Heredity - Traits - Genes
The Human Mind and Body has incredible abilities that most people are not aware of.
Don't worry that you could never overcome a
or worry about something that is
or worry about an
, or a
. These things are not life sentences. Just because you are
or have certain Inclinations, this does not mean
that you do not have choices
, options or abilities.
Learn about your choices and options and learn about the human
bodies Natural Abilities that can help Tap the
Powers of the
and help Tap the Powers of the Human Body
. You have more
control then you think.
(RNA - Chromosomes)
is the genetic information
passing for traits from parents to their
offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction.
This is the process by which an offspring cell or organism acquires or
becomes predisposed to the characteristics of its parent cell or organism.
Through heredity, variations exhibited by individuals can accumulate and
cause some species to evolve through the natural
of specific phenotype traits. The study of heredity in
biology is called genetics, which includes the field of
is the genetic information that the body receives from
the parents at the moment of
conception or birth
DNA Ancestry Tests
is the use of DNA testing
combination with traditional Genealogy
and traditional genealogical and
historical records to infer relationships between individuals. Genetic
genealogy involves the use of genealogical DNA testing to determine the
level and type of the genetic relationship between individuals.
allows the determination of
the genetic diagnosis of Vulnerabilities
agriculture, a form of genetic testing known as progeny testing can be
used to evaluate the quality of breeding stock. In population ecology,
genetic testing can be used to track genetic strengths and vulnerabilities
of species populations.
Single-molecule DNA sequencing advances could enable faster, more
cost-effective genetic screeningDNA Profiling
is a term used in genetic genealogy to describe DNA which is
inherited from the autosomal chromosomes. An autosome is any of the
, as opposed to the
sex chromosomes. Humans have 22 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex
chromosomes (the X chromosome and the Y chromosome). Autosomes are
numbered roughly in relation to their sizes. That is, Chromosome 1 has
approximately 2,800 genes, while chromosome 22 has approximately 750
genes. There is no established abbreviation for autosomal DNA: atDNA (more
common) and auDNA are used.
is a chromosome that is not an allosome (a sex chromosome). An autosome is
a pair of chromosomes in a diploid cell in which each chromosome has the
same form. Allosomes, on the other hand, have different form and thereby
determine sex. The DNA in autosomes is collectively known as atDNA or
is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular
organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food
into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
Mitochondrial DNA is only a small portion of the DNA in a eukaryotic cell;
most of the DNA can be found in the cell nucleus and, in plants and algae,
also in plastids such as chloroplasts.
(mtDNA or mDNA).
Chromosome DNA Tests
A Y chromosome DNA test (Y-DNA test) is a
genealogical DNA test which is used to explore a man's patrilineal or
direct father's-line Ancestry
The Y chromosome, like the patrilineal surname, passes down virtually
unchanged from father to son. Every now and then occasional mistakes in
the copying process occur, and these mutations can be used to estimate the
time frame in which the two individuals share a most recent common
ancestor or MRCA. If their test results are a perfect or nearly perfect
match, they are related within a genealogical time frame. Each person can
then look at the other's father-line information, typically the names of
each patrilineal ancestor and his spouse, together with the dates and
places of their marriage and of both spouses' births and deaths. The two
matched persons may find a common ancestor or MRCA, as well as whatever
information the other already has about their joint patriline or father's
line prior to the MRCA. Y-DNA tests are typically co-ordinated in a
surname DNA project. And each receives the other's contact information if
the other chose to allow this. Women who wish to determine their direct
paternal DNA ancestry can ask their father, brother, paternal uncle,
paternal grandfather, or a cousin who shares the same surname lineage (the
same Y-DNA) to take a test for them.
Ancestry Genealogy DNA Test Reviews
million users worldwide, 2.1 billion family tree profiles.
the detail of other ancestry tests. We give you your DNA mix across 80
world regions, including 21 in Britain
AncestryDNA: Genetic Testing - DNA Ancestry Test Kit
. Send in your
saliva sample in a prepaid envelope, and get your results in 6-8 weeks.
have little information.
(23 and me)
Popular DNA ancestry tests don't
always find what people expect. That's due to how DNA rearranges itself
when egg meets sperm, and also the quirks of genetic databases.
is the use of DNA profiling (known as genetic
fingerprinting) to determine whether two individuals are biologically
parent and child. A paternity test establishes genetic proof whether a man
is the biological father of an individual, and a maternity test
establishes whether a woman is the biological mother of an individual.
Tests can also determine the likelihood of someone being a biological
grandparent to a grandchild. Though genetic testing is the most reliable
standard, older methods also exist, including ABO blood group typing,
analysis of various other proteins and enzymes, or using human leukocyte
antigen antigens. The current techniques for paternity testing are using
polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length
testing can now also be performed while the woman is still
from a blood
is a member of a
who is at
becoming infected by a disease.
is a genetic characteristic which influences the
possible phenotypic development of an individual organism within a species
or population under the influence of environmental conditions. In
medicine, genetic susceptibility to a disease refers to a genetic
predisposition to a health problem, which may eventually be triggered by
particular environmental or lifestyle factors, such as tobacco smoking or
diet. Genetic testing is able to identify individuals who are genetically
predisposed to certain diseases.
is a relationship between alleles of one gene, in
which the effect on phenotype of one allele masks the contribution of a
second allele at the same locus. The first allele is dominant and the
second allele is recessive. For genes on an autosome (any
other than a sex
chromosome), the alleles and their associated traits are autosomal
dominant or autosomal recessive. Dominance is a key concept in Mendelian
inheritance and classical genetics. Often the dominant allele codes for a
functional protein whereas the recessive allele does not.
is a variant form of a given gene. Sometimes, different alleles can result
in different observable phenotypic
, such as different pigmentation. A good example of this trait
of color variation is the work Gregor Mendel did with the white and purple
flower colors in pea plants; discovering that each color was the result of
a “pure line” trait which could be used as a control for future
experiments. However, most genetic variations result in little or no
is susceptibility to injury or attack. Capable of being wounded or hurt. The inability of a system or a unit to withstand the effects
of a hostile
. A window of vulnerability (WoV) is a time frame within
which defensive measures are diminished, compromised or lacking.
is the process by
which the patients or relatives at risk of an inherited disorder are
advised of the consequences and nature of the disorder, the probability of
developing or transmitting it, and the options open to them in management
and family planning. This complex process can be separated into diagnostic
(the actual estimation of risk) and supportive aspects.
DNA Test Results
with professional guidance.
Anything short of sequencing is going to be short on accuracy.
account for just 5 to 20 percent of the whole picture.
is an inherited medical
condition caused by a DNA Abnormality
It's a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome,
especially a condition that is present from birth (congenital). Most
genetic disorders are quite rare and affect one person in every several
thousands or millions. Genetic disorders may be hereditary, passed down
from the parents' genes. In other genetic disorders, defects may be caused
by new mutations
or changes to the
. In such cases, the defect will only be passed
down if it occurs in the germ line. The same disease, such as some forms
of cancer, may be caused by an inherited genetic condition in some people,
by new mutations in other people, and mainly by
in other people. Whether, when and to what
extent a person with the genetic defect or abnormality will actually
suffer from the disease is almost always affected by the environmental
factors and events in the person's development. Some types of recessive
gene disorders confer an advantage in certain environments when only one
copy of the gene is present.
List of Genetic Disorders
is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis
of a functional gene product. These products are often proteins, but in
non-protein coding genes such as transfer RNA
(tRNA) or small nuclear RNA
(snRNA) genes, the product is a functional RNA. The process of gene
expression is used by all known life—eukaryotes (including multicellular
organisms), prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea), and utilized by viruses—to
generate the macromolecular machinery for life.
Researchers identify 6,500 Genes that are Expressed Differently in Men and
Spatiotemporal Gene Expression
is the activation of
specific tissues of an organism at specific times during development. Gene
activation patterns vary widely in complexity. Some are straightforward
and static, such as the pattern of tubulin, which is expressed in all
cells at all times in life. Some, on the other hand, are extraordinarily
intricate and difficult to predict and model, with expression fluctuating
wildly from minute to minute or from cell to cell. Spatiotemporal
variation plays a key role in generating the diversity of cell types found
in developed organisms; since the identity of a cell is specified by the
collection of genes actively expressed within that cell, if gene
expression was uniform spatially and temporally, there could be at most
one kind of cell. Mutations
- Cells and Longevity
is the first step of gene expression, in which
a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the
enzyme RNA polymerase. Both DNA and RNA
acids, which use base pairs of nucleotides as a complementary language.
During transcription, a DNA sequence is read by an RNA polymerase, which
produces a complementary, antiparallel RNA strand called a primary
transcript.Transcription proceeds in the
following general steps:
RNA polymerase, together with one or
more general transcription factors, binds to promoter DNA.
polymerase creates a transcription bubble, which separates the two strands
of the DNA helix. This is done by breaking the hydrogen bonds between
complementary DNA nucleotides.
RNA polymerase adds RNA nucleotides
(which are complementary to the nucleotides of one DNA strand).
sugar-phosphate backbone forms with assistance from RNA polymerase to form
an RNA strand.
Hydrogen bonds of the RNA–DNA helix break, freeing the
newly synthesized RNA strand.
If the cell has a nucleus, the RNA may be
further processed. This may include polyadenylation, capping, and
The RNA may remain in the nucleus or exit to the cytoplasm
through the nuclear pore complex.
The stretch of DNA transcribed into
an RNA molecule is called a transcription unit and encodes at least one
gene. If the gene encodes a protein, the transcription produces messenger
RNA (mRNA); the mRNA, in turn, serves as a template for the protein's
synthesis through translation. Alternatively, the transcribed gene may
encode for either non-coding RNA (such as microRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA),
transfer RNA (tRNA), or other enzymatic RNA molecules called ribozymes.
Overall, RNA helps synthesize, regulate, and process proteins; it
therefore plays a fundamental role in performing functions within a cell.
, the term may also be
used when referring to mRNA
from an RNA molecule (i.e., RNA replication). For instance,
the genome of a negative-sense single-stranded RNA (ssRNA -) virus may be
template for a positive-sense single-stranded RNA (ssRNA +). This is
because the positive-sense strand contains the information needed to
translate the viral proteins for viral replication afterwards. This
process is catalyzed by a viral RNA replicase.
is a tightly packed form of DNA, which comes in
multiple varieties. These varieties lie on a continuum between the two
extremes of constitutive and facultative heterochromatin. Both play a role
in the expression of genes.
is the difference between the fitness of an average
in a population and the fitness of some reference genotype, which
may be either the best present in a population, or may be the
theoretically optimal genotype. The average individual taken from a
population with a low genetic load will generally, when grown in the same
conditions, have more surviving offspring. Genetic load can also be seen
as reduced fitness at the population level compared to what the population
would have if all individuals had the reference high-fitness genotype.
High genetic load may put a population in danger of
is a regulated process during gene expression that results in a single
for multiple proteins. In this process, particular exons of a
gene may be included within or excluded from the final, processed
messenger RNA (mRNA) produced from that gene. Consequently, the
translated from alternatively spliced mRNAs will contain differences in
their amino acid
sequence and, often, in their biological functions (see
Figure). Notably, alternative splicing allows the human genome to direct
the synthesis of many more proteins than would be expected from its 20,000
genetic recombination enzymes
. DNA recombinases are widely used in
multicellular organisms to manipulate the structure of genomes, and to
control gene expression. These enzymes, derived from bacteria and fungi,
catalyze directionally sensitive DNA exchange reactions between short
(30–40 nucleotides) target site sequences
that are specific to each recombinase. These reactions enable four basic functional modules,
excision/insertion, inversion, translocation and cassette exchange, which
have been used individually or combined in a wide range of configurations
to control gene expression.
Some people are healthy despite carrying a mutation for one of the eight
Analysis of 589,306 genomes identifies individuals
resilient to severe Mendelian childhood diseases.
is the phenomenon in which the inheritance of a particular gene
or set of genes is favorably biased. Gene drive can arise through a
variety of mechanisms and results in its prevalence increasing in a
population. Engineered gene drives have been proposed to provide an
effective means of genetically modifying populations or even whole
species. Applications of gene drive include preventing the spread of
insects that carry pathogens (in particular, mosquitoes that transmit
malaria, dengue, and zika pathogens), controlling invasive species, or
eliminating herbicide or pesticide resistance. The technique can be used
for adding, disrupting, or modifying genes, such as to cause a crash in
the populations of a disease vector by reducing their reproductive
capacity. Several molecular mechanisms can mediate gene drive. Naturally
occurring gene drive mechanisms arise when alleles evolve molecular
mechanisms that give them a transmission chance greater than the normal
50%. Synthetic genetic modules with similar properties have been developed
as a technique for genome editing of laboratory populations. This entry
focuses on endonuclease-based gene drive, the most versatile and actively
developing molecular backend for synthetic gene drives. Since gene drives
function only in sexually reproducing species, they cannot be used to
engineer populations of viruses or bacteria. Because it is a way to
artificially bias inheritance of desired genes, gene drive constitutes a
major change in biotechnology. The potential impact of releasing gene
drives in the wild raises major bioethical concerns regarding their
development and management.
Why I Study the Most Dangerous Animal on Earth — Mosquitoes: Fredros Okumu
(video and text)
an inherent motivation
to do a particular action. A
performed without being based upon prior experience, or without having to
learn something first. Without
could not exist. DNA
is an inborn pattern of behavior often responsive
to specific stimuli
is a behavior not established by
conditioning or learning. Being talented through inherited qualities
Present at birth but not necessarily hereditary; acquired during fetal
are reflex actions
originating in the central nervous system that are exhibited by normal
infants, but not neurologically intact adults, in response to particular
stimuli. These reflexes are absent due to the development of the
as a child transitions normally into
primitive reflexes are also called infantile,
infant or newborn
are those in which the young are relatively mature and
mobile from the moment of birth or hatching.
needs prewritten instructions
developmental processes happen automatically. Without prewritten
instructions life would not exist. Imagine if
had to learn how to divide, we
would not be here. As far as we know, Humans are the only life form with a
manual option that can make
. This gives life an extra advantage to
, but that is only if we
make good choices.
Fear of spiders and snakes is deeply embedded in us
do not control your
, they may only
temporally influence your behavior, but only when you have
and have become
totally unaware of yourself
surroundings. There are many things that influence behavior,
like experiences, environment, education, perception, chemicals
in the brain and certain health issues of the body. But the
bottom line is, your are in total control of your behavior, as
long as you have fully educated yourself. That is the true power
of the human mind.
Humans are not hard wired
and we do not have hereditary programs imprinted in our genes that control
our behavior. We are a learning species. The problem is that we are a
dysfunctional learning species because we have not improved our education
enough in order to make people aware of our learning abilities and what is
needed for learning. Stanford
10 10 Pill or Perception
Are You Good Or Bad
"When someone says that a particular
disease runs in their family, what they are saying is that they
have not yet solved the problem of their vulnerability."
Humans need instincts
, because it gives a
person the ability to do things without having to learn them
first, especially things that are important for
Thankfully you didn't have to learn how to
. But as we
become more knowledgeable as we get older, we realize that
instincts are not always an accurate interpretation of
. We have more control and
foresight, which gives us even greater surviving skills then instincts
could ever give us. Instincts are like your mother, she's knows what's
important, but for some reason, you want more freedom. Which is not bad,
as long as you keep learning. Restrictions or warnings should never
People are not born bad. Bad things happen to people that
influence them do bad things. When people are exposed to bad experiences
and have bad information
, then they end up doing bad things. And when people get the
right kind of help and support
access to a good education
, then people will stop
doing bad things. People will still make mistakes like everyone does, but
this time around people will make fewer
and also learn from the
mistakes they do make. People will also be more aware of themselves and understand the differences
between good, bad, right and wrong
because they were given the opportunity to do so.
and don't confuse Instincts
. Human Nature are the
Characteristic Qualities that Humans are Naturally Born with. Like the urge
to learn, the desire to be happy, the urge to eat, the need to
desire to help others
, the desire to live, the desire
to love, the desire to progress. Human
Behavior are things that you learn from life and from your
environment. Behaviors like Hate
, which could
sometimes override our true Human Natures. No human is born with bad
behaviors, humans learn bad behaviors, which means that humans can also
learn good behaviors
The Human Condition
, but it is only a small percentage of
what you are as a person.
The only human nature that I can see is that humans are born to
and born to
, beyond that, it's all about the
environment that you were raised in, the
experiences that you
, and how you reacted to those experiences, and what
knowledge that you have gained throughout your life. So
you are mostly a product of your environment,
and you are a product of the things that you have learned in
your own unique way.
You are what you know
, or what you think or
believe that you know.
Humans are not violent by nature
People become violent for several reasons as stated above. We also become
more aggressive when we experience chemical changes in our body, usually
also become more vulnerable to anger
don't eat healthy, or when we don't sleep enough, or when we are overly
exposed to large amounts of stress or trauma. We can also be conditioned
to except violence. This types of conditioning comes from the media,
movies, books, and also from certain sports and activities. Violence is
something you learn. That means that violence can be unlearned. But we
don't want to encourage
, because just like most animals,
we have to know how to
in order to survive. And defending ourselves can
sometimes become violent, but this does not mean that we become violent
people, it just means that we were forced to act violently temporally. No
shame, we live, learn, love and progress.
To understand human nature you would have to use a
baby as an example, because babies have not yet learned, and
they have not yet been totally influenced by their environment, even
is an environment that could have many
influences on a baby's behavior. So let's just say that we have
an average baby with an average mother.
, so you can
say that humans are born to be happy. Babies cry, so you can say
that humans are born to experience pain and discomfort for
safety reasons, but not so
much related to sadness
, because sadness is something that you learn.
Babies love, so you can say that humans are
Born to Love
So all humans are Born
. So it is the environment, and the
things that humans learn, that make them either a bad person or
a good person. Humans are incredible because we are designed to
, but this
has vulnerabilities, especially when people are
forced to adapt to someone else's
form of reality
You can look at a kittens or
and see that some behaviors are genetic. Humans are
animals. But if you abuse
an animal, then
good qualities that an animal is born with become diminished, and are
sometimes replaced with bad behaviors
Adaptations are essential for survival, but not when adaptations become
"I still believe that people are really good at heart"
If we preserve Human
, and create Fair Laws
are followed by everyone, and work with
, we will see the best of Human Nature.
is the belief in inherent goodness of both people
and nature that people are at their best when truly "self-reliant
independent. It is society
that ultimately corrupted
the purity of the individual.
allows that “one will do what is right or best just as
soon as one truly understands what is right or best
development, and exercise of the intellect; the practice of being an
; and the Life of the Mind.
is the belief in a supernatural realm
, personal growth, a
quest for an ultimate/sacred meaning, religious
experience, or an
encounter with one's own "inner dimension
is the attribution of human traits,
emotions, and intentions to non-human entities and is considered to be an
innate tendency of human psychology. Personification is the related
attribution of human form and characteristics to abstract concepts such as
nations, emotions and natural forces like seasons and the weather.
We know know that
is false because of
certain skills or abilities are "not native" or hard-wired into the brain
is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or
primarily from sensory experience, emphasizes the role of empirical
in the formation
of ideas, over the notion of innate ideas or traditions.
is an approach to the study of human personality
Trait theorists are primarily interested in the measurement of traits,
which can be defined as habitual patterns of behavior, thought, and
emotion. According to this perspective, traits are relatively stable over
time, differ across individuals (e.g. some people are outgoing whereas
others are shy), and influence behavior. Traits are in contrast to states
which are more transitory dispositions. In some theories and systems,
traits are something a person either has or does not have, but in many
others traits are dimensions such as extraversion vs. introversion, with
each person rating somewhere along this spectrum.