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Communication - Speaking Effectively - Listening Effectively

Communication is the activity of conveying information. A connection allowing access between persons or places. Transmit information. Transmit thoughts or feelings. Be in verbal contact; interchange information or ideas. Transfer from one place or period to another. Languages

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Being able to effectively Communicate is the most valuable skill in every persons life. Without communication, life could not exist.

The Letter ' L ' in Sign Language The Letter ' E ' in Sign Language The Letter ' A ' in Sign Language The Letter ' R ' in Sign Language The Letter ' N ' in Sign Language
Sign Language

The skill and the privilege to communicate should never be taken for granted, or misused. There is a lot to learn about communication because it covers many different subjects and categories. This is why communication is so extremely important. It's literally connected to everything that you do in your life. Effective communication will serve you more then any other skill that you will acquire in your entire life. So please do yourself a huge favor, Learn to communicate effectively and efficiently, if not, then your life will be more of a struggle and you will also be more vulnerable to misinformation. If you learn this, then you could learn anything that you ever wanted to learn. Language is the gateway to all knowledge and information. Language is more then a tool and more then the ultimate vehicle for transferring information and knowledge, Language is power, Language is freedom, Language is control, Language is endless possibilities.

How to Speak Effectively (Transferring Information)
Learning Speech
How to Listen Effectively (Receiving Information)

"Every act of Communication is an act of Translation.” (Gregory Rabassa)

Interpersonal Compatibility is the long-term interaction between two or more individuals in terms of the ease and comfort of communication.

"To say what you mean, what does that mean?"

Your reality is based on what you know and how you perceived the particular experiences that you have in life. The people that we are exposed to on TV, 90% of what we see is mostly entertainment or propaganda. And hardly anyone is concerned about how underutilized our TV is used. It's more of a toy then it is the incredible technology, a technology that gives us incredible abilities to communicate. The adults in our world really need to start taking our communication advancements more seriously and use them more responsibly, we are not children, we are the adults. The TV is not going to educate you, it's either going to entertaining you or manipulating you. So where does your knowledge of the world come from? Not schools, because at the moment schools mostly teach reading, writing and math, which are extremely important, but incredibly inadequate. The transfer of information needs to be based on reality and not fantasy. Kids watch and read more about fantasy characters then they listen to intelligent people speaking. People dying and suffering is not a fantasy. Everyone has imprisoned themselves unknowingly. All because of our inability to effectively communicate, which is something that we can easily teach in schools. If there is one thing for you to remember about how extremely important transferring information is, is that if life cannot transfer important information, then life does not exist. Humans do not exist. If a cell dividing does not share it's information with the new cell, then that cell will die, and life would not exist. The transfer of information is extremely important. So we need to take communication seriously, and increase our reality based transmissions and limit the amount of fantasy and propaganda transmissions. At this current time in 2016, most transmissions are ineffective in delivering valuable knowledge and information. We need to be more responsible and more aware. this transfer of information is the core of who we are. Human species as a whole does not want to take responsibility for the problems that we have. We have unknowingly separated ourselves and distant ourselves from each other and from our problems. Trying to pretend that these horrors don't exist literally neutralizes our greatest strength and power, which is our ability to work together as a unit to accomplish any goal that we set our minds to, like protecting and preserving all life on this planet. We have to come together and utilize our combined intelligence and utilize our combined power and strength in numbers. Pretending that we are separate undermines our greatest strength and power. Unity is everything, your entire body is a unity of microbes working together to sustain life, your life. Listen to life, life is telling you how to live, and one way to live is being able to work together with life. And since we are all part of life, working together just makes sense. A lot of people already know how beneficial working together is. So this is not foreign to us. But we need to utilize this strength that we have, because if we don't, then everyone on the planet is more vulnerable, less safe and a lot more weaker. We have the technology and the abilities, now all we need is a plan. So if you are reading this, what's your plan to become a better communicator?

Every human brain has a the capacity to store millions upon millions of memories. So it would be a great idea to fill your brain with the most valuable knowledge and information that the world has to offer. This way you will be more intelligent then the previous generation, and also have more abilities then the previous generation. You will be the first humans on this planet to be known and confirmed as intelligent life. This is a huge responsibility and will take a lot of work. But being able to solve any problem is this world increases your odds for a great life by 1,000 percent. This goes way beyond any utopian narrow point of view. The future of this planet will be a lot more beautiful then ever imagined. Our biggest problem then will be learning how do we keep ourselves from smiling all the time?

"The biggest mistake that any human can make is believing that they know enough."

"You can only be aware of things that you learned to be aware of, so you're literally blind and you don't even know it"

"You should never feel worried or pressured because you don't know enough about a particular subject, you should only be thankful that you're aware that you don't know enough about a particular subject, at least now you can start learning."

So without wasting any more of your time, it's time to start learning...

You need to learn how to use Language effectively and efficiently.
You need to learn how to Read and Write effectively and efficiently.
You need to learn how to carefully Analyze Information effectively and efficiently.

Communication is the act of conveying intended meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs and semiotic rules. The basic steps of communication are: The forming of communicative intent. Message composition. Message encoding and decoding. Transmission of the encoded message as a sequence of signals using a specific channel or medium. Reception of signals. Reconstruction of the original message. Interpretation and making sense of the reconstructed message.
Communication Theory is a field of information theory and mathematics that studies the technical process of information and the process of Human Communication, which is the field dedicated to understanding how humans communicate. Human communication is grounded in cooperative and shared intentions.
Communication Science is an academic discipline that deals with processes of human communication. There are three types of communication: Verbal, involving listening to a person to understand the meaning of a message; written, in which a message is read; and nonverbal communication involving observing a person and inferring meaning. The discipline encompasses a range of topics, from face-to-face conversation to mass media outlets such as television broadcasting. Communication studies also examines how messages are interpreted through the political, cultural, economic, semiotic, hermeneutic, and social dimensions of their contexts.

Communications Protocol is a system of rules that allow two or more entities of a communications system to transmit information via any kind of variation of a physical quantity. These are the rules or standard that defines the syntax, semantics and synchronization of communication and possible error recovery methods. Protocols may be implemented by hardware, software, or a combination of both. Communicating systems use well-defined formats (protocol) for exchanging various messages. Each message has an exact meaning intended to elicit a response from a range of possible responses pre-determined for that particular situation. The specified behavior is typically independent of how it is to be implemented. Communications protocols have to be agreed upon by the parties involved. To reach agreement, a protocol may be developed into a technical standard. A programming language describes the same for computations, so there is a close analogy between protocols and
programming languages: protocols are to communications what programming languages are to computations.

Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, writings, images and sounds or intelligence of any nature
by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems. Telecommunication occurs when the exchange of information between communication participants includes the use of technology. It is transmitted either electrically over physical media, such as cables, or via electromagnetic radiation Such transmission paths are often divided into communication channels which afford the advantages of multiplexing. The term is often used in its plural form, telecommunications, because it involves many different technologies.
Channel Communications refers either to a physical transmission medium such as a wire, or to a logical connection over a multiplexed medium such as a radio channel in telecommunications and computer networking. A channel is used to convey an information signal, for example a digital bit stream, from one or several senders (or transmitters) to one or several receivers. A channel has a certain capacity for transmitting information, often measured by its bandwidth in Hz or its data rate in bits per second.
Cellular Communication is an umbrella term used in biology and more in depth in biophysics and biochemistry to identify different types of communication methods between living cells. Some of the methods include cell signaling among others. This process allows millions of cells to communicate and work together to perform important bodily processes that are necessary to survival. Both multicellular and unicellular organisms heavily rely on cell-cell communication.
Networks - Communication Technologies
UCLA Department of Communication Studies

Early humans went from using Gestures and Non-Verbal Communication methods, to eventually having a Spoken Language. And then we advanced to Graphic Communication or Written Language. And now in the 21st century we have advanced into Digital Communication, which is an incredible advancement. We can now for the first time communicate in more ways then any other time in human history. The digital world changes everything. The Internet is us mimicking the human brain. We will soon be connected to everything on the planet. And we will soon have full consciousness and full power of our collaborative abilities.

Now the flow of knowledge and information has no limits. The human race is about to embark on the most incredible adventure ever, the adventures in learning.

Not only do we have millions of people with don't have access to valuable knowledge and information, but the billions of people who do have access are not communicating effectively or efficiently. So our ability to communicate has advanced, just not our ability to teach it, Why?  There's a lot of room for improvements.  
Knowledge Management

Argue is to present reasons and Argument. Give evidence of. Have an argument about something. Give reasons or cite evidence in support of an idea, action, or theory, typically with the aim of persuading others to share one's view. exchange or express diverging or opposite views, typically in a heated or Angry way.

Anger ruins Arguments
Profanity ruins Communication

Argument is a fact or assertion offered as evidence that something is true. A contentious speech act; a dispute where there is strong disagreement. A discussion in which reasons are advanced for and against some proposition or proposal. A course of reasoning aimed at demonstrating a truth or falsehood; the methodical process of logical reasoning. 
Just Complaining is not an Argument

Devil's Advocate is someone who, given a certain argument, takes a position they do not necessarily agree with (or simply an alternative position from the accepted norm), for the sake of debate or to explore the thought further.

Debate is a discussion in which reasons are advanced for and against some proposition or proposal. The formal presentation of a stated proposition and the opposition to it (usually followed by a vote). Argue with one another. Think about carefully; weigh. Discuss the pros and cons of an issue. Diplomacy

Debating is contention in argument; strife, dissension, quarrelling, controversy; especially a formal discussion of subjects before a public assembly or legislature, in Parliament or in any deliberative assembly.
Public Debate is debating by the public, or in public.
Chatham House Rule is a system for holding debates and discussion panels on controversial issues.
Talking Point in debate or discourse is a succinct statement designed to support persuasively one side taken on an issue. Such statements can either be free standing or created as retorts to the opposition's talking points and are frequently used in public relations, particularly in areas heavy in debate such as politics and marketing.
The Great Debaters (Film)
100 Debates
Public Forum Debate debaters argue a topic of national importance. Public Participation
Lincoln Douglas Debate is a type of one-on-one debate with a format that emphasizes logic, ethical values, and philosophy.
Argumentation Theory
Evidence Based Argumentation
Ransberger Pivot is a debate technique from 1982 by Ray Ransberger and Marshall Fritz in which the speaker attempts to find common ground with the person they are trying to convince of their view. Once a person objects to the speaker's ideas, the speaker employs the technique in three stages. 1) Listen to the other person's objections. 2) Understand the other person's objections. 3) Find a common goal in the other person's objections and convince them your way is a solution to the agreed problem.
EBA Developing Evidence Based Arguments
Evidence Based (PDF)
Cornering is to force (a person or animal) into a place or situation from which it is hard to escape.
Mirror Image Rule
Offer and Acceptance
Successful negotiation is not about getting to yes, it's about mastering no and understanding what the path to an agreement is. more little yeses you get, the more likely you are to say yes to a big yes. "Well you want me to be successful don't you?" That's pushing for a yes. The flipside question to that instead is, "Do you want me to fail?" "That's right."
Marketing Tricks

Heckler is a person who harasses and tries to disconcert others with questions, challenges, or gibes. Hecklers are often known to shout disparaging comments at a performance or event, or to interrupt set-piece speeches, with the intent of disturbing performers and/or participants. Interrupts (a public speaker) with derisive or aggressive comments or abuse
Booing is an act of showing displeasure for someone or something, generally an entertainer, by loudly yelling boo! (and holding the "oo" sound) or making other noises of disparagement, such as hissing. People may make hand signs at the entertainer, such as the thumbs down sign. If spectators particularly dislike the performance they may also accompany booing by throwing objects (traditionally rotten fruit and vegetables) onstage, though the objects may not be meant to physically hurt the performer.
Internet Troll is a person who sows discord on the Internet by starting arguments or upsetting people, by posting inflammatory, extraneous, or off-topic messages in an online community (such as a newsgroup, forum, chat room, or blog) with the deliberate intent of provoking readers into an emotional response or of otherwise disrupting normal on-topic discussion, often for their own amusement.
Critics - Bullies - Skepticism

Discussion is an extended communication (often interactive) dealing with some particular topic. An exchange of views on some topic.
Dialogue is a written or spoken conversational exchange between two or more people, and a literary and theatrical form that depicts such an exchange.
Conversation is a form of interactive, spontaneous communication between two or more people. Typically, it occurs in spoken communication, as written exchanges are usually not referred to as conversations. The development of conversational skills and etiquette is an important part of socialization. The development of conversational skills in a new language is a frequent focus of language teaching and learning. Conversation analysis is a branch of sociology which studies the structure and organization of human interaction, with a more specific focus on conversational interaction.

Digression is a section of a composition or speech that marks a temporary shift of subject; the digression ends when the writer or speaker returns to the main topic. Digressions can be used intentionally as a stylistic or rhetorical device.

Listening  -  Hearing accurately when other People Speak

Try to quite your Internal Monologue or inner voice so that you are truly listening and not just waiting to speak. Keep Silent when Listening. Give full Attention and correctly hear and understand someone's messages. Sometimes it's hard when someone's talking and you have a question to ask, but you want to be polite and wait until a person finishes speaking. And then you have to decide if the question that you want to ask is appropriate at this time? Because you first want to acknowledge that you heard the person correctly before you ask questions that might lead in a different direction. Sometimes hold your questions for another time. Have a Psychological Connection. Do not create resistance in the listener. It's hard to listen to things that you don't understand. But don't pretend that you understand the subject. Tell the person that you're not sure that you understand them completely, but you're definitely interested in what they're saying. 

"You Were Born With Two Ears And One Mouth For A Reason, We have two ears and one mouth so that we can listen twice as much as we speak."

"If we were meant to talk more than listen, we would have two mouths and one ear." Mark Twain (1835 - 1910)

We can listen to 500 words a minute, but only speak 250 words a minute.

Julian Treasure 5 ways to Listen Better (video)
Listening Skills
Reflective Listening
Informational Listening (PDF)
Directed Listening and Thinking Activity (PDF)
Active Listening (PDF)
Silence is Golden
Internal Listening

Listen is to hear with intention. Pay close attention to; give heed to. You have to learn how to listen. Listening is a skill.
You can't hear something that you have never learned how to listen for. Being able to truly listen to someone takes awareness, focus and knowing what to listen for, by knowing the person, and by knowing the different ways that people use to communicate. 
Listening Skills
Know the Difference between Hearing and Listening. 
Deliberate Listening
Passive Listening
Media Literacy 

Hear is to perceive (sound) via the auditory sense. Get to know or become aware of, usually accidentally. Listen and pay attention. Receive a communication from someone. Examine or hear (evidence or a case) by judicial process. Expresses enthusiastic agreement. (Discover, Learn, Notice, Comprehend)  
Hearing Problems

 "We listen to obtain information. We listen to understand. We listen for enjoyment. We listen to learn." 

Comprehension when Listening
Unbiased Listening
Non-Judgmental Listening
Analyze Information Accurately 

Listening Techniques

1. Stop Talking
Don't talk, listen. Limit your own talking. You can’t talk and listen at the same time. If you are thinking about what you are going to say next, then you're not listening. Don’t argue mentally. Don’t allow yourself to become annoyed or irritated with anything that is said. Try agreeing with points to see if you can understand the speaker’s perspective better. Don’t jump to conclusions. Avoid making unwarranted assumptions about what is going to be said. Don’t mentally try to complete the other person’s sentences. Listen and learn. When somebody else is talking, listen to what they are saying, do not interrupt, or talk over them or finish their sentences for them. Stop, just listen. Don’t interrupt or change the subject. A pause, even a long pause, doesn’t always mean that the speaker has finished saying everything that he or she has to say. When the other person has finished talking, then you may need to clarify to ensure you have received their message accurately.

2. Prepare Yourself to Listen
Prepare in advance. Remarks and questions prepared in advance, when possible, free your mind for listening. Relax. Focus on the speaker. Put other things out of mind. Turn off your own worries. Turning off and tuning in aren’t always easy, but they are important. Personal problems or worries not connected with the subject at hand form a kind of internal "static" that can blank out the real message that you are tuning in. The human mind is easily distracted by other thoughts – what’s for lunch, what time do I need to leave to catch my train, is it going to rain – try to put other thoughts out of mind and concentrate on the messages that are being communicated. Concentrate on what you are hearing. Focus your mind on what the speaker is saying. Practice shutting out outside distractions when listening.

3. Put the Speaker at Ease
Help the speaker to feel free to speak. Remember their needs and concerns. Nod or use other gestures or words to encourage them to continue. Maintain eye contact but don’t stare – show you are listening and understanding what is being said. React to ideas, not the person. Don’t allow irritation to rise from things said, or from mannerisms. Try not to respond to these distractions. Base your response on principles, not personalities.

4. Remove Distractions
Focus on what is being said: don’t doodle, shuffle papers, look out the window, pick your fingernails or similar. Avoid unnecessary interruptions. These behaviors disrupt the listening process and send messages to the speaker that you are bored or distracted. Consider taking notes. In some settings, taking notes is appropriate and will help you remember important points. Be selective. Trying to take notes on everything said can result in being left far behind or in retaining irrelevant information.

5. Empathize
Try to understand the other person’s point of view. Look at issues from their perspective. Let go of preconceived ideas. By having an open mind we can more fully empathize with the speaker. If the speaker says something that you disagree with then wait and construct an argument to counter what is said but keep an open mind to the views and opinions of others.

6. Be Patient
A pause, even a long pause, does not necessarily mean that the speaker has finished. Be patient and let the speaker continue in their own time, sometimes it takes time to formulate what to say and how to say it. Never interrupt or finish a sentence for someone. Listen for ideas, not just words. You want to get the whole picture, not just isolated bits and pieces. Listen for key themes. Use interjections to punctuate your listening. An occasional "Yes" or "I see" shows you are still with the speaker. However, wait until the speaker has finished his or her comment, and don’t overdo or use interjections as meaningless comments.

7. Avoid Personal Prejudice
Try to be impartial. Don't become irritated and don't let the person’s habits or mannerisms distract you from what they are really saying. Everybody has a different way of speaking - some people are for example more nervous or shy than others, some have regional accents or make excessive arm movements, some people like to pace whilst talking - others like to sit still.
Focus on what is being said and try to ignore styles of delivery.

8. Listen to the Tone
Volume and tone both add to what someone is saying. A good speaker will use both volume and tone to their advantage to keep an audience attentive; everybody will use pitch, tone and volume of voice in certain situations – let these help you to understand the emphasis of what is being said.

9. Listen for Ideas – Not Just Words
You need to get the whole picture, not just isolated bits and pieces. Maybe one of the most difficult aspects of listening is the ability to link together pieces of information to reveal the ideas of others. With proper concentration, letting go of distractions, and focus this becomes easier.

10. Wait and Watch for Non-Verbal Communication
Gestures, facial expressions, and eye-movements can all be important. We don’t just listen with our ears but also with our eyes – watch and pick up the additional information being transmitted via non-verbal communication. 
Skills you Need

More Tips: When listening, asking a good question tells the speaker the listener has not only heard what was said, but that they comprehended it well enough to want additional information. Good listening was consistently seen as a two-way dialog. It's good to Restate issues to confirm that their understanding is correct. Good listeners make the conversation a positive experience for the other party. Good listening is characterized by the creation of a safe environment in which issues and differences could be discussed openly. A good listener increasingly understands the other person’s emotions and feelings about the topic at hand, and identifies and acknowledges them. The listener empathizes with and validates those feelings in a supportive, nonjudgmental way. Good listeners never highjack the conversation so that they or their issues become the subject of the discussion. 80% of what we communicate comes from body language signals.

Listening is the ability to accurately receive and interpret messages in the communication process. Listening is key to all effective communication, without the ability to listen effectively messages are easily misunderstood – communication breaks down and the sender of the message can easily become frustrated or irritated.

A good listener will listen not only to what is being said, but also to what is left unsaid or only partially said.
Effective listening involves observing body language and noticing inconsistencies between verbal and non-verbal messages.
For example, if someone tells you that they are happy with their life but through gritted teeth or with tears filling their eyes, you should consider that the verbal and non-verbal messages are in conflict, they maybe don't mean what they say.

Teaching Listening

Strategies for Developing Listening Skills / Language learning depends on listening.
Listening provides the aural input that serves as the basis for language acquisition and enables learners to interact in spoken

Effective language instructors show students how they can adjust their listening behavior to deal with a variety of situations, types of input, and listening purposes. They help students develop a set of listening strategies and match appropriate strategies to each listening situation.

Listening strategies are techniques or activities that contribute directly to the comprehension and recall of listening input. Listening strategies can be classified by how the listener processes the input.

Top-down strategies are listener based; the listener taps into background knowledge of the topic, the situation or context, the type of text, and the language. This background knowledge activates a set of expectations that help the listener to interpret what is heard and anticipate what will come next. Top-down strategies include

Listening for the main idea
Drawing inferences

Bottom-up strategies are text based; the listener relies on the language in the message, that is, the combination of sounds, words, and grammar that creates meaning. Bottom-up strategies include

Listening for specific details
Recognizing cognates
Recognizing word-order patterns

Strategic listeners also use metacognitive strategies to plan, monitor, and evaluate their listening.
They plan by deciding which listening strategies will serve best in a particular situation.
They monitor their comprehension and the effectiveness of the selected strategies.
They evaluate by determining whether they have achieved their listening comprehension goals and whether the combination of listening strategies selected was an effective one.

Listening for Meaning
To extract meaning from a listening text, students need to follow four basic steps:
Figure out the purpose for listening. Activate background knowledge of the topic in order to predict or anticipate content and identify appropriate listening strategies.
Attend to the parts of the listening input that are relevant to the identified purpose and ignore the rest. This selectivity enables students to focus on specific items in the input and reduces the amount of information they have to hold in short-term memory in order to recognize it.
Select top-down and bottom-up strategies that are appropriate to the listening task and use them flexibly and interactively. Students' comprehension improves and their confidence increases when they use top-down and bottom-up strategies simultaneously to construct meaning.
Check comprehension while listening and when the listening task is over. Monitoring comprehension helps students detect inconsistencies and comprehension failures, directing them to use alternate strategies.

Hearing Difficulties
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association
Auditory Neuroscience Laboratory
Listening Training and Auditory Integration
Auditory Processing Techniques
AIT - Auditory Integration Training very little empirical evidence regarding this assertion.
Auditory Training
American Academy of Audiology
Speech Pathology Services
The Listening Center
How to Listen when others are Speaking

Hearing Impaired - Deafness

Learning to Speak - Speech

Speech is the vocalized form of communication based upon the syntactic combination of lexicals and names that are drawn from very large (usually about 1,000 different words) vocabularies. Each spoken word is created out of the phonetic combination of a limited set of vowel and consonant speech sound units. These vocabularies, the syntax which structures them, and their set of speech sound units differ, creating the existence of many thousands of different types of mutually unintelligible human languages. Most human speakers are able to communicate in two or more of them, hence being polyglots. The vocal abilities that enable humans to produce speech also provide humans with the ability to sing.
Oracy is a word formed by analogy from literacy and numeracy. The purpose is to draw attention to the neglect of oral skills in education.
Speech and Language Pathology is a field of expertise practiced by a clinician known as a speech-language pathologist (SLP), also called speech and language therapist, or speech therapist, who specializes in the evaluation and treatment of communication disorders, cognition, voice disorders, and swallowing disorders. A common misconception is that speech-language pathology is restricted to correcting pronunciation difficulties, such as helping English speaking individuals enunciate their "s" and "r" sounds, and helping people who stutter to speak more fluently. In fact, speech-language pathology is concerned with a broad scope of speech, language, swallowing, and voice issues involving communication, some of which are: Word-finding issues, either as a result of a specific language problem such as a language delay or a more general issue such as dementia.
Social communication difficulties involving how people communicate ideas with others (pragmatics). Structural language impairments, including difficulties creating sentences that are grammatical (syntax) and meaningful (semantics).
Literacy impairments (reading and writing) related to the letter-to-sound relationship (phonics), the word-to-meaning relationship (semantics), and understanding the ideas presented in a text (reading comprehension). Voice difficulties, such as a raspy voice, a voice that is too soft, or other voice difficulties that negatively impact a person's social or professional performance. Cognitive impairments (e.g., attention, memory, executive function) to the extent that they interfere with communication. The components of speech production include: phonation (producing sound); resonance; fluency; Intonation, Pitch variance; Voice (including aeromechanical components of respiration) The components of language include: phonology (manipulating sound according to the rules of a language); Morphology (understanding and using minimal units of meaning); syntax (constructing sentences according to languages' grammar rules); semantics (interpreting signs or symbols of communication to construct meaning); pragmatics (social aspects of communication).
Primary pediatric speech and language disorders include receptive and expressive language disorders, speech sound disorders, childhood apraxia of speech, stuttering, and language-based learning disabilities.
Swallowing disorders include difficulties in any system of the swallowing process (i.e. oral, pharyngeal, esophageal), as well as functional dysphagia and feeding disorders. Swallowing disorders can occur at any age and can stem from multiple causes
Learning a New Language
Broca's Area for language processing. Inferior Frontal Gyrus
Speech takes both sides of the brain
Speech Communication is the vocalized form of communication based upon the syntactic combination of lexicals and names that are drawn from very large (usually about 1,000 different words)[citation needed] vocabularies. Each spoken word is created out of the phonetic combination of a limited set of vowel and consonant speech sound units (phonemes). These vocabularies, the syntax which structures them, and their sets of speech sound units differ, creating many thousands of different, and mutually unintelligible, human languages. Most human speakers are able to communicate in two or more of them, hence being polyglots. The vocal abilities that enable humans to produce speech also enable them to sing.
Speech Processing is the study of speech signals and the processing methods of these signals. The signals are usually processed in a digital representation, so speech processing can be regarded as a special case of digital signal processing, applied to speech signal. Aspects of speech processing includes the acquisition, manipulation, storage, transfer and output of speech signals. The input is called speech recognition and the output is called speech synthesis.
Oral Expression is the ability to convey wants, needs, thoughts, and ideas meaningfully using appropriate syntactic, pragmatic, semantic, and phonological language structures. Oral expression should NOT be confused with reading aloud or reading fluently.
Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words. All verbal languages use pitch to express emotional and other paralinguistic information and to convey emphasis, contrast, and other such features in what is called intonation, but not all languages use tones to distinguish words or their inflections, analogously to consonants and vowels. Languages that do have this feature are called tonal languages; the distinctive tone patterns of such a language are sometimes called tonemes, by analogy with phoneme. Tonal languages are extremely common in Africa, East Asia, and Central America, but rare elsewhere in Asia and in Europe; as many as seventy percent of world languages may be tonal.
Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that comprises the study of the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign. It is concerned with the physical properties of speech sounds or signs (phones): their physiological production, acoustic properties, auditory perception, and neurophysiological status. Phonology, on the other hand, is concerned with the abstract, grammatical characterization of systems of sounds or signs. The field of phonetics is a multilayered subject of linguistics that focuses on speech. In the case of oral languages there are three basic areas of study:
Articulatory phonetics: the study of the production of speech sounds by the articulatory and vocal tract by the speaker.
Acoustic phonetics: the study of the physical transmission of speech sounds from the speaker to the listener.
Auditory phonetics: the study of the reception and perception of speech sounds by the listener.
These areas are inter-connected through the common mechanism of sound, such as wavelength (pitch), amplitude, and harmonics.
Phonetics – The Sound of American English
Phonetics Flash Animation Project: University of Iowa
Motor Learning and Control
communicating UCLA Bureau of Glottal Affairs
Glottal Consonant
International Speech Communication Association
International Pragmatics Association
Using Praat for Linguistic Research
Voice Sauce Program for Voice Analysis
TalkBank Database
Expressive Synthetic Speech Resource
Speech Websites
Speech Accents Archive
Speech-Language and Hearing
Speech Buddy
Speech Easy
Speech Perception
Freedom of Speech

One area of the brain is for perceiving speech, and another area of the brain is for producing speech.  Science Daily

Communication Disorder

Dyslexia Typeface (youtube)

Medium of instruction
Visual Processing Disorders

Stammering Lidcombe Program
Singing and Stuttering

Hearing Impaired
Interpersonal intelligence

Primary Progressive Aphasia is a neurological syndrome in which language capabilities slowly and progressively become
impaired while other mental functions remain intact.

Aphasia is a combination of a speech and language disorder caused by damage to the brain that affects about 1 million individuals within the U.S.  Receptive Aphasia, also known as Wernicke’s aphasia, fluent aphasia, or sensory aphasia, is a type of aphasia in which an individual is unable to understand language in its written or spoken form.

Place of Articulation
Lexical Semantics
Speech Segmentation

Pronounce Names
How To Say
Pronounced Words
Pronunciation Patterns 
Tongue Twister Exercises
Pronunciation Practice
Pronunciation Practice
Speech Training

Rhetoric and Composition Parts of Speech
Dynamic Information Processing Measures in Audiovisual Speech Perception  PDF

Verbal Fluency Test
Anticipatory Avoidance
Reticence in Speaking  Oral-Formulaic Composition
Fran Capo is world's fastest talking female clocked at 603.32 words in 54.2 seconds. That’s 11 words a second.
Auction Chant
How to Talk Faster
Pressure of Speech

Talking  -  Speaking Effectively

Avoid Generalized Statements that fail to specify your message. If you give a clear example of what you're trying to say, then people will have an easier time understanding you, and they might even be able to answer your comment more accurately, and correctly.  Debating

Speaking Directly to Someone versus Speaking Indirectly to Someone
"We have made our ability to communicate more complicated then it needs to be."
Direct Communication versus Indirect Communication.  Meanings  Translations
Knowing when and why to be direct is the key to effective communication. Knowing when to give subtle hints, Knowing when to talk around a subject. Knowing when to give under-the-surface meaning versus implicit meaning. It's good to Speak directly too the person, not indirectly. Don't beat around the bush, speak to someone one and not at someone. Avoid blunt comments.
Avoiding insults may be seen as more important than providing honest feedback. Pay attention to nonverbal behaviors. In particular, a discrepancy between nonverbal behaviors and the words used by an indirect speaker can indicate that the
words aren’t accurate. Recognize that, for indirect communicators, it’s “always easier to agree than to disagree”.  Sometimes it's good to use open-ended, non-leading questions. Avoid phrasing a question so that the answer may be perceived as insulting to someone (for example, may be seen as criticizing someone).
Tips for indirect speakers when communicating with direct speakers include: Recognize that your subtle messages may not be perceived in the way you expect or may not be perceived at all. Accept that direct communicators respect direct speech.
Politeness can sometimes make the message less affective. Direct communicators tend to say what they think, and Indirect communicators seek to avoid conflict, tension and uncomfortable situations. We all use indirect communication strategies at times and in certain circumstances – we mean more than we say, and we gather meaning from others beyond the words they use.
Try not to use these ignorant excuses when explaining and communicating...Tell it like it is. Let the facts speak for themselves. If If you don't have anything nice to say, don't say anything. Tell someone what you think they want to hear. The squeaky wheel gets the grease. The nail that sticks out gets hammered back in. Honesty is the best policy. Being polite is more important than being honest. It's okay to say no. Avoid saying no; say “maybe” or “possibly,” even if you mean “no.” The truth is more important than sparing someone’s feelings. Don’t beat around the bush. If the truth might hurt, soften it. Say what you mean and mean what you say. Read between the lines. Take communication at face value. Handle communication to save face.
Time is money. Get to the point. Small talk before business is important. It’s okay to disagree with your boss at a meeting. Criticism of others, especially people with more authority, should be unspoken or careful and veiled.

Cultural Dimension: direct versus indirect communication style (youtube)

"You can create the perfect message, but the understanding depends on the skill of the receiver to correctly decipher it."

Good Enunciation is the act of speaking clearly and concisely. The opposite of good enunciation is mumbling or slurring. Pronunciation is a component of enunciation. Pronunciation is to pronounce sounds of words correctly.

"Lets be Frank" is a directness in manner or speech; without subtlety or evasion. The quality of being honest and straightforward in attitude and speech. Giving an answer that is short and precise.

Initiating is declaring one's conversational intent and inviting consent from one's prospective conversation partner.
Schedule sufficient, uninterrupted time for talking.  
Speech and Listening
Have a Meaningful Conversation

Turn-Taking is Managing the flow of information back and forth between partners in a conversation by alternating roles of speaker and listener.
Eloquence: Beauty and persuasion in speech. Powerful and effective language.

Don't talk to fill pauses, or respond to statements in a point-counterpoint fashion. 
Avoid Vulgarities
Whole Body Listening
Suspend Judgment and evaluation until you can see things from another person's Perspective
You Don't Know Everything
Avoid making distracting gestures and maintain an appropriate distance and posture. 

Think like the person to whom you are speaking. His or her problems and needs are important. You’ll understand and retain them better if you keep his or her point of view.

Ask clarification questions. If you don’t understand something, or if you feel you may have missed a point, clear it up now before it embarrasses you later.

Eye Contact
Eye Tracking
Make sincere eye contact

When to Change the Subject
Haptic Communication (touch)
Haptic Technology
How to Tell if You Talk Too Much
Delayed Auditory Feedback

Knowing the right time to Interrupt someone and knowing when to let someone else interrupt you is very important. Genuinely seek information. Ask clarifying Questions Articulate  Offer Constructive Feedback. Keep feedback impersonal and goal-oriented.

Direct Negative Feedback toward behavior that the recipient can control. Ask questions to ensure understanding of the feedback.

Avoid being emotional or attacking others. Paraphrase the message you heard, especially to clarify the speaker's intentions.
Focus on specific behaviors rather than making general statements.  Learn to separate Sounds and enjoy each one individually.

Thinking in Levels
Automated Conversation Coach

Eloquence is the beauty and persuasion in speech. Powerful and effective language.

Most of the time, words are translated with little confusion. It's when we put many words together is when we start to have most of the errors in translation. People are biased against certain words, and sometimes subconsciously. So we have to pay
attention how we say things and also confirm what we are saying is interpreted correctly. With out any under lying meanings, or undertones, or even a perceived play on words. And that's another problem, how to deal with miss interpretations and personal perceptions. We can't assume that people are understanding our messages the right way, and not taking it the wrong way. We should choose words that minimize confusion, but still transfer our messages at a higher rate of accuracy.

Getting Your Point Across  (5 Tips)

The Average Rate for an American Speaker is 150 Words Per Minute.

Calm yourself, don't get upset or let your emotions control your speech. Avoid arguing. Avoid degrading others or insulting people, or prejudging people. Don't use vulgar language. Try not to say anything that would be counterproductive to the goal that you want to achieve.
Develop a Friendly Tone of Voice
Be Heard

Begin your speech, if necessary, state your name and any relevant information that would lead up to this point in time.
Be sure to generate enough vocal power and energy to reach every listener in the room.
Breathe Diaphragmatically

Express your view about the important issue. Explain the goals and explain how it benefits others. Back up your opinion with facts, evidence, witnesses and or documents. And don't forget that you have to explain why you think this evidence is relevant, because just presenting facts is not good enough, you have to explain the meaning and the importance of these facts. Use examples and make suggestions.
Search for Meaning

Listen. Relate to the opinions of others and let them know that you understand their point of view. Be ready for the follow up questions and have appropriate responses ready. Don't tell a person they are wrong, just explain why you believe that you are right, and why it is more fair to everyone, and that it's free from favoritism, or self-interest, or bias, or deception.

I once too thought that same way, or similar way. And then I experienced a change when I learned some new information.
And after verifying this information and researching it more deeply, I have come to the conclusion that I must change, or, I will be responsible for any damage that is done from these negative actions, actions that do more harm then good. Humans are born good, and I have never met a bad dog either, I guess that is why dogs are mans best friend, we seek out similar company even outside our own species.

Don't be discouraged if you need to end the conversation. Don't feel bad if your point didn't get through. Learn to ask for more time to think, and to seek out more information on the matter. And also to learn more about other peoples point of view, so that you can better explain and understand your own point of view. 

Own The Room! - Sample Lesson: Voice Modulation and Speed (youtube)
5 Aspects of a Powerful Speaking Voice (youtube)

Speaking: The Proper use of Pitch for your Speaking Voice (youtube)
Develop a Perfect Speaking Voice (wikihow)

Learn to mirror words selectively. Repeat the last one to three words that a person just said back to them to establish a rapport, this will help the person feel more comfortable to be open, and also help communicate to the person that you're striving to understand their feelings, and that you like them. When a person feels that you understand them, like when saying "that's right", is reaffirming that you're truly listening and understanding them. Acknowledging their side and mirroring their point.
Questions that allow opportunities to say no can give the other person a measure of control and give them a sense of security, other then getting the other person to answer yes to questions. Don't try to force your opponent to admit that you are right. Rephrase and summarize.
Ask no-oriented questions like: "Have you given up on this aspect?" and "Is it too late to talk about x ?" Use phrases like "It sounds like you are afraid of..." and "It looks like you're concerned about..." Use empathy strategically. Knowing the weaknesses of your position will help you to be prepared for difficult questions.

Speech Science 

"Have more then you show, speak less then you know."  Shakespeare

pitch-variable voice
Sonority Hierarchy
Talk With a Deeper Voice
Pitch, Tone & Inflection (youtube)
Your Persuasive Voice

The responsibility of confirming if someone is listening to you is your responsibility, it's not the responsibility of the listener.
In every communication between people, only half of the message is clear, or completely understood. That's because not every question is answered during a normal conversation. People need to know more then just the definition of a word. And people also need to know more about the context, because a lot of context that surrounds words is non factual, made up of opinions that could easily mislead someone. First we need to learn to speak in truths, then we need to learn to communicate fully and accurately. I see conversations in the future being more fuller, more enjoyable, more meaningful, more open, and more honest, where one word could speak a thousand truths, and one word could answer a 1000 questions. But that's from everyone having a high quality education, an education that does not exist as of 2016. But the research is near completion, so a high quality education is not that far away. So when a person says that they are educated, it will mean that have 1000 different skills and qualities, and know a 1000 different things, and they could explain them for you if needed, using 20,000 unique words.

Why do some people assume that when they talk, everyone understands what they're saying? Just because you use a Label or a phrase, this does not explain the message, you only reveal a small detail, and then you expect people to fill in all the missing information correctly. So in your mind, you believe that you're explaining everything the person needs to understand the message. For some maybe, but for most of the people, they need more details, need more info, and they need the reason why. Other wise, you're not saying anything. You're like a barking dog. You know the dog is trying to say something, but until you investigate to find out why the dog is barking, you will not know why the dog is barking.

"Some people use broad words that say very little, and they pretend like they are answering a question, when in fact they are actually asking more questions in the form of an answer."

Magpie is an obnoxious and foolish and loquacious talker. (chatterbox)

is to speak (about unimportant matters) rapidly and incessantly. 

Gift of Gab
False Advertising
Media Manipulation


We should always think before we speak and always choose the right moment. But be careful, it's not just what you say, but it's also what you don't say that can cause the most damage. Remember, no one can read your mind, so don't be afraid to speak your mind, because you may never have another chance. It's not just what you say, but how you say it. Remember, language is the easy part, communicating effectively is the hard part.

Writing Tips
Speaking with Purpose
Don't Beat Around the Bush

"If we both stop Jumping to Conclusions then maybe we'll get somewhere"

"If you just say what you mean, you can avoid the possibility of things being lost during the translation, or being misunderstood."

The differences between "The Silent Treatment" "Ignoring Someone" and "Turning a Blind Eye".

Sometimes you don't want to satisfy someone with a response to a question, or an observation or an opinion, because it might encourage someone to continue talking about something that you don't feel comfortable about, or something that you disagree with, or something that you don't have enough information about so that you can reply with a correct response. And you don't want to get caught in a conversation with someone who is upset and will most likely drag you into an argument. But sometimes you don't want to totally ignore someone. Make eye contact with the person that shows no emotion, so as not to influence or encourage someone to continue a conversation that is making an incorrect observation, or just asking the wrong questions. Sometimes it's just better to change the subject, in a nice way of course. Or ask for the conversation to continue later in a better time and place.  Shunning

Sometimes you just want to be a Fly on the Wall in certain situations, meaning that you would like to be there secretly to see and hear what happens. Like a One-way Mirror, being an observer and witness without the risk of actually being there. Interested but not ready to commit or ready to be fully involved where your true character can be on display and tested along side the subject matter.

Talking to Yourself - Inner Voice

Is Thinking to Yourself and Talking to Yourself the same thing?

Remember, the Conversations in your Head are only one half of a conversation. Even though you're talking to yourself, it still counts as only one opinion. You can't say "my paranoid side says yes while my logical side says no", because you still need to confirm the accuracy of both of those questions, just like when trying to figuring out if something is Propaganda.

How can you be sure "That it Goes without Saying" if you never say it out loud? To pretend to have a conversation with someone else, and to guess what their responses would be, is not that unusual, people do it all the time, it's called "thinking to yourself." It's anticipating responses to particular questions that you might ask someone. But the bottom line is, you're still only answering your own questions, so you're pretty much still just talking to yourself, in a form of role-playing. And it's not a great way to teach yourself, mostly because you're only relying on one information source. So you still need to seek out more information and knowledge in order to obtain a better understanding about the questions you're asking, and, you also have to be sure that you're asking the right questions, and using the right sources?

Internal Monologue also known as inner voice, internal speech, or verbal stream of consciousness is thinking in words. It also refers to the semi-constant internal monologue some people have with themselves at a conscious or semi-conscious level (see Default mode network). Much of what people consciously report "thinking about" may be thought of as an internal monologue, a conversation with oneself. Some of this can be considered as speech rehearsal. When reading, some people's internal monologue moves their muscles slightly as if they were speaking; this is called subvocalizing. In some medical or mental conditions, there is uncertainty about the source of internal sentences. Attribution for an internal monologue may lead to concerns over schizophrenia, hallucinations, or hearing voices. This internal monologue is stimulated by the sensory parts of the brain, activating both auditory and visual receptors. Contemplation "attempts to calm the internal voice" by various means.[citation needed] In the philosophical field of language there is much research about internal speech in correlation with the building and usage of phrases in one's own idiom and thus the importance of language in the process of thinking.

Language and Thought is when our emotions and behavior are caused by our internal dialogue. We can change ourselves by learning to challenge and refute our own thoughts, especially a number of specific mistaken thought patterns called "cognitive distortions". Cognitive therapy has been found to be effective by empirical studies.

Intrapersonal Communication is a communicator's internal use of language or thought. It can be useful to envision intrapersonal communication occurring in the mind of the individual in a model which contains a sender, receiver, and feedback loop.

Subvocalization or silent speech, is the internal speech typically made when reading; it provides the sound of the word as it
is read. This is a natural process when reading and it helps the mind to access meanings to comprehend and remember what is read, potentially reducing cognitive load. This inner speech is characterized by minute movements in the larynx and other muscles involved in the articulation of speech. Most of these movements are undetectable (without the aid of machines) by the person who is reading. It is one of the components of Baddeley and Hitch's phonological loop proposal which accounts for the storage of these types of information into short-term memory.

Preschoolers Correct Speaking Mistakes Even When Talking to Themselves

Dialogical Self is a psychological concept which describes the mind's ability to imagine the different positions of participants in an internal dialogue, in close connection with external dialogue. The "dialogical self" is the central concept in the Dialogical Self Theory (DST), as created and developed by the Dutch psychologist Hubert Hermans since the 1990s.

"I want everyone to know what I'm thinking, but what I'm thinking is not always what I want to say out load, or should say out load. Thinking bad things is not a victimless crime. You can say it's a joke, but why does that excuse you? Unless you are making a point? You have a responsibility for your own thoughts, as well as for the words you speak. Saying horrible things, or thinking horrible things, does not say that you are a bad person, it's only bad when you believe those words or thoughts, it's also bad when you don't apologize for your thoughts or words." (it is a learning process)

Shoulder Angel
Sleep Talking
Inter Voice
Internal Narrative
Speed Reading

Misinterpretations are humans Achilles Heal. We not only misinterpret each other sometimes, we also misinterpret our own thoughts and feelings sometimes. Not only do we experience difficulties communicating with other people, we also have difficulties communicating with ourselves. This is why we need more knowledge and information to make us more skilled, more aware, and more intelligent.

Misinterpretation is having an inaccurate mental representation of the meaning or significance of something. Not correct; not in conformity with fact or truth. 

"if I'm joking to myself, then who is the joke intended for? My conscience? Who's that? If my awareness is random like my dreams, then how can I be sure which part of me is listening, and why?"

Voices in my Head
If your Internal Monologue seems to have a mind of its own, as if the Dream World mechanism for creating dreams while we sleep, is some how being activated while you are awake, then your Auditory Hallucinations might need to seek out some professional advice.
How to cope with Hearing Voices   Hearing the voices of God or just voices?
Poor supplementary motor area activation differentiates Auditory Verbal
Lateral Lemniscus is a tract of axons in the brainstem that carries information about sound from the cochlear nucleus to various brainstem nuclei and ultimately the contralateral inferior colliculus of the midbrain. Three distinct, primarily inhibitory, cellular groups are located interspersed within these fibers, and are thus named the nuclei of the lateral lemniscus.
Somniloquy is a parasomnia that refers to talking aloud while asleep. It can be quite loud, ranging from simple mumbling sounds to loud shouts and long frequently inarticulate speeches, and can occur many times during a sleep cycle. As with sleepwalking and night terrors, sleeptalking usually occurs during the less-deep delta-wave NREM sleep stages or during temporary arousals therefrom.

Things I would say if I were me, "Who the hell are you?" I'm you, first person narrative. "Ohhh."

"Sometimes in order to keep the conversation going, you have to do it yourself, ask all the questions and look for the answers."

Interlocutor is a person involved in a conversation or dialogue. Two or more people speaking to one another, are each other's interlocutors.

Everyone expects that other people will automatically know where they're coming from, and at the least, everyone hopes that other people will understand them correctly. But when we are misunderstood, we should never be defensive or surprised, because meaning is something that is not always a constant or a given. That is why validation is extremely important. Always make sure that you are on the same page as the other person. If you're not on the same page, then find out which pages you're both on. And please don't be stubborn or impatient when communicating, it will only impede understanding and cause more problems to happen.

Journal of Human Performance in Extreme Environments Analyzing Cockpit Communications:
The Links Between Language, Performance, Error, and Workload.

Gender Differences in Language Use:
Gender differences in language use were examined using standardized categories to analyze a database of over 14,000 text files from 70 separate studies. Women used more words related to psychological and social processes. Men referred more to object properties and impersonal topics.

"Let us not have any preconceived notions on who we think each other is, let us communicate openly, like friends do, and let us focus more on our abilities, and not so much on our disabilities, or perceived limits."

Levels of Communication:
Direct and Indirect channels of Communication:
Work Relationships

Speech Communication:
Linguistic intelligence
ICT Competency
Skills You Need

Summarizing is a brief statement that presents the main points in a concise form. Without Generalizing or Over Simplifying.
Paraphrasing is a restatement of the meaning of a text or passage using other words.

As extremely important as communication is, it is sadly over looked, taken for granted, and underutilized. Communication is not even being taught in schools as effectively as it should be, which is extremely disturbing considering it is the most valuable skill on the planet. All life forms survive by transferring important information. Everything from atoms to every cell in our body depends on this communication of information to live and survive. Without the ability to communicate information, there would be no life. And when information becomes distorted or infected, that is when life is the most vulnerable. The wrong information, or bad information, can easily produce mistakes in our thoughts and in our actions.

Humans ability to manually send and receive information gives us incredible advantages, but this manual ability is also a vulnerability, because when we misinterpret information, many problems can occur, like disease, death, war, poverty, crime, corruption, and so on. Education has over looked this incredibly important skill to communicate. You need more then just the ability to communicate, you need to know when, why, where and what to communicate.

Communication is all about transferring information and knowledge. And as simple as that sounds, communication is one skill that most people don't fully understand enough in order to communicate effectively or efficiently. Being able to communicate is one of the most important skills to have.  Extremely valuable.

The Thinker Man