Human Reproduction - Child Birth
- Child Development
is the field of study concentrated on pregnancy,
childbirth, and the postpartum period. As a medical specialty, obstetrics
is combined with gynaecology under the discipline known as obstetrics and
is the medical practice dealing with the health of the female reproductive
, uterus, and ovaries) and the
is the sexual activity of
conceiving and bearing offspring.
is any form of sexual
reproduction resulting in human fertilization, typically involving sexual
intercourse between a man and a woman. During
interaction between the male and female reproductive systems results in
fertilization of the woman's ovum by the man's sperm.
is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring"
– are produced from their "parents". Reproduction is a fundamental feature
of all known life; each individual organism exists as the result of
reproduction. There are two forms of reproduction: asexual and sexual.
is a system of sex organs within an organism which
work together for the purpose of sexual reproduction. Many non-living
substances such as fluids, hormones
, and pheromones are also important
accessories to the reproductive system. Unlike most organ systems, the
sexes of differentiated species often have significant differences. These
differences allow for a combination of genetic material between two
individuals, which allows for the possibility of greater genetic fitness
of the offspring.
is a form of reproduction where two
morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called
gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum
(or egg) and a
smaller sperm. Each gamete contains half the number of chromosomes
of normal cells. They are created by a specialized type of cell division,
which only occurs in eukaryotic cells, known as meiosis. The two gametes
fuse during fertilization to produce DNA replication and the creation of a
single-celled zygote which includes genetic material from both gametes. In
a process called genetic recombination, genetic material (DNA
) joins up so
that homologous chromosome sequences are aligned with each other, and this
is followed by exchange of genetic information. Two rounds of cell
division then produce four daughter cells with half the number of
chromosomes from each original parent cell, and the same number of
chromosomes as both parents, though self-fertilization can occur. For
instance, in human reproduction each human cell contains 46 chromosomes
23 pairs, except gamete cells, which only contain 23 chromosomes, so the
child will have 23 chromosomes from each parent genetically recombined
into 23 pairs. Cell division initiates the development of a new individual
organism in multicellular organisms, including animals and plants, for the
vast majority of whom this is the primary method of reproduction.
is a state of complete physical, mental
and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity,
reproductive health, or sexual health/hygiene, addresses the reproductive
processes, functions and system at all stages of life. Reproductive health
implies that people are able to have a responsible, satisfying and safer
sex life and that they have the capability to reproduce and the freedom to
decide if, when and how often to do so. One interpretation of this implies
that men and women ought to be informed of and to have access to safe,
effective, affordable and acceptable methods of birth control; also access
to appropriate health care services of sexual, reproductive medicine and
implementation of health education programs to stress the importance of
women to go safely through pregnancy and childbirth could provide couples
with the best chance of having a healthy infant. Individuals do face
inequalities in reproductive health services. Inequalities vary based on
socioeconomic status, education level, age, ethnicity, religion, and
resources available in their environment. It is possible for example, that
low income individuals lack the resources for appropriate health services
and the knowledge to know what is appropriate for maintaining reproductive
is a type of reproduction by which offspring arise from a
single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only; it does not
involve the fusion of gametes and almost never changes the number of
chromosomes. Asexual reproduction is the primary form of reproduction for
single-celled organism as the archaea, bacteria, and protists. Many plants
and fungi reproduce asexually as well.
is the act of producing an offspring. In kinship
terminology, it is a structural term designating the parent-child
relationship. It is also known as biogenesis, reproduction, or procreation
in the biological sciences.
Social InfluencesGiving Birth
is the practice of controlling the number of
children in a family and the intervals between their births, particularly
by means of artificial contraception or voluntary sterilization. Because
"family" is included in the concept's name, consideration of a couple's
desire to bear children, in the context of a family unit, is often
considered primarily. Contemporary notions of family planning, however,
tend to place a woman and her childbearing decisions at the center of the
discussion, as notions of women's empowerment and reproductive autonomy
have gained traction in many parts of the world. Family planning may
involve consideration of the number of children a woman wishes to have,
including the choice to have no children, as well as the age at which she
wishes to have them. These matters are obviously influenced by external
factors such as marital situation, career considerations, financial
position, any disabilities that may affect their ability to have children
and raise them, besides many other considerations. If sexually active,
family planning may involve the use of contraception and other techniques
to control the timing of reproduction. Other techniques commonly used
include sexuality education, prevention and management of
sexually transmitted infections
pre-conception counseling and management, and infertility management.
Family planning is sometimes used as a synonym or euphemism for access to
and the use of contraception. However, it often involves methods and
practices in addition to contraception. Additionally, there are many who
might wish to use contraception but are not, necessarily, planning a
family (e.g., unmarried adolescents, young married couples delaying
childbearing while building a career); family planning has become a
catch-all phrase for much of the work undertaken in this realm. It is most
usually applied to a female-male couple who wish to limit the number of
children they have and/or to control the timing of pregnancy (also known
as spacing children). Family planning may encompass sterilization, as well
as abortion. Family planning services are defined as "educational,
comprehensive medical or social activities which enable individuals,
including minors, to determine freely the number and spacing of their
children and to select the means by which this may be achieved".
Global birth season study links environment with disease risk
utero environmental exposures may explain why birth month correlates with
some diseases. Studies have shown that babies born in winter tend to have
a greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes at some point, while fall
babies have a greater lifetime risk of depression. Data scientists have
found that a woman's exposure to certain seasonal or environmental factors
during pregnancy may affect her offspring's lifetime disease risk.Child
are aspects of prenatal care that focus on detecting anatomic
and physiologic problems with the zygote, embryo, or fetus as early as
possible, either before gestation even starts (as in preimplantation
genetic diagnosis) or as early in gestation as practicable. They use
medical tests to detect problems such as neural tube defects, chromosome
abnormalities, and gene mutations that would lead to genetic disorders and
birth defects, such as spina bifida, cleft palate, Tay–Sachs disease,
sickle cell anemia, thalassemia, cystic fibrosis, muscular dystrophy, and
fragile X syndrome. The screening focuses on finding problems among a
large population with affordable and noninvasive methods, whereas the
diagnosis focuses on pursuing additional detailed information once a
particular problem has been found, and can sometimes be more invasive.
Screening can also be used for prenatal sex discernment. Common testing
procedures include amniocentesis, ultrasonography including nuchal
translucency ultrasound, serum biomarker testing, or genetic screening. In
some cases, the tests are administered to determine if the fetus will be
aborted, though physicians and patients also find it useful to diagnose
high-risk pregnancies early so that delivery can be scheduled in a
tertiary care hospital where the baby can receive appropriate care.
is the time during which one or more offspring
develops inside a woman.
major female hormone-responsive reproductive sex organ of most mammals,
including humans. One end, the cervix, opens into the vagina, while the
other is connected to one or both fallopian tubes, (uterine tubes)
depending on the species. It is within the uterus that the fetus develops
during gestation, usually developing completely in placental mammals such
as humans and partially in marsupials such as kangaroos and opossums.
is the process in which a human embryo and later
fetus (or foetus) develops during pregnancy, from fertilization until
birth. Often, the terms fetal development, or embryology are used in a
is an early
stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism. In
general, in organisms that reproduce sexually, an embryo develops from a
zygote, the single cell resulting from the fertilization of the female egg
cell by the male sperm cell. The zygote possesses half the
of each of
its two parents. In plants, animals, and some protists, the zygote will
begin to divide by mitosis to produce a multicellular organism. The result
of this process is an embryo. In humans, a pregnancy is generally
considered to be in the embryonic stage of development between the fifth
and the eleventh weeks after fertilization, and is expressed as a fetus
from the twelfth week.
or ovum, is
(gamete) in oogamous organisms. The egg cell is typically not capable of
active movement, and it is much larger (visible to the naked eye) than the
motile sperm cells. When egg and sperm
fuse, a diploid cell (the zygote)
is formed, which rapidly grows into a new
a type of preventive healthcare with the goal of providing regular
check-ups that allow doctors or midwives to treat and prevent potential
health problems throughout the course of the pregnancy while promoting
healthy lifestyles that benefit both mother and child, also known as
Pregnancy Exercise Guidelines
Exercise During Pregnancy
Complications of Pregnancy
are health problems that are caused by
pregnancy. In the immediate postpartum period, 87% to
94% of women
report at least one health problem. Long term health problems (persisting
after 6 months postpartum) are reported by 31% of women. Severe
complications of pregnancy are present in 1.6% of mothers in the US and in
1.5% of mothers in Canada. The relationship between age and complications
of pregnancy are now being researched with greater impetus.
Symptoms and Discomforts of Pregnancy
are those presentations and
conditions that result from pregnancy but do not significantly interfere
with activities of daily living or pose any significant threat to the
health of the mother or baby, in contrast to pregnancy complications.
is a symptom of pregnancy that involves nausea or vomiting.
Despite the name, nausea or vomiting can occur at any time during the day.
Typically these symptoms occur between the 4th and 16th week of pregnancy.
About 10% of women still have symptoms after the 20th week of pregnancy. A
severe form of the condition is known as hyperemesis gravidarum and
results in weight loss.
is a pregnancy complication that is
characterized by severe nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and possibly
dehydration. Signs and symptoms may also include vomiting several times a
day and feeling faint
Hypremesis geavidarum is considered more severe than morning sickness.
Often symptoms get better after the 20th week of pregnancy but may last
the entire pregnancy duration.
Reproductive Health and Rights in U.S. Under Assault
What to Expect
Universal Access to Family Planning Information,
Education, and Services
Many Babies are Born
around 8:00 A.M.
Poisons that Parents and Children should Avoid - Prenatal Exposures
Environmental Toxicants and Fetal Development
A host of common Chemicals Endanger Child Brain Development
Strategy for Comparing the Contributions of Environmental
Chemicals and Other Risk Factors to Neurodevelopment of Children
Prenatal Environmental Exposures
Prenatal Exposures: A continuum of vulnerability to
Call Action to Protect Children from Toxins
Environmental Neuro-Developmental Risks
Agency for Toxic
Substances and Disease Registry
Exposure to Specific Toxins and Nutrients During Late Pregnancy and Early
Life Correlated With Autism Risk
is concerned with the study of the adverse
effects of chemicals on living organisms. Toxicology is a branch of
A new study has found a connection between common household chemicals and
. Known as
quaternary ammonium compounds
or "quats," the chemicals are often used
as disinfectants and preservatives in household and personal products such
as cleaners, laundry detergent, fabric softener, shampoo and conditioner,
and eye drops. The research demonstrated a link between quats and neural
tube birth defects in both mice and rats.
Dioxins and Dioxin-Like Compounds
are compounds that are highly toxic
environmental persistent organic pollutants (POPs). They are mostly
by-products of various
- or, in case of dioxin-like PCBs and PBBs, part
of intentionally produced mixtures. They include: Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins
(PCDDs), or simply dioxins. PCDDs are derivatives of dibenzo-p-dioxin.
There are 75 PCDD congeners, differing in the number and location of
chlorine atoms, and seven of them are especially toxic, the most dangerous
being 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD). Polychlorinated
dibenzofurans (PCDFs), or furans. PCDFs are derivatives of dibenzofuran.
There are 135 isomers, ten have dioxin-like properties. Polychlorinated/polybrominated
biphenyls (PCBs/PBBs), derived from biphenyl, of which twelve are
"dioxin-like". Under certain conditions PCBs may form dibenzofurans/dioxins
through partial oxidation. Finally, dioxin may refer to 1,4-Dioxin proper,
the basic chemical unit of the more complex dioxins. This simple compound
is not persistent and has no PCDD-like toxicity.
substances that cause disturbances in organisms, particularly corrosive
, mutagens, teratogens and harmful pollutants.
Usually by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale,
when an organism absorbs a sufficient quantity and increases the
dangers of chemicals.
Contaminant is t
make something dangerous or toxic by introducing impurities or foreign
To make something impure by exposure to or addition of a
poisonous or polluting substance. Chemical Warfare
is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or
is any toxic substances made by humans or introduced
into the environment by human activity
. Toxicants are poisonous.
is the degree to which a substance can
an organism. Toxicity can refer to the effect on a whole
organism, such as an animal, bacterium, or plant, as well as the effect on
a substructure of the organism, such as a cell (cytotoxicity) or an organ
such as the liver (hepatotoxicity). By extension, the word may be
metaphorically used to describe toxic effects on larger and more complex
groups, such as the family unit or society at large. Sometimes the word is
more or less synonymous with poisoning in everyday usage.
also known as C8
is a synthetic perfluorinated carboxylic acid and fluorosurfactant. One
industrial application is as a surfactant in the emulsion polymerization
of fluoropolymers. It has been used in the manufacture of such prominent
consumer goods as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE; Teflon and similar
products). PFOA has been manufactured since the 1940s in industrial
quantities. It is also formed by the degradation of precursors such as
some fluorotelomers. PFOA has been detected in the
blood of more than 98% of the general US population
in the low and
sub-parts per billion
(ppb) range, and levels are higher in chemical
plant employees and surrounding subpopulations. PFOA has been detected in
industrial waste, stain-resistant carpets, carpet-cleaning liquids, house
dust, microwave popcorn bags, water, food, some cookware -Teflon
products. As a result of a class-action lawsuit and community settlement
The studies concluded that there was probably an association between PFOA
exposure and six health outcomes: kidney cancer, testicular cancer,
ulcerative colitis, thyroid disease, hypercholesterolemia (high
cholesterol), and pregnancy-induced hypertension.
. PFOA and PFOS are
extremely persistent in the environment and resistant to typical
environmental degradation processes. [They] are widely distributed across
the higher trophic levels and are found in soil, air and groundwater at
sites across the United States. The toxicity, mobility and bioaccumulation
potential of PFOS and PFOA pose potential adverse effects for the
environment and human health.
was released by DuPont into the Cape Fear River which feeds the
Wilmington, NC water supply for decades resulting in controversy over its
potential health effects. On November 2, 2017, a federal lawsuit was filed
by the Brunswick County Government alleging that DuPont failed to disclose
research regarding potential risks from the chemical.
DuPont vs. the
World: Chemical Giant Covered Up Health Risks of Teflon Contamination
How DuPont Poisoned
the Ohio River Valley for Over 50 Years
The Devil We
describes toxic chemicals produced by plants which function
as defensive agents against their predators. Most examples pertaining to
this definition of phytotoxin are members of various classes of secondary
metabolites, including alkaloids, terpenes, and especially phenolics,
though not all such compounds are toxic or serve defensive purposes.
Phytotoxins may also be toxic to humans. The term is also sometimes used
to describe substances (known as phytotoxic substances) that are
inhibitory to the growth of or poisonous to plants. Phytotoxic substances
may result from human activity, as with herbicides, or they may be
produced by plants, by microorganisms, or by naturally occurring chemical
reactions. A good soil will protect plants from toxic concentrations of
such substances by ventilating gases, decomposing or adsorbing organic
toxins, or suppressing toxin-producing organisms.
where the residents are allergic to multiple chemical sensitivities and
Multiple Chemical Sensitivity
Exposure to chemical Bisphenol A (BPA)
'hard to avoid' in
is studying the interactions between
environment and human health, and the role of the environment in causing
or mediating disease.
is aspects of the natural and built environment that may affect
is the study of an organism's (usually human) contact
with chemical, physical, or biological agents occurring in their
environments, and advances knowledge of the mechanisms and dynamics of
events either causing or preventing adverse health outcomes.
is the branch of
concerned with the discovery of the environmental
that contribute to or protect against injuries, illnesses,
developmental conditions, disabilities, and deaths; and identification of
public health and health care actions to manage the risks associated with
(sometimes called offgassing, particularly when in
reference to indoor air
) is the release of a gas that was dissolved, trapped, frozen
or absorbed in some material. Outgassing can include sublimation and
evaporation which are phase transitions of a substance into a gas, as well
as desorption, seepage from cracks or internal volumes and gaseous
products of slow chemical reactions. Boiling is generally thought of as a
separate phenomenon from outgassing because it consists of a phase
transition of a liquid into a vapor made of the same substance.
, or VOC's
, are organic
chemicals that have a high vapor pressure at ordinary room temperature.
Their high vapor pressure results from a low boiling point, which causes
large numbers of molecules to evaporate or sublimate from the liquid or
solid form of the compound and enter the surrounding air, a trait known as
volatility. For example, formaldehyde, which evaporates from paint, has a
boiling point of only –19 °C (–2 °F).
NYC Toddlers Exposed to Potentially Harmful Flame-Retardants
Flame Retardant Chemicals may affect Social Behavior in young Children
Environmental Research and Children's Health
Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
Tyrone Hayes Penelope Jagessar Chaffer: The Toxic Baby
is an herbicide of the triazine class.
is a type of metal poisoning caused by lead
in the body. The brain is the most sensitive. Symptoms may include
abdominal pain, constipation, headaches, irritability, memory problems,
inability to have children, and tingling in the hands and feet. It causes
almost 10% of intellectual disability of otherwise unknown cause and can
result in behavioral problems. Some of the effects are permanent. In
severe cases anemia, seizures, coma, or death may occur.
Things Matter: The Impact of Toxins on the Developing Brain
studies stable heritable traits (or "phenotypes
that cannot be explained by changes in
Toxic Chemicals in
Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants
Persistent Organic Pollutant
are organic compounds that are
resistant to environmental degradation through chemical, biological, and
photolytic processes. Because of their persistence, POPs bioaccumulate
with potential significant impacts on human health and the environment.
The effect of POPs on human and environmental health was discussed, with
intention to eliminate or severely restrict their production, by the
international community at the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic
Pollutants in 2001.
Persistent Organic Pollutants Global Response
List of Extremely Hazardous Substances
Hazardous 100 List
Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs)
is the compound with the chemical formula PH3. It is a
colorless, flammable, toxic gas and pnictogen hydride. Pure phosphine is
odorless, but technical grade samples have a highly unpleasant odor like
garlic or rotting fish, due to the presence of substituted phosphine and
diphosphane (P2H4). With traces of P2H4 present, PH3 is spontaneously
flammable in air, burning with a luminous flame. Phosphines are also a
group of organophosphorus compounds with the formula R3P (R = organic
derivative). Organophosphines are important in catalysts where they
complex to various metal ions; complexes derived from a chiral phosphine
can catalyze reactions to give chiral, enantioenriched products.
is a highly toxic inorganic compound with the
chemical formula AlP used as a wide band gap semiconductor and a fumigant.
This colorless solid is generally sold as a grey-green-yellow powder due
to the presence of
impurities arising from hydrolysis and oxidation.
What is Natural
More than 80,000 Chemicals available in the U.S. have never been
fully tested for their toxic effects on our health and
Risk of autism with intellectual disability linked with maternal
immune dysfunction during pregnancy
Use of Medication in Pregnancy A 2011 study
using U.S. data from
1976-2008 reported that most women (about
90%) take at least one
medication during pregnancy and 70% take at least one prescription
Medications during Pregnancy
Mother to Baby
evidence-based information to mothers, health care professionals, and the
general public about medications
and other exposures during pregnancy
and while breastfeeding.
Database contains information on drugs and other chemicals to which
breastfeeding mothers may be exposed.
women’s reproduction and HIV prevention, treatment, and management.
(DiBP) are found in a wide range of
products including vinyl upholstery, shower curtains, plastic
food containers, raincoats, dryer sheets, lipstick, hairspray,
nail polish, certain soaps and chemical air fresheners. The
chemicals provide flexibility and durability to products. But
they can be absorbed into a person's body, and exposure in-utero
was linked in the study to lower IQs later in a child's life.
$72 million of damages to the family of a woman whose
death from ovarian cancer was linked to her use of the
company's talc-based Baby Powder and Shower to Shower
for several decades.
Chemicals and Pollutants Detected
in Human Umbilical Cord Blood
Body Burden Test Analysis
Do Babies Need Detox? Alarming Levels of Chemicals Found in
Hazardous PFCs in Remote Locations around the Globe
This synthetic hormone has been linked to various forms of
cancer, as well as reproductive problems and heart disease.
How to Avoid It:
goods use BPA in their lining, but the chemical is also found in
up to 40% of store receipts, and some hard plastic containers.
Forgo taking sales receipts whenever possible and avoid plastics
that are marked with "PC" or recycling label #7.
This carcinogen can build up in the body and the food chain, and
can adversely affect the immune and reproductive systems of
those who are exposed to it. How to Avoid It:
processes release dioxin, meaning that the American food supply
is already widely contaminated. But it helps to cut down on
exposure by eating fewer animal products, especially meat, fish,
milk, eggs and butter.
An herbicide frequently used on corn crops, Atrazine is also a
common drinking water contaminant that's been linked to breast
tumors and prostate cancer. How to Avoid It:
produce and purchase a drinking water filter that's certified to
remove Atrazine. You can find a list of EWG-approved filters on
Phthalates can encourage the death of testicular cells in men
and are linked to hormonal changes, birth defects related to the
male reproductive system and thyroid abnormalities.
How to Avoid It:
food containers, children's toys and plastic wrap that's made
from PVC. Phthalates are also found in some personal care items,
sometimes listed generically as "fragrance", so check your
This rocket fuel component can severely disrupt the proper
thyroid function. How to Avoid It:
already widely found in produce and milk, so avoiding it
altogether isn't necessarily possible. But using a reverse
osmosis water filter can help reduce your intake.
6. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers
PBDEs are flame retardants, and while some of them have been
phased out of industrial use, their long chemical lives mean
that people and wildlife across the world have already been
exposed to them. How to Avoid Them:
impossible to avoid PBDE's entirely, but it helps to use a
vacuum cleaner with a HEPA filter, which can cut down on
toxic-laden house dust. Taking extra safety precautions when
removing carpet is also recommended, as old padding underneath
may contain PBDEs.
It's common to write off lead as something that's avoidable as
long as you're not eating paint chips, but exposure to it can
also come by way of breathing in the dust from old paint that's
crumbling off your walls. This hormone disruptor has been linked
to brain and kidney damage, nervous system problems and a host
of other physical and psychological impairments.
How to Avoid It:
home free from crumbling paint helps to avoid exposure, as does
using a filter that prevents lead contaminants from making it
into your drinking water
This poison can cause skin, bladder and lung cancer, but it can
also result in osteoporosis, high blood pressure, and
suppression of the immune system. How to Avoid It:
Use a water
. (Are you sensing a trend yet?).
This toxic metal gets into the air and oceans primarily through
the burning of coal. Mercury can damage pancreatic cells as well
as women's reproductive processes, and poses significant
problems for pregnant women in particular.
How to Avoid It:
Some people are
weary of eating seafood at all because of its association with
mercury, but the EWG recommends that if you still want to eat
sustainably-sourced varieties, your best bets are wild salmon
and farmed trout.
10. Perfluorinated Chemicals
PFCs are so pervasive and resistant to biodegration, 99 percent
of Americans carry traces of them in their bodies. The chemicals
have been linked to health issues like kidney disease, thyroid
disease and low birth weight in infants. How to Avoid Them:
nonstick cookware, and forgo furniture, clothing and carpet that
comes with water-resistant coatings.
11. Organophosphate Pesticides
These pesticides were originally developed by Nazi Germany
during World War II for use in chemical warfare. Using the same
chemistry, we now spray them on our crops. Organophosphates are
linked to impaired brain development, fertility and thyroid
function. How to Avoid Them:
produce whenever possible and use the EWG guide to find out
which nonorganic produce contains the least amount of pesticide
12. Glycol Ethers
Glycol ethers are solvents found in paint, brake fluid and some
cleaning products, and exposure to them has been linked to blood
abnormalities, fertility impairments and increased asthma in
children. How to Avoid Them:
Keep away from
cleaning products that carry ingredients like 2-butoxyethanol (EGBE)
and methoxydiglycol (DEGME).
. The ability of small intestine cells to absorb
nutrients and act as a barrier to
"significantly decreased" after chronic
to nanoparticles of titanium dioxide
, a common food additive found in
everything from chewing gum to bread, according to research from
Binghamton University, State University of New York.
(PFOA) are used to make
moisture-wicking and water-repellent equipment including
jackets, pants, sleeping bags, boots, and tents.
Drug Addicted Mothers to be
Children Exposed to Drugs in the Womb
Drugs during Pregnancy
(Acetaminophen) used for mild to moderate pain During
Pregnancy linked to
abnormal fetal neurodevelopment and Behavioral Problems in Childhood.
Medications and Pregnancy
Taking Medicine during Pregnancy
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
More than 21,000 infants born in the U.S. in 2012
experienced symptoms of opioid withdrawal. The care for
each baby costs roughly $50,000 to treat.
Interactive: Explore what’s driving surging overdose
Congenital Disorder (Birth Defects)
Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome
is the act or process of bearing or bringing forth
offspring, also known as parturition.
also known as labour and delivery, is the
ending of a pregnancy by one or more babies leaving a woman's uterus.
is a health science and health profession that
deals with pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period (including
care of the newborn), besides sexual and reproductive health of women
throughout their lives. In many countries, midwifery is a medical
profession (special for its independent and direct specialized education;
should not be confused with a medical specialty, which depends on a
previous general training). Midwifery is also known as obstetrics. A
professional in midwifery is known as a midwife.
also known as a
birth companion and post-birth supporter, is a nonmedical person who
assists a person before, during, and/or after childbirth, as well as her
spouse and/or family, by providing physical assistance and emotional
support. The provision of continuous support during labour is associated
with improved maternal and fetal health and a variety of other benefits,
including lower risk of induction and interventions and less need for pain
relief. These benefits are particularly significant when continuous
support is provided by someone who is not there as family/friend or as
medical staff (i.e. a doula). Additionally, a doula is sometimes hired to
work with families beyond the postpartum stages, providing continued
physical and emotional support, for as long as needed (sometimes, this
support can be ongoing for several years).
How Racism Harms Pregnant Women — and what can help: Miriam Zoila Pérez
(video and interactive text)
Child Birth - Jennie Joseph
- Midwifery Team
Parental Leave by Country
Maternity Leave in the U.S.
The US needs Paid Family Leave — for the sake of its future
(video and text)
Maternity Package 2017
Maternal and Child Survival Program
Seed Global Health Education
Global Health Service Partnership
sleep on their back
with no items like toys or
entangle or suffocate the baby.
Sudden infant death syndrome
(SIDS), is the sudden unexplained death
of a child less than one year of age. Also known as cot death or crib
NeoNatalie is an inflatable simulator designed to teach
basic neonatal resuscitation skills
A Women Dies every 90 seconds from Complications of Pregnancy
300.000 Mothers die from complications from pregnancy and
childbirth every year
The Business of Being Born
1:27 min. 2008 Abby Epstein)
Months That Made You
2011 BBC Horizon (youtube)
the World - Why Poverty?
A Simple Birth Kit for Mothers in the Developing World: Zubaida Bai
(video and interactive text)
Black life at the intersection of birth and death: Mwende "FreeQuency"
(video and interactive text)
Maternal Mortality has Doubled in the U.S.
In 2013, 6.3 million children under the age
of 5 died from preventable and treatable conditions
New diagnostic tools for dehydration severity in children
from diarrhea, either viral or from cholera, kills 700,000 children a year
Maternal, Newborn; Child Health Data - Countdown to 2015
Countdown to 2015 tracks key global health data by country for
the 75 highest-burden countries, compiling and analyzing global
health statistics including coverage levels for interventions
proven to reduce maternal mortality, newborn mortality, and
child mortality. It fosters accountability, identifies knowledge
gaps, and proposes actions to reach Millennium Development Goals
4 and 5 and improve maternal health and child health.
Infant mortality rate rises in Gaza for first time in fifty
is typically defined as fetal death at or after
20 to 28 weeks of pregnancy. It results in a baby born without signs of
life. A stillbirth can result in the feeling of guilt in the mother. The
term is in contrast to miscarriage which is an early pregnancy loss and
live birth where the baby is born alive, even if it dies shortly after.
More than half of infants in the United States are still
sleeping in unsafe conditions in cribs containing blankets,
pillows and other loose bedding that has been shown to
dramatically raise the risk of
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
, a new government study finds.
More educated moms were less likely to use hazardous bedding
materials, but use was still at 50 percent among those with a
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
also known as cot death or crib
death, is the sudden unexplained death of a child less than one year of
age. Diagnosis requires that the death remains unexplained even after a
thorough autopsy and detailed death scene investigation.
SIDS usually occurs during sleep
death occurs between the hours of 00:00 and 09:00. There is usually no
evidence of struggle and no noise produced.
Sudden Unexplained Death in Childhood
is the death of a
child over the age of 12 months which remains unexplained after a thorough
investigation and autopsy. There has not been enough research to identify
risk factors, common characteristics, or prevention strategies for SUDC.
The Sudden Unexplained
Death In Childhood (SUDC) Foundation
Every year about 100,000 women around the world
die of blood loss soon after a baby is born
. It's the biggest cause
of maternal death worldwide.
is often defined as the loss of more than 500 ml
or 1,000 ml of blood within the first 24 hours following
Signs and symptoms may initially include: an increased heart rate, feeling
faint upon standing, and an increased breath rate. As more blood is lost
the women may feel cold, their blood pressure may drop, and they may
become restless or unconscious. The condition can occur up to six weeks
is a medication used to treat or prevent excessive
blood loss from major trauma, surgery, tooth removal, nose bleeds, and
heavy menstruation. It is also used for hereditary angioedema. It is taken
either by mouth or injection into a vein. Side effects are rare. Some
include changes in color vision, blood clots and allergic reactions.
Greater caution is recommended in people with kidney disease
Tranexamic appears to be safe for use during pregnancy and breastfeeding.
Tranexamic acid is in the antifibrinolytic family of medications.
50,000 mothers die each year in India as a result of birth
complications, versus 1,200 in the United States
. In India
nearly 300,000 babies die the day they are born — more than any
other country in the world, accounting for nearly a third of all
newborn deaths worldwide.
There's new evidence that delaying
clamping and sniping by a minute can benefit
babies, like having higher hemoglobin levels 24 to 48 hours
after birth, having higher birth weights, and it also sends more
iron from the placenta to your baby, which could avoid babies
being iron-deficient three to six months after birth.
is the practice of leaving the umbilical cord
uncut after childbirth so that the baby is left attached to the placenta
until the cord naturally separates at the umbilicus, usually a few days
also known as perineotomy, is a surgical incision of the
perineum and the posterior vaginal wall generally done by a midwife or
obstetrician during second stage of labor to quickly enlarge the opening
for the baby to pass through. Mothers
ill-informed about the dangers they face after giving birth
Postpartum nurses provide important physical and emotional care and
recovery for both the new mom and the newborn baby following a delivery.
Nurses' Knowledge and Teaching of Possible Postpartum Complications.
The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing
An estimated 700 to 900 women die in the U.S.
every year from pregnancy
- and childbirth-related causes. Another
65,000 nearly die, according to the Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention. The rates are highest among black mothers and women in rural
areas. A recent CDC Foundation analysis of data from four states found
that close to 60 percent of maternal deaths were preventable.
Association of Women's
Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses
Discharge Education on Maternal Morbidity and Mortality Provided by Nurses
to Women in the Postpartum Period
Improving Postpartum Discharge Education About Potential Complications
Over 50% of maternal deaths occur in the
compared to 16.8% on the day of delivery. 18% of
these maternal deaths occurred 1-6 days postpartum and 21% occurred 7-41
days postpartum. It is impossible to predict with any certainty which
women will have a postpartum complication. All women need education on
which signs and symptoms are emergencies and which require urgent care.
RN's who provide discharge education are in a key role to educate women
about the signs & symptoms of potential postpartum complications
Improving Postpartum Education About Warning Signs Of Maternal Morbidity
Learn These Post-Birth Warning Signs
American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists
Probiotic Bacteria Could Protect Newborns From
- a major killer to be tackled in communities
A randomized synbiotic trial to prevent Sepsis among infants in rural
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the death of tissue in the intestine
It occurs most often in premature or sick babies.
Fermented Fruits and Vegetables of Asia: A Potential Source of Probiotics
is the birth of a baby at less than 37 weeks of pregnancy. These babies
are known as preemies or premmies.
linked to 2.7 million preterm births per year.
Infants Born Before 32 weeks Each Year Worldwide
The number of preterm births in the
United States rose in 2015
for the first time in eight years.
Preterm births cost us more than
billion a year or $51,600 per infant born preterm
Preterm births linked to
in the United States totals over $4
billion a year. Exposures to high levels of air pollution increases toxic
chemicals in the blood and can weaken the immune system, causing stress to
the placenta and leading to preterm birth.
Premature Baby Development Concerns
A unique womb-like environment
designed by pediatric researchers could
transform care for extremely premature babies, by mimicking the prenatal
fluid-filled environment to give the tiniest newborns a precious few weeks
to develop their lungs and other organs.
has been successfully used to incubate healthy baby
lambs for a period of one week. (ex-vivo uterine environment (EVE)
Neonatal Intensive Care Unit
is an intensive care unit
specializing in the care of ill or premature newborn infants. Neonatal
refers to the first 28 days of life. Neonatal care, as known as
specialized nurseries or intensive care, has been around since the 1960s.
is a technique of newborn care where babies
are kept skin-to-skin
with a parent,
typically their mother. It is most commonly used for low birth-weight
preterm babies, who are more likely to suffer from hypothermia, while
admitted to a neonatal unit to keep the baby warm and support early
Kangaroo Mother Care
is a subspecialty of nursing care for newborn
infants up to 28 days after birth.
We have to keep softly talking to a baby when they are born
especially when they are born premature.
Listening to Language Boosts Infant Cognition
Mother's Milk May Help Prevent Blindness In Preemies
Retinopathy of Prematurity
is a disease of the
affecting prematurely born babies generally having
received intensive neonatal care, in which oxygen therapy is used on them
due to the premature development of their lungs. It is thought to be
caused by disorganized growth of retinal blood vessels which may result in
scarring and retinal detachment. ROP can be mild and may resolve
spontaneously, but it may lead to blindness in serious cases. As such, all
preterm babies are at risk for ROP, and very low birth-weight is an
additional risk factor. Both oxygen toxicity and relative hypoxia can
contribute to the development of ROP.
cost-effective solutions for newborns in need
of intensive medical care.
Child Birth Connection
Penn Researchers Develop Placenta-on-a-chip
can fully model the
transport of nutrients across the placental barrier.
causes of preterm
birth and ways to prevent it.
is a type of
childbirth, which can affect both sexes. Symptoms may include extreme
sadness, low energy, anxiety, crying episodes, irritability, and changes
in sleeping or eating patterns. Onset is typically between one week and
one month following childbirth. PPD can also negatively affect the
Women, Infants and Children’s Program
is the process of growing to maturity. In
biological terms, this entails growth from a one-celled zygote to an adult
is a branch of medicine that deals
with prevention, diagnosis and management of reproductive problems; goals
include improving or maintaining reproductive health and allowing people
to have children at a time of their choosing. It is founded on knowledge
of reproductive anatomy, physiology, and endocrinology, and incorporates
relevant aspects of molecular biology, biochemistry and pathology.
is the natural capability to produce offspring. As a measure, fertility
rate is the number of offspring born per mating pair, individual or
population. Fertility differs from fecundity, which is defined as the
potential for reproduction (influenced by gamete production, fertilization
and carrying a pregnancy to term). A lack of fertility is infertility
while a lack of fecundity would be called sterility. Human fertility
depends on factors of nutrition, sexual behavior, consanguinity, culture,
instinct, endocrinology, timing, economics, way of life, and emotions.
Assisted Reproductive Technology
is the technology used to
achieve pregnancy in procedures such as
, in vitro fertilization and surrogacy. It is
used primarily for infertility treatments, and
is also known as fertility treatment. It mainly belongs to the field of
reproductive endocrinology and infertility
, and may also include
intracytoplasmic sperm injection
(ICSI) and cryopreservation. Some
forms of ART are also used with regard to fertile couples for genetic
reasons (preimplantation genetic diagnosis). ART is also used for couples
who are discordant for certain communicable diseases; for example, HIV to
reduce the risk of infection when a pregnancy is desired.
is a form of third party reproduction. It is
defined as the giving—generally without compensation—of embryos remaining
after one couple's in vitro fertilisation to either another person or
couple for implantation or to research. Where it is given for the purpose
of implantation, the donation is followed by the placement of those
embryos into the recipient woman's uterus to facilitate pregnancy and
childbirth in the recipient. The resulting child is considered the child
of the woman who carries it and gives birth, and not the child of the
donor. This is the same principle as is followed in egg donation or sperm
donation. Most often, the embryos are donated after the woman for whom
they were originally created has successfully carried one or more
pregnancies to term.
is the deliberate introduction of
sperm into a female's uterus or cervix for the purpose of achieving a
pregnancy through in vivo fertilization by means other than sexual
intercourse. It is a fertility treatment for humans, and is common
practice in animal breeding, including dairy cattle (see Frozen bovine
semen) and pigs.
Third Party Reproduction
is any human reproduction in which DNA or gestation is provided
by a third party or donor other than the one or two parents who will raise
the resulting child. This goes beyond the traditional father–mother model,
and the third party's involvement is limited to the reproductive process
and does not extend into the raising of the child. Third-party
reproduction is used by couples unable to reproduce where they would
otherwise be unable to do so, by same-sex couples, and by men and women
without a partner. Where donor gametes are provided by a donor, the donor
will be a biological parent of the resulting child, but in third party
reproduction, he or she will not be the caring parent. One can distinguish
several categories, some of which may be combined:
. A donor provides sperm in order to father a child for
a third-party female.
. A donor provides ova to a woman or couple in order for the
egg to be fertilized and implanted in the recipient woman.
. A third party's mitochondrial DNA is transferred to
the future mother's ovum. This is used to prevent mitochondrial disease.
with embryos which were originally created for a
genetic mother's assisted pregnancy. Once the genetic mother has completed
her own treatment, she may donate unused embryos for use by a third party.
or where embryos are specifically created for donation using donor eggs
and donor sperm.
. Embryos created during a donor's assisted pregnancy
are adopted to be implanted in a third party recipient.
. An embryo is gestated in a third party's uterus
(traditional surrogacy) or a woman is inseminated in order to gestate a
child for a third party (straight surrogacy). Pregnancy is typically
initiated by artificial insemination in the case of sperm donation and by
embryo transfer after in vitro fertilisation (IVF) in the case of egg
donation, embryo donation, and surrogacy. Thus a child can have a genetic
and social (non-genetic, non-biological) father, and a genetic,
gestational, and social (non-biological) mother, and any combinations
thereof. Theoretically a child thus could have 5 parents. A donor
treatment is where gametes, i.e. sperm, ova or embryos are provided, or
'donated' by a third party for the purpose of third-party reproduction.
or stone baby
, is a rare
phenomenon which occurs most commonly when a fetus dies during an
abdominal pregnancy, is too large to be reabsorbed by the body, and
calcifies on the outside as part of a maternal foreign body reaction,
shielding the mother's body from the dead tissue of the fetus and
can be regarded as a form of an ectopic pregnancy
where the embryo or fetus is growing and developing outside the womb in
the abdomen, but not in the Fallopian tube, ovary or broad ligament.
The 46 Year
Pregnancy - My Shocking Story
is pregnancy in females under the
age of 20. A female can become pregnant from sexual intercourse after
she has begun to ovulate, which can be before her first menstrual period
(menarche) but usually occurs after the onset of her periods. In
well-nourished females, menarche usually takes place around the age of 12
State Health Facts
Teen Birth Facts
is the practice of relinquishing
interests and claims over one's offspring in an extralegal way with the
intent of never again resuming or reasserting guardianship over them.
Causes include many social and cultural factors as well as mental illness.
An abandoned child is called a foundling (as opposed to a runaway or an
orphan). Baby dumping refers to parents abandoning or discarding a child
younger than 12 months in a public or private place with the intent of
ending their guardianship over them. It is also known as rehoming in cases
of failed adoptions.
is the intentional killing of infants. Parental
infanticide researchers have found that mothers are far more likely than
fathers to be the perpetrator for neonaticide and slightly more likely to
commit infanticide in general. In many past societies, certain forms of
infanticide were considered permissible. In India female infanticide is
more common than the killing of male offspring, due to sex-selective
infanticide. In China for example, the sex gap between males and females
aged 0–19 years old was estimated to be 25 million in 2010 by the United
Nations Population Fund. In English law infanticide is established as a
distinct offence by the Infanticide Acts. Defined as the killing of a
child under 12 months of age by their mother, the effect of the Acts are
to establish a partial defence to charges of murder.
is a method or agreement whereby a woman agrees to
carry a pregnancy for another person or persons, who will become the
newborn child's parent(s) after birth. Intended parents may seek a
surrogacy arrangement when pregnancy is medically impossible, pregnancy
risks present an unacceptable danger to the mother's health, or a man or
male couple wish to have a child. Monetary compensation may or may not be
involved in these arrangements. If the surrogate receives money for the
surrogacy the arrangement is considered commercial surrogacy; if she
receives no compensation beyond reimbursement of medical and other
reasonable expenses it is referred to as altruistic. The legality and
costs of surrogacy vary widely between jurisdictions, sometimes resulting
in interstate or international surrogacy arrangements. There are laws in
some countries which restrict and regulate surrogacy and the consequences
of surrogacy. Some couples or individuals wanting a child in this manner
but who live in a jurisdiction which does not permit surrogacy may travel
to another jurisdiction which permits it. (See surrogacy laws by country
and fertility tourism).Population Growth
Though the teen birth rate has decreased, in 2010, teens in the
US between the ages of 15 and 19, had a birth rate of 37.9 per
1,000 women. Russia was 30.2 per 1,000, Britain has 25 per 1,000
and Switzerland has 4.3 births per 1,000 teen women.
Birth Rates for Teens
The United States Department of
Agriculture today that if you had a child in 2012, it'll cost
you $241,080 to raise him or her for next 17 years, and If you
adjust it for
that number soars to $301,970. (why is this an ignorant
Everyone should understand the
requirements that a person needs in order to
Adopt a Child
or to be a
These requirements will give you a little insight on what it
takes to be a parent and to start a family. It doesn't cover
everything but it makes you aware of how much you should know.
Even if you were a women wanting to donate
, you would still need to have certain requirements
in order to be a donor. The same goes for a man, if a man wants
donate his sperm
he would have to have
before he is even excepted. So it makes
you wonder, what requirements do you need to start life, and
what requirements do you need to be responsible for a child's
care? Should you get a
single greatest killer of pregnant women is
offers protection against mosquitos,
flies, and other insects, and thus against the diseases they may carry.
Examples include malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever, zika virus and
various forms of encephalitis, including the West Nile virus. To be
effective the mesh of a mosquito net must be fine enough to exclude such
insects without reducing visibility or air flow to unacceptable levels. It
is possible to increase the effectiveness of a mosquito net greatly by
treating it with an appropriate insecticide or mosquito repellant.
Research has shown mosquito nets to be an extremely effective method of
malaria prevention, averting approximately 451 million cases of malaria
over the period 2000–2015.
Private Sleeping Area
Freedom of Choice Act
was a bill in the 110th United States
Congress which "declares that it is the policy of the United States that
every woman has the fundamental right to choose to bear a child; terminate
a pregnancy prior to fetal viability; or terminate a pregnancy after
viability when necessary to protect her life or her health." It prohibits
a federal, state, or local governmental entity from denying or interfering
with a woman's right to exercise such choices; or discriminating against
the exercise of those rights in the regulation or provision of benefits,
facilities, services, or information. Provides that such prohibition shall
apply retroactively. It also authorizes an individual aggrieved by a
violation of this Act to obtain appropriate relief, including relief
against a governmental entity, in a civil action." Earlier versions of the
bill were introduced in 1989 and 1993.
Parental DNA Testing
(heredity) Marriage License
Family and Medical Leave Act
is a United States labor law
requiring covered employers to provide employees with job-protected and
unpaid leave for qualified medical and family reasons. These include
pregnancy, adoption, foster care placement of a child, personal or family
illness, or family military leave. The FMLA is administered by the Wage
and Hour Division of the United States Department of Labor.
Why are Blood
mandatory before you get married?
Of the 27 industrialized countries studied by the
Economic Cooperation and Development
, the U.S. had 25.8
percent of children being raised by a
, compared with an average of 14.9 percent
across the other countries.
is the status of a child born to parents who are legally married to each
other, and of a child conceived before the parents obtain a legal divorce.
Conversely, illegitimacy (or bastardy) has been the status of a child born
outside marriage, such a child being known as a bastard, or love child,
when such a distinction has been made from other children.
is a parent that parents alone without the
other parent's support, meaning this particular parent is the only parent
to the child, responsible for all financial, material, and emotional
needs. It means there is an absence of the other parent as opposed to a
co-parent, meaning that the parent is not the only parent regardless of
whether or not they are a couple. Of course, this definition is loosely
true. There is no true definition of what "single parent" means and is
more based on opinions. Sometimes, one finds themselves in a single-parent
family structure that has arisen due to death of the partner, intentional
artificial insemination, or unplanned pregnancy.
101 East :
China: Unnatural Selection
are the needs of living organisms required to
perpetuate their existence to survive. What's the difference between
Biological Imperative and the urge to have a baby?
We have all been given these sexual urges and animal instincts
because that is something that animals need to do
in order for the species to survive by reproduction. Other
animal species on our planet also share these same types of
instincts, so it's not unusual. If these instincts were not
given to us we would not reproduce as much and we would most
likely go extinct.
But luckily humans also have another very
influential drive called pleasure, which also helps to encourage
reproduction. But even if we control our instincts, Humans can
also be more aware of their surroundings so they don't even need
instincts or pleasure in order to reproduce because they feel it
is simply a need. So now that some humans are becoming more
educated and more aware of of their choices and options, some
people are now making better choices and also have a much better
understanding of self-control. So does this mean that our
species will go extinct because people are now making better
choices and better decisions? No. Because fully educated people
will be totally aware that their species needs to reproduce in
order to survive, so people will always be having babies, maybe
just not as much, or at the least, not more then the planet can
Too many women believe that if they have a
child their world will be better
. It's not the child that
will make a mothers life better, it's the mother who has to make her own
life better. Don't put the responsibility on the child to make your life
better, it's not fair, and it's also not a very good plan. It's the
Mothers who are responsible for making their own lives better, not their
children. Learn how to make life better, then share that knowledge with
your children. Then you will all share a good life together.
More than 200 million women worldwide want
but don't have access to them, according to an editorial
published in the British medical journal, Lancet. That results
in 76 million unintended pregnancies every year.
Abortions Kill 70,000 Annually
How Many People Can Live on Earth Sustainably
AAn 18th-century Russian woman holds the world record for having
birthed the most children: 69
, which she had over the course of
27 pregnancies that included sixteen pairs of twins, seven sets
of triplets, and four sets of quadruplets.
But she's outdone by the male record-holder for most kids, a
Moroccan emperor who, according to the Guinness Book of World
Records, sired "at least 342 daughters and 525 sons, and by
1721, he was reputed to have 700 male descendants."
also known as nursing, is the feeding of babies and
young children with milk from a woman's breast. Health professionals
recommend that breastfeeding begin within the first hour of a baby's life
and continue as often and as much as the baby wants. During the first few
weeks of life babies may nurse roughly every two to three hours. The
duration of a feeding is usually ten to fifteen minutes on each breast.
Older children feed less often. Mothers may pump milk so that it can be
used later when breastfeeding is not possible. Breastfeeding has a number
of benefits to both mother and baby, which infant formula lacks.
The Milky Way
2014 Documentary about Breast feeding
(04/01/2014 | 1 hr. 33 min.)
What we don't know about mother's milk: Katie Hinde
Baby Friendly Hospital
Milk Sharing Bank
Golchi holds 2 beverages of different temperatures at once
Breast Feeding Consultant or Lactation Consultant
Only 15% of Babies in the U.S
What causes women to stop breastfeeding early?
Potential sociodemographic, physical, mental, and social factors
may cause breastfeeding mothers to stop breastfeeding before infants reach
6 months of age. Mothers who were young, had a low level of education, and
returned to work within 12 weeks after giving birth were more likely to
stop breastfeeding before 6 months. Those who gave birth by caesarean
section and who had an inadequate milk supply also tended to stop
New Born Nutrition
Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children
Stunting is the impaired growth and development that children experience
from poor nutrition
, repeated infection, and inadequate psychosocial
stimulation. Children are defined as stunted if their height-for-age is
more than two standard deviations below the WHO Child Growth Standards
Stunting in early life
-- particularly in the first 1000 days from
conception until the age of two - impaired growth has adverse functional
consequences on the child. Some of those consequences include poor
cognition and educational performance, low adult wages, lost productivity
and, when accompanied by excessive weight gain later in childhood, an
increased risk of nutrition-related chronic diseases in adult life.
attachment, and feeding in early child development. A strong
maternal-infant (or caregiver-infant) bond provided through psychosocial
stimulation is essential for positive child development. The formation of
this bond at the beginning of life is an essential step that sets the
stage for cognitive, emotional, and social development later in life.
Feeding and other care practices provide opportunities for psychosocial
stimulation and help to establish a positive attachment between caregiver
is a reduced growth rate in human development. It is a
primary manifestation of
(or more precisely undernutrition) and recurrent infections, such as
diarrhea and helminthiasis, in early childhood and even before birth, due
to malnutrition during fetal development brought on by a malnourished
is a manufactured food designed and marketed
for feeding to babies and infants under 12 months of age, usually prepared
for bottle-feeding or cup-feeding from powder (mixed with water) or liquid
(with or without additional water). The U.S. Federal Food, Drug, and
Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) defines infant formula as "a food which purports to
be or is represented for special dietary use solely as a food for infants
by reason of its simulation of human milk or its suitability as a complete
or partial substitute for human milk".
W.H.O International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk
Dangers of Baby Formula
14 Risks of
Benefits of Skin to Skin Contact between Mother and her
is the continued activity of the
enzyme lactase in adulthood. Since lactase's only function is the
digestion of lactose in milk, in most mammal species, the activity of the
enzyme is dramatically reduced after weaning. In some human populations,
though, lactase persistence has recently evolved as an adaptation to the
consumption of nonhuman
milk and dairy products
beyond infancy. The majority of people around
the world remain lactase nonpersistent, and consequently are affected by
varying degrees of lactose intolerance as adults. However, not all
genetically lactase nonpersistent individuals are noticeably lactose
intolerant, and not all lactose-intolerant individuals have the lactase
is a protein that in humans is best known
for its role in enabling mammals, usually females, to
produce milk; Prolactin is secreted from the pituitary
gland in response to eating, mating, estrogen treatment,
ovulation, and nursing. Prolactin is secreted in a
pulsatile fashion in between these events. Prolactin
also plays an essential role in metabolism, regulation
of the immune system, and pancreatic development.
Breast-Feeding Could Save 800,000 Lives a year
Researchers analyzed data
from 28 studies, and their
findings suggest that the lives of 823,000 children
worldwide under the age of five could be saved annually,
and about 20,000 breast cancer deaths could be
prevented, if universal breastfeeding occurred. Research
indicates that in high-income countries breastfeeding
reduces the risk of sudden infant deaths by more than
In low and middle-income countries breastfeeding can
reduce about half of all diarrhea illnesses and a third
of respiratory infections. The authors said it may also
increase intelligence, and might protect against obesity
and diabetes in later life.
For nursing women, breastfeeding provided protection
against breast cancer and it improved birth spacing, the
authors wrote. It might also protect against ovarian
cancer and type 2 diabetes.
Saving Lives at Birth
NIFT Infant Feeding Cup
NIFT Infant Feeding Cup
milk has varied flavors
whereas formula milk has a
What mothers eat, even before we're born, affect the way
we'll respond to those flavors when we later encounter
them because they seem familiar. Babies are most open to
trying new flavors between the ages of 4 and 7 months.
The Engineering of a Disposable Diaper
Infant Antibiotic use linked to Adult Diseases
Excessive pregnancy weight gain may be associated with obesity
in the offspring
Neonatal Insulin Action Impairs Hypothalamic Neurocircuit
Formation in Response to Maternal High-Fat Feeding
Flattening The 'Mummy Tummy' With 1
Exercise, 10 Minutes A Day
The Dia Method: 10
Minutes Flat Video Preview
MuTu System - The
Postpartum Exercise + Recovery Program
Diastasis Recti: 5
Exercises To Close the Gap for Postpartum Moms
is a gap of roughly 2.7 cm or greater between the two sides of the
rectus abdominis muscle
The following exercises are
often recommended to help build abdominal strength, which may or may not
help reduce the size of diastasis recti.Core
– In a seated position, place both hands on abdominal
muscles. Take small controlled breaths. Slowly contract the abdominal
muscles, pulling them straight back towards the spine. Hold the
contraction for 30 seconds, while maintaining the controlled breathing.
Complete 10 repetitions.Seated squeeze
- Again in a seated position, place one hand above the belly button, and
the other below the belly button. With controlled breaths, with a mid-way
starting point, pull the abdominals back toward the spine, hold for 2
seconds and return to the mid-way point. Complete 100 repetitions.
– In a lying down position, knees
bent at 90° angle, feet flat, slowly lift the head, chin toward your
chest, (concentrate on isolation of the abdominals to prevent hip-flexors
from being engaged), slowly contract abdominals toward floor, hold for two
seconds, lower head to starting position for 2 seconds. Complete 10
repetitions. Upright push-up – A stand-up push-up against the wall, with
feet together arms-length away from wall, place hands flat against the
wall, contract abdominal muscles toward spine, lean body towards wall,
with elbows bent downward close to body, pull abdominal muscles in
further, with controlled breathing. Release muscles as you push back to
starting position. Complete 20 repetitions.
Squat against the wall
– Also known as a seated squat, stand with
back against the wall, feet out in front of body, slowly lower body to a
seated position so knees are bent at a 90° angle, contracting abs toward
spine as you raise body back to standing position. Optionally, this
exercise can also be done using an exercise ball placed against the wall
and the lower back. Complete 20 repetitions.
Squat with squeeze
– A variation to the "squat against the wall" is
to place a small resistance ball between the knees, and squeeze the ball
while lowering the body to the seated position. Complete 20 repetitions.
It is also noted that incorrect exercises, including crunches, can
increase the distasis recti separation. All corrective exercises should be
in the form of pulling in of the abdominal muscles rather than a pushing
of them outwards. Consultation of a professional physiotherapist is
recommended for correct exercise routines. In addition to the above
exercises, the Touro College study concluded the "quadruped" position
yielded the most effective results. A quadruped position is defined as "a
whose body weight is supported by both arms as well as both
legs". In this position, the subject would start with a flat back, then
slowly tilt the head down, and arch the back, contracting the abdominal
muscles towards the spine, holding this position for 5 seconds, then
releasing back to starting position. Complete two sets of 10 repetitions.
Avoid Crossover crunches or bicycle crunches because they splay your
abs apart in so many ways.