that are written or imprinted on a
surface to represent the sounds or
or express by writing.
The activity of putting something in written form. The work of a
; anything expressed in letters of the
, especially when considered from the point of view of
style and effect. Word
Left Handed Writing Motion Gif
Good handwriting is having
and paying attention to
how you write each individual letter, while at the same time, you have to
know which letter comes next to form the word that you are writing. So
writing combines focus and planning
, a type of multitasking
. First you have to know what you are
writing, then you have to know what words and symbols you need to write in
order to communicate
your message, then you need to focus on writing each
letter as you are recalling the next letter so as to keep a steady flow of
is writing created by a person with a writing utensil such as a pen or
pencil. Handwriting includes both printing and cursive styles and is
separate from formal calligraphy or typeface. Because each person's
handwriting is unique, it can be used to verify a document's writer.
Writing Skills Test
Handwriting Help for Kids
knowledge of conventions writing skills
is a medium of human communication that represents
through the inscription or
of signs and
symbols. In most languages, writing is a complement to speech or spoken
language. Writing is not a language but a form of technology that
developed as tools developed with human society. Within a language system,
writing relies on many of the same structures as speech, such as
vocabulary, grammar and semantics, with the added dependency of a system
of signs or symbols. The result of writing is generally called text, and
the recipient of text is called a reader. Motivations for writing include
publication, storytelling, correspondence and diary. Writing has been
instrumental in keeping history, maintaining culture, dissemination of
knowledge through the media and the formation of legal systems.
is any writing that goes outside the bounds
of normal professional, journalistic, academic, or technical forms of
literature, typically identified by an emphasis on narrative craft,
character development, and the use of literary tropes or with various
traditions of poetry and poetics. Due to the looseness of the definition,
it is possible for writing such as feature stories to be considered
creative writing, even though they fall under journalism, because the
content of features is specifically focused on narrative and character
development. Both fictional and non-fictional works fall into this
category, including such forms as novels, biographies, short stories, and
poems. In the academic setting, creative writing is typically separated
into fiction and poetry classes, with a focus on writing in an original
style, as opposed to imitating pre-existing genres such as crime or
horror. Writing for the screen and stage—screenwriting and playwrighting—are
often taught separately, but fit under the creative writing category as
is any conventional method of visually representing
verbal communication. While both writing and speech are useful in
conveying messages, writing differs in also being a reliable form of
List of Languages by Writing System
is any style of penmanship in which some
are written joined together in a flowing manner
, generally for the purpose
of making writing faster. Formal cursive is generally joined, but casual
cursive is a combination of joins and pen lifts. The writing style can be
further divided as "looped", "italic", or "connected".
is a cursive font based on a stylized form of calligraphic
handwriting. Owing to the influence from calligraphy, italics normally
slant slightly to the right
. Italics are a
way to emphasise key points in a printed text, or when quoting a speaker a
way to show which words they stressed. One manual of English usage
described italics as "the print equivalent of underlining.
refers to an obsessive impulse to write. When
used in a specifically psychiatric context, it labels a morbid mental
condition which results in writing rambling and confused statements, often
degenerating into a meaningless succession of words or even nonsense and
called then graphorrhea (cf. hypergraphia). The term 'graphomania' has
been used in early 19th century by Esquirol and later by Eugen Bleuler,
becoming more or less usual Graphomania is near condition to
typomania - obsessiveness with seeing one's name in publication or with
writing for being published, excessive symbolism or typology.
is an abbreviated symbolic writing method that increases speed
and brevity of writing as compared to longhand, a more common method of
writing a language.
is the technique of writing with the hand
using a writing instrument. Today, this is most commonly done with a pen,
or pencil, but throughout history has included many different implements.
The various generic and formal historical styles of writing are called
"hands" whilst an individual's style of penmanship is referred to as
is a visual art related to writing. It
is the design and execution of lettering with a broad tip instrument,
brush, among other writing instruments. A contemporary calligraphic
practice can be defined as, "the art of giving form to signs in an
expressive, harmonious, and skillful manner".
A fast hand writer can write 250 words
in 15 Minutes on average.
Japanese children learn to write through Rhythm
Air writing helps children remember letter formation
, which is a
motion-oriented "memory," and which is an entirely different (and
separate) memory than the visual memories of letter shapes. Air writing
also helps to strengthen the arm and shoulder muscles in preparation for
handwriting. This is important because weak muscles lead to bad habits in
UCL Computer Scientists have developed Software Computer Programme that
"My Text in Your Handwriting" programme,
semi-automatically examines a sample of a person’s handwriting, which can
be as little as one paragraph, and then generates new text saying whatever
the user wishes, as if the author had handwritten it themselves.
is the analysis of the physical characteristics and patterns of
handwriting purporting to be able to identify the writer, indicating
psychological state at the time of writing, or evaluating personality
characteristics. It is generally considered a pseudoscience. The term is
sometimes incorrectly used to refer to forensic document examination.
is a term for a forensic science
discipline pertaining to documents that are potentially disputed in a
court of law. Its primary purpose is to provide evidence about a
suspicious or questionable document using scientific processes and
methods. Evidence might include alterations, the chain of possession,
damage to the document, forgery, origin, authenticity, or other questions
that come up when a document is challenged in court.
is the art and technique of arranging
type to make written language legible, readable
, and appealing when
displayed. The arrangement of type involves selecting typefaces, point
sizes, line lengths, line-spacing (leading), and letter-spacing
(tracking), and adjusting the space between pairs of letters (kerning
The term typography is also applied to the style, arrangement, and
appearance of the letters, numbers, and
created by the process.
Type design is a closely related craft, sometimes considered part of
typography; most typographers do not design typefaces, and some type
designers do not consider themselves typographers. Typography also may be
used as a decorative device, unrelated to communication of information.
particular size, weight and style of a
Each font was a matched set of type, one piece (called a "sort") for each
, and a typeface consisting of a range of fonts that shared an
your own Fonts
International Typographic Style
is a graphic design style that emerged
in Russia, the Netherlands and Germany in the 1920s, and was made famous
as it was developed by designers in Switzerland during the 1950s.
is the process of writing or inputting text by
pressing keys on a typewriter, computer keyboard, cell phone, or
calculator. It can be distinguished from other means of text input, such
as handwriting and speech recognition. Text can be in the form of letters,
numbers and other symbols.
Words Per Minute
is a measure of words processed in a
minute, often used as a measurement of typing speed or reading speed.
types usually in
of 50 to 80
Stenotype Shorthand Machine
is a specialized chorded
keyboard or typewriter used by stenographers for shorthand use.Speed Reading
is the act of composing and sending electronic messages,
typically consisting of alphabetic and numeric characters, between two or
more users of mobile phones, fixed devices (e.g., desktop computers) or
portable devices (e.g., tablet computers or smartphones).
Software used for Writing
is an electronic device or computer software
application, that performs the task of composing, editing, formatting, and
printing of documents.
Scrivener word processing program
Tips to become a Good Writer
"Either write things that are worth reading, or do things that are worth writing about,
and if you do both, you can't go wrong."
The person who does not write things that are insightful
and educational has no advantage over a person who can't write
This is not saying that you should not read and
write for fun, or, this is not saying that knowing how to read
and write has no advantages, because it does, It's just saying
that Balance and Purpose should be of highest priority.
- Preparing to Write
gathering stage of writing,
classifying things into groups, a visual web that represents
associations among ideas.
is the first stage of the writing process, a combination of outlining,
diagramming, storyboarding, clustering,
typically followed by drafting, revision, editing and publishing.
Writing First Draft
How to Prepare
a First Draft
is a list arranged to show hierarchical relationships and is a type of
tree structure. It is used to present the main points or topics of a given
subject, often used as a draft or summary of the content of a document.
is a brief summary of a
thesis, review, conference proceeding or any in-depth analysis of a
particular subject and is often used to help the reader quickly ascertain
the paper's purpose.
is a graphic organizer in the form of illustrations or images displayed in
sequence for the purpose of pre-visualizing a motion picture, animation,
motion graphic or interactive media sequence.
Rule Set of Wikipedia
- Plain Language Clear and Concise –
But Not Simplistic.
10 Writing Tips
reader's attention with a good
, sometimes first impressions matter. Know your
readers. Make a title that answers a particular question a user might
Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC)
Stay within your
and be original. Try to focus on a single thought or
issue. Don't forget something
personal and always
a little of yourself. Show the end result at the start of the
article to let users know that they are reading the right
is not necessary
Think about a
or a particular
that you might want
to explore, but try
to write what you know.
Cover the basics first; leave the optional or advanced
scenarios for the latter part of the article.
- Style Guide
- Writing Modes
How to Write a Short Story
with your words but not too fancy, make it simple and
to the point. The reader shouldn't
have to guess what
. If your writing is to advanced it may distract
someone from fully understanding your message. Not to say that
writing is bad, there is a time and place for
everything. You reach a larger audience with easy to understand
writing. Sometimes dividing long sentences into shorter ones can
be more effective. A paragraph should support a single idea.
Try to reframe 90% of
the passive voice
. Use a Thesaurus
to find the right words.
Try to be unique, informative, direct, simple and
brief. Prefer a vigorous, lucid or
to the romantic.
that strike their object.
familiar word, and the concrete or
, to the
Avoid superfluous redundant or
unnecessary empty words.
informative and educational with the latest information
available on your subject.
Try to limit your
and try to
clichés. Make it exciting to read. It's not just what you say,
but how you say it. make it clear and easy to follow.
Add links to articles that are connected to the topic to
provide some extra information for the users.
Technical Writing Style
explain what you are seeing to the reader. Give a Point of view
and explain the
setting and any characters involved.
Be specific to detail.
- (Inflectional Ending)
Human Interest Story
Situation vs Complication
Use images that are
eye-catching and relevant.
But remember..."A picture could never be more worthy then a
thousand words, but it's nice to have both."
Read your work aloud and proof read it. Have someone else
for correct Spelling
. Journalism Tools
is 12 it would take around 22.2 pages to print 10,000 words.
is the horizontal space
between sentences in typeset text.
is the way in which a rectangular page is
. The two most common types of orientation are portrait
and landscape. The specific word definition comes from the fact that a
close-up portrait of a person's face and upper body is more fitting for a
canvas or photo where the height of the display area is greater than the
width, and is more common for the pages of books. Landscape originally
described artistic outdoor scenes where a wide view area is needed, but
the upper part of the painting would be mostly sky and so is omitted.
is the ease with which a reader can recognize
individual characters in text.
is the ease with which a reader can understand a
written text. In natural language, the readability of text depends on its
content (the complexity of its vocabulary and syntax) and its presentation
(such as typographic aspects like font size, line height, and line
length). Researchers have used various factors to measure readability,
such as Speed of perception, Perceptibility at a distance, Perceptibility
in peripheral vision, Visibility, Reflex blink technique, Rate of work
(reading speed), Eye movements, Fatigue in reading. Readability is more
than simply legibility—which is a measure of how easily a reader can
distinguish individual letters or characters from each other. Higher
readability eases reading effort and speed for any reader, but it is
especially important for those who do not have high reading comprehension.
In readers with average or poor reading comprehension, raising the
readability level of a text from mediocre to good can make the difference
between success and failure of its communication goals. Readability exists
in both natural language and programming languages, albeit in different
forms. In programming, things such as programmer comments, choice of loop
structure, and choice of names can determine the ease with which humans
can read computer program code.
is to determine what the relevant
writing standards are.
set of standards for the writing and design of documents, either for
general use or for a specific publication, organization, or field.
List of Style Guides
is a standard way that information is encoded
for storage in a computer file.
To become a better writer you
should always Read More. Reading
preparing each message: Plan,
1) Draft the message with the readers in mind.
Send clear, concise messages that are
brief, succinct, and organized.
Give the message a concise title and use subheadings where
Use simple words and short, clear, sentences and paragraphs.
Back up opinions with facts.
Avoid “flowery” language, euphemisms, and trite expressions
that's free of jargon.
Summarize main points at the end and let the reader know what he
must do next.
is a prewriting technique in which a person writes continuously for a set
period of time without regard to spelling, grammar, or topic. It produces
raw, often unusable material, but helps writers overcome blocks of apathy
and self-criticism. It is used mainly by prose writers and writing
teachers. Some writers use the technique to collect initial thoughts and
ideas on a topic, often as a preliminary to formal writing. Free writing
is not the same as automatic writing.
was a person who could read and write or wrote letters to court and legal
The average writer who's doing
research for a story
, will spend at least 3 weeks
on the average around 100 people, either in person or talking
with them over the telephone. They will request information and
facts from various sources from around the world, like press
releases, technical papers and so on. From that they will create 100's of pages of hand written notes of 20,000 words or more.
Then they will meticulously go through all the acquired
information to retrieve the most important parts. Then they will
spend about a week writing and rewriting the story till it
becomes something to be published.
, and words give meaning to context. In order to say
what you mean you have to know a lot of words and all the
definitions that apply to those words. So
valuable, but not as valuable as knowing how to use words to
Elementary-school kids who hand-wrote their work produced more
words and more ideas
who typed. College students who typed notes on a laptop
remembered less about a lecture than those who wrote by hand.
People remember lectures better when they’ve taken handwritten
notes, rather than typed ones. But that is a problem with
, and not a problem with
technology. A computer laptop is by far a more superior tool
then a pencil and paper. So don't blame the laptop for you bad
memory or your lack of creativity. Technology enhances and
accelerates learning, if it doesn't, then that has something to
do with you and not technology. Verbatim
"I try not to influence writers on what they should write about,
only that they care about what they are writing.
Try not so much to devise a piece of writing, try to realize a
piece of writing, a piece of writing that has to be written. If
you feel that you will be wasting time writing about something,
then you should not write it. Don't write because you are a good
writer, write because you need to write something good."
"Writing has therapeutic benefits. The process of documenting
your thoughts can free your mind."
How Many Pages should my Novel be?
Publishers go by words, not pages. Most adult
are about 90,000 words, and no longer than 100,000 words
(unless you’re JK Rowling). Teen books are about 55,000 words.
A Book will usually have 250-300 words per page
Therefore, a 55,000 word book should be about 200 manuscript pages. A
100,000 word book would be about 400. Editors like 12 point font.
80,000 – 89,999: Totally cool.
90,000 – 99,999: Generally safe.
70,000 – 79,999: Might be too short;
probably all right.
100,000 – 109,999: Might be too long; probably all
Below 70,000: Too short.
110,000 or above Too long.
The optimum length for an email is 50 to 125 words.
(abbreviated tl;dr and tldr) is a shorthand notation added by an
editor indicating a passage appeared to be too long to invest
the time to digest.
Too Long; Didn't Read
is a branch of journalism dedicated to longer articles with
larger amounts of content. Typically this will
be between 1,000 and
20,000 words. Long-form articles often take the form of creative
nonfiction or narrative journalism.
the number of words in a document or passage of text. Word counting may be
needed when a text is required
to stay within certain numbers of
Bulk Webpage Word Count Checker
Website Word Count
That is why a computer based article is better then a printed
. Because you can shorten an article by using links. If
the person needs more information then all they have to do is
follow the link. So articles can be shorter and more manageable
without sacrificing other relevant knowledge and information.
Short is not always sweet. But some writers love empty words and
writing vague commentary without considering the readers need
for quickly understanding the message. And an overlong
composition may seem long, but it may not be, because not
everyone can accurately calculate whether extra words were
actually necessary. I don't mind investing the time needed
reading a good article, but please, don't waste my time with
your dribble or overlong prose and over-verbose writing. Just
the facts, and please have a point, a point worth mentioning. To
be clear enough sometimes depends on the reader and not just the
writer. But digital technology solves this problem. That is why
printed material is now inadequate in most cases. Technology
accelerates learning if we use correctly. It's like reading a
book, you don't have to read the whole book in one sitting, you
can read some now and then read some later. To say something was
to long to read, is to say that I will never have the time
or the motivation to read more of what I have already read. And
the reasoning behind that decision not read more has other
contributing factors, like the experience with previous
knowledge and information, which may have nothing to do with the
style or the length of someone's writing. So even when you think
you covered all the different angles and possible scenarios,
there is always going to be one more thing that you never
thought of. Learning is awesome!
the manner of expressing thought in language characteristic of an
individual, period, school, or nation. Beyond the essential elements of
spelling, grammar, and punctuation, writing style is the choice of words,
sentence structure, and paragraph structure, used to convey the meaning
effectively. The former are referred to as rules, elements, essentials,
mechanics, or handbook; the latter are referred to as style, or rhetoric.
The rules are about what a writer does; style is about how the writer does
it. While following the rules drawn from established English usage, a
writer has great flexibility in how to express a concept. The point of
good writing style is to express the message to the reader simply,
clearly, and convincingly; keep the reader attentive, engaged, and
interested;not to display the writer’s personality; demonstrate the
writer’s skills, knowledge, or abilities; although these are usually
evident and are what experts consider the writer’s individual style.
a set of standards
for the writing and design of
, either for general use or for a
specific publication, organization, or field. (It is often called a style
sheet, though that term has other meanings.) A style guide establishes and
enforces style to improve communication. To do that, it ensures
consistency within a document and across multiple documents and enforces
best practice in usage and in language composition, visual composition,
orthography and typography. For academic and technical documents, a guide
may also enforce the best practice in ethics (such as authorship, research
ethics, and disclosure), pedagogy (such as exposition and clarity), and
compliance (technical and regulatory). Style guides are common for general
and specialized use, for the general reading and writing audience, and for
students and scholars of various academic disciplines, medicine,
journalism, the law, government, business, and specific industries.
The Elements of Style
is a prescriptive American English
writing style guide in numerous editions.
Write Like You Talk
Talk Like You Write
Daily Writing Tips
The Right Margin
Smart Writing App
Facebook Language Style Guides
Research Papers Handbook
Resources for Writers
Journalism Tools and Resources
Internet Searching Tips
Research Paper Writing
is a reference work that lists words grouped
together according to similarity of meaning
(containing synonyms and sometimes antonyms), in contrast to a dictionary,
which provides definitions for words, and generally lists them in
alphabetical order. The main purpose of such reference works is to help
the user "to find the word, or words, by which [an] idea may be most fitly
and aptly expressed".
the Right Words
is a system of words used to name things in a
particular discipline. A system of names or terms, or the rules for
forming these terms in a particular field of arts or sciences.
Nomenclature is the system of assignment of names given to organic
compounds. The principles of naming vary from the relatively informal
conventions of everyday speech to the internationally agreed principles,
rules and recommendations that govern the formation and use of the
specialist terms used in scientific and other disciplines.
is the vocabulary
of a person, language, or branch of knowledge (such as nautical or
medical). In linguistics, a lexicon is a language's inventory of lexemes.
Heretical Notions and Wretched Adages compiled by Jack Tourette
Community for Writers of all Interests and Skill Levels
Relevance Theory Online Bibliography
Resources for Writers
Professional Writing Services
Society of Magazine Editors
Books on Successful Writing
Online Writing Evaluation Service
Featured Topic Criteria
Author Central M-Quills Writing Tips
The Ultimate Guide to Writing better than you normally do
Check which famous
writer you write like with this statistical analysis tool
- Creative Writing
You Should Write
My Script Font
VDA Writing Curriculum
The VDA Writing
Curriculum - Part 1 of 8
Life QuotesEducation Quotes
Writing Quotes and Sayings
I have never lived so passionately as when I am writing passionately about living. (Michael J. Budnicki)
"Either write things that are worth reading or do things that are worth
writing about, and if you do both you can't go wrong"
The World is a book, and those
who do not travel read only a page. (Saint Augustine)
A writer writes not because he is educated but because he is driven by the need to communicate. (Leo Rosten
The art of communicating thoughts
to the mind, through the eye is the great invention of the
"Try not to think about things that you're not willing to
write about. This is not to say that you should write about
everything that comes to mind, because something's cannot, and
should not, be shared in writing. Mostly because something's
cannot be fully understood enough. So if you feel the need to
write something down, that might be considered crazy or hard to
understand, do it privately so that it will give you some time
to understand and process these particular thoughts that you
"You never quite know what exact
arrangement of words that people will understand, the intended
meaning is not always a guarantee" (Howard Polley)
Writing about your personal
experiences is liberating. It also gives you a chance to better
understand yourself by being able to
what you have
written later on. Writing about a moment in time that you have
experienced, through your own perspective, is saving a memory.
It's also creating a hard copy of a memory that will act like a
back up in case your personal
or leaves out
important details, for what ever reason. If you like what you
have written, then you should share it, like sharing a memory.
We all hope that we will be able to take our memories with us
when we die
, but just incase, we should write some of our memories
down because they might be beneficial to others, pretty much the
same way that
you benefited from the memories of other people in
your life, people who were thoughtful enough to share what they
have learned with you.
Pass the Baton
I love writing, even
though I might not agree with everything that I write later on.
That's why I love the digital world. I don't waste paper and I
didn't print any books. I can just delete it or
Correcting is all about survival. The more I learn, the more my
understanding increases in size, so I have to update what I have
written. Some of what you see on this website is just the
others have gone through a few revisions. How an idea comes to
mind and the path it took is important. There are other paths
that led to the same idea. I got here because I was thinking of
this, but I also got here because I was thinking of that. Two
different paths leading to the same place.
"I don't own the words
or did I
create the words, I just assemble the words. Sometimes
uniquely, other times just a little differently."
The most important thing is to write down the words before you
forget them. And it's always a good idea to have
a place to put
, a place that will make it easy for you to find and
remember the things that are important. So having some kind of a
has always been a very useful tool and
skill to have.
Some of the things that I have I
learned about writing is that the more you write the more you
learn. And one of the things that you learn when you write is
that you learn to write better. And when you learn to write
better you learn even more. So it’s safe to say,
if you never
stop writing about what you have learned, about yourself and the
world, you will never stop learning.
Even though I’m not a
writer, I myself look at writing as an incredible gift. At times
writing can be so exhilarating to me that it’s better then any
drug that I have ever done. But there were so many times in my
life that I wished I had the words for those particular moments,
but of course I didn’t.
It was always much later and too late. But as I found the words,
I realized that all is not lost. I can still say those words and
share them by writing them down. For I am certain that those
moments in my life will surely repeat themselves in other
peoples lives, if not my own. So just maybe, someone would be
lucky enough to remember what I have written, and not have to
walk away from a very important moment, saying, “I wished that I
had the right words to say”. To me that is the greatest gift a
writer could ever give. (Howard Polley)
How do I know what I mean until
I see what I say?"
"There's a big difference between
what you want to say and what you eventually do say.
Remember what you were thinking and share it."
"Writing is like a form of
, you need to slow your thinking down and
"I don't write to impress people,
I don't write to insult people, I don't write to manipulate
people, I write to communicate
t of my thoughts. Just like millions of people have
done before me. I am an accumulation of thoughts that have been
passed down for thousands of years. And it seems that we are
just beginning to think, because we have never had so much
knowledge and information before, it's almost God like."
"It's very easy to look stupid
while you are actually planning something incredible. There's
genius under the chaos. But I wouldn't say that I'm doing it my
way, I'm just doing it the way it happens, which seems to be
When it’s all said and done, will
you have said more than you’ve done?
Plain Language Clear and Concise – But Not Simplistic.
Writing plain language can help avoid misinterpretation. This
reduces time and cost in translation. Because plain language is easier to
understand, it also reduces discussion during drafting
. Using plain
language does not mean reducing the length of your message, changing its
meaning or oversimplifying your text.
to use plain language.
Be clear to yourself about your main message
– try reading it to yourself out loud. Put yourself in the place of the
reader. Keep your sentences short. Have one idea per sentence. Leave out
words you don’t need. Use lists when you can. Use the active voice when
you can. Be concise, use short, simple words and avoid turning verbs into
nouns. Punctuate your writing carefully. Use more full stops, fewer
commas and brackets. Phrase your points positively. Use everyday language
whenever possible and reduce jargon
. Plain language is particularly important in the Scope. Use the same term
for the same concept everywhere. Don’t use
List of Style
is a set of standards for the writing and design of documents,
either for general use or for a specific publication, organization or
field. The implementation of a style guide
provides uniformity in style
and formatting within a document and across multiple documents. A set of
standards for a specific organization is often known as "house style".
Style guides are common for general and specialized use, for the general
reading and writing audience, and for students and scholars of various
academic disciplines, medicine, journalism, the law, government, business,
is communication your audience can understand the first
time they read or hear it. Language that is plain to one set of readers
may not be plain to others. Written material is in plain language if your
audience can: Find what they need; Understand what they find; and Use what
they find to meet their needs. There are many writing techniques that can
help you achieve this goal. Among the most common are: Logical
organization with the reader in mind. "You" and other pronouns.
. Short sentences. Common, everyday words. Easy-to-read design
features. No one technique defines plain language. Rather, plain language
is defined by results—it is easy to read, understand, and use.
Center for Plain Language
Information Management Plain Language
Plain Language Act
- PUBLIC LAW 111–274—OCT. 13, 2010
124 STAT. 2861
To enhance citizen access to Government information and services by
establishing that Government documents issued to the public must be
written clearly, and for other purposes
US Government Publishing
Office of Personnel Management
is grammatically correct and universally understood language
that includes complete sentence structure and accurate word usage. Plain
language is not unprofessional writing or a method of "dumbing down" or
"talking down" to the reader. Writing that is clear and to the point helps
improve all communication as it takes less time to read and comprehend.
Clear writing tells the reader exactly what the reader needs to know
without using unnecessary words or expressions. Communicating clearly is
its own reward as it saves time and money. It also improves reader
response to messages. Using plain language avoids creating barriers that
set us apart from the people with whom we are communicating.
Tips for Using Plain Language
qualities characterize plain language. These include common, everyday
words, except for necessary technical terms. Other qualities include the
use of personal pronouns; the active voice; logical organization; and
easy-to-read and understandable design features, such as bullets and
Engage Your Readers. First, consider who your readers are.
Consider what your readers need to know and want to know. Organize content
to answer their questions. Write at a reading level that is appropriate to
your intended audience.2.
Write Clearly. Use common, everyday words
Word Choices: Use common, everyday words but avoid
slang. Use personal pronouns such as "you." Use "must" instead of "shall."
Avoid using undefined technical terms. Use positive rather than negative
words. Avoid using gender-specific terminology. Avoid long strings of
nouns. Verb Forms: Use active voice. Use action verbs. Use the present
tense whenever you can. Structure: Use parallel construction. Be
direct. Avoid unnecessary exceptions.3.
Display Material Correctly.
Appearance is an important aspect of clear communication. If a document is
pleasing to the eye, it will be more likely to attract your readers'
attention. Appearance can also be an aid to readers, improving
comprehension and retention. Organization. Strong, logical
organization includes an introduction followed by short sentences and paragraphs. Organize
messages to respond to your readers' interests and concerns.
Introduction. In lengthier documents, use an introduction and a table of
contents to help readers understand how a document is organized.
Short Sentences and Paragraphs. Sentence length should average 15-20
words. Sentences that are simple, active, affirmative, and declarative
hold readers' interest. Generally, each paragraph should contain only
one topic. You may wish to use a series of paragraphs if you need to
express complex or highly technical information. The more writing deviates
from a clear and to-the-point structure, the harder it will be for
readers to understand what you are trying to convey. Layout. Layout
includes margins, headings, and white space. Provide white space between
sections to break up text and to make it easier for readers to
understand. Use headings to guide readers; the question-and-answer
format is especially helpful. Try to anticipate your readers'
questions and pose them as a reader would. Use adequate margins.
Tables. Tables make complex information readily understandable. They can
help readers see relationships more easily, and they may require fewer
words than straight text. Typography. Typography relates to fonts and
typographical elements used for emphasis, such as bullets or italics.
Limit the number of fonts you use. It is usually best to stick to one
font for headings and another for text. Use typographical elements
consistently throughout your document – and avoid overusing any one
Evaluate Your Document. To ensure that you are
communicating clearly, evaluate the document or, better yet, have
another person read it and offer suggestions for clarification. Look over
the document for: Word choice, verb forms, and structure;
Correct spelling, grammar, and punctuation; Inclusion of appropriate
devices, such as dating, page numbering, and consistency; Visual
appeal; Consistency and effectiveness of layout and typographical
devices; and Line breaks that inadvertently separate part of a name or
date in a way that reduces clarity.
Language Writing Standards
is writing designed to ensure the reader understands as quickly, easily,
and completely as possible. Plain language strives to be easy to
read, understand, and use. It avoids verbose, convoluted language and
jargon. In many countries, laws mandate that public agencies use plain
language to increase access to programs and services. The United Nations
Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities includes plain
language as one of the "modes, means and formats of communication".
is a type of
technical writing used by lawyers
, judges, legislators, and others in law
to express legal analysis and legal rights and duties. Legal writing
in practice is used to advocate for or to express the resolution of a
client's legal matter.
is a style of communication that uses easy to understand, plain language
with an emphasis on clarity, brevity, and avoidance of overly complex
vocabulary. It is commonly used in relation to official government or
business communication. The goal is to write or speak in a way that is
easily understood by the target audience. It is clear and straightforward,
concise, free of clichés and needless technical jargon, and
appropriate to the audience's developmental or educational level and
their familiarity with the topic.
is the ease
with which a reader can understand a written text. In natural
language, the readability of text depends on its content (the complexity
of its vocabulary and syntax) and its
typographic aspects like font size, line height, and line length).
Researchers have used various factors to measure readability, such as Speed of perception, Perceptibility at a distance, Perceptibility
in peripheral vision
, Visibility, Reflex blink technique, Rate of
work (reading speed), Eye movements Fatigue in reading.
Readability is more than simply legibility—which is a measure of how
easily a reader can distinguish individual letters or characters from
each other. Higher readability eases reading effort and speed for
any reader, but it is especially important for those who do not have
high reading Comprehension
. In readers with average or poor reading
comprehension, raising the readability level of a text from mediocre to
good can make the difference between success and failure of its
communication goals. Readability exists in both natural language
and programming languages, albeit in different forms. In programming,
things such as programmer comments, choice of loop structure, and
choice of names can determine the ease with which humans can read computer
is any written form of writing or drafting
a variety of technical and occupational fields, such as computer
hardware and software, engineering, chemistry, aeronautics, robotics,
finance, consumer electronics, and biotechnology. It encompasses the
largest sub-field within technical communication. The Society for
Technical Communication defines technical communication as any form of
communication that exhibits one or more of the following
characteristics: "(1) communicating about technical or specialized
topics, such as computer applications, medical procedures, or
environmental regulations; (2) communicating through technology, such
as web pages, help files, or social media sites; or (3) providing
instructions about how to do something, regardless of the task's technical
is a professional writer who produces technical documentation that helps
people understand and use a product or service. This documentation
includes online help, manuals (system, end-user, training), white papers,
design specifications, project plans, test plans, business correspondence,
etc. With the rise of e-learning, technical writers are also charged with
creating online training for their audience of learners. Technical writers
explain technologies, processes, and products in many formats, including
print, online, and other electronic means.
Technical Writing Style
is writing for reward or as a
or it is any form of written communication produced in a workplace
environment or context. Works produced with the professional writing style
allow professionals (e.g. employers, lawyers, businesspeople, etc.) to
make informed decisions. Professional writing involves the use of
precise language to convey information in a way
that is easily understood by its intended audience
, and it may be
directed to inform, persuade, instruct, stimulate debate, or encourage
action. For example, in a business office, a memorandum (abbrev. memo) can
be used to provide a solution to a problem, make a suggestion, or convey
is the creation of documents using page layout skills on a
personal computer primarily for print. Desktop publishing software can
generate layouts and produce typographic quality
text and images comparable to traditional typography and printing. This
technology allows individuals, businesses, and other organizations to
self-publish a wide range of printed matter. Desktop publishing is also
the main reference for digital typography. When used skillfully, desktop
publishing allows the user to produce a wide variety of materials, from
menus to magazines and books, without the expense of
is a linguistic process of phonemic orthography (correct writing) with the
necessary letters and diacritics present in a comprehensible order,
usually with some degree of standardization; it is "the conventions which
determine how the graphemes of a writing system are used to write a
language". In another words it is interpretation of
into writing (grapheme). Spelling is one of the elements of orthography,
and highly standardized spelling is a prescriptive element.
is an application program that flags
words in a document that may not be spelled correctly. Spell checkers may
be stand-alone, capable of operating on a block of text, or as part of a
larger application, such as a word processor
, email client, electronic
dictionary, or search engine.
Learning Games for Kids
Learn to Spell
Teaching 8 Spelling Patterns
Fuller wins spelling bee in Tulsa
Editing and Spell Checking
Spelling Bee Championship
Spelling Bees Practice
How to Spell
is a mistake made in the typing process (such as a
spelling mistake) of printed material. Historically, this referred to
mistakes in manual type-setting (typography). The term includes errors due
to mechanical failure or slips of the hand or finger, but excludes errors
of ignorance, such as spelling errors. Before the arrival of printing, the
"copyist's mistake" or "scribal error" was the equivalent for manuscripts.
Most typos involve simple duplication, omission, transposition, or
substitution of a small number of characters. (often shortened to typo,
also called misprint).
"One of my problems with hand
writing is that I'm not thinking about what I'm writing because
my brain is thinking faster then I can write it down. So I find
myself scribbling a lot, but it's not that bad as long as I can
deceiver it later and rewrite it."
"I focus more on my thoughts then penmanship, so what
ever works for you I guess."
I'm sometimes more focused on what I'm trying to say then I
am about the spelling of words
. That is why writers have
and editors. This way writers can focus more on what
they're trying to say and not have to focus on irrelevant
things, like the spelling of words. I would rather
when writing about things that are important then write about
things that are irrelevant but spelled perfectly, who cares.
Besides, if you know that a word is misspelled you must know
what the word is? So nothing is lost.
"So the problem is not my spelling, the problem is that you're
too easily distracted by things that don't matter, which is no
"It's much more important to communicate effectively then it is to
always spell words correctly. Spelling
is an irrelevant detail.
Am I becoming a better speller, yes. But it is still not a high
priority, as you can still see."
Sometimes I can't stop to think about the spelling of a word
because that would cause me to change focus. And when thoughts
are flying by at lighting speed, if you look away just for a
second you sometimes miss key information pertaining to that
thought, like how the thought was generated? What was going to
be learned from that thought? Do more questions need to be
answered about that thought? And some thoughts immediately
create associations, so analyzing begins
immediately, which also needs to be documented.
Can I get a Spell Check?
Missing Letter Effect
refers to the finding that, when
people are asked to consciously detect target letters while reading text,
they miss more letters in frequent, function words (e.g. the letter "h" in
"the") than in less frequent, content words. The missing letter effect has
also been referred to as the reverse word superiority effect, since it
describes a phenomenon where letters in more frequent words fail to be
identified, instead of letter identification benefitting from increased
word frequency. The effect is usually measured using a paper-and-pencil
procedure, where readers are asked to circle a target letter every time
they come across it while reading a short passage. The missing letter
effect is more likely to appear when reading words that are part of a
normal sequence, than when words are embedded in a mixed-up sequence (e.g.
readers asked to read backwards).
demonstrates that readers can understand the meaning of
words in a sentence even when the interior letters of each word are
scrambled. As long as all the necessary letters are present, and the first
and last letters remain the same, readers appear to have little trouble
reading the text. Spatial
"Aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it deosn't mttaer in waht
oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoatnt tihng is
taht the frist and lsat ltteers be at the rghit pclae. The rset
can be a toatl mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit porbelm.
Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by
istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe."
Synapses in the brain mirror the structure of the visual world
our brain might be so good at perceiving edges and contours. Neurons that
respond to different parts of elongated edges are connected and thus
exchange information. This can make it easier for the brain to identify
contours of objects. Individual visual stimuli are not processed
independently by our brain. Rather neurons exchange incoming information
to form a coherent perceptual image from the myriad of visual details
impinging on our eyes. How our visual perception arises from these
interactions is still unclear. This is partly due to the fact that we
know relatively little about the rules that determine which
neurons in the brain are connected to each other, and what information
they exchange. The visual cortex, the largest part of the human brain, is
responsible for analyzing information from the eyes and enables us to
perceive the visual world. Different neurons in this brain area react to
components of the visual scene at specific positions in our
is a mechanical or electromechanical
machine for writing characters similar to those produced by printer's
movable type. A typewriter operates by means of keys that strike a ribbon
to transmit ink or carbon impressions onto paper. Typically, a single
character is printed on each key press. The machine prints characters by
making ink impressions of type elements similar to the sorts used in
movable type letterpress printing. At the end of the nineteenth century,
the term typewriter was also applied to a person who used a typing
is a typewriter-style device which uses an arrangement
of buttons or keys to act as a mechanical lever or electronic switch.
Following the decline of punch cards and paper tape, interaction via
teleprinter-style keyboards became the main input device for computers.
Instead of just having the computer
fix the misspelled word, first try to correct the
misspelled word yourself, eventually this will help you
will become a better speller.
I'm thinking faster then I can write my thoughts down,
so I don't always have time to check my spelling. I
don't want my writing to slow down my thinking, because
some thoughts are so new and unique that if I pause for
just a moment I may forget the idea that I was trying to
record and document. It's like trying to remember the
details of a dream that you just had when sleeping, the
longer you wait to recall the details of that dream the
more details you will lose and forget.
"The two most important things about writing and
reading are comprehension and relevance. Just being a
good speller does not confirm good reading comprehension
or does it confirm that you are reading and writing
things that are important or relevant.
Make sure that kids understand what they are reading and
writing, and make sure that they are reading and writing
things that are important and relevant to them, things
that will increase their understanding of themselves and
the world around them."
are better the
because pencils are made of things found naturally in our
environment, and they are also renewable and they breakdown in
landfills. Most pencils are made from
, which is made out of carbon. But you can buy pens
that are more eco-friendly.
Pens and Pencils
is the set of structural rules governing the
composition of clauses, phrases, and
in any given natural
The term refers also to the study of such rules, and this field includes
morphology, syntax, and phonology, often complemented by
semantics, and pragmatics.
is the theory of the genetic
component of the language faculty, usually credited to Noam Chomsky. The
basic postulate of UG is that language is
into the brain. It is sometimes known as "mental grammar",
and stands opposed to other "grammars", e.g. prescriptive, descriptive and
pedagogical. The theory suggests that linguistic ability becomes manifest
without being taught
, and that
there are properties that all natural human languages share. It is a
matter of observation and experimentation to determine precisely what
abilities are innate and what properties are shared by all languages.
is, in the study of
, part of the theory
of generative grammar, especially of naturally evolved languages, that
considers grammar to be a system of rules that generate exactly those
combinations of words which form grammatical sentences in a given
language. TG involves the use of defined operations called transformations
to produce new sentences from existing ones. The concept was originated by
Noam Chomsky, and much current research in transformational grammar has
been inspired by Chomsky's Minimalist Program.
is the grammatical arrangement
orderly arrangement. Studies of the
for forming admissible sentences.
is a shortened version of the written and spoken
forms of a word, syllable, or word group, created by omission of internal
letters and sounds. (You're from you are using the apostrophe '
.) In linguistic analysis, contractions should not be
(including initialisms), with which they share
some semantic and phonetic functions, though all three are connoted by the
term "abbreviation" in loose parlance. Contraction is also distinguished
from clipping, where beginnings and endings are omitted.
is the ease with which a reader can recognize individual characters in
text. "The legibility of a typeface is related to the characteristics
inherent in its design … which relate to the ability to distinguish one
letter from the other." Aspects of type design that affect legibility
include "x-height, character shapes, stroke contrast, the size of its
counters, serifs or lack thereof, and weight." Legibility is different
from readability. Readability is the ease with which a reader can
recognize words, sentences, and paragraphs. Legibility is a component of
readability. Other typographic factors that affect readability include
font choice, point size, kerning, tracking, line length, leading, and
groups a number of models of
grammar that all subscribe to the idea that knowledge of a language is
based on a collection of "form and function pairings". The "function" side
covers what is commonly understood as meaning, content, or intent; it
usually extends over both conventional fields of semantics and pragmatics.
is any syntactic string of
words ranging from sentences over phrasal structures to certain complex
lexemes, such as phrasal verbs. Grammatical constructions form the primary
unit of study in construction grammar theories. In construction grammar,
cognitive grammar, and cognitive linguistics, a grammatical construction
is a syntactic template that is paired with conventionalized semantic and
pragmatic content. In these disciplines, constructions are given a more
semiotic character[vague]. In generative frameworks, constructions are
generally argued to be void of content and derived by the general
syntactic rules of the language in question.
is a system of rules that generates exactly those combinations
of words that form grammatical
sentences in a given language.
is a balance within one or more
of similar phrases or clauses that have
the same grammatical structure. The application of parallelism affects
readability and may make texts easier to process. Parallelism may be
accompanied by other figures of speech
Endocentric and Exocentric
a distinction is made between
endocentric and exocentric constructions. A grammatical construction (e.g.
a phrase or compound word) is said to be endocentric if it fulfills the
same linguistic function as one of its parts, and exocentric if it does
not. The distinction reaches back at least to Bloomfield's work of the
1930s. Such a distinction is possible only in phrase structure grammars
(constituency grammars), since in dependency grammars all constructions
are necessarily endocentric.
is a specific form of noun-class
system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system
with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles,
pronouns, or verbs. This system is used in approximately one quarter of
the world's languages. In these languages, most or all nouns inherently
carry one value of the grammatical category called gender; the values
present in a given language (of which there are usually two or three) are
called the genders of that language. According to one definition: "Genders
are classes of nouns reflected in the behaviour of associated words."
is a Guide to Grammar and Writing.
is a string of
of a language
. A textual unit consisting of one or more words that
are grammatically linked. In functional linguistics, a sentence is a unit
of written texts delimited by graphological features such as upper case
letters and markers such as periods, question marks, and
are sentences expressing factual
implications, or hypothetical situations and their consequences. They are
so called because the validity of the main clause of the sentence is
conditional on the existence of certain circumstances, which may be
expressed in a dependent clause or may be understood from the
has one or more dependent clauses
(also called subordinate clauses). Since a dependent clause cannot stand
on its own as a sentence, complex sentences must also have at least one
independent clause. A sentence with two or more independent clauses plus
one or more dependent clauses is called compound-complex or
is a clause that provides a sentence element with additional information,
but which cannot stand alone as a sentence. A dependent clause can either
modify an adjacent clause or serve as a component of an independent
clause. Some grammarians use the term subordinate clause as a synonym for
dependent clause. Others use subordinate clause to refer only to adverbial
dependent clauses. The different types of dependent clauses include
content clauses (noun clauses), relative
(adjectival) clauses, and
adverbial clauses. Generalizing
is a clause that can stand by itself as a simple sentence. An
independent clause contains a subject and a predicate and makes sense by
itself. Independent clauses can be joined by using a semicolon or by using
a comma followed by a coordinating conjunction (and, but, for, or, nor,
so, yet, etc.). Examples of independent clause: I have enough money to buy
an ice cream cone. I have enough money to buy an ice cream cone; my
favorite flavor is chocolate. I have enough money to buy an ice cream
cone, so, let's go to the shop.
is a subordinate clause that provides content implied or commented upon by
its main clause.
is a kind of subordinate clause that contains an element whose
interpretation is provided by an antecedent on which the subordinate
clause is grammatically dependent; that is, there is an anaphora relation
between the relativized element in the relative clause and the antecedent
on which it depends.
phrase which has a noun (or indefinite pronoun) as its head, or which
performs the same grammatical function as such a phrase. Noun phrases are
very common cross-linguistically, and they may be the most frequently
occurring phrase type. Noun phrases often function as verb subjects and
objects, as predicative expressions, and as the complements of
prepositions. Noun phrases can be embedded inside each other; for
instance, the noun phrase some of his constituents contains the shorter
noun phrase his constituents. In some more modern theories of grammar,
noun phrases with determiners are analyzed as having the determine.
is part of a clause predicate, and is an
that typically follows a
copula (or linking verb), e.g. be, seem, appear, or that appear as a
second complement of a certain type of verb, e.g. call, make, name, etc.
The most frequently acknowledged types of predicative expressions are
predicative adjectives (also predicate adjectives) and predicative
nominals (also predicate nominals). The main trait of all predicative
expressions is that they serve to express a property that is assigned to a
"subject", whereby this subject is usually the clause subject, but at
times it can be the clause object. A primary distinction is drawn between
predicative (also predicate) and attributive expressions. Further,
predicative expressions are typically not clause arguments, and they are
also typically not clause adjuncts. There is hence a three-way distinction
between predicative expressions, arguments, and adjuncts. The terms
predicative expression on the one hand and subject complement and object
complement on the other hand overlap in meaning to a large extent.
is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure
of sentences in a given language
, specifically word order. The term syntax
is also used to refer to the study of such principles and processes. The
goal of many syntacticians is to discover the syntactic rules common to
all languages. In mathematics
, syntax refers to
the rules governing the behavior of mathematical systems, such as formal
languages used in logic.
is a form of language that exhibits a
grammatical structure and a natural flow of
, rather than a rhythmic
structure as in traditional poetry. Where the common unit of verse is
based on meter or rhyme, the common unit of prose is purely grammatical,
such as a sentence or paragraph. Tone
are marks used to clarify meaning
indicating separation of words
into sentences and clauses and phrases using of spacing, conventional signs, and certain
as aids to the understanding and the correct reading, both
silently and aloud, of handwritten and printed texts. Another description
is: "The practice, action, or system of inserting points or other small
marks into texts, in order to aid interpretation; division of text into
sentences, clauses, etc., by means of such marks.
Punctuation Mark Symbols
is the representation of a person in a narrative
or dramatic work of art (such as a novel, play, or film).
is the use of a written or spoken commentary to convey a story to an
audience. Narration encompasses a set of techniques through which the
creator of the story presents their story, including: Narrative point of
view: the perspective (or type of personal or non-personal "lens") through
which a story is communicated. Narrative voice: the format (or type
presentational form) through which a story is communicated. Narrative
time: the grammatical placement of the story's time-frame in the past, the
present, or the future.
is the use of a written or spoken commentary to convey
a story to an audience. Narration encompasses a set of techniques through
which the creator of the story presents their story, including: Narrative
point of view: the perspective (or type of personal or non-personal
"lens") through which a story is communicated. Narrative voice: the format
(or type presentational form) through which a story is communicated.
Narrative time: the grammatical placement of the story's time-frame in the
past, the present, or the future.
of Narrative Techniques
is a message that tells the particulars of an act
or occurrence or course of events; presented in
or drama or cinema
or as a radio or television program. Consisting of or characterized by the
telling of a story
is a story from the first-person
perspective: the viewpoint of a character writing or speaking directly
is a narrative mode in which the protagonist or another main character is
referred to by second-person personal pronouns and other kinds of
addressing forms, for example the English second-person pronoun "you".
a narrator with an overarching point of view, seeing and knowing
everything that happens within the world of the story, including what each
of the characters is thinking and feeling, having its own personality,
offering judgments and opinions on the behavior of the characters.
is the insertion of important background
information within a story; for example, information about the setting,
plot events, historical context, etc. In a specifically literary context,
exposition appears in the form of expository writing embedded within the
narrative. Exposition is one of four rhetorical modes (also known as modes
of discourse), along with description, argumentation, and narration, as
elucidated by Alexander Bain and John Genung. Each of the rhetorical modes
is present in a variety of forms, and each has its own purpose and
conventions. There are several ways to accomplish exposition.
meaning "player of the first part, chief actor",
is the main character in any story, such as a literary work or drama. The
protagonist is at the center of the story, should be making the difficult
choices and key decisions, and should be experiencing the consequences of
those decisions. The Protagonist can affect the main characters decisions.
The protagonist should be propelling the story forward. If a story
contains a subplot, or is a narrative that is made up of several stories,
then there may be a character who is interpreted as the protagonist of
each subplot or individual story.
is an interpretation formed
by piecing together bits of evidence. Recall that is hypothesized to work
by storing abstract features which are then used to construct the memory
during recall.Book Types
is to place an action or situation in past time,
indicating that the event being referred to took place in the past.
used to express a past event that has
a tense expressing an action that is currently going on or habitually
performed, or a state that currently or generally exists.
is an event that has not
happened yet, something that may happen in the future
is a grammatical mood (that is, a way of speaking that
allows people to express their attitude toward what they are saying) found
in many languages. Subjunctive forms of verbs are typically used to
express various states of unreality such as wish, emotion, possibility,
judgment, opinion, obligation, or action that has not yet occurred; the
precise situations in which they are used vary from language to language.
describe the variety, conventions, and purposes of the major kinds of
language-based communication, particularly writing and speaking. Four of
the most common rhetorical modes and their purpose are narration,
description, exposition, and argumentation.
expresses the writer's attitude toward or feelings
about the subject matter and audience.
is any of several specific methods the
creator of a narrative uses to convey what they want—in other words, a
strategy used in the making of a narrative to relay information to the
audience and, particularly, to "develop" the narrative, usually in order
to make it more complete, complicated, or interesting. Literary techniques
are distinguished from literary elements, which exist inherently in works
, the subject of a sentence or clause featuring
the passive voice typically denotes the recipient of the action (the
patient) rather than the performer (the agent). The passive voice in
English is formed periphrastically: the usual construction uses the
auxiliary verb be (or get) together with the past participle of the main
is the grammatical distinction between
deictic references to participant(s) in an event; typically the
distinction is between the speaker (first person), the addressee (second
person), and others (third person). Grammatical person typically defines a
language's set of personal pronouns. It also frequently affects verbs,
sometimes nouns, and possessive relationships.
is a grammatical voice common in many of the
world's languages. It is the unmarked voice
for clauses featuring a
transitive verb in nominative–accusative languages, including English and
most other Indo-European languages. Document
in written language, refers to the body of
important features established by the author in their creation of
literature. Composition relates to narrative works of literature, but also
relates to essays, biographies, and other works established in the field
is a verb form, found in various languages,
which combines past tense (reference to a past time) and imperfective
aspect (reference to a continuing or repeated event or state). It can
therefore have meanings similar to the English "was walking" or "used to
walk." It contrasts with preterite forms, which refer to a single
completed event in the past.
is the classification for any story or universe
derived from imagination—in other words, not based strictly on history or
fact. Fiction can be expressed in a variety of formats, including
writings, live performances, films, television programs, animations, video
games, and role-playing games, though the term originally and most
commonly refers to the narrative forms of
(see literary fiction), including the novel, novella, short
story, and play. Fiction constitutes an act of creative invention, so that
faithfulness to reality is not typically assumed; in other words, fiction
is not expected to present only characters who are actual people or
descriptions that are factually true. The context of fiction is generally
open to interpretation, due to fiction's freedom from any necessary
embedding in reality; however, some fictional works are claimed to be, or
marketed as, historically or factually accurate, complicating the
traditional distinction between fiction and non-fiction. Fiction is a
classification or category, rather than a specific mode or genre, unless
used in a narrower sense as a synonym for a particular literary fiction
form. Movie Types
is a literary genre in which the plot takes place
in a setting located in the past. Historical fiction can be an ambiguous
term: frequently it is used as a synonym for describing the historical
novel; however, the term can be applied to works in other narrative
formats, such as those in the performing and visual arts like theatre,
opera, cinema, television, comics, and graphic novels.
is content (sometimes, in the form of a story)
whose creator, in good faith, assumes responsibility for the
truth or accuracy
events, people, and/or information presented. In contrast, a story whose
creator explicitly leaves open if and how the work refers to reality is
usually classified as fiction. Nonfiction, which may be presented either
traditionally one of the two main divisions of narratives (and,
specifically, prose writing), the other traditional division being
fiction, which contrasts with nonfiction by dealing in information,
events, and characters expected to be partly or largely imaginary.
such as futuristic science and technology, space
travel, time travel, faster than light travel, parallel universes, and
is software simulating environments in
which players use text commands to control characters and influence the
environment. Works in this form can be understood as literary narratives,
either in the form of Interactive narratives or Interactive narrations.
These works can also be understood as a form of
, either in the
form of an adventure game or
. In common usage, the term refers to text
adventures, a type of adventure game where the entire interface can be
"text-only", however, Graphical text adventure games, where the text is
accompanied by graphics (still images, animations or video) still fall
under the text adventure category if the main way to interact with the
game is by typing text. Some users of the term distinguish between
interactive fiction, known as "Puzzle-free", that focuses on narrative,
and "text adventures" that focus on puzzles.
refers to some or all of the following: the
primary bearers of truth-value, the objects of belief and other
"propositional attitudes" (i.e., what is believed, doubted, etc.), the
referents of that-clauses, and the meanings of declarative sentences.
Propositions are the sharable objects of attitudes and the primary bearers
of truth and falsity. This stipulation rules out certain candidates for
propositions, including thought- and utterance-tokens which are not
sharable, and concrete events or facts, which cannot be false.
attempts to represent familiar things as
they are. Realist authors chose to depict everyday and banal activities
and experiences, instead of using a romanticized or similarly stylized
is the systematic representation of language
in written form. The source can either be utterances (speech or sign
language) or preexisting text in another writing system.
is a form of literature written by a playwright,
usually consisting of dialogue between characters, intended for theatrical
performance rather than just reading.
is the form obtained by abstracting from the
subject matter of its content terms or by regarding the content terms as
mere placeholders or blanks on a form. In an ideal logical language, the
logical form can be determined from syntax alone; formal languages used in
formal sciences are examples of such languages. Logical form, however,
should not be confused with the mere syntax used to represent it; there
may be more than one string that represents the same logical form in a
Logical Consequence Entailment
is a fundamental concept in
logic, which describes the relationship between statements that holds true
when one statement logically follows from one or more statements. A valid
logical argument is one in which the conclusions are entailed by the
premises, because the conclusions are consequences of the premises. The
philosophical analysis of logical consequence involves the questions: In
what sense does a conclusion follow from its premises? and What does it
mean for a conclusion to be a consequence of premises? All of
philosophical logic is meant to provide accounts of the nature of logical
consequence and the nature of logical truth.
is the field of logic concerned with
arguments containing sentences in the imperative mood. In contrast to
sentences in the declarative mood, imperatives are neither true nor false.
This leads to a number of logical dilemmas,
, and paradoxes.
Unlike classical logic, there is almost no consensus on any aspect of
is a grammatical mood that forms commands or
requests, including the giving of prohibition or permission, or any other
kind of advice or exhortation.
Short-and Long-Term Effects of a Novel on Connectivity in the
Potty Mouths - Foul-Mouthed - Four-Letter Words - Cursing - Vulgarity - Naughty Words - Colorful Language
Vulgar Language - Dirty Words - F-bomb -
Pardon my French
- Humor as a
"Words can be liberating, but words can also be debilitating."
Viewer Discretion is Advised
"Don't let horrible language distract you or stop you from learning."
is offensive or graphic
Choosing the right words is extremely important. When you try to say
things too nicely, you take the risk of people not understanding the
importance of what you are saying. And when you are using vulgar words in
order to express importance, then you also risk having people not fully
understanding the importance of your message because some people are
offended by a few words that you used. So the trick is to show importance
without offending anyone, even though that it is sometimes unavoidable.
Dammed if you do, dammed if you don't.
is speech which attacks a person or group on the
basis of attributes such as gender, ethnic origin, religion, race,
disability, or sexual orientation.
is arousing to action or
rebellion. Also known as Instigative, Seditious, Rabble-Rousing and
is any utterance or act that strongly offends the prevalent morality of
is abusive or insulting language referring to a
person or group, a verbal abuse
This phenomenon is studied by a variety of academic disciplines from
anthropology, to child psychology, to politics.
is to censure severely or angrily.
is a word or grammatical form expressing a negative connotation
or a low opinion of someone or something, showing a lack of respect for
someone or something. It is also used as criticism, hostility, disregard
, curses, harsh language or
is used in some cases
to express emotion and feelings
about something that people are
passionate about. But swearwords
must be followed by words of deeper
meaning and expression so that it
helps explain your passion in better
detail, other wise swearwords are
just empty words of a incomplete
sentence. You end up mostly
and not enough
. So learn to Elaborate.
effective ways to
like trying to put out a fire with
gasoline, it's just illogical. Don't
make things worse or miss out on a
chance to make things better. Think
before you speak. If you don't have
the right words then sometimes it's
best to wait till you do find the
You need to learn how to make words powerful, but
you also how to make words powerless when needed
stones may break my bones, but names will never hurt me"
insulted or offended by profanity is wrong and not beneficial to you
be truly offended or insulted is to say things that are insinuating and
meant to hurt someone, like you're fat, you're ugly, you're stupid, you're
a certain color, you're a certain religion or a certain sexual
orientation. There are many hurtful things that you can say to a person.
But like a lot of words, a swear word has no
, just like most
insults do. Your fat because you eat to much is not always the case. Your
ugly does not say that you are ugly to everyone. Saying you're stupid does
not measure your intelligence. And the color of your skin does not say
what kind of person you are. If someone calls you an asshole, this does
not define you as only being an asshole, or mean and selfish, it just
might be saying that a particular action you took was bad and wrong. So
someone called you an asshole just to shorten the sentence, because there
my be a time constraint. So what ever words are used, just remember, it's
like someone saying "Hey you!", and you say "What!" or you just ignore
them, which is usually the best
.My swear words or curses are
just emotional expressions of my
. My intentions are
not to offend anyone or to hurt
anyone. My swear words are solely
meant to bring attention to a
serious problem, a problem that you
may or may not be involved in. So
the swear words are mostly directed
at a problem and not so much at a
particular person. Do I need to use
is a word used to
express a particular emotion or
sentiment on the part of the
is a form of an
adverb or adjective that is used to
signify the greatest degree of a
is to single out something as important. To give extra
weight to something during communication. Give special importance or prominence to (something) in
speaking or writing. Make (something) more clearly defined.
But if you don't explain why
something is important, then bad words become just empty words, and
sometimes certain words do more harm then good. So your attempt to bring
light to something may end up being shrouded in darkness, where the
problem will hide from the eyes of the ignorant.
can be used to bring
attention to something that is
important, or perceived to be
important, like an
So "f*ck" could mean "please look and
listen, this is important!" or
perceived to be important, after
all, a swearword does not replace
the words such as evidence, research or
experience, you still have to
define the words you use and explain what
you mean. You want to bring attention
to something, but you don't want to
distract someone by using words that
. So use profanity
wisely and respectfully. Remember, "Go f*ck
yourself and have a nice day a**hole"
is the communication of a false statement that harms the reputation of an
individual person, business, product, group, government, religion, or
consists of a lexicon of non-standard words and
phrases in a given language. Use of these words and phrases is typically
associated with the subversion of a standard variety (such as Standard
English) and is likely to be interpreted by listeners as implying
particular attitudes on the part of the speaker. In some contexts, a
speaker's selection of slang words or phrases may convey prestige,
indicating group membership or distinguishing group members from those who
are not a part of the group.
set of linguistic terms and phrases used to refer to sexual organs,
processes, and activities; they are generally considered colloquial rather
than formal or medical, and some may be seen as impolite or improper.
Related to sexual slang is slang related to defecation and flatulence
(toilet humor, scatolinguistics). References to the anal tract are often
given a sexual connotation in the context of anal sex (in particular, in a
context of male homosexuality). While popular usage is incredibly
versatile in coining ever new short-lived synonyms, old terms with
originally no pejorative colouring may come to be considered inappropriate
over time. Thus, terms like arse/ass, cunt, cock and fuck should not be
considered "slang," since they are the inherited common English terms for
their referents, but they are often considered vulgarisms and are replaced
by euphemisms or scientific terminology in "polite" language.
Taking Back what you Said
How to Stop Swearing
mouth gathers no foot"
is a form of insult
usually found in sports events and insulting people. It is often used to
intimidate the opposition, but can also be used in a humorous spirit.
Trash-talk is often characterized by use of hyperbole or figurative
tongue is a beast that few can
master. It strains constantly to
break out of its cage, and if it is
not tamed, it will run wild and
cause you grief.”
because you put some words together doesn't mean that you said something."
Effects of Swearing, Speak Loudly
language, demeaning words,
plain mean talk, is just stupid. if
you can't communicate what you are
trying to say, then wait till you
learn. There are always better words
to use. But why does our
relationship with a particular
person effect our emotions, and why
am I allowing my
my vocabulary? I don't get this. I
always fall into that same stupid
trap, a trap I created. I have to
discover a way to let my brain do
the talking without my emotions
choosing my words. I love my
emotions, but I also like to
communicate effectively, and not
just to other people, but to myself
as well. Our language has incredible
power, it's time we use it the right
way. But don't get me wrong, we need
our emotions, communicating
emotionally is sometimes effective
in certain situations, but it must
be proven that the emotions were
necessary at that time.
is typically a reactive emotion of
over mistreatment, insult, or
is to make less
severe or harsh. To be
straightforward, plain-spoken, or
is a profane or
obscene expression usually of
surprise or anger. Serving to fill
up, merely for effect, otherwise
is an inoffensive
or indirect expression that is
substituted for one that is
considered offensive or too harsh.
is a forceful and bitter verbal attack
against someone or something.
is a harsh or corrosive in tone.
or venomous language
used to express blame
or bitter deep-seated ill wil.
is showing a critical or
Expressive of low opinion. Bias
is something or someone that is
detested or shunned. Assail
attack in speech or writing. Attack someone physically or emotionally.
Omit Needless Words and Empty
is using extra words
that are not needed in sentences.
Using more words than necessary
"The danger with insults is that it
could ruin your chances of having a
so it can work against you."
When I see horrible people doing
horrible things I sometimes use
horrible words to describe them,
there is nothing unique about that.
"Yes I do get
frustrated and angry at the
injustices in this world, so I do
say hurtful and mean things, but
that is not all I say. Besides that,
almost every improvement in this
world began with someone standing up
and getting angry, so the freedoms
that you enjoy are the result of
people getting angry. Changes did
not come from silent people who were
to afraid to or to ignorant to speak
their mind, they came from people
just like me. So if I happen to use
some of the bad words used by my
culture, then so be it."
""I never said I
was a good writer, but I am a good
fighter. But I'm not looking for the
knockout punch, I'm just looking to
stay in the ring long enough to get
some punches in and wear down those
f*cking criminals, and eventually
win by unanimous decision."
"If there is a
better way to call you an a**hole,
please let me know, I'm all ears."
The 100 Greatest Movie Insults of
Deaf People Teach
Us Bad Words
I take my expressions of anger and
frustration and put them into words,
words that express anger and
frustration, that's it, don't go any
farther then that. When I write
words that express my feelings of
anger and frustration, they are just
words. To explain my anger and
frustration I must write more about
what I'm trying to communicate,
which I do. So please don't get hung
up on words that you feel offended
by, just keep reading. If you stop
to judge something before you finish
hearing all the
, then you will never
be able to understand the message
accurately enough. If a spoon is
dirty, you wipe the dirt off the
spoon, you don't throw the spoon
away. You keep the spoon. The spoon
is still good, just wipe the dirt
off. I don't mind if you ignore the
dirt or hate the dirt, as long as
you understand the message. Focus on
the on the words that reveal
important information, and don't let
the words that express emotion
distract you from understanding the
I use certain harsh language,
this does not mean that I approve of
the words that I have chosen. I use
words that are used by my culture,
words used by millions of people in
my generation, that is where I have
learned them. I know how inadequate and rude profanity is, and
that these are not all the words in
my vocabulary. But when describing
emotion, you use words that you are
familiar with. I'm not saying that I
agree with those words. But we must
avoid quickly judging certain words.
We should only listen to the
message, and not be distracted by
certain words used in the message.
This is what
is all about, which is to accurately
understand the true meaning of a
particular message. Interpret
without judgment, translate the
message cleanly before adding your
own opinion to it. Then after you
have successfully done that, then
you can talk about your personal
experience that you had with that
particular message. And now we can
have a real conversation.
I get angry
when I learn the truth about
injustices and ignorant criminal
behavior, just like a lot of people
do. But I don't recommend for anyone
, there are much more
effective ways to
they are also a lot healthier.
Even though I'm embarrassed writing profanity, I really don't mind
writing it because it's good to get those things off your chest. Plus,
when I do write down my profanity ridden rants, in a way it releases those
ugly words from my
so they don't build up inside me. So after I write ugly
words down I no longer feel connected to those words, they become only
some words that were connected to an anger from which they came. So when I
do see you in person, I will not embarrass myself like that again and use
such ignorant words. But if I accidently do say "f*ck you!", don't take it
personally, just call it a
.If you are the receiver of profanity
going to have to get over it. They are empty words that don't carry any
useful information, so let it go. Focus on the core message and pay no
mind to the extra words used around it. Look at the message the same way
as you do an
, it's meant to emphasize and express
, it's not meant to
distract you from the message, so focus, because I'm going to test you
soon. In the mean time, If you ever have some useful information to share,
please let me know, I'm all ears. When I finally stopped being hurt
or distracted by peoples harsh words,
I was finally free
. At that moment I
experience a freedom that was so
liberating, it was like I have just
begun to live for the very first
time. It was spiritual, it was
enlightening, and it was
exhilarating all at once. Till this
day I am still thankful for that
moment of understanding, it has been
Just because someone doesn't fully
understand you, this does not mean
that they will never understand you.
Don't blame people for not
understanding you, learn from them.
There are always different ways of
explaining something, and the more
ways you know how to explain things,
the more successful you will be at
being understood correctly.
conversation, sharing your thoughts
because you cannot always say what
you're thinking, especially when
talking to people face to face. So
documenting your personal thoughts
is a unique way of writing. Helps
you capture some of your ignorance,
as well as, it helps you capture
some of the words of an earlier
time, and not necessarily the person
you are today. say what your
thinking even if it's wrong or
insensitive, you can that they are
only words, not totally all my
words, mostly the words of my
culture, a culture that is evolving.
I don't want to make people feel
bad, just aware of the something
that is bad and not good. The
cause's and effect's of our personal
life and our business life, which is
our responsibility towards each
other, and our responsibility to our
local surroundings and our global
You're going to own those
First, you cannot own words, you can
only use words. Language is a shared
should have access too. To say "In
my own words" is a lie. You don't have words of your own unless you
created your own language. All you are doing is using words that the human
language has created. So all you can do is either use words to transmit
some new information, or use words to repeat some old information, or to
use words to say something that everyone has no idea what you're saying.
To say that you have said something that has never been said before is
extremely difficult to prove.
I like to use words that are a
symbolic example of a particular
dialect used by a particular culture
during a particular time in history.
But still, most words are only
personal and not totally
representative of the entire
culture. They usually represent a
lower percentage of a particular
culture. It doesn't express the
current mind set. If you wanted to
know what a civilization was
thinking as a whole, you would see
something different, varying degrees
of knowledge and awareness cause
different opinions about reality.
"If an inadequate education is the
source of all our problems, then
that means that an effective
education is also the cure for all
Links between Swearing and Honesty, Frankly, do we give a damn…?
Go f*ck yourself means,
yourself what you do to others and
see if you like it
. Do unto others
as you would have them do unto you,
don't do to others that you would
not like done to you.
Have a Nice day As*hole means, I
wish you well, but I would
appreciate it if you would stop
being ignorant, selfish and immoral.
Instead be intelligent, be
compassionate, be human.
That's Just F**kingly Great: If
"F**king" Is an Adjective, What Is
the Adverb? What and how does
"I can be
such a jerk sometimes
. It's not that
I'm being insensitive on purpose,
it's that I'm not always aware of
how my words and actions are being
perceived. I apologize when I'm
aware of my
so please let me know when I'm not
aware of my insensitivity, so that I
may offer you my
and also improve my
Swearing as a Response to Pain
Swearing as a Response to
Pain—Effect of Daily Swearing
Publicly and Publicly Writing your
Personal Thoughts can be Dangerous.
But I grew up doing dangerous
things. So I learned that danger is
not the only reason why you do
something or not do something. There
are many reasons not to do something
that are beyond the fact that
something is dangerous. That is why
we have risk assessments. We can
also base our success rate on
previous experiences. Because things
are not as dangerous when you have
experience it before, and understand
your abilities and limits. But that
is not all, publicly sharing your
personal thoughts is dangerous
because of the chance of being
misunderstood by others. But on the
other hand, there is also a risk of
not sharing your personal thoughts.
Dammed if you do, and dammed if you
difficult when it comes to
determining peoples reactions. Try
to share more then just your
personal thoughts, and understand,
that it's risky if you do and risky
if you don't. Speaking your mind has
risks. Know when to speak, know what
to speak, know how to speak, and
know why you speak.
, or write publicly,
there will always be some
, but criticism is not
always bad, sometimes criticism
makes you more aware of how people
are understanding you, so criticism
could actually benefit you and make
you a better communicator."
calling or angry tones are a waste
of energy and time. When you learn
to talk and
you will learn very
quickly that you will have much
better results with people and
situations when you refrain from
anger and name calling. And you will
also learn that there is very little
need for drama and name calling when
want to keep that shit in your head,
writing it down releases it and
makes it easier to
delete it from your mind
If someone who had
never heard obscene words or socially
inappropriate and derogatory remarks, what would they say? What
if they heard nothing but kind words, wouldn't they be screaming
out nice things? You're Beautiful!!
People who curse a lot have better vocabularies than those who
don't, study finds
, I guess you have to ask, if your
vocabulary is so large, why can't you find better words to
learned over time that you have to
have a very high tolerance for
a**holes and ignorant people.
Because if you don't you will end up
acting like an ignorant a**hole
yourself. So I'm going to create a
course that will give people the
necessary skills and techniques that
will give a person the tolerance and
the appropriate responses to other
peoples moronic behavior. I'm going
to call the course "High Tolerance
for Assholes 101". Believe it or not
I have over 10,000 people signed up
for the course already, mostly from
people who are planning to work in
government, banks, corporations and
in the media." So the
lesson here is to rewrite this
paragraph so that there is no vulgar
language and no
, and then name the
10 things that you would teach in this course?
is an older word for a rascal, a scoundrel, or a rogue. It isn't
a compliment. If you read
for long, you'll definitely see the word knave more than
The Negative Attributes and
Behaviors that are Associated with
Name Calling and Anger....
used to describe most of our
and some of
, as well as some of the scumbags in
, as well as all the
as*holes in the world who feel the need to express
This is why the word 'Asshole' is so effective,
because it pretty much replaces all the words above.
But it's not a
This is what all people
I wish I had a nickel for
every time I said "WTF is going on here?
make it cool to swear again?
Acronym is a word
formed from the initial letters of the several words
in the name.
characterized by multiple
and at least one vocal (phonic) tic.
Most often associated with coprolalia (the utterance
of obscene words or socially inappropriate and
derogatory remarks), but this symptom is present in
only a small minority of people with Tourette's.
is involuntary swearing or the
involuntary utterance of obscene words or socially
inappropriate and derogatory remarks.
To call someone stupid, is stupid
. Whether you are
calling someone a moron, an idiot, an
, or any other harsh insulting words,
but never the "R" word, because you clearly insult
everyone, including yourself. The important thing is
that people should not be insulted when called
stupid, or any other harsh word, even if you're
calling yourself stupid. It is merely a question of,
"why is this thinking flawed and incorrect?" Was it
a simple mistake that you made? Or an indicator that
the process used in your decision making needs to be
improved so that you can achieve higher quality
results from your decisions? And that is only one
way to correctly handle insults. Don't be distracted
by the harshness of a word or words, just simply
answer the question "why is this thinking flawed and
incorrect?" Or simply ask "what is stupid?" or just
answer with one word, "why". And the more questions
that you answer that improve your thinking, the more
you will become. You will still make
mistakes, but now you will solve them a lot faster,
and you will also make fewer mistakes.
There's nothing wrong with
calling yourself stupid
as long as you don't
take it personally.
It's the people who are
not offended or distracted by profanity are the
people I admire most. Don't get distracted by minor
irrelevant details, the most important thing is did
you understand the message? Once people fully
understand how important the transfer of information
is, we will communicate more effectively and
efficiently, and at a much higher level of
The Bottom Line
I don't want to encourage
, I just want people to be aware and to
understand that things need to be taken seriously. I
Don't want People to Hate People
, I just want people to do what they
can to stop injustices and corruption, without
making things worse, and without lowering yourself
to that level of
And on top of that, who you are in person
is different then what you write. So don't ever
believe that you know someone just because you have
read some of the words that they have written.
That's like when people believe that actors and
authors are just like the characters that they
portray. These types of assumptions are illogical
and stupid. It's just a lot easier to inquire and
ask questions then to believe that you know the
answers, like with
Just because someone uses bad words does not
make them a bad person, and just because someone
uses ignorant words this does not mean that they're
ignorant. You can use logical deduction and say bad
people use bad words and ignorant people use
ignorant words, but with so many
, there can be no accurate method of
, not until you answer the questions of
How Much? When? Why and Where? How much of this
language is used? When is this language used? Why is
this language used? And where is this language used?
"I look at some of my writing to be
like A Warning Label for
Life, there's a lot of dangers in life, but
there's also a lot of joy. Avoiding the dangers
takes a lot of work, and this responsibility should
never be taken lightly. Learn to maximize your fun."
There is always risk involved with
communicating to a large audience. You can't
guarantee that everyone will understand your message
the same way. So you have to play the odds. In order
to communicate to one group you may have to sacrifice
communicating to another because of their beliefs.
You have to learn to speak to everyone at the same
time, and use words that have no bias and no
preference, just express the facts and a clear
understanding of those facts. Save the stupid
comments for your standup comedy routine,
where everyone clearly understands that your being an idiot for laughs
and not trying to communicate something important.