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Biology


Biology is the Science that studies living Organisms. Characteristic Life Processes and Phenomena of living Organisms. All the Plant and Animal life of a Particular Region. Bio is something biological, involving biology. Ology is an informal word (abstracted from words with this ending) for some unidentified branch of knowledge.

Physics - Chemistry - Cells

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Biology Areas (wiki) - PDF

Biology Sketches Microbiology is the study of microscopic organisms, those being unicellular (single cell), multicellular (cell colony), or acellular (lacking cells). Microbiology encompasses numerous sub-disciplines including virology, mycology, parasitology, and bacteriology.

Microbiologist is a biological scientist who studies microscopic life forms and processes or works in the field of microbiology. Microbiologists investigate the growth, interactions and characteristics of microscopic organisms such as bacteria, algae, fungi, and some types of parasites and their vectors. They contribute much to the field by trying to understand and learn about the interaction between these microbes and the environment and also among themselves and other organisms.

Structural Biology is a branch of Molecular Biology, biochemistry, and biophysics concerned with the molecular structure of biological macromolecules, especially proteins and nucleic acids, how they acquire the structures they have, and how alterations in their structures affect their function. This subject is of great interest to biologists because macromolecules carry out most of the functions of cells, and only by coiling into specific three-dimensional shapes that they are able to perform these functions. This architecture, the "tertiary structure" of molecules, depends in a complicated way on the molecules' basic composition, or "primary structures."

Nano Technology - Microscopes - Imaging Machines

Mathematical Biology aims at the mathematical representation, treatment and modeling of biological processes, using techniques and tools of applied mathematics.

Computational Biology involves the development and application of data-analytical and theoretical methods, mathematical modeling and computational simulation techniques to the study of biological, behavioral, and social systems.

Comparative Biology uses natural variation and disparity to understand the patterns of life at all levels—from genes to communities—and the critical role of organisms in ecosystems. Comparative biology is a cross-lineage approach to understanding the phylogenetic history of individuals or higher taxa and the mechanisms and patterns that drives it. Comparative biology encompasses Evolutionary Biology, Systematics, Neontology, Paleontology, Ethology, Anthropology, and Biogeography as well as historical approaches to Developmental biology, Genomics, Physiology, Ecology and many other areas of the biological sciences. The comparative approach also has numerous applications in human health, genetics, biomedicine, and conservation biology. The biological relationships (phylogenies, pedigree) are important for comparative analyses and usually represented by a phylogenetic tree or cladogram to differentiate those features with single origins (Homology) from those with multiple origins (Homoplasy).

Biosignature is any substance – such as an element, isotope, molecule, or phenomenon – that provides scientific evidence of past or present life. Measurable attributes of life include its complex physical and chemical structures and also its utilization of free energy and the production of biomass and wastes. Due to its unique characteristics, a biosignature can be interpreted as having been produced by living organisms; however, it is important that they not be considered definitive because there is no way of knowing in advance which ones are universal to life and which ones are unique to the peculiar circumstances of life on Earth. Nonetheless, life forms are known to shed unique chemicals, including DNA, into the environment as evidence of their presence in a particular location.

Living Organisms Life Spans Developmental Biology is the study of the process by which animals and plants grow and develop. Developmental biology also encompasses the biology of regeneration, asexual reproduction and metamorphosis and in the growth and differentiation of stem cells in the adult organism.

Morphogenesis is the biological process that causes an organism to develop its shape. It is one of three fundamental aspects of developmental biology along with the control of cell growth and cellular differentiation, unified in evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo).The process controls the organized spatial distribution of cells during the embryonic development of an organism. Morphogenesis can take place also in a mature organism, in cell culture or inside tumor cell masses. Morphogenesis also describes the development of unicellular life forms that do not have an embryonic stage in their life cycle, or describes the evolution of a body structure within a taxonomic group. Morphogenetic responses may be induced in organisms by hormones, by environmental chemicals ranging from substances produced by other organisms to toxic chemicals or radionuclides released as pollutants, and other plants, or by mechanical stresses induced by spatial patterning of the cells. (beginning of the shape).

Biogenesis (evolution)

Biological Life Cycle is a series of changes in form that an organism undergoes, returning to the starting state. The concept is closely related to those of the life history, development and ontogeny, but differs from them in stressing renewal. Transitions of form may involve growth, asexual reproduction, and/or sexual reproduction.

Life Cycle Assessment (smart development)
Cell Cycle (cells)
Self-Organization (cause and effect)

Physiology is the scientific study of the normal function in living systems. A sub-discipline of biology, its focus is in how organisms, organ systems, organs, cells, and biomolecules carry out the chemical or physical functions that exist in a living system.

Biological System is a complex network of biologically relevant entities. As biological organization spans several scales, examples of biological systems are populations of organisms, or on the organ- and tissue scale in mammals and other animals, the circulatory system, the respiratory system, the nervous system, etc. On the micro to the nanoscopic scale, examples of biological systems are cells, organelles, macromolecular complexes and regulatory pathways. A biological system is not to be confused with a living system, which is commonly referred to as life. For further information see e.g. definition of life or synthetic biology.

Biology Order Order (biology) is a taxonomic rank used in the classification of organisms and recognized by the nomenclature codes. Other well-known ranks are life, domain, kingdom, phylum, class, family, genus, and species, with order fitting in between class and family. An immediately higher rank, superorder, may be added directly above order, while suborder would be a lower rank. A taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank. In that case the plural is orders (Latin ordines). Example: The Juglans (walnut) and Hickory trees belong to the family Juglandaceae (or walnut family), which is placed in the order Fagales.

Class (biology) is a taxonomic rank. Other well-known ranks in descending order of size are life, domain, kingdom, phylum, order, family, genus, and species, with class fitting between phylum and order. As for the other well-known ranks, there is the option of an immediately lower rank, indicated by the prefix sub-: subclass (Latin: subclassis). A taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank. In that case the plural is classes (Latin classes). Example: Dogs are in the class Mammalia.

Genus is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms in biology. In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family. In binomial nomenclature, the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus.

Biodiversity (Environment)

Extremophile is an organism that thrives in physically or geochemically extreme conditions that are detrimental to most life on Earth. In contrast, organisms that live in more moderate environments may be termed mesophiles or neutrophiles.

Cyclomorphosis (also known as seasonal polyphenism) is the name given to the occurrence of cyclic or seasonal changes in the phenotype of an organism through successive generations. It occurs in small aquatic invertebrates that reproduce by parthenogenesis and give rise to several generations annually. It occurs especially in marine planktonic animals, and is thought to be caused by the interaction of environmental cues with the organism's genes, thereby altering the course of their development.

Tardigrade Tardigrade are water-dwelling, eight-legged, segmented micro-animals, are one of the most resilient animals known. They have been found everywhere: from mountaintops to the deep sea and mud volcanoes; from tropical rain forests to the Antarctic. Individual species of tardigrades can survive extreme conditions that would be rapidly fatal to nearly all other known life forms, including complete global mass extinction events due to astrophysical events, such as supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, large asteroid impacts, or passing-by stars. Some tardigrades can withstand temperatures down to 1 K (−458 °F; −272 °C) (close to absolute zero) while others can withstand 420 K (300 °F; 150 °C) for several minutes, pressures about six times greater than those found in the deepest ocean trenches, ionizing radiation at doses hundreds of times higher than the lethal dose for a human, and the vacuum of outer space. They can go without food or water for more than 30 years, drying out to the point where they are 3% or less water, only to rehydrate, forage, and reproduce. Tardigrades, living in harsh conditions, undergo an annual process of cyclomorphosis. They are not considered extremophilic because they are not adapted to exploit these conditions. This means that their chances of dying increase the longer they are exposed to the extreme environments, whereas true extremophiles thrive in a physically or geochemically extreme environment that would harm most other organisms. Usually, tardigrades are about 0.5 mm (0.02 in) long when they are fully grown. They are short and plump with four pairs of legs, each with four to eight claws also known as "disks". The first three pairs of legs are directed ventrolaterally and are the primary means of locomotion, while the fourth pair is directed posteriorly on the terminal segment of the trunk and is used primarily for grasping the substrate. Tardigrades are prevalent in mosses and lichens and feed on plant cells, algae, and small invertebrates. When collected, they may be viewed under a very low-power microscope, making them accessible to students and amateur scientists. Tardigrades form the phylum Tardigrada, part of the superphylum Ecdysozoa. It is an ancient group, with fossils dating from 530 million years ago, in the Cambrian period. About 1,150 species of tardigrades have been described. Tardigrades can be found throughout the world, from the Himalayas (above 6,000 m (20,000 ft)), to the deep sea (below 4,000 m (13,000 ft)) and from the polar regions to the equator. Tardigrades are the toughest, most resilient form of life on earth, able to survive for up to 30 years without food or water, and endure temperature extremes of up to 150 degrees Celsius, the deep sea and even the frozen vacuum of space. The water-dwelling micro animal can live for up to 60 years, and grow to a maximum size of 0.5mm, best seen under a microscope.

Mites are small arthropods belonging to the subclass Acari (also known as Acarina) and the class Arachnida. The scientific discipline devoted to the study of ticks and mites is called Acarology. Many species live in soil as decomposers; others are predatory or parasitic, these last including the commercially important Varroa mites of honeybees, and the scabies mite of humans. Invertebrate are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine).

Escarpia laminata Tubeworm is the Longest Living Animal, can live for at least 300 years.

Biomonitoring (Body Burden)

Chemical Biology is a scientific discipline spanning the fields of Chemistry, biology, and Physics. It involves the application of chemical techniques, tools, and analyses, and often compounds produced through synthetic chemistry, to the study and manipulation of biological systems. Chemical biologists attempt to use chemical principles to modulate systems to either investigate the underlying biology or create new function.

List of Life Sciences involve the scientific study of living organisms – such as microorganisms, plants, animals, and human beings – as well as related considerations like bioethics. While biology remains the centerpiece of the life sciences, technological advances in molecular biology and biotechnology have led to a burgeoning of specializations and interdisciplinary fields.

Bio-Chemistry
Bio-Electrochemistry
Bio-Physics

Biomedical Engineering is the application of engineering principles and design concepts to medicine and biology for healthcare purposes (e.g. diagnostic or therapeutic). This field seeks to close the gap between engineering and medicine, combining the design and problem solving skills of engineering with medical and biological sciences to advance health care treatment, including diagnosis, monitoring, and therapy.

Genetic Engineering (DNA)

National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB)

Biotechnology is the use of living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2). Depending on the tools and applications, it often overlaps with the (related) fields of bioengineering, biomedical engineering, biomanufacturing, molecular engineering, etc.
Biology Organisms
Biological Engineering is the application of concepts and methods of biology (and secondarily of physics, chemistry, mathematics, and computer science) to solve real-world problems related to life sciences or the application thereof, using engineering's own analytical and synthetic methodologies and also its traditional sensitivity to the cost and practicality of the solution(s) arrived at.

Biomanufacturing is a type of manufacturing or biotechnology that utilizes biological systems to produce commercially important biomaterials and biomolecules for use in medicines, food and beverage processing, and industrial applications. Biomanufacturing products are recovered from natural sources, such as blood, or from cultures of microbes, animal cells, or plant cells grown in specialized equipment. The cells used during the production may have been naturally occurring or derived using genetic engineering techniques.

Biomechanics is the study of the structure and function of biological systems such as humans, animals, plants, organs, fungi, and cells by means of the methods of mechanics.

Bioreactor refers to any manufactured or engineered device or system that supports a biologically active environment. In one case, a bioreactor is a vessel in which a chemical process is carried out which involves organisms or biochemically active substances derived from such organisms. This process can either be aerobic or anaerobic. These bioreactors are commonly cylindrical, ranging in size from litres to cubic metres, and are often made of stainless steel.

Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary field that develops methods and software tools for understanding biological data.

Biobus is a mobile science lab biofuel-powered 1974 transit bus with over $100,000 of microscopes) and the BioBase research grade community science lab give 30,000 students annually the chance to feel the excitement of making a scientific discovery.

Bio Fuels

Microcosm are artificial, simplified ecosystems that are used to simulate and predict the behaviour of natural ecosystems under controlled conditions. Open or closed microcosms provide an experimental area for ecologists to study natural ecological processes. Microcosm studies can be very useful to study the effects of disturbance or to determine the ecological role of key species.

Controlled Ecological Life Support System are a self-supporting life support system for space stations and colonies typically through controlled closed ecological systems, such as the BioHome, BIOS-3, Biosphere 2, Mars Desert Research Station, and Yuegong-1.

Biocybernetics is the application of cybernetics to biological science, composed of biological disciplines that benefit from the application of cybernetics including neurology and multicellular systems. Biocybernetics plays a major role in systems biology, seeking to integrate different levels of information to understand how biological systems function. Biocybernetics is an abstract science and is a fundamental part of theoretical biology, based upon the principles of systemics.

Smart Material are designed materials that have one or more properties that can be significantly changed in a controlled fashion by external stimuli, such as stress, temperature, moisture, pH, electric or magnetic fields. Bio-Plastics

Biometrics refers to metrics related to human characteristics. Biometrics authentication (or realistic authentication) is used in computer science as a form of identification and access control. It is also used to identify individuals in groups that are under surveillance.

Soil
Bio-Monitoring
Pesticides


Films about Biology

Doris Kim Sung: BioMetals that Breath (youtube)
Paul Root Wolpe: Questioning Bio-Engineering (video)
Khan Biology (videos)
Playing God (youtube)
Biointeractive (youtube channel)

Biology 4 Kids
Encyclopedia of Life


DIY - Do It Yourself Science

Citizen Science is scientific research conducted, in whole or in part, by anyone, including nonprofessionals or volunteer scientists. Citizen science is sometimes described as "public participation in scientific research," participatory monitoring and participatory action research. (also known as crowd science, crowd-sourced science, civic science, volunteer monitoring, networked science and Learning).

Biohacking activity of exploiting genetic material experimentally, free from standard norms and limited expectations, for either purposes benefitting humankind, or those of a criminal nature. Chemist Tools

Open Science is the movement to make scientific research, data and dissemination accessible to all levels of an inquiring society, amateur or professional. It encompasses practices such as publishing open research, campaigning for open access, encouraging scientists to practice open notebook science, and generally making it easier to publish and communicate scientific knowledge.

Biosecurity is a set of preventive measures designed to reduce the risk of transmission of infectious diseases in crops and livestock, quarantined pests, invasive alien species, and living modified organisms (Koblentz, 2010). The emerging nature of biosecurity threats means that small scale risks blow up rapidly, thus an effective policy becomes a challenge for there are limitations on time and resources available for analyzing threats and estimating the likelihood of their occurrence.

Biosafety Level is a set of biocontainment precautions required to isolate dangerous biological agents in an enclosed laboratory facility. The levels of containment range from the lowest biosafety level 1 (BSL-1) to the highest at level 4 (BSL-4). In the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have specified these levels.

Bioethics is the study of the typically controversial ethical issues emerging from new situations and possibilities brought about by advances in biology and medicine. It is also moral discernment as it relates to medical policy and practice. Bioethicists are concerned with the ethical questions that arise in the relationships among life sciences, biotechnology, medicine, politics, law, and philosophy. It also includes the study of the more commonplace questions of values ("the ethics of the ordinary") which arise in primary care and other branches of medicine. Bioethics

DIY Scientists (drug research)

DIY Biology

SJET is a platform for experimental computation + design and has grown into a multidisciplinary research based practice. SJET crosses disciplines from design, fabrication, computer science to robotics.

Self Assembly Lab is a cross-disciplinary research lab at MIT inventing self-assembly and programmable material technologies aimed at reimagining construction, manufacturing, product assembly and performance.

Open Source Materials
Hackteria
Gaudi Labs

Philosophy of Biology is a subfield of philosophy of science, which deals with epistemological, metaphysical, and ethical issues in the biological and biomedical sciences.

Biological Innovation Society is an international initiative to foster innovation and freedom to operate in the biological sciences.

Biopunk is a subgenre of science fiction that focuses on biotechnology. It is derived from cyberpunk, but focuses on the implications of biotechnology rather than information technology. Biopunk is concerned with synthetic biology. It is derived of cyberpunk involving bio-hackers, biotech mega-corporations, and oppressive government agencies that manipulate human DNA. Most often keeping with the dark atmosphere of cyberpunk, biopunk generally examines the dark side of genetic engineering and represents the low side of biotechnology.

Techno-Progressivism is a stance of active support for the convergence of technological change and social change. Techno-progressives argue that technological developments can be profoundly empowering and emancipatory when they are regulated by legitimate democratic and accountable authorities to ensure that their costs, risks and benefits are all fairly shared by the actual stakeholders to those developments.

Synthetic Biology is the artificial design and engineering of biological systems and living organisms for purposes of improving applications for industry or biological research. Designing and constructing biological modules, biological systems, and biological machines for useful purposes. Combines various disciplines from within these domains, such as biotechnology, evolutionary biology, genetic engineering, molecular biology, molecular engineering, systems biology, biophysics, and computer engineering.
Synthetic Biology
GMO's


Biology Resources
Bio-Couture
Biomedical Search
Salk Institute for Biological Studies
Gen Space
Biotechnology Info
Plos Biology
Biology
Microbiology
Current Biology
Cell
Bio Builder
Biodesic consulting services
Joint Bio-Energy Institute is a research institute funded by the United States Department of Energy.
Mount Desert Island Biological Laboratory (wiki)

Related Subject Pages
Chemistry
Bio-luminescence
Feedback
Bacteria
Microbes
Information Resources
Space Websites
Thermodynamics
Genetics - DNA
Environment
Pesticides
Bio-electro-magnetics
Green Building



Bio-Mimicry


Biomimetics is the imitation of the models, systems, and elements of nature for the purpose of solving complex human problems.

Biotechnology is the use of living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2). Depending on the tools and applications, it often overlaps with the (related) fields of bioengineering, biomedical engineering, biomanufacturing, molecular engineering, etc.

Innovations in Biotechnology
Biomimicry
Bio-Mimicry Institute

Biomaterials is any substance that has been engineered to interact with biological systems for a medical purpose - either a therapeutic (treat, augment, repair or replace a tissue function of the body) or a diagnostic one.

Bio-Based Material is a material intentionally made from substances derived from living (or once-living) organisms.

Metamaterial is a material engineered to have a property that is not found in nature. They are made from assemblies of multiple elements fashioned from composite materials such as metals or plastics. The materials are usually arranged in repeating patterns, at scales that are smaller than the wavelengths of the phenomena they influence. Metamaterials derive their properties not from the properties of the base materials, but from their newly designed structures. Their precise shape, geometry, size, orientation and arrangement gives them their smart properties capable of manipulating electromagnetic waves: by blocking, absorbing, enhancing, or bending waves, to achieve benefits that go beyond what is possible with conventional materials.

Biosynthesis is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms. In biosynthesis, simple compounds are modified, converted into other compounds, or joined together to form macromolecules. This process often consists of metabolic pathways. Some of these biosynthetic pathways are located within a single cellular organelle, while others involve enzymes that are located within multiple cellular organelles. Examples of these biosynthetic pathways include the production of lipid membrane components and nucleotides.

Biocompatibility refers to the ability of a material to perform with an appropriate host response in a specific situation.

Biocompatible Material is any substance that has been engineered to interact with biological systems for a medical purpose - either a therapeutic (treat, augment, repair or replace a tissue function of the body) or a diagnostic one.

Mimicry is a similarity of one organism, usually an animal, to another that has evolved because the resemblance is selectively favoured by the behaviour of a shared signal receiver that can respond to both. Mimicry may evolve between different species, or between individuals of the same species. Often, mimicry evolves to protect a species from predators, making it an antipredator adaptation. The resemblances that evolve in mimicry can be in appearance, behaviour, sound or scent. Mimicry may be to the advantage of both organisms that share a resemblance, in which case it is a mutualism, or mimicry can be to the detriment of one, making it parasitic or competitive.

Lawrence Hall of Science
Transgenesis

Craig Venter is an American biotechnologist, biochemist, geneticist, and entrepreneur. He is known for being one of the first to sequence the human genome.

Nervous System Generative Design Studio
Nano Technologies
Atoms

Living Machines is form of ecological sewage treatment designed to mimic the cleansing functions of wetlands. Similar to Solar Aquatics Systems, the latest generation of the technology is based on fixed-film ecology and the ecological processes of a natural tidal wetland, one of nature’s most productive ecosystems. The diversity of the ecosystem produced with this approach allows operational advantages over earlier generations of Living Machines and over conventional waste water treatment technologies.

Floating wetlands Water Treatment
Living Machines
Living Machine
Todd Ecological
Toilets
Bioaccumulation

Bioadhesive are natural polymeric materials that act as adhesives. The term is sometimes used more loosely to describe a glue formed synthetically from biological monomers such as sugars, or to mean a synthetic material designed to adhere to biological tissue.

Mussel Adhesive Proteins

Strongest Artificial Spider Silk Synthesized with Cellulose from Wood

Green method developed for making artificial spider silk ‘spun’ from a material that is 98% water

Nature's Toughest Substances Decoded. Natural composites of nanoscale arrangements of hard platelets connected by soft matrix materials and arranged in overlapping brick-and-mortar, bouligand or other architectures. Engineers develop computer maps to help design shell-like platelet-matrix composites synthetic multifunctional layered composites.

Bio-Plastics
Bio Fuels
Cold Fusion
Consumer Safety
Green Building

Films about Biomimicry

NatureTech (youtube)
Fiorenzo Omenetto: Silk (youtube)
Angela Belcher Bio Batteries (youtube)
Janine Benyus: Biomimicry in Action (video)
Michael Pawlyn: Using Nature's Genius (video)
Neri Oxman: Design at the intersection of technology and biology (video and text)
Fashion has a Pollution Problem — can Biology fix it? (video and text)

Chitin is a long-chain polymer of an N-acetylglucosamine, a derivative of glucose, and is found in many places throughout the natural world. It is a characteristic component of the cell walls of fungi, the exoskeletons of arthropods such as crustaceans (e.g., crabs, lobsters and shrimps) and insects, the radulae of molluscs, and the beaks and internal shells of cephalopods, including squid and octopuses and on the scales and other soft tissues of fish and lissamphibians. The structure of chitin is comparable to the polysaccharide cellulose, forming crystalline nanofibrils or whiskers. In terms of function, it may be compared to the protein keratin. Chitin has proved versatile for several medicinal, industrial and biotechnological purposes. 

Chitosan is a replacement for plastics that is 100 percent recyclable.

Building Material made from artificial Bone and Eggshell. Emissions caused by air travel are significant, "far more are caused by the production of concrete and steel. Bone is made of roughly half protein and half minerals: the former gives it structural
stiffness and hardness, while the latted gives it toughness and resistance to damage. There's also the bonus that bones are able to heal themselves from light damage.

New kind of local food grows in your own kitchen: VTT’s CellPod is a home appliance that grows the ingredients for a healthy meal within a week from plant cells is no longer science fiction.

A semi-synthetic organism that stores and retrieves increased genetic information

Unnatural amino acid incorporation in E. coli: current and future applications in the design of therapeutic proteins

Living Planet Database 
American Society of Plant Biologists
Sorona
Genetically Modified Bacteria 

Earth may be home to one trillion species. Largest-ever analysis of microbial data reveals an ecological law concluding 99.999 percent of species remain undiscovered. Human Microbes


"Life is a property of an ensemble of units that share information coded in a physical substrate and which, in the presence of noise, manages to keep its Entropy significantly lower than the maximal Entropy of the ensemble, on timescales exceeding the "Natural" timescale of the decay of the (information-bearing) substrate by many orders of magnitude".
C. Adami, Introduction to Artificial Life (1998)

Entropy and Life
Thermodynamics
Size Variations




The Thinker Man