Writing is letters or symbols that are written or imprinted on a surface to represent the sounds or words of a language. Writing is to communicate or express meaning by writing letters of the alphabet. Writing is the activity of putting something in written form. Writing is the work of a writer, from the point of view of style and effect.

Writing Tips - History of Printing - History of Writing

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writing left handed
Good handwriting takes focus and awareness in order to write each individual letter clearly enough to read. And at the same time, you have to know the next letter that you need to write that will help you form a complete word. So good writing combines focus and planning, which is kind a like multitasking. First you have to know what you're planning to write, and then you have to know the words and symbols that you need to write in order to communicate your message. Then you need to focus on writing each individual letter as you're recalling the next letter that you need to write. Eventually with practice your writing will become effortless and will flow and travel smoothly across the paper naturally.

Typing - Word Processing Software - Grammar - Modes - Sentence

Handwriting is writing created by a person with a writing utensil such as a pen or pencil. Handwriting includes both printing and cursive styles and is separate from formal calligraphy or typeface. Because each person's handwriting is unique, it can be used to verify a document's writer.

History of Writing - Petroglyphs - Carving

A Fast Hand Writer can write 250 words in 15 Minutes on average. Speed Reading.

Left Handed Writing Motion Gif (image) - Letter Writing Animated Gifs

Write the Letter Z Write the letter AWriting Resources - Writing Tester - Writing Skills Test

Handwriting Tips - Handwriting Help for Kids - Writing Practice - Writing A-Z - Lousy Writer - Custom Writing

Writing Letters of the Alphabet (Motion Gifs)

Composition Book - Book Types - Document Writing - Modes

Writing Tips - Pencil or Pen?

Spelling - Work Sheets - Grammar - Sentence

knowledge of conventions writing skills (PDF)

"You can't write if you can't read, and there will be nothing to read if no one writes. You read to understand, you write to be understood. "

Capital Letter Wrting Diagram Writing is a medium of human communication that represents language and emotion through the inscription or recording of signs and symbols. In most languages, writing is a complement to speech or spoken language. Writing is not a language but a form of technology that developed as tools developed with human society. Within a language system, writing relies on many of the same structures as speech, such as vocabulary, grammar and semantics, with the added dependency of a system of signs or symbols. The result of writing is generally called text, and the recipient of text is called a reader. Motivations for writing include publication, storytelling, correspondence and diary. Writing has been instrumental in keeping history, maintaining culture, dissemination of knowledge through the media and the formation of legal systems.

Mode - Story Telling - Author - Risks - Profanity

Creative Writing is any writing that goes outside the bounds of normal professional, journalistic, academic, or technical forms of literature, typically identified by an emphasis on narrative craft, character development, and the use of literary tropes or with various traditions of poetry and poetics. Due to the looseness of the definition, it is possible for writing such as feature stories to be considered creative writing, even though they fall under journalism, because the content of features is specifically focused on narrative and character development. Both fictional and non-fictional works fall into this category, including such forms as novels, biographies, short stories, and poems. In the academic setting, creative writing is typically separated into fiction and poetry classes, with a focus on writing in an original style, as opposed to imitating pre-existing genres such as crime or horror. Writing for the screen and stage—screenwriting and playwriting—are often taught separately, but fit under the creative writing category as well. Diary.

Writing System is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication. While both writing and speech are useful in conveying messages, writing differs in also being a reliable form of information storage and transfer.

List of Languages by Writing System (wiki)

Cursive Capital Uppercase and lowercase small lettersCursive is any style of penmanship in which some characters are written joined together in a flowing manner, generally for the purpose of making writing faster. Formal cursive is generally joined, but casual cursive is a combination of joins and pen lifts. The writing style can be further divided as "looped", "italic", or "connected". Alphabet.

Round Hand is a type of handwriting and calligraphy originating in England in the 1660s.

Italic Type is a cursive font based on a stylized form of calligraphic handwriting. Owing to the influence from calligraphy, italics normally slant slightly to the right. Italics are a way to emphasize key points in a printed text, or when quoting a speaker a way to show which words they stressed. One manual of English usage described italics as "the print equivalent of underlining.

Graphomania refers to an obsessive impulse to write. When used in a specifically psychiatric context, it labels a morbid mental condition which results in writing rambling and confused statements, often degenerating into a meaningless succession of words or even nonsense and called then graphorrhea (cf. hypergraphia). The term 'graphomania' has been used in early 19th century by Esquirol and later by Eugen Bleuler, becoming more or less usual  Graphomania is near condition to typomania - obsessiveness with seeing one's name in publication or with writing for being published, excessive symbolism or typology.

Shorthand is an abbreviated symbolic writing method that increases speed and brevity of writing as compared to longhand, a more common method of writing a language. Gregg Shorthand.

Good Hand Writing Sample Penmanship is beautiful handwriting. Penmanship is the technique of writing with the hand using a writing instrument. Today, this is most commonly done with a pen, or pencil, but throughout history has included many different implements. The various generic and formal historical styles of writing are called "hands" whilst an individual's style of penmanship is referred to as "handwriting". Articulate - Spelling.

Calligraphy is a visual art related to writing. It is the design and execution of lettering with a broad tip instrument, brush, among other writing instruments. A contemporary calligraphic practice can be defined as, "the art of giving form to signs in an expressive, harmonious, and skillful manner". Calligraphy - Penmanship.

Pen is a common writing instrument used to apply ink to a surface, usually paper, for writing or drawing. Historically, reed pens, quill pens, and dip pens were used, with a nib dipped in ink. Ruling pens allow precise adjustment of line width, and still find a few specialized uses, but technical pens such as the Rapidograph are more commonly used. Modern types include ballpoint, rollerball, fountain and felt or ceramic tip pens.

Pencil is a writing implement or art medium constructed of a narrow, solid pigment core inside a protective casing which prevents the core from being broken and/or from leaving marks on the user’s hand during use. Graphite is a crystalline allotrope of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and a form of coal.

Pencil or Pen? There are more uses for pencils than for pens, but, pencils need sharpening, while pens are always ready to write, but some pens don't always work because some pens don't write even when it still has some ink left. A pencil broken in half becomes two pencils. You can’t break a pen in half and use both halves, but marks made with pens can last longer. Pencils are better for shading. Pencils are more environmentally-friendly than pens. The more you sharpen a pencil, the shorter it gets—and becomes difficult to use. You can’t write on skin or other surfaces with a pencil, but some surfaces can make it difficult to write on using a pen or a pencil. Paint Brush.

Eco-Friendly Writing: Pencils are better the Pens because pencils are made of things found naturally in our environment, and they are also renewable and they breakdown in landfills. Most pencils are made from Cedar Trees and Graphite, which is made out of carbon. But you can buy pens that are more eco-friendly. Eco-Friendly Pens - Recycled Pens and Pencils - Green Products.

Stylus is a writing utensil or a small tool for some other form of marking or shaping, for example, in pottery. It can also be a computer accessory that is used to assist in navigating or providing more precision when using touchscreens.

Writing on paper compared to writing on a tablet or smartphone. Writing on physical paper can lead to more brain activity when remembering the information an hour later. Although volunteers wrote by hand both with pen and paper or stylus and digital tablet, researchers say paper notebooks contain more complex spatial information than digital paper. Physical paper allows for tangible permanence, irregular strokes, and uneven shape, like folded corners. In contrast, digital paper is uniform, has no fixed position when scrolling, and disappears when you close the app.

Japanese children learn to write through Rhythm.

Air writing helps children remember letter formation, which is a motion-oriented "memory," and which is an entirely different (and separate) memory than the visual memories of letter shapes. Air writing also helps to strengthen the arm and shoulder muscles in preparation for handwriting. This is important because weak muscles lead to bad habits in handwriting.

UCL Computer Scientists have developed Software Computer Programme that Replicates Handwriting. "My Text in Your Handwriting" programme, semi-automatically examines a sample of a person’s handwriting, which can be as little as one paragraph, and then generates new text saying whatever the user wishes, as if the author had handwritten it themselves.

Write the Letter A Graphology is the analysis of the physical characteristics and patterns of handwriting purporting to be able to identify the writer, indicating psychological state at the time of writing, or evaluating personality characteristics.

Handwriting Analysis is a term for a forensic science discipline pertaining to documents that are potentially disputed in a court of law. Its primary purpose is to provide evidence about a suspicious or questionable document using scientific processes and methods. Evidence might include alterations, the chain of possession, damage to the document, forgery, origin, authenticity, or other questions that come up when a document is challenged in court.

Tremor of Fraud is characterized by the inequality in movement at any place in any stroke or line, with strokes too strong and vigorous combined with weak, hesitating strokes, interruptions in movement in movement, unequal distribution of ink on upward or varying pen pressure. The forger will usually not place tremor on curves but will execute a smoother stroke than the known writer could have made. The hesitation and a kind of tremor characterized by a general irregularity of the line is due to a lack of skill and a mental uncertainty as to design and form, and to a general muscular clumsiness from unfamiliarity with the writing process.

Dysgraphia is a deficiency in the ability to write, primarily handwriting, but also coherence. It can manifest itself as difficulties with spelling, poor handwriting and trouble putting thoughts on paper. Because writing requires a complex set of motor and information processing skills, saying a student has dysgraphia is not sufficient. Dyslexia.

Signature is a handwritten (and often stylized) depiction of someone's name, nickname, or even a simple "X" or other mark that a person writes on documents as a proof of identity and intent. The writer of a signature is a signatory or signer. Similar to a handwritten signature, a signature work describes the work as readily identifying its creator. A signature may be confused with an autograph, which is chiefly an artistic signature. This can lead to confusion when people have both an autograph and signature and as such some people in the public eye keep their signatures private whilst fully publishing their autograph.

Autograph is a person's own signature or handwriting. The term is used particularly in connection with the collecting of autographs of celebrities; the hobby of collecting autographs is known as "philography"."Autograph" can refer to a document transcribed entirely in the handwriting of its author, as opposed to a typeset document or one written by an amanuensis or a copyist. This meaning overlaps that of "holograph".

Your Personal Signature will not always be exactly the same each time you write it. Real signatures are always slightly different and they may differ a little every time. Signatures change with time as habits change. If the signatures are exact replica there is a very strong possibility of forgery. Difference between signatures increases proportionally with the complexity. Legally there is no limit on the number of signatures you can have. It doesn't matter whether the signature is legible or illegible, so long as it is consistent. A signature is simply a mark intended to authenticate a document; it can literally be any type of mark - a symbol, a single letter, initials, or a full signature. All have equal weight under the law -- assuming that you can prove that the mark was made by the person you're attempting to enforce the document against, with the intent to authenticate that document. In state and federal law, cursive signatures have no special legal validity over any other kind. All writing, not just cursive, is individual, just as all writing involves fine motor skills. Hidden features, slant, penlifting, letter joining, letter formation, habits while signing, speed of signing. When you are analyzing writing, you are not looking at the writing style, you are looking at strokes within the writing, and these will more or less stay the same. A signature card is a document that a bank keeps on file with the signatures of all the authorized people on that account.

Digital Signature is a mathematical scheme for verifying the authenticity of digital messages or documents. A valid digital signature gives a recipient reason to believe that the message was created by a known sender (authentication), that the sender cannot deny having sent the message (non-repudiation), and that the message was not altered in transit (integrity).

Technical Writing (professional documents)

Talking (speaking effectively)

Typography is the art and technique of arranging type to make written language legible, readable, and appealing when displayed. The arrangement of type involves selecting typefaces, point sizes, line lengths, line-spacing (leading), and letter-spacing (tracking), and adjusting the space between pairs of letters (kerning). The term typography is also applied to the style, arrangement, and appearance of the letters, numbers, and symbols created by the process. Type design is a closely related craft, sometimes considered part of typography; most typographers do not design typefaces, and some type designers do not consider themselves typographers. Typography also may be used as a decorative device, unrelated to communication of information.

Formats - Web Typography Fonts - Uppercase Lowercase.

Font is a particular size, weight and style of a typeface. Each font was a matched set of type, one piece (called a "sort") for each glyph, and a typeface consisting of a range of fonts that shared an overall design. Child Font - Make your own Fonts.

International Typographic Style is a graphic design style that emerged in Russia, the Netherlands and Germany in the 1920s, and was made famous as it was developed by designers in Switzerland during the 1950s.

Graph Paper is writing paper that is printed with fine lines making up a regular grid. The lines are often used as guides for plotting graphs of functions or experimental data and drawing curves. It is commonly found in mathematics and engineering education settings and in laboratory notebooks. Graph paper is available either as loose leaf paper or bound in notebooks. Graph Paper is also called coordinate paper, grid paper, or squared paper. Grid systems are aids designers use to build designs, arrange information and make consistent user experiences. They include rule of thirds, golden section, single-column, multi-column, modular, baseline and responsive grid systems.

Paper is a thin sheet material produced by mechanically or chemically processing cellulose fibres derived from wood, rags, grasses, or other vegetable sources in water, draining the water through a fine mesh leaving the fibre evenly distributed on the surface, followed by pressing and drying. Although paper was originally made in single sheets by hand, almost all is now made on large machines—some making reels 10 metres wide, running at 2,000 metres per minute and up to 600,000 tonnes a year. It is a versatile material with many uses, including printing, painting, graphics, signage, design, packaging, decorating, writing, and cleaning. It may also be used as filter paper, wallpaper, book endpaper, conservation paper, laminated worktops, toilet tissue, currency, and security paper, or in a number of industrial and construction processes.

Typing is the process of writing or inputting text by pressing keys on a typewriter, computer keyboard, cell phone, or calculator. It can be distinguished from other means of text input, such as handwriting and speech recognition. Text can be in the form of letters, numbers and other symbols.

Keyboard Letters and Symbols - Spelling - Printing Press

Words Per Minute is a measure of words processed in a minute, often used as a measurement of typing speed or reading speed. An average professional Typist types usually in speeds of 50 to 80 wpm. The slowest typists are male baby boomers, averaging 38 words a minute. Male millennials were the fastest typists as a group, 56.5 words per minute.

Stenotype Shorthand Machine is a specialized chorded keyboard or typewriter used by stenographers for shorthand use.

Text Messaging is the act of composing and sending electronic messages, typically consisting of alphabetic and numeric characters, between two or more users of mobile phones, fixed devices (e.g., desktop computers) or portable devices (e.g., tablet computers or smartphones).

Writing Process - Preparing to Write - Writer Preparations

Prewriting is the initial phase or the first stage of the writing process where the writer generates ideas and plans the structure of the piece. It involves brainstorming, outlining, and organizing thoughts. Prewriting is a combination of outlining, diagramming, storyboarding, clustering, mind mapping, typically followed by drafting, revision, editing and publishing.

Clustering is a type of pre-writing that allows a writer to explore many ideas as soon as they occur to them. Like brainstorming or free associating, clustering allows a writer to begin without clear ideas. To begin to cluster, choose a word that is central to the assignment. Thesaurus or synonyms, which are words that can be interchanged.

Gathering Details is selecting the most important details that are about your topic, or supports your main topic in some way. You do not want to include information that is not relevant to your writing. You want to gather the information that fits your topic perfectly. Information Gathering in the context of technical writing is the process of collecting and organizing the information you would want to share in your technical document. It is focused on acquiring specific knowledge about a particular technology, process, or software you want to write on.

Elaborate is to add details to an idea in order to clarify the meaning of something and extend its expression. Work out in detail and developed or executed with care that is marked by complexity and richness of detail. Produce from basic elements or sources and change into a more developed product. Make more complex, intricate, or rich. Words that Flow - Creative Writing.

Drafting is when a writer puts pen to paper or fingers to keyboard and begins to compose the first draft. The focus is on getting ideas down without worrying too much about perfection. The goal is to create a rough version of the content, building upon the ideas developed during the prewriting stage.

Outline is a tool used to organize written ideas about a topic or thesis into a logical order. Outlines arrange major topics, subtopics, and supporting details. Writers use outlines when writing their papers in order to know which topic to cover in what order.

Outline Summary is a list arranged to show hierarchical relationships and is a type of tree structure. It is used to present the main points or topics of a given subject, often used as a draft or summary of the content of a document.

Abstract Summary is a brief summary of a research article, thesis, review, conference proceeding or any in-depth analysis of a particular subject and is often used to help the reader quickly ascertain the paper's purpose. Mind Maps.

Storyboard is a graphic organizer in the form of illustrations or images displayed in sequence for the purpose of pre-visualizing a motion picture, animation, motion graphic or interactive media sequence. Modes.

First Draft is a preliminary stage in the writing process that visualizes a basic outline of what your finished work will be like. A first draft states the main points of your work and explains the key ideas in detail, and also gives examples or a sample form of an argument or a point that you are trying to make and that helps to develop a more cohesive text. The first draft is the gathering stage of writing that classifies things into groups and gives a visual web that represents associations among ideas. A first draft is a way to organize your thoughts for a future piece of writing and to further develop ideas. The first draft is also called a rough sketch or rough draft.

Writing First Draft (PDF) - How to Prepare a First Draft - PDF - Quick Draft - Foundation

Draft Document is the product the writer creates in the initial stages of the writing process. The first principle of composition is to foresee or determine the shape of what is to come and pursue that shape. This shape is the draft that eventually becomes the finished work. Writing is a way to end up thinking something you couldn’t have started out thinking. A series of drafts which come together to produce an emerging “center of gravity” that then translates into the main focus on the work. This process should be a holistic process, not a linear process. the interaction among ideas or points of view, can produce new ones that didn’t seem available before.

Revising is done after completing the draft, the writer steps back to review and revise the content. This involves making structural changes, refining the organization, clarifying ideas, and improving the overall flow. Revising is crucial for enhancing the coherence and effectiveness of the writing.

Editing is a detailed review focused on correcting grammar, punctuation, spelling, and other mechanical aspects of the writing. It addresses issues at the sentence and word level, ensuring that the language is clear, precise, and error-free. Editing enhances the readability and professionalism of the written piece

Publishing is the final step that involves preparing the written work for its intended audience. This could include formatting, proofreading, and making any final adjustments. Publishing is about presenting the polished and refined piece to the world, whether it's through traditional print, online platforms, or other means.

Hand Writing Skills - Grammar - Articulate - Technical - Plain Language - Rule Set of Wikipedia (PDF) - Essay Writing - Document Writing - Plain Language Clear and ConciseBut Not too Simplistic

P.O.W.E.R. stands for Plan - Organize - Write - Edit - Revise. (A plan for preparing each message).
1) Draft the message with the readers in mind.
2) Send clear, concise messages that are brief, succinct, and organized.
3) Give the message a concise title and use subheadings where appropriate.
4) Use simple words and short, clear, sentences and paragraphs. 
5) Back up opinions with facts.
6) Avoid “flowery” language, euphemisms, and trite expressions that's free of jargon.
7) Summarize main points at the end and let the reader know what he must do next.

10 Writing Tips to Become a Good Writer

1: Grab the reader's attention with a good title, sometimes first impressions matter. Know your Readers. Make a title that answers a particular question a user might have. Write something valuable and try to change the thinking of your readers. Click Bait.

Lead Paragraph is the opening paragraph of an article, essay, book chapter, or other written work that summarizes its main ideas. Styles vary widely among the different types and genres of publications, from journalistic news-style leads to a more encyclopaedic variety. At the beginning of a written work stands the opening sentence or opening line. The opening line is part or all of the opening sentence that may start the lead paragraph. For older texts the Latin term "incipit" (it begins) is in use for the very first words of the opening sentence. As in speech, a personal document such as a letter normally starts with a salutation, which is a greeting used in a letter or other written or non-written communication. Lede is the first sentence or opening paragraph of a news story that immediately grabs the reader's attention. This introductory section provides a statement, establishes a scenario, or sets up a question that the body of the news article will address by supplying the relevant supporting information. A lede is one sentence of 35 words or less and may contain one comma. Some journalists use a semi-colon to join two independent clauses together in one lede. This is bad style. Remember: say as much as you can in the least number of words possible. The spelling lede is an alteration of lead, a word which, on its own, makes sense; after all, isn't the main information in a story found in the lead (first) paragraph? And sure enough, for many years lead was the preferred spelling for the introductory section of a news story. Journalistic leads emphasize grabbing the attention of the reader. In journalism, the failure to mention the most important, interesting or attention-grabbing elements of a story in the first paragraph is sometimes called "burying the lead". Most standard news leads include brief answers to the questions of who, what, why, when, where, and how the key event in the story took place. In newspaper writing, the first paragraph that summarizes or introduces the story is also called the "blurb paragraph", "teaser text" or, in the United Kingdom, the "standfirst". Leads in essays summarize the outline of the argument and conclusion that follows in the main body of the essay. Encyclopedia leads tend to define the subject matter as well as emphasize the interesting points of the article. Features and general articles in magazines tend to be somewhere between journalistic and encyclopedian in style and often lack a distinct lead paragraph entirely.

Introduction is a beginning section which states the purpose and goals of the following writing. This is generally followed by the body and conclusion. The introduction typically describes the scope of the document and gives a brief explanation or summary of the document. It may also explain certain elements that are important to the essay. The readers can have an idea about the following text before they actually start reading it. introduction is also known as a prolegomenon.

Preamble is an introductory and expressionary statement in a document that explains the document's purpose and underlying philosophy.

Preface is an introduction to a book or other literary work written by the work's author.

Prefatory serves as an introduction or preface. Prefatorial.

Prologue is an opening to a story that establishes the context and gives background details, often some earlier story that ties into the main one, and other miscellaneous information.

Foreword is a short piece of writing sometimes placed at the beginning of a book or other piece of literature. Typically written by someone other than the primary author of the work, it often tells of some interaction between the writer of the foreword and the book's primary author or the story the book tells. Later editions of a book sometimes have a new foreword prepended (appearing before an older foreword if there was one), which might explain in what respects that edition differs from previous ones.

Epigraph is a phrase, quotation, or poem that is set at the beginning of a document, monograph or section thereof. The epigraph may serve as a preface to the work; as a summary; as a counter-example; or as a link from the work to a wider literary canon, with the purpose of either inviting comparison or enlisting a conventional context.
A book may have an overall epigraphy that is part of the front matter, or one for each chapter.

Spelling - Words - Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) - Ideas

2: Stay within your topic and be original. Try to focus on a single thought or issue. Don't forget something personal and always share a little of yourself. Show the end result at the start of the article to let users know that they are reading the right subject. Use some humor when its appropriate. Profanity is not necessary.

Speaking - Plot - Prologue - Narrative Modes - Active Voice - Parallelism

3: Think about a theme or a particular writing style that you might want to explore, but try to write what you know. Cover the basics first; leave the optional or advanced scenarios for the latter part of the article.

Syntax - Prose - Grammatical Person - Tone - Exposition - Style Guide - Writing Modes

How to Write a Short Story (wikihow)
4: Be creative with your words but not too fancy, make it simple and to the point. The reader shouldn't have to guess what you mean. If your writing is to advanced it may distract someone from fully understanding your message. Not to say that sophisticated writing is bad, there is a time and place for everything. You reach a larger audience with easy to understand writing. Sometimes dividing long sentences into shorter ones can be more effective. A paragraph should support a single idea. Try to reframe 90% of the passive voice. Use a thesaurus or a dictionary to find the right words. Participle. Try to be unique, informative, direct, simple and brief. Prefer a vigorous, lucid or saxon word to the romantic. And use transitive verbs that strike their object. Prefer the familiar word, and the concrete or root word, to the abstract. Avoid superfluous redundant or unnecessary empty words. Idioms.

Know the differences between redundancy, tautologypleonasm, verbosity, contractions and repetitionCommunication.

5: Be informative and educational with the latest information available on your subject. Try to limit your personal opinions and try to avoid using clichés. Make it exciting to read. It's not just what you say, but how you say it. make it clear and easy to follow. Add links to articles that are connected to the topic to provide some extra information for the users.

Conversations - Climax - Dramatic Structure - Pathos - Technical Writing Style - Editorial Rules - Simplification.

6: Try to explain what you are seeing to the reader. Give a Point of view and explain the setting and any characters involved. Be specific to detail.

Circumlocution - (Inflectional Ending) - Epilogue - Human Interest Story - Situation vs Complication - Open Letter

7: Use images that are eye-catching and relevant.

Depiction - Illuminated Manuscript - Info-Graphic - Ideogram - Emoji - Photos - Art

But remember..."A picture could never be more worthy then a thousand words, but it's nice to have both."

8: Read your work aloud and proof read it. Have someone else proof read your writing for correct spelling, punctuation and grammar. Journalism Tools - Dictionaries.

Visual Field of 12 words Per Line. - Word Spacing - Typography - Readability Consortium - Reading Speeds

If your font size is 12 it would take around 22.2 pages to print 10,000 words.

Sentence Spacing is the horizontal space between sentences in typeset text. 

Page Orientation is the way in which a rectangular page is oriented for normal viewing. The two most common types of orientation are portrait and landscape. The specific word definition comes from the fact that a close-up portrait of a person's face and upper body is more fitting for a canvas or photo where the height of the display area is greater than the width, and is more common for the pages of books. Landscape originally described artistic outdoor scenes where a wide view area is needed, but the upper part of the painting would be mostly sky and so is omitted. Spatial Intelligence.

Legibility is the ease with which a reader can recognize individual characters in text. Articulate.

Readability is the ease with which a reader can understand a written text. In natural language, the readability of text depends on its content (the complexity of its vocabulary and syntax) and its presentation (such as typographic aspects like font size, line height, and line length). Researchers have used various factors to measure readability, such as speed of perception, Perceptibility at a distance, Perceptibility in peripheral vision, Visibility, Reflex blink technique, Rate of work (reading speed), Eye movements, Fatigue in reading. Readability is more than simply legibility—which is a measure of how easily a reader can distinguish individual letters or characters from each other. Higher readability eases reading effort and speed for any reader, but it is especially important for those who do not have high reading comprehension. In readers with average or poor reading comprehension, raising the readability level of a text from mediocre to good can make the difference between success and failure of its communication goals. Readability exists in both natural language and programming languages, albeit in different forms. In programming, things such as programmer comments, choice of loop structure, and choice of names can determine the ease with which humans can read computer program code.

Manuscript Format is to determine what the relevant writing standards are.

Style Guide is a set of standards for the writing and design of documents, either for general use or for a specific publication, organization, or field. List of Style Guides (wiki)

Dramatic Structure is the structure of a dramatic work such as a book, play, or film.

File Format is a standard way that information is encoded for storage in a computer file.

9: To become a better writer you should always Read More. Reading.

10: Have fun. 

"Either write things that are worth reading, or do things that are worth writing about, and if you do both, you can't go wrong."

The person who does not write things that are insightful and educational has no advantage over a person who can't write at all. This is not saying that you should not read and write for fun, or, this is not saying that knowing how to read and write has no advantages, because it does, It's just saying that Balance and Purpose should be of highest priority.

Free Writing is a prewriting technique in which a person writes continuously for a set period of time without regard to spelling, grammar, or topic. It produces raw, often unusable material, but helps writers overcome blocks of apathy and self-criticism. It is used mainly by prose writers and writing teachers. Some writers use the technique to collect initial thoughts and ideas on a topic, often as a preliminary to formal writing. Free writing is not the same as automatic writing.

Scrivener was a person who could read and write or wrote letters to court and legal documents.

Writing Exercise - Complex Nouns 

The average writer who's doing research for a story, will spend at least 3 weeks interviewing on the average around 100 people, either in person or talking with them over the telephone. They will request information and facts from various sources from around the world, like press releases, technical papers and so on. From that they will create 100's of pages of hand written notes of 20,000 words or more. Then they will meticulously go through all the acquired information to retrieve the most important parts. Then they will spend about a week writing and rewriting the story till it becomes something to be published. 

Journalism (awards)

Context gives meaning to words, and words give meaning to context. In order to say what you mean you have to know a lot of words and all the definitions that apply to those words. So vocabulary is valuable, but not as valuable as knowing how to use words to express meaning.

Vague - Ambiguity - Labels - Click Bait - Word Rank

Transition Words or Flow Words are words or phrases that show the relationship between paragraphs or sections of a text or speech. Transitions provide greater cohesion by making it more explicit or signaling how ideas relate to one another. Transitions are "bridges" that "carry a reader from section to section." Transitions guide a reader through steps of logic, increments of time, or through physical space. Transitions "...connect words and ideas so that your readers don't have to do the mental work for you. Coordinating Transitions: Elements in a coordinate relationship are equal in rank, quality, or significance. To show a link between equal elements, use a coordinating transition. To show similarity or reinforce: and, also, too, similarly, equally, identically, equally important, together with, not only ... but also, coupled with, in the light of, not to mention, as well as, furthermore, moreover, in the same fashion/ way, likewise, comparatively, correspondingly, by the same token, uniquely, to say nothing of. To introduce an opposing point: but, however, yet, on the contrary, on the other hand, in contrast, still, neither, nor, nevertheless, besides. To signal a restatement: that is, in other words, in simpler terms, to put it differently. Subordinating Transitions: To introduce an item in a series: first, in the first place, *second, in the second place, for one thing...., for another, next, then, in addition, finally, last, To introduce an example: in particular, specifically, for instance, for example, that is, namely. To show causality: as a result, hence, thus, so, then, because, since, for, consequently, accordingly, therefore. To introduce a summary or conclusion: in conclusion, finally, all in all, evidently, clearly, actually, to sum up, altogether, of course. To signal a concession: naturally, of course, it is true, to be sure, granted, certainly. To resume main argument after a concession: all the same, even though, still, nevertheless, nonetheless, which means in spite of that or nevertheless. Temporal Transitions: To show frequency: frequently, hourly, often, occasionally, now and then, day after day, every so often, again and again. To show duration: during, briefly, for a long time, minute by minute, while. To show a particular time: now, then, at that time, in those days, last Sunday, next Christmas, in 1999, at the beginning of August, at six o’clock, first thing in the morning, two months ago, when. To introduce a beginning: at first, in the beginning, since, before then. To introduce a middle: in the meantime, meanwhile, as it was happening, at that moment, at the same time, simultaneously, next, then. To signal an end (or beyond): eventually, finally, at last, in the end, later, afterward. Spatial Transitions: To show closeness: close to, near, next to, alongside, adjacent to, facing, side by side. To show long distance: in the distance, far, beyond, away, there. To show direction: up/down, sideways, along, across, to the right/left, in front of/behind, above/below, inside/outside: toward/away from.  Transition words of Agreement / Addition / Similarity: The transition words like also, in addition, and, likewise, add information, reinforce ideas, and express agreement with preceding material. In the first place - not only … but also - as a matter of fact - in like manner - in addition - coupled with - in the same fashion / way - also - then - equally - identically - uniquely - like - as - again - to - and - too - moreover - as well as - together with - of course - first, second, third - in the light of - not to mention - to say nothing of - equally important - by the same token - likewise - comparatively - correspondingly - similarly - furthermore - additionally - what's more. Although in spite of the fact that or even though. However is used to introduce a statement that contrasts with or seems to Contradict something that has been said previously. Inconsistent is not staying the same throughout. Acting at variance with one's own principles or former conduct.

Filler Words - Conjunctions - Words that are used on average when writing or speaking - Documents - Reports - Anomalies - Jargon - Circumlocution - Subjective - Rumination

Transcription Fluency: Elementary-school kids who hand-wrote their work produced more words and more ideas than those who typed. College students who typed notes on a laptop remembered less about a lecture than those who wrote by hand. People remember lectures better when they’ve taken handwritten notes, rather than typed ones. But that is a problem with learning styles and memory, and not a problem with technology. A computer laptop is by far a more superior tool then a pencil and paper. So don't blame the laptop for you bad memory or your lack of creativity. Technology enhances and accelerates learning, if it doesn't, then that has something to do with you and not technology. Verbatim.

"I try not to influence writers on what they should write about, only that they care about what they are writing. Try not so much to devise a piece of writing, try to realize a piece of writing, a piece of writing that has to be written. If you feel that you will be wasting time writing about something, then you should not write it. Don't write because you are a good writer, write because you need to write something good."

"Writing has therapeutic benefits. The process of documenting your thoughts can free your mind."

How Many Pages should my Novel be?

A Book will usually have 250-300 words per page. A 55,000 word book should be about 200 manuscript pages. A 100,000 word book would be about 400 pages. Editors like 12 Point Font. Word Spacing - Word Count. Publishers go by words, not pages. Most adult books are about 90,000 words, and no longer than 100,000 words. Teen books are about 55,000 words.

A book with below 70,000 words is considered to be too short. 70,000 – 79,999 words may be too short. 80,000 – 89,999 words is considered acceptable. 90,000 – 99,999 words is generally safe. 100,000 – 109,999 words in a book might be too long. 110,000 words or above is considered too long. Information Overload.

Too Long; Didn't Read is when someone believes that a passage appears to be too long to invest the time to digest.

The Optimum Length for an Email is 50 to 125 words.

Shorts sentences or line column width of 30 to 50 characters long slow down reading, while 100 characters may speed up reading. When average sentence length is 14 words, readers understand more than 90% of what they’re reading. At 43 words, comprehension drops to less than 10%. Sentences of 11 words are considered easy to read, while those of 21 words are fairly difficult. At 25 words, sentences become difficult, and 29 words or longer, very difficult. This is partly because people tend to scan, not read. In fact, most people only read around 25% of what’s on a page. This means it’s important to get information across quickly. Long, complicated sentences force users to slow down and work harder to understand what they’re reading. This isn’t something people want to do, even if they’re familiar with the subject or language you’re using. If you write short sentences using Plain English, it’ll help more people understand your content. And by making it more accessible, you won’t just help your busiest readers, you’ll open it up to people who might otherwise struggle to understand it. Does reading from papers makes reading 20-30% faster than reading from monitors? Document Writing Guidelines.

Long-Form Journalism is a branch of journalism dedicated to longer articles with larger amounts of content. Typically this will be between 1,000 and 20,000 words. Long-form articles often take the form of creative nonfiction or narrative journalism.

Word Count is the number of words in a document or passage of text. Word counting may be needed when a text is required to stay within certain numbers of words.

Word Counter Tools:
Bulk Webpage Word Count Checker - Website Word Count.

Why a Computer Based Article is better then a Printed Article. Because you can shorten an article by using links. If the person needs more information then all they have to do is follow the link. So articles can be shorter and more manageable without sacrificing other relevant knowledge and information. Short is not always sweet. But some writers love empty words and writing vague commentary without considering the readers need for quickly understanding the message. And an overlong composition may seem long, but it may not be, because not everyone can accurately calculate whether extra words were actually necessary. I don't mind investing the time needed reading a good article, but please, don't waste my time with your dribble or overlong prose and over-verbose writing. Just the facts, and please have a point, a point worth mentioning. To be clear enough sometimes depends on the reader and not just the writer. But digital technology solves this problem. That is why printed material is now inadequate in most cases. Technology accelerates learning if we use correctly. It's like reading a book, you don't have to read the whole book in one sitting, you can read some now and then read some later. To say something was to long to read, is to say that I will never have the time or the motivation to read more of what I have already read. And the reasoning behind that decision not read more has other contributing factors, like the experience with previous knowledge and information, which may have nothing to do with the style or the length of someone's writing. So even when you think you covered all the different angles and possible scenarios, there is always going to be one more thing that you never thought of. Learning is awesome!

Writing Style

Writing Style is the manner of expressing thought in language characteristic of an individual, period, school, or nation. Beyond the essential elements of spelling, grammar, and punctuation, writing style is the choice of words, sentence structure, and paragraph structure, used to convey the meaning effectively. The former are referred to as rules, elements, essentials, mechanics, or handbook; the latter are referred to as style, or rhetoric. The rules are about what a writer does; style is about how the writer does it. While following the rules drawn from established English usage, a writer has great flexibility in how to express a concept. The point of good writing style is to express the message to the reader simply, clearly, and convincingly; keep the reader attentive, engaged, and interested; not to display the writer’s personality; demonstrate the writer’s skills, knowledge, or abilities; although these are usually evident and are what experts consider the writer’s individual style.

Style Guide is a set of standards for the writing and design of documents, either for general use or for a specific publication, organization, or field. (It is often called a style sheet, though that term has other meanings.) A style guide establishes and enforces style to improve communication. To do that, it ensures consistency within a document and across multiple documents and enforces best practice in usage and in language composition, visual composition, orthography and typography. For academic and technical documents, a guide may also enforce the best practice in ethics (such as authorship, research ethics, and disclosure), pedagogy (such as exposition and clarity), and compliance (technical and regulatory). Style guides are common for general and specialized use, for the general reading and writing audience, and for students and scholars of various academic disciplines, medicine, journalism, the law, government, business, and specific industries.

The Elements of Style is a prescriptive American English writing style guide in numerous editions. Elements of Style.

Writing Resources
Write Like You Talk - Talk Like You Write
Daily Writing Tips
Academic Help
Aero Gramme Studio
The Right Margin Smart Writing App
Writers Digest
Writers Handbook (amazon)
Facebook Language Style Guides
Writing Classes
Resources for Writers
Associated Press Stylebook - PDF

Plagiarism - Citation Guide - Copyrights - Media Literacy

Journalism Tools and Resources - Internet Searching Tips

Research Papers Handbook (amazon) - Research Paper Writing

Thesaurus is a reference work that lists words grouped together according to similarity of meaning (containing synonyms and sometimes antonyms), in contrast to a dictionary, which provides definitions for words, and generally lists them in alphabetical order. The main purpose of such reference works is to help the user "to find the word, or words, by which [an] idea may be most fitly and aptly expressed". Grammar.

Visual Thesaurus - Thesaurus

Finding the Right Words - Lexipedia

Nomenclature is a system of Words used to name things in a particular discipline. A system of names or terms, or the rules for forming these terms in a particular field of arts or sciences. Nomenclature is the system of assignment of names given to organic compounds. The principles of naming vary from the relatively informal conventions of everyday speech to the internationally agreed principles, rules and recommendations that govern the formation and use of the specialist terms used in scientific and other disciplines.

Lexicon is the vocabulary of a person, language, or branch of knowledge (such as nautical or medical). In linguistics, a lexicon is a language's inventory of lexemes.

Virtual Salt - Medium
Authors Guild
National Novel Writing Month
National Travel Writers Association

Heretical Notions and Wretched Adages compiled by Jack Tourette

Online Community for Writers of all Interests and Skill Levels

Literacy Books

Relevance Theory Online Bibliography
Resources for Writers
Professional Writing Services
American Society of Magazine Editors
Books on Successful Writing (amazon)
Criterion Online Writing Evaluation Service
Hannah Brencher
Featured Topic Criteria (wiki)
Author Central M-Quills Writing Tips
Writing Classes

The Ultimate Guide to Writing better than you normally do

Check which famous writer you write like with this statistical analysis tool

Poetry - Creative Writing

You Should Write - My Script Font

VDA Writing Curriculum Videos: Vandamme Academy (website) - VanDamme Academy (youtube) - The VDA Writing Curriculum - Part 1 of 8 (youtube).

Software used for Writing

Word Processor is an electronic device or computer software application, that performs the task of composing, Editing, formatting, and printing of documents. Proof Reading Resources.

Open Office - Libre Office - Abi Source - Vim text editor - Scrivener Word Processing Program.

Quotes and Sayings about being a Writer

I have never lived so passionately as when I am writing passionately about living. (Michael J. Budnicki)

"Either write things that are worth reading or do things that are worth writing about, and if you do both you can't go wrong"

The World is a book, and those who do not travel read only a page. (Saint Augustine)

A writer writes not because he is educated but because he is driven by the need to communicate. (Leo Rosten)

The art of communicating thoughts to the mind, through the eye is the great invention of the world. (Abraham Lincoln)

"Try not to think about things that you're not willing to write about. This is not to say that you should write about everything that comes to mind, because something's cannot, and should not, be shared in writing. Mostly because something's cannot be fully understood enough. So if you feel the need to write something down, that might be considered crazy or hard to understand, do it privately so that it will give you some time to understand and process these particular thoughts that you have written."

"You never quite know what exact arrangement of words that people will understand, the intended meaning is not always a guarantee" - (Howard Polley).

Writing about your personal experiences is liberating. It also gives you a chance to better understand yourself by being able to reexamine what you have written later on. Writing about a moment in time that you have experienced, through your own perspective, is saving a memory. It's also creating a hard copy of a memory that will act like a back up in case your personal memory fades or leaves out important details, for what ever reason. If you like what you have written, then you should share it, like sharing a memory. We all hope that we will be able to take our memories with us when we die, but just incase, we should write some of our memories down because they might be beneficial to others, pretty much the same way that you benefited from the memories of other people  in your life, people who were thoughtful enough to share what they have learned with you. 

Pass the Baton

I love writing, even though I might not agree with everything that I write later on. That's why I love the digital world. I don't waste paper and I didn't print any books. I can just delete it or rewrite it. Correcting is all about survival. The more I learn, the more my understanding increases in size, so I have to update what I have written. Some of what you see on this website is just the first draft, and others have gone through a few revisions. How an idea comes to mind and the path it took is important. There are other paths that led to the same idea. I got here because I was thinking of this, but I also got here because I was thinking of that. Two different paths leading to the same place.

"I don't own the words or did I create the words, I just assemble the words. Sometimes uniquely, other times just a little differently."

The most important thing is to write down the words before you forget them. And it's always a good idea to have a place to put things, a place that will make it easy for you to find and remember the things that are important. So having some kind of a File System has always been a very useful tool and skill to have.

Perpetual: Some of the things that I have I learned about writing is that the more you write the more you learn. And one of the things that you learn when you write is that you learn to write better. And when you learn to write better you learn even more. So it’s safe to say, if you never stop writing about what you have learned, about yourself and the world, you will never stop learning.

Even though I’m not a great writer, I myself look at writing as an incredible gift. At times writing can be so exhilarating to me that it’s better then any drug that I have ever done. But there were so many times in my life that I wished I had the words for those particular moments, but of course I didn’t. It was always much later and too late. But as I found the words, I realized that all is not lost. I can still say those words and share them by writing them down. For I am certain that those moments in my life will surely repeat themselves in other peoples lives, if not my own. So just maybe, someone would be lucky enough to remember what I have written, and not have to walk away from a very important moment, saying, “I wished that I had the right words to say”. To me that is the greatest gift a writer could ever give. - (Howard Polley).

How do I know what I mean until I see what I say?"

"There's a big difference between what you want to say and what you eventually do say. Remember what you were thinking and share it."

"Writing is like a form of meditation, you need to slow your thinking down and focus." 

"I don't write to impress people, I don't write to insult people, I don't write to manipulate people, I write to communicate with people."

"I'm filing a document of my thoughts. Just like millions of people have done before me. I am an accumulation of thoughts that have been passed down for thousands of years. And it seems that we are just beginning to think, because we have never had so much knowledge and information before, it's almost God like."

"It's very easy to look stupid while you are actually planning something incredible. There's genius under the chaos. But I wouldn't say that I'm doing it my way, I'm just doing it the way it happens, which seems to be perfect."

When it’s all said and done, will you have said more than you’ve done?

More Quotes - Famous Sayings - Inspiration Quotes - Life Quotes - Education Quotes - Money Quotes - Adventure Quotes - Photography Quotes - Environmental Quotes - Sports Quotes - Adventure Writing - Finding Quotations - Brainy Quote - Quote Garden - Phrases.

Document Writing - Plain Language – But Not Too Simplistic

Document writing uses plain language that is clear and concise. Plain language can helps to avoid misinterpretations and also reduces the time and cost in translation. Because plain language is easier to understand, it also reduces discussion during drafting. Using plain language does not mean reducing the length of your message or changing its meaning or over-simplifying your text. Plain language is writing without the fluff and writing without opinions or worldview comments.

Documentation Management - Writing Tips - Interpretation Errors - Transition Words

Concise is giving a lot of information clearly and in a few words. Being brief but also being comprehensive or including everything that is needed. Expressing much in few words. Résumé.

How to use Plain Language. Be clear to yourself about your main message – try reading it to yourself out loud. Put yourself in the place of the reader. Keep your sentences short. Have one idea per sentence. Leave out words you don’t need. Use lists when you can. Use the active voice when you can. Be concise, use short, simple words and avoid turning verbs into nouns. Punctuate your writing carefully. Use more full stops, fewer commas and brackets. Phrase your points positively. Use everyday language whenever possible and reduce jargon. Plain language is particularly important in the Scope. Use the same term for the same concept everywhere. Don’t use synonyms. Grammar.

Maxim of Quantity provides the right amount of information needed for that conversation and to be as informative as one possibly can. Maxim of Quality provides information that is true. To be truthful and not give information that is false or that is not supported by evidence. Maxim of Relation provides information that is relevant to the topic at hand and says things that are pertinent to the discussion. Maxim of Manner provides information that is clear, brief and as orderly as one can in what one says, and where one avoids obscurity and ambiguity.

Style Guides is a set of standards for the writing and design of documents, either for general use or for a specific publication, organization or field. The implementation of a style guide provides uniformity in style and formatting within a document and across multiple documents. A set of standards for a specific organization is often known as "house style". Style guides are common for general and specialized use, for the general reading and writing audience, and for students and scholars of various academic disciplines, medicine, journalism, the law, government, business, and industry.

Format is the way in which something is arranged or set out. Text formatting, the typesetting of text elements, Paper formats, or paper size standards, Newspaper format, the size of the paper page, Font Size and Type, Spacing, Text Indentation, Order of Pages, Pagination and Endnotes. Margins should be set to one inch on all sides (top, bottom, left and right).

Margin in typography is the area between the main content of a page and the page edges. The margin helps to define where a line of text begins and ends.

Newspaper Formats can vary different in countries. The size of a newspaper format refers to the size of the paper page; the printed area within that can vary substantially depending on the newspaper. Format Types (wiki).

Typesetting is the composition of text by means of arranging physical types.

Word Spacing in typography to the size of the space between words. It should be distinguished from letter-spacing (the spacing between the letters within each word) and sentence spacing (the spacing between sentences). Typographers may modify the spacing of letters or words in a body of type to aid readability and copy fit, or for aesthetic effect. In web browsers and standardized digital typography the word spacing is controlled by the CSS1 word-spacing property. Word spacing is crucial for the written form because it illustrates the sound of speech where audible gaps or pauses take place. With typography, word spacing shows this unspoken aspect of speech. Otherwise, it would be difficult for people to read one long continuous line of letters. It is hard to determine how much spacing should be put in between words, but a good typographer is able to determine proper spacing. When text and spacing are consistent, this makes it easier to read.

Visual Field - Speed Reading

Scriptio Continua is a style of writing without spaces, or other marks between the words or sentences. The form also lacks punctuation, diacritics, or distinguished letter case. In the West, the oldest Greek and Latin inscriptions used word dividers to separate words in sentences; however, Classical Greek and late Classical Latin both employed scriptio continua as the norm.

Space in punctuation is a blank area that separates words, sentences, syllables (in syllabification) and other written or printed glyphs (characters). Conventions for spacing vary among languages, and in some languages the spacing rules are complex. Typesetting uses spaces of varying length for specific purposes. The typewriter, on the other hand, can accommodate only a limited number of keys. Most typewriters have only one width of space, obtained by pressing the space bar. Following widespread acceptance of the typewriter, some spacing and other typewriter conventions, which were based on the typewriter's mechanical limitations, have influenced professional typography other designers of printed works. Computer representation of text eliminates all mechanical and physical limitations in any sufficiently advanced character encoding environment (such as Unicode), where spaces of various widths, styles, or language characteristics (different space characters) are indicated with unique code points. Whitespace characters include spaces of various width, including all those that professional typesetters employ.

Letter-Spacing also referred to as tracking by typographers working with pre-WYSIWYG digital systems, refers to an optically consistent degree of increase (or sometimes decrease) of space between letters to affect visual density in a line or block of text. Letter-spacing should not be confused with kerning. Letter-spacing refers to a uniform adjustment to the spacing of a word or block of text affecting its density and texture. Kerning is a spacing adjustment of one or more specific pairs of adjacent characters that, because of the relationship of their respective shapes, would appear to be badly spaced if left un-adjusted. An example might be a capital V next to a capital A, which need to be brought closer together. In its original meaning with metal type, a kern meant having a letter stick out beyond the metal slug it was attached to, or cutting off part of the body of the slug to allow (other similarly-trimmed) letters to overlap. So a kern in that sense could only bring letters closer together (negative spacing), though it was possible to add space between letters. Digital kerning can go in either direction. Tracking can similarly go in either direction, though with metal type one could only adjust groups of letters further apart (positive spacing). Letter-spacing adjustments are frequently used in news design. The speed with which pages must be built on deadline does not usually leave time to rewrite paragraphs that end in split words or that create orphans or widows. Letter-spacing is increased or decreased by modest (usually unnoticeable) amounts to fix these unattractive situations. Spatial Intelligence.

Kerning is the process of adjusting the spacing between characters in a proportional font, usually to achieve a visually pleasing result. Kerning adjusts the space between individual letter forms, while tracking (letter-spacing) adjusts spacing uniformly over a range of characters. In a well-kerned font, the two-dimensional blank spaces between each pair of characters all have a visually similar area. The related term kern denotes a part of a type letter that overhangs the edge of the type block. The human perception of kerning can vary with the intraword and interword spacing during reading. A visually pleasing result, even with no "kerning control", can be achieved with some control of the space between letters.

Leading refers to the distance between adjacent lines of type. In the days of hand-typesetting, it referred to the thin strips of lead that were inserted into the forms to increase the vertical distance between lines of type; in this case, the leading would be defined as the difference between 2 quantities: the size of the type and the distance from one baseline to the next. For instance, given a type size of 10 points and a distance between baselines of 12 points, the leading would be 2 points; put another way, a leading of 2 points means there is a distance of 2 points from the bottom of the high line of type to the top of the low line of type. In modern times, though, there seems to be widespread use of "leading" to refer instead to just the distance from one baseline to the next, probably because modern layout software tracks that quantity instead of a virtual strip of lead. The term is still used in modern page-layout software such as QuarkXPress and Adobe InDesign. In consumer-oriented word-processing software, this concept is usually referred to as "line spacing" or "interline spacing", the latter of which is actually a more accurate description of the original meaning.

Plain Language

Plain Language is writing designed to ensure the reader understands as quickly, easily, and completely as possible. Plain language strives to be simple and easy to read, understand, and use. It avoids verbose, convoluted language and jargon. In many countries, laws mandate that public agencies use plain language to increase access to programs and services. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities includes plain language as one of the "modes, means and formats of communication". Plain Language Writing Standards (PDF).

Plain Language is communication that your audience can understand the first time they read it or hear it. Language that is plain to one set of readers may not be plain to others. Written material is in plain language if your audience can: Find what they need; Understand what they find; and Use what they find to meet their needs. There are many writing techniques that can help you achieve this goal. Among the most common are: Logical organization with the reader in mind. "You" and other pronouns. Active voice. Short sentences. Common, everyday words. Easy-to-read design features. No one technique defines plain language. Rather, plain language is defined by results—it is easy to read, understand, and use. Plain language should create a clear message that is not vague or too general and does not influence personal interpretations.

Prose is a form or technique of language that exhibits a natural flow of speech and grammatical structure. Novels, textbooks and newspaper articles are all examples of prose. Prose is ordinary writing as distinguished from verse or poetry.

Modes - Interpretation Errors - Transition Words

Information Management Plain Language - Center for Plain Language

Plain Language Act - PUBLIC LAW 111–274—OCT. 13, 2010 124 STAT. 2861. (PDF) - To enhance citizen access to Government information and services by establishing that Government documents issued to the public must be written clearly, and for other purposes. US Government Publishing Office.

Plain English is a style of communication that uses easy to understand, plain language with an emphasis on clarity, brevity, and avoidance of overly complex vocabulary. It is commonly used in relation to official government or business communication. The goal is to write or speak in a way that is easily understood by the target audience. It is clear and straightforward, concise, free of clichés and needless technical jargon, and appropriate to the audience's developmental or educational level and their familiarity with the topic.

U.S. Office of Personnel Management - Plain Language is grammatically correct and universally understood language that includes complete sentence structure and accurate word usage. Plain language is not unprofessional writing or a method of "dumbing down" or "talking down" to the reader. Writing that is clear and to the point helps improve all communication as it takes less time to read and comprehend. Clear writing tells the reader exactly what the reader needs to know without using unnecessary words or expressions. Communicating clearly is its own reward as it saves time and money. It also improves reader response to messages. Using plain language avoids creating barriers that set us apart from the people with whom we are communicating.

Tips for Using Plain Language: Certain qualities characterize plain language. These include common, everyday words, except for necessary technical terms. Other qualities include the use of personal pronouns; the active voice; logical organization; and easy-to-read and understandable design features, such as bullets and tables.

1. Engage Your Readers. First, consider who your readers are. Consider what your readers need to know and want to know. Organize content to answer their questions. Write at a reading level that is appropriate to your intended audience.

2. Write Clearly. Use common, everyday words whenever possible. Word Choices: Use common, everyday words but avoid slang. Use personal pronouns such as "you." Use "must" instead of "shall." Avoid using undefined technical terms. Use positive rather than negative words. Avoid using gender-specific terminology. Avoid long strings of nouns. Verb Forms: Use active voice. Use action verbs. Use the present tense whenever you can. Structure: Use parallel construction. Be direct. Avoid unnecessary exceptions. Articulate.

3. Display Material Correctly. Appearance is an important aspect of clear communication. If a document is pleasing to the eye, it will be more likely to attract your readers' attention. Appearance can also be an aid to readers, improving comprehension and retention. Organization. Strong, logical organization includes an introduction followed by short sentences and paragraphs. Organize messages to respond to your readers' interests and concerns. Introduction. In lengthier documents, use an introduction and a table of contents to help readers understand how a document is organized. Short Sentences and Paragraphs. Sentence length should average 15-20 words. Sentences that are simple, active, affirmative, and declarative hold readers' interest. Generally, each paragraph should contain only one topic. You may wish to use a series of paragraphs if you need to express complex or highly technical information. The more writing deviates from a clear and to-the-point structure, the harder it will be for readers to understand what you are trying to convey. Layout. Layout includes margins, headings, and white space. Provide white space between sections to break up text and to make it easier for readers to understand. Use headings to guide readers; the question-and-answer format is especially helpful. Try to anticipate your readers' questions and pose them as a reader would. Use adequate margins. Tables. Tables make complex information readily understandable. They can help readers see relationships more easily, and they may require fewer words than straight text. Typography. Typography relates to fonts and typographical elements used for emphasis, such as bullets or italics. Limit the number of fonts you use. It is usually best to stick to one font for headings and another for text. Use typographical elements consistently throughout your document – and avoid overusing any one element.

4. Evaluate Your Document. To ensure that you are communicating clearly, evaluate the document or, better yet, have another person read it and offer suggestions for clarification. Look over the document for: Word choice, verb forms, and structure; Correct spelling, grammar, and punctuation; Inclusion of appropriate devices, such as dating, page numbering, and consistency; Visual appeal; Consistency and effectiveness of layout and typographical devices; and Line breaks that inadvertently separate part of a name or date in a way that reduces clarity.

Legal Writing is a type of technical writing used by lawyers, judges, legislators, and others in law to express legal analysis and legal rights and duties. Legal writing in practice is used to advocate for or to express the resolution of a client's legal matter.

Readability is the ease with which a reader can understand a written text. In natural language, the readability of text depends on its content (the complexity of its vocabulary and syntax) and its presentation (such as typographic aspects like font size, line height, and line length). Researchers have used various factors to measure readability, such as speed of perception, perceptibility at a distance, Perceptibility in peripheral vision, Visibility, Reflex blink technique, Rate of work (reading speed), Eye movements Fatigue in reading. Readability is more than simply legibility—which is a measure of how easily a reader can distinguish individual letters or characters from each other. Higher readability eases reading effort and speed for any reader, but it is especially important for those who do not have high reading comprehension. In readers with average or poor reading comprehension, raising the readability level of a text from mediocre to good can make the difference between success and failure of its communication goals. Readability exists in both natural language and programming languages, albeit in different forms. In programming, things such as programmer comments, choice of loop structure, and choice of names can determine the ease with which humans can read computer program code.

Machine Readable is data or text in a form that a computer can process. Machine-Readable Data is data or metadata in a format that can be easily processed by a computer. Machine-Readable Documents are documents whose content can be readily processed by computers. Such documents are distinguished from machine-readable data by virtue of having sufficient structure to provide the necessary context to support the business processes for which they are created. Data without context or language use is meaningless and will lack four of these essential characteristics: Reliability, Authenticity, Integrity and Usability. Image Recognition - Data Storage Types.

Comprehension (understanding) - Standards

Technical Writing is any written form of writing or drafting technical communication used in a variety of technical and occupational fields, such as computer hardware and software, engineering, chemistry, aeronautics, robotics, finance, consumer electronics, and biotechnology. It encompasses the largest sub-field within technical communication. The Society for Technical Communication defines technical communication as any form of communication that exhibits one or more of the following characteristics: (1) communicating about technical or specialized topics, such as computer applications, medical procedures, or environmental regulations; (2) communicating through technology, such as web pages, help files, or social media sites; or (3) providing instructions about how to do something, regardless of the task's technical nature.

Articulate - Science Literature - Thesis

Technical Writer is a professional writer who produces technical documentation that helps people understand and use a product or service. This documentation includes online help, manuals (system, end-user, training), white papers, design specifications, project plans, test plans, business correspondence, etc. With the rise of e-learning, technical writers are also charged with creating online training for their audience of learners. Technical writers explain technologies, processes, and products in many formats, including print, online, and other electronic means. Technical Writing Style (wiki).

Professional Writing is writing for reward or as a profession, or it is any form of written communication produced in a workplace environment or context. Works produced with the professional writing style allow professionals (e.g. employers, lawyers, businesspeople, etc.) to make informed decisions. Professional writing involves the use of precise language to convey information in a way that is easily understood by its intended audience, and it may be directed to inform, persuade, instruct, stimulate debate, or encourage action. For example, in a business office, a memorandum (abbrev. memo) can be used to provide a solution to a problem, make a suggestion, or convey information.

Essays - Treatise - Writing Tips - Minutes

Technical Communication (visual) - Technology Education - Documentation

Desktop Publishing is the creation of documents using page layout skills on a personal computer primarily for print. Desktop publishing software can generate layouts and produce typographic quality text and images comparable to traditional typography and printing. This technology allows individuals, businesses, and other organizations to self-publish a wide range of printed matter. Desktop publishing is also the main reference for digital typography. When used skillfully, desktop publishing allows the user to produce a wide variety of materials, from menus to magazines and books, without the expense of commercial printing.

Isaac Asimov's writing style. "I have an informal style, which means I tend to use short words and simple sentence structure, to say nothing of occasional colloquialisms. This grates on people who like things that are poetic, weighty, complex, and, above all, obscure. On the other hand, the informal style pleases people who enjoy the sensation of reading an essay without being aware that they are reading and of feeling that ideas are flowing from the writer's brain into their own without mental friction." Asimov was his own secretary, typist, indexer, proofreader, and literary agent. He wrote a typed first draft composed at the keyboard at 90 words per minute; he imagined an ending first, then a beginning, then "let everything in-between work itself out as I come to it". (Asimov used an outline only once, later describing it as "like trying to play the piano from inside a straitjacket".) After correcting a draft by hand, he retyped the document as the final copy and only made one revision with minor editor-requested changes; a word processor did not save him much time, Asimov said, because 95% of the first draft was unchanged. After disliking making multiple revisions of "Black Friar of the Flame", Asimov refused to make major, second, or non-editorial revisions ("like chewing used gum"), stating that "too large a revision, or too many revisions, indicate that the piece of writing is a failure. In the time it would take to salvage such a failure, I could write a new piece altogether and have infinitely more fun in the process". He submitted "failures" to another editor. I made up my mind long ago to follow one cardinal rule in all my writing—to be 'clear'. I have given up all thought of writing poetically or symbolically or experimentally, or in any of the other modes that might (if I were good enough) get me a Pulitzer prize. I would write merely clearly and in this way establish a warm relationship between myself and my readers, and the professional critics—Well, they can do whatever they wish. His words do not easily lend themselves to traditional literary criticism because he has the habit of centering his fiction on plot and clearly stating to his reader, in rather direct terms, what is happening in his stories and why it is happening. In fact, most of the dialogue in an Asimov story, and particularly in the Foundation trilogy, is devoted to such exposition. Stories that clearly state what they mean in unambiguous language are the most difficult for a scholar to deal with because there is little to be interpreted.

Spelling - Writers Blindness

Spelling is a linguistic process of phonemic orthography (correct writing) with the necessary letters and diacritics present in a comprehensible order, usually with some degree of standardization; it is "the conventions which determine how the graphemes of a writing system are used to write a language". In another words it is interpretation of speech sound (phoneme) into writing (grapheme). Spelling is one of the elements of orthography, and highly standardized spelling is a prescriptive element.

Spell Checker is an application program that flags words in a document that may not be spelled correctly. Spell checkers may be stand-alone, capable of operating on a block of text, or as part of a larger application, such as a word processor, email client, electronic dictionary, or search engine.

Editing Help - Proof Reading

Typographical Error is a mistake made in the typing process (such as a spelling mistake) of printed material. Historically, this referred to mistakes in manual type-setting (typography). The term includes errors due to mechanical failure or slips of the hand or finger, but excludes errors of ignorance, such as spelling errors. Before the arrival of printing, the "copyist's mistake" or "scribal error" was the equivalent for manuscripts. Most typos involve simple duplication, omission, transposition, or substitution of a small number of characters. (often shortened to typo, also called misprint). "Fat Finger", or "Fat-Finger Syndrome", a slang term, refers to an unwanted secondary action when typing. When one's finger is bigger than the touch zone, there can be inaccuracy in the fine motor movements and accidents occur. This is common with touchscreens. One may hit two adjacent keys on the keyboard in a single keystroke. An example is "buckled" instead of "bucked", due to the "L" key being next to the "K" key on the QWERTY keyboard, the most common keyboard for Latin-script alphabets.

Writers Blindness - One of my problems with hand writing is that I'm not thinking about my spelling when I'm writing. This is because my brain is thinking faster than I can write. So I find myself scribbling my thoughts down a lot. But it's not that bad, just as long as I can deceiver what I have written and then rewrite it later. Dysgraphia.

Why does the the human brain ignore the second the? (youtube) - Have you ever proof-read an essay 10 times before submitting it, but had an extra word pointed out to you? Why does the the brain sometimes ignore these extra words? Shouldn’t errors jump out to us because they’re an anomaly?

I'm sometimes more focused on what I'm trying to say then I am about the spelling of words. That is why writers have proof readers and editors. This way writers can focus more on what they're trying to say and not have to focus on irrelevant things, like the spelling of words. I would rather misspell words when writing about things that are important then write about things that are irrelevant but spelled perfectly, who cares. Besides, if you know that a word is misspelled you must know what the word is? So nothing is lost.

So the problem is not my spelling, the problem is that you're too easily distracted by things that don't matter, which is no surprise. I focus more on my thoughts then my penmanship, so what ever works for you I guess.

Dysgraphia is the condition of impaired letter writing by hand. Dysgraphia is a neurological condition in which someone has difficulty turning their thoughts into written language for their age and ability to think, despite exposure to adequate instruction and education. Dysgraphia can present with many different symptoms at different ages. It's considered a learning difference. Dyslexia.

It's much more important to communicate effectively then it is to always spell words correctly. Spelling is an irrelevant detail. Am I becoming a better speller, yes. But it is still not a high priority, as you can still see.

Sometimes I can't stop to think about the spelling of a word because that would cause me to change focus. And when thoughts are flying by at lighting speed, if you look away just for a second you sometimes miss key information pertaining to that thought, like how the thought was generated? What was going to be learned from that thought? Do more questions need to be answered about that thought? And some thoughts immediately create associations, so analyzing begins immediately, which also needs to be documented. Can I get a Spell Check?

Phonological Ambiguity - Pronunciation Respelling (sounds).

Missing letter Test Missing Letter Effect refers to the finding that, when people are asked to consciously detect target letters while reading text, they miss more letters in frequent, function words (e.g. the letter "h" in "the") than in less frequent, content words. The missing letter effect has also been referred to as the reverse word superiority effect, since it describes a phenomenon where letters in more frequent words fail to be identified, instead of letter identification benefitting from increased word frequency. The effect is usually measured using a paper-and-pencil procedure, where readers are asked to circle a target letter every time they come across it while reading a short passage. The missing letter effect is more likely to appear when reading words that are part of a normal sequence, than when words are embedded in a mixed-up sequence (e.g. readers asked to read backwards).

Typoglycemia demonstrates that readers can understand the meaning of words in a sentence even when the interior letters of each word are scrambled. As long as all the necessary letters are present, and the first and last letters remain the same, readers appear to have little trouble reading the text. Spatial Intelligence.

"Aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it deosn't mttaer in waht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoatnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteers be at the rghit pclae. The rset can be a toatl mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit porbelm. Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe."

Bionic Reading Method revises texts in such a way that the most concise parts of the words are highlighted. This guides the eye over the text and the brain remembers words and it can be digested quicker. Bionic Reading is a new method facilitating the reading process by guiding the eyes through text with artificial fixation points. Bionic Reading is based on the principle that our brain can identify whole words from just the initial few letters. Since this reading method has been developed very recently, there is still no bionic reading study for us to examine and share conclusions from. Speed Reading.

Synapses in the brain mirror the structure of the visual world. Why our brain might be so good at perceiving edges and contours. Neurons that respond to different parts of elongated edges are connected and thus exchange information. This can make it easier for the brain to identify contours of objects. Individual visual stimuli are not processed independently by our brain. Rather neurons exchange incoming information to form a coherent perceptual image from the myriad of visual details impinging on our eyes. How our visual perception arises from these interactions is still unclear. This is partly due to the fact that we still know relatively little about the rules that determine which neurons in the brain are connected to each other, and what information they exchange. The visual cortex, the largest part of the human brain, is responsible for analyzing information from the eyes and enables us to perceive the visual world. Different neurons in this brain area react to components of the visual scene at specific positions in our visual field.

Typewriter is a mechanical or electromechanical machine for writing characters similar to those produced by printer's movable type. A typewriter operates by means of keys that strike a ribbon to transmit ink or carbon impressions onto paper. Typically, a single character is printed on each key press. The machine prints characters by making ink impressions of type elements similar to the sorts used in movable type letterpress printing. At the end of the nineteenth century, the term typewriter was also applied to a person who used a typing machine.

Alphanumeric Keyboard is a typewriter-style device which uses an arrangement of buttons or keys to act as a mechanical lever or electronic switch. Following the decline of punch cards and paper tape, interaction via teleprinter-style keyboards became the main input device for computers.

Word Knowledge - Dictionaries

Website Fonts - Pens and Pencils

Instead of just having the computer fix the misspelled word, first try to correct the misspelled word yourself, eventually this will help you will become a better speller. 

Autocorrect - Spelling - Misspellings

I'm thinking faster than I can write my thoughts down, and I don't always have time to check my spelling. I don't want my writing to slow down my thinking, because some thoughts are so new and unique that if I pause for just a moment, I may forget the idea that I was trying to record and document. It's like trying to remember the details of a dream that you just had when sleeping, the longer you wait to recall the details of that dream, the more details you will lose and forget.

"The two most important things about writing and reading are comprehension and relevance. Just being a good speller does not confirm good reading comprehension or does it confirm that you are reading and writing things that are important or relevant. Make sure that kids understand what they are reading and writing, and make sure that they are reading and writing things that are important and relevant to them, things that will increase their understanding of themselves and the world around them."

Spelling Practice Work Sheets Resources - Learn ABC - Abc Ya - Learning Planet - Learning Games for Kids - Spelling Worksheets - Work Sheets - Learn to Spell - Spelling Hemscott - Work Sheets - Editing and Spell Checking - Does Correct Spelling Matter? - Spelling Bee championship - Spelling Bees Practice - Spelling Tips - How to Spell - Kids Spell

Teaching 8 Spelling Patterns (youtube) - 5-year-old Edith Fuller wins spelling bee in Tulsa (youtube)

But on the other hand. Being a good speller is a good sign of intelligence and a possible precursor for success. But it's not that some people are good spellers, it's because they have good memories. And it's all about how you use your memory, and remembering things of value and remembering what's important.


Grammar is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language. The term refers also to the study of such rules, and this field includes morphology, syntax, and phonology, often complemented by phonetics, semantics, pragmatics, comprehension and interpretation.

Grammatical Functions - Nouns and Verbs - Punctuations - Story Telling - Modes

Composition is the spatial property resulting from the arrangement of parts in relation to each other and to the whole. Something that is created by arranging several things to form a unified whole. The way in which someone or something is composed. The act of creating written works.

Universal Grammar is the theory of the genetic component of the language faculty, usually credited to Noam Chomsky. The basic postulate of UG is that language is hard-wired into the brain. It is sometimes known as "mental grammar", and stands opposed to other "grammars", e.g. prescriptive, descriptive and pedagogical. The theory suggests that linguistic ability becomes manifest without being taught, and that there are properties that all natural human languages share. It is a matter of observation and experimentation to determine precisely what abilities are innate and what properties are shared by all languages.

Transformational Grammar in the study of linguistics is part of the theory of generative grammar, especially of naturally evolved languages, that considers grammar to be a system of rules that generate exactly those combinations of words which form grammatical sentences in a given language. TG involves the use of defined operations called transformations to produce new sentences from existing ones. The concept was originated by Noam Chomsky, and much current research in transformational grammar has been inspired by Chomsky's Minimalist Program.

Linguistic Prescription is the attempt to lay down rules defining preferred or "correct" use of language. These rules may address such linguistic aspects as spelling, pronunciation, vocabulary, syntax, and semantics. Sometimes informed by linguistic purism, such normative practices may suggest that some usages are incorrect, illogical, lack communicative effect, or are of low aesthetic value. They may also include judgments on socially proper and politically correct language use. Vagueness.

Grammatical Mood is a grammatical feature of verbs, used for signaling modality. That is, it is the use of verbal inflections that allow speakers to express their attitude toward what they are saying (e.g. a statement of fact, of desire, of command, etc.). The term is also used more broadly to describe the syntactic expression of modality; that is, the use of verb phrases that do not involve inflexion of the verb itself. Mood is distinct from Grammatical Tense or Grammatical Aspect, although the same word patterns are used for expressing more than one of these meanings at the same time in many languages, including English and most other modern Indo-European languages. (See tense–aspect–mood for a discussion of this.) Some examples of moods are Indicative, Interrogative, Imperative, subjunctive, injunctive, optative, and potential. These are all finite forms of the verb. Infinitives, gerunds, and participles, which are non-finite forms of the verb, are not considered to be examples of moods. Some Uralic Samoyedic languages have more than ten moods; Nenets has as many as sixteen. The original Indo-European inventory of moods consisted of indicative, subjunctive, optative, and imperative. Not every Indo-European language has all of these moods, but the most conservative ones such as Avestan, Ancient Greek, and Sanskrit have them all. English has indicative, imperative, and subjunctive moods; other moods, such as the conditional, do not appear as morphologically distinct forms. Modes.

Modality is a proposition on the basis of whether someone claims necessity or possibility or impossibility. Verb inflections that express how the action or state is conceived by the speaker. A particular sense.

Language Form or the structure of language, involves three linguistic systems: phonology, morphology, and syntax.

Punctuation are marks used to clarify meaning by indicating separation of words into sentences and clauses and phrases using of spacing, conventional signs, and certain typographical devices as aids to the understanding and the correct reading, both silently and aloud, of handwritten and printed texts. Another description is: "The practice, action, or system of inserting points or other small marks into texts, in order to aid interpretation; division of text into sentences, clauses, etc., by means of such marks.

Contractions - Punctuation Mark Symbols - Keyboard Symbols

Grammatical Case is a special grammatical category of a noun, pronoun, adjective, participle or numeral whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by that word in a phrase, clause or sentence. In some languages, nouns, pronouns, adjectives, determiners, participles, prepositions, numerals, articles and their modifiers take different inflected forms, depending on their case. As a language evolves, cases can merge (for instance, in Ancient Greek, the locative case merged with the dative case), a phenomenon formally called syncretism.

Conjunction - Prefix - Article - Suffix - Affix

Clause is an expression including a subject and predicate but not constituting a complete sentence. Clause is a part of the sentence that contains a verb. Clause in a contract is a separate section of a legal document such as a statute, contract or will.

Subordinate Clause is a clause that is typically introduced by a conjunction, that forms part of and is dependent on a main clause. (e.g., “when it rang” in “she answered the phone when it rang”). Subordinate clause is a clause that cannot stand alone. It is not independent.

Dependent Clause is a clause that provides a sentence element with additional information, but which cannot stand alone as a sentence. A dependent clause can either modify an adjacent clause or serve as a component of an independent clause. Some grammarians use the term subordinate clause as a synonym for dependent clause. Others use subordinate clause to refer only to adverbial dependent clauses. The different types of dependent clauses include content clauses (noun clauses), relative (adjectival) clauses, and adverbial clauses. Generalizing.

Independent Clause is a clause that can stand by itself as a simple sentence. An independent clause contains a subject and a predicate and makes sense by itself. Independent clauses can be joined by using a semicolon or by using a comma followed by a coordinating conjunction (and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet, etc.). Examples of independent clause: I have enough money to buy an ice cream cone. I have enough money to buy an ice cream cone; my favorite flavor is chocolate. I have enough money to buy an ice cream cone, so, let's go to the shop. Independent Clause has a subject and a verb and expresses a complete thought-it can stand alone.

Content Clause is a subordinate clause that provides content implied or commented upon by its main clause.

Relative Clause is a kind of subordinate clause that contains an element whose interpretation is provided by an antecedent on which the subordinate clause is grammatically dependent; that is, there is an anaphora relation between the relativized element in the relative clause and the antecedent on which it depends.

Noun Phrase is a phrase which has a noun (or indefinite pronoun) as its head, or which performs the same grammatical function as such a phrase. Noun phrases are very common cross-linguistically, and they may be the most frequently occurring phrase type. Noun phrases often function as verb subjects and objects, as predicative expressions, and as the complements of prepositions. Noun phrases can be embedded inside each other; for instance, the noun phrase some of his constituents contains the shorter noun phrase his constituents. In some more modern theories of grammar, noun phrases with determiners are analyzed as having the determine.

Predicative Expression is part of a clause predicate, and is an expression that typically follows a copula (or linking verb), e.g. be, seem, appear, or that appear as a second complement of a certain type of verb, e.g. call, make, name, etc. The most frequently acknowledged types of predicative expressions are predicative adjectives (also predicate adjectives) and predicative nominals (also predicate nominals). The main trait of all predicative expressions is that they serve to express a property that is assigned to a "subject", whereby this subject is usually the clause subject, but at times it can be the clause object. A primary distinction is drawn between predicative (also predicate) and attributive expressions. Further, predicative expressions are typically not clause arguments, and they are also typically not clause adjuncts. There is hence a three-way distinction between predicative expressions, arguments, and adjuncts. The terms predicative expression on the one hand and subject complement and object complement on the other hand overlap in meaning to a large extent.

Syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, specifically word order. The term syntax is also used to refer to the study of such principles and processes. The goal of many syntacticians is to discover the syntactic rules common to all languages. In mathematics, syntax refers to the rules governing the behavior of mathematical systems, such as formal languages used in logic. Syntax is the grammatical arrangement of words in sentences. A systematic orderly arrangement. Studies of the rules for forming admissible sentences.

Prose is a form of language that exhibits a grammatical structure and a natural flow of speech, rather than a rhythmic structure as in traditional poetry. Where the common unit of verse is based on meter or rhyme, the common unit of prose is purely grammatical, such as a sentence or paragraph. Tone

Contraction is a shortened version of the written and spoken forms of a word, syllable, or word group, created by omission of internal letters and sounds. (You're from you are using the apostrophe ' punctuation mark.) In linguistic analysis, contractions should not be confused with crasis, abbreviations nor acronyms (including initialisms), with which they share some semantic and phonetic functions, though all three are connoted by the term "abbreviation" in loose parlance. Contraction is also distinguished from clipping, where beginnings and endings are omitted.

Legibility is the ease with which a reader can recognize individual characters in text. "The legibility of a typeface is related to the characteristics inherent in its design … which relate to the ability to distinguish one letter from the other." Aspects of type design that affect legibility include "x-height, character shapes, stroke contrast, the size of its counters, serifs or lack thereof, and weight." Legibility is different from readability. Readability is the ease with which a reader can recognize words, sentences, and paragraphs. Legibility is a component of readability. Other typographic factors that affect readability include font choice, point size, kerning, tracking, line length, leading, and justification.

Construction Grammar groups a number of models of grammar that all subscribe to the idea that knowledge of a language is based on a collection of "form and function pairings". The "function" side covers what is commonly understood as meaning, content, or intent; it usually extends over both conventional fields of semantics and pragmatics.

Grammatical Construction is any syntactic string of words ranging from sentences over phrasal structures to certain complex lexemes, such as phrasal verbs. Grammatical constructions form the primary unit of study in construction grammar theories. In construction grammar, cognitive grammar, and cognitive linguistics, a grammatical construction is a syntactic template that is paired with conventionalized semantic and pragmatic content. In these disciplines, constructions are given a more semiotic character. In generative frameworks, constructions are generally argued to be void of content and derived by the general syntactic rules of the language in question.

Generative Grammar is a system of rules that generates exactly those combinations of words that form grammatical sentences in a given language.

Parallelism in grammar is a balance within one or more sentences of similar phrases or clauses that have the same grammatical structure. The application of parallelism affects readability and may make texts easier to process. Parallelism may be accompanied by other figures of speech such as antithesis, anaphora, asyndeton, climax, epistrophe, and symploce.

Antithesis used in writing or speech either as a proposition that contrasts with or reverses some previously mentioned proposition, or when two opposites are introduced together for contrasting effect.

Anaphora is a rhetorical device that consists of repeating a sequence of words at the beginnings of neighboring clauses, thereby lending them emphasis. In contrast, an epistrophe (or epiphora) is repeating words at the clauses' ends. The combination of anaphora and epistrophe results in symploce.

Epistrophe is the repetition of the same word or words at the end of successive phrases, clauses or sentences. It is also known as epiphora and occasionally as antistrophe. It is a figure of speech and the counterpart of anaphora. It is an extremely emphatic device because of the emphasis placed on the last word in a phrase or sentence.

Asyndeton is a literary scheme in which one or several conjunctions are deliberately omitted from a series of related clauses. Examples include veni, vidi, vici and its English translation "I came, I saw, I conquered". Its use can have the effect of speeding up the rhythm of a passage and making a single idea more memorable. Asyndeton may be contrasted with syndeton (syndetic coordination) and polysyndeton, which describe the use of one or multiple coordinating conjunctions, respectively.

Symploce is a figure of speech in which a word or phrase is used successively at the beginning of two or more clauses or sentences and another word or phrase with a similar wording is used successively at the end of them. It is the combination of anaphora and epistrophe. It derives from the Greek word, meaning "interweaving". "When there is talk of hatred, let us stand up and talk against it. When there is talk of violence, let us stand up and talk against it." — Bill Clinton

Antimetabole is the repetition of words in successive clauses, but in transposed order; for example, "I know what I like, and I like what I know". It is related to, and sometimes considered a special case of, chiasmus. An antimetabole is also said to be a little too predictive because it is easy to reverse the key term, but it can pose questions that one usually would not think of if the phrase were just asked or said the initial way.

Climax in rhetoric is a figure of speech in which words, phrases, or clauses are arranged in order of increasing importance. "I think we've reached a point of great decision, not just for our nation, not only for all humanity, but for life upon the earth."

Endocentric and Exocentric a distinction is made between endocentric and exocentric constructions. A grammatical construction (e.g. a phrase or compound word) is said to be endocentric if it fulfills the same linguistic function as one of its parts, and exocentric if it does not. The distinction reaches back at least to Bloomfield's work of the 1930s. Such a distinction is possible only in phrase structure grammars (constituency grammars), since in dependency grammars all constructions are necessarily endocentric.

Meanings - Writing Tips - Vocabulary

Predicate is inspired by propositional logic and concerns traditional grammar, and the subject. In the sentence Bill heard Fred, the predicate is heard Fred. On this approach, the purpose of the predicate is to complete an idea about the subject, such as what it does or what it is like. The second notion is derived from work in predicate logic and is prominent in modern theories of syntax and grammar. The predicate of a sentence corresponds to the main verb (and potentially to any auxiliary verbs that accompany the main verb); whereas the arguments of that predicate (e.g. the subject and object noun phrases) are outside the predicate. On this approach, the predicate in the sentence Bill heard Fred is just the verb heard. The competition between these two notions has generated confusion concerning the use of the term predicate in general. This article considers both of these notions.

Grammatical Gender is a specific form of noun-class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs. This system is used in approximately one quarter of the world's languages. In these languages, most or all nouns inherently carry one value of the grammatical category called gender; the values present in a given language (of which there are usually two or three) are called the genders of that language. According to one definition: "Genders are classes of nouns reflected in the behaviour of associated words."

Inflection is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood. The inflection of verbs is also called conjugation, and one can refer to the inflection of nouns, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, determiners, participles, prepositions, postpositions, numerals, articles etc., as declension.

Grammatical Conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a verb from its principal parts by inflection (alteration of form according to rules of grammar). Conjugation may be affected by person, number, gender, tense, aspect, mood, voice, case, and other grammatical categories such as possession, definiteness, politeness, causativity, clusivity, interrogativity, transitivity, valency, polarity, telicity, volition, mirativity, evidentiality, animacy, associativity, pluractionality, reciprocity, agreement, polypersonal agreement, incorporation, noun class, noun classifiers, and verb classifiers in some languages.

Grammar ccc is a Guide to Grammar and Writing. - Grammar Check - Grammarist - Good Grammar Tips - Grammarly.


Sentence is a string of words satisfying the grammatical rules of a language. A textual unit consisting of one or more words that are grammatically linked. In functional linguistics, a sentence is a unit of written texts delimited by graphological features such as upper case letters and markers such as periods, question marks, and exclamation marks. Nouns and Verbs.

Conditional Sentence are sentences expressing factual implications, or hypothetical situations and their consequences. They are so called because the validity of the main clause of the sentence is conditional on the existence of certain circumstances, which may be expressed in a dependent clause or may be understood from the context.

Complex Sentence has one or more dependent clauses, also called subordinate clauses. Since a dependent clause cannot stand on its own as a sentence, complex sentences must also have at least one independent clause. A sentence with two or more independent clauses plus one or more dependent clauses is called compound-complex or complex-compound.

Sentence Function refers to a speaker's purpose in uttering a specific sentence, phrase, or clause. Whether a listener is present or not is sometimes irrelevant. It answers the question: "Why has this been said?" The four basic sentence functions in the world's languages include the declarative, interrogative, exclamative, and the imperative. These correspond to a statement, question, exclamation, and command respectively. Typically, a sentence goes from one function to the next through a combination of changes in word order, intonation, the addition of certain auxiliaries or particles, or other times by providing a special verbal form. The four main categories can be further specified as being either communicative or informative. Exclamatory sentence expresses strong emotion using unfiltered vocalizations of our feelings. Imperative sentence gives anything from a command or order, to a request, direction, or instruction, aim is to get the person(s) being addressed either to do or to not do something. Informative sentences are more for the mutual benefit of both the listener and the speaker. They are more intentional or premeditated, less essential, more cooperative, and they aim to either provide or retrieve information, making them quintessential abstractions. Declarative sentence is the most common kind of sentence in language. a declarative states an idea (either objectively or subjectively on the part of the speaker; and may be either true or false) for the sheer purpose of transferring intel. Interrogative sentence asks a question and hence ends with a question mark. Its effort is to try to gather information that is presently unknown to the interrogator, or to seek validation for a preconceived notion held. Beyond seeking confirmation or contradiction, sometimes it is approval or permission that is sought as well, among other reasons one could have for posing a question. Communication.

Syntax in linguistics is the grammatical arrangement of words in sentences. The study of the rules for forming admissible sentences. A systematic orderly arrangement.

Parse in grammar is to analyze syntactically by assigning a constituent structure to a sentence.

Preposition is a word governing, and usually preceding, a noun or pronoun and expressing a relation to another word or element in the clause, as in “the man on the platform,” “she arrived after dinner,” “what did you do it for ?”. Preposition and Postposition are a class of words used to express spatial or temporal relations (in, under, towards, behind, ago, etc.) or mark various semantic roles (of, for).

Narrative Modes

Narrative is a message that tells the particulars of an act or occurrence or course of events. Either presented in writing or in drama or in cinema, or as a radio or television program. Usually characterized by the telling of a story.

Mode is how something is done or how it happens or a way or manner in which something occurs or is experienced or expressed. A particular functioning condition or arrangement. A classification of propositions on the basis of whether they claim necessity or possibility or impossibility. Verb inflections that express how the action or state is conceived by the speaker. Any of various fixed orders of the various diatonic notes within an octave. The most frequent value of a random variable. Art.

Narrative Mode is the use of a written or spoken commentary to convey a story to an audience. Narration encompasses a set of techniques through which the creator of the story presents their story, including: Narrative point of view is the perspective or type of personal lens or non-personal "lens" through which a story is communicated. Narrative voice is the format or type presentational form through which a story is communicated. Narrative time is the grammatical placement of the story's time-frame in the past, the present, or the future.

Context - Moods (verbs) - Stock Characters

When someone controls the narrative it means that a person is telling their side of a story and interpreting a story from a particular point of view, which makes the story more subjective, and makes the story very difficult to understand objectively. If you can control the narrative objectively, you can educated people instead of manipulating people. Interpretation Errors.

Framing the Narrative can change the point of view from which the story is presented. A Frame Story is a literary technique that serves as a companion piece to a story within a story, where an introductory or main narrative sets the stage either for a more emphasized second narrative or for a set of shorter stories. The frame story leads readers from a first story into one or more other stories within it. The frame story may also be used to inform readers about aspects of the secondary narrative(s) that may otherwise be hard to understand. This should not be confused with narrative structure. Reframing the Narrative.

Narrative Structure is a literary element generally described as the structural framework that underlies the order and manner in which a narrative is presented to a reader, listener, or viewer. The narrative text structures are the plot and the setting.

Narrative Technique is any of several specific methods the creator of a narrative uses to convey what they want—in other words, a strategy used in the making of a narrative to relay information to the audience and, particularly, to "develop" the narrative, usually in order to make it more complete, complicated, or interesting. Literary techniques are distinguished from literary elements, which exist inherently in works of writing. List of Narrative Techniques (wiki).

Literary Techniques are specific, deliberate constructions of language which an author uses to convey meaning. An author's use of a literary technique usually occurs with a single word or phrase, or a particular group of words or phrases, at one single point in a text. Film Genres.

Literary Device is a tool used by writers to hint at larger themes, ideas, and meaning in a story or piece of writing. There are many styles of literary devices, each serving a different purpose. Writers often use multiple literary devices in tandem. Poetic Device.

Narrative Film is a motion picture that tells a fictional or fictionalized story, event or narrative. Commercial narrative films with running times of over an hour are often referred to as feature films, or feature-length films. The earliest narrative films, around the turn of the 20th century, were essentially filmed stage plays and for the first three or four decades these commercial productions drew heavily upon the centuries-old theatrical tradition. In this style of film, believable narratives and characters help convince the audience that the unfolding fiction is real. Lighting and camera movement, among other cinematic elements, have become increasingly important in these films. Great detail goes into the screenplays of narratives, as these films rarely deviate from the predetermined behaviors and lines of the classical style of screenplay writing to maintain a sense of realism. Actors must deliver dialogue and action in a believable way, so as to persuade the audience that the film is real life.

First-Person Narrative is a story from the first-person perspective. The viewpoint of a character writing or speaking directly about themselves. Talking to Yourself - Biography.

Second-Person Narrative is a narrative mode in which the protagonist or another main character is referred to by second-person personal pronouns and other kinds of addressing forms, for example the English second-person pronoun "you".

Third-Person a narrator with an overarching point of view, seeing and knowing everything that happens within the world of the story, including what each of the characters is thinking and feeling, having its own personality, offering judgments and opinions on the behavior of the characters.

Exposition in narrative is the insertion of important background information within a story; for example, information about the setting, characters' backstories, prior plot events, historical context, etc. In a specifically literary context, exposition appears in the form of expository writing embedded within the narrative. Exposition is one of four rhetorical modes (also known as modes of discourse), along with description, argumentation, and narration, as elucidated by Alexander Bain and John Genung. Each of the rhetorical modes is present in a variety of forms, and each has its own purpose and conventions. There are several ways to accomplish exposition.

Protagonist is the player of the first part or the chief actor or main character in any story, such as a literary work or drama. The protagonist is at the center of the story, should be making the difficult choices and key decisions, and should be experiencing the consequences of those decisions. The Protagonist can affect the main characters decisions. The protagonist should be propelling the story forward. If a story contains a subplot, or is a narrative that is made up of several stories, then there may be a character who is interpreted as the protagonist of each subplot or individual story. Antagonist.

Character is the representation of a person in a narrative or dramatic work of art (such as a novel, play, or film).

Narrator is the use of a written or spoken commentary to convey a story to an audience. Narration encompasses a set of techniques through which the creator of the story presents their story, including: Narrative point of view: the perspective (or type of personal or non-personal "lens") through which a story is communicated. Narrative voice: the format (or type presentational form) through which a story is communicated. Narrative time: the grammatical placement of the story's time-frame in the past, the present, or the future.

Reconstruction is an interpretation formed by piecing together bits of evidence. Recall that is hypothesized to work by storing abstract features which are then used to construct the memory during recall. Book Types.

Past Tense is to place an action or situation in past time, indicating that the event being referred to took place in the past.

Present Perfect used to express a past event that has present consequences.

Present Tense
is a tense expressing an action that is currently going on or habitually performed, or a state that currently or generally exists.

Future Tense is an event that has not happened yet, something that may happen in the future.

Subjunctive Mood is a grammatical mood (that is, a way of speaking that allows people to express their attitude toward what they are saying) found in many languages. Subjunctive forms of verbs are typically used to express various states of unreality such as wish, emotion, possibility, judgment, opinion, obligation, or action that has not yet occurred; the precise situations in which they are used vary from language to language.

Rhetorical Modes describe the variety, conventions, and purposes of the major kinds of language-based communication, particularly writing and speaking. Four of the most common rhetorical modes and their purpose are narration, description, exposition, and argumentation.

Tone expresses the writer's attitude toward or feelings about the subject matter and audience. Tone of Voice

Literary Technique is any of several specific methods the creator of a narrative uses to convey what they want—in other words, a strategy used in the making of a narrative to relay information to the audience and, particularly, to "develop" the narrative, usually in order to make it more complete, complicated, or interesting. Literary techniques are distinguished from literary elements, which exist inherently in works of writing. Writing Style.

Passive Voice is when the subject of a sentence or clause featuring the passive voice typically denotes the recipient of the action (the patient) rather than the performer (the agent). The passive voice in English is formed periphrastically: the usual construction uses the auxiliary verb be (or get) together with the past participle of the main verb.

Grammatical Person is the grammatical distinction between deictic references to participant(s) in an event; typically the distinction is between the speaker (first person), the addressee (second person), and others (third person). Grammatical person typically defines a language's set of personal pronouns. It also frequently affects verbs, sometimes nouns, and possessive relationships.

Active Voice is a grammatical voice common in many of the world's languages. It is the unmarked voice for clauses featuring a transitive verb in nominative–accusative languages, including English and most other Indo-European languages. Document Writing (prose).

Composition in written language, refers to the body of important features established by the author in their creation of literature. Composition relates to narrative works of literature, but also relates to essays, biographies, and other works established in the field of rhetoric.

Imperfect is a verb form, found in various languages, which combines past tense (reference to a past time) and imperfective aspect (reference to a continuing or repeated event or state). It can therefore have meanings similar to the English "was walking" or "used to walk." It contrasts with preterite forms, which refer to a single completed event in the past.

I like people who make objective third person observations. People who make subjective third person observations are mostly making assumptions that are filled with more contradictions with hardly any useful information. They talk, but they don't say anything valuable or relative. Static is more interesting than listening to them speak. I would rather be in between radio stations than listen to their gibberish. But I don't want to be mean. So usually I don't say anything.

The third person omniscient point of view is the most open and flexible POV available to writers. As the name implies, an omniscient narrator is all-seeing and all-knowing. While the narration outside of any one character, the narrator may occasionally access the consciousness of a few or many different characters. The third person limited point of view is where the narrator tells the story from the perspective of a single protagonist, referring to them by name or using a third person pronoun such as they/she/he. The narrator can only see inside the mind of the protagonist. Third person objective or the third-person perspective is the most neutral and impartial one. The narrator doesn't follow a single character and doesn't enter a character's perspective. They're not omniscient and therefore don't know what any of the characters are thinking or feeling, and cannot tell what motivates them.

Fiction - Not Based on Fact

Fiction is something not based on fact or history. A deliberately false or improbable account. Any story derived from imagination. Fiction can be expressed in a variety of formats, including writings, live performances, films, television programs, animations, video games, and role-playing games, though the term originally and most commonly refers to the narrative forms of literature, including the novel, novella, short story, and play. Fiction constitutes an act of creative invention, so that faithfulness to reality is not typically assumed. Fiction is not expected to present only characters who are actual people or descriptions that are factually true. The context of fiction is generally open to interpretation, due to fiction's freedom from any necessary embedding in reality; however, some fictional works are claimed to be, or marketed as, historically or factually accurate, complicating the traditional distinction between fiction and non-fiction. Fiction is a classification or category, rather than a specific mode or genre, unless used in a narrower sense as a synonym for a particular literary fiction form. Media Literacy.

Science Fiction dealing with imaginative concepts such as futuristic science and technology, space travel, time travel, faster than light travel, parallel universes, and extraterrestrial life. Not Real Science.

Non-Fiction is supposed to be writing that is based on facts, real events, and real people, such as biography or history. Non-fiction content is sometimes in the form of a story whose creator assumes responsibility for the truth or accuracy of the events, people, and/or information presented. In contrast, a story whose creator explicitly leaves open if and how the work refers to reality is usually classified as fiction. Nonfiction, which may be presented either objectively or subjectively, is traditionally one of the two main divisions of narratives (and, specifically, prose writing), the other traditional division being fiction, which contrasts with nonfiction by dealing in information, events, and characters expected to be partly or largely imaginary.

Where's the Facts Jack? You can't go through life without knowing any facts.

Documentary - Movie Types (film styles)

Historical Fiction is a literary genre in which the plot takes place in a setting located in the past. Historical fiction can be an ambiguous term: frequently it is used as a synonym for describing the historical novel; however, the term can be applied to works in other narrative formats, such as those in the performing and visual arts like theatre, opera, cinema, television, comics, and graphic novels. Even History is Skewed.

Interactive Fiction is software simulating environments in which players use text commands to control characters and influence the environment. Works in this form can be understood as literary narratives, either in the form of Interactive narratives or Interactive narrations. These works can also be understood as a form of video game, either in the form of an adventure game or role-playing game. In common usage, the term refers to text adventures, a type of adventure game where the entire interface can be "text-only", however, Graphical text adventure games, where the text is accompanied by graphics (still images, animations or video) still fall under the text adventure category if the main way to interact with the game is by typing text. Some users of the term distinguish between interactive fiction, known as "Puzzle-free", that focuses on narrative, and "text adventures" that focus on puzzles.

Proposition refers to some or all of the following: the primary bearers of truth-value, the objects of belief and other "propositional attitudes" (i.e., what is believed, doubted, etc.), the referents of that-clauses, and the meanings of declarative sentences. Propositions are the sharable objects of attitudes and the primary bearers of truth and falsity. This stipulation rules out certain candidates for propositions, including thought- and utterance-tokens which are not sharable, and concrete events or facts, which cannot be false.

Literary Realism attempts to represent familiar things as they are. Realist authors chose to depict everyday and banal activities and experiences, instead of using a romanticized or similarly stylized presentation.

Adaptation in arts is a transfer of a work of art from one medium to another. Some common examples are: Film adaptation, a story from another work, adapted into a film (it may be a novel, non-fiction like journalism, autobiography, comic books, scriptures, plays or historical sources). Literary adaptation, a story from a literary source, adapted into another work. Theatrical adaptation, a story from another work, adapted into a play. There is, however, no end to potential media involved in adaptation. Adaptation is the practice of transcoding or changing the code or 'language' used in a medium, as well as the assimilation of a work of art to other cultural, linguistic, semiotic, aesthetic or other norms. Recent approaches to the expanding field Adaptation Studies reflect these expansion of our perspective. Adaptation occurs as a special case of intertextual and intermedial exchange and the copy-paste culture of digital technologies has produced "new intertextual forms engendered by emerging technologies—mashups, remixes, reboots, samplings, remodelings, transformations— " that "further develop the impulse to adapt and appropriate, and the ways in which they challenge the theory and practice of adaptation and appropriation."

Literary Adaptation is the adapting of a literary source (e.g. a novel, short story, poem) to another genre or medium, such as a film, stage play, or video game. It can also involve adapting the same literary work in the same genre or medium just for different purposes, e.g. to work with a smaller cast, in a smaller venue (or on the road), or for a different demographic group (such as adapting a story for children). Sometimes the editing of these works without the approval of the author can lead to a court case. It also appeals because it obviously works as a story; it has interesting characters, who say and do interesting things. This is particularly important when adapting to a dramatic work, e.g. film, stage play, teleplay, as dramatic writing is some of the most difficult. To get an original story to function well on all the necessary dimensions—concept, character, story, dialogue, and action—is an extremely rare event performed by a rare talent. Perhaps most importantly, especially for producers of the screen and stage, an adapted work is more bankable; it represents considerably less risk to investors, and poses the possibilities of huge financial gains. This is because: It has already attracted a following. It clearly works as a literary piece in appealing to a broad group of people who care. Its title, author, characters, etc. may be a franchise in and of themselves already.

Theatrical Adaptation is using material from another artistic medium, such as a novel or a film is re-written according to the needs and requirements of the theatre and turned into a play or musical.

Film Adaptation is the transfer of a work or story, in whole or in part, to a Feature Film.

Transcription is the systematic representation of language in written form. The source can either be utterances (speech or sign language) or preexisting text in another writing system.

Play in theatre is a form of literature written by a playwright, usually consisting of dialogue between characters, intended for theatrical performance rather than just reading.

Logical Form is the form obtained by abstracting from the subject matter of its content terms or by regarding the content terms as mere placeholders or blanks on a form. In an ideal logical language, the logical form can be determined from syntax alone; formal languages used in formal sciences are examples of such languages. Logical form, however, should not be confused with the mere syntax used to represent it; there may be more than one string that represents the same logical form in a given language.

Logical Consequence Entailment is a fundamental concept in logic, which describes the relationship between statements that holds true when one statement logically follows from one or more statements. A valid logical argument is one in which the conclusions are entailed by the premises, because the conclusions are consequences of the premises. The philosophical analysis of logical consequence involves the questions: In what sense does a conclusion follow from its premises? and What does it mean for a conclusion to be a consequence of premises? All of philosophical logic is meant to provide accounts of the nature of logical consequence and the nature of logical truth.

Sociolinguistics - Short-and Long-Term Effects of a Novel on Connectivity in the Brain.

Imperative Logic is the field of logic concerned with arguments containing sentences in the imperative mood. In contrast to sentences in the declarative mood, imperatives are neither true nor false. This leads to a number of logical dilemmas, puzzles, and paradoxes. Unlike classical logic, there is almost no consensus on any aspect of imperative logic.

Imperative Mood is a grammatical mood that forms commands or requests, including the giving of prohibition or permission, or any other kind of advice or exhortation.

Profanity - Politically Correct

Potty Mouths - Foul-Mouthed - Four-Letter Words - Naughty Words - Dirty Words - Cursing - Vulgarity - Vulgar Language - Colorful Language - F-bomb -

Labels - Humor as a Weapon - Writing Risks - Spelling - Buzz Words

Profane are words characterized by profanity or cursing that may violate the sacred character of a place or language or corrupt someone morally.

Cursing is to utter obscenities, profanities or an offensive or indecent word or phrase.

Explicit Language is offensive or graphic language.

Swear Word is an offensive word, used especially as an expression of anger.

Offensive is something unpleasant or disgusting, especially to the senses. Causing anger or annoyance. The action of attacking someone or tending to violate or offend someone.

Offend is an act in disregard of laws, rules, contracts, or promises. To cause somebody emotional pain and anger that is aroused by some perceived offense or injustice.

Obscenity is an offensive or indecent word or phrase. The trait of behaving in an obscene manner.

Obscene is being suggestive of or tending to moral looseness. Designed to incite to indecency or lust. Offensive to the mind.

Vulgar is something lacking refinement, cultivation or taste. Something conspicuously and tastelessly indecent.

Uncouth is lacking refinement, cultivation or taste.

Hate Speech is speech which attacks a person or a group on the basis of attributes such as gender, ethnic origin, religion, race, disability, or sexual orientation.

Degenerate is someone who is unrestrained by convention or morality. Showing evidence of deterioration, having lost good qualities. A person whose behavior deviates from what is acceptable.

Freedom of Speech Abuses - Clear and Present Danger - Imminent Lawless Action

Hate Crime (prejudice) - Hatred (hating) - Slander - Anger - Behaviors - Toxic Leadership

Choosing the right words is extremely important. When you try to say things too nicely, you take the risk of people not understanding the importance of what you are saying. And when you are using vulgar words in order to express importance, then you also risk having people not fully understanding the importance of your message because some people are offended by a few words that you used. So the trick is to show importance without offending anyone, even though that it is sometimes unavoidable. Dammed if you do, dammed if you don't. 

Writing profanity is the ability to speak loader using certain words. And speaking with a raised or load voice does the same thing, it's putting emphasis on something, something that you feel is important. Writing profanity can help bring something to someone's attention, something they should be aware of. But of course, there are other words that are a lot better that you can use to get someone's attention. And you need to communicate something without distracting the person or causing the person to react to a word instead of reacting to the message.

Expletive Infixation is a process by which an expletive or profanity is inserted into a word, usually for intensification. It is similar to tmesis, but not all instances are covered by the usual definition of tmesis because the words are not necessarily compounds.

When someone does something bad, you have to say something, and you have to let that person know that what they are doing is bad and that they are causing people harm or causing people to suffer. And if the words used to express frustration are insulting or hurtful to you, then you're feeling like the person who is abused is feeling. You hurt me, now I hurt you back. And now we both know that something is wrong. This when when people usually have a conversation. But in order to have a real conversation, both people must know how to have a real conversation.

Swear words can be acceptable sometimes, just as long as you also use more appropriate words that clarify your message and help people understand what you're saying. Swear words on their own are almost meaningless without the context or without the important details that explains the message objectively. If you're only using swearwords, and not saying anything constructive, then you're mostly talking shit.

Too Many People Talk Shit. That's because people who talk shit don't know shit, so naturally shit comes out of their mouth. So they either don't know Jack Shit, or they are just a Lying Piece of Shit, or just a scumbag?" 

Talking Shit is a term and type of trash-talk that refers to various types of derogatory language aimed at an individual or any type of entity, such as a group or organization. Talking shit can be used as a tactic in fighting or brawling, used to draw attention to the matter among onlookers. This is a term that has been coined more recently and is used in reference when someone talks negatively or spreads false ideas about another person, concept, organization, or entity. The same term can also be used to describe something spoken which is not true, uninteresting or irrelevant. It may be a contraction of Talking Bullshit. It is not to be confused with shitposting, which is when someone posts "content aggressively, ironically, and trollishly poor quality" to an online forum.

Bullshit means "nonsense", especially as a rebuke in response to communication or actions viewed as deceptive, misleading, disingenuous, unfair or false. As with many expletives, the term can be used as an interjection, or as many other parts of speech, and can carry a wide variety of meanings. A person who communicates nonsense on a given subject may be referred to as a "bullshit artist". In philosophy and psychology of cognition the term "bullshit" is sometimes used to specifically refer to statements produced without particular concern of truth, to distinguish from a deliberate, manipulative lie intended to subvert the truth. While the word is generally used in a deprecatory sense, it may imply a measure of respect for language skills or frivolity, among various other benign usages. As an exclamation, "Bullshit!" conveys a measure of dissatisfaction with something or someone, but this usage need not be a comment on the truth of the matter.

Trash-Talk is a form of insult usually found in sports events, although it is not exclusive to just sports or similarly characterized events. It is often used to intimidate the opposition, but can also be used in a humorous spirit. Trash-talk is often characterized by use of hyperbole or figurative language, such as, "Your team can't run! You run like honey on ice!" Puns and other wordplay are commonly used. Cheap Talk (wiki).

Politically Correct is just another phrase that people use that says almost nothing about what a person means or what a person is trying to say. If you don't provide an example or a particular scenario that explains your message, then you are not saying anything, and you are most likely just pretending to know what you're talking about. Like when someone says socialism. Most people have no idea what socialism means, or what democracy means. You have to talk about a particular social and government service so that people have some idea what you're talking about. You just can't generalize and use non-definitive words. You either talk specifics, or go educate yourself so that you can actually know what you're talking about. Then we can start having a real conversation. You need to understand language. You have the right to use words that are necessary that helps to explain something important that you are trying to say. But if you use words that can be misleading or vague, then you are not using words that are necessary, which means that your using words that confuses your message, which means you just wasted everyone's time and said absolutely nothing other than that you have a very small vocabulary and don't know how to communicate effectively or efficiently. Learn the meaning of words and learn how to use words in the right context. You have to be careful with the words that you use when speaking or writing, not because of political correctness, but because you need to speak and communicate accurately, if not, then you're just inciting more ignorance and not saying anything valuable or important. I usually ignore people who use ambiguous and general terms, because when I ask them to explain what they mean, they usually get embarrassed or angry, or worst, they pretend to explain what they're saying by using more ambiguous and general terms. Which means they talk but they don't say anything, and they never transmit anything informative. Which means that they are mostly just saying that they can't explain their own reasoning. Words do not offend me, ignorance offends me, so please go educate yourself and stop offending people with your ignorance. Diplomacy.

Political Correctness or PC Culture is used to describe language, policies, or measures that are intended to avoid offense or disadvantage to members of particular groups in society. Since the late 1980s, the term has come to refer to avoiding language or behavior that can be seen as excluding, marginalizing, or insulting groups of people considered disadvantaged or discriminated against, especially groups defined by sex or race. In public discourse and the media, it is generally used as a pejorative, implying that these policies are excessive.

Slander - Satire 

Call people by their chosen name, don't ever refer to someone by their race, nationality or any other detail that does not explain who you are talking about. If one of your family members committed murder, it does not mean that your entire family committed murder, it means a member of your family committed murder, a that member of your family has a name. And just because you share the same last name, it does not mean that you share the same guilt or share the same mistake or share the same penalty.

Writing is hard. Reading is all about the persons interpretation of the words that have been presented. Some people get offended, some people get educated, and some people get nothing from the message. There is no safe zone for words that can be interpreted as being inappropriate or offensive. You ride the line between getting your message heard and not getting your message heard because you were afraid to use certain words. You want to bring attention to something without distracting someone from the message. You don't want to force someone to look at things in the same way that you do. You should just help people see things from another angle or see things from the other side. If you can see the whole picture, then you have a better chance to understand its message more clearly.

Communicating Emotions

Slang is mostly used for expressing emotion. Slang is not that effective when communicating facts. Just like the word criminal, the word does not tell you anything about the person, other than that the person did something wrong. When I use swear words or curses, I am mostly expressing emotion and disappointment. My intentions are not to offend anyone or to hurt anyone. My swear words are solely meant to bring attention to a serious problem, a problem that you may or may not be involved in. So the swear words are mostly directed at a problem and not so much at a particular person. Do I need to use profanity? Are offensive words more of a distraction than they are about raising awareness? And are these bad words becoming obsolete?

Communicating emotions is not always accurate, or is it without risk. The reader wants to know what the writer is feeling or what the character is feeling, but at the same time, the writer does not want the reader to be distracted or misinterpret the message. You can't always be emotionless. Humans are born with this emotional sensor. Like a built in rollercoaster ride that's always available. But emotions can be easily misinterpreted and manipulated. Even our own emotions can be misinterpreted because the body can affect the mind. So messages and signals from our own body can be misinterpreted and cause an emotion that is not an accurate measurement of reality. Morals - Forgiveness.

Bad words are used to describe something or someone who is bad or wrong or something that you don't agree with. When someone is bad or wrong you may say "you're a f*cking as*hole". When someone is saying something that is not accurate you may say "that's f*cking bullsh*t you as*hole".

I like calling people who are wrong and bad scumbags. But they don't always interpret the word scumbag correctly. So sometimes you have to explain in more detail what you mean. After all, being a scumbag also means that you are most likely to be ignorant too.

But if you don't explain why something is important, then bad words become just empty words, and sometimes certain words do more harm then good. So your attempt to bring light to something may end up being shrouded in darkness, where the problem will hide from the eyes of the ignorant. Swearwords can be used to bring attention to something that is important, or perceived to be important, like an exclamation mark. So "f*ck" could mean "please look and listen, this is important!" or perceived to be important, after all, a swearword does not replace the words such as evidence, research or experience, you still have to define the words you use and explain what you mean. You want to bring attention to something, but you don't want to distract someone by using words that are biased. So use profanity wisely and respectfully. Remember, "Go f*ck yourself and have a nice day a**hole" is contradictory, and mean.

To feel insulted or offended by profanity is not beneficial to you or anyone. To be truly offended or insulted is to say things that are insinuating and meant to hurt someone, like you're fat, you're ugly, you're stupid, you're a certain color, you're a certain religion or a certain sexual orientation. There are many hurtful things that you can say to a person. But like a lot of words, a swear word has no definitive meaning, just like most insults do. Your fat because you eat to much is not always the case. Your ugly does not say that you are ugly to everyone. Saying you're stupid does not measure your intelligence. And the color of your skin does not say what kind of person you are. If someone calls you an asshole, this does not define you as only being an asshole, or mean and selfish, it just might be saying that a particular action you took was bad and wrong. So someone called you an asshole just to shorten the sentence, because there my be a time constraint. So what ever words are used, just remember, it's like someone saying "Hey you!", and you say "What!" or you just ignore them, which is usually the best reaction.

"Sticks and stones may break my bones, but names will never hurt me"

You need to learn how to make words powerful, but you also how to make words powerless when needed.

Interjection is a word used to express a particular emotion or sentiment on the part of the speaker.

Superlative is a form of an adverb or adjective that is used to signify the greatest degree of a given descriptor.

Emphasize is to single out something as important. To give extra weight to something during communication. Give special importance or prominence to (something) in speaking or writing. Make (something) more clearly defined.

Defamation is the communication of a false statement that harms the reputation of an individual person, business, product, group, government, religion, or nation.

Racial Slurs List (wiki) - Slander - Defamation - Free Speech Abuse

Epithets are a defamatory or abusive word or phrase. An adjective or descriptive phrase expressing a quality characteristic of the person or thing mentioned. Epithets are sometimes attached to a person's name or appear in place of their name, as what might be described as a glorified nickname or sobriquet.

Slang consists of a lexicon of non-standard words and phrases in a given language. Use of these words and phrases is typically associated with the subversion of a standard variety (such as Standard English) and is likely to be interpreted by listeners as implying particular attitudes on the part of the speaker. In some contexts, a speaker's selection of slang words or phrases may convey prestige, indicating group membership or distinguishing group members from those who are not a part of the group.

Sexual Slang is a set of linguistic terms and phrases used to refer to sexual organs, processes, and activities; they are generally considered colloquial rather than formal or medical, and some may be seen as impolite or improper. Related to sexual slang is slang related to defecation and flatulence (toilet humor, scatolinguistics). References to the anal tract are often given a sexual connotation in the context of anal sex (in particular, in a context of male homosexuality). While popular usage is incredibly versatile in coining ever new short-lived synonyms, old terms with originally no pejorative colouring may come to be considered inappropriate over time. Thus, terms like arse/ass, cunt, cock and fuck should not be considered "slang," since they are the inherited common English terms for their referents, but they are often considered vulgarisms and are replaced by euphemisms or scientific terminology in "polite" language.

Figure of Speech is a word or phrase used in a non-literal sense for rhetorical or vivid effect. It can be a special repetition, arrangement or omission of words with literal meaning, or a phrase with a specialized meaning not based on the literal meaning of the words. Figures of speech often provide emphasis, freshness of expression, or clarity. However, clarity may also suffer from their use, as figures of speech can introduce an ambiguity between literal and figurative interpretation.

Utter is to articulate or to express in speech either verbally or with a cry, shout, or noise. Express sounds but not necessarily words.

Scumbag is a contemptible or objectionable person. A lowlife or a very unpleasant person who has done something dishonest or unacceptable. Ignorance can turn toxic.

"Words can be liberating, but words can also be debilitating." Viewer Discretion is Advised.

"Don't let horrible language distract you or stop you from learning."

Obscenities is any utterance or act that strongly offends the prevalent morality of the time.

Son of a Bitch is a phrase and a form of verbal abuse when you speak degrading to someone, or, it's something that you say when you are reacting to a struggle or difficult moment that makes you scream out an obscenity.

Name Calling is abusive or insulting language referring to a person or group, a verbal abuse. This phenomenon is studied by a variety of academic disciplines from anthropology, to child psychology, to politics.

Berate is to censure severely or angrily. Harsh criticism or disapproval.

Pejorative is a word or grammatical form expressing a negative connotation or a low opinion of someone or something, showing a lack of respect for someone or something. It is also used as criticism, hostility, disregard or disrespect.

Swearwords, insults, curses, harsh language or profanity is used in some cases to express emotion and feelings about something that people are passionate about. But swearwords must be followed by words of deeper meaning and expression so that it helps explain your passion in better detail, other wise swearwords are just empty words of a incomplete sentence. You end up mostly communicating emotion and not enough meaning. So learn to Elaborate. 

Derogatory words, ethnic slurs and fighting words are never effective ways to communicate. It's like trying to put out a fire with gasoline, it's just illogical. Don't make things worse or miss out on a chance to make things better. Think before you speak. If you don't have the right words then sometimes it's best to wait till you do find the right words. 

There's a thin line between ignorance and asshole. Calling someone an asshole is not the same thing as calling someone ignorant, and it's not the same thing as telling someone that they're wrong. You still have to explain the reasons why something is bad. And if someone is lying, then solving that particular problem will be extremely difficult. Human communication is our greatest gift and our greatest strength, but communication is also our greatest weakness when information is manipulated or ineffective due to the lack of knowledge. And again, the same problem has come full circle, which is the dysfunctional and fragmented education systems. People are developing machines that can think for themselves, so what about humans? Don't people deserve to know how to think for themselves?

Communicating Skills - Taking Back what you Said (edit)

How to Stop Swearing (wiki-how)

Trash-talk is a form of insult usually found in sports events and insulting people. It is often used to intimidate the opposition, but can also be used in a humorous spirit. Trash-talk is often characterized by use of hyperbole or figurative language.

Defective Verb (PDF) - Modality (PDF) - Modal Verbs (PDF) - Regular Verbs

The human tongue is a beast that few can master. It strains constantly to break out of its cage, and if it is not tamed, it will run wild and cause you grief.”

"Just because you put some words together doesn't mean that you said something." Communicate.

Effects of Swearing, Speak Loudly Softly 

Harsh language, demeaning words, humiliation, condescending words or just plain mean talk, is just stupid. if you can't communicate what you are trying to say, then wait till you learn. There are always better words to use. But why does our relationship with a particular person effect our emotions, and why am I allowing my emotions to chose my vocabulary? I don't get this. I always fall into that same stupid trap, a trap I created. I have to discover a way to let my brain do the talking without my emotions choosing my words. I love my emotions, but I also like to communicate effectively, and not just to other people, but to myself as well. Our language has incredible power, it's time we use it the right way. But don't get me wrong, we need our emotions, communicating emotionally is sometimes effective in certain situations, but it must be proven that the emotions were necessary at that time.

Mince is to make less severe or harsh. To be straightforward, plain-spoken, or blunt. To speak vaguely or indirectly. Often used in the negative to convey that one speaks bluntly or tactlessly, without regard for someone else's feelings. To restrain oneself in a conversation by withholding some comments or using euphemisms.

Expletive is a profane or obscene expression usually of surprise or anger. Serving to fill up, merely for effect, otherwise redundant.

Euphemism is an inoffensive or indirect expression that is substituted for one that is considered offensive or too harsh.

Diatribe is a forceful and bitter verbal attack against someone or something. Slander.

Vitriolic is a harsh or corrosive in tone. Satire.

Vitriol is abusive or venomous language used to express blame or censure or bitter deep-seated ill will.

Derogatory is showing a critical or disrespectful attitude. Expressive of low opinion. Bias.

Anathema is something or someone that is detested or shunned.

Assail is to attack in speech or writing. Attack someone physically or emotionally.

Exclamation is an abrupt or sudden excited utterance. A loud complaint or protest or a rebuke or criticism.

Exclamation Mark is a punctuation mark usually used after an interjection or exclamation to indicate strong feelings or high volume (shouting), or to show emphasis, and often marks the end of a sentence, for example: "Watch out!" Similarly, a bare exclamation mark (with nothing before or after) is often used in warning signs.

Omit Needless Words and Empty Phrases

Pleonasm is using extra words that are not needed in sentences. Using more words than necessary

"The danger with insults is that it could ruin your chances of having a good and Productive Conversation, so it can work against you."

"A closed mouth gathers no foot"

"Man does not live by words alone, despite the fact that sometimes he has to eat them." - Adlai Stevenson Speech in Denver, Colorado (5 September 1952).


When people ask me "why do you write such terrible things?" I answer, I'm just mimicking certain people that I see on TV. These people lie and say terrible things all the time to a very larger audience. But I know its childish to rank on other other people, but want can I do, they started it first, and they're not even trying stop.

Mimicking bad behaviors that other people express in order to make people see themselves for who they truly are, does not always work.

Righteous Indignation is typically a reactive emotion of anger over mistreatment, insult, or malice.

When I see horrible people doing horrible things I sometimes use horrible words to describe them, there is nothing unique about that.

I like to use words that are a symbolic example of a particular dialect used by a particular culture during a particular time in history. But still, most words are only personal and not totally representative of the entire culture. They usually represent a lower percentage of a particular culture. It doesn't express the current mind set. If you wanted to know what a civilization was thinking as a whole, you would see something different, varying degrees of knowledge and awareness cause different opinions about reality.

"Yes I do get frustrated and angry at the injustices in this world, so I do say hurtful and mean things, but that is not all I say. Besides that, almost every improvement in this world began with someone standing up and getting angry, so the freedoms that you enjoy are the result of people getting angry. Changes did not come from silent people who were to afraid to or to ignorant to speak their mind, they came from people just like me. So if I happen to use some of the bad words used by my culture, then so be it."

"I never said I was a good writer, but I am a good fighter. But I'm not looking for the knockout punch, I'm just looking to stay in the ring long enough to get some punches in and wear down those f*cking criminals, and eventually win by unanimous decision."

"If there is a better way to call you an a**hole, please let me know, I'm all ears."

The 100 Greatest Movie Insults of All Time (youtube) 

Deaf People Teach Us Bad Words (youtube)

I take my expressions of anger and frustration and put them into words, words that express anger and frustration, that's it, don't go any farther then that. When I write words that express my feelings of anger and frustration, they are just words. To explain my anger and frustration I must write more about what I'm trying to communicate, which I do. So please don't get hung up on words that you feel offended by, just keep reading. If you stop to judge something before you finish hearing all the testimony, then you will never be able to understand the message accurately enough. If a spoon is dirty, you wipe the dirt off the spoon, you don't throw the spoon away. You keep the spoon. The spoon is still good, just wipe the dirt off. I don't mind if you ignore the dirt or hate the dirt, as long as you understand the message. Focus on the on the words that reveal important information, and don't let the words that express emotion distract you from understanding the message.

Just because I use certain harsh language, this does not mean that I approve of the words that I have chosen. I use words that are used by my culture, words used by millions of people in my generation, that is where I have learned them. I know how inadequate and rude profanity is, and that these are not all the words in my vocabulary. But when describing emotion, you use words that you are familiar with. I'm not saying that I agree with those words. But we must avoid quickly judging certain words. We should only listen to the message, and not be distracted by certain words used in the message. This is what reading comprehension is all about, which is to accurately understand the true meaning of a particular message. Interpret without judgment, translate the message cleanly before adding your own opinion to it. Then after you have successfully done that, then you can talk about your personal experience that you had with that particular message. And now we can have a real conversation.

I get angry when I learn the truth about injustices and ignorant criminal behavior, just like a lot of people do. But I don't recommend for anyone to use anger, there are much more effective ways to communicate, and they are also a lot healthier.

Even though I'm embarrassed writing profanity, I really don't mind writing it because it's good to get those things off your chest. Plus, when I do write down my profanity ridden rants, in a way it releases those ugly words from my frustration so they don't build up inside me. So after I write ugly words down I no longer feel connected to those words, they become only some words that were connected to an anger from which they came. So when I do see you in person, I will not embarrass myself like that again and use such ignorant words. But if I accidently do say "f*ck you!", don't take it personally, just call it a Freudian Slip.

If you are the receiver of profanity, You're going to have to get over it. They are empty words that don't carry any useful information, so let it go. Focus on the core message and pay no mind to the extra words used around it. Look at the message the same way as you do an exclamation point, or bold letters, or Upper case letters, it's meant to emphasize and express emotion, it's not meant to distract you from the message, so focus, because I'm going to test you soon. In the mean time, If you ever have some useful information to share, please let me know, I'm all ears.

When I finally stopped being hurt or distracted by peoples harsh words, I was finally free. At that moment I experience a freedom that was so liberating, it was like I have just begun to live for the very first time. It was spiritual, it was enlightening, and it was exhilarating all at once. Till this day I am still thankful for that moment of understanding, it has been a Godsend.

Just because someone doesn't fully understand you, this does not mean that they will never understand you. Don't blame people for not understanding you, learn from them. There are always different ways of explaining something, and the more ways you know how to explain things, the more successful you will be at being understood correctly.

A real conversation, sharing your thoughts because you cannot always say what you're thinking, especially when talking to people face to face. So documenting your personal thoughts is a unique way of writing. Helps you capture some of your ignorance, as well as, it helps you capture some of the words of an earlier time, and not necessarily the person you are today. say what your thinking even if it's wrong or insensitive, you can that they are only words, not totally all my words, mostly the words of my culture, a culture that is evolving. I don't want to make people feel bad, just aware of the something that is bad and not good. The cause's and effect's of our personal life and our business life, which is our responsibility towards each other, and our responsibility to our local surroundings and our global surroundings.

The Risks you take when Writing

One of the most difficult things when writing is knowing that people will sometimes interpret the words that you have written in the wrong way, especially words that describe opinions or communicate complex ideas or include profanity. So writing is a risk. You can wait for the right time and wait for the right place to write something, but the right time and the right place may never come, so not writing now might be an even bigger risk to take. So sometimes you are forced to write something now, because you can't write something when you're dead.

My intention is not to hurt anyone. My intention is to have a conversation. But if within that conversation I insult you or hurt you or anger you, then I will apologize and say I'm sorry. My intention is not to hurt anyone. My intention is to have a conversation. If you don't want to talk to me, that's fine. But you still have to understand written words and understand language, because how else would you be able to accurately understand your self and the world around you. Humans have many senses, and humans have to interpret all kinds information from many different sources, including information within ourselves. So it's critical that you interpret information effectively, whether that information is being transmitted externally or internally.

When writing, I'm not talking to anyone personally, I'm talking in general, and no one specifically is being criticized. If a behavior has been documented, then I can criticize that partcular behavior, but I can't criticize the person, that's because I don't personally know that person. People can be good and bad in different ways. So unless someone measured all the bad things they did, and then compared it to all the good things they did, they might be able to measure the value of their life. And if that person is a burden on life, then maybe the criticism was justified in identifying a problem, a problem that does more harm than good.

Pardon My French is a common English language phrase ostensibly disguising profanity as words from the French language. The phrase is uttered in an attempt to excuse the user of profanity, swearing, or curses in the presence of those offended by it, under the pretense of the words being part of a foreign language.

You're going to own those words! First, you cannot own words, you can only use words. Language is a shared resource, a tool that everyone should have access too. To say "In my own words" is a lie. You don't have words of your own unless you created your own language. All you are doing is using words that the human language has created. So all you can do is either use words to transmit some new information, or use words to repeat some old information, or to use words to say something that everyone has no idea what you're saying. To say that you have said something that has never been said before is extremely difficult to prove.

"If an inadequate education is the source of all our problems, then that means that an effective education is also the cure for all our problems."

Links between Swearing and Honesty, Frankly, do we give a damn…?

"I can be such a jerk sometimes. It's not that I'm being insensitive on purpose, it's that I'm not always aware of how my words and actions are being perceived. I apologize when I'm aware of my insensitivity, so please let me know when I'm not aware of my insensitivity, so that I may offer you my apologies and also improve my demeanor and negative attitude."

I was rude and blunt when criticizing you, but the word rude is relative and subjective. I could say something in a nicer way or in a less aggressive way, but sometimes when saying something in a nice way or in a calm way, it may cause the person not to listen because the tone of the voice does not seem urgent or important. On the other hand, saying something loud and rudely will get someone's attention, but that could backfire because the person could interpret the rude questions or rude observations as hurtful or disrespectful, and then the person will not even listen to the meaning of the message. And the meaning of the message was, I am concerned about your behavior and your actions, and I would like to make sure that you are alright. I have to ask the hard questions, so it may seem like I'm hard on you, but that's not my intention. So dammed if you do and dammed if you don't. Say it nice or say it with emotion, either way, there is always a risk of miscommunication. And if the person can't have a real conversation with you, then that's another problem.

Swearing as a Response to Pain - Swearing as a Response to Pain—Effect of Daily Swearing Frequency.

Coprolalia is involuntary swearing or the involuntary utterance of obscene words or socially inappropriate and derogatory remarks. Coprolalia is an occasional characteristic of tic disorders, in particular Tourette syndrome, although it is not required for a diagnosis of Tourette's and only about 10% of Tourette's patients exhibit coprolalia. It is not unique to tic disorders; it is also a rare symptom of other neurological disorders. Coprolalia is one type of coprophenomenon. Other coprophenomena include the related symptoms of copropraxia, involuntary actions such as performing obscene or forbidden gestures, and coprographia, making obscene writings or drawings.

If someone who had Coprolalia never heard obscene words or socially inappropriate and derogatory remarks, what would they say? What if they heard nothing but kind words, wouldn't they be screaming out nice things? You're Beautiful!!

Tourette Syndrome characterized by multiple motor tics and at least one vocal (phonic) tic. Most often associated with coprolalia (the utterance of obscene words or socially inappropriate and derogatory remarks), but this symptom is present in only a small minority of people with Tourette's.

People who curse a lot have better vocabularies than those who don't, study finds, I guess you have to ask, if your vocabulary is so large, why can't you find better words to communicate with?

Go f*ck yourself means that you should do to yourself what you do to others and see if you like it. Do unto others as you would have them do unto you, don't do to others that you would not like done to you. Karma.

Have a Nice day As*hole means that I wish you well, but I would appreciate it if you would stop being ignorant, selfish and immoral. Instead you should be intelligent, compassionate and be human.

That's Just F**kingly Great: If "F**king" Is an Adjective, What Is the Adverb? What and how does "f**king" communicate?

Winnebago Man (youtube) - Winnebago Man is a 2009 American documentary film directed by Ben Steinbauer. The film follows the Internet phenomenon created by a series of twenty-year-old outtakes from a Winnebago sales video featuring profane outbursts from the salesperson, Jack Rebney. Originally intended as an inside joke, the video spread across the globe first on VHS then via YouTube and other online video sites, earning the salesman the title of "The Angriest Man in the World". The documentary explores the story of the clips' origins and how, two decades later, it affects the reluctant star. Steinbauer released a short film Extraordinarily Unusual: Surprising the Winnebago Man in 2017, documenting his return to visit Rebney on his 87th birthday, bringing some of Rebney's old friends to celebrate.

Speaking Publicly and Publicly Writing your Personal Thoughts can be Dangerous. But I grew up doing dangerous things. So I learned that danger is not the only reason why you do something or not do something. There are many reasons not to do something that are beyond the fact that something is dangerous. That is why we have risk assessments. We can also base our success rate on previous experiences. Because things are not as dangerous when you have experience it before, and understand your abilities and limits. But that is not all, publicly sharing your personal thoughts is dangerous because of the chance of being misunderstood by others. But on the other hand, there is also a risk of not sharing your personal thoughts. Dammed if you do, and dammed if you don't. Risk Assessment is very difficult when it comes to determining peoples reactions. Try to share more then just your personal thoughts, and understand, that it's risky if you do and risky if you don't. Speaking your mind has risks. Know when to speak, know what to speak, know how to speak, and know why you speak.

"When people speak publicly, or write publicly, there will always be some criticism, but criticism is not always bad, sometimes criticism makes you more aware of how people are understanding you, so criticism could actually benefit you and make you a better communicator."

"Name calling or angry tones are a waste of energy and time. When you learn to talk and communicate more effectively and Calmly you will learn very quickly that you will have much better results with people and situations when you refrain from anger and name calling. And you will also learn that there is very little need for drama and name calling when communicating."

You don't want to keep that shit in your head, writing it down releases it and makes it easier to delete it from your mind.

Seven Dirty Words are English-language curse words that American comedian George Carlin first listed in his 1972 "Seven Words You Can Never Say on Television" monologue. The words, in the order Carlin listed them, are "shit", "piss", "fuck", "cunt", "cocksucker", "motherfucker", and "tits". During a performance in 1966, comedian Lenny Bruce said he had been arrested for saying nine words: "ass", "balls", "cocksucker", "cunt", "fuck", "motherfucker", "piss", "shit", and "tits". In 1972, comedian George Carlin released his fourth stand-up album Class Clown. One track on the album, "Seven Words You Can Never Say on Television", was a monologue in which he identified these words and expressed amazement that they could not be used regardless of context.  In a 2004 NPR interview, George Carlin said: "These words have no power. We give them this power by refusing to be free and easy with them. We give them great power over us. They really, in themselves, have no power. It's the thrust of the sentence that makes them either good or bad."

Obscenity Law deals with the regulation or suppression of what is considered obscenity. In the United States, discussion of obscenity typically relates to pornography, as well as issues of freedom of speech and of the press, otherwise protected by the First Amendment to the Constitution of the United States. Issues of obscenity arise at federal and state levels. The States have a direct interest in public morality and have responsibility in relation to criminal law matters, including the punishment for the production and sale of obscene materials. State laws operate only within the jurisdiction of each state, and there are a wide differences in such laws. The federal government is involved in the issue indirectly, by making it an offense to distribute obscene materials through the post, to broadcast them, as well as in relation to importation of such materials. Most obscenity cases in the United States in the past century have revolved around images and films, but there have also been many cases that dealt with textual works as well, a notable case being that of the 18th century novel Fanny Hill. Because censorship laws enacted to combat obscenity restrict the freedom of expression, crafting a legal definition of obscenity presents a civil liberties issue.

Explicit language or vulgar language is not as dangerous as propaganda, or as dangerous as a dumb down education that doesn't teach students enough about language and information literacy. If you really want to protect children, you should educate them to the highest degree possible.

"I've learned over time that you have to have a very high tolerance for a**holes and ignorant people. Because if you don't you will end up acting like an ignorant a**hole yourself. So I'm going to create a course that will give people the necessary skills and techniques that will give a person the tolerance and the appropriate responses to other peoples moronic behavior. I'm going to call the course "High Tolerance for Assholes 101". Believe it or not I have over 10,000 people signed up for the course already, mostly from people who are planning to work in government, banks, corporations and in the media."  So the lesson here is to rewrite this paragraph so that there is no vulgar language and no sterotyping, and then name the 10 things that you would teach in this course?

Colloquial is characteristic of informal spoken language or conversation.

Informal is something not officially recognized or controlled.

knave is an older word for a rascal, a scoundrel, or a rogue. It isn't a compliment. If you read Shakespeare for long, you'll definitely see the word knave more than once.

Shit is the most versatile word in the English language. You can get shit-faced, Be shit-out-of-luck, Or have shit for brains. With a little effort, you can get your shit together, find a place for your shit, or be asked to shit or get off the pot. You can smoke shit, buy shit, sell shit, lose shit, find shit, forget shit, and tell others to eat shit. Some people know their shit, while others can't tell the difference between shit and shineola. There are lucky shits, dumb shits, and crazy shits. There is bull shit, horse shit, and chicken shit. You can throw shit, sling shit, catch shit, shoot the shit, or duck when the shit hits the fan. You can give a shit or serve shit on a shingle. You can find yourself in deep shit or be happier than a pig in shit. Some days are colder than shit, some days are hotter than shit, and some days are just plain shitty. Some music sounds like shit, things can look like shit, and there are times when you feel like shit. You can have too much shit, not enough shit, the right shit, the wrong shit or a lot of weird shit. You can carry shit, have a mountain of shit, or find yourself up shit creek without a paddle. Sometimes everything you touch turns to shit and other times you fall in a bucket of shit and come out smelling like a rose. When you stop to consider all the facts, it's the basic building block of the English language. And remember, once you know your shit, you don't need to know anything else!! You could pass this along, if you give a shit; or not do so if you don't give a shit! Well, Shit, it's time for me to go. Just wanted you to know that I do give a shit and hope you had a nice day, without a bunch of shit. But, if you happened to catch a load of shit from some shit-head.... Well, Shit Happens!

Funny and sarcastic sayings from different ideologies and religions using the word shit.
Confucianism: Confucius say, "Shit happens."
Taoism: Shit happens but the shit that happens is not the true shit.
Buddhism: If shit happens, it isn't really shit, it is only an illusion of shit happening.
Zen Buddhism: Shit is, and is not. What is the sound of shit happening?
TV-Evangelism: Send money or shit will happen to you. You need our shit, but it will cost you.
Protestantism: Shit won't happen if you work harder. Let shit happen to someone else.
Presbyterian: This shit was bound to happen.
Islam: If shit happens, it is the will of Allah.
Catholicism: If shit happens, you deserve it.
Baptist Fundamentalism: Shit happens because the Bible says so.
Judaism: Why does this shit always happen to us?
Hinduism: This shit has happened before.
Amish: Shit dost occur.
Apathism: I don't give a shit.
Narcissim: My shit don't stink. I am the shit that happens.
Nihilism: Everything is shit. No shit.
Atheism: There is no such thing as shit or I can't believe this shit. What shit?
Cartesianism: I shit, therefore I am.
Solipism: All this shit is a creation of my imagination.
Creationism: God made all shit.
Creation Science: We have proof that God created all the shit that happens.
Secular Humanism: Shit evolves.
Darwinism: We came up from shit. This shit was once food.
Agnostic: Shit might have happened; then again, maybe not. Did someone shit? Agnosticism: What is this shit?
Ba'hat: All shit is truly shit.
Episcopalian: It's not so bad if shit happens, as long as you serve the right wine with it.
Methodist: It's not so bad if shit happens, as long as you serve grape juice with it.
Altruism: Want some shit?
Momism: You'll eat this shit and like it!
Capitalism: That's my shit. How much will this shit cost?
Commercialism: Let's package this shit.
Classical Marxism: The workers take all the shit, but they're gonna dish it back out again.
Contract Theory: If we don't agree to form society, everything will go to shit.
Communism: It's everybody's shit.
Mccarthyism: Are you now, or have you ever been, shit?
Scientology: If shit happens, see "Dianetics", p.157.
Christian Science: When shit happens, don't call a doctor - pray! Shit happening is all in your mind.
Mormonism: God sent us this shit. This shit is going to happen again. Your shit is shit, but our shit is the one true shit.
Mennonite: None of this modern shit now.
Moonies: Only really happy shit happens.
Hare Krishna: Shit happens, rama rama.
Murphism: Shit always happens at the worst possible time and place.
Solipsism: The only thing I can be sure of is that my shit happens.
Practical: Deal with shit one day at a time.
Congregationalist: Shit that happens to one person is just as good as shit that happens to another.
Unitarian: Shit that happens to one person is just as bad as shit that happens to another.
Lutheran: If shit happens, don't talk about it.
Fundamentalism: If shit happens, you will go to hell, unless you are born again. (Amen!)
Seventh Day Adventism: No shit shall happen on Saturday.
Calvinism: Shit happens because you don't work.
Unitarianism: Come let us reason together about this shit.
Quakers: Let us not fight over this shit.
Utopianism: This shit does not stink.
Feminism: Men are shit.
Chauvinism: We may be shit, but you can't live without us.
Impressionism: From a distance, shit looks like a garden.
Idolism: Let's bronze this shit.
Existentialism: Shit doesn't happen; shit is. What is shit, anyway?
Stoicism: This shit is good for me.
Hedonism: There is nothing like a good shit happening!
Wiccan: An it harm none, let shit happen.
Jehovah's Witnesses: >Knock< >Knock< Shit happens. May we have a moment of your time to show you some of our shit? Shit has been prophesied and is imminent; only the righteous shall survive its happening.
Rastafarianism: Let's smoke this shit.
Zoroastrianism: Shit happens half on the time.

Jack Schitt married Noe Schitt, and produced 6 children: Holie Schitt, Fulla Schitt, Giva Schitt, Bull Schitt, and the twins: Deep Schitt and Dip Schitt.

Synonyms - Related Words that describe Bad Behavior

Synonyms: affectless, callous, case-hardened, cold-blooded, compassionless, desensitized, hard-boiled, hard-hearted, heartless, indurate, inhuman, inhumane, insensate, hard, ironhearted, merciless, obdurate, pachydermatous, pitiless, remorseless, ruthless, slash-and-burn, soulless, stony (also stoney), stonyhearted, take-no-prisoners, thick-skinned, uncharitable, unfeeling, unmerciful, unsparing, unsympathetic.

Related Words: Words used to describe most of our politicians and some of the corporations, as well as some of the scumbags in power, as well as all the as*holes in the world who feel the need to express their ignorance. Boorish, heedless, inconsiderate, thoughtless, uncaring, unfriendly, unloving, unthinking; grim, hard-bitten, harsh, heavy-handed, ironfisted, ironhanded, jackbooted, knock-down, drag-out (or knock-down-and-drag-out), oppressive, rough, rough-and-tumble, severe, sledgehammer, stern, tough, ungentle; abusive, acrimonious, disagreeable, hateful, ill-natured, ill-tempered, malevolent, malicious, mean, rancorous, spiteful, surly, virulent; barbarous, bestial, brutal, brutish, cruel, evil-minded, savage, vicious; austere, cold, frosty. Bad - Evil (morality)

This is why the word 'Asshole' is so effective, because it pretty much replaces all the words above. But it's not a Root Word.

Nice Words - What all Good People should be

Antonyms: charitable, compassionate, humane, kindhearted, kindly, merciful, sensitive, softhearted, sympathetic, tender, tenderhearted, warm, warmhearted.

Near Antonyms: benevolent, benignant, gentle, kind; clement, indulgent, lenient, mild; cordial, friendly, good-natured, good-tempered, gracious; tolerant, understanding; affectionate, fond, loving.

Morally Educated (morals)

Cursive Writing Thank You The Bottom Line is. I don't want to encourage cynicism, I just want people to be aware and to understand that things need to be taken seriously. I don't want people to hate people for their ignorance, I just want people to do what they can to stop injustices and corruption, without making things worse, and without lowering yourself to that level of insanity and total disregard for life.

And on top of that, who you are in person is different than what you write. So don't ever believe that you know someone just because you have read some of the words that they have written. That's like when people believe that actors and authors are just like the characters that they portray. These types of assumptions are illogical and stupid. It's just a lot easier to inquire and ask questions then to believe that you know the answers, like with prejudice and bias.

Just because someone uses bad words does not make them a bad person, and just because someone uses ignorant words this does not mean that they're ignorant. You can use logical deduction and say bad people use bad words and ignorant people use ignorant words, but with so many variables, there can be no accurate method of deductive reasoning, not until you answer the questions of How Much? When? Why and Where? How much of this language is used? When is this language used? Why is this language used? And where is this language used?

I wish I had a nickel for every time I said "WTF is going on here?". Do Acronyms make it cool to swear again?

Acronym is a word formed from the initial letters of the several words in the name.

To call someone stupid, is stupid. Whether you are calling someone a moron, an idiot, an ignoramus, or any other harsh insulting words, but never the "R" word, because you clearly insult everyone, including yourself. The important thing is that people should not be insulted when called stupid, or any other harsh word, even if you're calling yourself stupid. It is merely a question of, "why is this thinking flawed and incorrect?" Was it a simple mistake that you made? Or an indicator that the process used in your decision making needs to be improved so that you can achieve higher quality results from your decisions? And that is only one way to correctly handle insults. Don't be distracted by the harshness of a word or words, just simply answer the question "why is this thinking flawed and incorrect?" Or simply ask "what is stupid?" or just answer with one word, "why". And the more questions that you answer that improve your thinking, the more intelligent you will become. You will still make mistakes, but now you will solve them a lot faster, and you will also make fewer mistakes.

There's nothing wrong with calling yourself stupid as long as you don't take it personally. You have to be able to laugh at yourself.

It's the people who are not offended or distracted by profanity are the people I admire most. Don't get distracted by minor irrelevant details, the most important thing is did you understand the message? Once people fully understand how important the transfer of information is, we will communicate more effectively and efficiently, and at a much higher level of understanding.

"I look at some of my writing to be like A Warning Label for Life, there's a lot of dangers in life, but there's also a lot of joy. Avoiding the dangers takes a lot of work, and this responsibility should never be taken lightly. Learn to maximize your fun."

There is always risk involved with communicating to a large audience. You can't guarantee that everyone will understand your message the same way. So you have to play the odds. In order to communicate to one group you may have to sacrifice communicating to another because of their beliefs. You have to learn to speak to everyone at the same time, and use words that have no bias and no preference, just express the facts and a clear understanding of those facts. Save the stupid comments for your standup comedy routine, where everyone clearly understands that your being an idiot for laughs and not trying to communicate something important.

Writing History

History of Writing traces the development of expressing language by letters or other marks and also the studies and descriptions of these developments. In the history of how writing systems have evolved in different human civilizations, more complete writing systems were preceded by proto-writing, systems of ideographic or early mnemonic symbols (symbols or letters that make remembering them easier). True writing, in which the content of a linguistic utterance is encoded so that another reader can reconstruct, with a fair degree of accuracy, the exact utterance written down, is a later development. It is distinguished from proto-writing, which typically avoids encoding grammatical words and affixes, making it more difficult or even impossible to reconstruct the exact meaning intended by the writer unless a great deal of context is already known in advance. One of the earliest forms of written expression is cuneiform. Writing was long thought to have been invented in a single civilization, a theory named "monogenesis". Scholars believed that all writing originated in ancient Sumer in Mesopotamia and spread over the world from there via a process of cultural diffusion. According to this theory, the concept of representing language by written marks, though not necessarily the specifics of how such a system worked, was passed on by traders or merchants traveling between geographical regions.

Language History - Printing History - Paper History - Petroglyphs - Carving - Knowledge Preservation - Alexandria

Proto-Writing refers to the early writing systems that emerged in Eurasia in the early 3rd millennium BCE that were a development based on earlier traditions of symbol systems that cannot be classified as writing proper, but have many characteristics strikingly similar to writing. Proto-writing consists of visible marks communicating limited information. Such systems emerged from earlier traditions of symbol systems in the early Neolithic, as early as the 7th millennium BC. They used ideographic or early mnemonic symbols or both to represent a limited number of concepts, in contrast to true writing systems, which record the language of the writer. (10,000 BCE – 2020 CE).

Palaeography is the study of historic writing systems and the deciphering and dating of historical manuscripts, including the analysis of historic handwriting. It is concerned with the forms and processes of writing; not the textual content of documents. Included in the discipline is the practice of deciphering, reading, and dating manuscripts, and the cultural context of writing, including the methods with which writing and books were produced, and the history of scriptoria

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The Thinker Man