Seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering. The formation of the seed is part of the process of reproduction in seed plants, the spermatophytes, including the gymnosperm and angiosperm plants. A mature fertilized plant ovule consisting of an embryo and its food source and having a protective coat or testa. Place seeds in or on the ground for future growth. Most fruits have seeds and most vegetables don't have seeds. Go to Seed - Dormant.

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Seeds Seed Library is an institution that lends or shares seed. It is distinguished from a seedbank in that the main purpose is not to store or hold germplasm or seeds against possible destruction, but to disseminate them to the public which preserves the shared plant varieties through propagation and further sharing of seed. Seed libraries usually maintain their collections through donations from members. but may also operate as pure charity operations intent on serving gardeners and farmers. A common attribute of many seed libraries is to preserve agricultural biodiversity by focusing on rare, local, and heirloom seed varieties. Seed libraries use varied methods for sharing seeds, primarily by: seed swaps otherwise known as seed exchanges, in which library members or the public meet and exchange seeds. Seed "lending," in which people check out seed from the library's collection, grow them, save the seed, and return seed from the propagated plants to the library.

Seed Libraries - Seed Libraries Weebly - Seed Library Map - Seed Library - Seed Libraries.

Seed Preservation

Global Seed Vault is a secure seed bank on the Norwegian island of Spitsbergen near Longyearbyen in the remote Arctic Svalbard archipelago, about 1,300 kilometres (810 mi) from the North Pole. Conservationist Cary Fowler, in association with the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), started the vault to preserve a wide variety of plant seeds that are duplicate samples, or "spare" copies, of seeds held in Gene Banks worldwide. The seed vault is an attempt to insure against the loss of seeds in other genebanks during large-scale regional or global crises. The seed vault is managed under terms spelled out in a tripartite agreement between the Norwegian government, the Crop Trust and the Nordic Genetic Resource Center (NordGen). The Norwegian government entirely funded the vault's approximately 45 million kr (US$9 million) construction. Storing seeds in the vault is free to end users, with Norway and the Crop Trust paying for operational costs. Primary funding for the Trust comes from organisations such as the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and from various governments worldwide. Knowledge Preservation.

Seed Banking is Not an Option for over a Third of Threatened Species. 36 percent of 'critically endangered' species produce recalcitrant seeds. This means they can't tolerate the drying process and therefore cannot be frozen, the key process they need to go through to be safely 'banked.' cryopreservation -- a form of Preservation using liquid nitrogen which offers a potential long-term storage solution for recalcitrant seeds. In seed banks, seeds are dried and frozen at -20°C whereas cryopreservation involves removing the embryo from the seed and then using liquid nitrogen to freeze it at a much colder temperature of -196°C.

Seed Savers - Save Seed Sharing Petition

American Seed Trade Association - Sustainable Economies Law Center

The Edible Archives - The African Seed Access Index - Spirit of the Earth

Heirloom Plant is an old cultivar that is maintained by gardeners and farmers, particularly in isolated or ethnic minority communities in western countries. These may have been commonly grown during earlier periods in human history, but are not used in modern large-scale agriculture.

Heirloom is something that has been in a family for generations. Heirloom in law is any property that is considered by law or custom as inseparable from an inheritance is inherited with that inheritance.

Heirloom Seeds come from open-pollinated plants that pass on similar characteristics and traits from the parent plant to the child plant.

How Plants Form Their Seeds. Around 80 to 85 percent of our calorie needs is covered through seeds either directly as food or indirectly through use as feed. Seeds are the result of plant reproduction. During the flowering period, the male and female tissues interact with each other in a number of ways. When pollen lands on the flower’s stigma, it germinates and forms a pollen tube, which then quickly grows towards the plant’s ovary. Once it finds an ovule, the pollen tube bursts to release sperm cells, which fertilize the ovule and initiate seed formation.

Native Seeds. Crop diversity is key to achieving sustainable food security both globally and within our own region of focus, the southwestern U.S. and northwestern Mexico. Our approach to food security focuses on Our programs are designed to address these goals and broadly entail: Seed Banking to ensure the survival of unique agricultural biodiversity and to document its traits. Seed Distribution so that these crops continue to contribute to the region's food systems. Support for on-farm maintenance of dynamically-evolving crop varieties. Research into low-input and climate-appropriate agricultural practices. Education in managing local crop diversity and contributing to regional efforts. Seed Security relies on the conservation and sharing of appropriate crop diversity and the knowledge to use that diversity effectively. Knowledge Preservation.

Crop Trust formerly known as the Global Crop Diversity Trust, is an international nonprofit organization which works to preserve crop diversity in order to protect global food security. It was established through a partnership between the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization and the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research acting through Bioversity International, which is a global research-for-development organization with a vision – that agricultural biodiversity nourishes people and sustains the planet. Crop Trust Website.

Global Crop Diversity Trust aims to collect important species of crop wild relatives, ensure their long-term conservation, and facilitate their use in breeding new, improved crops.

Fairchild Garden. We save tropical plant diversity by exploring, explaining and conserving the world of tropical plants; fundamental to this task is inspiring a greater knowledge and love for plants and gardening so that all can enjoy the beauty and bounty of the tropical world. David Fairchild (1869-1954), was known for traveling the world in search of useful plants, but he was also an educator and a renowned scientist. At the age of 22, he created the Section of Foreign Seed and Plant Introduction of the United States Department of Agriculture, and for the next 37 years, he traveled the world in search of plants of potential use to the American people. Fairchild visited every continent in the world (except Antarctica) and brought back hundreds of important plants, including mangos, alfalfa, nectarines, dates, cotton, soybeans, bamboos and the flowering cherry trees that grace Washington D.C.. The U.S. Plant Introduction Garden Records.

Gene Bank platform supports the core activities of the CGIAR genebanks: Conserving and making available crop and tree diversity. It ensures that the genebanks meet international standards, improve efficiency and ensure more effective use within an enabling policy environment. GMO.

Ex situ Conservation or off-site conservation, is the process of protecting an endangered species, variety or breed, of plant or animal outside its natural habitat; for example, by removing part of the population from a threatened habitat and placing it in a new location, which may be a wild area or within the care of humans. The degree to which humans control or modify the natural dynamics of the managed population varies widely, and this may include alteration of living environments, reproductive patterns, access to resources, and protection from predation and mortality. Ex situ management can occur within or outside a species' natural geographic range. Individuals maintained ex situ exist outside an ecological niche. This means that they are not under the same selection pressures as wild populations, and they may undergo artificial selection if maintained ex situ for multiple generations. Agricultural biodiversity is also conserved in ex situ collections. This is primarily in the form of gene banks where samples are stored in order to conserve the genetic resources of major crop plants and their wild relatives.

Spermatophyte comprise those plants that produce seeds, hence the alternative name seed plants. They are a subset of the embryophytes or land plants.

Gymnosperm are a group of seed-producing plants that includes conifers, cycads, Ginkgo, and gnetophytes.

Flowering Plant are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c. 295,383 known species. Like gymnosperms, angiosperms are seed-producing plants. However, they are distinguished from gymnosperms by characteristics including Flowers, endosperm within the seeds, and the production of fruits that contain the seeds. Etymologically, angiosperm means a plant that produces seeds within an enclosure; in other words, a fruiting plant. The term comes from the Greek words angeion ("case" or "casing") and sperma ("seed"). In flowering plants, seeds develop in a fruit. The fruit protects seeds but also helps with their dispersal from one place to another. Sometimes the fruit is nice and soft and delicious, like a berry that attracts animals who then accidently carry the seed to a new home.

Seeds come in all shapes and sizes. Some tropical rainforest orchids have seeds that are smaller than a pinhead—so small, in fact, that they are like dust. At the other end of the scale is the enormous Coco de Mer seed which can be up to 40 centimetres long and weigh as much as 18 kilograms, about the same weight as a medium-sized dog!

Dormancy is a state of suspended animation in which seeds delay germination until conditions are right for survival and growth. The dormant embryo is a young plant that formed from a fertilized egg cell. The seed coat is a protective layer surrounding the whole package. The food store contains all the nutrients (carbohydrates and protein) an embryonic plant needs to get going. Dormancy is a period in an organism's life cycle when growth, development, and (in animals) physical activity are temporarily stopped. This minimizes metabolic activity and therefore helps an organism to conserve energy. Seeds may look like they’re pretty inactive—it can be easy to assume there’s nothing much going on in there. In fact, experiments show that some of the tissues inside of seeds remain active, and even carry out some basic metabolic processes, such as cellular respiration . In other words, seeds use small amounts of stored energy, staying alive and ‘waiting’ for good conditions to begin to grow. Suspended Animation is the inducement of a temporary cessation or decay of main body functions, including the brain, to a hypometabolic state in order to try to preserve its mental and physiological capabilities. Hibernation is a mechanism used by many mammals to reduce energy expenditure and survive food shortage over the winter. is a state of inactivity and metabolic depression in endotherms. Hibernation refers to a season of heterothermy characterized by low body temperature, slow breathing and heart rate, and low metabolic rate. It is most commonly observed during the winter months. Diapause is common in insects, allowing them to suspend development between autumn and spring, and in mammals such as the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus, the only ungulate with embryonic diapause), in which a delay in attachment of the embryo to the uterine lining ensures that offspring are born in spring, when conditions are most favorable. In plant physiology, dormancy is a period of arrested plant growth. It is a survival strategy exhibited by many plant species, which enables them to survive in climates where part of the year is unsuitable for growth, such as winter or dry seasons. Seed dormancy is referred to as embryo dormancy or internal dormancy and is caused by endogenous. Dormancy should not be confused with seed coat dormancy, external dormancy, or hardseededness, which is caused by the presence of a hard seed covering or seed coat that prevents water and oxygen from reaching and activating the embryo. It is a physical barrier to germination, not a true form of dormancy. Many plant species that exhibit dormancy have a biological clock that tells them when to slow activity and to prepare soft tissues for a period of freezing temperatures or water shortage. On the other hand, dormancy can be triggered after a normal growing season by decreasing temperatures, shortened day length, and/or a reduction in rainfall. Chemical treatment on dormant plants has been proven to be an effective method to break dormancy, particularly in woody plants such as grapes, berries, apples, peaches and kiwis. Specifically, hydrogen cyanamide stimulates cell division and growth in dormant plants, causing budbreak when the plant is on the edge of breaking dormancy. Slight injury of cells may play a role in the mechanism of action. The injury is thought to result in increased permeability of cellular membranes. The injury is associated with the inhibition of catalase, which in turn stimulates the pentose phosphate cycle. Hydrogen cyanamide interacts with the cytokinin metabolic cycle, which results in triggering a new growth cycle. Dormancy is a way that plants improve the chances of their offspring’s survival and growth. It allows seeds to delay germination until, for example, temperatures are just right for the seedling to thrive. It also means that seeds can wait to become seedlings until they are at a distance from the parent plant (for example, by being eaten by animals and excreted elsewhere), which reduces competition with other seeds from the same parent. Finally, it allows the germination of seeds to be staggered—so, if bad weather comes along and destroys the first batch of seedlings, there will be some ‘back-up’ seeds. Dormancy happens through a few different kinds of mechanisms, some of which happen outside the embryo (exogenous dormancy), others inside it (physiological dormancy). An example of an exogenous dormancy mechanism is a hard seed coat, which stops the seed absorbing water, and sometimes air. The hard seed coat may need to be broken by heat, freezing, or by passing through an animal’s acidic guts. Dormancy may also be triggered by factors inside the embryo, especially chemical changes, which need to occur in the seed before it will germinate. Some seeds, for example, need a period of light or dark to germinate. Spinifex hirsutus, which grows in the sand dunes of Western Australia, has a better chance of growing when its seeds are deep in the dunes where the sand is stable and there is more moisture and nutrients—so its seeds won’t germinate unless it’s dark. Another kind of physiological dormancy is where a seed won’t germinate until the embryo has grown to a certain size. People working in the agricultural industry will often carry out processes that imitate these natural ones in order to break dormancy and get seeds to germinate—for instance, by chilling seeds to imitate cold weather or by applying abrasives to weaken the seed coat. Freezing Ice - Ice Therapy.

Recalcitrant Seed are seeds that do not survive drying and freezing during ex-situ conservation and vice versa. By and large, these seeds cannot resist the effects of drying or temperatures less than 10 °C; thus, they cannot be stored for long periods like orthodox seeds because they can lose their viability. Plants that produce recalcitrant seeds include avocado, mango, mangosteen, lychee, cocoa, rubber tree, some horticultural trees, aquatic plants, such as Nymphaea caerulea, and several plants used in traditional medicine, such as species of Virola and Pentaclethra. Generally speaking, most tropical pioneer species have orthodox seeds but many climax species have recalcitrant or intermediate seeds.

Orthodox Seed are seeds which will survive drying and/or freezing during ex-situ conservation. According to information from the U.S. Department of Agriculture, there is variation in the ability of orthodox seeds to withstand drying and storage, with some seeds being more sensitive than others. Thus some seeds are considered intermediate in their storage capability while others are fully orthodox. One notable example of a long-lived orthodox seed which survived accidental storage followed by controlled germination is the case of the 2,000-year-old Judean date palm (cultivar of Phoenix dactylifera) seed which successfully sprouted in 2005. This particular seed is reputed to be the oldest viable seed, but the upper survival time limit of properly stored seeds remains unknown.

Cryopreservation is a process where organelles, cells, tissues, extracellular matrix, organs or any other biological constructs susceptible to damage caused by unregulated chemical kinetics are preserved by cooling to very low temperatures (typically −80 °C using solid carbon dioxide or −196 °C using liquid nitrogen). At low enough temperatures, any enzymatic or chemical activity which might cause damage to the biological material in question is effectively stopped. Cryopreservation methods seek to reach low temperatures without causing additional damage caused by the formation of ice crystals during freezing. Traditional cryopreservation has relied on coating the material to be frozen with a class of molecules termed cryoprotectants. New methods are constantly being investigated due to the inherent toxicity of many cryoprotectants. By default it should be considered that cryopreservation alters or compromises the structure and function of cells unless it is proven otherwise for a particular cell population. Cryoconservation of animal genetic resources is the process in which animal genetic material is collected and stored with the intention of conservation of the breed.

Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research. The CGIAR Genebank Platform led by the Crop Trust, enables CGIAR genebanks to fulfill their legal obligation to conserve and make available accessions of crops and trees on behalf of the global community under the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture.

How to Harvest - Lettuce Seed (video)

Maize and Wheat Improvement Center

Nixtamalization refers to a process for the preparation of maize, or other grain, in which the grain is soaked and cooked in an alkaline solution, usually limewater, and hulled. The term can also refer to the removal via an alkali process of the pericarp from other grains such as sorghum. Nixtamalized maize has several benefits over unprocessed grain: it is more easily ground; its nutritional value is increased; flavor and aroma are improved; and mycotoxins are reduced. Lime and ash are highly alkaline: the alkalinity helps the dissolution of hemicellulose, the major glue-like component of the maize cell walls, and loosens the hulls from the kernels and softens the maize. Some of the corn oil is broken down into emulsifying agents (monoglycerides and diglycerides), while bonding of the maize proteins to each other is also facilitated. The divalent calcium in lime acts as a cross-linking agent for protein and polysaccharide acidic side chains. As a result, while cornmeal made from untreated ground maize is unable by itself to form a dough on addition of water, the chemical changes in masa allow dough formation. These benefits make nixtamalization a crucial preliminary step for further processing of maize into food products, and the process is employed using both traditional and industrial methods, in the production of tortillas and tortilla chips (but not corn chips), tamales, hominy, and many other items.

These Seeds are Sacred and He's Saving Them (youtube)

4 Sisters - Corn, Bean, Squash, Sunflower

Cherokee Nation to Disperse Rare, Traditional Seeds.

White Tepary Beans is a dietary staple of native American tribes in Arizona, they are very high in protein and have a low glycemic index. There are two varieties, brown and white. The teparies have a particularly sweet, meaty flavor.

Domesticated rice has just been found in China, and it's about 9,000 years old.

Eating Seeds - Survival Tips and Information

Scientists Revive Ancient Trees From 2,000-Year-Old Seeds. Date trees are either male or female and each tree makes either pollen or fertile flowers. It takes both a male and female tree to produce fruit.

Seed Resources

Planting - Sowing

Sowing is the process of planting seeds. An area or object that has had seeds planted will be described as being sowed.

Harvest is the process of gathering a ripe crop from the fields after seeds have grown into mature plants. Return on Investment.

Seed Drill or Mechanical Seed Planter is a device that sows the seeds for crops by metering out the individual seeds, positioning them in the soil, and covering them to a certain average depth. The seed drill sows the seeds at equal distances and proper depth, ensuring that the seeds get covered with soil and are saved from being eaten by birds. Before the introduction of the seed drill, a common practice was to plant seeds by hand. Besides being wasteful, planting was usually imprecise and led to a poor distribution of seeds, leading to low productivity. The use of a seed drill can improve the ratio of crop yield (seeds harvested per seed planted) by as much as nine times. Some machines for metering out seeds for planting are called planters. The concepts involved (such as mechanisms that pick up seeds from a bin and deposit them down a tube) are largely the same. Seed drills of earlier centuries included single-tube seed drills in Sumer and multi-tube seed drills in China, and later a seed drill by Jethro Tull that was influential in the growth of farming technology in recent centuries. Even for a century after Tull, hand sowing of grain remained common.

Hydroseeding is a planting process that uses a slurry of seed and mulch. It is often used as an erosion control technique on construction sites, as an alternative to the traditional process of broadcasting or sowing dry seed. (also known as hydraulic mulch seeding, hydro-mulching, hydraseeding).

Broadcast Seeding is a method of seeding that involves scattering seed, by hand or mechanically, over a relatively large area. This is in contrast to: precision seeding, where seed is placed at a precise spacing and depth; hydroseeding, where a slurry of seed, mulch and water is sprayed over prepared ground in a uniform layer.

Dispersal: When seeds get carried away, animals and insects give seeds a helping hand. Bees help fertilize flowering plants by carrying pollen from one flower to another. But many plants also rely on insects and animals to transform from a seed to a seedling. Animals help seeds by carrying them to a place where they can germinate. This may be as simple as a bird knocking seeds to the ground while landing on a branch. Perhaps more significantly, by eating the seeds (often attracted by the ripened fruit surrounding them), birds, bats, insects and other animals may carry them away from the parent plant in their gut, to be deposited somewhere else—in their poo. Spreading seeds out means less competition between the seedling and its parent plant, and between the young seedlings. Also, seeds may be moved to places that are more suitable for germination. The cadagai eucalypt, for instance, has a resin that stingless bees like to use in nest building. They collect the resin from inside the eucalypt fruit (capsule) and, inadvertently, the seeds as well. This is beneficial for the seed if it gets carried away to a suitable habitat.

Planting Seeding Methods - Germination - Micro-Greens - Plant Breeding - Pollination

The Food Explorer: The True Adventures of the Globe-Trotting Botanist Who Transformed. What America Eats by Daniel Stone. (amazon)

Advance Sowing consists in dry-sowing crops directly into existing pastures without using tillage, fertilizer or chemicals.

Priming is a form of seed planting preparation in which the seeds are pre-soaked before planting.

More than just Seeds

You're Going to Reap what you Sow. The more good things that you add to life, the more good things you will receive from life. You will always harvest what you plant, just as long as you are responsible for it's maintenance and stay resilient when things change or when things go wrong.

“You reap what you sow: Life is like a boomerang. Our thoughts, deeds and words return to us sooner or later, with astounding accuracy.” Grant M. Bright.

And... in the end... the love you take... is equal to... the love you make (youtube)

"You reap what you sow. Everything you do, everything you say, every choice you make, sooner or later comes back around. Whatever you do today is directly proportional to what will happen to you tomorrow. You’ll never change your life until you change your choices." Karma - Reciprocation - Symbiotic.

"Don’t judge each day by the harvest you reap, but by the seeds that you plant." – Robert Louis Stevenson

"Life is for Sowing for the Harvest is not yet here".

"With every deed you are sowing a seed, though the harvest you may not see."

Seeds of Change is something that makes a new situation start to grow and develop. Good ideas can spread like seeds in the wind, waiting to grow in the mind of the person who can recognize the value of the seed.

Sapling - Seedlings

Seed Germinating Timeline Seedling or Sapling is a Young Plant sporophyte developing out of a Plant embryo from a seed. Seedling development starts with germination of the seed. A typical young seedling consists of three main parts: the radicle (embryonic root), the hypocotyl (embryonic shoot), and the cotyledons (seed leaves). The two classes of flowering plants (angiosperms) are distinguished by their numbers of seed leaves: monocotyledons (monocots) have one blade-shaped cotyledon, whereas dicotyledons (dicots) possess two round cotyledons. Gymnosperms are more varied. For example, pine seedlings have up to eight cotyledons. The seedlings of some flowering plants have no cotyledons at all. These are said to be acotyledons. The plumule is the part of a seed embryo that develops into the shoot bearing the first true leaves of a plant. In most seeds, for example the sunflower, the plumule is a small conical structure without any leaf structure. Growth of the plumule does not occur until the cotyledons have grown above ground. This is epigeal germination. However, in seeds such as the broad bean, a leaf structure is visible on the plumule in the seed. These seeds develop by the plumule growing up through the soil with the cotyledons remaining below the surface. This is known as hypogeal Germination. Micro-Greens - Plant Breeding.

Bud is an undeveloped or embryonic shoot and normally occurs in the axil of a leaf or at the tip of a stem. Once formed, a bud may remain for some time in a dormant condition, or it may form a shoot immediately. Buds may be specialized to develop flowers or short shoots, or may have the potential for general shoot development. The term bud is also used in zoology, where it refers to an outgrowth from the body which can develop into a new individual. Fruit Spur is a short fat branch that bears flower buds and, therefore, fruit. Spurs may form in clusters, such as on apple trees, or along lateral branches, such as on peach trees. Pruning.

Husk in botany is the outer shell or coating of a seed. It often refers to the leafy outer covering of an ear of maize (corn) as it grows on the plant. Literally, a husk or hull includes the protective outer covering of a seed, fruit, or vegetable. It can also refer to the exuvia of bugs or small animals left behind after moulting.

Shoot consists of stems including their appendages, the leaves and lateral buds, flowering stems and flower buds. The new growth from seed germination that grows upward is a shoot where leaves will develop. In the spring, perennial plant shoots are the new growth that grows from the ground in herbaceous plants or the new stem or flower growth that grows on woody plants.

Fertilisation is the fusion of gametes to initiate the development of a new individual organism. The cycle of fertilisation and development of new individuals is called sexual reproduction. During double fertilisation in angiosperms the haploid male gamete combines with two haploid polar nuclei to form a triploid primary endosperm nucleus by the process of vegetative fertilisation.

Plant Reproductive Morphology is the study of the physical form and structure (the morphology) of those parts of plants directly or indirectly concerned with sexual reproduction.

Plant Embryogenesis is a process that occurs after the fertilization of an ovule to produce a fully developed plant embryo. This is a pertinent stage in the plant life cycle that is followed by dormancy and germination. The zygote produced after fertilization, must undergo various cellular divisions and differentiations to become a mature embryo. An end stage embryo has five major components including the shoot apical meristem, hypocotyl, root meristem, root cap, and cotyledons. Unlike animal embryogenesis, plant embryogenesis results in an immature form of the plant, lacking most structures like leaves, stems, and reproductive structures. Mung Beans Time Lapse with X-Ray (youtube).

Endosperm is the tissue produced inside the seeds of most of the flowering plants following fertilization. It surrounds the embryo and provides nutrition in the form of starch, though it can also contain oils and protein. This can make endosperm a source of nutrition in the human diet. For example, wheat endosperm is ground into flour for bread (the rest of the grain is included as well in whole wheat flour), while barley endosperm is the main source of sugars for beer production. Other examples of endosperm that forms the bulk of the edible portion are coconut "meat" and coconut "water", and corn. Some plants, such as orchids, lack endosperm in their seeds.

Germ is the reproductive part that germinates to grow into a plant; it is the embryo of the seed. Along with bran, germ is often a by-product of the milling that produces refined grain products. Cereal grains and their components, such as wheat germ oil,rice bran oil, and maize, may be used as a source from which vegetable oil is extracted, or used directly as a food ingredient. The germ is retained as an integral part of whole-grain foods. Non-whole grain methods of milling are intended to isolate the endosperm, which is ground into flour, with removal of both the husk (bran) and the germ. Removal of bran is aimed at producing a flour with a white rather than a brown color, and eliminating fiber, which reduces nutrition. The germ is rich in polyunsaturated fats (which have a tendency to oxidize and become rancid on storage) and so germ removal improves the storage qualities of flour. Wheat germ or wheatgerm is a concentrated source of several essential nutrients, including vitamin E, folate (folic acid), phosphorus, thiamin, zinc, and magnesium, as well as essential fatty acids and fatty alcohols. It is a good source of fiber. White bread is made using flour that has had the germ and bran removed.

Spore is a unit of sexual or asexual reproduction that may be adapted for dispersal and for survival, often for extended periods of time, in unfavourable conditions. Spores form part of the life cycles of many plants, algae, fungi and protozoa. Bacterial spores are not part of a sexual cycle but are resistant structures used for survival under unfavourable conditions. Myxozoan spores release amoebulae into their hosts for parasitic infection, but also reproduce within the hosts through the pairing of two nuclei within the plasmodium, which develops from the amoebula. Spores are usually haploid and unicellular and are produced by meiosis in the sporangium of a diploid sporophyte. Under favourable conditions the spore can develop into a new organism using mitotic division, producing a multicellular gametophyte, which eventually goes on to produce gametes. Two gametes fuse to form a zygote which develops into a new sporophyte. This cycle is known as alternation of generations. The spores of seed plants are produced internally, and the megaspores (formed within the ovules) and the microspores are involved in the formation of more complex structures that form the dispersal units, the seeds and pollen grains.

Embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism. In general, in organisms that reproduce sexually, an embryo develops from a zygote, the single cell resulting from the fertilization of the female egg cell by the male sperm cell. The zygote possesses half the DNA from each of its two parents. In plants, animals, and some protists, the zygote will begin to divide by mitosis to produce a multicellular organism. The result of this process is an embryo.

Corn Growing Timelapse Germination is the process by which a plant grows from a seed. The most common example of germination is the sprouting of a seedling from a seed of an angiosperm or gymnosperm. In addition, the growth of a sporeling from a spore, such as the spores of hyphae from fungal spores, is also germination. Thus, in a general sense, germination can be thought of as anything expanding into greater being from a small existence or germ. Plant seeds are encased within an outer shell of varying thicknesses. The shell protects the tiny embryo within from parasites, injury or extreme temperatures. Inside the shell also is the endosperm, the food that nourishes the embryo during its early stages of growth. Germination Process: The seed takes up water, activating enzymes that begin the growth process. The embryo swells and lengthens. The embryo breaks through the seed’s covering layers. The root meristem is activated and the embryonic root (radicle) pushes through. Cotyledons (embryonic leaves) break out. The shoot meristem is activated. ‘True’ leaves form—the plant is now able to get energy from the sun. Malting.

Seeds wait to Germinate until three needs are met: water, correct temperature (warmth), oxygen, and a good location (such as in soil). Some plants need fire or smoke to germinate, while others rely on insects and animals. Seeds need the right temperature to germinate, and this varies depending on the species of plant and its environment. Some need fluctuations in temperature. Some need very cold conditions for a few weeks or even months before they will germinate at a higher temperature. This ensures that cold climate seeds, for example, delay germination until after winter. Maintain an ambient temperature between 20 and 25 °C, otherwise the seeds will not or at least not optimally germinate. If a seed needs light, it won't germinate until it's close to the soil surface. That way, it has a chance to survive. But before a seed begins to grow up, it grows down, anchoring itself with a root, the first life to emerge from the seed coat.

During its early stages of growth, the seedling relies upon the food supplies stored with it in the seed until it is large enough for its own leaves to begin making food through photosynthesis. The embryo gets energy by breaking down its food stores. Like all organisms, this is done through a process known as aerobic respiration —a series of reactions where energy is released from glucose, using oxygen. During aerobic respiration: Glucose and oxygen are used up. Carbon dioxide and water are produced as waste, and energy is released.

Without water, seeds can't use their stored energy. Seeds absorb water, activating the biochemical mechanisms required for germination and growth. Water hydrates enzymes in the seed, activating them. As a result the seed begins to release energy from its food store for growth and causes pressure to build in the embryo’s cells, causing them to enlarge. This often results in the seed coat breaking open. After absorbing enough water, the embryo bursts the seed's outer shell and the small, growing plant emerges. Different seeds store food reserved in different ways—some rely on large reserves of endosperm (nutritive tissue around the embryo), while others store food reserves in embryonic leaves. The cotyledon/s—which may become the embryonic first leaves of a seedling. In angiosperms (flowering plants), species with one cotyledon are called monocots, while plants with two cotyledon are known as dicots

Plant seeds can store their energy in a dry state for years, only to suddenly release it and germinate. Seed germination is controlled by several plant hormones. Researchers has discovered that thiol redox switches play a key role in kick-starting the energy metabolism. Researchers observed, in living seed cells, both energy metabolism and the so-called redox metabolism, which relies in sulphur. The researchers discovered that when the seeds came into contact with water, energy metabolism was established in a matter of minutes, and the plant cells' "power stations" -- known as mitochondria -- activated their respiration. The researchers also found out which molecular switches are activated to enable energy to be released efficiently -- with the so-called thiol-redox switches playing a central role. Researchers visualized under the microscope adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the general currency for energy in the cell, and Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), the electron energy, in the mitochondria. They compared seeds from thale cress: both dry seeds and seeds "imbibed" with water. To find out whether the redox switches are important for kick-starting germination, the researchers deactivated specific proteins using genetic methods and then compared the reaction shown by the modified seeds with that of the unmodified ones. The researchers allowed the seeds to age artificially in the laboratory, and they saw that the seeds germinated much less actively if they lacked the relevant proteins. The researchers' next step involved so-called redox proteome analysis, i.e. they examined the relevant redox proteins in their entirety with the use of biochemical methods. For this purpose, they isolated active mitochondria and flash-froze them in order to be able to study this state directly where the process was taking place. The researchers then used mass spectrometry methods to identify several so-called cysteine-peptides which are important for resource efficiency in energy metabolism. Redox metabolism is an important metabolic pathway in all apicomplexans. This pathway shows the series of oxidation/reduction activities involved in removal of oxidative radicals such as superoxide anions, hydrogen peroxide and other toxic nucleophiles produced from different metabolic reactions.

Imbibition is a special type of diffusion when water is absorbed by solids-colloids causing an enormous increase in volume. Examples include the absorption of water by seeds and dry wood. If it were not for the pressure due to imbibition, seedlings would not have been able to emerge out of soil into the open; they probably would not have been able to establish.

Tropism is a biological phenomenon, indicating growth or turning movement of a biological organism, usually a plant, in response to an environmental stimulus. In tropisms, this response is dependent on the direction of the stimulus (as opposed to nastic movements which are non-directional responses). Viruses and other pathogens also affect what is called "host tropism", "tissue tropism", or "cell tropism"; in which case tropism refers to the way in which different viruses/pathogens have evolved to preferentially target specific host species, specific tissue, or specific cell types within those species. Tropisms are usually named for the stimulus involved (for example, a phototropism is a reaction to sunlight) and may be either positive (towards the stimulus) or negative (away from the stimulus). Tropisms occur in three sequential steps. First, there is a sensation to a stimulus, which is usually beneficial to the plant. Next, signal transduction occurs. And finally, the directional growth response occurs. Tropisms are typically associated with plants (although not necessarily restricted to them).[a] Where an organism is capable of directed physical movement (motility), movement or activity in response to a specific stimulus is more likely to be regarded by behaviorists as a taxis (directional response) or a kinesis (non-directional response).

Farming Knowledge - Vertical Farming - LED Grow Lights

Herbs and Spices

Dandelion Seeds reveal newly discovered form of Natural Flight. When dandelion seeds fly, a ring-shaped air bubble forms as air moves through the bristles, enhancing the drag that slows their descent. This shows that movement of air around and within its parachute-shaped bundle of bristles enables seeds to travel great distances -- often a kilometre or more, kept afloat entirely by wind power. Flying.

Plant Propagation - Cloning - Pollination

Root Crown, also known as the root collar or root neck, is that part of a root system from which a stem arises. Since roots and stems have quite different vascular anatomies, major vascular changes take place at this point. Root-crown temperature has been found to affect plant growth and physiology in a number of ways. Root crowns need to be exposed and 'breathe'; this is one way that some plants take in oxygen. A number of pests and diseases affect specifically this part of the plant, including root-crown rot (or root-crown fungus) and a number of species of root-crown weevil. The root crown area usually appears swollen, tapered, constricted or very thin - as well as a combination of these. The area of the root crown is usually located around or at the soil level and can be vaguely or clearly apparent.

Bird Seeds

Bird Food Seeds Some bird food mixes include a variety of grains, including Black oil sunflower seeds, striped sunflower, sunflower hearts chips, millet, safflower, cracked corn, corn, peanuts, milo, mealworms, fruit, suet, ecorticated sunflower (also called sunflower hearts or meats), wheat, barley, (hulled) oats, millet, sorghum, Niger seed, (cracked) maize, safflower, groundnut or groundnut pieces, pine nuts, canary seed and quinoa. Other common seeds found in these mixes include hemp, thistle seed, green split peas, yellow split peas, whole peas. These seeds are commonly found in the United States, but not necessarily in the natural habitats of pet bird species. Most of the seed and grains contained in seed mixes come from growers in the United States and Canada. Growers typically plant their seed crops in spring and harvest in fall. (If there’s a bad crop, bird seed manufacturers may go out of the country to procure staples such as sunflower and safflower seed.) As soon as they harvest the seed, they ship it to manufacturers. This big seed shipment in the fall is what manufacturers use in their seed mixes for the next year. A number of Wild Birds bird foods contain added calcium carbonate, it is quickly and efficiently broken down in the digestive tract to be easily absorbed and used by the bird. Crude Protein is actually a chemical analysis of the food whereby the amount of nitrogen present is used to estimate the amount of protein in the food. While nitrogen does come from animal protein, it also comes from non-animal proteins like grains, as well as other non-protein nitrogen (NPN) sources. Feedipedia. Crude fat is the term used to refer to the crude mixture of fat-soluble material present in a sample. Crude fat also known as the ether extract or the free lipid content, is the traditional measure of fat in food products. Crude fiber is a measure of the quantity of indigestible cellulose, pentosans, lignin, and other components of this type in present foods. It is the residue of plant materials remaining after solvent extraction followed by digestion with dilute acid and alkali. Seed Moisture Content is the amount of water in the seed and is usually expressed as a percentage. The seed moisture content can either be accurately determined experimentally by scientific techniques, or it can be predicted approximately from the information available. Bioversity International.

Norfolk Island Pine

Norfolk Island Pine An Indoor Air Purifier and a Living Christmas Tree for years to come. “Let the Love Grow”

"Taking care of a plant is kind of like taking care of a person, it needs healthy food, clean water, good sunlight, good hygiene and lots of love..and talking to it doesn’t hurt either."

Instructions for taking care of a Norfolk Island Pine: Take off the holiday foil wrapper and remove the clear cover for the pot.

Lighting: Plant thrives in Medium to Bright Light. The less light this tropical plant gets, the slower it will grow. Turn the plant a ¼ turn weekly or bi-weekly to keep it symmetrical. Mark the pot in 4 places to remember. Avoid any sudden changes in room temperature, temperature extremes and chilly drafts.

Water once a week, enough to keep the soil moist, but not wet. The roots will rot if they stand in water. Excess water should drain out the bottom of the pot, so place a drainage dish saucer underneath. Drainage holes in the pot allow excess water to seep out of pots after watering, ensuring that water does not pool at the base of a pot, helping to protect sensitive roots from rot, fungus and bacteria. For pots that don't have holes for drainage, some people put gravel in the bottom of the pot, to create a sort of internal “drainage tray” to collect water under the dirt. Let the soil dry slightly before watering again. If the soil pulls away from the pot's edge as it dries, gently press it back. If your house air is dry and has low humidity then spray water mist over your plant ounce a week. Use a pebble tray or a small humidifier if needed. Brown needles are sometimes normal but may also indicate not enough water or too much water if yellow. Needles should be dark green. During the inactive winter months you don’t need to water or fertilize as much. It may need staking to help keep it upright. Use a Ceramic Water Spike if you go away for a couple of weeks. A water spike uses capillary action, a simple scientific principle, naturally drawing water when the soil dries out, watering just when your plant needs it. Drip Irrigation.

White Fuzzy Mold growing over the surface of houseplant potting soil is usually a harmless saprophytic fungus. Although the fungus doesn't damage the plant, it is unsightly and indicates that there is a problem. Overwatering the plant, poor drainage, and old or contaminated potting soil encourage saprophytic fungus, which feeds on the decaying organic matter in soggy soil. In most cases you can simply scrape the mold from the surface of the soil and place the pot in a well-ventilated area so that the soil can dry. If the mold returns or the soil remains soggy, you should repot the plant using fresh, sterile potting soil. Before you use the pot again, soak it in a solution of 1 part household bleach and 9 parts water for 10 minutes and then scrub it with dish detergent and water. Soggy soil encourages problems such as saprophytic fungi and may lead to more serious problems, including root rot. A proper watering technique provides the plant with all of the water it needs without leaving the soil overly wet. Water houseplants only when they need it. A good general rule is to water plants in 6-inch pots when the soil is dry at a depth of 2 inches. Plants in smaller pots should be watered when the soil is dry at a depth of 1 inch. Add water slowly until it runs out of the holes in the bottom of the pot. Excess water that drains from the pot should be discarded promptly. Even the best watering technique won't prevent soggy soil if the pot doesn't drain freely. Every plant container should have holes in the bottom for drainage, and the container should sit on a removable saucer that will catch the water as it drains from the pot. Placing a layer of small pebbles or bits of broken crockery in the bottom of the pot improves the drainage and prevents bits of soil from clogging the holes. A 6-inch pot needs at least 1 inch of pebbles and a 12-inch container needs a minimum of 2 inches. Check the holes periodically to make sure they aren't blocked. Choose a good quality potting soil that contains a mixture of peat moss, composted plant material such as bark, and either sand or perlite. Potting soil may contain other materials as well, but these three ingredients are the basis of a potting soil that can support the plant and drain freely. Potting soil should be clean and free of insects and pathogens such as fungi. Contaminated potting soil often has a sour smell. Open bags of moist potting soil are breeding grounds for microorganisms and insects, so seal the bag tightly before storing the unused portion. Even the best potting soil is only good for a year or two. Once it begins to break down it can no longer manage water well, and the soil will retain too much moisture. Repot your plants every two or three years to refresh the soil and improve the drainage.

Fertilize once a month except in the winter months. (Diluted water soluble fertilizer 6-4-6).

Repot your plant every 2 years or more with same type of soil using a two inch bigger pot that’s deep with good drainage. A mix of equal parts good quality sterilized fast-draining potting soil, peat and sand provides a suitable medium for root support and growth. NIP’s do well in both acidic and alkaline pH soils. This tree has a Fragile root system so be careful. If the branches are drooping then it needs water. The best time to repot a plant is in the spring when the sun is stronger and days are longer, that is when the plant is actively growing roots and will have enough time to grow into newly added potting mix, and the plant can also take the stress better. To tell if your plant is becoming root-bound just pop the plant out of its container by placing one hand around the base of the plant, tipping it upside down, and tapping the side of the pot with your other hand. If you see one big mass tangle of roots, your plant is becoming root-bound and needs a bigger home. If you notice black, weak roots and/or an unpleasant odor, you most likely do not have adequate drainage or you have poor soil conditions, and it is time to re-pot.

Prune your tree at any time of the year. Remove any branches/stems that have died. But remember pruned branches will not grow back, so be careful. Also remove any scale insects that you see. Scale Insect are parasites of plants, feeding on sap drawn directly from the plant's vascular system. There are about 8,000 described species of scale insects. Many scale species are serious crop pests.

Uses: Timber from this pine is good for making things like tool handles, chair and table legs, spindles and pegs for furniture, musical instruments, urns, sculptures, bowls, platters, and chair seats. Grain is usually straight, with a fine to medium uniform texture. Moderate natural luster. Heartwood is light brown, sometimes with a yellow or red hue.

Resin has medicinal uses as a natural antiseptic and disinfectant. It also may be antimicrobial and antifungal properties and may be cytotoxic and antiulcerogenic. Pine resin makes a great fire starter and a waterproofing agent too. Stem exudates yielded three labdane diterpenes, labda-8(17),14-diene, 13-epicupressic acid, and 13-O- acetyl-13-epicupressic acid.

Warnings: Norfolk Island pine is not intended for human or animal consumption. Pine needles are not to be eaten or made into tea because this plant is not technically a true pine in the Pinus genus plant species.

Scientific name of this plant is Araucaria Heterophylla. Other names include Star Pine, Triangle Tree and House Pine to name a few. This Prehistoric Tropical Plant is Native to the South Pacific. It cannot survive in frost or snow. 40 to 50 degrees Fahrenheit is fine for the winter. This plant is low-maintenance and is relatively slow-growing, but it can grow to 6 feet tall or more and live for around 150 years.

“Plant the seeds of love in your heart, and let your love grow like a tree, with its branches and roots spreading out in all directions, as a service to the cycle of life and a gift for future generations to come.” ...A tree says I care about you and every little thing that makes you possible.” Plant a Tree - Memorial Trees.


There are 2 seasons: wet season (summer) and dry season (winter). Usually the dry season is longer. During the dry seasons plant life and animal life suffers, but as the rainy season begins life flourishes in this area. This climate is caused by changing wind and ocean currents.

A transplanted tree form one climate zone to another will be fine once it recovers from "transplant shock". How long this takes depends on the size of the tree and how much of the root system got damaged when it got dug up and transplanted, but typically it's 1 to 5 years.

Plants use "circadian rhythm" to regulate different cycles (flowering, fruiting, leaf drop) which is, in effect, the up regulation and down regulation of different proteins from the genome in response to different enzymes. This is due (mostly) to one molecule: phytochrome which changes its isomeric conformation in response to exposure to light and then slowly changes back over time in the dark. Edit: I should make it clear that it is not the mere presence of the other isomer that has physiological effects, but the different rate of periodic cycle as the night gets shorter and longer. This actually brings up an interesting fact, because the isomeric change happens in response to light it is the length of the night which is most important and if you have a bunch of plants that you're growing in a greenhouse or any kind of enclosed system ag house, you have to be careful not to flash your plants at night with light because you cause all the phytochrome to change conformation and in effect have caused a whole day to happen. The different "photoperiods" affect the enzymatic activity within the cells and after a chain of intermediate proteins upregulates different genes. Of course this is all bubkis because if you planted the tree outside it would die simply from cold damage (as any leafed tree in the winter would). That said, the plants would probably be fine if you kept them inside. They would drop their leaves if the days were short (if the plant naturally does so; many tropical plants do not undergo leaf abscission) or keep them if the days were long. It probably wouldn't fruit the first year due to lack of stored sugars. Of course, you'd want to make sure that you weren't transporting any pathogens in/on the plant or in the potting mix.

Hardiness Zone - Trees - Tropics

North Atlantic Oscillation and synchronized tree reproduction across Europe plays a greater role in large scale masting, the process whereby forest trees produce large numbers of seeds in the same year. North Atlantic Oscillation.

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