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Information Literacy - Analyzing Information Techniques

Information Symbol
Information Literacy is a set of abilities to recognize when information is needed and have the ability to locate, evaluate, filter and use effectively the needed information to solve a problem or to make a more accurate decision. Other definitions incorporate aspects of skepticism, judgment, free thinking, questioning, and understanding. Competencies that an informed citizen of an information society ought to possess to participate intelligently and actively in that society.

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Media Literacy and Information Literacy are corresponding subjects and skills that work together in unison.
Reading Comprehension is also similar, and coincides within the characteristics of IL.
Problem Solving and Information Literacy also are closely related and used in unison.

Freedom of Information Rights to Access Information.
Knowledge Management
Education Reform

Imagine being in another country not being able to speak a foreign language, you would have no idea what other people were saying. know imagine being able to speak the same language as someone, a conversation would be much easier. But what if someone were lying to you, or what if someone were telling you something that manipulated your understanding, then you would still have a communication problem. So even if you speak the same language, there is no guarantee that the information you're receiving is accurate. And if you never learn what certain words mean, like when a Doctor try's to explain a medical condition to you, when you don't understand the meaning of certain words, then you will not fully understand the message. Welcome to information literacy.

Information Overload
Big Data - Data - Digital
Wikipedia Information Sources
Social Networks

The Ability to Analyze Information is every humans most Valuable Skill. So learning the knowledge and skills that helps define the Processes that are used to analyze information are extremely important. And then those skills need to be Measured, Confirmed, Maintained and Updated accordingly. How information is Conveyed is extremely important. Certain information takes more the just a title and an introduction. Information sometimes needs multiple Mediums and many different Explanations in order for it to be understood by a wide range of people with many different levels of education and understanding. You must then Organize and Categorize Information so that people can easily navigate through all the knowledge and associations that are related to that particular information. You don't have to know all the details to every bit of knowledge, you just need to know when that knowledge is important and when to seek more of that particular Knowledge. Information also needs to be easily transferable into Snippets and Manageable Chunks so that people can take and use this information for their own educational needs.


Information is a collection of facts from which conclusions may be drawn. Knowledge acquired through study or experience or instruction. Information is that which informs, an answer to a question of some kind. It is also that from which data and knowledge can be derived, as data represents values attributed to parameters, and knowledge signifies understanding of real things or abstract concepts. As it regards data, the information's existence is not necessarily coupled to an observer (it exists beyond an event horizon, for example), while in the case of knowledge, the information requires a cognitive observer.

Information Management (IM) concerns a cycle of organizational activity: the acquisition of information from one or more sources, the custodianship and the distribution of that information to those who need it, and its ultimate disposition through archiving or deletion.
Backupchinese knowledge symbol - Knowledge Preservation
Structured Analysis are methods for analyzing and converting business requirements into specifications and ultimately, computer programs, hardware configurations and related manual procedures.

Information Asymmetry deals with the study of decisions in transactions where one party has more or better information than the other. This creates an imbalance of power in transactions, which can sometimes cause the transactions to go away, a kind of market failure in the worst case. Examples of this problem are adverse selection, moral hazard, and information monopoly.
Complete Information is when knowledge about participants is available to all participants. Common knowledge gives equal power of knowledge to everyone thus reduces unfair practices or criminal activity that results from people knowing more then you, and then exploiting your ignorance in their favor.

Minimum Information Standards is a set of guidelines for reporting data derived by relevant methods in biosciences. If followed, it ensures that the data can be easily verified, analysed and clearly interpreted by the wider scientific community. Keeping with these recommendations also facilitates the foundation of structuralized databases, public repositories and development of data analysis tools.

Informatics involves the practice of information processing, and the engineering of information systems. The field considers the interaction between humans and information alongside the construction of interfaces, organisations, technologies and systems.

Information Systems  is any organized system for the collection, organization, storage and communication of information. More specifically, it is the study of complementary networks that people and organizations use to collect, filter, process, create and distribute data.
Information Technology (IT) is the application of computers and internet to store, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data, or information, often in the context of a business or other enterprise. IT is considered a subset of information and communications technology (ICT).
Information Technology
Information Technology Management is the discipline whereby all of the information technology resources of a firm are managed in accordance with its needs and priorities. These resources may include tangible investments like computer hardware, software, data, networks and data centre facilities, as well as the staff who are hired to maintain them.
Information Communications Technology (ICT) is an extended term for information technology (IT) which stresses the role of unified communications.
TAFIM - Technical Architecture Framework for Information Management.
Strategic Information Systems are developed in response to corporate business initiative. They are intended to give competitive advantage to the organization. They may deliver a product or service that is at a lower cost, that is differentiated, that focuses on a particular market segment, or is innovative.
Information Architecture is the structural design of shared information environments; the art and science of organizing and labelling websites, intranets, online communities and software to support usability and findability; and an emerging community of practice focused on bringing principles of design and architecture to the digital landscape.
Information Security
Physical Information refers generally to the information that is contained in a physical system. Its usage in quantum mechanics (i.e. quantum information) is important, for example in the concept of quantum entanglement to describe effectively direct or causal relationships between apparently distinct or spatially separated particles.
Information Technology Infrastructure Library is a set of practices for IT service management (ITSM) that focuses on aligning IT services with the needs of business.
Information System is any organized system for the collection, organization, storage and communication of information. More specifically, it is the study of complementary networks that people and organizations use to collect, filter, process, create and distribute data.

Information Extraction is the task of automatically extracting structured information from unstructured and/or semi-structured machine-readable documents. In most of the cases this activity concerns processing human language texts by means of natural language processing (NLP). Recent activities in multimedia document processing like automatic annotation and content extraction out of images/audio/video could be seen as information extraction.

Information Assurance is the practice of assuring information and managing risks related to the use, processing, storage, and transmission of information or data and the systems and processes used for those purposes. Information assurance includes protection of the integrity, availability, authenticity, non-repudiation and confidentiality of user data.

Quantum Information Science is an area of study based on the idea that information science depends on quantum effects in physics.
Information Theory studies the quantification, storage, and communication of information.

Library Science is an interdisciplinary or multidisciplinary field that applies the practices, perspectives, and tools of management, information technology, education, and other areas to Libraries; the collection, organization, preservation, and dissemination of information resources; and the economy of information.
Information Science is concerned with the analysis, collection, classification, manipulation, storage, retrieval, movement, dissemination, and protection of information. Information Science
Library and Information Sciences is a merging of library science and information science.
Library (computing) is a collection of non-volatile resources used by computer programs, often to develop software. These may include configuration data, documentation, help data, message templates, pre-written code and subroutines, classes, values or type specifications.

Network Science

Archival Science is the study and theory of building and curating archives, which are collections of recordings and data storage devices. To build and curate an archive, one must acquire and evaluate recorded materials, and be able to access them later. To this end, archival science seeks to improve methods for appraising, storing, preserving, and cataloging recorded materials. An archival record preserves data that is not intended to change. In order to be of value to society, archives must be trustworthy. Therefore, an archivist has a responsibility to authenticate archival materials, such as historical documents, and to ensure their reliability, integrity, and usability. Archival records must be what they claim to be; accurately represent the activity they were created for; present a coherent picture through an array of content; and be in usable condition in an accessible location.
An archive curator is called an archivist; the curation of an archive is called archive administration.

Tag Metadata  is a non-hierarchical keyword or term assigned to a piece of information (such as an Internet bookmark, digital image, or computer file). This kind of metadata helps describe an item and allows it to be found again by browsing or searching. Tags are generally chosen informally and personally by the item's creator or by its viewer, depending on the system.
Information Lifecycle Management refers to a wide-ranging set of strategies for administering storage systems on computing devices.

Information Governance is the set of multi-disciplinary structures, policies, procedures, processes and controls implemented to manage information at an enterprise level, supporting an organization's immediate and future regulatory, legal, risk, environmental and operational requirements. Data Governance
Information Technology Governance is a subset discipline of corporate governance, focused on information and technology (IT) and its performance and risk management. The interest in IT governance is due to the ongoing need within organizations to focus value creation efforts on an organization's strategic objectives and to better manage the performance of those responsible for creating this value in the best interest of all. Open Government
Information integration describe and model how a person integrates information from a number of sources in order to make an overall judgment.
Information Market providers and users exchanging information in place of sellers and buyers trading goods and services, respectively.
Information Society
Certified Information Systems Auditor (CISA) is a globally recognized certification in the field of audit, control and security of information systems.
Units of information
Entropy (information theory) in information theory, systems are modeled by a transmitter, channel, and receiver. The transmitter produces messages that are sent through the channel. The channel modifies the message in some way. The receiver attempts to infer which message was sent. In this context, entropy (more specifically, Shannon entropy) is the expected value (average) of the information contained in each message. 'Messages' can be modeled by any flow of information.
UC Merced Cognitive and Information Sciences

Information Age
Information Stations

A message received and understood. Knowledge acquired through study or experience or instruction. A collection of facts from which conclusions may be drawn. 
Information (wiki)

Information Processing is the change (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer. As such, it is a process that describes everything that happens (changes) in the universe, from the falling of a rock (a change in position) to the printing of a text file from a digital computer system.
Question Mark Man
Information Processing System is a system (be it electrical, mechanical or biological) which takes information (a sequence of enumerated symbols or states) in one form and processes (transforms) it into another form, e.g. to statistics, by an algorithmic process. An information processing system is made up of four basic parts, or sub-systems:
Input, Processor, Storage, Output.
Information Text Comprehension
Information Extraction

Information Action Ratio indicate the relationship between a piece of information and what action, if any, a consumer of that information might reasonably be expected to take once learning it.
Information Gain Ratio is a ratio of information gain to the intrinsic information. It is used to reduce a bias towards multi-valued attributes by taking the number and size of branches into account when choosing an attribute.
Mutual Information of two random Variables is a measure of the mutual dependence between the two variables. More specifically, it quantifies the "amount of information" (in units such as bits) obtained about one random variable, through the other random variable. The concept of mutual information is intricately linked to that of entropy of a random variable, a fundamental notion in information theory, that defines the "amount of information" held in a random variable.

Intelligence Analysis - Analyze

Knowledge Extraction is the creation of knowledge from structured (relational databases, XML) and unstructured (text, documents, images) sources. The resulting knowledge needs to be in a machine-readable and machine-interpretable format and must represent knowledge in a manner that facilitates inferencing.
Information Literacy the ability to know when there is a need for information, to be able to identify, locate, evaluate, and effectively use that information for the issue or problem at hand.
Information Literacy Forum

Philosophy of Information 
Information Institute
Information Sciences Institute
Profiling Practices


Learning Methods
Information Management
Data Visualization

Scientific Examinations
The Information Age
Media Literacy

Information Literacy is mastering the ability to gather appropriate facts and then creatively leverage those facts towards a Learning Objective. A distinct skill set of competencies to intelligently and actively Recognize when information is needed and have the ability to locate, acquire, Collate, evaluate, and use effectively the needed Information for any situation. Acquire needed information using Books, Digital Technology, Visual Images, Mathematics, Communication Tools, Networks, Libraries, Universities and so on. The student who is information literate accesses information efficiently and effectively, Evaluates Information Critically and competently and uses Information accurately and Creatively. You also need to effectively filter Noise.

De-identification is the process used to prevent a person’s identity from being connected with information.

Information Literacy is about giving people the ability to quickly understand information without being distracted by the information, or overwhelmed by the information, or manipulated by the information. This way people can quickly and accurately measure progress, goals and daily operations, which will leave more time for people to enjoy life, while continuing to learn, and continually making improvements. There is no need to complicate things more then they need to be, or make something more difficult or confusing by causing it to be more complex.
Information Theory
Knowledge Management

The Big Six Skills used in Information Literacy

Big 6 Skills
Problem Solving

1. The first step in the Information Literacy strategy is to clarify and understand the requirements of the Problem or task for which information is sought.
Abstraction Conceptual abstractions may be formed by filtering the information content of a concept or an observable phenomenon, selecting only the aspects which are relevant for a particular purpose.

Basic questions asked at this stage:
1. What is known about the topic? (well-formed statements and all questions considered)
2. What information is needed?     Information Visualization   Needs  Thinking Styles
3. Where can the information be found? 
Information Sources
Human Search Engine

2. Locating:
The second step is to identify sources of information and to find those resources. Depending upon the task, sources that will be helpful may vary. Sources may include books, encyclopedias, maps, almanacs, etc. Sources may be in electronic, print, social bookmarking tools, or other formats. 
Information Retrieval is the activity of obtaining information resources relevant to an information need from a collection of information resources. Searches can be based on full-text or other content-based indexing.
Document Retrieval
Text Retrieval is defined as the matching of some stated user query against a set of free-text records. These records could be any type of mainly unstructured text, such as newspaper articles, real estate records or paragraphs in a manual. User queries can range from multi-sentence full descriptions of an information need to a few words.
Image Retrieval a computer system for browsing, searching and retrieving images from a large database of digital images. Most traditional and common methods of image retrieval utilize some method of adding metadata such as captioning', keywords, or descriptions to the images so that retrieval can be performed over the annotation words.
Extenuating Circumstances
Doubt - Bias
Reliable Sources

3. Selecting - Analyzing:
Step three involves examining the resources that were found. The information must be determined to be useful or not useful in solving the problem. Processing The useful resources are selected and the inappropriate resources are rejected.
Image Differencing
Verification - Validation
Correspondence Analysis

4. Organizing - Synthesizing:
It is in the fourth step this information which has been selected is organized and processed so that Knowledge and solutions are developed.

Examples of basic steps in this stage are:
1. Discriminating between Fact and Opinion.         Cryptography                Bayesian Inference
2. Basing comparisons on similar characteristics.      Mutual Information       Understanding
3. Noticing various interpretations of data.               Pattern Recognition      Meanings - Labels
4. Finding more information if needed.                    Internet Searches          Requirements Elicitation
5. Organizing ideas and information logically.           Consequentialism          Coincidence

5. Creating - Presenting:
In step five the information or solution is presented to the appropriate audience in an appropriate format. A paper is written. A presentation is made. Drawings, illustrations, and Graphs are presented.  
Digital Technology

6. Evaluation:
The final step in the Information Literacy strategy involves the critical evaluation of the completion of the task or the new understanding of the concept. Was the problem solved? Was new Knowledge found? What could have been done differently? What was done well?

Inquiry Based Learning Process

Self Directed Learning
Information Stations
Information Knowledge Base
Information Sources


Data is a set of values of qualitative or quantitative variables. Pieces of data are individual pieces of information.
Data is a collection of Facts from which conclusions may be drawn. An item of factual information derived from Measurement or Research. Software
Data Management comprises all the disciplines related to managing data as a valuable resource.
Data Governance is a control that ensures that the data entry by an operations team member or by an automated process meets precisely standards, such as a Business rule, a data definition and data integrity constraints in the data model. The data governor uses data quality monitoring against production data to communicate errors in data back to operational team members, or to the technical support team, for corrective action. Data governance is used by organizations to exercise control over processes and methods used by their data stewards and data custodians in order to improve data quality.
Information Governance
Data Structure is a particular way of organizing data in a computer so that it can be used efficiently. Data structures can implement one or more particular abstract data types (ADT), which specify the operations that can be performed on a data structure and the computational complexity of those operations.
List of Data Structures
Unstructured Data refers to information that either does not have a pre-defined data model or is not organized in a pre-defined manner. Structure
Structured Data Analysis (statistics) is the statistical data analysis of structured data. This can arise either in the form of an a priori structure such as multiple-choice questionnaires or in situations with the need to search for structure that fits the given data, either exactly or approximately. This structure can then be used for making comparisons, predictions, manipulations etc.
Extract, Transform, Load ETL refers to a process in database usage and especially in data warehousing that performs:
Data Extraction – extracts data from similar or dissimilar data sources. H.S.E.
Data Transformationtransforms the data for storing it in the proper format or structure for the purposes of querying and analysis
Data Loading – loads it into the final target (database, more specifically, operational data store, data mart, or data warehouse)
Since the data extraction takes time, it is common to execute the three phases in parallel. While the data is being extracted, another transformation process executes. It processes the already received data and prepares it for loading. As soon as there is some data ready to be loaded into the target, the data loading kicks off without waiting for the completion of the previous phases. ETL systems commonly integrate data from multiple applications (systems), typically developed and supported by
different vendors or hosted on separate computer hardware. The disparate systems containing the original data
are frequently managed and operated by different employees. For example, a cost accounting system may combine
data from payroll, sales, and purchasing.
Data Warehouse is a system used for reporting and data analysis, and is considered as a core component of business
environment. DWs are central repositories of integrated data from one or more disparate sources. They store current and historical data and are used for creating analytical reports for knowledge workers throughout the enterprise. Examples of reports could range from annual and quarterly comparisons and trends to detailed daily sales analysis. The data stored in the warehouse is uploaded from the operational systems (such as marketing, sales, etc., shown in the figure to the right). The data may pass through an operational data store for additional operations before it is used in the DW for reporting.

Data Analysis is a process of inspecting, cleaning, transforming, and modeling data with the goal of discovering useful information, suggesting conclusions, and supporting decision-making.
Data Processing the collection and manipulation of items of data to produce meaningful information." In this sense it can be considered a subset of information processing, "the change (Processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer a series of operations on data by a computer in order to retrieve or transform or classify information.
Information Processing is the change (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer. As such, it is a process that describes everything that happens (changes) in the universe, from the falling of a rock (a change in position) to the printing of a text file from a digital computer system. In the latter case, an information Processor is changing the form of presentation of that text file.


Data Backup (preserve)
Data Protection
Writing Code

Operating systems automatically Format Partitions with the appropriate File System during the operating system installation process.

Installable File System
File Format
Content Format


Database is an organized collection of data. It is the collection of schemas, tables, queries, reports, views, and other objects. The data are typically organized to model aspects of reality in a way that supports processes requiring information, such as modeling the availability of rooms in hotels in a way that supports finding a hotel with vacancies.
Database Management System
Database Administrator includes capacity planning, installation, configuration, database design, migration, performance monitoring, security, troubleshooting, as well as backup and data recovery. Uses specialized software to store and organize data.
Database Indexing is a data structure that improves the speed of data retrieval operations on a database table at the cost of additional writes and storage space to maintain the index data structure. Indexes are used to quickly locate data without having to search every row in a database table every time a database table is accessed. Indexes can be created using one or more columns of a database table, providing the basis for both rapid random lookups and efficient access of ordered records.
Database Connection
Types of Databases
Database Design
Database Schema
Database Engine
Database Model
Hierarchical Database Model
Intelligent Database
Integrating AI (PDF)

Relational Database is a collection of data items organized as a set of formally-described tables from which data can be accessed or reassembled in many different ways without having to reorganize the database tables.
Relation (database)
Relational Database Management System
Relational Model is an approach to managing data using a structure and language consistent with first-order predicate logic, where all data is represented in terms of tuples, grouped into relations. A database organized in terms of the relational model is a relational database. The purpose of the relational model is to provide a declarative method for specifying data and queries: users directly state what information the database contains and what information they want from it, and let the database management system software take care of describing data structures for storing the data and retrieval procedures for answering queries.
Associative Learning

Data Set corresponds to the contents of a single database table, or a single statistical data matrix, where every column of the table represents a particular variable, and each row corresponds to a given member of the data set in question. The data set lists values for each of the variables, such as height and weight of an object, for each member of the data set. Each value is known as a datum. The data set may comprise data for one or more members, corresponding to the number of rows.
Data Modeling is the process of creating a data model for an information system by applying formal data modeling techniques.
Data Matrix is a matrix of data of dimension n-by-p, where n is the number of samples observed, and p is the number of variables (features) measured in all samples.
Computer Data Storage is a technology consisting of computer components and recording media used to retain digital data. It is a core function and fundamental component of computers.
Computer Memory refers to the computer hardware devices used to store information for immediate use in a computer; it is synonymous with the term "primary storage". Computer memory operates at a high speed, for example random-access memory (RAM), as a distinction from storage that provides slow-to-access program and data storage but offers higher capacities. If needed, contents of the computer memory can be transferred to secondary storage, through a memory management technique called "virtual memory". An archaic synonym for memory is store.
Distributed Data Store is a computer network where information is stored on more than one node, often in a replicated fashion. It is usually specifically used to refer to either a distributed database where users store information on a number of nodes, or a computer network in which users store information on a number of peer network nodes.
Cluster Analysis is the task of grouping a set of objects in such a way that objects in the same group (called a cluster) are more similar (in some sense or another) to each other than to those in other groups (clusters). It is a main task of exploratory data mining, and a common technique for statistical data analysis, used in many fields, including machine learning, pattern recognition, image analysis, information retrieval, bioinformatics, data compression, and computer graphics.

Big Data Stats Levels
Object Database
Comparison of Object Database Management Systems
First-Order Logic
Shard Database Architecture
Database Platforms
Data Architecture
Secondary Data 
Historical Data
Storage Resource Management
Bibliographic Database
Sharing Open Data

Data Processing (EDP) can refer to the use of automated methods to process commercial data. Typically, this uses relatively simple, repetitive activities to process large volumes of similar information.
Electronic Data Processing
Data Center
Data Clustering
Data Model
Data Documentation Initiative 
Logical Data Model
Tibco Software (Cloud Computing)
Data Transfer
Big Data Big Data
Raw Data
Data Mining
Data Farming
Server Farm
Open Data  
International Conference on Data Science and Advanced Analytics
Data Stream
Data Hierarchy
Anomaly Detection
Data Science 
Data Defined Storage
Data Warehouse
Aggregate Data Warehouse
Aggregate Data
Data Compression 
Two-Phase Locking

"The Data is not the Source of Data"

Dark Data:
Operational data that is not being used. Information assets that organizations collect, process and store in the course of their regular business activity, but generally fail to use for other purposes.


Zeros and Ones - On or Off - Stop or Go - Circle or Claviform

Digital Data are discrete, discontinuous representations of information or works, as contrasted with continuous, or analog signals which behave in a continuous manner, or represent information using a continuous function. The words digit and digitus (the Latin word for finger), as fingers are often used for discrete counting.
Digital Media are any media that are encoded in a machine-readable format. Digital media can be created, viewed, distributed, modified and preserved on digital electronics devices. Computer programs and software; digital imagery, digital video; video games; web pages and websites, including social media; data and databases; digital audio, such as mp3s; and e-books are examples of digital media. Digital media are frequently contrasted with print media, such as printed books, newspapers and magazines, and other traditional or analog media, such as pictures, film or audio tape.
Digital Electronics are electronics that handle digital signals – discrete bands of analog levels – rather than by continuous ranges as used in analog electronics. All levels within a band of values represent the same information state. Because of this discretization, relatively small changes to the analog signal levels due to manufacturing tolerance, signal attenuation or noise do not leave the discrete envelope, and as a result are ignored by signal state sensing circuitry.
Digital refers to something using digits, particularly binary digits.
Digital Physics is a collection of theoretical perspectives based on the premise that the universe is, at heart, describable by information. Therefore, according to this theory, the universe can be conceived of as either the output of a deterministic or probabilistic computer program, a vast, digital computation device, or mathematically isomorphic to such a device.
Materialism matter is the fundamental substance in nature, and that all phenomena, including mental phenomena and consciousness, are results of material interactions.
Digital Divide is an economic and social inequality with regard to access to, use of, or impact of information and communication technologies. Knowledge Divide

Logic Gate are primarily implemented using diodes or transistors acting as electronic switches, but can also be constructed using vacuum tubes, electromagnetic relays (relay logic), fluidic logic, pneumatic logic, optics, molecules, or even mechanical elements. With amplification, logic gates can be cascaded in the same way that Boolean functions can be composed, allowing the construction of a physical model of all of Boolean logic, and therefore, all of the algorithms and mathematics that can be described with Boolean logic. Logic Gate is an idealized or physical device implementing a Boolean function; that is, it performs a logical operation on one or more logical inputs, and produces a single logical output. Neurons
Boolean Function describes how to determine a Boolean value output based on some logical calculation from Boolean inputs. Such functions play a basic role in questions of complexity theory as well as the design of circuits and chips for digital computers. The properties of Boolean functions play a critical role in cryptography, particularly in the design of symmetric key algorithms,
Boolean Data Type is a data type, having two values (usually denoted true and false), intended to represent the truth values of logic and Boolean algebra.
Boolean Algebra is the branch of algebra in which the values of the variables are the truth values true and false, usually denoted 1 and 0.

Units of Information is the capacity of some standard data storage system or communication channel, used to measure the capacities of other systems and channels. In information theory, units of information are also used to measure the information contents or entropy of random variables.
Block (data storage) is a sequence of bytes or bits, usually containing some whole number of records, having a maximum length, a block size. Data thus structured are said to be blocked. The process of putting data into blocks is called blocking, while deblocking is the process of extracting data from blocks. Blocked data is normally stored in a data buffer and read or written a whole block at a time. Blocking reduces the overhead and speeds up the handling of the data-stream. For some devices such as magnetic tape and CKD disk devices blocking reduces the amount of external storage required for the data. Blocking is almost universally employed when storing data to 9-track magnetic tape, to NAND flash memory, and to rotating media such as floppy disks, hard disks, and optical discs.

Zeros and Ones Bit is the basic unit of information in computing and digital communications, can have only one of two values, two-state device represented as 0 and 1.
Binary File is a computer file that is not a text file. The term "binary file" is often used as a term meaning "non-text file", being a sequence of bytes, which means the binary digits (bits) are grouped in eights.
Binary Code

1 Byte = 8 Bits   1 Kilobyte = 1000 bytes
1 Megabyte = 1000 Kbytes (1,000,000 bytes (million) (average large digital photograph is 1.5 Megabytes)
1 Gigabyte = 1000 Megabytes (1,000,000,000 bytes (billion)
1 Terabyte = 1000 Gigabytes (1,000,000,000,000 bytes (trillion)
1 Petabyte = 1000000000000000B = 1000 terabytes.
1 Exabyte = 1 Billion Gigabytes (one quintillion bytes)
1 Zettabyte = 1000 Exabytes
1 Yottabyte = 1000 Zettabytes

Qubit is a unit of quantum information.

How much Data is there?

Digital Curation and Preservation
Digital Asset Management

A Bit of History on Data (youtube)
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
De Arte Combinatoria

Forward Error Correction In telecommunication, information theory, and coding theory, forward error correction (FEC) or channel coding is a technique used for controlling errors in data transmission over unreliable or noisy communication channels.

Line Code is a code chosen for use within a communications system for transmitting a digital signal down a line. Line coding is often used for digital data transport.

Data Knowledge
Life is Digital
Building Blocks of Life
Computer Knowledge

"Knowing the reasons for your question will always help you ask the right question, just being inquisitive is not enough."

Socrates argued that the attitude of wanting one’s ideas to be always ‘validated’ and not questioned is intellectually stagnating and is a mark of ‘ignorance’. He pointed this out in his idea of ‘wisdom’. A wise person is one who is always willing to ‘learn’. Such a person assumes tentatively that she does not know. She is willing to methodologically suspend her belief and question it for the purpose of exploring it, to expand her knowledge. The process of questioning—for the purpose of eliciting information and adequate justifications—represents an epistemic attitude which is necessary for critical thinking. Such attitude is often what teachers want to engender in students as critical thinkers.

More about Questioning


Well grounded in Logic or truth or having legal force. Still Legally acceptable. Fact
Validity guarantees the truth of the argument's conclusion. A formula is valid if and only if it is true under every interpretation, and an argument form (or schema) is valid if and only if every argument of that logical form is valid.
Legitimacy is credibility, the quality of being believable or trustworthy. Questioning
Criterion Validity refers to a comparison between the measure in question and an outcome assessed at the same time.
Construct Validity is when a test measures what it claims, or purports, to be measuring.
Test Validity accurately measures what it is supposed to measure. Evidence
Content Validity refers to the extent to which a measure represents all facets of a given construct.
Concurrent Validity is a type of evidence that can be gathered to defend the use of a test for predicting other outcomes.
Predictive Validity is the extent to which a score on a scale or test predicts scores on some criterion measure.
Discriminant Validity tests whether concepts or measurements that are not supposed to be related are, in fact, unrelated.
Convergent Validity refers to the degree to which two measures of constructs that theoretically should be related, are in fact related.
Validity (statistics) is the extent to which a concept, conclusion or measurement is well-founded and corresponds accurately to the real world.
External Validity is the extent to which the results of a study can be generalized to other situations and to other people.
Internal Validity is the extent to which a causal conclusion based on a study is warranted, which is determined by the degree to which a study minimizes systematic error (or 'bias'). It contrasts with external validity, the degree to which it is warranted to generalize results to other contexts.
Face Validity is the extent to which a test is subjectively viewed as covering the concept it purports to measure. It refers to the transparency or relevance of a test as it appears to test participants. In other words, a test can be said to have face validity if it "looks like" it is going to measure what it is supposed to measure. For instance, if a test is prepared to measure whether students can perform multiplication, and the people to whom it is shown all agree that it looks like a good test of multiplication ability, this demonstrates face validity of the test. Face validity is often contrasted with content validity and construct validity.
Statistical Conclusion Validity is the degree to which conclusions about the relationship among variables based on the data are correct or ‘reasonable’.
Ecological Validity is when the methods, materials and setting of the study must approximate the real-world that is being examined.
Subjective Validation is a cognitive Bias by which a person will consider a statement or another piece of information to be correct if it has any personal meaning or significance to them. In other words, a person whose opinion is affected by subjective validation will perceive two unrelated events (i.e., a coincidence) to be related because their personal belief demands that they be related. Closely related to the Forer effect, subjective validation is an important element in cold reading. Fallacies
Morally Sound
Accuracy and Precision (PDF)

Verificationism is only statements that are empirically verifiable (ie. verifiable through the senses) are cognitively meaningful. Verificationism thus rejects as cognitively "meaningless" statements specific to entire fields such as metaphysics, theology, ethics and aesthetics. Such statements may be meaningful in influencing emotions or behavior, but not in terms of truth value, information or factual content. Verificationism was a central thesis of Logical Positivism.

Authentication is the act of confirming the truth of an attribute of a single piece of data (a datum) claimed true by an entity. In contrast with identification which refers to the act of stating or otherwise indicating a claim purportedly attesting to a person or thing's identity, authentication is the process of actually confirming that identity. It might involve confirming the identity of a person by validating their identity documents, verifying the authenticity of a website with a digital certificate, determining the age of an artifact by carbon dating, or ensuring that a product is what its packaging and labeling claim to be. In other words, authentication often involves verifying the validity of at least one form of identification.

Necessity and Sufficiency is the assertion that one statement is a necessary and sufficient condition of another means that the former statement is true if and only if the latter is true. That is, the two statements must be either simultaneously true or simultaneously false.

Certainty is perfect knowledge that has total security from error, or the mental state of being without doubt. Objectively defined, certainty is total continuity and validity of all foundational inquiry, to the highest degree of precision. Something is certain only if no skepticism can occur.

Proved to be true. Confirm the truth of. To declare or affirm solemnly and formally as true. Provide evidence for.
Evidence An indication that makes something evident.

Establish or strengthen as with new evidence or facts. Establish the validity of something. Demonstrate by Math.

Declare to be true or admit the existence or reality or truth of. Generally accepted. Accept as legally binding and valid.

Learning how a Court of Law treats Evidence is good training for debating and researching.

Evidence: witnesses, expert testimony and physical evidence, which is any material object that proves a fact in issue based on the object's demonstrable physical characteristics.
Evidence (science)
Proof (truth) is sufficient evidence or a sufficient argument for the truth of a proposition.
Proofs and Refutations is a book written as a series of Socratic dialogues involving a group of students who debate the proof of the Euler characteristic defined for the polyhedron. A central theme is that definitions are not carved in stone, but often have to be patched up in the light of later insights, in particular failed proofs. This gives mathematics a somewhat experimental flavour. At the end of the Introduction, Lakatos explains that his purpose is to challenge formalism in mathematics, and to show that informal mathematics grows by a logic of "proofs and refutations".
Media Literacy

Someone who sees an event and reports what happened.

Furnished with or supported by documents. Record in detail. Support or supply with references.

A short note recognizing a source of information or of a quoted passage.

Able to exist and perform in harmonious or agreeable combination. Sympathetic compatibility. Bring (several things) into consonance or relate harmoniously. Achieve harmony of opinion, feeling, or purpose. Go together. Be agreeable or suitable.
A harmonious state of things in general and of their properties (as of colors and sounds); Congruity of parts with one another and with the whole. Be in accord; be in agreement. A written agreement between two states or sovereigns. Be compatible, similar or consistent; coincide in their characteristics. An anticipated outcome that is intended or that guides your planned actions.

Having precise or logical relevance to the matter at hand. Being of striking appropriateness and pertinence. Rightness. Appropriate conduct; doing the right thing. The quality of being specially suitable. According with conscience or Morality.

Established by or founded upon law or official or accepted Rules.
Human Rights
Legal Terms

The power or right to give orders or make decisions. (usually plural) persons who exercise (administrative) control over others. An expert whose views are taken as definitive. Freedom from doubt; belief in yourself and your abilities. An administrative unit of government Official permission or approval.
Authority is the right to exercise power given by the State.
Quasi-Judicial Body is an entity such as an arbitrator or tribunal board, generally of a public administrative agency, which has powers and procedures resembling those of a court of law or judge, and which is obliged to objectively determine facts and draw conclusions from them so as to provide the basis of an official action. Such actions are able to remedy a situation or impose legal penalties, and may affect the legal rights, duties or privileges of specific parties.

A document giving an official instruction or command. The power or right to give orders or make decisions.
Authorization is the function of specifying access rights to resources related to information security and computer security in general and to access control in particular.

Accumulated knowledge or erudition or enlightenment. The trait of utilizing knowledge and experience with common sense and insight. Ability to apply knowledge or experience or understanding or common sense and insight. The quality of being prudent and sensible.

Free from error; adapting to fact or truth.  In accord with accepted standards of usage or procedure. To achieve accuracy.
Alter or regulate so as to achieve accuracy or conform to a standard. 
Problem Solving
Information Literacy

The quality of being near to the true value. 
Accuracy and Precision describing both types of observational error above (preferring the term trueness for the common definition of accuracy). a description of systematic errors, a measure of statistical bias;

The capacity for rational thought or inference or discrimination. Characterized by understanding based on comprehension and discernment and empathy.  Know and comprehend the nature or meaning of. Perceive (an idea or situation) mentally.

Capability of existing or performing in harmonious or congenial combination, Suitable to your needs.

Sympathetic is expressing or feeling or resulting from sympathy or compassion or friendly fellow feelings; disposed toward. Showing or motivated by sympathy and understanding and generosity. Having similar disposition and tastes. A relation of affinity or harmony between people; whatever affects one correspondingly affects the other.

Objectivity is judgment based on Facts and Not influenced by emotions or personal prejudices.
Objectivity without biases caused by feelings, ideas or opinions.
Objectification is the act of treating a person, or sometimes an animal, as an object or a thing.
Objective is belonging to immediate experience of actual things or events. Emphasizing or expressing things as perceived without distortion of personal feelings, insertion of fictional matter, or interpretation.

Subjectivity is judgment based on individual personal impressions and feelings and opinions rather than external facts.
Subjectivity (wiki)
Subjective is something taking place within the mind and modified by individual bias. Of a mental act performed entirely within the mind.

Agreement - Diplomacy

Fact is a piece of information about circumstances that exist or events that have occurred.  A statement or assertion of verified information about something that is the case or has happened. An event known to have happened or something known to have existed. A concept whose truth can be proved.  "A Fact is only Fact until it can be Proved Wrong."
Fact is something that has really occurred or is actually the case. The usual test for a statement of fact is verifiability—that is, whether it can be demonstrated to correspond to experience. Standard reference works are often used to check facts. Scientific facts are verified by repeatable careful observation or measurement (by experiments or other means).
"Specific Facts that can be expressed using words with rational inferences from those facts"

A fact that has been verified.  Conformity to Reality or actuality. Valid
Truth is most often used to mean being in accord with fact or reality, or fidelity to an original or standard. Truth may also often be used in modern contexts to refer to an idea of "truth to self," or authenticity.
Veracity is the unwillingness to tell lies.
Words to Describe Intelligence
Correspondence theory of Truth states that the truth or falsity of a statement is determined only by how it relates to the world and whether it accurately describes that world.
Legal Fiction is a fact assumed or created by courts which is then used in order to apply a legal rule. Typically, a legal fiction allows the court to ignore a fact that would prevent it from exercising its jurisdiction, by simply assuming that the fact is different.
Objective Approach to an issue means having due regard for the known valid evidence (relevant facts, logical implications and viewpoints and human purposes) pertaining to that issue. If relevant valid evidence is denied or falsified, an objective approach is impossible. An objective approach is particularly important in science, and in decision-making processes which affect large numbers of people (e.g. politics).
Universality (philosophy) is the notion that universal facts can be discovered and is therefore understood as being in opposition to relativism.
Truth by Consensus is the process of taking statements to be true simply because people generally agree upon them.
Consensus Theory of Truth is the process of taking statements to be true simply because people generally agree upon them.
Revelation is the revealing or disclosing of some form of truth or knowledge through communication with a deity or other supernatural entity or entities.
Propositional Formula is a type of syntactic formula which is well formed and has a truth value. If the values of all variables in a propositional formula are given, it determines a unique truth value.

Consistent with fact or reality; not false. Worthy of being depended on. Having a legally established claim. Worthy of reliance or trust. Have confidence or faith in. Certainty based on past experience.  

“Truth reveals itself in degrees, and we can progress from an incomplete to a more and ever more complete comprehension of truth. Truth is not a thing, not an object that we either have in entirety or have not at all.”  - Goethe

Coherentism There are two distinct types of coherentism. One is the coherence theory of truth; the other, the coherence theory of justification. Coherent truth is divided between an anthropological approach, which applies only to localized networks ('true within a given sample of a population, given our understanding of the population'), and an approach that is judged on the basis of universals, such as categorical sets. The anthropological approach belongs more properly to Correspondence theory, while the universal theories are a small development within Analytic philosophy. The coherentist theory of justification, which may be interpreted as relating to either theory of coherent truth, characterizes epistemic justification as a property of a belief only if that belief is a member of a coherent set. What distinguishes coherentism from other theories of justification is that the set is the primary bearer of justification. As an epistemological theory, coherentism opposes dogmatic foundationalism and also infinitism through its insistence on definitions. It also attempts to offer a solution to the regress argument that plagues correspondence theory. In an epistemological sense, it is a theory about how belief can be proof-theoretically justified. Coherentism is a view about the structure and system of knowledge, or else justified belief. The coherentist's thesis is normally formulated in terms of a denial of its contrary, such as dogmatic foundationalism, which lacks a proof-theoretical framework, or correspondence theory, which lacks universalism. Counterfactualism, through a vocabulary developed by David K. Lewis and his Many worlds theory although popular with philosophers, has had the effect of creating wide disbelief of universals amongst academics. Many difficulties lie in between hypothetical coherence and its effective actualization. Coherentism claims, at a minimum, that not all knowledge AND justified belief rest ultimately on a foundation of noninferential knowledge OR justified belief. To defend this view, they may argue that conjunctions (AND) are more specific, and thus in some way more defensible, than disjunctions (OR).

Not disposed to cheat or defraud; not deceptive or fraudulent. Worthy of being depended on. Without pretensions. Gained or earned without cheating or stealing.  Honesty refers to a facet of moral character and connotes positive and virtuous attributes such as integrity, truthfulness, straightforwardness, including straightforwardness of conduct, along with the absence of lying, cheating, theft, etc. Furthermore, honesty means being trustworthy, loyal, fair, and sincere.
Sincerity is the virtue of one who speaks and acts truly about his or her own feelings, beliefs, thoughts, and desires.

Trust is having faith in someone based on past experiences, information and knowledge. Trusting something or someone without being gullible or assuming that nothing could go wrong. Mistakes Happen
Trust (emotion) is when one party (trustor) is willing to rely on the actions of another party (trustee); the situation is directed to the future. In addition, the trustor (voluntarily or forcedly) abandons control over the actions performed by the trustee. As a consequence, the trustor is uncertain about the outcome of the other's actions; they can only develop and evaluate expectations. The uncertainty involves the risk of failure or harm to the trustor if the trustee will not behave as desired.
Misplaced Loyalty is loyalty placed in other persons or organisations where that loyalty is not acknowledged or respected; is betrayed or taken advantage of. It can also mean loyalty to a malignant or misguided cause.
Loyalty is devotion and faithfulness to a cause, country, group, or person. The act of binding yourself (intellectually or emotionally) to a course of action.
Reliability - Probability

Free from favoritism or self-interest or bias or deception; conforming with established standards or rules. Gained or earned without cheating or stealing. In conformity with the rules or laws and without fraud or cheating.

Genuine, Authentic, Sincere:
Conforming to fact and therefore worthy of belief. Not counterfeit or copied. Not pretended; Sincerely felt or expressed. Not deceitful. Earnest: Characterized by a firm and humorless belief in the validity of your opinions.

Honesty and Accuracy are two different things, because telling the truth is not always accurate. Just because you're honest does not mean that you are correct. To say to someone that they are ugly is subjective. You can say that the person looks different then you, and what those differences mean should be discussed in a way that does not make assumptions, but only makes sense of the concerns that may be a sign of an underlying health issue. Like saying to someone that their breath stinks, to be more correct you should say that I smell your breath, and was wondering if everything is ok?

I honestly don't know what to say. Sometimes being honest is saying nothing at all. Just because you believe that you're being honest, does not mean that your honesty is relevant or necessary. Something's are better left unsaid, unless you are positive that the benefits of your honesty out ways the dangers of someone misunderstanding your intentions.  

Truth is Debatable
Why do people say that you should always speak the truth, especially knowing that when speaking the truth you can sometimes get into serious trouble. And sometimes not saying anything at all can also get into serious trouble, and sometimes it's worse. Speak the truth, but wait for the best time to do it, that's if you can wait, if not, then no regrets, at least you spoke the truth.
And make sure that you know it's true, and that the truth is accurately measuring all the important factors. What is the value of this information, is the information fair? Facts can be confirmed, but the truth is debatable. If it were just information, how valuable would this information be? And can you measure the value of this information accurately? The truth is debatable. That is why we have courts. So that we can openly debate the value of information, and not just what people believe to be the truth. So the truth is, you don't know the complete truth, so how can it be true? Even having all the necessary information, the facts themselves can also be debated. So even reality is debatable. Which is another great reason why educating students to be effective communicators is extremely important, because valuable communication skills will benefit them for entire life. Edit

Postmodernism articulates that the world is in a state of perpetual incompleteness and permanent unresolve. Postmodernism promotes the notion of radical pluralism; that there are many ways of knowing, and many truths to a fact.

Deconstructionism is a theory of literary criticism that questions traditional assumptions about certainty, identity, and truth; asserts that words can only refer to other words; and attempts to demonstrate how statements about any text subvert their own meanings. Words have meaning only because of contrast-effects with other words.

The Truth will set you Free, but only if you are positively sure that you know exactly what the truth is, and only if the truth can be accurately analyzed and confirmed. The truth is sometimes your own personal interpretation of the truth. So unless you have others who have also experienced this truth, and can agree with you, then you are alone. But being alone does not mean that you are wrong, it means that you may be alone in what you think. So, are you sure you know what the truth is? We will listen to you, if you listen to us. The truth is debatable. 
The Law is Debatable

I would never say "Always Speak the Truth". Only speak the truth when your heart tells you to speak the truth, and that your head agrees with your heart, and that your Gut also agrees and says, "Lets Do This". YOU SHOULD USE ALL YOUR SENSES, when making decisions. You have senses for a reason. Trillions of cells in your body are counting on you, and I'm sure they would like to have a say in the decisions that you make, since everyone is affected.

There's this thing about truth, it sometimes depends on the person, place or thing. Because even though lies are illogical, they do offer some benefits when used in certain circumstances. If a lie is considered to be protective, then people feel comfortable and sometimes justified for telling a lie, especially when that person feels that they cannot explain the truth effectively enough for other people to understand? Or worse, the truth that they thought they knew was right, turned out to be wrong. After all, to think that you know the truth is to think that you know everything, and we know that you don't. Every truth is debatable. Let us never think that we know the truth, we must always question, as history has taught us, the truth sometimes changes. But even knowing that, we know for a fact that people learn a lot more from telling the truth then they would from telling a lie. It's almost impossible to learn anything if you don't know the truth. Speaking the truth has many benefits, but only if you know the truth, and have lots of evidence to prove it. Understanding how important truth is gives everyone the opportunity to have a more productive and more meaningful conversation. Truth has many benefits, and truth is logical 99.9% of the time...so the odds are in the favor of speaking the truth. Let us begin. 

Half Truth is a deceptive statement that includes some element of truth. The statement might be partly true, the statement may be totally true but only part of the whole truth, or it may use some deceptive element, such as improper punctuation, or double meaning, especially if the intent is to deceive, evade, blame or misrepresent the truth
Truth Function is a function from a set of truth values to truth values. Classically the domain and range of a truth function are {truth, falsehood}, but they may have any number of truth values, including an infinity of these.
Truth Value sometimes called a logical value, is a value indicating the relation of a proposition to truth.

Is Honesty a Weakness?
She's making a joke of course because you would never say that. The point is, don't be afraid to speak the truth. She does care what people think, because everyone has something to say that may be valuable, if it isn't valuable, either let them know that their opinion reveals no useful information, or just say nothing.

A personal belief or judgment that is not founded on proof or certainty. A message expressing a Belief about something; the expression of a Belief that is held with confidence but not substantiated by positive knowledge or proof. A Belief or sentiment shared by most people; the voice of the people. A vague idea in which some confidence is placed.
Opinion (wiki)
Point of View

A difference of opinion means only one thing, that someone doesn't care. Both sides can be wrong, and both sides can be right, so how would you know if you never explained why, or justified your reasoning. Polarity is nothing more then an incomplete sentence. There is the most logical answer, and the most fair decision, and the right thing to do based on the current situation. There is no opinion. If you don't care enough to explain and verify your understanding, then you have no opinion, you only have ignorance.

Opinions in News
Relativism is the concept that points of view have no absolute truth or validity within themselves, but rather only relative, subjective value according to differences in perception and consideration.

"It's All Relative" is not an answer, it's a question. You're better off saying "Please specify an example to better clarify your point of view"  It's All Relative doesn't mean that it can't be relative, so make it relative. Yes it's subjective, ambiguous, and it all depends on how you look at it, and depending on circumstances there can be several explanations, so start talking or start listening.

Something that interests you because it is important or affects you. Be relevant to. A feeling of sympathy for someone or something. Sharing the feelings of others.  (But still you must be able to validate, calculate or measure this affect)
Having a Concern about something is different then having an Opinion about something.

The trait of acting unpredictably and more from whim or caprice than from reason or judgment. Based on or subject to individual discretion or preference or sometimes impulse or caprice. 
Arbitrariness (wiki)

A hypothesis that has been formed by speculating or conjecturing (usually with little hard evidence). 
A message expressing an opinion based on incomplete evidence. Reasoning that involves the formation of conclusions from incomplete evidence. To believe especially on uncertain or tentative grounds.
Conjecture (wiki)

A well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world; an organized system of accepted knowledge that applies in a variety of circumstances to explain a specific set of phenomena. A tentative insight into the natural world; a concept that is not yet verified but that if true would explain certain facts or phenomena. A belief that can guide behavior.
Theory (wiki)

A message expressing an opinion based on incomplete evidence. An estimate based on little or no information.

Regard something as probable or likely. Look forward to the probable occurrence of. Intend with some possibility of fulfillment. The general feeling that some desire will be fulfilled. Expectations fulfilled. Any cognitive content held as true. A vague idea in which some confidence is placed. Anticipating Belief about (or mental picture of) the future.
Belief (wiki)
Types of Beliefs in Religion

Someone who is doubtful or noncommittal about something. A person who claims that they cannot have true knowledge about the existence of God (but does not deny that God might exist)  Uncertain of all claims to knowledge.

"There's a big difference between questioning something and believing that you know the answer to something. When you don't have an answer, you either look for an answer, or just stick with the things that you can answer. Don't pretend to know the answer to something, because that never helps, and usually makes things worse, mostly because no one is learning anything valuable." 

A wrong action attributable to bad judgment or ignorance or inattention. Departure from what is ethically acceptable.
A misconception resulting from incorrect information. Part of a statement that is not correct.
Error is an action which is inaccurate or incorrect.

Type I - Type II Errors is the incorrect rejection of a true null hypothesis (a "false positive"), while a type II error is incorrectly retaining a false null hypothesis (a "false negative"). More simply stated, a type I error is detecting an effect that is not present, while a type II error is failing to detect an effect that is present.

Standard Error can be seen to depict the relationship between the dispersion of individual observations around the population mean (the standard deviation), and the dispersion of sample means around the population mean (the standard error). Different samples drawn from that same population would in general have different values of the sample mean, so there is a distribution of sampled means (with its own mean and variance). The relationship with the standard deviation is defined such that, for a given sample size, the standard error equals the standard deviation divided by the square root of the sample size. As the sample size increases, the dispersion of the sample means clusters more closely around the population mean and the standard error decreases.


False Positive Paradox is a statistical result where false positive tests are more probable than true positive tests, occurring when the overall population has a low incidence of a condition and the incidence rate is lower than the false positive rate. The probability of a positive test result is determined not only by the accuracy of the test but by the characteristics of the sampled population. When the incidence, the proportion of those who have a given condition, is lower than the test's false positive rate, even tests that have a very low chance of giving a false positive in an individual case will give more false than true positives overall. So, in a society with very few infected people—fewer proportionately than the test gives false positives—there will actually be more who test positive for a disease incorrectly and don't have it than those who test positive accurately and do. The paradox has surprised many.
False Negatives are concepts analogous to type I and type II errors in statistical hypothesis testing, where a positive result corresponds to rejecting the null hypothesis, and a negative result corresponds to not rejecting the null hypothesis. The terms are often used interchangeably, but there are differences in detail and interpretation.

Patch (computing) is a piece of software designed to update a computer program or its supporting data, to fix or improve it. This includes fixing security vulnerabilities and improving the usability or performance.

Error Detection and Correction
Forward Error Correction
Memory Errors
False Dilemma

Being Wrong is not the same as Making a Mistake.

Lie is a statement that deviates from or perverts the truth. Tell an untruth; pretend with intent to deceive.
Lie (wiki)

How to Spot a Liar
Liar Paradox is the statement of a liar who states that they are lying: for instance, declaring that "I am lying" or "everything I say is false". If they are indeed lying, they are telling the truth, which means they are lying. In "this sentence is a lie" the paradox is strengthened in order to make it amenable to more rigorous logical analysis. It is still generally called the "liar paradox" although abstraction is made precisely from the liar themself. Trying to assign to this statement, the strengthened liar, a classical binary truth value leads to a contradiction. If "this sentence is false" is true, then the sentence is false, but if the sentence states that it is false, and it is false, then it must be true, and so on.
Counterintuitive proposition is one that does not seem likely to be true when assessed using intuition, common sense, or gut feelings.

False is not in accordance with the fact or reality or actuality. Arising from error.

Deliberately deceptive. Cause someone to believe an untruth. Deceptive or fraudulent; disposed to cheat or defraud or deceive. Designed to deceive or mislead either deliberately or inadvertently. Causing one to believe what is not true or fail to believe what is true.
False Statements

When stubbornness and ignorance becomes illogical, and a problem...Excuses without Reasoning is a lie.

To deny any knowledge of, responsibility for, or association with somebody or something. Refuse to acknowledge; disclaim knowledge of; responsibility for, or association with.
Self-Deception is a process of denying or rationalizing away the relevance, significance, or importance of opposing evidence and logical argument. Self-deception involves convincing oneself of a truth (or lack of truth) so that one does not reveal any self-knowledge of the deception.
Willful Blindness describe a situation in which a person seeks to avoid civil or criminal liability for a wrongful act by intentionally keeping himself or herself unaware of facts that would render him or her liable.

Refuse to accept or believe. Declare untrue; contradict. Refuse to grant, as of a petition or request. Deny oneself (something); restrain, especially from indulging in some pleasure. Refuse to recognize or acknowledge.
Denial in which a person is faced with a fact that is too uncomfortable to accept and rejects it instead, insisting that it is not true despite what may be overwhelming evidence. Cognitive Distortion

Be against; express opposition to. Fight against or resist strongly. Set into opposition or rivalry. 
Reaction Formation is a defensive process (defense mechanism) in which emotions and impulses which are anxiety-producing or perceived to be unacceptable are mastered by exaggeration (hypertrophy) of the directly opposing tendency.

Unbiased impartial unconcern. Apathy demonstrated by an absence of emotional reactions. The trait of lacking enthusiasm for or interest in things generally. The trait of remaining calm and seeming not to care; a casual lack of concern.

Showing indifference or disregard. Refuse to acknowledge. Willful lack of care and attention. Refuse. Reject. Ignore.
Hedges is an intentionally noncommittal or ambiguous statement. Avoid or try to avoid fulfilling, answering, or performing (duties, questions, or issues) Trying to cover up Lies or criminal behavior. Ignorance

A person whose habitual state of mind includes an obstinate, irrational, or unfair intolerance of ideas, opinions, or beliefs that differ from their own, and intolerance of the people who hold them. Hypocrite
Bigotry is a term of abuse aimed at a prejudiced or closed-minded person, especially one who is intolerant or hostile towards different social groups (especially, and originally, other religious groups), and especially one whose own beliefs are perceived as unreasonable or excessively narrow-minded, superstitious, or hypocritical.
Devolution is the notion that species can revert into more "primitive" forms over time.

"Denying or disavowing the facts does not remove these facts from reality. It only allows a person to use this sad excuse to continue with its illogical behavior."

Learning Methods
Scientific Examinations

Knowledge-Based Trust Score
Knowledge Graph
Knowledge Vault
Lazy Truth

Information Overload

Depends on how you look at it....a unique set of circumstances, understood by your perception and skill level...

Information Overload is not the same as being overwhelmed with useless information, or Overwhelmed by unorganized information, or overwhelmed by irrelevant information, or overwhelmed by information that cannot be understood, because then you can easily be overwhelmed. But, as long as you can properly filter information and specify the needed information, you can then avoid a so called information overload. The bottom line is that you can have a lot of information and still not have enough. It's not the volume of information that's important, it's the quality, the accuracy and the value of the information. So you could never learn too much, you can only misunderstand what you have learned, which means that you haven't learned enough. Focus on what is important.

Analysis Paralysis is the state of over-analyzing (or over-thinking) a situation so that a decision or action is never taken, in effect paralyzing the outcome. A decision can be treated as over-complicated, with too many detailed options, so that a choice is never made, rather than try something and change if a major problem arises. A person might be seeking the optimal or "perfect" solution upfront, and fear making any decision which could lead to erroneous results, while on the way to a better solution.

Sensory Overload occurs when one or more of the body's senses experiences over-stimulation from the environment. There are many environmental elements that impact an individual.

Superfluous is getting more than is needed, desired, or required. Unnecessary, especially through being more than enough. Serving no useful purpose; having no excuse for being. 

Parallel Processing is the ability of the brain to simultaneously process incoming stimuli of differing quality. With vision, the brain divides what it sees into four components: color, motion, shape, and depth. These are individually analyzed and then compared to stored memories, which helps the brain identify what you are viewing. The brain then combines all of these into the field of view that you see and comprehend.

Parallel Computing is a type of computation in which many calculations are carried out simultaneously

Cognitive Off-Loading - Multi-Tasking

Throughput is the rate of production or the rate at which something can be processed.

Having good Awareness is very important when examining information as well as having excellent Reading Comprehension SkillsFocus on what's important. Remember the most important aspects, and learn from them.

The Information Age - Internet of Things

Organizing Knowledge Base
Information Visualization
Preserving Information
How Much is There?

Spatial Intelligence
Thinking Levels
Knowledge Management

It would be ignorant to say that we have too much information and it is impossible to filter it all. That's like walking into a library and saying that there's too many books. You don't have to read every book moron. You just have to know which books to read, why you should read them, and when you should read them. This is not an Information Paradox for this goes beyond Physical Information. We should be thankful that we have an abundance of information. Our task, and the task that I have taken, is to filter the information, narrow it down and Organize it into Categories and Manageable Chunks. Our information and knowledge is priceless. This is the world’s greatest and most valuable asset. So information and knowledge needs our full attention and understanding so that Information does not become Abused or Misused.

Saying that there is too much to read is like saying that eating food is too much work. "I have to find food, I have to prepare food, I have to chew food, I have to swallow food, I have to digest food, and I have to poop out my food, it's too much work." What a moron, right. That is why you eat the healthiest food. That is why you read the most beneficial knowledge that has been written. Don't waste time, make time, time to enjoy, instead of creating time just to suffer. Consume Knowledge

Information Overload Research Group
Social Knowledge

Information overload is a Contradiction, like the The Paradox of Choice

Oxymoron's List
Knowing Enough

Too much of anything of course is bad, and of course too much of something that you don't have the intelligence or understanding to handle is extremely bad. So a person needs not only ‘Information Literacy’, a person also needs to fully understand balance, variety and Self-Discipline.
Web 3.0 (video)

You don't need a Low Information Diet, all you need is a healthy information diet, one that provides you with just enough information to increase your knowledge of yourself and the world around you so that you continue to mature at a steady pace. If you to choose you information sources wisely so that you can filter out the enormous amount of misinformation and bullshit that is being forced on citizens through the main stream media. There are so many distractions, if you are not skilled enough or knowledgeable enough to protect yourself, you will be overwhelmed and abused to a point were you will be unable to function
normally, an you will not be able to understand the world accurately enough to make good decisions, you will be lost, and you will not even know that you are lost.

How can we have so much information and still only have just 5 percent of the data needed to preserve the world’s biodiversity. Answer: Ignorance, corruption and bad prioritizing.

Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020, including Aichi Biodiversity Targets
Filling in biodiversity threat gaps
Threatened Island Biodiversity Database

Big Data

Big Data is an awesome tool. Big data can help us make better decisions, but we will still have to make those decisions ourselves because big data will not make decisions for us. Big data could create jobs if used correctly. Because it was never about having enough jobs, it was always about having enough intelligent people to understand what jobs are needed. Job is a word that describes a positive action that a life form must take in order to sustain life. A job is not just something that a person does, it is something that needs to be done for the survival of life, and not just for the survival of the individual. 

Data Mining is the computational process of discovering patterns in large data sets involving methods at the intersection of artificial intelligence, machine learning, statistics, and database systems. The overall goal of the data mining process is to extract information from a data set and transform it into an understandable structure for further use. Aside from the raw analysis step, it involves database and data management aspects, data pre-processing, model and inference considerations, interestingness metrics, complexity considerations, post-processing of discovered structures, visualization, and online updating. Data mining is the analysis step of the "knowledge discovery in databases" process, or KDD.

Big Data - Little Data
How much information are we generating?
Making a Difference

We can use Big data in many ways, but of course there are criminals who want to use information against people, as they do now with stolen information. Any thing that can be abused, will be abused by criminals.
Just like Money

The greatest thing about Big Data is that we can analyze huge amounts of clinical information to correctly analyze diseases and produce better treatments.

Fast machines for DNA sequencing will be capable of producing 85 petabytes of data this year worldwide, twice that much in 2019. 

Bioinformatics combines computer science, statistics, mathematics, and engineering to study and process biological data.

How the Large Hadron Collider stores all the Information The sensors generate about one petabyte of data every second.
530 Million Gigabytes stored on nearline magnetic tape. The detectors that record particle collisions have 100 million read-out channels and take 14 million pictures per second. It's akin to saving 14 million selfies with every tick of a watch's second hand.
CERN Open Lab

"It's not so important knowing "who generated the information", what's more important is knowing if the information is accurate and relevant?

Don't judge the Messenger, Judge only the Message."

"The collector is the true resident of the interior.....The collector dreams his way not only into a distant or bygone world but also into a better one"..   - Walter Benjamin

"When a man's knowledge is not in order, the more of it he has the greater will be his confusion."  Herbert Spencer

"With the internet, if you are not plugged in, that means you are unplugged. And things that are unplugged, are most
likely to be thrown away or ignored."
Information Sources

I didn't learn everything from the Internet, but I did learn a lot about a lot of things, because of the internet.
Information Sayings

They say "Knowledge is Power". But only if knowledge is distributed equally will power will be equal to all, which in turn will make knowledge a blessing instead of a curse."

I can't fight every battle that comes my way, for if I did, I would be fighting all day
Fight or Flight?

"Information overload is really just ignorance overload, so it's not that there's too much information, it's that there's too much ignorance. Ignorance that struggles to process information correctly." 
OS Error?
Need a Patch?

"You are not here to waste time, you are here to use time, and that time that you use is from the time that I saved you, now it's your turn to save time for someone else." 

More Information and Internet Quotes

We have created a lot of information and knowledge.
We also have answers to most of our important questions. So now is the time to put it all together, organize it, categorize it, continually update it and make it available to everyone.  more...

Our most difficult problem is how to safely store and preserve our most valuable information and knowledge

Libraries will always be needed because we need to store hard copies of our books and printed history. But everything will eventually move to digital. So now you have no constraints on how to organize your books. You will see the book isle, you will see the categories, but now you will also see everything that's related, because you have no constraints on space, physical space. You can see everything in the library without moving your physical self. Able to flow effortlessly through information, with the ability to ask a question anytime that you need an answer, without having to look for a librarian, who might or might not know the answer. Being connected to almost every book ever written in the last 2,000 years in human history is amazing. But there is one problem. Just being connected to enormous amount of information and knowledge does not mean that it is being used effectively. People are not being educated enough in order to effectively utilize our enormous treasure trove of information and knowledge. But once people do get up to speed, amazing things will happen, and everything will improve. Not over night, but it sure will seem like that.

Search Engines are very limited and too easy to manipulate. So we need a central database that is a Human Search Engine that is also a forum that has 24-hour live assistance from operators who have extensive knowledge in the subject that you are interested in. Every question will be documented and every answer will be documented in the central database. Every question will have the number of times it has been asked and how many times the same answer was given to that question. If the answer was changed the new updated answer will be listed as well as the old answer and the reason why the old answer was changed and updated. You will also see how many people agree with that particular answer and how many disagree. The top 3 answers will be given based on how many people who agree with that answer and the top 3 answers will be given based on how many people who disagree with that answer. The database will also list other relevant questions of similar importance. So if the user asks a question they will see other relevant questions that may have to be asked and answered so that a full understanding of the question can be accomplished. Other relevant questions will also list how many times users referenced these other relevant questions and the reason why they used them. 

Database Operators will scan blogs, news channels, News-papers, books, comments, forums, search engines and websites for information and knowledge that could be added to particular answers as addition references. References Will list the date that the information was created, who created it and where it was created on what book page number, blog, forum, news source, website and so on and so on. 
Information Stations
Knowledge Management
Open Curriculum

The procedures and the platform that the database operates on will be available for public review. This way if the procedures change or the platform changes people will be aware of these changes and also learn why the database operates the way it does

Future Cities

24/7 Information Operators - Having a Central Database


Wiki Stats

Social Networking

Social Network Statistics


The Thinker Man