Assets-Liabilities
is an economic
. Anything tangible or intangible that can be owned or controlled
to produce value and that is held by a company to produce positive
economic value is an asset. Simply stated, assets represent
ownership that can be converted into cash (although cash itself is also
considered an asset).
is the practice of funding a project or venture by raising monetary
contributions from a large number of people. Crowdfunding is a form of
crowdsourcing and of alternative finance. In 2015, it was estimated that
worldwide over US $34 billion was raised this way.
process of gathering voluntary contributions of money or other resources,
by requesting donations from individuals, businesses, charitable
foundations, or governmental agencies (see also crowd funding). Although
fundraising typically refers to efforts to gather money for
, it is sometimes used to refer to the identification and
solicitation of investors or other sources of capital for for-profit
enterprises. Traditionally, fundraising consisted mostly of asking for
donations on the street or at people's doors, and this is experiencing
very strong growth in the form of face-to-face fundraising, but new
forms of fundraising, such as online fundraising, have emerged in recent
years, though these are often based on older methods such as grassroots
is a form of securities offering in which an investor invests capital in
exchange for an equity stake in the company.
- Raise Money, Get Help
- get paid to chase your dream.
Go Fund Me
Global Startup Accelerator & Incubator.
Innovation Resources - Change Makers
Champions of the Earth
in 2004 as an annual awards programme to
at a policy level. Six awards are given out each
year to a Laureate representing different geographical regions with one
additional special prize. In 2017, the program was extended to a Young
Champions of the Earth with six young champions from the six global
regions. The Champions of the Earth are invited to accept their award at
an international ceremony, which publicizes and encourages the worldwide
replication of the achievements of the Champions. This awards programme is
a successor to UNEP's Global 500 Roll of Honour.
United Nations Environment Programme
is an agency of United Nations
and coordinates its environmental activities, assisting developing
countries in implementing
sound policies and practices
"Easy choices, hard life. Hard choices, easy life." People who try to
avoid hard work for an easy life end up with a hard life because they can
only do easy work.
"I would rather have a hard road to excellence then an easy road to
as a consequence of being average and not outstanding.