made available by the flow of
. Charge is the quantity of unbalanced electricity
in a body (either positive(+) or negative(-) and construed as an excess or
deficiency of electrons. Voltage
causes electrons to
move in one
"When we learned to
electricity into a
, we realized that our potential is endless."
What is Electricity
is the physical property of
that causes it to
experience a force
when placed in an
. There are two
types of electric charges: positive and negative. Like charges repel and
unlike or opposite charges attract. An object is negatively charged if it has an excess of
, and is otherwise positively charged or uncharged. When
atoms don't have as many electrons as they do protons, they carry a
describes any flow of electric charge through a
gas, liquid or solid. The properties and effects of electric discharges
are useful over a wide range of magnitudes. Electric discharges can convey
to the electrodes at the ends of the discharge.
ability of a body to store
an electrical charge.
of an electrical conductor
measure of the difficulty to pass an electric current
through that conductor.
in which the total number of
is not equal to the total
number of protons, giving the atom or molecule a net positive or negative
electrical charge. Ions can be created, by either
, which is the process by which an atom or a molecule
acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons to
Speed of Electricity
refers generally to the movement of electrons (or
other charge carriers) through a conductor in the presence of potential
and an electric field. The speed of this flow has multiple meanings. In
everyday electrical and electronic devices, the signals or energy travel
typically on the order of 50%–99% of the
speed of light
, while the
electrons themselves move (drift) much more slowly. The speed at which
energy or signals travel down a cable is actually the speed of the
electromagnetic wave, not the movement of
. Electromagnetic wave
propagation is fast and depends on the
of the material. In a vacuum the wave travels at
the speed of light and almost that fast in air. The
Speed of Sound
is 4.689 miles in second., 768 mph or 12.8 miles a minute.
is the science of controlling electrical energy
electrically, in which the electrons have a fundamental role. Electronics
deals with electrical circuits that involve active electrical components
such as vacuum tubes, transistors, diodes, integrated circuits, associated
passive electrical components
, and interconnection technologies. Commonly,
electronic devices contain circuitry consisting primarily or exclusively
of active semiconductors supplemented with passive elements; such a
circuit is described as an electronic circuit
Heat and High Temperatures
relates to the study and manufacture (or
) of very small electronic designs
are electronics that have been
designed to use less
, e.g. notebook processors.
is a means of distributing
alternating-current electrical power. Polyphase systems have three or more
energized electrical conductors carrying alternating currents with a
definite time offset between the voltage waves in each conductor.
Polyphase systems are particularly useful for transmitting power to
electric motors. The most common example is the three-phase power system
used for industrial applications and for power transmission. A major
advantage of three phase power transmission (using three
opposed to a single phase power transmission, which uses two conductors),
is that, since the remaining conductors act as the return path for any
single conductor, the power transmitted by a balanced three phase system
is three times that of a single phase transmission but only one extra
conductor is used. Thus, a 50% / 1.5x increase in the transmission costs
achieves a 200% / 3.0x increase in the power transmitted.
are electronic systems with a continuously variable signal, in contrast to
digital electronics where signals usually take only two levels. The term
"analogue" describes the proportional relationship between a signal and a
voltage or current that represents the signal. The word analogue is
derived from the Greek word ανάλογος (analogos) meaning "proportional".
are electronics that handle
– discrete bands of analog levels – rather than by continuous ranges as
used in analog electronics. All levels within a band of values represent
the same information state. Because of this discretization, relatively
small changes to the analog signal levels due to manufacturing tolerance,
signal attenuation or noise do not leave the discrete envelope, and as a
result are ignored by signal state sensing circuitry
are those circuits or devices built entirely
from solid materials and in which the
, or other charge carriers,
are confined entirely within the solid material. While solid-state can
include crystalline, polycrystalline and amorphous solids and refer to
electrical conductors, insulators and semiconductors, the building
material is most often a crystalline semiconductor. Common solid-state
devices include transistors, microprocessor chips, and RAM. A specialized
type of RAM called flash memory is used in flash drives and, more
recently, solid-state drives to replace mechanically rotating magnetic
disc hard drive.
is a technology for assembling electronic circuits by
mounting electronic devices on flexible plastic substrates, such as
polyimide, PEEK or transparent conductive polyester film. Additionally,
can be screen printed silver circuits
on polyester. Flexible electronic assemblies may be manufactured using
used for rigid printed
circuit boards, allowing the board to conform to a desired shape, or to
flex during its use. An alternative approach to flexible electronics
suggests various etching techniques to thin down the traditional silicon
substrate to few tens of micrometers to gain reasonable flexibility (~ 5
mm bending radius).
Customizable, Fabric-Like Supercapacitor Power source for Wearable
can be folded or stretched without losing its function.
Being highly stretchable, these flexible power sources are promising
next-generation 'fabric' energy storage devices that could be integrated
into wearable electronics.
NUS researchers achieve major breakthrough in flexible electronics
Hard-to-Stretch Silicon becomes Superelastic
. Formless And Hard
Silicon Could Be Grown Into Nanowires, Useful For Future Bendable
Failure Modes of Electronics
are failures that can be caused
by excess temperature, excess current or voltage, ionizing radiation,
mechanical shock, stress or impact, and many other causes. In
semiconductor devices, problems in the device package may cause failures
due to contamination, mechanical stress of the device, or open or short
is the frequency with which an engineered
system or component fails, expressed in failures per unit of time. It is
often denoted by the Greek letter λ (lambda) and is highly used in
(low quality, high waste)
is the process of collecting and analyzing
data to determine the cause of a failure, often with the goal of
determining corrective actions or liability.
is an electrical circuit that allows a current
to travel along an unintended path with no or a very low electrical
impedance. The electrical opposite of a short circuit is an "open
circuit", which is an infinite resistance between two nodes. It is common
to misuse "short circuit" to describe any electrical malfunction,
regardless of the actual problem.
Thermal Management of Electronics
heating and high temperatures)
- Human Energy
(physical power generator)
is Alternating Current,
An electric current that reverses direction sinusoidally
a succession of waves or curves.
Current, An electric current that flows in one direction
is the rate at which
is the basic unit of electric current.
is the flow of electricity through a conductor
Speed of Electricity
is the the rate at which energy is drawn from a source. Voltage
is a unit of power
- Microwatt is one millionth (10-6) of a watt, abbreviated as µW.
is a unit of electrical resistance equal to
the resistance between two points on a
when a potential difference of one volt
between them produces a current of one ampere.
When in doubt, call a professional.
An electrical impulse as small as 14 milliamps is enough to kill a person.
is a tradesperson specializing in electrical
wiring of buildings, stationary machines, and related equipment.
Electricians may be employed in the installation of new electrical
components or the maintenance and repair of existing electrical
infrastructure. Electricians may also specialize in wiring ships,
airplanes, and other mobile platforms, as well as data and cable.
Electrical Safety Inspection Check List
Electrical Safety Inspection List
Safety Check List
is the electrical wiring and associated devices such as
switches, meters and light fittings used in buildings or other structures.
Electrical wiring uses insulated conductors.
(image for reference only, colors may change)
Meanings by Country
Define Electronics Terms
is composed of individual electronic components
such as resistors, transistors, capacitors, inductors and diodes,
connected by conductive wires or traces through which electric current can
flow. The combination of components and wires allows various simple and
complex operations to be performed: signals can be amplified, computations
can be performed, and data can be moved from one place to another.
is arranged in or extending along a
straight or nearly straight lines
. Progressing from one stage to
another in a single series of steps; sequential.
A circuit or
device having an output that is proportional to the input. Measured
is the property of a mathematical relationship or function which means
that it can be graphically represented as a straight line. Examples are
the relationship of voltage and current across a resistor (Ohm's law), or
the mass and weight of an object. Proportionality implies linearity, but
linearity does not imply proportionality.
is a graphical representation of an electrical circuit. A pictorial
circuit diagram uses simple images of components, while a schematic
diagram shows the components and interconnections of the circuit using
standardized symbolic representations. The presentation of the
interconnections between circuit components in the
does not necessarily correspond to the physical
arrangements in the finished device. Unlike a
, a circuit diagram shows the actual electrical connections. A
drawing meant to depict the physical arrangement of the wires and the
components they connect is called artwork or layout, physical design, or
wiring diagram. Circuit diagrams are used for the design (circuit design),
construction (such as PCB layout), and maintenance of electrical and
is an interconnection of electrical
(e.g. batteries, resistors, inductors, capacitors, switches) or a model of
such an interconnection, consisting of electrical elements (e.g. voltage
sources, current sources, resistances, inductances, capacitances).
is a two terminal device which can maintain a fixed voltage.
Topology (electrical circuits)
is what connections exist between the
Series and Parallel Circuits
connected in Series
are connected along a single path, so the same
current flows through all of the components.
Components Connected in Parallel
connected, so the same voltage is applied to each component.
have multiple paths for the current to move along. If an item in
the circuit is broken, current will continue to move along the other
paths, while ignoring the broken one. This type of circuit is used for
most household electrical wiring. For example: when you turn off your TV,
it doesn’t also turn off your lights. Solar
When wiring solar panels in parallel
, the amperage (current) is
additive, but the voltage remains the same. eg. If you had 4 solar panels
in parallel and each was rated at 12 volts and 5 amps, the entire array
would be 12 volts and 20 amps.Series circuits
have only one path
for current to travel along. Therefore, all the current in the circuit
must flow through all the loads. A series circuit is a continuous, closed
loop - breaking the circuit at any point stops the entire series from
operating. An example of a series circuit is a string of old Christmas
lights - if one bulb breaks, the whole string turns off.
When wiring solar panels in a series
, the voltage is additive, but the
amperage remains the same. eg. If you had 4 solar panels in a series and
each was rated at 12 volts and 5 amps, the entire array would be 48 volts
and 5 amps.
Remember: just like batteries, solar panels have a negative
terminal ( - ) and a positive terminal ( + ). Current flows from the
negative terminal through a load (current consumed by a piece of
equipment) to the positive terminal.Human
is any basic discrete device or
physical entity in an electronic system used to affect
associated fields. Component
is an abstract
part of something. Something determined in relation to something that
may be either a component that consumes (but does not produce) energy
), or a component that is incapable of power gain
is a type of low resistance resistor that acts as a
sacrificial device to provide overcurrent protection, of either the load
or source circuit. Its essential component is a metal wire or strip that
melts when too much current flows through it, interrupting the circuit
that it connects. Short circuits, overloading, mismatched loads, or device
failure are the prime reasons for excessive current. Fuses can be used as
alternatives to circuit breakers.
is a two-terminal electronic component that
conducts primarily in one direction (asymmetric conductance); it has low
(ideally zero) resistance to the flow of current in one direction, and
high (ideally infinite) resistance in the other.
is a passive two-terminal electrical component
used to temporarily store electrical energy
is a semiconductor device
switch electronic signals and electrical power
. It is composed of
semiconductor material usually with at least three terminals for
connection to an external circuit
. A voltage or current applied to one
pair of the transistor's terminals changes the current through another
pair of terminals. Because the controlled (output) power can be higher
than the controlling (input) power, a transistor can amplify a signal.
Today, some transistors are packaged individually, but many more are found
embedded in Integrated Circuits
also called the gate voltage, commonly abbreviated as Vth or
VGS (th), of a field-effect transistor (FET) is the minimum gate-to-source
voltage differential that is needed to create a conducting path between
the source and drain terminals. When referring to a
(JFET), the threshold voltage is often called
"pinch-off voltage" instead. This is somewhat confusing since "pinch off"
insulated-gate field-effect transistor
(IGFET) refers to the channel
pinching that leads to current saturation behaviour under high
source–drain bias, even though the current is never off. Unlike "pinch
off", the term "threshold voltage" is unambiguous and refers to the same
concept in any field-effect transistor.
is a passive two-terminal electrical component that
implements electrical resistance as a circuit element. In electronic
, resistors are used to
reduce current flow, adjust signal levels,
to divide voltages
, bias active elements, and terminate transmission
lines, among other uses.
also called a coil or reactor, is a passive
two-terminal electrical component which resists changes in electric
current passing through it. It consists of a conductor such as a wire,
usually wound into a coil. Energy is stored in a magnetic field in the
coil as long as current flows. When the current flowing through an
inductor changes, the time-varying magnetic field induces a voltage in the
conductor, according to Faraday’s law of
is a type of electrical circuit in which two circuit
branches (usually in parallel with each other) are "bridged" by a third
branch connected between the first two branches at some intermediate point
is an electro-mechanical device used to join
electrical terminations and create an electrical circuit. Electrical
connectors consist of plugs (male-ended) and jacks (female-ended). The
connection may be temporary, as for portable equipment, require a tool for
assembly and removal, or serve as a permanent electrical joint between two
wires or devices. An adapter can be used to effectively bring together
is an object whose purpose is to detect events
or changes in its environment
, and then provide a corresponding output. A
is a type of transducer; sensors may provide various types of
output, but typically use electrical or optical signals.
is an object or type of material that allows the flow of an electrical
current in one or more directions. A metal wire is a common electrical
Nanotube Fiber antennas as capable as Copper
. Fibers made of
configured as wireless antennas
can be as good as copper antennas but 20 times lighter.
is a 1,000 more times
conductive then copper.
is the first reported perovskite superconductor
that did not contain copper.
Electrical Resistance and Conductance
of an electrical
conductor is a measure of the difficulty to pass an electric current
through that conductor. The inverse quantity is electrical conductance,
and is the ease with which an electric current passes. Electrical
resistance shares some conceptual parallels with the notion of mechanical
friction. The SI unit of electrical resistance is the ohm (Ω), while
electrical conductance is measured in siemens (S).
is the measure of the opposition that a circuit
presents to a current when a voltage is applied. The term complex
impedance may be used interchangeably. Impedance is the effective
resistance of an electric circuit or component to alternating current,
arising from the combined effects of ohmic resistance and reactance.
, when only a small amount of current is allowed
or surge impedance (usually written Z0) of a
uniform transmission line is the ratio of the amplitudes of voltage and
current of a single wave propagating along the line; that is, a wave
travelling in one direction in the absence of reflections in the other
direction. Characteristic impedance is determined by the geometry and
materials of the transmission line and, for a uniform line, is not
dependent on its length. The SI unit of characteristic impedance is the
refers to the approximate designed impedance of an
electrical circuit or device.
is an association of two or
more molecules, or of different parts of one large molecule, in which a
fraction of electronic charge is transferred between the molecular
entities. The resulting electrostatic attraction provides a stabilizing
force for the molecular complex. The source molecule from which the charge
is transferred is called the electron donor and the receiving species is
called the electron acceptor.
is a phenomenon of exactly
and expulsion of
magnetic flux fields
occurring in certain
materials when cooled below a characteristic critical
is a synthetic organic compound
that exhibits superconductivity at low
is characterized by the
formation of magnetic vortices in an applied
. The vortex
density increases with increasing field strength.
Bringing a hidden Superconducting state to Light
. High-power light
reveals the existence of superconductivity associated with charge
'stripes' in the copper-oxygen planes of a layered material above the
temperature at which it begins to transmit electricity without resistance.
is the expulsion of a
superconductor during its transition to the superconducting state.
is used in various superconducting materials. These
superconducting alloys, also containing titanium and tin, are widely used
in the superconducting magnets of MRI scanners. Other applications of
niobium include welding, nuclear industries, electronics, optics,
numismatics, and jewelry. In the last two applications, the low toxicity
and iridescence produced by anodization are highly desired properties is a
with symbol Nb (formerly Cb) and atomic number 41. It is
a soft, grey, ductile transition metal, often found in the minerals
pyrochlore and columbite.
Room Temperature Superconductor
is a hypothetical material that would be capable of exhibiting
superconductivity at operating temperatures above 0° C (273.15 K). While
this is not strictly "room temperature", which would be approximately
20–25 °C, it is the temperature at which ice forms and can be reached and
easily maintained in an everyday environment.
are materials that behave as
superconductors at unusually high temperatures. Whereas "ordinary" or
metallic superconductors usually have transition temperatures
(temperatures below which they are superconductive) below 30 K (−243.2
°C), and must be cooled using liquid helium in order to achieve
superconductivity, HTS have been observed with transition temperatures as
high as 138 K (−135 °C), and can be cooled to superconductivity using
crystalline or amorphous solids with distinct electrical characteristics.
They are of high resistance — higher than typical resistance materials,
but still of much lower resistance than insulators. Their resistance
decreases as their temperature increases, which is behavior opposite to
that of a metal. Integrated
is a material whose internal electric charges do
not flow freely, and therefore make it nearly impossible to conduct an
electric current under the influence of an electric field.
is the number of constituent particles,
usually atoms or molecules, that are contained in the amount of substance
given by one
which is the unit of measurement in the International System of Units (SI)
for amount of substance. It is defined as the amount of a chemical
substance that contains as many elementary entities, e.g., atoms,
molecules, ions, electrons, or photons, as there are atoms in 12 grams of
carbon-12 (12C), the isotope of carbon with relative atomic mass 12 by
definition. This number is expressed by the Avogadro constant, which has a
value of 6.022140857(74)×1023 mol-1. The mole is one of the base units of
the SI, and has the unit symbol mol.
is designed to automatically
maintain a constant voltage level. A voltage regulator may be a simple
"feed-forward" design or may include negative feedback control loops. It
may use an electromechanical mechanism, or electronic components.
Depending on the design, it may be used to regulate one or more AC or DC voltages.
is a unit of energy equal to approximately 1.6×10−19
joules (symbol J). By definition, it is the amount of
gained (or lost) by the
charge of a single electron moving across an electric potential difference
of one volt. 1 volt (1 joule per coulomb, 1 J/C) multiplied by the
elementary charge (e, or 1.6021766208(98)×10−19 C). Therefore, one
electronvolt is equal to 1.6021766208(98)×10−19 J. Historically, the
electronvolt was devised as a standard unit of measure through its
usefulness in electrostatic particle accelerator sciences, because a
particle with charge q has an energy E = qV after passing through the
potential V; if q is quoted in integer units of the elementary charge and
the terminal bias in volts, one gets an energy in eV.
is not a SI unit, and its definition is empirical (unlike the litre, the
light-year and other such non-SI units), where its value in SI units must
be obtained experimentally.
is a branch of physics that deals with study of the electric charges at
rest. Since classical physics, it has been known that some materials such
as amber attract lightweight particles after rubbing. Electrostatic
phenomena arise from the forces that electric charges exert on each other.
Such forces are described by
. Even though electrostatically induced forces seem to be
rather weak, some electrostatic forces such as the one between an electron
and a proton, that together make up a hydrogen atom, is about 36 orders of
magnitude stronger than the gravitational force acting between them.
There are many examples of electrostatic phenomena, from those as simple
as the attraction of the plastic wrap to your hand after you remove it
from a package to the apparently spontaneous explosion of grain silos, the
damage of electronic components during manufacturing, and photocopier &
laser printer operation. Electrostatics involves the buildup of charge on
the surface of objects due to contact with other surfaces. Although charge
exchange happens whenever any two surfaces contact and separate, the
effects of charge exchange are usually only noticed when at least one of
the surfaces has a high resistance to electrical flow. This is because the
charges that transfer are trapped there for a time long enough for their
effects to be observed. These charges then remain on the object until they
either bleed off to ground or are quickly neutralized by a discharge:
e.g., the familiar phenomenon of a static 'shock' is caused by the
neutralization of charge built up in the body from contact with insulated
is an electric field is a force field that surrounds
that attracts or repels other electric charges.
Mathematically the electric field is a vector field that associates to
each point in space the force, called the Coulomb force, that would be
experienced per unit of charge, by an infinitesimal test charge at that
point. The units of the electric field in the SI system are newtons per
coulomb (N/C), or volts per meter (V/m). Electric fields are created by
electric charges, and by time-varying magnetic fields. Electric fields are
important in many areas of physics, and are exploited practically in
electrical technology. On a microscopic scale, the electric field is
responsible for the attractive force between the
that holds atoms together, and the forces between atoms that cause
electric field and the magnetic field together form the
of the four fundamental forces of nature. Kinetic Energy
Static Electricity. Why does rubbing a balloon on your hair make it stick?
is the sudden flow of electricity between two
electrically charged objects caused by contact, an electrical short, or
dielectric breakdown. A buildup of static electricity can be caused by
electrostatic induction. The ESD occurs when differently-charged objects
are brought close together or when the dielectric between them breaks
down, often creating a visible spark. ESD can create spectacular electric
sparks (lightning, with the accompanying sound of thunder, is a
large-scale ESD event), but also less dramatic forms which may be neither
seen nor heard, yet still be large enough to cause
damage to sensitive
. Electric sparks require a field strength above
approximately 40 kV/cm in air, as notably occurs in lightning strikes.
Other forms of ESD include corona discharge from sharp electrodes and
brush discharge from blunt electrodes. ESD can cause a range of harmful
effects of importance in industry, including gas, fuel vapour and coal
dust explosions, as well as failure of solid state electronics components
such as integrated circuits. These can suffer permanent damage when
subjected to high voltages. Electronics manufacturers therefore establish
electrostatic protective areas free of static, using measures to prevent
charging, such as avoiding highly charging materials and measures to
remove static such as grounding human workers, providing antistatic
devices, and controlling humidity. ESD simulators may be used to test
electronic devices, for example with a human body model or a charged
is any device that reduces, dampens, or otherwise inhibits
electrostatic discharge; the buildup or discharge of static electricity,
which can damage electrical components such as computer hard drives, and
even ignite flammable liquids and gases.
is a bag used for storing electronic components, which are prone to damage
caused by electrostatic discharge (ESD).
Videos about Electricity
Bacteria connect to form wires
Splice Wires Manly-Man Skills: The Lineman Splice
is an electronic device which, with the aid of
an antenna, produces radio
. The transmitter itself generates a radio frequency alternating
current, which is applied to the antenna. When excited by this alternating
current, the antenna radiates radio waves.
is an electrical device which converts electric power
into radio waves, and vice versa. It is usually used with a radio
transmitter or radio receiver. In transmission, a radio transmitter
supplies an electric current to the antenna's terminals, and the antenna
radiates the energy from the current as electromagnetic waves (radio
waves). In reception, an antenna intercepts some of the power of an
electromagnetic wave in order to produce an electric current at its
terminals, that is applied to a receiver to be amplified.
is a subsystem that receives radio frequency (RF)
transmissions like radio broadcasts and converts the selected carrier
frequency and its associated bandwidth into a fixed frequency that is
suitable for further processing, usually because a lower frequency is used
on the output.
is an electronic device that receives radio
waves and converts the information carried by them to a usable form. It is
used with an antenna. The antenna intercepts radio waves (electromagnetic
) and converts them to tiny alternating currents which are
applied to the receiver, and the receiver extracts the desired
information. The receiver uses electronic filters to separate the desired
radio frequency signal from all the other signals picked up by the
antenna, an electronic amplifier to increase the power of the signal for
further processing, and finally recovers the desired information through
Waves different from Sound Waves
require a material
medium to be transmitted through and travel at the
Speed of Sound
, which is 343 meters per second (1,125 ft/s; 1,235
km/h; 767 mph
; 667 kn), or a kilometre in
2.91 seconds or a mile in 4.69 seconds. Electromagnetic waves do not
require a medium in order to be transmitted and they also travel much
faster than sound at the Speed of
, which is 3.0 * 108 meters per second (299,792,458 meters per
second) or 186,000 miles per second or about 671
million miles per hour
, in a
This speed and
distance of a Electromagnetic wave decreases when passing through a
medium. How far sound travels depends on the decibel level and the
medium it travels through. Sound
is deviation of the attenuation affecting a signal
over certain propagation media. The fading may vary with time,
geographical position or radio frequency, and is often modeled as a random
is a measure used in science and
engineering that compares the level of a desired signal to the level of
background noise. It is defined as the ratio of signal power to the
, often expressed in decibels. A ratio higher than 1:1 (greater than
0 dB) indicates more signal than noise. While SNR is commonly quoted for
electrical signals, it can be applied to any form of signal (such as
isotope levels in an ice core or biochemical signaling between
decomposes a function of time (a signal) into the
that make it up, in a way similar to how a musical chord can
be expressed as the amplitude (or loudness) of its constituent notes. The
Fourier transform of a function of time itself is a complex-valued
function of frequency, whose absolute value represents the amount of that
frequency present in the original function, and whose complex argument is
the phase offset of the basic sinusoid in that frequency.
are sound waves with frequencies higher than the
upper audible limit of human hearing. Ultrasound is no different from
'normal' (audible) sound in its physical properties, except in that humans
cannot hear it. This limit varies from person to person and is
approximately 20 kilohertz (20,000 hertz) in healthy, young adults.
Ultrasound devices operate with frequencies from 20 kHz up to several
Wave or Particle?
is the number
of occurrences of a
per unit Time
. It is also referred to as temporal frequency, which
emphasizes the contrast to spatial frequency and angular frequency. The
period is the duration of time of one cycle in a repeating event, so the
period is the reciprocal of the frequency. For example, if a newborn
baby's heart beats at a frequency of 120 times a minute, its period—the
time interval between beats—is half a second (that is, 60 seconds divided
by 120 beats). Frequency is an important parameter used in science and
engineering to specify the Rate
of oscillatory and vibratory phenomena,
such as mechanical vibrations, audio (Sound
is the ITU designation for radio frequencies (RF) in the
range of 3 kHz to 30 kHz and corresponding wavelengths from 100 to 10
method for multiplying the capacity of a radio link using multiple
transmit and receive antennas to exploit multipath propagation. At one
time, in wireless
the term "MIMO" referred to the use of multiple antennas
at the transmitter and the receiver. In modern usage, "MIMO" specifically
refers to a practical technique for sending and receiving more than one
data signal simultaneously over the same radio channel by exploiting
multipath propagation. MIMO is fundamentally different from smart antenna
techniques developed to enhance the performance of a single data signal,
is a set of multiple connected antennas which work
together as a single antenna, to transmit or receive radio waves.
is a group of
deployed in a certain geometry pattern, used for collecting and processing
electromagnetic or acoustic signals. The advantage of using a sensor array
over using a single sensor lies in the fact that an
dimensions to the observation, helping to estimate more parameters and
improve the estimation performance.
refers to a short period of delay (usually measured in
milliseconds) between when an audio
enters and when
it emerges from a system. Potential contributors to latency in an audio
system include analog-to-digital conversion, buffering, digital signal
processing, transmission time,
conversion and the
in the transmission medium. Latency can be a critical performance
metric in professional audio including sound reinforcement systems, foldback systems, especially those using in-ear monitors, live
television. Excessive audio latency has the potential to degrade call
quality in telecommunications
applications. Low latency audio in computers
is important for interactivity.
is a time interval between the stimulation and
response, or, from a more general point of view, a time delay between the
of some physical change in the system being observed.
Latency is physically a consequence of the limited velocity with which any
physical interaction can propagate. The magnitude of this velocity is
always less than or equal to the
speed of light.
Therefore, every physical system will experience some
sort of latency, regardless of the nature of stimulation that it has been
exposed to. The precise definition of latency depends on the system being
observed and the nature of stimulation. In
the lower limit of latency is determined by the medium being used for
communications. In reliable two-way communication systems, latency limits
the maximum rate that information can be transmitted, as there is often a
limit on the amount of information that is "in-flight" at any one moment.
In the field of human–machine interaction, perceptible latency has a
strong effect on user satisfaction and usability.
of an electromagnetic wave is the ratio of the transverse components of
the electric and magnetic fields (the transverse components being those at
right angles to the direction of propagation). For a
transverse-electric-magnetic (TEM) plane wave traveling through a
homogeneous medium, the wave impedance is everywhere equal to the
intrinsic impedance of the medium. In particular, for a plane wave
travelling through empty space, the wave impedance is equal to the
impedance of free space
. The symbol Z is used to represent it and it
is expressed in units of ohms. The symbol η (eta) may be used instead of Z
for wave impedance to avoid confusion with electrical
Extremely High Frequency
International Telecommunication Union
(ITU) designation for the band
of radio frequencies in the electromagnetic spectrum from 30 to 300
gigahertz (GHz). It lies between the super high frequency band, and the
far infrared band which is also referred to as the terahertz gap.
in this band have wavelengths from ten to one millimetre, giving it
the name millimetre band or millimetre wave
sometimes abbreviated MMW or mmW.
Super High Frequency
is the ITU designation for radio frequencies (RF)
in the range between 3 and 30 gigahertz (GHz). This band of frequencies is
also known as the centimetre band or centimetre wave as the wavelengths
range from one to ten centimetres.
Physicists Generate Terahertz Waves with Spin Current Flow
waves are often used in the checking of passengers and luggage at the
airport. Terahertz (THz) waves lie in the electromagnetic spectrum between
microwaves and infrared radiation
Since they are low in energy, there is no need for be concerned with their
impact on human
- Alpha Theta Beta
is the unit of frequency in the
(SI) and is defined as one cycle per
As an SI unit,
Hz can be prefixed; commonly used multiples are
(kilohertz, 10 to 3p Hz), MHz
(megahertz, 10 to 6p Hz), GHz
10 to 9p Hz) and THz
, 10 to 12power
Hz).Cycle Per Second
or CPS was a once-common English name for the unit of
frequency now known as the hertz.
is a mathematical curve that describes a smooth
repetitive oscillation. It is named after the function sine, of which it
is the graph. It occurs often in pure and applied mathematics, as well as
physics, engineering, signal processing and many other fields.
of a sinusoidal wave is the spatial period of the wave—the
distance over which the wave's shape repeats, and thus the inverse of the
is defined as the lowest frequency of
a periodic waveform. In music, the fundamental is the
note that is perceived as the lowest partial present.
is the process of varying one or more properties
of a periodic waveform, called the carrier signal, with a modulating
signal that typically contains information to be transmitted.
is the position of a point in time (an instant) on a
waveform cycle. A complete cycle is defined as the interval required for
the waveform to return to its arbitrary initial value. The graph to the
right shows how one cycle constitutes 360° of phase. The graph also shows
how phase is sometimes expressed in radians, where one radian of phase
equals approximately 57.3°.' Phase can also be an expression of relative
displacement between two corresponding features (for example, peaks or
zero crossings) of two waveforms having the same frequency. In sinusoidal
functions or in waves, "phase" has two different, but closely related,
meanings. One is the initial angle of a sinusoidal function at its origin
and is sometimes called phase offset or phase difference. Another usage is
the fraction of the wave cycle that has elapsed relative to the origin.
is a modulation pattern that encodes information as
variations in the instantaneous phase of a carrier wave. The phase of a
carrier signal is modulated to follow the changing voltage level
(amplitude) of modulation signal. The peak amplitude and frequency of the
carrier signal remain constant, but as the amplitude of the information
signal changes, the phase of the carrier changes correspondingly. The
analysis and the final result (modulated signal) are similar to those of
frequency modulation. Phase modulation is widely used for transmitting
radio waves and is an integral part of many digital transmission coding
schemes that underlie a wide range of technologies like Wi-Fi, GSM and
satellite television. Phase modulation is closely related to frequency
modulation (FM); it is often used as an intermediate step to achieve FM.
Mathematically both phase and frequency modulation can be considered a
special case of quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM). PM is used for
signal and waveform generation in digital synthesizers, such as the Yamaha
DX7 to implement FM synthesis. A related type of sound synthesis called
phase distortion is used in the Casio CZ synthesizers.
is a mechanical phenomenon whereby oscillations occur about an equilibrium
point. The word comes from Latin vibrationem ("shaking, brandishing"). The
oscillations may be periodic, such as the motion of a pendulum—or random,
such as the movement of a tire on a gravel road.
Vibrations: The Science of Sound
Music for Plants
Life of Plants
An oscillation of the parts of a fluid or an elastic solid whose
equilibrium has been disturbed, or of an
person's emotional state, the atmosphere of a place, or the
associations of an object, as communicated to and felt by
others. A distinctive emotional aura experienced instinctively.
(physics) a regular periodic variation in value about a mean.
is the process of oscillating between states. A single complete execution of a periodically repeated
the repetitive variation, typically in time, of some measure about a
central value (often a point of equilibrium) or between two or more
different states. The term vibration is precisely used to describe
mechanical oscillation. Familiar examples of oscillation include a
swinging pendulum and alternating current power.
phenomenon in which a vibrating system or external force drives another
system to oscillate with greater amplitude at a specific preferential
is an interval during which a recurring sequence of events occurs.
Recur in repeating sequences.
A periodically repeated sequence of events. Cause to go through
a recurring sequence.
The unit of frequency; one hertz has a periodic interval of one
second. A single complete execution of a periodically repeated
Electronics Testing Equipment
is an electronic device that supplies
electric energy to an electrical load. The primary function of a power
supply is to convert one form of electrical energy to another and, as a
result, power supplies are sometimes referred to as electric power
is a type of
electronic test instrument
that allows observation of constantly varying signal voltages, usually as
a two-dimensional plot of one or more signals as a function of time. Other
signals (such as sound or vibration) can be converted to voltages and
is an electronic measuring instrument that
combines several measurement functions in one unit. A typical multimeter
can measure voltage, current, and resistance. Analog multimeters use a
microammeter with a moving pointer to display readings. Digital
multimeters (DMM, DVOM) have a numeric display, and may also show a
graphical bar representing the measured value. Digital multimeters are now
far more common due to their cost and precision, but analog multimeters
are still preferable in some cases, for example when monitoring a rapidly
is a device that converts one form of energy to another
. Usually a
transducer converts a signal in one form of energy to a signal in another.
Transducers are often employed at the boundaries of automation,
measurement, and control systems, where electrical signals are converted
to and from other physical quantities (energy, force, torque, light,
motion, position, etc.). The process of converting one form of energy to
another is known as transduction.
Electronic Test Equipment
is used to create signals and capture
responses from electronic devices under test (DUTs). In this way, the
proper operation of the DUT can be proven or faults in the device can be
traced. Use of electronic test equipment is essential to any serious work
on electronics systems. Practical electronics engineering and assembly
requires the use of many different kinds of electronic test equipment
ranging from the very simple and inexpensive (such as a test light
consisting of just a light bulb and a test lead) to extremely complex and
sophisticated such as automatic test equipment (ATE). ATE often includes
many of these instruments in real and simulated forms. Generally, more
advanced test gear is necessary when developing circuits and systems than
is needed when doing production testing or when troubleshooting existing
production units in the field.
device which allows electronic test equipment to
measure Radio Frequency
(RF) signal in an electronic circuit.
Science Tools and Equipment
Amprobe AT-7030 Advanced Wire Tracer Kit
Traces wires in
walls, ceilings, floors and corners.
Locates breakers and fuses, Pinpoints shorts and opens.
was a Serbian-American inventor, electrical
engineer, mechanical engineer, physicist, and futurist who is best known
for his contributions to the design of the modern alternating current (AC)
electricity supply system. (10 July 1856 – 7 January 1943).
Build a Tesla Coil
Tesla TechNikola Tesla
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states that the current induced in a circuit due to a
change or a motion in a magnetic field is so directed as
to oppose the
change in flux and to exert a mechanical force opposing the motion.
Faraday's Law of Induction
is a basic law of
predicting how a magnetic field
will interact with an electric circuit to
produce an electromotive force (EMF)—a phenomenon called electromagnetic
induction. It is the fundamental
operating principle of transformers,
inductors, and many types of electrical motors, generators and solenoids.
is a type of alternating current (AC)
uses the principles of induction motors to produce power. Induction
generators operate by mechanically turning their rotors faster than
Elliptical Electric Rotor
is a moving component of an electromagnetic system in the
electric motor, electric
, or alternator. Its rotation is due to the interaction
between the windings and magnetic fields which produces a torque around
the rotor's axis.
Rotating Magnetic Field
is a magnetic field that has moving polarities
in which its opposite poles rotate about a central point or axis. Ideally
the rotation changes direction at a constant angular rate. This is a key
principle in the operation of the alternating-current motor. Rotating
magnetic fields are often utilized for electromechanical applications such
as induction motors and electric generators. However, they are also used
in purely electrical applications such as induction regulators.
is the opposition of a circuit element to a
change in current or voltage, due to that element's inductance or
capacitance. A built-up electric field resists the change of voltage on
the element, while a magnetic field
resists the change of current. The
notion of reactance is similar to electrical resistance, but it differs in
GAP Power Magnetic
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John Christie Magnetic Generator – How To Generate 7 Kilowatts For Free
Using A Christie Generator
. Magnetism can be converted into rotary
motion and then electricity is the result of
zero point technology
Searl Effect Generator
The Searl Effect,
Free Energy Generator - Documentary
(youtube - 28mins.)
DiskLaw of Squares
chemical element with symbol Nd and atomic number 60. A yellow trivalent
metallic element of the rare earth group; occurs in monazite and
bastnasite in association with cerium and lanthanum and praseodymium.
Neodymium is classed as a rare earth, it is a fairly common element, no
rarer than cobalt, nickel, and copper, and is widely distributed in the
Earth's crust. Most of the world's commercial neodymium is mined in China.
Another important use of neodymium is as a component in the alloys used to
—powerful permanent magnets. Neodymium is a metal is
ferromagnetic. Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 22, 8, 2.
electric current flows through a coil, it produces electromagnetic waves
that propagate in all directions. When the coil is placed inside a
cylinder it reflects the waves.
| Permanent Magnet Technology
The AZ-PM thruster is the
latest in a range of Rolls-Royce propulsion products using its
permanent magnet technology
This technology is based on electric drive where the motor is in the form
of a ring round the propeller. The moving part of the ring is a rim around
the propeller blades which carries a series of strong permanent magnets.
The rotor, fitted within a series of magnets, turns within an outer ring
which form the stator. When current is supplied to the motor from the
variable frequency power supply the electromagnets are excited in a
particular sequence and the resulting magnetic fields interact with the
field from the rotor magnets creating a torque that turns the rotor and
its propeller blades. At the centre of the thruster the propeller blades
are joined to a hub, which has two functions; to carry the bearings taking
propeller thrust and provide radial location of the rotor, and to improve
the hydro-dynamic efficiency of the thruster. Loads are transferred to the
stator through struts. Both rotor and stator are sealed against water
ingress and operate fully submerged. Rolls-Royce PM technology is
flexible, and is currently applied in this integrated propeller drive form
to tunnel thrusters (TT-PM) and azimuth thrusters (AZ-PM). Other versions
in which the PM rotor is arranged to turn an output shaft provide a high
torque, low speed, drive for winches. Among the advantages of this PM
thruster technology are high efficiency (at nominal speed) over the entire
speed range, leading to low thermal losses and eliminating the need for
separate cooling systems of the submerged motor. Thrusters are compact and
robust, and require less space within the hull. They are simple, with far
fewer components than geared thrusters and are also quieter, with reduced
structure and airborne noise.
Learn more about Permanent Magnet Thrusters
is a configuration of marine propellers placed in
pods that can be rotated to any horizontal angle (azimuth), making a
rudder unnecessary. These give ships better maneuverability than a fixed
propeller and rudder system.
Magnet Electric Generator
Zero Point Energy
is the lowest possible
energy that a
physical system may have; it is the energy of its ground state.
Race to Zero Point
is a method of measuring a civilization's level of
on the amount of energy a civilization is able to use for
. The scale has
three designated categories:Type I
—also called a planetary civilization—can use and store
all of the energy which reaches its planet from its parent star. Type I
technological level of a civilization can harness all the
that falls on a planet from
its parent star
system, this value is close to 7x1017 watts), which is more than five
orders of magnitude higher than the amount presently attained on earth
(0.72), with energy consumption at ≈4×1019 erg/sec (4 × 1012 watts). The
astronomer Guillermo A. Lemarchand stated this as a level near
contemporary terrestrial civilization with an energy capability equivalent
to the solar insolation on Earth, between 1016 and 1017 watts.
Type II civilization
—also called a stellar
civilization—can harness the total energy of its planet's parent star (the
most popular hypothetical concept being the Dyson sphere—a device which
would encompass the entire star and transfer its energy to the planet(s)).
Type III civilization
—also called a
galactic civilization—can control energy on the scale of its entire host
galaxy. The scale is hypothetical, and regards energy consumption on a
cosmic scale. It was proposed in 1964 by the Soviet astronomer Nikolai
Kardashev. Various extensions of the scale have since been proposed,
including a wider range of power levels (types 0, IV and V) and the use of
metrics other than pure power.
(1.4 volts /
- Quantized Energy
Resonant Inductive Coupling
is the phenomenon that the coupling is
enhanced when the secondary side of the loosely coupled coil resonates.
The most basic resonant inductive coupling consists of one drive coil on
the primary side and one resonance circuit on the secondary side.
Zero Point Batteries
Battery that Never
Runs Out! The Mysteries of Zero Point Energy
A "Forever" Energy
Cell From the Zero Point
Quotas Principle Pre Celestial Energy - Double Quantum Dot Resonance.
Virtual Particles in Electromagnetism
How to Build
Crystal Power Cells - Long Duration Power
Mind over Matter, because