Simultaneous Subject Teaching


Learning several different subjects simultaneously, and in the right order or sequence, will help retain knowledge more easily by way of increased associations and connections, especially when most subjects share common knowledge. This also helps to speed up the learning process. When you're learning to read you should be reading to learn at the same time.

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Inter-Disciplinarity involves the combining of two or more academic disciplines into one activity (e.g., a research project). It's about creating something new by crossing boundaries, and thinking across them. It is related to an interdiscipline or an interdisciplinary field, which is an organizational unit that crosses traditional boundaries between academic disciplines or schools of thought, as new needs and professions emerge. Real Life Examples.

Interdiscipline means an organizational unit that involves two or more academic disciplines, but which have the formal criteria of disciplines such as dedicated research journals, conferences and university departments. (Identify the underlying connections between different topics. Identify the key concepts of your topic).

Multi-Disciplinary involves drawing appropriately from multiple disciplines to redefine problems outside normal boundaries and reach solutions based on a new understanding of complex situations.

Polymath is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas. A person who is known to draw on several complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problems.

Multipotentiality is the ability of a person to excel in two or more different fields.

Multisensory Learning is when individuals are taught using more than one sense. The senses usually employed in multisensory learning are visual, auditory, kinesthetic, and tactile – VAKT (i.e. seeing, hearing, doing, and touching). Other senses might include smell, taste and balance.

Personalized Education (Differentiated Instruction) Dual n-Back (spaced repetition)

Subdiscipline is a field of study or work that is related to one aspect, but not the whole.

Cross-disciplinary is a general term used to refer to any activity that involves two or more academic disciplines. 

Integrative Learning is integrated lessons that help students make connections across curricula.

Integrated Course
is a course that covers several subjects. Synchronize.

Ontology encompasses a representation, formal naming and definition of the categories, properties and relations between the concepts, data and entities that substantiate one, many, or all domains of discourse. More simply, an ontology is a way of showing the properties of a subject area and how they are related, by defining a set of concepts and categories that represent the subject. Every academic discipline or field creates ontologies to limit complexity and organize data into information and knowledge. New ontologies improve problem solving within that domain. Translating research papers within every field is a problem made easier when experts from different countries maintain a controlled vocabulary of jargon between each of their languages. Library Science.

Ontology Learning is the automatic or semi-automatic creation of ontologies, including extracting the corresponding domain's terms and the relationships between the concepts that these terms represent from a corpus of natural language text, and encoding them with an ontology language for easy retrieval. As building ontologies manually is extremely labor-intensive and time-consuming, there is great motivation to automate the process. Typically, the process starts by extracting terms and concepts or noun phrases from plain text using linguistic processors such as part-of-speech tagging and phrase chunking. Then statistical or symbolic techniques are used to extract relation signatures, often based on pattern-based or definition-based hypernym extraction techniques. Ontology in computing is a rigorous and exhaustive organization of some knowledge domain that is usually hierarchical and contains all the relevant entities and their relations. Ontology can also mean the philosophical study of being.

Simultaneous are things that occurre at the same time or are operating at the same time. Simultaneity is happening, existing or done at the same time. Simultaneously are things happening at the same instant. Multi-Tasking.

Concurrently are things that happening at the same time and are overlapping in duration.

Corresponding are things that are similar, especially in position or purpose. Be compatible, similar or consistent; coincide in their characteristics. Be equivalent or parallel, in mathematics. Cross-Reference - Link.

Coincides are things that go together or happen simultaneously and occur during the same time. Correspond in nature or in position and meet or intersect. To be the same.

Overlapping is to partly coincide in time or coincide partially or wholly. To extend over so as to cover partly or cover part of the same area of interest, responsibility, etc. Covering with a design in which one element covers a part of another.

Conjunction is the temporal property of two things happening at the same time. The state of being joined together. An uninflected function word that serves to conjoin words, phrases, clauses or sentences. The grammatical relation between linguistic units (words, phrases or clauses) that are connected by a conjunction. Something that joins or connects

Concerted involves the joint activity of two or more things or people. Synesthesia.

Juggle is to deal with several things simultaneously, sometimes with difficulty and sometimes balancing insecurely. Juggling is to throw, catch, and keep in the air several things simultaneously. To manipulate things by moving around components. The act of rearranging things to sometimes give a misleading impression. Life is a Juggle.

Joint are things united or combined and affecting or involving two or more things.

Bridging is to join things as if by a bridge. To span across a gap. To link between two points. To make a connection. Bridge is a structure that allows people or vehicles to cross an obstacle such as a river, canyon or other roadway.

Unison is occurring together or simultaneously. Batch Processing.

Double Effect refers to two types of consequences that may be produced by a single action. Some actions can have multiple benefits.

Overarching is comprehensive or all-embracing and covering many angles or issues. To be central or dominant.

Broad Archer is something overarching that affects or includes everything.

Comprehensive is broad in scope and including all or everything. An intensive examination testing a student's proficiency in some special field of knowledge. Courses - Lessons.

Cross-Training involves combining exercises to work various parts of the body. Often one particular activity works certain muscle groups, but not others; cross-training aims to eliminate this imbalance. This training is meant to overcome the shortcomings of one style by practicing another style which is strong in the appropriate area. On the Job Training.

Transdisciplinarity relates to more than one branch of knowledge; interdisciplinary. Connotes a research strategy that crosses many disciplinary boundaries to create a holistic approach. It applies to research efforts focused on problems that cross the boundaries of two or more disciplines, such as research on effective information systems for biomedical research (see bioinformatics), and can refer to concepts or methods that were originally developed by one discipline, but are now used by several others, such as ethnography, a field research method originally developed in anthropology but now widely used by other disciplines. The Belmont Forum elaborated that a transdisciplinary approach is enabling inputs and scoping across scientific and non-scientific stakeholder communities and facilitating a systemic way of addressing a challenge. This includes initiatives that support the capacity building required for the successful transdisciplinary formulation and implementation of research actions.

Multi-Agent System is a computerized system composed of multiple interacting intelligent agents within an environment. Multi-agent systems can be used to solve problems that are difficult or impossible for an individual agent or a monolithic system to solve.

Long-Term Potentiation - Brain Plasticity - Potential

Thematic Approach is a way of teaching and learning, whereby many areas of the curriculum are connected together and integrated within a theme. Thematic Learning is an instructional method of teaching in which emphasis is given on choosing a specific theme for teaching one or many concepts in order to notice the inter-relatedness of various subjects. It is based on integrating variety of information and using it to demonstrate the topic. Benefits: The method connects subjects, topics and themes naturally. Learning opportunity, thus is extended beyond one class, to throughout a whole day or week. Learning becomes a continuing process, which is not limited to books or guidelines prescribed by the curriculum or time bound. The emphasis is not on the product, but the process of learning. The contribution of the learners becomes an essential part of the curriculum. The focus of the group activity is problem solving, critical and creative thinking. It marks the beginning of community of learners. Differentiation into units makes assessment accurate and relevant. The method enhances risk taking factor in the learners, through self-initiated learning activities and first hand experiences. The group consists of active learners, since there is investigation of ideas and concepts, which are a reflection of their inquiries. Outcomes: The learner sees continuous relationship between concepts since one plans and experiences thematic inquiry. The learner understands the relation between topics dealt in the classroom and those one experiences outside, in day-to-day life. Thematic activities make the learner engage into authentic communication. The learner shares one's ideas with others in the group. Interaction within and without the group makes the learner inculcate values of respect and cooperation, thus building peer learning groups. A learner takes responsibility for one's learning. The teacher becomes the facilitator, reduces the role of dispenser of learning. Community for learning develops in the group. The assessment on the part of the facilitator and the learner oneself, becomes continuous.

Phenomenon-Based Learning is where students study a topic or concept in a holistic approach instead of in a subject-based approach.

Dependency Graph is a directed graph representing dependencies of several objects towards each other. It is possible to derive an evaluation order or the absence of an evaluation order that respects the given dependencies from the dependency graph.

Data Dependency is a situation in which a program statement (instruction) refers to the data of a preceding statement.

Thomas Young was a British polymath and scientist who made notable contributions to the fields of vision, light, solid mechanics, energy, physiology, language, musical harmony, and Egyptology. He "made a number of original and insightful innovations" in the decipherment of Egyptian hieroglyphs (specifically the Rosetta Stone) before Jean-François Champollion eventually expanded on his work. Young has been described as "The Last Man Who Knew Everything". His work informed that later done by William Herschel, Hermann von Helmholtz, James Clerk Maxwell, and Albert Einstein. Young is credited with establishing the wave theory of light, in contrast to the particle theory of Isaac Newton. Young's work was subsequently supported by the work of Augustin-Jean Fresnel. Born June 13, 1773 and Died May 10, 1829 at age 55.

A Baltimore Youth Program Mixes A Passion For Dirt Bikes With Science. The Baltimore Police Department started a dirt bike task force in 2016, but it has since been dissolved. The head of the task force said in 2018 that it confiscated hundreds of dirt bikes and that 90% of suspects were convicted. Most riders, who are Black youths, end up with fines and even prison time. Owners cannot even register them. But through B-360's partnership with Baltimore police, these youths have a legal place to ride, repair their bikes and improve their skills.



Associations - Connections


Association is the state of being connected together. The process of bringing ideas or events together in memory or imagination. A relation resulting from interaction or dependence. A social or business relationship or cooperative link between people or organizations. Analogies - Correlations.

Association in psychology refers to a mental connection between concepts, events, or mental states that usually stems from specific experiences. Activism.

Associative Learning is the process by which someone learns an association between two stimuli, or a behavior and a stimulus. The two forms of associative learning are classical and operant conditioning. Classical conditioning is when a previously neutral stimulus is repeatedly presented, together with a reflex eliciting stimuli, until eventually the neutral stimulus elicits a response on its own. In operant conditioning, a certain behavior is either reinforced or punished, which alters the probability that the behavior will reoccur. Association in object-oriented programming - Non-Associative Learning.

Association of Ideas is a process by which representations arise in consciousness, and also for a principle put forward by an important historical school of thinkers to account generally for the succession of mental phenomena. The term is now used mostly in the history of philosophy and of psychology. One idea was thought to follow another in consciousness if it were associated by some principle. The three commonly asserted principles of association were similarity, contiguity, and contrast, numerous others had been added by the nineteenth century.

Our memory prefers essence over form. What clues does our memory use to connect a current situation to a situation from the past? The researchers have demonstrated that similarities in structure and essence guide our recollections rather than surface similarities. It is only when individuals lack sufficient knowledge that they turn to the surface clues to recollect a situation. These results are relevant in the field of education. They underline the need to focus on the conceptual aspects of situations. Our memory organizes our experiences based on two main features: surface features, which include superficial similarities between situations (the setting, for instance, or the people present); and structural features, which characterize the depth of the situation and its key issues. The existing literature argues that people tend to favor surface clues when dealing with a given situation. This is often attributed to the fact that our brain looks for the easiest option when it comes to memory recall, and that in general the surface of a recollection correlates to its structure. One thought leads to another.

Team find brain mechanism that automatically links objects in our minds. Scientists map the part of the brain that 'links' similar objects, leading to new insights about how the brain processes information out of context. When people see a toothbrush, a car, a tree -- any individual object -- their brain automatically associates it with other things it naturally occurs with, allowing humans to build context for their surroundings and set expectations for the world.

Certain ideas can reinforce each other and can be linked to one another. Association is a reason why certain information exists in your mind. If information has no purpose, then there is no need or incentive to remember or store that information. This is why using real life examples in teaching helps students to remember and store important information and knowledge.

Memory Peg System - Association of Ideas - Associations (matrix)

How associative fear memory is formed in the brain. Using a mouse model, the researchers demonstrated the formation of fear memory involves the strengthening of neural pathways between two brain areas: the hippocampus, which responds to a particular context and encodes it, and the amygdala, which triggers defensive behavior, including fear responses.

Mind Maps (visualization) - Spatial Intelligence

Correlation is a reciprocal or feedback relation between two or more things. A statistical relation between two or more variables such that systematic changes in the value of one variable are accompanied by systematic changes in the other. Coordinated - Patterns - Connotation.

Correlated is when things are mutually related and have a reciprocal relation that is complementary.

Correlation Cause and Effect - Organize - Synthesis - Network

But not every correlation or association proves that something or defines that something, or does it accurately explain the reasons why something happened or the reason why something exists or the reason why something's seem connected. Something's are just a coincidence, so we need to be careful and not to assume things just because they are closely related. 

Associative learning allows an individual to acquire an association between a sensory cue and an outcome resulting from a specific response.

Associative learning plays a vital role in the ability to learn new associations that allow human beings to optimally respond to the world around them. Memory Techniques (improving memory).

Word Association is a word game based on the noun phrase word association, meaning "stimulation of an associative pattern by a word" or "the connection and production of other words in response to a given word, done spontaneously as a game, creative technique, or as an evaluation."

Connection is a relation between things or events, as in the case of one causing the other or sharing features with it. The process of bringing ideas or events together in memory or imagination The act of bringing two things into contact, especially for communication. The state of being connected. An instrumentality that connects. Shifting from one form of transportation to another.

Connected is being joined in close association or linked together. Everything is Connected.

Connect is to make a logical or causal connection and join for the purpose of communication. To establish a rapport or relationship or communication with someone. To fasten or put together two or more pieces so as to become joined or united or linked together. Connect can also mean to schedule a place of origin so as to provide continuing service, as in transportation.

Interconnected is a state of being connected reciprocally.

Relative - Relevant

Association Rule Learning is a rule-based machine learning method for discovering interesting relations between variables in large databases.

Relate is to make a logical or causal connection to something that is relevant and has or establishes a relationship to something else. Relate to means to make a connection and understand something. If you can't relate to something or someone that means that you don't understand something or someone, so you cannot make a connection.

Associative Memory is the ability to learn and remember the relationship between unrelated items.

Relational Database - Organizing

Connect the Dots is a metaphor to illustrate an ability or inability to associate one idea with another, to find the "big picture", or salient feature, in a mass of data. Connecting the dots or join the dots is a form of puzzle containing a sequence of numbered dots. When a line is drawn connecting the dots the outline of an object is revealed. The puzzles frequently contain simple line art to enhance the image created or to assist in rendering a complex section of the image. The use of numbers can be replaced with letters or other symbols. Ishikawa Diagram (wiki)

Link Analysis link analysis is a data-analysis technique used to evaluate relationships or connections between nodes. Relationships may be identified among various types of nodes (objects), including organizations, people and transactions. Link analysis has been used for investigation of criminal activity, computer security analysis, search engine optimization, market research, medical research, and art. Network - Monopoly.

Entity-Relationship Model describes interrelated things of interest in a specific domain of knowledge. A basic ER model is composed of entity types (which classify the things of interest) and specifies relationships that can exist between instances of those entity types. Mind Maps.

Concept Map is a diagram that depicts suggested relationships between concepts. It is a graphical tool that instructional designers, engineers, technical writers, and others use to organize and structure knowledge. Brainstorming.

Idea Networking is a list of statements that are reduced into a handful of clusters or categories. The statements might be source from interviews, text, web sites, focus groups, SWOT analysis or community consultation.

Children improve at Math when instruction engages their own bodies. - Experience Learning

Caudate Nucleus is one of the structures that make up the dorsal striatum, which is a component of the basal ganglia. Plays important roles in various other nonmotor functions including procedural learning, associative learning and inhibitory control of action, among other functions. The caudate is also one of the Brain Structures which compose the reward system and functions as part of the cortico–basal ganglia–thalamic loop.

Positive Reinforcement (praise)

Sense-making is the process by which people give meaning to their collective experiences.

Relevance - Relative

Goes with the Territory means that something is a normal or necessary part of something else.

Games and Memory - Ideas and experiences reinforce each other and can be mentally linked to one another.

Memory Consolidation is a category of processes that stabilize a memory trace after its initial acquisition. Consolidation is distinguished into two specific processes, synaptic consolidation, which is synonymous with late-phase long-term potentiation and occurs within the first few hours after learning, and systems consolidation, where hippocampus-dependent memories become independent of the hippocampus over a period of weeks to years. Recently, a third process has become the focus of research, reconsolidation, in which previously-consolidated memories can be made labile again through reactivation of the memory trace.

Language Immersion is when you teach a second language using different subjects such as math, science, social studies and so on and so on.

Parallel Processing

Knowing the connections between things, and knowing how things are related, is extremely important. These associations are the framework of understanding, and also an important key to remembering. Having organized knowledge is more effective and more efficient then having fragmented knowledge. You must also show real life examples on how to use knowledge in practice, and not just present knowledge in theory on a piece of paper.

Schools Should Teach Multiple Subjects Simultaneously, while providing students with 21st Century Skills. The school could be named life school that teaches students using real life examples. You can use a solar power kit to teach electric power, physics and science, and so on. You can use a computer mother board to teach electronics and how to build and maintain a computer with monitor, and how to build a smartphone, and an electric car. We can use some of the millions of electronics that are thrown away each year. You can use house building to teach engineering, math, design, art, city management, social intelligence. Also learn how to make shoes, clothes, appliances, furniture, a bicycle, and tools, and other things that people need to live. Also Learn about factories and mass production. So as the student makes all the things they need, they also learn every important school subject at the same time. This way they will have most of the tools they need, as well as the necessary knowledge, information and skills in order to use everything effectively and efficiently, which leaves more time to enjoy life and to explore even more possibilities. You can use food growing to teach nutrition, physical health, mental health, environment awareness, chemistry, taste, smell, biology, food preparation, cooking, awareness, focus and discipline, time management, spatial skills, Body skills, love and sharing, economics, geography, and math, and so on. You can use language learning to learn communication skills, intelligence, information literacy, teaching and learning methods, and so on. Reading and Learning at the Same time. Teaching subjects together without creating Information Overload. When you learn to read and write you should learn words that are relevant to your everyday life, words that will help you advance your understanding of yourself and advance your understanding of the world around you. Every subject and lesson should have elements of other subjects and lessons. Simultaneous subject teaching in logically ordered steps. At the same time you are learning math you should also be learning problem solving and information literacy. And as you are learning language, reading and writing, you should have the lesson words coincide with the first steps of Core Knowledge that every human needs. Consisting of  words in the lessons that teaches the student about the human condition and the abilities of the human brain. These are the ways I learn. These are the things that influence behavior. These are the joys of life. These are the dangers of lifethese are the things that we have learned so far and these are the mistakes that we that we have made in our past, and so on and so on. Comprehending what Comprehension means. Combining Subjects and Multitasking can save time, and also help keep things interesting. Don't force kids to memorize things that are irrelevant and unimportant, especially at the wrong time in their lives. When you teach a subject or a method, you teach purpose and reasoning at the same time. Knowledge imbedded in the lesson. So what ever the brain is focused on the student still learns. Meanings with words behind the words and a lesson behind the lesson. This also teaches the brain to be aware of all the questions that need to be asked in order to define the words. Being aware of hidden meanings and learning to look at the whole picture. Like learning the moral of a story and similar to having a parable, metaphor, analogy or allegory.

Trans-Media Storytelling is the technique of telling a single story or story experience across multiple platforms and formats using current digital technologies. Frame Story - Meanings.

Synchronicity is when events could have meaningful coincidences if they occur with no causal relationship, yet seem to be meaningfully related.

Dual Education System combines apprenticeships in a company and vocational education at a vocational school in one course.

Constructs - Paired Associate Learning

Neurons That Fire Together Wire Together means that the more you run a neural-circuit in your brain, the stronger that circuit becomes, making the process more efficient each successive time. Practice Makes Perfect.

Sequence Learning - Intelligent Words - Structure

Learning Methods - Teaching through Demonstration

You don't want students saying "When am I ever going to use this?" You want to show students all the areas in life where this knowledge is used, so they know how important this knowledge is, and also easily remember the knowledge that they have acquired because they now have something in their life to relate this knowledge to.

Math is the hidden secret to understanding the world: Roger Antonsen (video and interactive text)

Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English is a teaching approach intended for teaching various academic content (such as social studies, science or literature) using the English language to students who are still learning English.

‘Lesson Study’ Technique: What Teachers Can Learn From One Another.
Having Other Teachers' Eyes Means Also Having Their Ideas.
Lesson Study Group at Mills College.

Why some words may be more memorable than others. Our brains use internet search engine strategies to remember words and memories of past experiences. By combining memory tests, brain wave recordings, and surveys of billions of words published in books, news articles and internet encyclopedia pages, the researchers not only showed how our brains may recall words but also memories of our past experiences. Thousands of words, big and small, are crammed inside our memory banks just waiting to be swiftly withdrawn and strung into sentences. We found that some words are much more memorable than others. Our results support the idea that our memories are wired into neural networks and that our brains search for these memories, just the way search engines track down information on the internet. The memory tests were originally designed to assess episodic memories, or the associations -- the who, what, where and how details -- we make with our past experiences. Further results supported the idea that the more memorable words represented high trafficked hubs in the brain's memory networks.

Subjects that Share Common Knowledge

Neurolinguistics is the study of the neural mechanisms in the human brain that control the comprehension, production, and acquisition of language. As an interdisciplinary field, neurolinguistics draws methods and theories from fields such as neuroscience, linguistics, cognitive science, neurobiology, communication disorders, neuropsychology, and computer science.

Journal of Neurolinguistics - Natural Language Processing

Neuro-Linguistic Programming is a connection between neurological processes (neuro-), language (linguistic) and behavioral patterns learned through experience (programming), and that these can be changed to achieve specific goals in life.

Redundancy refers to information that is expressed more than once. Use of multiple words to express a single idea in rhetoric.

Language of Thought Hypothesis describes the nature of thought as possessing "language-like" or compositional structure (sometimes known as mentalese). On this view, simple concepts combine in systematic ways (akin to the rules of grammar in language) to build thoughts. In its most basic form, the theory states that thought, like language, has syntax.

Language and Thought - We think in the Language we Speak.

Hebbian Theory claims that an increase in synaptic efficacy arises from a presynaptic cell's repeated and persistent stimulation of a postsynaptic cell.

Electives (learning about life)

Neural Reuse: A Fundamental Organizational Principle of the Brain Neural circuits established for one purpose can be put to different uses, often without losing their original functions. Reducing the cognitive load is beneficial as long as the knowledge is valuable and relevant.  (Cortical Parcellation, Neural Partners).

Memory with a Purpose

Modularity of Mind is an idea that the mind is composed of innate neural structures or modules which have distinct established evolutionarily developed functions.

Component-Based Software Engineering is when all system processes are placed into separate components so that all of the data and functions inside each component are semantically related (just as with the contents of classes). Because of this principle, it is often said that components are modular and cohesive, logical and orderly and consistent relation of parts. It is a reuse-based approach to defining, implementing and composing loosely coupled independent components into systems. This practice aims to bring about an equally wide-ranging degree of benefits in both the short-term and the long-term for the software itself and for organizations that sponsor such software.

Application Bundle are directory Hierarchies.

Boundary Object is information, such as specimens, field notes, and maps, used in different ways by different communities. Boundary objects are plastic, interpreted differently across communities but with enough immutable content to maintain integrity.

Brain builds and uses maps of social networks, physical space, in the same way. Even in these social-distanced days, we keep in our heads a map of our relationships with other people: family, friends, coworkers and how they relate to each other. New research from the Center for Mind and Brain at the University of California, Davis shows that we put together this social map in much the same way that we assemble a map of physical places and things. They gave volunteers pieces of information about two groups of people ranked by perceived relative competence and popularity. The volunteers were only told about relations on one dimension between a pair of people who differed by one rank level at a time: for example, that Alice is more popular than Bob, but Bob is seen as more competent than Charles. The true social hierarchy could be mapped as a two-dimensional grid defined by dimensions of competence and popularity, but this was not shown to the volunteers. They only could infer it by integrating piecemeal learned relationships between pairs of individuals in one dimension at a time. They also learned about relative ranks of a few people between groups. Assembling a map. They were later asked about relationships between new pairs of people in the grid while the researchers used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure brain activity. Without being prompted, based only on pairwise comparisons, the volunteers organized the information into a two-dimensional grid in their brains. This two-dimensional map was present across three brain regions called the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex and ventromedial prefrontal cortex/medial orbitofrontal cortex. Based on limited comparisons between the two groups, they were also able to generalize to the rest of the group. For example, if Cynthia from group 1 was more popular than David from group 2, that affected the rank of other members of group 2 compared to group 1. The volunteers weren't told to think about the data in that way, Boorman said. Given only pairwise comparisons, they inferred the remaining hierarchical arrangement of the whole set. "If you know how two social networks are related to each other, you can make a good inference about the relationship between two individuals in different social networks before direct experiences," Park said. The study points to a general principle behind how we make decisions based on past experience. Whether we are remembering a route in the physical world, or learning about a set of friends and acquaintances, we start with a template, such as a 2-D topology, and a few landmarks, and fit new data around them. "Our results show that our brain organizes knowledge learned from separate experiences in a structural form like a map, which allows us to use past experiences to make a novel decision," Park said. That allows us to quickly adapt to a new situation based on past experience. This may help to explain humans' remarkable flexibility in generalizing experiences from one task to another, a key challenge in artificial intelligence research. "We know a lot about how the neural codes for representing physical space," Boorman said. "It looks like the human brain uses the same codes to organize abstract, non-spatial information as well."

New blueprint of brain connections reveals extensive reach of central regulator. Map of basal ganglia connectivity uncovers key links with implications for range of disorders. Researchers have generated a new map of connectivity from a part of the brain called the basal ganglia, a hub for regulating motor and behavior functions. The breadth of connections revealed could potentially open avenues for intervention of Parkinson's disease and other disorders such as Tourette's syndrome, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Thinking in Levels - Architecture (engineering)



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The Thinker Man