Moral Practices - Ethical Standards - Right and Wrong Behavior
is knowing how to accurately
the differences between
are many benefits of being right and good, and there are many
that are the result of being bad or wrong. The more you understand these
differences, the more you will benefit, and the less you will suffer from
Knowing comes from learning, and there is a lot to learn, as you
can see. This is not about
or actions, this is
about increased Awareness
and fully understanding
the differences between what is
, and what is
Good, Bad, Right and Wrong can be measured
in many ways. So Morality and
go hand in hand.
Moral Knowledge helps you to avoid
, just to name a
few.Good things come from people
when they know better
. Bad things come from people when they don't
know any better. If everyone knew better then they would not do bad
has a right to know better
People should not be good just because they
doesn't work because people who feel they are
above the law
will most always
, and people
who don't fear punishment or consider punishment, will also
. The same thing goes for being
good. If people are only good because they seek
, then people will not be good all the time because they believe
that there is no benefit to being good. People will also never fully
understand the true impacts of their actions, whether those actions are
good or bad.
are informal understandings that govern the
members of a society
that help guide behavior in a certain
situations or environments. They are sometimes
of acceptable group conduct as well as individual perceptions of
particular group conduct. They can be viewed as
values, customs, and traditions) which represent individuals' basic
knowledge of what others do and think that they should do. Respecting
someone does not always mean that you're agreeing with someone, you're
just waiting for a better time and place to address certain actions and
behaviors. Asking questions to better understand behaviors is better then
jumping to conclusions
on your personal interpretation
. Rulemaking is one of the basic
humans have for organizing and simplifying actions. But it must be done
without risking blind
, and without infringing on
freedoms of expressions
Rule System Theory
is an attempt to formally approach different kinds
of social rule systems in a unified manner. Social rules systems include
institutions such as norms, laws
regulations, taboos, customs, and a variety of related concepts and are
important in the social sciences and humanities. Social rule system theory
is fundamentally an institutionalist approach to the social sciences, both
in its placing primacy on institutions and in its use of sets of rules to
define concepts in social theory.
is a set of agreed, stipulated, or generally
accepted standards, norms, social norms, or criteria, often taking the
form of a custom.
is a philosophical way of running a variety of endeavors based
on trust, honor, and honesty. Something that operates under the
of the "honor system" is
usually something that does not have strictly enforced rules governing its
principles. In British English, it would more often be called a "trust
system" and should not be confused with the British honours system. The
honor system is also a system granting freedom from customary surveillance
(as to students or prisoners) with the understanding that those who are so
freed will be bound by their honor to observe
farms are operated under the honor system), and will therefore not abuse
the trust placed in them. A person engaged in an honor system has a strong
negative concept of breaking or going against it. The negatives may
include community shame, loss of status, loss of a personal sense of
integrity and pride or in extreme situations, banishment from one's
standard especially of
. Rule of personal conduct. A basic generalization that
is accepted as true
and that can be used as a basis for
conduct. A basic truth or law or assumption. A rule or
concerning a natural phenomenon or
the function of a complex system.
qualifications of being
strong moral principles; moral uprightness. It is generally a personal
choice to hold oneself to consistent moral and ethical standards. In
, integrity is regarded by many as the honesty
and truthfulness or accuracy of one's actions. Integrity can stand in
opposition to Hypocrisy
in that judging with the standards of integrity involves regarding
internal consistency as a virtue, and suggests that parties holding within
themselves apparently conflicting values should account for the
discrepancy or alter their beliefs.Standard
basis for comparison; a reference point against which other things can be
evaluated. The ideal in terms of which something can be judged. Conforming
to or constituting a standard of measurement or value; or of the usual or
regularized or accepted kind. Established or well-known or widely
recognized as a model of authority or excellence.
Standard Operating Procedure
governing socially acceptable behavior.
and being fair to others, especially
yourself. It's acting in a courteous manner that respects accepted social
usage and shows regard for others.Polite
is showing regard for others in manners, speech, behavior, etc., Not rude;
marked by satisfactory (or especially minimal) adherence to social usages
and sufficient but not noteworthy consideration for others.
Having Good Manners
way of acting or behaving so as not to disturb someone or insult someone.
being nice and fair to others while eating.
is having correct or appropriate behavior.
is the quality of
being humble or modest, which is freedom from vanity or conceit;
arrogant or prideful
showing evidence of moral and intellectual advancement. Marked or
motivated by concern with the alleviation of suffering.
is the quality of being worthy of
esteem or respect.
is whoever claims to be noble must conduct
himself nobly. Requires the person who holds such status to fulfill social
responsibilities, particularly in
must act in a fashion that conforms to one's position and with the
reputation that one has earned.
key features are generosity, fidelity, liberality,
is being nice to
someone in a fair and reasonable way that lets that person or persons know
that you care about them and also lets them know that you think they're
important and valuable. Respect is listening to people and understanding
their rights and their feelings. Respect is having courteous regard for people's feelings. A
polite expression of desire for someone's welfare.
is a feeling of admiration toward a person, child, non-human animal,
group, ideal, or indeed almost any entity or concept, as well as specific
actions representative of that esteem. Respect can be a specific feeling
of regard for the actual qualities of the one respected (e.g., "I have
great respect for her judgment"). It can also be conduct in accord with a
specific ethic of respect. The opposite of Disrespect
which is another education problem to correct and improve.
feeling of profound respect for someone or something.
signifies behaviours that are considered to be in accord with rta, the
order that makes life and universe possible, and includes duties, rights,
laws, conduct, virtues and ‘‘right way of living’’.
which is properly/excellently joined; order, rule; truth") is the
of natural order which regulates and
coordinates the operation of the universe and everything within it.
is a feeling of liking for another person; enjoyment in their
Inclined to help or support; not antagonistic or hostile.
Share specific examples of some of the things that people have done for
you and how that made a difference in your life.
to be friendly and
approachable (easy to talk to).
Look people straight
in the eyes and say, “You make the world a better place.”
that Describe Nice People
is a disposition to be friendly and helpful to neighbors.
refers to the relationship between a guest and a host,
wherein the host receives the guest with goodwill, including the reception
and entertainment of guests, visitors, or strangers. Louis, chevalier de
Jaucourt describes hospitality in the Encyclopédie as the virtue of a
great soul that cares for the whole universe through the ties of humanity.
Hospitality ethics is a discipline that studies this usage of hospitality.
"the code of life"
if an action or policy has a
suspected risk of causing
harm to the public
, or to the environment, in the absence of
scientific consensus (that the action or policy is not harmful), the
burden of proof that it is not harmful falls on those taking an action
that may or may not be a risk.
Politely warm and friendly.
is having or showing a tender and
considerate and helpful nature
used especially of persons and their behavior.
and forgiving under provocation.
is to give reasonable assistance to those
who are, or who they believe to be, injured, ill, in danger, or otherwise
Duty to Rescue
is coming to the rescue of another
person or group in danger.Benevolence
is a disposition to do good
. An inclination to do kind or charitable acts.
An act intending or showing kindness and good will.
is the voluntary promotion
of human welfare
is the voluntary behavior intended to benefit another.
virtue of not being tied down by concerns about one's possessions. Often
it means to provide help to others by giving them an (usually precious)
item without thinking twice.
is the quality of doing what is right and avoiding what is wrong.
Any admirable quality or attribute. moral excellence.
is doing the right things for people at the right time,
which is not always easy.
Intentions of a Do-gooder is to help, but they don't always know
all the details that surround a particular problem, so helping
looks good, but it doesn't solve the problem. Be a do-gooder,
but also be a good learner, treat the disease, but don't ever
stop working on the cure. And let people know this, you are not
just a do-gooder, but you are a problem solver working on the
cause, and not just the effect.
is the inherent complex of attributes that determines a persons
moral and ethical actions and reactions.
is a construct whereby objects or individuals can be distinguished.
is an essential and distinguishing attribute of something or
someone. A degree or grade of excellence or worth.
A characteristic property that defines the apparent individual
nature of something. High social status.
is being kind, sympathetic, cooperative, warm
social toleration, life
satisfaction, public expression and an aspiration to liberty.
50 Creative ways to Express Gratitude
important, but if your conscience is not effective in
determining right from wrong or good from bad, then your
conscience will not benefit you, or anyone else. Conscience is
like a system check, it's knowing what questions to ask and when
to ask them, it's knowing how to pretend that you are the other
person by being able to put yourself in other peoples shoes. You
can even recall similar experiences that you had when you were
the other person, to get a better idea.
is a deep awareness of and
sympathy for another's suffering. The humane quality of understanding the
suffering of others and wanting to do something about it.
response to the suffering of others that motivates a desire to help.
Sanskrit term for anyone who is motivated by great compassion.
is warm compassionate feelings.
A feeling of concern for the welfare of someone (especially someone
defenseless). A tendency to express warm and affectionate feeling.
showing a kind or tender nature that
is quiet and soothing and more favorably inclined to gain the good will of
people. Gentle also means to stroke or touch soothingly. Something that is
soft and mild and not harsh, stern or severe.
means benevolence, loving-kindness, friendliness, amity, good will, and
active interest in others. It is the first of the four sublime states (Brahmavihāras)
and one of the ten pāramīs of the Theravāda school of
Oaths of Service
is being under a
is the principle or practice
of concern for the
welfare of others.
is understanding the needs of other people who are
suffering, or understanding the needs of other life forms in distress.
is the capacity to
or feel what another
person is experiencing from within the other being's frame of reference,
i.e., the capacity to place oneself in another's position.
Theory of Mind
is being able to put yourself in other
people’s shoes, or situations, so as to better understand their struggles
and behaviors. (Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test
suggests that people may be classified
on the basis of their scores along two dimensions:
empathizing (E) and
systemizing (S). It measures a person's strength of interest in empathy
(the ability to identify and understand the thoughts and feelings of
others and to respond to these with appropriate emotions) and a person's
strength of interest in systems (in terms of the drive to analyse or
is the ability to feel an appropriate
in response to another's emotion and
the ability to understand the others' emotion.
Roots of Empathy
is a classroom program that claims to have
dramatic effect in reducing levels of aggression among schoolchildren by
raising social/emotional competence and increasing empathy.
College Roommates Underestimate each other's Distress, new psychology
. College roommates are sensitive to their roommates’
distress but tend to underestimate the level of distress being experienced
seeing ourselves as though we were an outside
observer, leads to a more confident and positive response to upcoming
stressors than seeing the experience through our own eyes. Distancing
describes the process by which psychologists help a person establish their
understanding their separateness from everything around them. This
understanding of one's identity is considered an essential phase in coming
to terms with symbols, which in turn forms the foundation for full
cognition and language. Recently, work has been done in psychological
distancing in terms of development, personality and behavior.
Responsible Behavior Teaching Ideas
Six Habits of Highly Empathic People
Want to change the world? Start by being brave enough to care: Cleo Wade
(video and text)
If you can't relate to a
or put yourself in other people shoes, that means you need help
too. You are not the only human, or are you the first human or the last
human. So what kind of human are you now?
everything that we are
. So which part of life are you focusing on?
Everyone gets distracted
not everyone stays distracted. We have to balance our own personal goals
with everyone else's shared goals around us, including the goals our planet
Earth. If we don't, we will eventually have no goals at all or anything to
live for, not even instinct will save us then.
is the personality trait of being thorough, careful,
or vigilant. Conscientiousness implies a desire to do a task well.
Conscientious people are efficient and organized as opposed to easy-going
and disorderly. They exhibit a tendency to show self-discipline, act
dutifully, and aim for achievement; they display planned rather than
spontaneous behavior; and they are generally organized and dependable.
They have a more functional anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) than the
average person. It is manifested in characteristic behaviors such as being
neat and systematic; also including such elements as carefulness,
thoroughness, and deliberation (the tendency to think carefully before
acting.) Conscientiousness is one of the five traits of the
Five Factor Model of personality
and is an aspect of what has traditionally been referred to as having
character. Conscientious individuals are generally hard-working and
reliable. When taken to an extreme, they may also be "workaholics",
perfectionists, and compulsive in their behavior. People who score low on
conscientiousness tend to be laid back, less goal-oriented, and less
driven by success; they also are more likely to engage in antisocial and
is characterized by or displaying
affirmation or acceptance or certainty.
- Positive Thinking
is that which is pleasing or
. Proper or satisfactory manner or to a high standard.
Having or showing knowledge and
and aptitude. Promoting or
enhancing well-being. Having desirable or positive qualities especially those suitable
for a thing specified.
You can't do everything, but the
one thing that you do, you should be good at it, and that thing should
also be good and provide something of value. Be
good and be good at it
. But remember, always be ready to modify
because things change, which means that you too may have to change with
it. And sometimes balance
is not an option.
Words that describe "Good"
is something that aids or
is free from
; especially conforming to
. Socially right or correct. In
conformance with justice or law
Correct in opinion or
. In or into a
satisfactory condition. In accord with accepted standards of
usage or procedure.
Precisely accurate. In an accurate manner.
is having or
showing good knowledge and skill and aptitude. Having desirable or
qualities especially those
suitable for a thing specified.
or enhancing well-being
More excellent manner or more advantageously or attractively or to a
greater degree etc.
hence advisable. Superior to another (of the same class or set or kind) in
excellence or quality or desirability or
; more highly
skilled than another. Changed for the
better in health
In excellent physical condition
is a degree or grade of excellence
is very good and of the highest
is high quality or
performance or importance.
Idealization and Devaluation
A Path of Least Resistance
is the physical or metaphorical
pathway that provides the least resistance to forward motion by a given
object or entity, among a set of alternative paths. The concept is often
used to describe why an object or entity takes a given path.
an ideal of excellence of character and soundness
progress is a real concept leading to an
improvement of the world.
a spiritual power inherent in people and their
as the central driving
science in the universe.
Reciprocation is an expression of gratitude and understanding. Giving thanks and
showing appreciation for the actions of others that you have
benefited from by returning the favor so that others will
benefit from your actions, thus preserving the
cycle of kindness
and not breaking this cycle by taking more then you give. This
does not just apply to people, but the environment as well.
is understanding of the
nature or meaning or quality or magnitude of something. An expression of
Reciprocity (social psychology)
is a social rule that says people
should repay, in kind, what another person has provided for them; that is,
people give back (reciprocate) the kind of treatment they have received
Reciprocity (social and political philosophy)
is the expectation that
people will respond to each other in similar ways—responding to gifts and
kindnesses from others with similar benevolence of their own.
(therapeutic ideas) -
(what goes around comes around)
Reciprocity (cultural anthropology)
refers to the non-market exchange
of goods or labour ranging from direct
(immediate exchange) to
forms of gift exchange
where a return is eventually expected (delayed
exchange) as in the exchange of birthday gifts.
is a behaviour whereby an organism acts in a manner that temporarily
reduces its fitness while increasing another organism's fitness
, with the
expectation that the other organism will act in a similar manner at a
(Pay it Forward) is an expression for describing
the beneficiary of a good deed repaying it to others instead of to the
Pay it Forward
is when you are the beneficiary of a good deed and then
you repay the gift to others instead of to the original person who gave
you the gift. Not like those selfish
Ethic of Reciprocity
is the principle of treating others as one would wish to be treated
oneself. It is a maxim of altruism seen in many human religions and human
. The maxim may appear as either a positive or negative injunction
: One should
treat others as one would like others to
(positive or directive form). One should not treat others in
ways that one would not like to be treated (negative or prohibitive form).
What you wish upon others, you wish upon yourself (empathic or responsive
is an item given to
someone without the expectation of payment. An item is not a gift, if that
item, itself, is already owned by the one to whom it is given. Although
gift-giving might involve an expectation of
, a gift is meant to be free. In many countries, the act of
mutually exchanging money, goods, etc. may sustain social relations and
contribute to social cohesion. Economists have elaborated the economics of
gift-giving into the notion of a
extension the term gift can refer to anything that makes the other happier
or less sad, especially as a favor, including forgiveness and kindness.
Gifts are also first and foremost presented on occasions - birthdays and,
in Western cultures, Christmas being the main examples and other occasions
is a gift given by physical or legal persons, typically for charitable
purposes and/or to benefit a cause. A donation may take various forms,
including cash offering
services, new or used goods including clothing, toys, food, and vehicles.
It also may consist of emergency, relief or humanitarian aid items,
development aid support, and can also relate to medical care needs as i.e.
blood or organs for transplant. Charitable gifts of goods or services are
also called gifts in kind.
is a foundation created to promote the
for assistance to any particular individuals). An activity or gift that
benefits the public at large. A kindly and lenient attitude toward people.
s a non-profit organization (NPO) whose
primary objectives are philanthropy and social well-being (e.g.
charitable, educational, religious, or other activities serving the
public interest or
). An institution set up to provide help to the needy.
is the virtue of not being tied down by concerns about
one's possessions. Often it means to provide help to others by giving
them an (usually precious) item without thinking twice.
understanding the value
of someone or something that has benefited you,
and then showing your appreciation by being thankful for that person and
is the proper, fitting or called-for response to benefits
or beneficence from a benefactor, like the garbage man.
"Sometimes people don’t notice the things
others do for them until they stop doing them."
principle of treating others as one would wish to be treated oneself.
"The smallest act of kindness is worth more
than the grandest intention."
"Unless someone like
you cares a whole awful lot, nothing is going to get better, it's not." -
American Humanist Association
is the ability and
responsibility of human beings to lead personal lives of ethical
fulfillment that aspire to the greater good of humanity.
17 Verbal Habits of
Highly Likable People
are polite when then can be.
Words like "please" and "thank you" might
be technically unnecessary but they're invaluable if you want to be more
charismatic. Want to see an example? Watch this video of an extremely
polite and apologetic armed robber--especially starting around the
23-second mark--and tell me you don't feel a bit of sympathy for him (even
if you still think he needs to go to jail).2
They acknowledge small favors.
"You're welcome." These two short words
communicate much more than "no problem" (or, of course, "yup") when
someone thanks you for something. Likable people appreciate being thanked,
and they pay it back verbally.3
offer meaningful praise.
The key word here is "meaningful." Charismatic
people give sincere compliments--never bashful, never obsequious. When
someone merits praise, they say so.4
They express sincere empathy.
They use phrases like, "That must have
made you feel proud," or "I can imagine you must feel angry," thus both
exploring and validating other people's feelings. (Because here's a little
secret: Everybody wants to be understood.)5
They share useful information.
Some people like to hoard information
because they think it makes them more powerful. Don't be that person.
Important caveat, however: Truly likable people understand that
"information" and "rumors" are not the same thing.
. They offer to help.
Many of us want
to contribute to our society, but we often don't know where to begin. The
most charismatic people among us start simply by looking for chances to
help--in their families, in their communities, and in the small moments of
their day-to-day lives. (Note to America: Hold doors for people coming in
. They speak with
They don't boast or brag. But when faced with
challenging situations--especially things that affect other
people--they're the ones who approach the problem with an air of calmness,
curiosity, and confidence. You might hear them saying things like, "Hmmm.
I wonder how we're going to solve this."8
They use names and titles that connote respect.
remember other people's names, and use their titles in circumstances when
it makes those people feel good. It takes a long time to earn titles like
"doctor" or police officer, for example; why not use them?
. They express their faith in others.
Four simple words: "I believe in you." My old boss Bob Woodward used to
talk about how a few small words of encouragement from Ben Bradlee, his
editor at The Washington Post, were all he needed to feel he could succeed
as a journalist. That kind of validation from others can inspire
achievement--and affection for the person who gives the validation.
. They remember that they're part of a
A sense of camaraderie makes tough situations bearable. Having a
sense of humor can even make them fun. Really charismatic people are the
ones who say things like, "Hey, we're all in it together" during tough
times--and then work hard to achieve the team's goals.
. They make introductions.
know five of the nicest words anyone can ever say to two people at the
same time? "I'd like you to meet...." We're all networkers these days, I
suppose, but truly charismatic people are the ones who are out to help
others meet still more people--rather than just building their own
They take their turn.
Likable people aren't afraid to step up when it's their turn to do
something enjoyable, or even to bear the burden of something that isn't so
great. In other words, they can take a compliment or be gracious, but
they're also the ones who remember when it's their turn to pick up the tab
. They let others make
their own decisions.
Truly charismatic people have confidence in their
opinions--but they also recognize that other people may legitimately see
things differently, and that they have to choose their own paths in life.
Moreover, charismatic leaders aren't afraid to delegate, and then to trust
others to accomplish what they've asked them to do.
. They listen--and they want to hear
Highly likable people are active and sincere listeners. You can
tell them your opinion or a story or ask for their advice, and they
respond with questions and verbal cues that suggest they're present in the
moment--interested, even. For any of us, our time is our most valuable
resource, and yet they're more than willing to give it to you.
. They take responsibility.
their job or their fault, they step up. They take control of the things
they're supposed to have control over. It makes sense: Reliable people are
often very likable.16
. They voice their
We all appreciate people who stand by us and who let us know
that they're there. In the military it's called having the other guy's
"six"--his backside position. Think of someone who showed you support when
you needed it and tell me you didn't think of him or her as highly likable
in that moment.17
. They ask, "Why not?"
Likable people are often dreamers, optimists, and doers. RFK put it best:
"There are those that look at things the way they are, and ask why? I
dream of things that never were, and ask why not?"
Recipe for Life
A Few Cups of Love.
Take one tablespoon of patience, one teaspoon of generosity, one pint of
kindness; Take one quart of laughter, one pinch of concern. And then mix
willingness with happiness, add lots of faith and stir it up well. Then
spread it over a span of a life time and serve it to each and every
deserving person you meet. ~
“Float like a butterfly, sting like a bee”
People who are more active and experience more
happiness are people that
...Read everyday, compliment others, adapt
to changes, forgive others, talk about their ideas, they continuously
learn, they accept responsibility. they learn from their mistakes, their
grateful for the things they have, they sets goals and make plans.
People who are less active and experience more
sadness are people that
....watch TV every day, overly criticize,
they fear change, they hold grudges, they talk about other people too
much, they think they know it all, they blame others for their problems,
they believe they are entitled, they never set goals or have plans.
Most people know right from wrong and good and bad, but people
practice what they preach
. People seem to be selective, or,
they don't fully understand the facts of the situation. This is
another problem we can solve by improving education.
Tragedy of the Commons
is a perfect example of people not having
enough information and knowledge in order to calculate the best decisions
and choices that people have, especially group decisions. Ignorance will
always make people more vulnerable to corruption and selfishness. Social Actions
practitioners believe nonviolence and self-control are the means
to liberation. The three main principles of Jainism are
nonviolence, non-absolutism (anekantavada) and
non-possessiveness (aparigraha). Followers of Jainism take 5
major vows: nonviolence
, not lying, not stealing (asteya),
chastity, and non-attachment. Parasparopagraho Jivanam is the
motto of Jainism. Its theological system is termed as
transtheistic. Jain Philosophy
We know that all
are born with an
to be Good. But this
Biological Nature to be Good
is very basic and incomplete, so it can be easily
. So Good
Behavior must be
thoroughly educated in order for a young child to fully
understand moral concepts and the numerous benefits that come
from having good and fair
Always try to keep your values
as close to being logical as humanly possible. Logic is one of
the reasons why we are all here.
So it makes sense to use logic
as much as possible because logic usually works really well.
Ben Franklin Effect
is when a person who has performed a
favor for someone is more likely to do another favor for that person than
they would be if they had received a favor from that person. An
explanation for this would be that we internalize the reason that we
helped them was because we liked them. The opposite case is also believed
to be true, namely that we come to hate a person whom we did wrong to. We
de-humanize them to justify the bad things we did to them.
deductive study of human action, based on the notion that humans engage
in purposeful behavior, as opposed to reflexive behavior like sneezing
and inanimate behavior. According to its theorists, with the action
axiom as the starting point, it is possible to draw conclusions about
human behavior that are both objective and universal. For example, the
notion that humans engage in acts of choice implies that they have
preferences, and this must be true for anyone who exhibits intentional
to be a property of a good work which entitles
the doer to receive a reward
is a power which accumulates as a result of good
deeds, acts, or thoughts.
a way of governing, or simply a way of life. Philosophy
Dave Meslin: The Antidote to Apathy
Frans De Waal: Do Animals Have Morals
School of Life Channel
People who take more sometimes give more
, which is not
giving, it's just feeling guilty because you have taken more
then you needed, and now you want to give some back. And people
call that generosity?
"Not taking more then you need is the
purest form of giving
Wrong - Bad
is having the quality of something
or unpleasant. Involving
or harm. Suffer or be susceptible to damage'.
Any physical damage
to the body caused by violence
or fracture etc. Having no positive features.
The occurrence of a change for the worse. The act of
something or someone
Reckoned in a direction opposite to that regarded as positive.
is having undesirable or negative qualities. Below average in
quality or performance. That which is below standard
expectations as of ethics or decency. Markedly subnormal in
structure or function or intelligence or behavior. Characterized
by wickedness or immorality. Not working properly. Physically
unsound or diseased.
Capable of harming
. Involving risk or
is not correct; not in conformity with
. Contrary to
conscience or morality or law
. Not functioning properly.
Not appropriate for a purpose
or occasion. Based on or
acting or judging in
. In an inaccurate manner. Not in accord with established usage or procedure. That which is
contrary to the principles of justice or
Characterized by errors;
with a model or
following established rules
. Any harm or injury resulting from a
"The lesser of two evils is still evil."
Two Wrongs don't Make a Right
is doing something that is
incapable of being justified
or explained. Without a basis in reason or
fact. Lacking justification or authorization.
is the failure to observe standards or show due honesty or modesty.
is not suitable or right
or appropriate. Not conforming to legality, moral law, or social
convention. Not appropriate for a purpose or occasion. Not
conforming to accepted rules or standards
is something not suitable for
a particular occasion, condition or
. Not in keeping with
what is correct
is not in keeping with accepted
standards of what is right or proper in polite
refers to "an act or behavior that gravely violates
the sentiment or accepted standard of the community".
is a state of extreme dishonor. Evil
fame or public reputation.Contempt
willful disobedience to or disrespect for the authority of a court or
legislative body. Open disrespect for a person or thing.
is to treat with contemptuous
disregard. Laugh at with contempt and derision.
is unacceptable or improper
behavior. Bad or dishonest management by persons supposed to act on
another's behalf. Activity that transgresses moral or civil law. Behave
badly. Manage badly or
wrongdoing, especially by a
. Wrongful conduct by a
nonfeasance are types of failure to discharge public
by common law, custom, or statute. When a contract creates a duty that
does not exist at common law, there are three things the parties can do
wrong: Nonfeasance is the failure to act where action is
required—willfully or in
. Misfeasance is the willful inappropriate action or
intentional incorrect action or advice. Malfeasance is the willful and
intentional action that injures a party.
is causing irritation or annoyance.
is unfriendly behavior that
or resentment. Something that
incites or provokes; a means of arousing or stirring to action.
is showing a
attitude. Expressive of low opinion. Tending to
merit or reputation
of a person or thing.
is showing a lack of
bad about doing something bad, is really f*cking bad. If you don't know
that you are an a*shole, you will never stop being an a*shole. But that's
not your fault, and no one is to blame. But now that you know this, the
questions are, can you adjust? Can you adapt? Can you give as well as you
receive? And, are you willing to learn about things that you may have over
looked or perceived as being not important? Will you at least try to
understand? You are nothing without people, and people will always be
something with or without you. So, are you the thorn or are you the foot?
You're the foot, so please stop being an as*hole."
"The reasons why so many
people are not getting any meaningful work done is because they're too
busy maliciously attacking other people and stabbing each other in the
back. How about making a difference instead of just adding to everyone's
Words that describe "Bad"
is when a person does not care about other people suffering, and
sometimes even finds pleasure in inflicting suffering. Sadism can also
be related to this form of action or concept. Cruel way of inflicting
suffering may involve violence
- Self Defense
is the improper
usage or treatment of a person, often to
or improperly gain
benefit. Abuse can come in many forms, such as: physical or
, injury, assault, violation,
, unjust practices; crimes,
or other types of aggression.
the intentional use of physical force
or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or
community, which either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting
, maldevelopment, or deprivation".
Sexual Abuse and Violence
is overt, often harmful, social interaction with the
intention of inflicting damage or other unpleasantness upon another
individual. It may occur either in retaliation or without provocation. In
humans, frustration due to blocked goals can cause aggression. Human
aggression can be classified into direct and indirect aggression, whilst
the first is characterized by physical or verbal behavior intended to
cause harm to someone, the second one is characterized by a behavior
intended to harm social relations of an individual or a group.
the act of intimidating a weaker person to make them do something. Being
made to feel afraid or timid. The feeling of discouragement in the face of
someone's perceived fame or wealth or status etc.. Bullying
is violent action that is hostile and usually unprovoked. A
form of emotionally charged aggressive
. In everyday speech it is more commonly used as a synonym for
anger and aggression.
is the act
of deliberately inflicting physical or
an organism in order to fulfill some desire of the torturer, or compel
some action from the victim
by definition, is a
knowing and intentional act
; deeds which unknowingly or
negligently inflict pain
without a specific intent to do so are not typically considered torture,
just a scumbag criminal who didn't know any better because of their
is an experience of unpleasantness and dislike associated with the
perception of harm or threat of harm
in an individual.
is an action that is
vicious or vile; an action that arouses disgust or abhorrence. A thing
that causes disgust or hatred. Something that is really bad. Synonyms:
atrocity, disgrace, horror, obscenity, outrage, evil, crime, monstrosity,
Malice or Malicious
is feeling a need to see others suffer.
The quality of threatening
is premeditation or
. Knowledge of wrongdoing.
is a legal term referring to a party's
intention to do injury
to another party. Malice is either expressed or implied. Malice is
expressed when there is manifested a deliberate intention unlawfully to
take away the life of a human being. Malice is implied when no
considerable provocation appears, or when the circumstances attending the
abandoned and malignant heart. Cal. Pen. Code § 188. Malice, in a
sense, may be inferred from the
evidence and imputed to the defendant, depending on the nature of the
case. Corrupt Legal System
is wishing or appearing to wish evil to others;
arising from intense ill will or hatred
or exerting a malignant influence.Diabolical
is wickedness typical of a devil. Extremely evil or cruel; expressive of
cruelty or befitting hell.
is being guilty
of a misdeed.
is failing to do what
is when your are responsible for
with a reprehensible act.
Abuse of Power
is any thought or action
that endangers the ideal relationship
between an individual and God; or as
any diversion from the perceived ideal order for human living. To sin has
been defined as "to miss the mark"
is displaying morally objectionable behavior. That which causes
or misfortune. Morally bad or wrong.
The quality of being morally wrong in principle or practice.
Having or exerting a malignant influence.
or foreshadowing evil or tragic developments. Stemming from evil
characteristics or forces.Wicked
being morally bad in principle or practice. Having committed unrighteous
acts. Intensely or extremely bad or unpleasant in degree or quality.
Highly offensive; arousing aversion or disgust.
is being deceptive or
; disposed to
cheat or defraud or deceive
go hand in
hand. There are no intelligent evil people. When you hear people say that
a criminal is smart, what they mean to say is that the criminal has gone
to school, but failed to learn what's important. Though they are smart in
certain subjects, they are not intelligent. They are in fact extremely
dangerous because they
believe that they are smart.
Good is the opposite of Evil
, when good prevails, evil is defeated.Problem
states that just because there is
goodness in people
, how could
there be evil? Evil is not just the absence of goodness, it is
the absence of
is believed to be a place of torment and punishment in an
afterlife. Hell can also be seen as a life filled with suffering and
is the consequences of one's conduct are the
ultimate basis for any judgment about the rightness or wrongness of that
conduct. Thus, from a consequentialist standpoint, a morally right act
(or omission from acting) is one that will produce a good outcome, or
is a lack of feeling, emotion, interest, and concern. Apathy is a state of
indifference, or the suppression of emotions such as concern, excitement,
motivation, and/or passion. An apathetic individual has an absence of
interest in or concern about emotional, social, spiritual, philosophical
and/or physical life and the world.
is the inability to "put oneself in other peoples'
is being unremorseful.
persistent in wrongdoing.
is a person who
shows no gratitude. An ungrateful person.
is concealing crafty designs for advancing your own interest.
(astute, defraud or Scam
: A fraudulent
is the forbidding of an action based on the belief
that such behavior is either too sacred or too accursed for ordinary
individuals to undertake. Such prohibitions are present in virtually all
societies. The word has been somewhat expanded in the social sciences to
strong prohibitions relating to any area of human activity or custom that
is sacred or forbidden based on moral judgment and religious beliefs.
"Breaking a taboo" is usually considered objectionable by society in
general, not merely a subset of a culture.
is a crime which involves acts that
interfere with the operations of society and the ability of people to
function efficiently", i.e., it is behavior that has been labeled criminal
because it is contrary to shared norms, social values, and customs.
"If you have good information and good knowledge
you are most likely to do good things."
"If you have bad information and bad knowledge you are most
likely to do bad things."
was a king that was punished for his
self-aggrandizing craftiness and deceitfulness. His punishment
was being forced to roll an immense boulder up a hill, only to
watch it come back to hit him, and then was forced to repeat
this action for eternity.
is the trait of displaying
by patronizing those
. A communication that
indicates lack of respect
by patronizing the recipient.
Lack of affability
to your inferiors and temporary
differences of position or rank
is characteristic of those
who treat others with condescension.
is to dislike someone or something.
is abusive language or behavior towards someone.
damage the reputation of someone and cause someone to be distrusted or
disbelieved, or bring shame or dishonor to someone.
is a behavior that perceives a
person or a thing to be worthless and not deserving of
or careful thought or consideration. A disregard for something
that should be taken into account. Prejudice. Contempt can also mean the
offense of being disrespectful to a court of law and its officers.
is to violate a persons
to be treated
fairly and politely. Being disrespectful is ignoring the facts of a
situation and ignoring human standards of morality when communicating with
someone or expressing behavior around someone. To be
or discriminating. Unkind.
You think that you're better then others, or superior to others
just because you have more, or have done more, or have gone to
better schools. But that doesn't make you better or does it make
other people insignificant or worthless. It only makes you a
person who has more potential. And potential is not a right to
be prejudice or ignorant towards other people, because that
would be a waste of potential, and a waste of time. So if you
are smarter, then that means you must have learned that
condescension is pure prejudice and
. Just because
other people don't live up to your standards, or haven't
benefited from life the same way that you have, does not make
other people insignificant or worthless. People are not abusing
themselves or struggling on purpose because they're stupid, they
do it for the same reasons that you do, because they have not
learned enough. Pride
is good, but not when pride turns into a form of prejudice and
disrespect towards other people. Self-respect is not a reason to
is a courteous regard for people's feelings, and also, respect
is common sense in knowing that being nice to people has lot
more benefits that not being nice to people. When you are aware
of other people, instead of being weary of or judgmental, then
you start seeing people more clearly, and you also start
listening more carefully
, so you hear more and understand more.
kills communication, so that means that prejudice is a
threat to life. Prejudice
is the highest form of ignorance a person can have, it's not
only illogical and wrong, it's a form of violence against
others, and violence against yourself. If you really believe
that your life is special then you would want more people to
understand it, and not be victimized by it. And
shouldn't feel inferior just because they see other people who
have more. One of the mains reasons why we have poor people is
not because we have rich people, it's because we have too much
ignorance in our world.
does not buy intelligence, as we
can clearly see, and clearly not see. Poor people have fewer
opportunities, they have less access to informational services,
and a lower quality of educational services. But when people
finally become more educated and learn the things that we should
be learning, then everyone will live better lives, and no will
have to waste time looking up at people, unless that person is a
source of inspiration. And no one would
have to waste time looking down on people, unless they were
helping them up.
is a life sentence of misery, because there will never a day in
your life that will go by that you will not experience anger or
frustration. This is not to say that you will never be able to
laugh or experience happiness, it's just that those moments will
always be interrupted by misery. So you see, prejudice is not
it's bad for your health, and it reduces your quality of life. Even if you
become successful, it will not matter, prejudice will ruin your life. And
it might not be that obvious at first, but it will be, and then you will
realize how illogical it is, and how bad it is, and how bad it is for the
people around you. A life without prejudice is a beautiful life. But a
beautiful life will never happen if you allow prejudice to be part of it.
"Out of all the prejudice people that I have
ever known in my life, I notice one particular thing about them,
they were always the most miserable people I knew. Even though I
did see them experience happiness, it was never for long."
Me, Me, Me
is being concerned chiefly or only with
, and your
advantage to the exclusion of others. Denoting the precedence
given in thought or deed to the self, i.e., self-interest or
self concern.- Bias
is taking advantage
of opportunities without regard for the
for others. Concerned with mostly your own interests and welfare and not
an unhealthy self-absorption due to a disturbance
in the sense of self. - Ego
Narcissistic Personality Disorder
is a long-term pattern of
abnormal behavior characterized by exaggerated feelings of
self-importance, an excessive need for admiration, and a lack of
understanding of others' feelings. People affected by it often spend a lot
of time thinking about achieving power or success, or about their
appearance. They often take advantage of the people around them. The
behavior typically begins by early adulthood, and occurs across a variety
is a philosophy
stressing the worth of
. A focus on the
individual as opposed to
is taking advantage of opportunities without regard for
It's extremely important that you
, because the mind and body needs care. But when the Love
you have for yourself makes other people suffer, or requires other people
to make sacrifices, or requires you to steal from other people, then
that's not love, that's just a sad excuse for being an a*shole.
is someone who acts without compassion
towards humans. A behavior or process that undermines
and in others.
a tendency to
personal gain. - Profit
is disregarding a person's integrity, morality,
authenticity, or principles in exchange for personal gain, such as money.
is the regard for one's own happiness or advantage
over others. Not to be confused with self-respect or loving your self.
a culture of narcissism among the younger generation. From 1946 to 1964,
became ignorant mindless consumers because of our inadequate
education system. This poor education caused "self-realization
and "self-fulfillment" to be confused with
many mistakes were made.
Marx's Theory of Alienation
describes the estrangement of
people as a consequence of living in a society of
. The alienation from the self is a consequence of being a
mechanistic part of a
, the condition of which estranges a
person from their humanity.
a pejorative term referring to any philosophy,
doctrine, or tendency that upholds explicitly selfish principles as being
(sometimes called egoism), the belief that only
one's self exists, or that only the experiences of one's self can be
is the belief that human beings are the
central or most significant species
on the planet (in the sense that they are considered to have a moral
status or value higher than that of all other organisms), or the
assessment of reality through an exclusively human perspective.
the belief in self as a deity.
is the belief that "being" itself transcends and
comprehends all other beings.
the view that
humans are always motivated by self-interest. Ego
the ethical position that moral agents ought
to do what is in their own self-interest.
is the belief that an action is rational if
and only if it maximizes one's self-interest.
a philosophy based on
(pretend to know)
the school of ethics which argues that
is the only
system related to hedonism.
Can Narcissists Be Empathic
a philosophy which states that
acting to further the interests of others also serves one's own
is a feeling of self-respect and personal worth. Satisfaction with
your (or another's) achievements. Feeling pleasurable
satisfaction over something by which you measure your
self-worth. Not over Confident
Seven Social Processes that Grease the Slippery Slope of Evil
Mindlessly taking the first small step.
Dehumanization of others.
De-individuation of self (anonymity).
Diffusion of personal responsibility.
Blind Obedience to Authority.
Uncritical conformity to group norms.
Passive tolerance of evil through inaction or indifference.
Philip Zimbardo: The Psychology of Evil
Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde
is a person who is vastly different in
moral character from one situation to the next.
is another word for the devil, though the word has
other meanings too.
Understanding How Good People Turn Evil.
-- a divided human; the belief that
a human being is comprised of an
between (1) the instinctual desires of the human
of the four "Fs"
Fight, Flee, Feed, Fornication) and (2) the
desire to follow and obey
(rules, morals, and
ethics) to maintain self-control
Two Wrongs Don't Make a Right
means that using an ignorant excuse to
explain why you did something wrong and bad
, just because someone else did
a similar wrong and bad thing, is not a
. Just because someone else did something
stupid, that doesn't give you the right to repeat another stupid action. You
your own actions. You can't blame
others for what you did wrong.
is to admit or acknowledge a wrongdoing or
is a defense of some offensive
behavior or some failure to keep a promise etc.. Serve as a reason or
cause or justification of. Defend, explain, clear away, or make excuses
for by reasoning
is a rational motive for a belief or
action. An explanation of the cause of some phenomenon. A
existing or happening.Explanation
statement that makes something comprehensible by describing the relevant
structure or operation or circumstances etc.. Thought that makes something
comprehensible. The act of explaining; making something plain or
that uses the response "What about so and so?" a
to discredit the opponent's position by asserting the opponent's failure
to act consistently in accordance with that position, without directly
refuting or disproving the opponent's initial argument. (like when a 4
year old says "Jimmy gets away with everything, why can't I?").
is never the answer.
Eye for an Eye
will leave everyone blind.
Rule of Three
is whatever energy a person puts out into the world, be it positive or
negative, will be returned to that person three times. (threefold).
What Goes Around Comes Around
Cause and Effect
- ConsequencesReap what you Sow
Bad is Bad
It's not Money that's bad
, it's the perversion of Money that
It's not Religion that's bad, it's the perversion of Religion
that causes problems.
It's not Democracy that's bad, it's the perversion of Democracy
that causes problems.
It's not Politics that's bad, it's the perversion of Politics
that causes problems.
It's not the Military that's bad, it's the perversion of the
Military that causes problems.
, manipulation, negative influences, distortion of
"Even if I'm wrong I'm
still right, because I'm doing what's right, so how can I be
"There's a big difference between
making a mistake
"If you tell the truth,
it becomes a part of your past. If you lie, it becomes a part of
is when our conscience (or common sense) represents an angel on one
shoulder, while our temptations represents a devil on the other shoulder.
So the angle on your shoulder represents the good
reasons why or why not
to do something, and the Devil
represents just your
emotions, that are mostly based on what you want, and not what you
differentiation of intentions, decisions, and actions between those that
are distinguished as proper and those that are improper. Morality can be a
body of standards or principles derived from a code of conduct from a
particular philosophy, religion, or culture, or it can derive from a
standard that a person believes should be universal. Morality may also be
specifically synonymous with "goodness" or "rightness."
is an ethical view that particular actions
are intrinsically right or wrong.
is an inner sense which
distinguishes what is right from what is wrong, functioning as a guide
(like the needle of a compass) for morally appropriate behavior.
aptitude, faculty, intuition or judgment that assists in distinguishing
right from wrong. Awareness
quality of being honest and having strong moral principles; moral
uprightness. It is generally a personal choice to hold oneself to
consistent moral and ethical standards.
is conducting oneself based on their own set of
are principles for how individuals ought to treat one
another, with respect to justice, others' welfare, and rights.
Lawrence Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development
holds that moral
reasoning, the basis for ethical behavior, has six identifiable
developmental stages, each more adequate at responding to moral dilemmas
than its predecessor. The six stages of moral development are grouped into
three levels: pre-conventional morality, conventional morality, and
is the capability to reflect on your situation, to form
intentions about how you will act, and then to carry out that action.
an individual's ability to make moral judgments based on some notion of
right and wrong and to be held accountable for these actions. A moral
agent is "a being who is capable of acting with reference to right and
refer to the study of moral development, moral
judgment, moral reasoning, moral sensitivity, moral responsibility,
moral motivation, moral identity, moral action, moral development, moral
diversity, moral character (especially as related to virtue ethics),
altruism, psychological egoism, moral luck, moral forecasting, moral
emotion, affective forecasting, and moral disagreement.
is a trait
or quality deemed to be morally good and thus is valued as a foundation of
principle and good moral being. Personal virtues are characteristics
valued as promoting collective and individual greatness. The opposite of
virtue is vice,
which is having moral
Arete (moral virtue)
is excellence of any kind. Excellence is the quality of
excelling; possessing good qualities in high degree. An outstanding
feature; something in which something or someone excels.
is the innate right to be valued
respected, and to receive ethical treatment.
is a branch of philosophy
that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of
is a complex situation that often involves
an apparent mental
between moral imperatives, in which to obey one would
result in transgressing another. Sometimes called ethical paradoxes in
moral philosophy, ethical dilemmas are often invoked in an attempt to
refute an ethical system or moral code, or to improve it so as to
resolve the paradox
is one whose judgment
on ethics and ethical codes has come to be trusted by a specific
community, and (importantly) is expressed in some way that makes it
possible for others to mimic or approximate that judgment. Following the
advice of ethicists is one means of acquiring knowledge.
Oaths of Service
is an ethical doctrine that holds that the
moral value of an individual's actions depend solely on the impact on
other individuals, regardless of the consequences on the individual
itself. "An action is morally right if the consequences of that action
are more favorable than unfavorable to everyone except the agent."
"living for the sake of others. One who holds to either of these ethics
is known as an "altruist."
is the normative ethical position that
judges the morality of an action based on the action's adherence to a
rule or rules. It is sometimes described as "Duty
-" or "Obligation
"rule-" based ethics, because rules "bind you to your duty."
Deontological ethics is commonly contrasted to consequentialism, virtue
ethics, and pragmatic ethics. In this terminology, action is more
important than the consequences.
is the attempt to offer a rational
response to the question of how humans should best
is the branch of ethics that seeks to understand the
nature of ethical properties, statements, attitudes, and judgments.
Meta-ethics is one of the four branches of ethics generally recognized by
philosophers, the others being descriptive ethics, normative ethics and
is the name normally given to Aristotle's
best-known work on ethics. The work, which plays a pre-eminent role in
defining Aristotelian ethics, consists of ten books, originally separate
scrolls, and is understood to be based on notes from his lectures at the
Ethics and Compliance Needs
Codes of Conduct
is a set of rules outlining the social
norms and rules and responsibilities of, or proper practices for, an
individual, party or organization. Related concepts include ethical,
honor, moral codes and religious laws.
is a form of training with the goal of
making people more aware of their own prejudices and more sensitive to
Diffusion of Responsibility
Automatic and Controlled
The Capacity and the Ability to be a Good Citizen.
is an "intelligence" that is devoted to
addressing public or civic
. The term has been applied to individuals and, more commonly,
to collective bodies, like organizations, institutions, or societies.
is the study of the theoretical and practical
aspects of citizenship
its rights and duties; the duties of citizens to each other as members
of a political body and to the government. It includes the study of
civil law and civil code, and the study of government with attention to
the role of citizens ― as opposed to external factors ― in the operation
and oversight of government.
is when an individual takes account of the behavior of others and is
thereby oriented in its course.
describes the teaching of children
in a manner that will help them develop variously as moral, civic, good,
mannered, behaved, non-bullying, healthy, critical, successful,
traditional, compliant or socially acceptable beings.
Character and Leadership
Good Samaritan Law
offers legal protection to people
who give reasonable assistance to those who are, or who they believe to
be, injured, ill, in peril, or otherwise incapacitated. The protection
is intended to reduce bystanders' hesitation to assist, for fear of
being sued or prosecuted for unintentional injury or wrongful death.
is individual and
identify and address issues of public concern.
100 Civics Questions
is the love of humanity, in the sense of caring, nourishing, developing,
and enhancing what it means to be human. In this meaning, it involves
both the benefactor in their identifying and exercising their values,
and the beneficiary in their receipt and benefit from the service or
goods provided. A conventional modern definition is "private
initiatives, for the
, focusing on quality of life."
means the voluntary giving of help to those in
need, as a humanitarian act.
do people give more to individuals then groups?
is the process by which people give
moral values to others. It can be an activity that can take place in any
organisation during which people are assisted by others, who may be
older, in a position of authority or are more experienced, to make
explicit those values underlying their own behaviour, to assess the
effectiveness of these values and associated behaviour for their own and
others' long term well-being and to reflect on and acquire other values
and behaviour which they recognise as being more effective for long term
well-being of self and others. There is a difference between literacy
Learn to Be
Learning to Be
National Training Laboratories
Charter for Compassion
and Actions. Follows rules that are used as a
basis for reasoning
Can explain the
Codes of Conduct
as a set of conventional principles and
the expectations we have from each other.
is wrongful, improper, or
. Avoids being motivated by premeditated or intentional
purpose or by obstinate indifference
to the consequences of one's acts.
Do the Ends Justify the Means?
accurately evaluate motivations
for actions taken.
Oaths of Service
by identifying the ethical reasoning of morality and by knowing how to
make decisions based on rights, values, duties, or principles that are (or
could be) universal.
Guides used for determining right
and how it involves the integration of
attitudes, values, standards and the opinions of others into one's own
identity or sense of self, without blindly
which is being fair and open in human
interactions. Sincere, honest intentions or belief, regardless of the
of an action.
Understands that a
is what a person accepts as being of ultimate
understanding of the Acquisition and Clarification of
Personal Values Acceptable by
Understands that the
is what is shared and beneficial for all members of
a given community, which is achieved by collective action, and active
participation in the realm of public service
Knowing the differences between a
Knowledge of Moral Practices by studying and understanding the
Experiences of others
Has a clear understanding
"Treat others as you would want others to
treat you, and treat yourself
the same way"
are not just smart people who know lots of
facts, or people who can reason in abstract and impressive ways. They also
have the skills and the mindset necessary for democratic
In other words, they have civic character.
This includes a
commitment to the common good, a willingness to enter the public
sphere and debate political and ethical issues, and the skills
necessary for learning about, intellectually digesting, and
responding publicly to societal issues and challenges.
Marvin W. Berkowitz, Professor of Character Education University
“Man has been called a rational being, but
rationality is a matter of choice... Man has to be a man–by
choice; he has to hold his life as a value–by choice; he has to
learn to sustain it–by choice; he has to discover the values it
requires and practice his virtues by choice. A code of values
accepted by choice is a code of morality.”
(Part 3, Chapter 7, Page 1,013)