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Heredity - Traits - Genes


The Human Mind and Body has incredible abilities that most people are not aware of.

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Ninety Nine Percent of the information that we inherit in our DNA is good. But some of the things that we inherit are not so good, and can even be bad. The good news is, if we are aware of our vulnerabilities, then we can adapt and make the necessary changes that will keep the bad genes from activating and turning on. And maybe we can even correct our bad genes so that we don't pass on these defects that are in our DNA onto future generations. But the most important thing that we need to do is to pass on human knowledge, because good genes will not protect us from our own ignorance. So don't worry that you could never overcome a Trait or Traits, or worry about something that is Heredity, Innate, Genetic or Genomic, or worry about an Instinct, or a Characteristic. These things are not life sentences. Just because you are Susceptible, Predisposed, Vulnerable or have certain Inclinations, this does not mean that you do not have choices, options or abilities. Learn about your choices and options and learn about the human bodies Natural Abilities that can help Tap the Powers of the Mind and help Tap the Powers of the Human Body. You have more control then you think. Human Nature.

Heredity is the genetic information passing for traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction. This is the process by which an offspring cell or organism acquires or becomes predisposed to the characteristics of its parent cell or organism. Through heredity, variations exhibited by individuals can accumulate and cause some species to evolve through the natural selection of specific phenotype traits. The study of heredity in biology is called genetics, which includes the field of epigenetics.

Inherited is the genetic information that the body receives from the parents at the moment of conception or birth.

Trait is a characteristic of an organism that can be the result of genes and/or influenced by the environment. Traits can be physical like hair color or the shape and size of a plant leaf or a distinguishing feature of your personal nature. Traits can also be behaviors such as nest building behavior in birds.

Mendelian Traits in Humans is a child receiving a dominant allele from either parent will have the dominant form of the phenotypic trait or characteristic. Only those that received the recessive allele from both parents, known as zygosity, will have the recessive phenotype. Those that receive a dominant allele from one parent and a recessive allele from the other parent will have the dominant form of the trait. Purely Mendelian traits are a tiny minority of all traits, since most phenotypic traits exhibit incomplete dominance, codominance, and contributions from many genes.

What Twin Studies tell us about the Heritability of Brain Development, Morphology, and Function. The development of brain structure and function shows large inter-individual variation. The extent to which this variation is due to genetic or environmental influences has been investigated in twin studies using structural and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Twins - Genetic Variation.

Genetic Association is when one or more genotypes within a population co-occur with a phenotypic trait more often than would be expected by chance occurrence.

Antecedents is someone from whom you are descended, but usually more remote than a grandparent. A preceding occurrence or cause or event. Anything that precedes something similar in time. Ancestors.


Mitochondria


Mitochondrial DNA is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Mitochondrial DNA is only a small portion of the DNA in a eukaryotic cell; most of the DNA can be found in the cell nucleus and, in plants and algae, also in plastids such as chloroplasts. (mtDNA or mDNA). In humans, the 16,569 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA encode for only 37 genes. Human mitochondrial DNA was the first significant part of the human genome to be sequenced. In most species, including humans, mtDNA is inherited solely from the mother. Since animal mtDNA evolves faster than nuclear genetic markers, it represents a mainstay of phylogenetics and evolutionary biology. It also permits an examination of the relatedness of populations, and so has become important in anthropology and biogeography. Electromagnetic Radiation - Biophysics - VO2 Max.

Tiny thermometer measures how mitochondria heat up the cell by unleashing proton energy. Mitochondria, the cell's power stations, release quick bursts of heat by unleashing the power stored in an internal proton battery. That's what fat cells do when they're in need of heat when the body's temperature goes down. researchers developed a tiny, fast-read thermometer probe to internally measure temperature inside of living cells.

Electron Transport Chain (youtube) - The Electron Transport Chain & complexes I-IV that pump protons out of the Mitochondria by the transfer of the electrons carried on NADH & FADH2 to maintain the concentration gradient of the protons "high in the intermembrane space & low in the matrix of the Mitochondria" this video is made by HarvardX on edX.

Most of the Y chromosome are handed down from father to son without changes. Likewise, in humans, the tiny bit of DNA contained in an unusual package of genetic material known as mitochondrial DNA is passed down from mother to child without any recombination.

Epigenetic Memory of a cell defines the set of modifications to the cell's deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) that do not alter the DNA sequence, and have been inherited from the cell from which it descends. Such modifications can alter Gene Expression and therefore the properties and behaviour of the cell. Sperm Epigenetics and Influence of Environmental Factors.

Inclusive Fitness is one of two metrics of evolutionary success. Personal fitness is the number of offspring that an individual begets (regardless of who rescues/rears/supports them). Inclusive fitness is the number of offspring equivalents that an individual rears, rescues or otherwise supports through its behavior (regardless of who begets them).

Grandmother Hypothesis is a hypothesis to explain the existence of menopause in human life history by identifying the adaptive value of extended kin networking. It builds on the previously postulated "mother hypothesis" which states that as mothers age, the costs of reproducing become greater, and energy devoted to those activities would be better spent helping her offspring in their reproductive efforts. It suggests that by redirecting their energy onto those of their offspring, grandmothers can better ensure the survival of their genes through younger generations. By providing sustenance and support to their kin, grandmothers not only ensure that their genetic interests are met, but they also enhance their social networks which could translate into better immediate resource acquisition. This effect could extend past kin into larger community networks and benefit wider group fitness.

Y Chromosome DNA Tests is a genealogical DNA test which is used to explore a man's patrilineal or direct father's-line Ancestry. The Y chromosome, like the patrilineal surname, passes down virtually unchanged from father to son. Every now and then occasional mistakes in the copying process occur, and these mutations can be used to estimate the time frame in which the two individuals share a most recent common ancestor or MRCA. If their test results are a perfect or nearly perfect match, they are related within a genealogical time frame. Each person can then look at the other's father-line information, typically the names of each patrilineal ancestor and his spouse, together with the dates and places of their marriage and of both spouses' births and deaths. The two matched persons may find a common ancestor or MRCA, as well as whatever information the other already has about their joint patriline or father's line prior to the MRCA. Y-DNA tests are typically co-ordinated in a surname DNA project. And each receives the other's contact information if the other chose to allow this. Women who wish to determine their direct paternal DNA ancestry can ask their father, brother, paternal uncle, paternal grandfather, or a cousin who shares the same surname lineage (the same Y-DNA) to take a test for them. (also known as A Y chromosome DNA test (Y-DNA test).

Genetic Recombination is the production of offspring with combinations of traits that differ from those found in either parent. In eukaryotes, genetic recombination during meiosis can lead to a novel set of genetic information that can be passed on from the parents to the offspring. Most recombination is naturally occurring. During meiosis in eukaryotes, genetic recombination involves the pairing of homologous chromosomes. This may be followed by information transfer between the chromosomes. The information transfer may occur without physical exchange (a section of genetic material is copied from one chromosome to another, without the donating chromosome being changed) (see SDSA pathway in Figure); or by the breaking and rejoining of DNA strands, which forms new molecules of DNA (see DHJ pathway in Figure). Recombination may also occur during mitosis in eukaryotes where it ordinarily involves the two sister chromosomes formed after chromosomal replication. In this case, new combinations of alleles are not produced since the sister chromosomes are usually identical. In meiosis and mitosis, recombination occurs between similar molecules of DNA (homologs). In meiosis, non-sister homologous chromosomes pair with each other so that recombination characteristically occurs between non-sister homologues. In both meiotic and mitotic cells, recombination between homologous chromosomes is a common mechanism used in DNA repair. Genetic recombination and recombinational DNA repair also occurs in bacteria and archaea, which use asexual reproduction. Recombination can be artificially induced in laboratory (in vitro) settings, producing recombinant DNA for purposes including vaccine development. V(D)J recombination in organisms with an adaptive immune system is a type of site-specific genetic recombination that helps immune cells rapidly diversify to recognize and adapt to new pathogens.

Recombinant DNA molecules are DNA molecules formed by laboratory methods of genetic recombination (such as molecular cloning) to bring together genetic material from multiple sources, creating sequences that would not otherwise be found in the genome. Recombinant DNA in a living organism was first achieved in 1973 by Herbert Boyer, of the University of California at San Francisco, and Stanley Cohen, at Stanford University, who used E. coli restriction enzymes to insert foreign DNA into plasmids.

Heteroplasmy is the presence of more than one type of organellar genome (mitochondrial DNA or plastid DNA) within a cell or individual. It is an important factor in considering the severity of mitochondrial diseases. Because most eukaryotic cells contain many hundreds of mitochondria with hundreds of copies of mitochondrial DNA, it is common for mutations to affect only some mitochondria, leaving most unaffected. Although detrimental scenarios are well-studied, heteroplasmy can also be beneficial. For example, centenarians show a higher than average degree of heteroplasmy. Microheteroplasmy is present in most individuals. This refers to hundreds of independent mutations in one organism, with each mutation found in about 1–2% of all mitochondrial genomes.


DNA Tests


Genetic Genealogy is the use of DNA testing in combination with traditional Genealogy and traditional genealogical and historical records to infer relationships between individuals. Genetic genealogy involves the use of genealogical DNA testing to determine the level and type of the genetic relationship between individuals. Humanities (human historical studies).

Genetic Testing allows the determination of Bloodlines and the genetic diagnosis of Vulnerabilities to Inherited Diseases. In agriculture, a form of genetic testing known as progeny testing can be used to evaluate the quality of breeding stock. In population ecology, genetic testing can be used to track genetic strengths and vulnerabilities of species populations. In humans, genetic testing can be used to determine a child's parentage (genetic mother and father) or in general a person's ancestry or biological relationship between people. In addition to studying chromosomes to the level of individual genes, genetic testing in a broader sense includes biochemical tests for the possible presence of genetic diseases, or mutant forms of genes associated with increased risk of developing genetic disorders. Genetic testing identifies changes in chromosomes, genes, or proteins. The variety of genetic tests has expanded throughout the years. In the past, the main genetic tests searched for abnormal chromosome numbers and mutations that lead to rare, inherited disorders. Today, tests involve analyzing multiple genes to determine the risk of developing specific diseases or disorders, with the more common diseases consisting of heart disease and cancer. The results of a genetic test can confirm or rule out a suspected genetic condition or help determine a person's chance of developing or passing on a genetic disorder. Several hundred genetic tests are currently in use, and more are being developed. Because genetic mutations can directly affect the structure of the proteins they code for, testing for specific genetic diseases can also be accomplished by looking at those proteins or their metabolites, or looking at stained or fluorescent chromosomes under a microscope.

Genetic Counseling - Genetic Disorders - Gene Therapy - Personalized Diet - Personalized Medicine.

Vitagene DNA test kits for your genetics, lifestyle, and goals.

Myriad Genetics technologies permit doctors and patients to understand the genetic basis of human disease and the role that genes play in the onset, progression and treatment of disease.

Polymerase Chain Reaction is a method widely used in molecular biology to make many copies of a specific DNA segment. Using PCR, a single copy (or more) of a DNA sequence is exponentially amplified to generate thousands to millions of more copies of that particular DNA segment. PCR is now a common and often indispensable technique used in medical laboratory and clinical laboratory research for a broad variety of applications including biomedical research and criminal forensics.

Single-molecule DNA sequencing advances could enable faster, more cost-effective genetic screening.

DNA Profiling (profiling flaws)

GED Match: Tools for DNA and Genealogy Research provides DNA and genealogical analysis tools for amateur and professional researchers and genealogists. Most tools are free, but we do provide some premium tools for users who wish to help support us with contributions. You will need to upload DNA and / or genealogical (GEDCOM) data to make use of the tools here.

Dominant Genes


DNA Testing Resources


Heir Search - DNA Center

Ancestry Genealogy DNA Test Reviews - DNA Testing

My Heritage 85 million users worldwide, 2.1 billion family tree profiles.

Living DNA Twice the detail of other ancestry tests. We give you your DNA mix across 80 world regions, including 21 in Britain and Ireland.

AncestryDNA: Genetic Testing - DNA Ancestry Test Kit. Send in your saliva sample in a prepaid envelope, and get your results in 6-8 weeks. (amazon). Note: Results have little information.

DNA Ancestry Project

Genetic Testing (23 and me)

Popular DNA Ancestry Tests don't always find what people expect. That's due to how DNA rearranges itself when egg meets sperm, and also the quirks of genetic databases.

DNA Paternity Testing is the use of DNA profiling to determine whether two individuals are biologically parent and child. A paternity test establishes genetic proof whether a man is the biological father of an individual, and a maternity test establishes whether a woman is the biological mother of an individual. Tests can also determine the likelihood of someone being a biological grandparent to a grandchild. Though genetic testing is the most reliable standard, older methods also exist, including ABO blood group typing, analysis of various other proteins and enzymes, or using human leukocyte antigen antigens. The current techniques for paternity testing are using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Paternity testing can now also be performed while the woman is still pregnant from a blood draw. (also known as genetic fingerprinting).

Artificial Intelligence applied to the Genome identifies an unknown Human Ancestor. By combining deep learning algorithms and statistical methods, investigators have identified, in the genome of Asian individuals, the footprint of a new hominid who cross bred with its ancestors tens of thousands of years ago.

Transcriptomics Technologies are the techniques used to study an organism’s transcriptome, the sum of all of its RNA transcripts. The information content of an organism is recorded in the DNA of its genome and expressed through transcription. Here, mRNA serves as a transient intermediary molecule in the information network, whilst non-coding RNAs perform additional diverse functions. A transcriptome captures a snapshot in time of the total transcripts present in a cell. Transcriptomics technologies provide a broad account of which cellular processes are active and which are dormant.

The Human Gene Database is a searchable, integrative database that provides comprehensive, user-friendly information on all annotated and predicted human genes. It automatically integrates gene-centric data from ~150 web sources, including genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, genetic, clinical and functional information.


Genetic Risks


Genetic Predisposition is a genetic characteristic which influences the possible phenotypic development of an individual organism within a species or population under the influence of environmental conditions. In medicine, genetic susceptibility to a disease refers to a genetic predisposition to a health problem, which may eventually be triggered by particular environmental or lifestyle factors, such as tobacco smoking or diet. Genetic testing is able to identify individuals who are genetically predisposed to certain diseases. Predisposed is made susceptible. Mutations.

Susceptible is a member of a population who is at risk of becoming infected by a disease. Vulnerabilities.

Autosomal Dominant is a gene from only one parent that can be inherited. Autosomal dominant disease is an abnormal gene from only one parent. Autosomal dominant disorder is a mutated dominant gene located on one of the nonsex chromosomes (autosomes).

Autosomal DNA is a term used in genetic genealogy to describe DNA which is inherited from the autosomal chromosomes. An autosome is any of the numbered chromosomes, as opposed to the sex chromosomes. Humans have 22 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes (the X chromosome and the Y chromosome). Autosomes are numbered roughly in relation to their sizes. That is, Chromosome 1 has approximately 2,800 genes, while chromosome 22 has approximately 750 genes. There is no established abbreviation for autosomal DNA: atDNA (more common) and auDNA are used.

Autosome is a chromosome that is not an allosome (a sex chromosome). An autosome is a pair of chromosomes in a diploid cell in which each chromosome has the same form. Allosomes, on the other hand, have different form and thereby determine sex. The DNA in autosomes is collectively known as atDNA or auDNA.

Dominance in genetics is a relationship between alleles of one gene, in which the effect on phenotype of one allele masks the contribution of a second allele at the same locus. The first allele is dominant and the second allele is recessive. For genes on an autosome (any chromosome other than a sex chromosome), the alleles and their associated traits are autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive. Dominance is a key concept in Mendelian inheritance and classical genetics. Often the dominant allele codes for a functional protein whereas the recessive allele does not.

Molecular Marker is a molecule contained within a sample taken from an organism (biological markers) or other matter. It can be used to reveal certain characteristics about the respective source. DNA, for example, is a molecular marker containing information about genetic disorders, genealogy and the evolutionary history of life. Specific regions of the DNA (genetic markers) is are used for diagnosing the autosomal recessive genetic disorder cystic fibrosis, taxonomic affinity (phylogenetics) and identity (DNA Barcoding). Further, life forms are known to shed unique chemicals, including DNA, into the environment as evidence of their presence in a particular location. Other biological markers, like proteins, are used in diagnostic tests for complex neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease. Non-biological molecular markers are also used, for example, in environmental studies.

Danger avoidance can be genetically encoded for four generations. Researchers have discovered that learned behaviors can be inherited for multiple generations in C. elegans, transmitted from parent to progeny via eggs and sperm cells.

Allele is a variant form of a given gene. Sometimes, different alleles can result in different observable phenotypic traits, such as different pigmentation.

DUF1220 is a protein domain that shows a striking human lineage-specific (HLS) increase in copy number and may be important to human brain evolution. The DUF1220 domain name has recently been changed to the Olduvai domain based on data obtained since initial discovery of the domain. DUF1220 copy number variation has more recently been investigated in autism and schizophrenia, as both disorders are associated with deletions and duplications of 1q21 yet the causative loci within such regions have not previously been identified. Glutamate Receptor.

Genetic Counseling is the process by which the patients or relatives at risk of an inherited disorder are advised of the consequences and nature of the disorder, the probability of developing or transmitting it, and the options open to them in management and family planning. This complex process can be separated into diagnostic (the actual estimation of risk) and supportive aspects. The process of advising individuals and families affected by or at risk of genetic disorders is to help them understand and adapt to the medical, psychological and familial implications of genetic contributions to disease. The process integrates: Interpretation of family and medical histories to assess the chance of disease occurrence or recurrence. Education about inheritance, testing, management, prevention, resources. Counseling to promote informed choices and adaptation to the risk or condition.

DNA Test Results should be interpreted with professional guidance. Anything short of sequencing is going to be short on accuracy. Genes account for just 5 to 20 percent of the whole picture. Environment and Food vs. Traits and Heredity.

Promethease is a computer program developed by the SNPedia team which allows users to compare personal genomics results against the SNPedia database, generating a report with information about a person's attributes, such as propensity to diseases, based on the presence of specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms. 

Dr. Patricks Genetic Tool. Gene variants called SNPs (pronounced “snips”) can affect the way our bodies absorb, metabolize, and utilize nutrients, and determine how effectively we eliminate xenobiotics and even potential carcinogens. By understanding the mechanisms by which these genes work and analyzing data generated from genome-wide association studies (known as GWAS) and Mendelian randomization, scientists can now understand what impact SNPs may have on disease risk and longevity in relationship with certain gene-environmental contexts. Once researchers understand how specific genotypes can affect how our genes function, this enables development of the most favorable nutritional and lifestyle strategies specific to a person’s genotype. This comprehensive genetic report consolidates up-to-date research on most of the common SNPs that research suggests may have actionable nutritional and lifestyle interventions based on scientific evidence. In order for us to produce your customized report, you must have been tested previously by a DNA testing service like 23andMe.

Genetic Disorder is an inherited medical condition caused by a DNA Abnormality. It's a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome, especially a condition that is present from birth (congenital). Most genetic disorders are quite rare and affect one person in every several thousands or millions. Genetic disorders may be hereditary, passed down from the parents' genes. In other genetic disorders, defects may be caused by new mutations or changes to the DNA. In such cases, the defect will only be passed down if it occurs in the germ line. The same disease, such as some forms of cancer, may be caused by an inherited genetic condition in some people, by new mutations in other people, and mainly by environmental causes in other people. Whether, when and to what extent a person with the genetic defect or abnormality will actually suffer from the disease is almost always affected by the environmental factors and events in the person's development. Some types of recessive gene disorders confer an advantage in certain environments when only one copy of the gene is present.

List of Genetic Disorders (wiki) - Special Needs

Deep Genomics genetic therapies. CRISPR

Trait Prediction: dna land - genomic prediction

Polygenic Score is a number based on variation in multiple genetic loci and their associated weights (see regression analysis). It serves as the best prediction for the trait that can be made when taking into account variation in multiple genetic variants.

Locus in genetics is a fixed position on a chromosome, like the position of a gene or a marker (genetic marker). Each chromosome carries many genes; human's estimated 'haploid' protein coding genes are 19,000–20,000, on the 23 different chromosomes. A variant of the similar DNA sequence located at a given locus is called an allele. The ordered list of loci known for a particular genome is called a gene map. Gene mapping is the process of determining the locus for a particular biological trait. Diploid and polyploid cells whose chromosomes have the same allele of a given gene at some locus are called homozygous with respect to that gene, while those that have different alleles of a given gene at a locus are called heterozygous with respect to that gene.

Correlation between Relatives given Complete Genotypes: from Identity by Descent to Identity by Function. The phenotypic covariance between two individuals given their diploid genotypes is expressed in terms of functional identity states. The IBF (Identity by Function) parameters define a genetic architecture for a trait without reference to specific alleles or population. Given full genome sequences, we treat a gene-scale functional region, rather than a SNP, as a QTL, modeling patterns of dominance for multiple alleles. Applications demonstrated by simulation include phenotype and effect prediction and association, and estimation of heritability and classical variance components. A simulation case study of the Missing Heritability problem illustrates a decomposition of heritability under the IBF framework into Explained and Unexplained components.


Gene Expression


Gene Expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product. These products are often proteins, but in non-protein coding genes such as transfer RNA (tRNA) or small nuclear RNA (snRNA) genes, the product is a functional RNA. The process of gene expression is used by all known life—eukaryotes (including multicellular organisms), prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea), and utilized by viruses—to generate the macromolecular machinery for life. Intrinsic or Extrinsic?

Expressing is to indicate through a symbol, formula, etc. To Articulate or to Communicate.

Manifest is to reveal its presence or make an appearance. Clearly revealed to the mind or the senses or judgment.

Researchers identify 6,500 Genes that are Expressed Differently in Men and Women.

Gene Expression Profiling is the measurement of the activity (the expression) of thousands of genes at once, to create a global picture of cellular function. These profiles can, for example, distinguish between cells that are actively dividing, or show how the cells react to a particular treatment. Many experiments of this sort measure an entire genome simultaneously, that is, every gene present in a particular cell. Several transcriptomics technologies can be used to generate the necessary data to analyse. DNA Micro-Arrays measure the relative activity of previously identified target genes. Sequence based techniques, like RNA-Seq, provide information on the sequences of genes in addition to their expression level.

Spatiotemporal Gene Expression is the activation of Genes within specific tissues of an organism at specific times during development. Gene activation patterns vary widely in complexity. Some are straightforward and static, such as the pattern of tubulin, which is expressed in all cells at all times in life. Some, on the other hand, are extraordinarily intricate and difficult to predict and model, with expression fluctuating wildly from minute to minute or from cell to cell. Spatiotemporal variation plays a key role in generating the diversity of cell types found in developed organisms; since the identity of a cell is specified by the collection of genes actively expressed within that cell, if gene expression was uniform spatially and temporally, there could be at most one kind of cell. Cells and Longevity.

Mutations - Epigenetics - Phenotype - Trait Theory

Gene Silencing is the regulation of gene expression in a cell to prevent the expression of a certain gene. Gene silencing can occur during either transcription or translation and is often used in research. In particular, methods used to silence genes are being increasingly used to produce therapeutics to combat cancer and diseases, such as infectious diseases and neurodegenerative disorders. Gene silencing is often considered the same as gene knockdown. When genes are silenced, their expression is reduced. In contrast, when genes are knocked out, they are completely erased from the organism's genome and, thus, have no expression. Gene silencing is considered a gene knockdown mechanism since the methods used to silence genes, such as RNAi, CRISPR, or siRNA, generally reduce the expression of a gene by at least 70% but do not completely eliminate it. Methods using gene silencing are often considered better than gene knockouts since they allow researchers to study essential genes that are required for the animal models to survive and cannot be removed. In addition, they provide a more complete view on the development of diseases since diseases are generally associated with genes that have a reduced expression. Silent Mutation.

Transcription in biology is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase. Both DNA and RNA are nucleic acids, which use base pairs of nucleotides as a complementary language. During transcription, a DNA sequence is read by an RNA polymerase, which produces a complementary, antiparallel RNA strand called a primary transcript.

Transcription proceeds in the following general steps: RNA polymerase, together with one or more general transcription factors, binds to promoter DNA. RNA polymerase creates a transcription bubble, which separates the two strands of the DNA helix. This is done by breaking the hydrogen bonds between complementary DNA nucleotides. RNA polymerase adds RNA nucleotides (which are complementary to the nucleotides of one DNA strand). RNA sugar-phosphate backbone forms with assistance from RNA polymerase to form an RNA strand. Hydrogen bonds of the RNA–DNA helix break, freeing the newly synthesized RNA strand. If the cell has a nucleus, the RNA may be further processed. This may include polyadenylation, capping, and splicing. The RNA may remain in the nucleus or exit to the cytoplasm through the nuclear pore complex. The stretch of DNA transcribed into an RNA molecule is called a transcription unit and encodes at least one gene. If the gene encodes a protein, the transcription produces messenger RNA (mRNA); the mRNA, in turn, serves as a template for the protein's synthesis through translation. Alternatively, the transcribed gene may encode for either non-coding RNA (such as microRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), or other enzymatic RNA molecules called ribozymes. Overall, RNA helps synthesize, regulate, and process proteins; it therefore plays a fundamental role in performing functions within a cell. In virology, the term may also be used when referring to mRNA synthesis from an RNA molecule (i.e., RNA replication). For instance, the genome of a negative-sense single-stranded RNA (ssRNA -) virus may be template for a positive-sense single-stranded RNA (ssRNA +). This is because the positive-sense strand contains the information needed to translate the viral proteins for viral replication afterwards. This process is catalyzed by a viral RNA replicase. Mitochondrial DNA.

Heterochromatin is a tightly packed form of DNA, which comes in multiple varieties. These varieties lie on a continuum between the two extremes of constitutive and facultative heterochromatin. Both play a role in the expression of genes.

Genetic Load is the difference between the fitness of an average genotype in a population and the fitness of some reference genotype, which may be either the best present in a population, or may be the theoretically optimal genotype. The average individual taken from a population with a low genetic load will generally, when grown in the same conditions, have more surviving offspring. Genetic load can also be seen as reduced fitness at the population level compared to what the population would have if all individuals had the reference high-fitness genotype. High genetic load may put a population in danger of extinction.

Alternative Splicing is a regulated process during gene expression that results in a single gene coding for multiple proteins. In this process, particular exons of a gene may be included within or excluded from the final, processed messenger RNA (mRNA) produced from that gene. Consequently, the proteins translated from alternatively spliced mRNAs will contain differences in their amino acid sequence and, often, in their biological functions (see Figure). Notably, alternative splicing allows the human genome to direct the synthesis of many more proteins than would be expected from its 20,000 protein-coding genes.

Recombinase are genetic recombination enzymes. DNA recombinases are widely used in multicellular organisms to manipulate the structure of genomes, and to control gene expression. These enzymes, derived from bacteria and fungi, catalyze directionally sensitive DNA exchange reactions between short (30–40 nucleotides) target site sequences that are specific to each recombinase. These reactions enable four basic functional modules, excision/insertion, inversion, translocation and cassette exchange, which have been used individually or combined in a wide range of configurations to control gene expression.

Some people are healthy despite carrying a mutation for one of the eight severe diseases.

Analysis of 589,306 genomes identifies individuals resilient to severe Mendelian childhood diseases.

Gene Drive (gene editing)

Hox Gene is a subset of homeotic genes, are a group of related genes that control the body plan of an embryo along the head-tail axis. After the embryonic segments have formed, the Hox proteins determine the type of appendages (e.g. legs, antennae, and wings in fruit flies) or the different types of vertebrae (in humans) that will form on a segment. Hox proteins thus confer segmental identity, but do not form the actual segments themselves. The term "Hox" is a contraction of homeobox, of which Hox genes are a subset, in the field of genetics. An analogy for the Hox genes can be made to the role of a play director that calls which scene the actors should carry out next. If the play director calls the scenes in the wrong order, the overall play will be presented in the wrong order. Similarly, mutations in the Hox genes can result in body parts and limbs in the wrong place along the body. Like a play director, the Hox genes do not act in the play or participate in limb formation themselves. The protein product of each Hox gene is a transcription factor. Each Hox gene contains a well-conserved DNA sequence known as the homeobox. Hox genes are thus a subset of the homeobox transcription factor genes. In many animals, the organization of the Hox genes in the chromosome is the same as the order of their expression along the anterior-posterior axis of the developing animal, and are thus said to display colinearity.

Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism is a variation in a single nucleotide that occurs at a specific position in the genome, where each variation is present to some appreciable degree within a population (e.g. > 1%). For example, at a specific base position in the human genome, the C nucleotide may appear in most individuals, but in a minority of individuals, the position is occupied by an A. This means that there is a SNP at this specific position, and the two possible nucleotide variations – C or A – are said to be alleles for this position. SNPs underlie differences in our susceptibility to a wide range of diseases (e.g. – sickle-cell anemia, β-thalassemia and cystic fibrosis result from SNPs). The severity of illness and the way the body responds to treatments are also manifestations of genetic variations. For example, a single-base mutation in the APOE (apolipoprotein E) gene is associated with a lower risk for Alzheimer's disease. A single-nucleotide variant (SNV) is a variation in a single nucleotide without any limitations of frequency and may arise in somatic cells. A somatic single-nucleotide variation (e.g., caused by cancer) may also be called a single-nucleotide alteration.

DNA Condensation refers to the process of compacting DNA molecules in vitro or in vivo. Mechanistic details of DNA packing are essential for its functioning in the process of gene regulation in living systems. Condensed DNA often has surprising properties, which one would not predict from classical concepts of dilute solutions. Therefore, DNA condensation in vitro serves as a model system for many processes of physics, biochemistry and biology. In addition, DNA condensation has many potential applications in medicine and biotechnology. DNA diameter is about 2 nm, while the length of a stretched single molecule may be up to several dozens of centimetres depending on the organism. Many features of the DNA double helix contribute to its large stiffness, including the mechanical properties of the sugar-phosphate backbone, electrostatic repulsion between phosphates (DNA bears on average one elementary negative charge per each 0.17 nm of the double helix), stacking interactions between the bases of each individual strand, and strand-strand interactions. DNA is one of the stiffest natural polymers, yet it is also one of the longest molecules. This means that at large distances DNA can be considered as a flexible rope, and on a short scale as a stiff rod. Like a garden hose, unpacked DNA would randomly occupy a much larger volume than when it is orderly packed. Mathematically, for a non-interacting flexible chain randomly diffusing in 3D, the end-to-end distance would scale as a square root of the polymer length. For real polymers such as DNA, this gives only a very rough estimate; what is important, is that the space available for the DNA in vivo is much smaller than the space that it would occupy in the case of a free diffusion in the solution. To cope with volume constraints, DNA can pack itself in the appropriate solution conditions with the help of ions and other molecules. Usually, DNA condensation is defined as "the collapse of extended DNA chains into compact, orderly particles containing only one or a few molecules". This definition applies to many situations in vitro and is also close to the definition of DNA condensation in bacteria as "adoption of relatively concentrated, compact state occupying a fraction of the volume available". In eukaryotes, the DNA size and the number of other participating players are much larger, and a DNA molecule forms millions of ordered nucleoprotein particles, the nucleosomes, which is just the first of many levels of DNA packing.

Finding the Proteins that Unpack DNA. Specialized proteins unpack DNA inside the nucleus of a cell, making the usually dense DNA more accessible for gene expression and other functions. These tightly packed nucleosomes make it hard for other proteins to bind. A variety of proteins need to access DNA to copy its information into the RNA that will eventually be used to make proteins, but DNA is tightly wrapped around proteins called histones that are then packed into bead-like structures called nucleosomes. These tightly packed nucleosomes make it hard for other proteins to bind. Nucleosome-displacing factors are a special kind of transcription factor, proteins that bind to short, specific sequences of DNA called binding sites to control gene expression. They are also known as pioneer factors in animal cells. The researchers identified both new and previously known nucleosome-displacing factors. These factors, particularly those that strongly deplete nucleosomes, tend to be highly abundant in the nucleus and bind very tightly to DNA.

Why I Study the Most Dangerous Animal on Earth — Mosquitoes: Fredros Okumu 2017 (video and text)



Instincts


Instinct is an inherent motivation to do a particular action. A behavior that is performed without being based upon prior experience, or without having to learn something first. Without instructions, life could not exist. DNA.

Instinct
is an inborn pattern of behavior often responsive to specific stimuli.

Instinctive is unthinking that is prompted by an instinct or Habit. Unconscious.

Innate is a behavior not established by conditioning or learning. Being talented through inherited qualities. Present at birth but not necessarily hereditary; acquired during fetal development. Senses.

Primitive Reflexes are reflex actions originating in the central nervous system that are exhibited by normal infants, but not neurologically intact adults, in response to particular stimuli. These reflexes are absent due to the development of the frontal lobes as a child transitions normally into child development. These primitive reflexes are also called infantile, infant or newborn reflexes.

Precocial are those in which the young are relatively mature and mobile from the moment of birth or hatching. Unlike Humans.

Autonomous. Life needs prewritten instructions that makes developmental processes happen automatically. Without prewritten instructions life would not exist. Imagine if cells had to learn how to divide, we would not be here. As far as we know, Humans are the only life form with a manual option that can make choices. This gives life an extra advantage to survive, but that is only if we make good choices.

Fear of spiders and snakes is deeply embedded in us - Fear

Genes or Instincts do not control your behavior, they may only temporally influence your behavior, but only when you have given up control and have become totally unaware of yourself and your surroundings. There are many things that influence behavior, like experiences, environment, education, perception, chemicals in the brain and certain health issues of the body. But the bottom line is, your are in total control of your behavior, as long as you have fully educated yourself. That is the true power of the human mind.

Humans are not hard wired and we do not have hereditary programs imprinted in our genes that control our behavior. We are a learning species. The problem is that we are a dysfunctional learning species because we have not improved our education enough in order to make people aware of our learning abilities and what is needed for learning. Stanford.

Human Senses - Self-Control - Awareness

Placebo Effect

Project 10 10 10 Pill or Perception (youtube)
Are You Good Or Bad? (youtube)

"When someone says that a particular disease runs in their family, what they are saying is that they have not yet solved the problem of their vulnerability."

Humans need instincts, because it gives a person the ability to do things without having to learn them first, especially things that are important for survival. Thankfully you didn't have to learn how to breathe. But as we become more knowledgeable as we get older, we realize that instincts are not always an accurate interpretation of reality. We have more control and foresight, which gives us even greater surviving skills then instincts could ever give us. Instincts are like your mother, she's knows what's important, but for some reason, you want more freedom. Which is not bad, as long as you keep learning. Restrictions or warnings should never replace learning.



Human Nature


Your True Nature is to be Good. Everyone is born good. So why do some people lose their true nature? People are not born bad. Bad things happen to people that influences them to do bad things. When people are exposed to bad experiences and have bad information, then most of the time people will end up doing bad things. And when people receive good information and also have access to a good education, and also get the right kind of help and support, then most every person on the planet will do good things. People will still make mistakes, like everyone does, but when people are more educated they will make fewer mistakes and also learn from their mistakes more often. People will also be more aware of themselves and understand the differences between good, bad, right and wrong, and all because they were given the opportunities to learn these differences. It's always the 1% who are doing the most of the damage and doing most of the killing. But 1% of 7.7 Billion is 77 Million ignorant people doing horrific things, with only 10 million in prison, so there's too many criminals walking around, and too many criminals with authority. So why can't the other 7.7 billion people get those other 77 million ignorant people to stop being scumbags? Because these scumbags are spread out all over the world, and they are not always visible. So just being good and having goodness or having a good heart does not solve problems. People are naturally good, but people are not naturally smart. People have to learn how to be smart, and they also have to learn how to find more ways to be good. Good people have a responsibility to stop bad people. Letting bad people do bad things is not good, it's goes against human nature, which every person on the planet is responsible for. Freedom is not Free.

Don't Confuse Human Behavior with Human Nature, or confuse Instincts with Reasoning. There are no laws of human nature except for our natural instinct to be good. Our True Human Nature is made up of Characteristic Qualities that we are Naturally Born with, like when you see a baby laughing and smiling. Most every human has the urge to Learn, the desire to be happy, the urge to eat, the need to sleep, the desire to help others, the desire to live, the desire to love, the desire to progress. Human Behaviors mostly come from the things that we learn from life and what we learn from our environment. Behaviors like Hate, Greed, and Ignorance, are not normal behaviors, but they can sometimes override our true Human Nature. No human is born with bad behaviors. Humans learn bad behaviors, which means that humans can also learn good behaviors, which they do. And just being ignorant does not make you a bad person. Human Nature Needs Fostering and Cultivation.

Everything is an assembly. Everything has parts. And there are rules that determine the actions that these parts will take when they are in certain environments. Everything, including atoms, has inherited attributes that determine its actions. These instructions are most likely by design. The more rules you understand, and the more rules you know how to use effectively, the more potential you will have.

Instincts are extremely important. You do not want things to be misinterpreted. And humans have still not yet figured out how extremely important communication is. If you don't have the instructions on how the message or information should be interpreted, then you will not have any real or effective communication.

There are possible observation errors being made when we try to self analyze, as well as, when we try to accurately analyze other people. Each behavior is different depending on the person, so things are relative.

There is Human Nature and The Human Condition, but it is only a small percentage of what you are as a person. The only human nature that I can see is that humans are born to love and born to learn, beyond that, it's all about the environment that you were raised in, and the experiences that you had, and how you reacted to those experiences, and what knowledge that you have gained throughout your life. So you are mostly a product of your environment, and you are a product of the things that you have learned in your own unique way. You are what you know, or what you think or believe that you know.

Humans are Not Violent by Nature. People become violent for several reasons as stated above. We also become more aggressive when we experience chemical changes in our body, usually from hormones. We also become more vulnerable to anger when we don't eat healthy, or when we don't sleep enough, or when we are overly exposed to large amounts of stress or trauma. We can also be conditioned to except violence. This types of conditioning comes from the media, movies, books, and also from certain sports and activities. Violence is something you learn. That means that violence can be unlearned. But we don't want to encourage meekness, because just like most animals, we have to know how to defend ourselves in order to survive. And defending ourselves can sometimes become violent, but this does not mean that we become violent people, it just means that we were forced to act violently temporally. No shame, we live, learn, love and progress.

Personalities - Upbringing

Most People Mean Well, it's just that sometimes people don't know what they mean. This is because most people are not fully aware of how other people see them or how other people understand them. Most people either make the mistake of assuming that they know what other people think of them, or they sometimes just Pretend to Know, and don't bother learning to see if they are right or wrong.

When a person acts like a scumbag and does something horrible, that's not human nature, that's the disease of ignorance manifesting itself, which influences a person to do something wrong and bad. A person may commit murder or other viscous crimes, but this does not make them a murder or a criminal, because we know this is ignorance manifesting itself. The good news is, we have a cure for ignorance, it's called creating a high quality education that is available to everyone and improving the media so that the TV and newspapers actually informs people and educates them, without distractions and misleading propaganda.

Manifesting is when signs or actions become clearly visible and obvious to the eye or mind, and are displayed, shown or demonstrated in some form.

If you don't know any better, then how do you know better? Most people know better to a certain degree. But when people don't know enough to understand where better begins and ends, then they will not know enough to understand where bad and wrong begins and ends. More knowledge equals more understanding, but only as long as the knowledge you gain is the knowledge that will help create a better understanding of yourself and the world around you.

To understand human nature you would have to use a baby as an example, because babies have not yet learned, and they have not yet been totally influenced by their environment, even though a women's womb is an environment that could have many influences on a baby's behavior. So let's just say that we have an average baby with an average mother. Babies laugh, so you can say that humans are born to be happy. Babies cry, so you can say that humans are born to experience pain and discomfort for safety reasons, but not so much related to sadness, because sadness is something that you learn. Babies love, so you can say that humans are Born to Love. So all humans are Born Good. So it is the environment, and the things that humans learn, that make them either a bad person or a good person. Humans are incredible because we are designed to adapt, but this adaptation has vulnerabilities, especially when people are forced to adapt to someone else's ignorant form of reality.

You can look at a Kittens or Puppies and see that some behaviors are genetic. Humans are domesticated animals. But if you abuse an animal, then good qualities that an animal is born with become diminished, and are sometimes replaced with bad behaviors. Adaptations are essential for survival, but not when adaptations become distorted in our behaviors because of abuse or lack of a quality education.

Default in computer science refers to the preexisting value of a user-configurable setting that is assigned to a software application, computer program or device. Such settings are also called presets or factory presets, especially for electronic devices. Default values are standard values that are universal to all instances of the device or model and intended to make the device as accessible as possible "out of the box" without necessitating a lengthy configuration process prior to use. The user only has to modify the default settings according to their personal preferences. In many devices, the user has the option to restore these default settings for one or all options. Such an assignment makes the choice of that setting or value more likely, this is called the default effect. Human Operating System.

"I still believe that people are really good at heart" - Anne Frank.

"I don't judge a country by its government, I judge a country by its people, and every country on earth has good people."

If we preserve Human Rights, and create Fair Laws that are followed by everyone, and work with mother nature, we will see the best of Human Nature.

Transcendentalism is the belief in inherent goodness of both people and nature that people are at their best when truly "self-reliant" and independent. It is society and its institutions that ultimately corrupted the purity of the individual.

Intellectualism allows that “one will do what is right or best just as soon as one truly understands what is right or best”; The use, development, and exercise of the intellect; the practice of being an intellectual; and the Life of the Mind.

Spirituality is the belief in a supernatural realm, personal growth, a quest for an ultimate/sacred meaning, religious experience, or an encounter with one's own "inner dimension."

Anthropomorphism is the assigning of human traits, emotions, and intentions to non-human entities and is considered to be an innate tendency of human psychology. Personification is the related attribution of human form and characteristics to abstract concepts such as nations, emotions and natural forces like seasons and the weather. Artificial Intelligence.

We know know that Psychological Nativism is false because of Brain Plasticity, so certain skills or abilities are "not native" or hard-wired into the brain at birth.

Empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience, emphasizes the role of empirical evidence in the formation of ideas, over the notion of innate ideas or traditions.

Trait Theory is an approach to the study of human personality. Trait theorists are primarily interested in the measurement of traits, which can be defined as habitual patterns of behavior, thought, and emotion. According to this perspective, traits are relatively stable over time, differ across individuals (e.g. some people are outgoing whereas others are shy), and influence behavior. Traits are in contrast to states which are more transitory dispositions. In some theories and systems, traits are something a person either has or does not have, but in many others traits are dimensions such as extraversion vs. introversion, with each person rating somewhere along this spectrum. Phenotypic Trait.



The Thinker Man