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Heredity - Traits - Genes


The Human Mind and Body has incredible abilities that most people are not aware of.

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Don't worry that you could never overcome a Trait or Traits, or worry about something that is Heredity, Innate, Genetic or Genomic, or worry about an Instinct, or a Characteristic. These things are not life sentences. Just because you are Susceptible, Predisposed, Vulnerable or have certain Inclinations, this does not mean that you do not have choices, options or abilities. Learn about your choices and options and learn about the human bodies Natural Abilities that can help Tap the Powers of the Mind and help Tap the Powers of the Human Body. You have more control then you think.

DNA (RNA - Chromosomes)

Heredity is the genetic information passing for traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction. This is the process by which an offspring cell or organism acquires or becomes predisposed to the characteristics of its parent cell or organism. Through heredity, variations exhibited by individuals can accumulate and cause some species to evolve through the natural selection of specific phenotype traits. The study of heredity in biology is called genetics, which includes the field of epigenetics. Inherited is the genetic information that the body receives from the parents at the moment of conception or birth.


DNA Ancestry Tests


Genetic Genealogy is the use of DNA testing in combination with traditional Genealogy and traditional genealogical and historical records to infer relationships between individuals. Genetic genealogy involves the use of genealogical DNA testing to determine the level and type of the genetic relationship between individuals. Humanities (human historical studies).

Genetic Testing allows the determination of Bloodlines and the genetic diagnosis of Vulnerabilities to Inherited Diseases. In agriculture, a form of genetic testing known as progeny testing can be used to evaluate the quality of breeding stock. In population ecology, genetic testing can be used to track genetic strengths and vulnerabilities of species populations.

Single-molecule DNA sequencing advances could enable faster, more cost-effective genetic screening

DNA Profiling

Autosomal DNA is a term used in genetic genealogy to describe DNA which is inherited from the autosomal chromosomes. An autosome is any of the numbered chromosomes, as opposed to the sex chromosomes. Humans have 22 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes (the X chromosome and the Y chromosome). Autosomes are numbered roughly in relation to their sizes. That is, Chromosome 1 has approximately 2,800 genes, while chromosome 22 has approximately 750 genes. There is no established abbreviation for autosomal DNA: atDNA (more common) and auDNA are used.

Autosome is a chromosome that is not an allosome (a sex chromosome). An autosome is a pair of chromosomes in a diploid cell in which each chromosome has the same form. Allosomes, on the other hand, have different form and thereby determine sex. The DNA in autosomes is collectively known as atDNA or auDNA.

Mitochondrial DNA is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Mitochondrial DNA is only a small portion of the DNA in a eukaryotic cell; most of the DNA can be found in the cell nucleus and, in plants and algae, also in plastids such as chloroplasts.
(mtDNA or mDNA).

Y Chromosome DNA Tests A Y chromosome DNA test (Y-DNA test) is a genealogical DNA test which is used to explore a man's patrilineal or direct father's-line Ancestry. The Y chromosome, like the patrilineal surname, passes down virtually unchanged from father to son. Every now and then occasional mistakes in the copying process occur, and these mutations can be used to estimate the time frame in which the two individuals share a most recent common ancestor or MRCA. If their test results are a perfect or nearly perfect match, they are related within a genealogical time frame. Each person can then look at the other's father-line information, typically the names of each patrilineal ancestor and his spouse, together with the dates and places of their marriage and of both spouses' births and deaths. The two matched persons may find a common ancestor or MRCA, as well as whatever information the other already has about their joint patriline or father's line prior to the MRCA. Y-DNA tests are typically co-ordinated in a surname DNA project. And each receives the other's contact information if the other chose to allow this. Women who wish to determine their direct paternal DNA ancestry can ask their father, brother, paternal uncle, paternal grandfather, or a cousin who shares the same surname lineage (the same Y-DNA) to take a test for them.

Heir Search
DNA Center
Ancestry Genealogy DNA Test Reviews - DNA Testing
My Heritage 85 million users worldwide, 2.1 billion family tree profiles.
Living DNA Twice the detail of other ancestry tests. We give you your DNA mix across 80 world regions, including 21 in Britain
and Ireland.
AncestryDNA: Genetic Testing - DNA Ancestry Test Kit. Send in your saliva sample in a prepaid envelope, and get your results in 6-8 weeks. (amazon). Note: Results have little information.
DNA Ancestry Project
Genetic Testing (23 and me)

Popular DNA ancestry tests don't always find what people expect. That's due to how DNA rearranges itself when egg meets sperm, and also the quirks of genetic databases.

DNA Paternity Testing is the use of DNA profiling (known as genetic fingerprinting) to determine whether two individuals are biologically parent and child. A paternity test establishes genetic proof whether a man is the biological father of an individual, and a maternity test establishes whether a woman is the biological mother of an individual. Tests can also determine the likelihood of someone being a biological grandparent to a grandchild. Though genetic testing is the most reliable standard, older methods also exist, including ABO blood group typing, analysis of various other proteins and enzymes, or using human leukocyte antigen antigens. The current techniques for paternity testing are using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Paternity testing can now also be performed while the woman is still pregnant from a blood draw.



Genetic Risks


Susceptible is a member of a population who is at risk of becoming infected by a disease.

Genetic Predisposition is a genetic characteristic which influences the possible phenotypic development of an individual organism within a species or population under the influence of environmental conditions. In medicine, genetic susceptibility to a disease refers to a genetic predisposition to a health problem, which may eventually be triggered by particular environmental or lifestyle factors, such as tobacco smoking or diet. Genetic testing is able to identify individuals who are genetically predisposed to certain diseases.

Dominance (genetics) is a relationship between alleles of one gene, in which the effect on phenotype of one allele masks the contribution of a second allele at the same locus. The first allele is dominant and the second allele is recessive. For genes on an autosome (any chromosome other than a sex chromosome), the alleles and their associated traits are autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive. Dominance is a key concept in Mendelian inheritance and classical genetics. Often the dominant allele codes for a functional protein whereas the recessive allele does not.

Allele is a variant form of a given gene. Sometimes, different alleles can result in different observable phenotypic traits, such as different pigmentation. A good example of this trait of color variation is the work Gregor Mendel did with the white and purple flower colors in pea plants; discovering that each color was the result of a “pure line” trait which could be used as a control for future experiments. However, most genetic variations result in little or no observable variation.

Vulnerability is susceptibility to injury or attack. Capable of being wounded or hurt. The inability of a system or a unit to withstand the effects of a hostile environment. A window of vulnerability (WoV) is a time frame within which defensive measures are diminished, compromised or lacking.

Genetic Counseling is the process by which the patients or relatives at risk of an inherited disorder are advised of the consequences and nature of the disorder, the probability of developing or transmitting it, and the options open to them in management and family planning. This complex process can be separated into diagnostic (the actual estimation of risk) and supportive aspects.

DNA Test Results should be interpreted with professional guidance. Anything short of sequencing is going to be short on accuracy. Genes account for just 5 to 20 percent of the whole picture. Environment and Food vs. Traits and Heredity.

Genetic Disorder is an inherited medical condition caused by a DNA Abnormality. It's a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome, especially a condition that is present from birth (congenital). Most genetic disorders are quite rare and affect one person in every several thousands or millions. Genetic disorders may be hereditary, passed down from the parents' genes. In other genetic disorders, defects may be caused by new mutations or changes to the DNA. In such cases, the defect will only be passed down if it occurs in the germ line. The same disease, such as some forms of cancer, may be caused by an inherited genetic condition in some people, by new mutations in other people, and mainly by environmental causes in other people. Whether, when and to what extent a person with the genetic defect or abnormality will actually suffer from the disease is almost always affected by the environmental factors and events in the person's development. Some types of recessive gene disorders confer an advantage in certain environments when only one copy of the gene is present.

List of Genetic Disorders (wiki) - Special Needs

Epigenetics
Phenotype
Trait Theory

Deep Genomics genetic therapies


Gene Expression


Gene Expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product. These products are often proteins, but in non-protein coding genes such as transfer RNA (tRNA) or small nuclear RNA (snRNA) genes, the product is a functional RNA. The process of gene expression is used by all known life—eukaryotes (including multicellular organisms), prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea), and utilized by viruses—to generate the macromolecular machinery for life.

Researchers identify 6,500 Genes that are Expressed Differently in Men and Women

Spatiotemporal Gene Expression is the activation of Genes within specific tissues of an organism at specific times during development. Gene activation patterns vary widely in complexity. Some are straightforward and static, such as the pattern of tubulin, which is expressed in all cells at all times in life. Some, on the other hand, are extraordinarily intricate and difficult to predict and model, with expression fluctuating wildly from minute to minute or from cell to cell. Spatiotemporal variation plays a key role in generating the diversity of cell types found in developed organisms; since the identity of a cell is specified by the collection of genes actively expressed within that cell, if gene expression was uniform spatially and temporally, there could be at most one kind of cell.

Mutations - Cells and Longevity

Transcription (biology) is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase. Both DNA and RNA are nucleic acids, which use base pairs of nucleotides as a complementary language. During transcription, a DNA sequence is read by an RNA polymerase, which produces a complementary, antiparallel RNA strand called a primary transcript.
Transcription proceeds in the following general steps:
RNA polymerase, together with one or more general transcription factors, binds to promoter DNA.
RNA polymerase creates a transcription bubble, which separates the two strands of the DNA helix. This is done by breaking the hydrogen bonds between complementary DNA nucleotides.
RNA polymerase adds RNA nucleotides (which are complementary to the nucleotides of one DNA strand).
RNA sugar-phosphate backbone forms with assistance from RNA polymerase to form an RNA strand.
Hydrogen bonds of the RNA–DNA helix break, freeing the newly synthesized RNA strand.
If the cell has a nucleus, the RNA may be further processed. This may include polyadenylation, capping, and splicing.
The RNA may remain in the nucleus or exit to the cytoplasm through the nuclear pore complex.
The stretch of DNA transcribed into an RNA molecule is called a transcription unit and encodes at least one gene. If the gene encodes a protein, the transcription produces messenger RNA (mRNA); the mRNA, in turn, serves as a template for the protein's synthesis through translation. Alternatively, the transcribed gene may encode for either non-coding RNA (such as microRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), or other enzymatic RNA molecules called ribozymes. Overall, RNA helps synthesize, regulate, and process proteins; it therefore plays a fundamental role in performing functions within a cell.
In virology, the term may also be used when referring to mRNA synthesis from an RNA molecule (i.e., RNA replication). For instance, the genome of a negative-sense single-stranded RNA (ssRNA -) virus may be template for a positive-sense single-stranded RNA (ssRNA +). This is because the positive-sense strand contains the information needed to translate the viral proteins for viral replication afterwards. This process is catalyzed by a viral RNA replicase.

Heterochromatin is a tightly packed form of DNA, which comes in multiple varieties. These varieties lie on a continuum between the two extremes of constitutive and facultative heterochromatin. Both play a role in the expression of genes.

Genetic Load is the difference between the fitness of an average genotype in a population and the fitness of some reference genotype, which may be either the best present in a population, or may be the theoretically optimal genotype. The average individual taken from a population with a low genetic load will generally, when grown in the same conditions, have more surviving offspring. Genetic load can also be seen as reduced fitness at the population level compared to what the population would have if all individuals had the reference high-fitness genotype. High genetic load may put a population in danger of extinction.

Alternative Splicing is a regulated process during gene expression that results in a single gene coding for multiple proteins. In this process, particular exons of a gene may be included within or excluded from the final, processed messenger RNA (mRNA) produced from that gene. Consequently, the proteins translated from alternatively spliced mRNAs will contain differences in their amino acid sequence and, often, in their biological functions (see Figure). Notably, alternative splicing allows the human genome to direct the synthesis of many more proteins than would be expected from its 20,000 protein-coding genes.

Recombinase are genetic recombination enzymes. DNA recombinases are widely used in multicellular organisms to manipulate the structure of genomes, and to control gene expression. These enzymes, derived from bacteria and fungi, catalyze directionally sensitive DNA exchange reactions between short (30–40 nucleotides) target site sequences that are specific to each recombinase. These reactions enable four basic functional modules, excision/insertion, inversion, translocation and cassette exchange, which have been used individually or combined in a wide range of configurations to control gene expression.

Some people are healthy despite carrying a mutation for one of the eight severe diseases.

Analysis of 589,306 genomes identifies individuals resilient to severe Mendelian childhood diseases.

Gene Drive is the phenomenon in which the inheritance of a particular gene or set of genes is favorably biased. Gene drive can arise through a variety of mechanisms and results in its prevalence increasing in a population. Engineered gene drives have been proposed to provide an effective means of genetically modifying populations or even whole species. Applications of gene drive include preventing the spread of insects that carry pathogens (in particular, mosquitoes that transmit malaria, dengue, and zika pathogens), controlling invasive species, or eliminating herbicide or pesticide resistance. The technique can be used for adding, disrupting, or modifying genes, such as to cause a crash in the populations of a disease vector by reducing their reproductive capacity. Several molecular mechanisms can mediate gene drive. Naturally occurring gene drive mechanisms arise when alleles evolve molecular mechanisms that give them a transmission chance greater than the normal 50%. Synthetic genetic modules with similar properties have been developed as a technique for genome editing of laboratory populations. This entry focuses on endonuclease-based gene drive, the most versatile and actively developing molecular backend for synthetic gene drives. Since gene drives function only in sexually reproducing species, they cannot be used to engineer populations of viruses or bacteria. Because it is a way to artificially bias inheritance of desired genes, gene drive constitutes a major change in biotechnology. The potential impact of releasing gene drives in the wild raises major bioethical concerns regarding their development and management.

Why I Study the Most Dangerous Animal on Earth — Mosquitoes: Fredros Okumu 2017 (video and text)



Instincts


Instinct is an inherent motivation to do a particular action. A behavior that is performed without being based upon prior experience, or without having to learn something first. Without instructions, life could not exist. DNA

Instinct
is an inborn pattern of behavior often responsive to specific stimuli.

Innate is a behavior not established by conditioning or learning. Being talented through inherited qualities. Present at birth but not necessarily hereditary; acquired during fetal development.

Primitive Reflexes are reflex actions originating in the central nervous system that are exhibited by normal infants, but not neurologically intact adults, in response to particular stimuli. These reflexes are absent due to the development of the frontal lobes as a child transitions normally into child development. These primitive reflexes are also called infantile, infant or newborn reflexes.

Precocial are those in which the young are relatively mature and mobile from the moment of birth or hatching. Unlike Humans.

Autonomous. Life needs prewritten instructions that makes developmental processes happen automatically. Without prewritten instructions life would not exist. Imagine if cells had to learn how to divide, we would not be here. As far as we know, Humans are the only life form with a manual option that can make choices. This gives life an extra advantage to survive, but that is only if we make good choices.

Fear of spiders and snakes is deeply embedded in us - Fear

Genes or Instincts do not control your behavior, they may only temporally influence your behavior, but only when you have given up control and have become totally unaware of yourself and your surroundings. There are many things that influence behavior, like experiences, environment, education, perception, chemicals in the brain and certain health issues of the body. But the bottom line is, your are in total control of your behavior, as long as you have fully educated yourself. That is the true power of the human mind.

Humans are not hard wired and we do not have hereditary programs imprinted in our genes that control our behavior. We are a learning species. The problem is that we are a dysfunctional learning species because we have not improved our education enough in order to make people aware of our learning abilities and what is needed for learning. Stanford.

Human Senses - Self-Control - Awareness

Placebo Effect

Project 10 10 10 Pill or Perception (youtube)
Are You Good Or Bad? (youtube)

"When someone says that a particular disease runs in their family, what they are saying is that they have not yet solved the problem of their vulnerability."

Humans need instincts, because it gives a person the ability to do things without having to learn them first, especially things that are important for survival. Thankfully you didn't have to learn how to breathe. But as we become more knowledgeable as we get older, we realize that instincts are not always an accurate interpretation of reality. We have more control and foresight, which gives us even greater surviving skills then instincts could ever give us. Instincts are like your mother, she's knows what's important, but for some reason, you want more freedom. Which is not bad, as long as you keep learning. Restrictions or warnings should never replace learning.



Human Nature


People are not born bad. Bad things happen to people that influence them do bad things. When people are exposed to bad experiences and have bad information, then they end up doing bad things. And when people get the right kind of help and support and have access to a good education, then people will stop doing bad things. People will still make mistakes like everyone does, but this time around people will make fewer mistakes and also learn from the mistakes they do make. People will also be more aware of themselves and understand the differences between good, bad, right and wrong, all because they were given the opportunity to do so.

Don't Confuse Human Behavior with Human Nature and don't confuse Instincts with Reality. Human Nature are the Characteristic Qualities that Humans are Naturally Born with. Like the urge to learn, the desire to be happy, the urge to eat, the need to sleep, the desire to help others, the desire to live, the desire to love, the desire to progress. Human Behavior are things that you learn from life and from your environment. Behaviors like Hate, Greed, and Ignorance, which could sometimes override our true Human Natures. No human is born with bad behaviors, humans learn bad behaviors, which means that humans can also learn good behaviors.

There is Human Nature and The Human Condition, but it is only a small percentage of what you are as a person. The only human nature that I can see is that humans are born to love and born to learn, beyond that, it's all about the environment that you were raised in, the experiences that you had, and how you reacted to those experiences, and what knowledge that you have gained throughout your life. So you are mostly a product of your environment, and you are a product of the things that you have learned in your own unique way. You are what you know, or what you think or believe that you know. 

Humans are not violent by nature. People become violent for several reasons as stated above. We also become more aggressive when we experience chemical changes in our body, usually from hormones. We also become more vulnerable to anger when we don't eat healthy, or when we don't sleep enough, or when we are overly exposed to large amounts of stress or trauma. We can also be conditioned to except violence. This types of conditioning comes from the media, movies, books, and also from certain sports and activities. Violence is something you learn. That means that violence can be unlearned. But we don't want to encourage meekness, because just like most animals, we have to know how to defend ourselves in order to survive. And defending ourselves can sometimes become violent, but this does not mean that we become violent people, it just means that we were forced to act violently temporally. No shame, we live, learn, love and progress.

To understand human nature you would have to use a baby as an example, because babies have not yet learned, and they have not yet been totally influenced by their environment, even though a women's womb is an environment that could have many influences on a baby's behavior. So let's just say that we have an average baby with an average mother. Babies laugh, so you can say that humans are born to be happy. Babies cry, so you can say that humans are born to experience pain and discomfort for safety reasons, but not so much related to sadness, because sadness is something that you learn. Babies love, so you can say that humans are Born to Love. So all humans are Born Good. So it is the environment, and the things that humans learn, that make them either a bad person or a good person. Humans are incredible because we are designed to adapt, but this adaptation has vulnerabilities, especially when people are forced to adapt to someone else's ignorant form of reality.

You can look at a kittens or puppies and see that some behaviors are genetic. Humans are domesticated animals. But if you abuse an animal, then good qualities that an animal is born with become diminished, and are sometimes replaced with bad behaviors. Adaptations are essential for survival, but not when adaptations become distorted in our behaviors.

"I still believe that people are really good at heart" Anne Frank

If we preserve Human Rights, and create Fair Laws that are followed by everyone, and work with mother nature, we will see the best of Human Nature.

Transcendentalism is the belief in inherent goodness of both people and nature that people are at their best when truly "self-reliant" and independent. It is society and its institutions that ultimately corrupted the purity of the individual.

Intellectualism allows that “one will do what is right or best just as soon as one truly understands what is right or best”;
the use, development, and exercise of the intellect; the practice of being an intellectual; and the Life of the Mind.

Spirituality is the belief in a supernatural realm, personal growth, a quest for an ultimate/sacred meaning, religious
experience, or an encounter with one's own "inner dimension."

Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human traits, emotions, and intentions to non-human entities and is considered to be an innate tendency of human psychology. Personification is the related attribution of human form and characteristics to abstract concepts such as nations, emotions and natural forces like seasons and the weather.

We know know that Psychological Nativism is false because of Brain Plasticity, so certain skills or abilities are "not native" or hard-wired into the brain at birth.

Empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience, emphasizes the role of empirical evidence in the formation of ideas, over the notion of innate ideas or traditions.

Trait Theory is an approach to the study of human personality. Trait theorists are primarily interested in the measurement of traits, which can be defined as habitual patterns of behavior, thought, and emotion. According to this perspective, traits are relatively stable over time, differ across individuals (e.g. some people are outgoing whereas others are shy), and influence behavior. Traits are in contrast to states which are more transitory dispositions. In some theories and systems, traits are something a person either has or does not have, but in many others traits are dimensions such as extraversion vs. introversion, with each person rating somewhere along this spectrum.



The Thinker Man