Boy with Magnifying Glass Science is a method of learning and a way of establishing facts through investigations and research. Science is understanding causes and effects and the nature of reality. Science is examining and exploring different aspects of the physical world. Science can cover a lot of different subjects, so depending on the type of science that you are studying, each one will require a unique set of skills that you will need to learn, and you will also have to study areas of knowledge that are more focused on a particular subject. And to work as a scientist you may need to acquire an academic degree.

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Science RocksScience is a systematic effort of acquiring knowledge through observation and experimentation. Science uses logic and reasoning to find out what can be proven or not be proven. The word "science" comes from the Latin word "scientia" meaning knowledge. Modern science respects objective logical reasoning, and follows a set of core procedures or rules in order to determine the nature and underlying natural laws of the universe and everything in it. Some scientists do not know of the rules themselves, but follow them through research policies. These procedures are known as the scientific method.

Science Tools - DIY - Inventions - Evidence - Repeatable - Peer Reviewed - Procedures

Scientist is a practitioner of science and a person who engages in systematic activities to acquire knowledge that would help to describe and predict the natural world. A scientist is an individual who uses the scientific method to solve problems or to find solutions to problems. A scientist may be an expert in one or more areas of science or they can be a DIY independent scientist who likes to learn new things and pursue knowledge as a hobby or as a personal pursuit.

Scientist Skills
: You should know how to accurately measure things and have good math skills so you can accurately count things. You should be good at observing things and be able to use one of more of your senses to gather information. You should be skillful using tools and technology. You should know the basics of setting up an experiment and running a test or carrying out an experiment using standard techniques and procedures. You should know how to do a thorough investigation. You should know how to do research effectively and efficiently. You should have a large vocabulary with good language skills. You should have excellent reading and writing skills along with good verbal communication skills. You should have the ability to handle large datasets and perform high-level data analysis. You should have good time management skills. You should be able to be an independent worker and also work well in teams or in groups. You should be an analytical thinker and a critical thinker at the same time. You should know how to improvise and think outside the box. You should know when to change direction, change focus and recalculate your priorities. You should be flexible and adaptable.

All students should have scientific skills because these skills are transferrable and can be repurposed in all kinds of ways to solve all kinds of problems. So understanding science is not just about working in a particular science field, being a good scientist is someone who can also use science skills to analyze their own life and become more understanding of themselves and the world around them. A good scientist can do all kinds of scientific work that can make a difference. This is why every student should learn the skills of a scientist, because life itself is a scientific journey and not just a spiritual journey of the mind. No one is saying that you have to be an Einstein, but you should at least understand who Einstein was, and understand the skills that Einstein used to do his research and learn as much as he did. So you're not just doing science work, you're doing life's work, because you are directly involved with understanding the processes life. So even if you don't become a scientist by trade, you can at least be a scientist of life.

Technologist is a person who uses scientific knowledge to solve practical problems. Technology Education.

Scientism is a term used to describe the universal applicability of the scientific method and approach, and the view that empirical science constitutes the most authoritative worldview or the most valuable part of human learning—to the exclusion of other viewpoints or theory's.

Laws of Science - Theory - Standards - Junk

STEM Fields are the academic disciplines of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics.

Mathematics, Engineering, Science Achievement (MESA) - Gifted

Science Tools - Science Films - Science News - Science Resources - Science Literature

Scully Effect is the name given to a phenomenon that was caused by the character Dana Scully's role as a medical doctor and FBI Special Agent in the TV series called the X-Files in the early 1990s.  Dana Scully inspired many young women to pursue careers in science, medicine, engineering, and law enforcement, and as a result brought a perceptible increase in the number of women in those fields.

First-grade girls stick with science after pretending to be Marie Curie. Make-believe exercise boosted their fortitude on a challenging science game. A new study, appearing Sept. 28 in the journal Psychological Science, suggests that science role-playing may help tighten the gender gap in science, technology, engineering, and math or STEM education and careers for women simply by improving their identity as scientists.

Scientific Literacy encompasses written, numerical, and digital literacy as they pertain to understanding science, its methodology, observations, and theories. Scientific literacy is chiefly concerned with an understanding of the scientific method, units and methods of measurement, empiricism and understanding of statistics in particular correlations and qualitative versus quantitative observations and aggregate statistics, as well as a basic understanding of core scientific fields, such as physics, chemistry, biology, ecology, geology and computation. Scientifically Literate Person is defined as one who has the capacity to understand experiment and reasoning as well as basic scientific facts and their meaning. Makes informed decisions and Communicates clearly using science. Understands the fundamental concepts of Earth’s many systems, environmental and social issues. Knows how to find and assess scientifically credible information about Earth. Ask, find, or determine answers to questions derived from curiosity about everyday experiences. Describes, explains, and predicts natural phenomena. Explains phenomena scientifically – recognizes, offer and evaluate explanations for a range of natural and technological phenomena. Reads with Understanding of articles about science in the popular press, and engages in social conversation about the validity of the conclusions. Interprets data and evidence scientifically – analyzes and evaluates data, claims and arguments in a variety of representations and draw appropriate scientific conclusions. Identifies scientific issues underlying national and local decisions and expresses positions that are scientifically and technologically informed. Evaluates the quality of scientific information on the basis of its source and the methods used to generate it. Evaluates and designs scientific inquiry – describes and appraises scientific investigations and proposes ways of addressing questions scientifically. Poses and evaluates arguments based on evidence and to applies conclusions from such arguments appropriately. Interpret data and evidence scientifically – analyze and evaluate data, claims and arguments in a variety of representations and draw appropriate scientific conclusions. Understand, experiment, and reason as well as interpret scientific facts and their meaning. Ask, find, or determine answers to questions derived from curiosity about everyday experiences. Describe, explain, and predict natural phenomena. Read articles with understanding of science in the popular press and engage in social conversation about the validity of the conclusions. Identify scientific issues underlying national and local decisions and express positions that are scientifically and technologically informed. Evaluate the quality of scientific information on the basis of its source and the methods used to generate it. Pose and evaluate arguments based on evidence and to apply conclusions from such arguments appropriately understands the fundamental concepts of Earth’s many systems. Knows how to find and assess scientifically credible information about Earth. Communicates about Earth science in a meaningful way. Is able to make informed and responsible decisions regarding Earth and its resources.

Media Literacy - Science Communication - Intelligence - Articulate - Literature - Ethics

Philosophy of Science is a branch of philosophy concerned with the foundations, methods, and implications of science. The central questions of this study concern what qualifies as science, the reliability of scientific theories, and the ultimate purpose of science. This discipline overlaps with metaphysics, ontology, and epistemology, for example, when it explores the relationship between science and truth.

Science Types

Branches of Science (PDF) - Over 550 Branches of Science so far.

Branches of Science Natural Science Outline is a major branch of science that tries to explain, and predict, nature's phenomena based on empirical evidence. In natural science, hypothesis must be verified scientifically to be regarded as scientific theory. Validity, accuracy, and social mechanisms ensuring quality control, such as peer review and repeatability of findings, are amongst the criteria and methods used for this purpose. Natural science can be broken into 2 main branches: life science, and physical science. Each of these branches, and all of their sub-branches, are referred to as natural sciences.

Natural Sciences Academy - Naturalist (environment)

Physical Science Outline is a branch of natural science that studies non-living systems, in contrast to Life Science. It in turn has many branches, each referred to as a "physical science", together called the "physical sciences". However, the term "physical" creates an unintended, somewhat arbitrary distinction, since many branches of physical science also study biological phenomena and branches of chemistry such as organic chemistry.

Protoscience involves the earliest eras of the history of science. Involving the distinction between hard and soft sciences, in which various sciences (or branches thereof) are ranked according to methodological rigor.

Materials Science - Do it Yourself Science (DIY)

Earth Science Outline all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth. It is also known as geoscience, the geosciences or the Earth sciences, and is arguably a special case in planetary science, the Earth being the only known life-bearing planet. Earth science is a branch of the physical sciences which is a part of the natural sciences. It in turn has many branches. Geoscientist is a person studying Earth or other planets using Earth science. Geologist is a scientist who studies the solid, liquid, and gaseous matter that constitutes the Earth and other terrestrial planets.

Forensic Science - Junk Science

Formal Science Outline are branches of knowledge that are concerned with formal systems, such as those under the branches of: logic, mathematics, computer science, statistics, and some aspects of linguistics. Unlike other sciences, the formal sciences are not concerned with the validity of theories based on observations in the real world, but instead with the properties of formal systems based on definitions and rules.

Social Science Outline is the branch of science concerned with society and human behaviors.

Applied Science Outline is the branch of science that applies existing scientific knowledge to develop more practical applications, including inventions and other technological advancements. Science itself is the systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe.

Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.

Clinical Science Journal offers multi-disciplinary coverage and clinical perspectives to advance human health.

Translational Science is a highly interdisciplinary field, the primary goal of which is to coalesce assets of various natures within the individual pillars in order to improve the global healthcare system significantly. The goal of translational medicine is to combine disciplines, resources, expertise, and techniques within these pillars to promote enhancements in prevention, diagnosis, and therapies. The term translational refers to the "translation" of basic scientific findings in a laboratory setting into potential treatments for disease.

Holism Science is an approach to research that emphasizes the study of complex systems which aims to gain understanding of systems by dividing them into smaller composing elements and gaining understanding of the system through understanding their elemental properties. Philosophy of Science.

Open Science is the movement to make scientific research, data and dissemination accessible to all levels of an inquiring society, amateur or professional. It encompasses practices such as publishing open research, campaigning for open access, encouraging scientists to practice open notebook science, and generally making it easier to publish and communicate scientific knowledge. The European-funded project Facilitate Open Science Training for European Research (FOSTER) has developed an open science taxonomy as an attempt to map the open science field.

Hard Science and Soft Science are colloquial terms used to compare scientific fields on the basis of perceived methodological rigor, exactitude, and objectivity. Roughly speaking, the natural sciences (e.g. biology, chemistry, physics) are considered "hard", whereas the social sciences (e.g. economics, psychology, sociology) are usually described as "soft". Precise definitions vary, but features often cited as characteristic of hard science include producing testable predictions, performing controlled experiments, relying on quantifiable data and mathematical models, a high degree of accuracy and objectivity, higher levels of consensus, faster progression of the field, greater explanatory success, cumulativeness, replicability, and generally applying a purer form of the scientific method. A closely related idea (originating in the nineteenth century with Auguste Comte) is that scientific disciplines can be arranged into a hierarchy of hard to soft on the basis of factors such as rigor, "development", and whether they are basic or applied. Some philosophers and sociologists of science have questioned the relationship between these characteristics and perceived hardness or softness. The more "developed" hard sciences do not necessarily have a greater degree of consensus or selectivity in accepting new results. Commonly cited methodological differences are also not a reliable indicator. For example, social sciences such as psychology and sociology use mathematical models extensively, but are usually considered soft sciences. However, there are some measurable differences between hard and soft sciences. For example, hard sciences make more extensive use of graphs, and soft sciences are more prone to a rapid turnover of buzzwords. The metaphor has been criticized for unduly stigmatizing soft sciences, creating an unwarranted imbalance in the public perception, funding, and recognition of different fields.

Related Subjects - Chemistry - Electricity - Energy - Computers - Technology Education - Math - Engineering - Physics - Nano - Biology - Innovation - Evolution - Collaboration - Observations - Hypothesis - Problem Solving - Reasoning - Decision Making - Planning - Information Literacy - Knowledge Management - Management.


Step A then Step B then Result Research is a systematic investigation to establish the facts about a particular subject or problem. To inquire and ask questions about something, and then documenting the answers and information in order to make a report that other people can understand and learn from. Research is a search for knowledge or to gather knowledge about the nature of something, and then organizing and condensing that knowledge into testable laws and theories that other people can confirm and validate. Research is the ability to produce solutions in some problem domain. To do research into questions posed by scientific theories and hypotheses. Research is a form of learning. Re-search is to look again. To experiment. To prove something. Repeatable.

Applied Research is a methodology used to solve a specific, practical issue affecting an individual or group. This scientific method of study and research is used in business, medicine, and education in order to find solutions that may improve health, solve scientific problems or develop new technology. Applied Science is the application of existing scientific knowledge to practical applications, like technology or inventions.

Empirical Research is research using empirical evidence. It is a way of gaining knowledge by means of direct and indirect observation or experience. Empiricism values such research more than other kinds. Empirical evidence is the record of one's direct observations or experiences that can be analyzed quantitatively or qualitatively. Through quantifying the evidence or making sense of it in qualitative form, a researcher can answer empirical questions, which should be clearly defined and answerable with the evidence or data collected. Research design varies by field and by the question being investigated. Many researchers combine qualitative and quantitative forms of analysis to better answer questions which cannot be studied in laboratory settings, particularly in the social sciences and in education.

Exploratory Research is research conducted for a problem that has not been clearly defined. It often occurs before we know enough to make conceptual distinctions or to posit an explanatory relationship. Exploratory research develops concepts more clearly, established priorities, develops operational definitions and improve the final research design. Exploratory research helps determine the best research design, data-collection method and selection of subjects. It should draw definitive conclusions only with extreme caution. Given its fundamental nature, exploratory research often concludes that a perceived problem does not actually exist.

Learning - Discovery - Curiosity - Literature

Experimental Research is any research conducted with a scientific approach, where a set of variables are kept constant while the other set of variables are being measured as the subject of experiment. There are times when you don't have enough data to support your decisions.

Descriptive Research is a research method describing the characteristics of the population or phenomenon studied. This descriptive methodology focuses more on the “what” of the research subject than the “why” of the research subject. Descriptive studies can be of several types, namely, case reports, case series, cross-sectional studies, and ecological studies. In the first three of these, data are collected on individuals, whereas the last one uses aggregated data for groups. Descriptive statistics are specific methods basically used to calculate, describe, and summarize collected research data in a logical, meaningful, and efficient way. Descriptive statistics are reported numerically in the manuscript text and/or in its tables, or graphically in its figures. Brief reports, including replication or null result studies of previously reported findings, or a well-designed studies addressing questions of limited scope. The subject matter includes treatments of genetic, physiological, motivational, learning, perceptual, cognitive, and social processes of both normal and abnormal kinds in human and animal subjects.

Creative Research seeks to develop new ways of understanding, situating, and reconfiguring knowledge in the telematic age. Creativity.

Informatics is the science concerned with gathering, manipulating, storing, retrieving, and classifying recorded information. Informatics is the processing of information and the study and the practice of skills related to information.

Scholarly Method is the body of principles and practices used by scholars to make their claims about the world as valid and trustworthy as possible, and to make them known to the scholarly public. It is the methods that systemically advance the teaching, research, and practice of a given scholarly or academic field of study through rigorous inquiry. Scholarship is noted by its significance to its particular profession, and is creative, can be documented, can be replicated or elaborated, and can be and is peer-reviewed through various methods.

ScholarAI is building tools to help researchers and clinicians do their best work with trustworthy AI by their sides. The ScholarAI GPT and the ScholarAI ChatGPT Plugin connects users to peer-reviewed research articles.

Consensus is your AI Research Assistant. Search 200M academic papers from Consensus, get science-based answers, and draft content with accurate citations.

Evaluation is a systematic determination of a subject's merit, worth and significance, using criteria governed by a set of standards. It can assist an organization, program, project or any other intervention or initiative to assess any aim, realisable concept/proposal, or any alternative, to help in decision-making; or to ascertain the degree of achievement or value in regard to the aim and objectives and results of any such action that has been completed. The primary purpose of evaluation, in addition to gaining insight into prior or existing initiatives, is to enable reflection and assist in the identification of future change.

Third Party Testing (drugs) - Peer Review

Diagnosis is the identification of the nature and cause of a certain phenomenon. Diagnosis is used in many different disciplines with variations in the use of logic, analytics, and experience to determine "cause and effect". In systems engineering and computer science, it is typically used to determine the causes of symptoms, mitigations, and solutions.

Dissection is the dismembering of the body of a deceased animal or plant to study its anatomical structure. Autopsy is used in pathology and forensic medicine to determine the cause of death in humans. It is carried out by or demonstrated to biology and anatomy students in high school and medical school. Less advanced courses typically focus on smaller subjects, such as small formaldehyde-preserved animals, while the more advanced courses normally use cadavers. Consequently, dissection is typically conducted in a morgue or in an anatomy lab.

Predictions - Baseline - Physical Examination

Research Strategy is a step-by-step plan of action that gives direction to your thoughts and efforts, enabling you to conduct research systematically and on schedule to produce quality results and detailed reporting.

Research Design is the set of methods and procedures used in collecting and analyzing measures of the variables specified in the research problem research. The design of a study defines the study type (descriptive, correlation, semi-experimental, experimental, review, meta-analytic) and sub-type (e.g., descriptive-longitudinal case study), research problem, hypotheses, independent and dependent variables, experimental design, and, if applicable, data collection methods and a statistical analysis plan. A research design is a framework that has been created to find answers to research questions. Experiment Design.

Where to Start Research and When to Stop Research. What happens when you think you found the answer? It's a good idea to double-check your research by checking two or three sources on the same topic. What are the signs that there may not be a clear-cut solution to a problem? When research isn't yielding results you may need to apply a variety of research techniques and also consult more resources. Maybe you're not asking the right questions?

Field Research is the collection of information outside a laboratory, library or workplace setting. The approaches and methods used in field research vary across disciplines. For example, biologists who conduct field research may simply observe animals interacting with their environments, whereas social scientists conducting field research may interview or observe people in their natural environments to learn their languages, folklore, and social structures.

Drug Research - Goals of Research (PDF)

Research Proposal is a document proposing a research project, generally in the sciences or academia, and generally constitutes a request for sponsorship of that research. Proposals are evaluated on the cost and potential impact of the proposed research, and on the soundness of the proposed plan for carrying it out. Research proposals generally address several key points: What research question(s) will be addressed, and how they will be addressed. What cost and time will be required for the research. What prior research has been done on the topic. How the results of the research will be evaluated. How the research will benefit the sponsoring organization and other parties. Thesis.

Basic Research is scientific research aimed to improve scientific theories for improved understanding or prediction of natural or other phenomena. Applied research, in turn, uses scientific theories to develop technology or techniques to intervene and alter natural or other phenomena.

Primary Research involves the collection of original primary data by researchers. It is often undertaken after researchers have gained some insight into an issue by reviewing secondary research or by analyzing previously collected primary data. It can be accomplished through various methods, including questionnaires and telephone interviews in market research, or experiments and direct Observations in the physical sciences, amongst others. The distinction between primary research and secondary research is crucial among market-research professionals.

Open Research is to make clear accounts of the methodology freely available via the internet, along with any data or results extracted or derived from them. This permits a massively distributed collaboration, and one in which anyone may participate at any level of the project. Open Source Software.

Quantitative Research is the systematic empirical investigation of observable phenomena via statistical, mathematical or computational techniques. The objective of quantitative research is to develop and employ mathematical models, theories and/or hypotheses pertaining to phenomena. The process of measurement is central to quantitative research because it provides the fundamental connection between empirical observation and mathematical expression of quantitative relationships.

Qualitative Research relies on data obtained by the researcher from first-hand observation, interviews, questionnaires, focus groups, participant-observation, recordings made in natural settings, documents, and artifacts. The data are generally nonnumerical. Qualitative methods include ethnography, grounded theory, discourse analysis, and interpretative phenomenological analysis. Qualitative research methods have been used in sociology, anthropology, political science, psychology, social work, and educational research. Qualitative researchers study individuals' understanding of their social reality.

Original Research is research that is not exclusively based on a summary, review or synthesis of earlier publications on the subject of research. This material is of a primary source character. The purpose of the original research is to produce new knowledge, rather than to present the existing knowledge in a new form (e.g., summarized or classified).

Secondary Research involves the summary, collation and/or synthesis of existing research. Secondary research is contrasted with primary research in that primary research involves the generation of data, whereas secondary research uses primary research sources as a source of data for analysis. A notable marker of primary research is the inclusion of a "methods" section, where the authors describe how the data was generated. Common examples of secondary research include textbooks, encyclopedias, news articles, review articles, and meta analyses. When conducting secondary research, authors may draw data from published academic papers, government documents, statistical databases, and historical records.

Case Study is a research method involving an up-close, in-depth, and detailed examination of a subject of study (the case), as well as its related contextual conditions.

Social Research is a research conducted by social scientists following a systematic plan. Social research methodologies can be classified as quantitative or qualitative. Quantitative designs approach social phenomena through quantifiable evidence, and often rely on statistical analysis of many cases (or across intentionally designed treatments in an experiment) to create valid and reliable general claims. Related to quantity. Qualitative designs emphasize understanding of social phenomena through direct observation, communication with participants, or analysis of texts, and may stress contextual subjective accuracy over generality. Related to quality.

Participatory Action Research is an approach to research in communities that emphasizes participation and action. It seeks to understand the world by trying to change it, collaboratively and following reflection. PAR emphasizes collective inquiry and experimentation grounded in experience and social history. Within a PAR process, "communities of inquiry and action evolve and address questions and issues that are significant for those who participate as co-researchers". PAR contrasts with many research methods, which emphasize disinterested researchers and reproducibility of findings. PAR practitioners make a concerted effort to integrate three basic aspects of their work: participation (life in society and democracy), action (engagement with experience and history), and research (soundness in thought and the growth of knowledge). "Action unites, organically, with research" and collective processes of self-investigation. The way each component is actually understood and the relative emphasis it receives varies nonetheless from one PAR theory and practice to another. This means that PAR is not a monolithic body of ideas and methods but rather a pluralistic orientation to knowledge making and social change.

Action Research seeks transformative change through the simultaneous process of taking action and doing research, which are linked together by critical reflection. Action research is comparative research on the conditions and effects of various forms of social action and research leading to social action that uses a spiral of steps, each of which is composed of a circle of planning, action and fact-finding about the result of the action. Active Learning.

Ascertainment is the process of finding something out for certain.

Think Tank is a research institute that performs research and advocacy concerning topics such as social policy, political strategy, economics, military, technology, and culture. Most think tanks are non-governmental organizations, but some are semi-autonomous agencies within government or are associated with particular political parties, businesses or the military. Think-tank funding often includes a combination of donations from wealthy individuals and personal contributions, with many also accepting government grants.

Cherry Picking Data - Bias in Research

Research Institute is an establishment founded for doing research. Research institutes may specialize in basic research or may be oriented to applied research. Although the term often implies natural science research, there are also many research institutes in the social science as well, especially for sociological and historical research purposes. Research Institute is also known as research centre, research center or research organization.

Postdoctoral Researcher is a person professionally conducting research after the completion of their doctoral studies or a PhD. The ultimate goal of a postdoctoral research position is to pursue additional research, training, or teaching in order to have better skills to pursue a career in academia, research, or any other fields.

Research University is a university that is committed to research as a central part of its mission. They can be public or private, and often have well-known brand names. Undergraduate courses at many research universities are often academic rather than vocational and may not prepare students for particular careers, but many employers value degrees from research universities because they teach fundamental life skills such as critical thinking. Globally, research universities are predominantly public universities, with notable exceptions being the United States and Japan. A universities job is to train and graduate students. To train and graduate PhD level students, research is absolutely required. Institutions of higher education that are not research universities (or do not aspire to that designation, such as liberal arts colleges) instead place more emphasis on student instruction or other aspects of tertiary education, and their faculty members are under less pressure to publish or perish. Research conducted at America's research universities carries a dual benefit. It creates the foundation for major advances in such areas as health and medicine, communications, food, economics, energy, and national security. And it helps educate students to be scientific leaders and innovators. University research has a valuable long-term impact on students. No matter which subject you study, your textbooks and resources are usually informed by research carried out by academics. Research can find answers to things that are unknown, filling gaps in knowledge and changing the way that healthcare professionals work. Some of the common aims for conducting research studies are to: Diagnose diseases and health problems. The purpose of research is to enhance society by advancing knowledge through the development of scientific theories, concepts and ideas. Best National Research Universities Top 100 Consensus Ranked Schools 2021 are Yale University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Stanford University, Princeton University and Harvard University, just to name a few.

Research and Development are the exploratory activities undertaken by researchers, engineers, scientists or DIY Citizens, who are developing new services or products, or improving existing services or products. Research and Development or R & D is a general term for activities in connection with corporate or governmental innovation. Research and development is a component of Innovation and is situated at the front end of the Innovation life cycle. Innovation builds on R&D and includes commercialization phases. Research Institute is an establishment founded for doing research.

The world's total nominal R&D spending was approximately One Trillion Dollars in 2010. The US spent $456.1 billion for research and development (R&D) in 2013. Most scientific research is funded by government grants. Spending on basic research by all U.S. businesses nearly doubled between 2008 and 2014, from $13.9 billion to $24.5 billion. According to the National Science Foundation, 29 percent of federal R&D money goes to universities, 29 percent goes to industry, and another 29 percent goes to researchers who work directly for federal agencies. About 10 percent goes to federally funded labs operated by private contractors. For the first time in the post–World War II era, the federal government no longer funds a majority of the basic research carried out in the United States. Data from ongoing surveys by the National Science Foundation (NSF) show that federal agencies provided only 44% of the $86 billion spent on basic research in 2015. The federal share, which topped 70% throughout the 1960s and ’70s, stood at 61% as recently as 2004 before falling below 50% in 2013. Drug company investment in basic research soared from $3 billion in 2008 to $8.1 billion in 2014.

Funding of Science is a term generally covering any funding for scientific research, in the areas of both "hard" science and technology and social science. The term often connotes funding obtained through a competitive process, in which potential research projects are evaluated and only the most promising receive funding. Such processes, which are run by government, corporations or foundations, allocate scarce funds. Most research funding comes from two major sources, corporations (through research and development departments) and government (primarily carried out through universities and specialized government agencies; often known as research councils). Some small amounts of scientific research are carried out (or funded) by charitable foundations, especially in relation to developing cures for diseases such as cancer, malaria and AIDS. According to OECD, more than 60% of research and development in scientific and technical fields is carried out by industries, and 20% and 10% respectively by universities and government. Bias in Research.


Experiment is a procedure or test carried out to support, refute, or validate a hypothesis. Experiments provide insight into cause-and-effect by demonstrating what outcome occurs when a particular factor is manipulated. Experiments vary greatly in goal and scale, but always rely on repeatable procedure and logical analysis of the results. There also exists natural experimental studies. Controlled Environment.

Empirical is something derived from experiment and observation rather than theory.

Evidence - Experience - Determine - Prove - Test - Analytical Chemistry - Formula

Scientific Experiment is where a series of steps are developed to test a hypothesis. The scientist must develop many important steps to design a scientific experiment properly. Inductive methods are used to determine a hypothesis, but testing the hypothesis is done using deductive methods.

Trial and Error is the process of experimenting with various testing methods until something works or when results are successful. A fundamental method of problem solving characterized by repeated, varied attempts which are continued until success, or until the agent stops trying.

Randomized Experiment are the experiments that allow the greatest reliability and validity of statistical estimates of treatment effects. Randomization-based inference is especially important in experimental design and in survey sampling.

Pilot Experiment is a small scale preliminary study conducted in order to evaluate feasibility, time, cost, adverse events, and effect size (statistical variability) in an attempt to predict an appropriate sample size and improve upon the study design prior to performance of a full-scale research project. Pilot Studies, therefore, may not be appropriate for case studies.

Quasi-Experiment is an empirical study used to estimate the causal impact of an intervention on its target population without random assignment. Quasi-experimental research shares similarities with the traditional experimental design or randomized controlled trial, but it specifically lacks the element of random assignment to treatment or control. Instead, quasi-experimental designs typically allow the researcher to control the assignment to the treatment condition, but using some criterion other than random assignment (e.g., an eligibility cutoff mark).

Double Blind Experiment

Design of Experiments is the design of any task that aims to describe or explain the variation of information under conditions that are hypothesized to reflect the variation. The term is generally associated with true experiments in which the design introduces conditions that directly affect the variation, but may also refer to the design of quasi-experiments, in which natural conditions that influence the variation are selected for observation. In its simplest form, an experiment aims at predicting the outcome by introducing a change of the preconditions, which is represented by one or more independent variables, also referred to as "input variables" or "predictor variables." The change in one or more independent variables is generally hypothesized to result in a change in one or more dependent variables, also referred to as "output variables" or "response variables." The experimental design may also identify control variables that must be held constant to prevent external factors from affecting the results. Experimental design involves not only the selection of suitable independent, dependent, and control variables, but planning the delivery of the experiment under statistically optimal conditions given the constraints of available resources. There are multiple approaches for determining the set of design points (unique combinations of the settings of the independent variables) to be used in the experiment. Main concerns in experimental design include the establishment of validity, reliability, and replicability. For example, these concerns can be partially addressed by carefully choosing the independent variable, reducing the risk of measurement error, and ensuring that the documentation of the method is sufficiently detailed. Related concerns include achieving appropriate levels of statistical power and sensitivity. Correctly designed experiments advance knowledge in the natural and social sciences and engineering. Other applications include marketing and policy making. The study of the design of experiments is an important topic in metascience. Glossary of Experimental Design (wiki) - Research Design - Research Bias.

Natural Experiment is an empirical study in which individuals (or clusters of individuals) exposed to the experimental and control conditions are determined by nature or by other factors outside the control of the investigators, but the process governing the exposures arguably resembles random assignment. Thus, natural experiments are observational studies and are not controlled in the traditional sense of a randomized experiment. Natural experiments are most useful when there has been a clearly defined exposure involving a well defined subpopulation (and the absence of exposure in a similar subpopulation) such that changes in outcomes may be plausibly attributed to the exposure. In this sense, the difference between a natural experiment and a non-experimental observational study is that the former includes a comparison of conditions that pave the way for causal inference, but the latter does not. Natural experiments are employed as study designs when controlled experimentation is extremely difficult to implement or unethical, such as in several research areas addressed by epidemiology (like evaluating the health impact of varying degrees of exposure to ionizing radiation in people living near Hiroshima at the time of the atomic blast) and economics (like estimating the economic return on amount of schooling in US adults).

Experimentalist is the philosophical belief that the way to truth is through experiments and empiricism. It is also associated with instrumentalism, the belief that truth should be evaluated based upon its demonstrated usefulness. Less formally, artists often pursue their visions through trial and error; this form of experimentalism has been practiced in every field, from music to film and from literature to theatre.

Thought Experiment considers some hypothesis, theory, or principle for the purpose of thinking through its consequences. Given the structure of the experiment, it may not be possible to perform it, and even if it could be performed, there need not be an intention to perform it. The common goal of a thought experiment is to explore the potential consequences of the principle in
question: "A thought experiment is a device with which one performs an intentional, structured process of intellectual deliberation in order to speculate, within a specifiable problem domain, about potential consequents (or antecedents) for a designated antecedent (or consequent)".

Intuition Pump is a thought experiment structured to allow the thinker to use their intuition to develop an answer to a problem.

Empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from Sensory Experience. One of several views of epistemology, the study of human knowledge, along with rationalism and skepticism, empiricism emphasizes the role of empirical evidence in the formation of ideas, over the notion of innate ideas or traditions.

Constructivist Epistemology is a branch in philosophy of science maintaining that scientific knowledge is constructed by the scientific community, who seek to Measure and construct models of the natural world. Natural science therefore consists of mental constructs that aim to explain sensory experience (and measurements).

Scientific Control is an experiment or observation designed to minimize the effects of variables other than the independent variable. This increases the reliability of the results, often through a comparison between control measurements and the other measurements. Scientific controls are a part of the scientific method.

AI could run a million microbial experiments per year. Automation uncovers combinations of amino acids that feed two bacterial species and could tell us much more about the 90% of bacteria that humans have hardly studied. An artificial intelligence system enables robots to conduct autonomous scientific experiments -- as many as 10,000 per day -- potentially driving a drastic leap forward in the pace of discovery in areas from medicine to agriculture to environmental science.


Testing is the act of subjecting to experimental test in order to determine how well something works. To take measures to check the quality, performance, or reliability of something, especially before putting it into widespread use or practice. Test the hypothesis by performing an experiment and collecting data in a reproducible manner. Analyze the data and results. An examination of the characteristics of something.

Third Party Testing - Stress Testing - Field Test - Repeatable - Proof - Results

Concept Testing is the process of using surveys and sometimes qualitative methods, to evaluate consumer acceptance of a new product idea prior to the introduction of a product to the market. It is important not to confuse concept testing with advertising testing, brand testing and packaging testing; as is sometimes done. Concept testing focuses on the basic product idea, without the embellishments and puffery inherent in advertising. Proof of Concept.

Scientific Testing involves figuring out what a person would expect to observe if an idea were correct and comparing that expectation to what we actually observe.

Software Testing (computers) - Black Box Testing

A/B Testing is a way to compare two versions of a single variable, typically by testing a subject's response to variable A against variable B, and determining which of the two variables is more effective. A/B testing is a randomized experiment with two variants, A and B, which are the control and variation in the controlled experiment. A/B testing is a form of statistical hypothesis testing with two variants leading to the technical term, two-sample hypothesis testing, used in the field of statistics. A/B testing is sometimes called split testing, which is comparing two versions of a web page to see which one performs better.

Side by Side Comparisons - Pros and Cons - Conformance Testing - Development

Multivariate Testing is hypothesis testing in the context of multivariate statistics.

Nondestructive Testing is a wide group of analysis techniques used in science and technology industry to evaluate the properties of a material, component or system without causing damage.

Diagnostic Test is a kind of medical procedure performed to detect, diagnose, or monitor diseases, disease processes, susceptibility, and determine a course of treatment. It is related to clinical chemistry and molecular diagnostics, and the procedures are typically performed in a medical laboratory.

Testing Flaws - Calibration

Test Design is the activity of deriving and specifying test cases from test conditions to test software. Good test design supports: defining and improving quality related processes and procedures (quality assurance); evaluating the quality of the product with regards to customer expectations and needs (quality control); finding defects in the product (software testing). The essential prerequisites of test design are: Appropriate specification (test bases). Risk and complexity analysis. Historical data of your previous developments (if exists). The test bases, such as requirements or user stories, determine what should be tested (test objects and test conditions). The test bases involves some test design techniques to be used or not to be used.
Risk analysis is inevitable to decide the thoroughness of testing. The more risk the usage of the function/object has, the more thorough the testing that is needed. The same can be said for complexity. Risk and complexity analysis determines the test design techniques to be applied for a given specification. Historical data of your previous developments help setting the best set of test design techniques to reach a cost optimum and high quality together. In lack of historical data some assumptions can be made, which should be refined for subsequent projects.

Group Testing is any procedure that breaks up the task of identifying certain objects into tests on groups of items, rather than on individual ones.

Statistical Hypothesis Testing is a hypothesis that is testable on the basis of observing a process that is modeled via a set of random variables.

Debunking - Refuting - Scrutiny - Peer Review

Sanity Check is a basic test to quickly evaluate whether a claim or the result of a calculation can possibly be true. It is a simple check to see if the produced material is rational (that the material's creator was thinking rationally, applying sanity). The point of a sanity test is to rule out certain classes of obviously false results, not to catch every possible error. A rule-of-thumb or back-of-the-envelope calculation may be checked to perform the test. The advantage of a performing an initial sanity test is that of speedily evaluating basic function.

Evaluation is a systematic determination of a subject's merit, worth and significance, using criteria governed by a set of standards. Procedure.

Checksum is a small-sized datum derived from a block of digital data for the purpose of detecting errors that may have been introduced during its transmission or storage. By themselves, checksums are often used to verify data integrity but are not relied upon to verify data authenticity.

Observation is the active acquisition of information from a primary source.

Research comprises of creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications.

Secondary Data refers to data that was collected by someone other than the user.

Analytics is the discovery, interpretation, and communication of meaningful patterns in data.

Data Analysis is a process of inspecting, cleaning, transforming, and modeling Data with the goal of discovering useful information, suggesting conclusions, and supporting decision-making. Data analysis has multiple facets and approaches, encompassing diverse techniques under a variety of names, in different business, science, and social science domains.

Evidence is anything presented in support of an assertion.

Proof by Contradiction is a form of proof that establishes the truth or validity of a proposition by first assuming that the opposite proposition is true, and then shows that such an assumption leads to a contradiction. Proof by contradiction is also known as indirect proof, proof by assuming the opposite. Reductio ad absurdum is a form of argument that attempts to establish a claim by showing that the opposite scenario would lead to absurdity or contradiction.

Proof Reading - Meanings

Enthymeme is the body of proof or the strongest of rhetorical proofs.

Publish Results
(Feedback - Opinions) - Peer Review

Systematic Review is a type of literature review that collects and critically analyzes multiple research studies or papers. A review of existing studies is often quicker and cheaper than embarking on a new study. Researchers use methods that are selected before one or more research questions are formulated, and then they aim to find and analyze studies that relate to and answer those questions. Systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials are key in the practice of evidence-based medicine.

Retest (Confirm Hypothesis) Yes or No? Interpret the Data and Draw Conclusions that may serve as a starting point for new Hypothesis.

Fact Checker is the act of checking factual assertions in non-fictional text in order to determine the veracity and correctness of the factual statements in the text. This may be done either before (ante hoc) or after (post hoc) the text has been published or otherwise disseminated.

Repeatable - Reproducibility

Reproducibility the ability to be reproduced or copied. the extent to which consistent results are obtained when an experiment is repeated. Reproducibility is the closeness of the agreement between the results of measurements of the same measure and carried out with same methodology described in the corresponding scientific evidence. Example by demonstration. Reproducibility is a scientific method that means that a result obtained by an experiment or observational study should be achieved again with a high degree of agreement when the study is replicated with the same methodology by different researchers. Only after one or several such successful replications should a result be recognized as scientific knowledge. Prove.

Repeatability or test–retest reliability is the variation in measurements taken by a single person or instrument on the same item, under the same conditions, and in a short period of time. A less-than-perfect test–retest reliability causes test–retest variability. Such variability can be caused by, for example, intra-individual variability and intra-observer variability. A measurement may be said to be repeatable when this variation is smaller than a pre-determined acceptance criterion.

Replication is the ability of an entire experiment or study to be duplicated, either by the same researcher or by someone else working independently. Reproducing an experiment is called replicating it. Reproducibility is one of the main principles of the scientific method.

Reliable - Consistent - Trusting - Ethical - Proof - Validation - Efficacy - Comparative Effectiveness Research - Peer Reviewed

Replication in statistics is not the same as repeated measurements of the same item. They are dealt with differently in statistical experimental design and data analysis. For proper sampling, a process or batch of products should be in reasonable statistical control; inherent random variation is present but variation due to assignable (special) causes is not. Evaluation or testing of a single item does not allow for item-to-item variation and may not represent the batch or process. Replication is needed to account for this variation among items and treatments. As an example, consider a continuous process which produces items. Batches of items are then processed or treated. Finally, tests or measurements are conducted. Several options might be available to obtain ten test values. Some possibilities are: One finished and treated item might be measured repeatedly to obtain ten test results. Only one item was measured so there is no replication. The repeated measurements help identify observational error. Ten finished and treated items might be taken from a batch and each measured once. This is not full replication because the ten samples are not random and not representative of the continuous nor batch processing. Five items are taken from the continuous process based on sound statistical sampling. These are processed in a batch and tested twice each. This includes replication of initial samples but does not allow for batch-to-batch variation in processing. The repeated tests on each provide some measure and control of testing error. Five items are taken from the continuous process based on sound statistical sampling. These are processed in five different batches and tested twice each. This plan includes proper replication of initial samples and also includes batch-to-batch variation. The repeated tests on each provide some measure and control of testing error. Each option would call for different data analysis methods and yield different conclusions.

Third Party Testing - Consensus (collaborative thinking) - Precedent - Literature

Community-developed guidelines for publishing images help address reproducibility problem in science. Images created by a plethora of high-tech instruments are widely found in scientific research as both illustrations and sources of data. Recent advancements in light (or optical) microscopy in particular have enabled sensitive, fast, and high-resolution imaging of diverse samples, making image use in scientific papers more popular than ever.

Peer Review is the evaluation of work by one or more people with similar competencies as the producers of the work (peers). It functions as a form of self-regulation by qualified members of a profession within the relevant field. Peer review methods are used to maintain quality standards, improve performance, and provide credibility.

Analytical Quality Control refers to all those processes and procedures designed to ensure that the results of laboratory analysis are consistent, comparable, accurate and within specified limits of precision. Constituents submitted to the analytical laboratory must be accurately described to avoid faulty interpretations, approximations, or incorrect results. The qualitative and quantitative data generated from the laboratory can then be used for decision making. In the chemical sense, quantitative analysis refers to the measurement of the amount or concentration of an element or chemical compound in a matrix that differs from the element or compound. Fields such as industry, medicine, and law enforcement can make use of AQC.

Good Laboratory Practice refers to a quality system of management controls for research laboratories and organizations to ensure the uniformity, consistency, reliability, reproducibility, quality, and integrity of chemical (including pharmaceuticals) non-clinical safety tests; from physio-chemical properties through acute to chronic toxicity tests.

Operational Definition is used in defining the terms of a process (or set of validation tests) needed to determine the nature of an item or phenomenon (a variable, term, or object) and its properties such as duration, quantity, extension in space, chemical composition, etc. Since the degree of operationalization can vary itself, it can result in a more or less operational definition. The procedures included in definitions should be repeatable by anyone or at least by peers.

"To see what others have seen, but think what no one else is thinking. Genius is seeing what everyone else sees and thinking what no one else has thought".

Consistency in negotiation is the need to be consistent with prior acts and statements, as well as procedures.

Consistency is one that does not contain a contradiction.

Symmetry - Conformity - Synchronicity

Odds (approximations)

Falsifiability if there is the inherent possibility that they can be proven false. They are falsifiable if it is possible to conceive of an observation or an argument which could negate them. In this sense, falsify is synonymous with nullify, meaning to invalidate or "show to be false". Fallacy.

Simplicity - Trends (statistics)

Please note that scientific methods will vary depending on the subject that you are analyzing. The procedures, techniques and equipment used in testing and verifying information will vary. Depending on what you're testing, some methods are more dependable then other methods, so there could be several variables that need to be defined first.

Law of Large Numbers is a theorem that describes the result of performing the same experiment a large number of times. According to the law, the average of the results obtained from a large number of trials should be close to the expected value, and will tend to become closer as more Trials are performed.

Computation is any type of calculation that follows a well-defined model understood and expressed as, for example, an algorithm.

Standard Deviation is a measure that is used to quantify the amount of variation or dispersion of a set of data values. A low standard deviation indicates that the data points tend to be close to the mean (also called the expected value) of the set, while a high standard deviation indicates that the data points are spread out over a wider range of values.

Parameters is any characteristic that can help in defining or classifying a particular system (meaning an event, project, object, situation, etc.). That is, a parameter is an element of a system that is useful, or critical, when identifying the system, or when evaluating its performance, status, condition, etc.

Constructing a Multiple Baseline Graph using MS Excel and Word (youtube) - (Standard Excel Spreadsheets have 1,048,576 Rows).

Scientific Visualization is the visualization of three-dimensional phenomena (architectural, meteorological, medical, biological, etc.), where the emphasis is on realistic renderings of volumes, surfaces, illumination sources, and so forth, perhaps with a dynamic (time) component". It is also considered a subset of computer graphics, a branch of computer science. The purpose of scientific visualization is to graphically illustrate scientific data to enable scientists to understand, illustrate, and glean insight from their data. Knowledge Visualization.

Correspondence Analysis a means of displaying or summarising a set of data in two-dimensional graphical form.

Scientific Poster Presentation Sample (image)

Mind Maps - Visual Reorientations

Scientific Modeling is a scientific activity, the aim of which is to make a particular part or feature of the world easier to understand, define, quantify, visualize, or simulate by referencing it to existing and usually commonly accepted knowledge. It requires selecting and identifying relevant aspects of a situation in the real world and then using different types of models for different aims, such as conceptual models to better understand, operational models to operationalize, mathematical models to quantify, and graphical models to visualize the subject. Modelling is an essential and inseparable part of many scientific disciplines have their own ideas about specific types of modelling. There is also an increasing attention to scientific modelling in fields such as science education, philosophy of science, systems theory, and knowledge visualization. There is growing collection of methods, techniques and meta-theory about all kinds of specialized scientific modelling.


Types-of-Scientific-Evidence Evidence is testimony from expert witnesses along with documentary evidence, physical evidence, facts and proof.

Measurements - Repeatable - Experiments - Research - Consensus (collaborative thinking) - Determine - Calibration

Empirical Evidence is the knowledge or source of knowledge acquired by means of the senses, particularly by observation and experimentation.

Cause-and-Effect - Testing - Process

Scientific Evidence is evidence which serves to either support or counter a scientific theory or hypothesis. Such evidence is expected to be empirical evidence and interpretation in accordance with scientific method. Standards for scientific evidence vary according to the field of inquiry, but the strength of scientific evidence is generally based on the results of statistical analysis and the strength of scientific controls.

Bias in Research - Junk Science

Real Evidence is any material object that proves a fact in issue based on the object's demonstrable physical characteristics.

Determine is to establish something after a calculation, investigation, experiment, survey, or study. Decide upon definitely; give a value. Reach, make, or come to a decision about something. Settle conclusively; come to terms. Find out, learn, or determine with certainty, usually by making an inquiry or other effort.

Criteria is a principle or standard by which something may be judged or decided. A basis for comparison; a reference point against which other things can be evaluated. The ideal in terms of which something can be judged. Precedent.

Evidence in law encompasses the rules and legal principles that govern the proof of facts in a legal proceeding. These rules determine what evidence must or must not be considered by the trier of fact in reaching its decision. The trier of fact is a judge in bench trials, or the jury in any cases involving a jury. The law of evidence is also concerned with the quantum (amount), quality, and type of proof needed to prevail in litigation. The rules vary depending upon whether the venue is a criminal court, civil court, or family court, and they vary by jurisdiction.

Federal Rules of Evidence governs the proof of facts and the inferences flowing from such facts during the trial of civil and criminal lawsuits. Rules of evidence is to regulate the evidence that the jury may use to reach a verdict. the Rules center on a few basic ideas – relevance, unfair surprise, efficiency, reliability, and overall fairness of the adversary process. much evidence that is repetitive, inflammatory, or unnecessarily confusing.

Biological Evidence refers to samples of biological material—such as hair, tissue, bones, teeth, blood, semen, or other bodily fluids—or to evidence items containing biological material (DNA Initiative 2012). Health Questions.

Direct Evidence supports the truth of an assertion directly without an intervening inference. Direct evidence in criminal law is an assertion of guilt or of innocence.

Warrant is to show something to be reasonable or to provide adequate ground for a theory. To stand behind and guarantee the quality, accuracy, or the condition of something. Warrant can also mean a formal and explicit approval from a court commanding police to perform specified acts.

Admissible Evidence is any testimonial, documentary, or tangible evidence that may be introduced to a fact finder—usually a judge or jury—to establish or to bolster a point put forth by a party to the proceeding. For evidence to be admissible, it must be relevant, without being unfairly prejudicial, and it must have some indicia of reliability. The general rule in evidence is that all relevant evidence is admissible and all irrelevant evidence is inadmissible. Investigation.

Circumstantial is indirectly suggesting something but not directly proving it. Hearsay.

Circumstantial Evidence is evidence that relies on an inference to connect it to a conclusion of fact—like a fingerprint at the scene of a crime. Circumstantial evidence consists of a fact or set of facts which, if proven, may support the creation of an inference that the matter asserted is true.

Personal Testimony - Assumptions - Invalid Arguments - Bias in Research

Indication is something that serves to indicate or suggest.

Clue is evidence that helps to solve a problem.

Anecdotal Evidence is evidence from anecdotes, i.e., evidence collected in a casual or informal manner and relying heavily or entirely on personal testimony. When compared to other types of evidence, anecdotal evidence is generally regarded as limited in value due to a number of potential weaknesses, but may be considered within the scope of scientific method as some anecdotal evidence can be both empirical and verifiable, e.g. in the use of case studies in medicine. Other anecdotal evidence, however, does not qualify as scientific evidence, because its nature prevents it from being investigated by the scientific method.

False Evidence is information created or obtained illegally, to sway the verdict in a court case. Falsified evidence could be created by either side in a case (including the police/prosecution in a criminal case), or by someone sympathetic to either side. Misleading by suppressing evidence can also be considered a form of false evidence (by omission), however, in some cases, suppressed evidence is excluded because it cannot be proved the accused was aware of the items found or of their location.

False Positive is a test result which incorrectly indicates that a particular condition or attribute is present. Contradiction.


Forensic Science collects, preserves, and analyzes scientific evidence during the course of an investigation. While some forensic scientists travel to the scene of the crime to collect the evidence themselves, others occupy a laboratory role, performing Analysis on objects brought to them by other individuals. Forensic Science is the application of science to criminal and civil laws, mainly—on the criminal side—during criminal investigation, as governed by the legal standards of admissible evidence and criminal procedure. Forensic scientists collect, preserve, and analyze scientific evidence during the course of an investigation. While some forensic scientists travel to the scene of the crime to collect the evidence themselves, others occupy a laboratory role, performing analysis on objects brought to them by other individuals. Blackstone Discovery.

Forensic Rhetoric encompasses any discussion of past action including legal discourse—the primary setting for the emergence of rhetoric as a discipline and theory.

Junk Science - Dry Labbing

Hair and Fiber Evidence. Fibers are considered a form of trace evidence that can be transferred from the clothing of a suspect to the clothing of a victim during the commission of a crime. Fibers can also transfer from a fabric source such as a carpet, bed, or furniture at a crime scene. Hair is considered class evidence when the follicle is not attached because the follicle is the part that contains DNA. When the follicle is attached, it is considered individual evidence. Hair and fibre are two of the most important resources in Forensic Science and are often responsible for providing valuable clues as to the identity of an assailant or attacker. The discovery of hair on the body of a victim or on the clothes of someone who has been the victim of an assault can often be used to determine race and sex. It can also be used to extrapolate DNA for comparison. Although hair is classified as benign dead matter it still contains DNA even though the hair itself is not actually a living organism but is merely pushed through the follicles of the scalp, arms, legs or any other part of the anatomy where hair is found. Fibres too are an important discovery and can go some way to determining what an attacker or killer was wearing at the time of the incident. Many forensic scientists use fibres as a means of determining the nature of the item worn and in some instances can be as precise as to identify the make of the garment and thus the manufacturer. In some instances this technique is so successful that garments that are rare or indeed specially made can be identified and thus a list of possible suspects drawn up simply by the number of units sold.

Trace Evidence is created when objects make contact. The material is often transferred by heat or induced by contact friction. Trace Evidence Unit identifies and compares specific types of trace materials that could be transferred during the commission of a violent crime. These trace materials include human hair, animal hair, textile fibers and fabric, rope, soil, glass, and building materials.

Forensic Photography is an activity that records the initial appearance of the crime scene and physical evidence, in order to provide a permanent record for the courts. Crime scene photography differs from other variations of photography because crime scene photographers usually have a very specific purpose for capturing each image.

Forensic Chemistry is the application of chemistry and its subfield, forensic toxicology, in a legal setting. A forensic chemist can assist in the identification of unknown materials found at a crime scene. Specialists in this field have a wide array of methods and instruments to help identify unknown substances. These include high-performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, atomic absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thin layer chromatography. The range of different methods is important due to the destructive nature of some instruments and the number of possible unknown substances that can be found at a scene. Forensic chemists prefer using nondestructive methods first, to preserve evidence and to determine which destructive methods will produce the best results.

Carbon Dating - Fossil Records

Traffic Collision Reconstruction is the scientific process of investigating, analyzing, and drawing conclusions about the causes and events during a vehicle collision. Reconstructionists are employed to conduct in-depth collision analysis and reconstruction to identify the collision causation and contributing factors in different types of collisions, including the role of the driver(s), vehicle(s), roadway and the environment. The laws of physics and engineering principles such as the conservation of linear momentum, work-energy methods, and kinematics are the basis for these analyses and may make use of software to calculate useful quantities. The accident reconstruction provides rigorous analysis that an expert witnesses can present at trial. Accident reconstructions are done in cases involving fatalities, and often when personal injury is involved. Results from accident reconstructions are also useful in developing recommendations for making roads and highways safer, as well as improving safety aspects of motor vehicle designs. These reconstructions are often conducted by forensic engineers, specialized units in law enforcement agencies, or private consultants.

Event Data Recorder is a device installed in some automobiles to record information related to vehicle crashes or accidents. It is similar to an accident data recorder and is sometimes referred to informally as an automotive "black box", which is the common nickname for flight recorders. In the USA EDRs must meet federal standards, as described within the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations. The black box of in-vehicle data recorders terms are larger as they can refer to EDR or to Journey data recorders such as Digital tachograph in Europe or Electronic logging device in the USA. In modern diesel trucks, EDRs are triggered by electronically sensed problems in the engine (often called faults), or a sudden change in wheel speed. One or more of these conditions may occur because of an accident. Information from these devices can be collected after a crash and analyzed to help determine what the vehicles were doing before, during and after the crash or event. The term generally refers to a simple, tamper-proof, read-write memory device. MVEDR is an acronym for Motor Vehicle Event Data Recorder, also commonly known as EDR or Vehicle Black Box, is similar to an Event data recorder or an accident data recorder. Some EDRs continuously record data, overwriting the previous few minutes until a crash stops them, and others are activated by crash-like events (such as sudden changes in velocity) and may continue to record until the accident is over, or until the recording time is expired. EDRs may record a wide range of data elements, potentially including whether the brakes were applied, the speed at the time of impact, the steering angle, and whether seat belt circuits were shown as "Buckled" or "Unbuckled" at the time of the crash. Current EDRs store the information internally on an EEPROM until recovered from the module. Some vehicles have communications systems (such as GM's OnStar system) that may transmit some data, such as an alert that the airbags have been deployed, to a remote location. Most EDRs in automobiles and light trucks are part of the restraint system control module, which senses impact accelerations and determines what restraints (airbags and/or seatbelt tensioners) to deploy. After the deployment (or non-deployment) decisions are made, and if there is still power available, the data are written to memory. The data downloaded from older EDRs usually contain 6 to 8 pages of information, though many newer systems include many more data elements and require more pages, depending on the make/model/year of the vehicle being evaluated. Depending on the type of EDR, it may contain either a deployment file or a non-deployment file or sometimes both, depending on the circumstances of the collisions and the time interval between them, among other things.

Accident Data Recorder is an independent electronic device that records before, during, and after a traffic accident relevant data and thus resembles a flight recorder.

Flight Recorder is an electronic recording device placed in an aircraft for the purpose of facilitating the investigation of aviation accidents and incidents. Flight recorders are also known by the misnomer black box—they are, in fact, painted bright orange in color to aid in their recovery after accidents. There are two different flight recorder devices: the flight data recorder preserves the recent history of the flight through the recording of dozens of parameters collected several times per second; the cockpit voice recorder preserves the recent history of the sounds in the cockpit, including the conversation of the pilots. The two devices may be combined into a single unit. Together, the FDR and CVR objectively document the aircraft's flight history, which may assist in any later investigation. The two flight recorders are required by international regulation, overseen by the International Civil Aviation Organization, to be capable of surviving the conditions likely to be encountered in a severe aircraft accident. For this reason, they are typically specified to withstand an impact of 3400 g and temperatures of over 1,000 °C (1,830 °F), as required by EUROCAE ED-112. They have been a mandatory requirement in commercial aircraft in the United States since 1967. After the unexplained disappearance of Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 in 2014, commentators have called for live streaming of data to the ground, as well as extending the battery life of the underwater locator beacons.

Data Logger is an electronic device that records data over time or in relation to location either with a built in instrument or sensor or via external instruments and sensors. Increasingly, but not entirely, they are based on a digital processor (or computer), and called digital data loggers (DDL). They generally are small, battery powered, portable, and equipped with a microprocessor, internal memory for data storage, and sensors. Some data loggers interface with a personal computer, and use software to activate the data logger and view and analyze the collected data, while others have a local interface device (keypad, LCD) and can be used as a stand-alone device. Data loggers vary between general purpose types for a range of measurement applications to very specific devices for measuring in one environment or application type only. It is common for general purpose types to be programmable; however, many remain as static machines with only a limited number or no changeable parameters. Electronic data loggers have replaced chart recorders in many applications. One of the primary benefits of using data loggers is the ability to automatically collect data on a 24-hour basis. Upon activation, data loggers are typically deployed and left unattended to measure and record information for the duration of the monitoring period. This allows for a comprehensive, accurate picture of the environmental conditions being monitored, such as air temperature and relative humidity. The cost of data loggers has been declining over the years as technology improves and costs are reduced. Simple single channel data loggers cost as little as $25. More complicated loggers may costs hundreds or thousands of dollars.

Forensic Engineering has been defined as "the investigation of failures - ranging from serviceability to catastrophic - which may lead to legal activity, including both civil and criminal". It includes the investigation of materials, products, structures or components that fail or do not operate or function as intended, causing personal injury, damage to property or economic loss. The consequences of failure may give rise to action under either criminal or civil law including but not limited to health and safety legislation, the laws of contract and/or product liability and the laws of tort. The field also deals with retracing processes and procedures leading to accidents in operation of vehicles or machinery. Generally, the purpose of a forensic engineering investigation is to locate cause or causes of failure with a view to improve performance or life of a component, or to assist a court in determining the facts of an accident. It can also involve investigation of intellectual property claims, especially patents.

Failure Analysis is the process of collecting and analyzing data to determine the cause of a failure, often with the goal of determining corrective actions or liability. According to Bloch and Geitner, machinery failures reveal a reaction chain of cause and effect… usually a deficiency commonly referred to as the symptom…”. failure analysis can save money, lives, and resources if done correctly and acted upon. It is an important discipline in many branches of manufacturing industry, such as the electronics industry, where it is a vital tool used in the development of new products and for the improvement of existing products. The failure analysis process relies on collecting failed components for subsequent examination of the cause or causes of failure using a wide array of methods, especially microscopy and spectroscopy. Nondestructive testing methods (such as industrial computed tomography scanning) are valuable because the failed products are unaffected by analysis, so inspection sometimes starts using these methods.

Computational Criminology uses computing science methods to formally define criminology concepts, improve our understanding of complex phenomena, and generate solutions for related problems.

Random Coincidence - Procedures

Exception to the Rule or Exception that proves the rule is a saying that does not mean that an exception demonstrates a rule to be true or to exist, but that may only test the rule. It is usually used when an exception to a rule has been believed to be identified.

Junk Science

Junk Science is used to describe misleading scientific data, research, or analysis that is intended to deceive, or is outright fraudulent. The phrase usually conveys that the research has been driven by political, ideological, financial, or otherwise unscientific motives. In some contexts, junk science is an invalid aurgument when described as "sound science" or "solid science" that favors one's own point of view. Junk science has been criticized for undermining public trust in real science. The phrase junk science was popularized in the 1990s in relation to expert testimony in civil litigation. More recently, invoking the concept has been a tactic to criticize research on the harmful environmental or public health effects of corporate activities, and occasionally in response to such criticism. Author Dan Agin in his book Junk Science harshly criticized those who deny the basic premise of global warming.

Fraudulent Research - Disinformation - Invalid Argument - Roundabout Speech - Fake News - Half Truth - Trick Questions - Skepticism - Fallacies - Pseudoscience - Science Fraud

Pathological Science is an area of research where "people are tricked into false results.

Junk Science and the American Criminal Justice System. This fascinating book by Innocence Project attorney M. Chris Fabricant shows how junk science in our criminal justice system is used to convict the innocent. (amazon).

How Junk Science convicted an Innocent Man | Part 2 (youtube) - A man was wrongly convicted of murder on the basis of forensic bite mark evidence, which is not scientifically proven. But that doesn't stop ignorant people from claiming that a bite mark is an accurate match, or does it stop an ignorant judge from allowing this type of unproven evidence in a court of law.

Anecdotal Evidence is evidence based only on personal observation, collected in a casual or non-systematic manner. Anecdotal reports are often called a testimonial. Testimonial consists of a person's written or spoken statement extolling the virtue of a product, such as an endorsement or paid sponsorship. Expert witness can be bought and manipulated by money.

Argument from IgnoranceInformal Fallacy argument that uses faulty reasoning - Confirmation BiasBias confirming existing attitudes - Correlation does not imply CausationFaulty Generalization – Conclusion made on the basis of one or few instances of a phenomenon. Hasty Generalization – Conclusion made on the basis of one or few instances of a phenomenon.

Agrippa Trilemma argues that we have no reason to believe that P for any P. The Trilemma has three modes: Infinite Regress, Vicious Circle and Ad Hoc Assumption.

Paradox is a statement that is seemingly contradictory or opposed to common sense and yet is perhaps true. Something having seemingly contradictory qualities or phases.

Ad Hoc Hypothesis is another hypothesis that is added to a theory in order to save it from being falsified. Scientists are often skeptical of theories that rely on frequent, unsupported adjustments to sustain them. This is because, if a theorist so chooses, there is no limit to the number of ad hoc hypotheses that they could add. Thus the theory becomes more and more complex, but is never falsified. This is often at a cost to the theory's predictive power, however. Ad hoc hypotheses are often characteristic of pseudoscientific subjects. Often, ad hoc hypothesizing is employed to compensate for anomalies not anticipated by the theory in its unmodified form.

Vicious Circle is a sequence of reciprocal cause and effect in which two or more elements intensify and aggravate each other, leading inexorably to a worsening of the situation. A vicious circle is a complex chain of events that reinforces itself through a feedback loop, with detrimental results. It is a system with no tendency toward equilibrium, at least in the short run. Each iteration of the cycle reinforces the previous one, in an example of positive feedback. medialiteracy. Roundabout Speech.

Infinite Regress is a sequence of reasoning or justification which can never come to an end. Like asking why after every answer. It is an infinite series of entities governed by a recursive principle that determines how each entity in the series depends on or is produced by its predecessor. In the epistemic regress, for example, a belief is justified because it is based on another belief that is justified. But this other belief is itself in need of one more justified belief for itself to be justified and so on. An infinite regress argument is an argument against a theory based on the fact that this theory leads to an infinite regress. For such an argument to be successful, it has to demonstrate not just that the theory in question entails an infinite regress but also that this regress is vicious. There are different ways in which a regress can be vicious. The most serious form of viciousness involves a contradiction in the form of metaphysical impossibility. Other forms occur when the infinite regress is responsible for the theory in question being implausible or for its failure to solve the problem it was formulated to solve. Traditionally, it was often assumed without much argument that each infinite regress is vicious but this assumption has been put into question in contemporary philosophy. While some philosophers have explicitly defended theories with infinite regresses, the more common strategy has been to reformulate the theory in question in a way that avoids the regress. One such strategy is foundationalism, which posits that there is a first element in the series from which all the other elements arise but which is not itself explained this way. Another way is coherentism, which is based on a holistic explanation that usually sees the entities in question not as a linear series but as an interconnected network. Infinite regress arguments have been made in various areas of philosophy. Famous examples include the cosmological argument, Bradley's regress and regress arguments in epistemology.

Axiom is a statement or proposition which is regarded as being established, accepted, or self-evidently true. An axiom, postulate, or assumption is a statement that is taken to be true, to serve as a premise or starting point for further reasoning and arguments.

Münchhausen Trilemma is a thought experiment intended to demonstrate the theoretical impossibility of proving any truth, even in the fields of logic and mathematics, without appealing to accepted assumptions. If it is asked how any given proposition is known to be true, proof may be provided. Yet that same question can be asked of the proof, and any subsequent proof. The Münchhausen trilemma is that there are only three ways of completing a proof: The circular argument, in which the proof of some proposition presupposes the truth of that very proposition. The regressive argument, in which each proof requires a further proof, ad infinitum. The dogmatic argument, which rests on accepted precepts which are merely asserted rather than defended. The trilemma, then, is the decision among the three equally unsatisfying options. Karl Popper's suggestion was to accept the trilemma as unsolvable and work with knowledge by way of conjecture and criticism. Truth is Debatable.

Theory's - Hypothesis - Premise - Proof

Hypothesis is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon. For a hypothesis to be a scientific hypothesis, the scientific method requires that one can test it. Scientists generally base scientific hypotheses on previous observations that cannot satisfactorily be explained with the available scientific theories. Even though the words "hypothesis" and "theory" are often used synonymously, a scientific hypothesis is not the same as a scientific theory. A working hypothesis is a provisionally accepted hypothesis proposed for further research.

Hypothetical is a scenario that's based on an opinion and incomplete evidence that describes something that may exist as a possibility, or as an unproven idea or theory. Something based on an informed guess or a theory that may or may not be true and serving as a hypothesis, which means an idea, or a guess, that you are going to test through an experiment. Relative - Past Rulings.

Statistical Hypothesis Testing is a hypothesis that is testable on the basis of observing a process that is modeled via a set of random variables.

Continuum Hypothesis is a hypothesis about the possible sizes of infinite sets. It states: There is no set whose cardinality is strictly between that of the integers and the real numbers.

Theory is an combination of thoughts or ideas derived from a rational type of abstract or generalizing thinking, or are the results of such thinking. Depending on the context, the results might for example include generalized explanations of how nature works. The word has its roots in ancient Greek, but in modern use it has taken on several different related meanings. A good theory does not make an assumption or asks trick questions.

Scientific Theory is a well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world that is acquired through the scientific method and repeatedly tested and confirmed, preferably using a written, predefined, protocol of observations and experiments. Scientific theories are the most reliable, rigorous, and comprehensive form of scientific knowledge. Peer Reviewed.

Theoretical is concerned primarily with theories or hypotheses rather than practical considerations. Aiming to understand fundamental principles rather than developing practical applications.

Prove it to be True. Prove it to be False. How Necessary is it to Prove? What are your priorities?

"By observation we can deduce how something, anything works" (Victor Scauberger)

Computational Complexity Theory focuses on classifying computational problems according to their inherent difficulty, and relating those classes to each other. A computational problem is understood to be a task that is in principle amenable to being solved by a computer, which is equivalent to stating that the problem may be solved by mechanical application of mathematical steps, such as an algorithm.

Premise is a statement that is assumed to be true, often as an explanation from which a conclusion can be drawn. To take something as preexisting and given. To set forth an idea beforehand.

Premise is a statement that what an argument claims will induce or justify a conclusion. In other words: a premise is an assumption that something is true. In logic, an argument requires a set of (at least) two declarative sentences (or "propositions") known as the premises or premises along with another declarative sentence (or "proposition") known as the conclusion. This structure of two premises and one conclusion forms the basic argumentative structure. More complex arguments can use a series of rules to connect several premises to one conclusion, or to derive a number of conclusions from the original premises which then act as premises for additional conclusions. An example of this is the use of the rules of inference found within symbolic logic. Statistics.

Axiom is a statement or proposition which is regarded as being established, accepted, or self-evidently true.

Instrumentalism is a methodological view that ideas are useful instruments, and that the worth of an idea is based on how effective it is in explaining and predicting natural phenomena. According to instrumentalists, a successful scientific theory reveals nothing known either true or false about nature's unobservable objects, properties or processes. Scientific theory is merely a tool whereby humans predict observations in a particular domain of nature by formulating laws, which state or summarize regularities, while theories themselves do not reveal supposedly hidden aspects of nature that somehow explain these laws.

What's your Point? What are you trying to say? What is the essential idea that you are trying to convey? Where are you going with this? What's the core of what you're saying? What do you mean? What conclusion should be inferred? Point.

Assertion is a declaration that is made emphatically as if no supporting evidence were necessary. The act of affirming or asserting or stating something.

Suppose is to expect something to be true. To believe or take something for granted or as a given. Supposition is a message expressing an opinion based on incomplete evidence. Prove.

Postulate is a proposition that is accepted as true in order to provide a basis for logical reasoning. Must previously have happened or existed, happen or be in place during (in order for stated thing to be happening or be the case). Take as a given; Maintain or assert. Summary.

Proposition is a statement that affirms or denies something and is either true or false. A proposal offered for acceptance or rejection. The act of making a proposal or an offer. Proposition is a tentative and conjectural relationship between constructs that is stated in a declarative form.

Proposal is to present or to put forward something for consideration, examination and criticism. Something declared or offered such as a plan, goal or an assumption. Nominate someone for appointment to an office or for an honor or position.

Request for Proposal - Business Proposal

Introduce is to cause something to become know personally before the public for the first time. To bring in and put before or establish something new into a new place or new environment. Enlighten.

Statement is a definite or clear expression of something in speech or writing. An official account of facts, views, or plans, especially one for release to the media. A formal account of events given by a witness, defendant, or other party to the police or in a court of law. Inform - Disseminate.

Fundamentals are principles from which other truths can be derived. Any factor that could be considered important to the understanding of a particular business.

Cornerstone are the fundamental assumptions from which something is begun, developed, calculated or explained. A stone in the exterior of a large and important building; usually carved with a date and laid with appropriate ceremonies. A stone at the outer corner of two intersecting masonry walls. Groundwork - Capstone.

Hitchens's Razor is an epistemological razor asserting that the burden of proof regarding the truthfulness of a claim lies with the one who makes the claim, and if this burden is not met, the claim is unfounded, and its opponents need not argue further in order to dismiss it.

Philosophical Razor is a principle or rule of thumb that allows one to eliminate or shave off unlikely explanations for a phenomenon, or avoid unnecessary actions. Process of Elimination.

Occam's Razor is when all things being equal, the simplest explanation is probably the correct one. (Elegant Simplicity).

Extraordinary Claims require Extraordinary Evidence is related to Occam's razor in the sense that according to such a heuristic, simpler explanations are preferred to more complicated ones. Only in situations where extraordinary evidence exists would an extraordinary claim be the simplest explanation.

If it looks like a Duck, swims like a duck, and quacks like a duck, then it probably is a duck. Duck Test implies that a person can identify an unknown subject by observing that subject's habitual characteristics. It is sometimes used to counter abstruse arguments that something is not what it appears to be.

The Five W's and an H (What? When? Where? Who? Why? How?). Evidence.

Science is more than just peer reviewed (reddit video) - Literature - Repeatable

Operational Definition is the application of operationalization used in defining the terms of a process (or set of validation tests) needed to determine the nature of an item or phenomenon (e.g. a variable, term, or object) and its properties such as duration, quantity, extension in space, chemical composition, etc. Since the degree of operationalization can vary itself, it can result in a more or less operational definition. The procedures included in definitions should be repeatable by anyone or at least by peers.

Speculate is to form a theory about a subject without firm evidence along with an element of doubt or without sufficient reason to reach a conclusion. Speculation is a message expressing an opinion based on incomplete evidence. A hypothesis that has been formed by speculating or conjecturing usually with little hard evidence. An investment that is very risky but could yield great profits.

Conjecture is expressing an opinion based on incomplete evidence. Reasoning that involves the formation of conclusions from incomplete evidence. To believe especially on uncertain or tentative grounds. False Advertising.

Guess is an opinion based on incomplete evidence. An estimate based on little or no information.

Unsubstantiated is unsupported by other evidence. Validity.

Criticism of Science addresses problems within science in order to improve science as a whole and its role in society. Criticisms come from philosophy, from social movements like feminism, and from within science itself. The emerging field of metascience seeks to increase the quality of and efficiency of scientific research by improving the scientific process.

Odds - Probability - Statistics - Debunking - Refuting - Scrutiny - Junk Science

Rhetoric of Science explores the notion that the practice of science is a rhetorical activity. Rhetoric is best known as a discipline that studies the means and ends of persuasion. Science, meanwhile, is typically seen as the discovery and recording of knowledge about the natural world. A key contention of rhetoric of science is that the practice of science is, to varying degrees, persuasive. The study of science from this viewpoint variously examines modes of inquiry, logic, argumentation, the ethos of scientific practitioners, the structures of scientific publications, and the character of scientific discourse and debates.

Fringe Science is an inquiry in an established field of study which departs significantly from mainstream theories in that field and is considered to be questionable by the mainstream. Fringe science may be either a questionable application of a scientific approach to a field of study or an approach whose status as scientific is widely questioned. DIY.

Commensurability is a concept in the philosophy of science whereby scientific theories are commensurable if scientists can discuss them using a shared nomenclature that allows direct comparison of theories to determine which theory is more valid or useful. On the other hand, theories are incommensurable if they are embedded in starkly contrasting conceptual frameworks whose languages do not overlap sufficiently to permit scientists to directly compare the theories or to cite empirical evidence favoring one theory over the other.

Theorem is a statement that has been proven on the basis of previously established statements, such as other theorems, and generally accepted statements, such as axioms. A theorem is a logical consequence of the axioms. The proof of a mathematical theorem is a logical argument for the theorem statement given in accord with the rules of a deductive system. The proof of a theorem is often interpreted as justification of the truth of the theorem statement. In light of the requirement that theorems be proved, the concept of a theorem is fundamentally deductive, in contrast to the notion of a scientific law, which is experimental.

Axiom is a statement that is taken to be true, to serve as a premise or starting point for further reasoning and arguments. Axiom is a saying that is widely accepted on its own merits. Axiom in logic is a proposition that is not susceptible of proof or disproof; its truth is assumed to be self-evident.

Mathematical Proof is an inferential argument for a mathematical statement. In the argument, other previously established statements, such as theorems, can be used. In principle, a proof can be traced back to self-evident or assumed statements, known as axioms, along with accepted rules of inference. Axioms may be treated as conditions that must be met before the statement applies. Proofs are examples of exhaustive deductive reasoning or inductive reasoning and are distinguished from empirical arguments or non-exhaustive inductive reasoning (or "reasonable expectation"). A proof must demonstrate that a statement is always true (occasionally by listing all possible cases and showing that it holds in each), rather than enumerate many confirmatory cases. An unproved proposition that is believed to be true is known as a conjecture. Proofs employ logic but usually include some amount of natural language which usually admits some ambiguity. In fact, the vast majority of proofs in written mathematics can be considered as applications of rigorous informal logic. Purely formal proofs, written in symbolic language instead of natural language, are considered in proof theory. The distinction between formal and informal proofs has led to much examination of current and historical mathematical practice, quasi-empiricism in mathematics, and so-called folk mathematics (in both senses of that term). The philosophy of mathematics is concerned with the role of language and logic in proofs, and mathematics as a language.

Formulate - Explain

First Principle is a basic, foundational, self-evident proposition or assumption that cannot be deduced from any other proposition or assumption. In mathematics, first principles are referred to as axioms or postulates. In physics and other sciences, theoretical work is said to be from first principles, or ab initio, if it starts directly at the level of established science and does not make assumptions such as empirical model and parameter fitting. In philosophy, first principles are taught by Aristotelians, and nuanced versions of first principles are referred to as postulates by Kantians. Analogies.

Scientific Paradigm is a framework containing all the commonly accepted views about a subject, conventions about what direction research should take and how it should be performed.

Credulity is the ability to believe or accept something. To strain credulity means that while anything is possible, this is so highly unlikely as to not merit any serious discussion. Some things are just beyond belief. Postulate.

Formulate is to come up with an idea, plan, explanation, theory, or principle, after a mental effort. Put something into words or an expression. Prepare something according to a formula.

Formulation is the putting together of components in appropriate relationships or structures, according to a formula.

Reformulation is inventing or contriving an idea or explanation and formulating it mentally. The style of expressing yourself. A substance prepared according to a formula.

Formula is a concise way of expressing information symbolically, as in a mathematical formula or a chemical formula. The informal use of the term formula in science refers to the general construct of a relationship between given quantities. Math Formula - Chemical Formula.

Making a Strong Claim. Hedges are a non-committal or intentionally ambiguous statement, and in writing they can weaken your argument. When making your claim, state it as a fact, and then defend it using credible evidence. In an argumentative paper, this statement would be followed by explanations of the claim and evidence supporting it.

Coincidence - Anomaly - Errors

Falsifiability: If it is contradicted by a basic statement, which, in an eventual successful or failed falsification, must respectively correspond to a true or hypothetical observation.

Proof - Proving

Proof or Proving is to demonstrate the truth of something by presenting accurate and valid evidence, or providing and showing sufficient evidence, or providing a sufficient argument for the truth of a proposition that has been presented.

Back it Up is to provide support for something and to prove something is true.

Provide Support is to find evidence or experts who agree with your idea.

Established is something shown to be valid beyond a reasonable doubt. To establish the validity of something, as by an example, explanation or experiment. Conforming with accepted standards. Set up or lay the groundwork for. Brought about or set up or accepted. Ground work is work that is done in preparation for something that will happen later.

Explain - Determine - Repeat - Real Life Examples - Research - Tested - Drug Research

Proof Positive is evidence taken to be final or absolute proof of the existence of something. Something which definitely shows that something else is true or correct.

Substantiate is provide evidence to support or prove the truth of something. To establish or strengthen an argument using new evidence or facts. To make something real or concrete or to give reality or substance to something. To support, confirm and reinforce. Precedent.

Attest is to provide evidence for an assertion that stands as proof of an occurrence. To authenticate and affirm something to be true, genuine, or correct, as in an official capacity. To establish or verify. Attest in law is to give testimony in a court of law. To show by one's behavior, attitude, or external attributes. Affirm.

Burden of Proof is the obligation on a party in a dispute to provide sufficient warrant for their position or opinion. Law.

Proof of Concept is a realization of a certain method or idea in order to demonstrate its feasibility, or a demonstration in principle with the aim of verifying that some concept or theory has practical potential. A proof of concept is usually small and may or may not be complete.

Concept Testing is the process of using surveys or qualitative methods to evaluate consumer acceptance of a new product idea prior to the introduction of a product to the market.

Field Tested is a test on a product that is carried out in the environment in which a product or device is intended to be used. The research is conducted in real-world settings where the process of testing and evaluating an application is done in real-world conditions. This type of testing is done outside of the highly controlled development environment in a laboratory. Field Experiments require researchers to retain some control over randomization and implementation in order to measure intended use parameters. Quasi-experiments occur when treatments are administered as-if randomly. To prove accuracy it is best to randomly assign subjects (or other sampling units) to either treatment or control groups to test claims of causal relationships. Random assignment helps establish the comparability of the treatment and control group so that any differences between them that emerge after the treatment has been administered plausibly reflect the influence of the treatment rather than pre-existing differences between the groups. and often unobtrusively and control not only the subject pool but selection and overtness,

Proving Ground is a place for scientific experimentation or testing, or a place where prototypes are developed and tried out.

The Proof is in the Pudding means that you have to try something in order to know if that something is good or bad.

Prove it before you do it. Put your reasoning in writing first, then do the experiments.

Axiomatic is being evident without proof or argument.

Untenable is something incapable of being defended or justified.

Tenable is something based on sound reasoning or evidence. well-founded.

Postulate is a a proposition that is accepted as true in order to provide a basis for logical reasoning. Take as a given. Maintain or assert. Must previously have happened or existed.

Predicate is to affirm or declare as an attribute or the quality of something. Theory.

Affirm is to establish or strengthen as with new evidence or facts. To declare or affirm solemnly and formally as true. Say yes to.

Assert is to insist on having one's opinions and rights recognized. To declare or affirm solemnly and formally as true.

Formal Proof is a finite sequence of sentences called well-formed formulas in the case of a formal language, each of which is an axiom, an assumption, or follows from the preceding sentences in the sequence by a rule of inference. It differs from a natural language argument in that it is rigorous, unambiguous and mechanically checkable. If the set of assumptions is empty, then the last sentence in a formal proof is called a theorem of the formal system. The notion of theorem is not in general effective, therefore there may be no method by which we can always find a proof of a given sentence or determine that none exists. The concepts of Fitch-style proof, sequent calculus and natural deduction are generalizations of the concept of proof. The theorem is a syntactic consequence of all the well-formed formulas preceding it in the proof. For a well-formed formula to qualify as part of a proof, it must be the result of applying a rule of the deductive apparatus (of some formal system) to the previous well-formed formulas in the proof sequence. Formal proofs often are constructed with the help of computers in interactive theorem proving (e.g., through the use of proof checker and automated theorem prover). Significantly, these proofs can be checked automatically, also by computer. Checking formal proofs is usually simple, while the problem of finding proofs (automated theorem proving) is usually computationally intractable and/or only semi-decidable, depending upon the formal system in use.

Well-Formed Formula is a finite sequence of symbols from a given alphabet that is part of a formal language. A formal language can be identified with the set of formulas in the language. A formula is a syntactic object that can be given a semantic meaning by means of an interpretation. Two key uses of formulas are in propositional logic and predicate logic.

Scientific Law or laws of science are statements that describe or predict a range of natural phenomena. A scientific law is a statement based on repeated experiments or observations that describe some aspect of the natural world. The term law has diverse usage in many cases (approximate, accurate, broad, or narrow) across all fields of natural science (physics, chemistry, biology, geology, astronomy, etc.). Laws are developed from data and can be further developed through mathematics; in all cases they are directly or indirectly based on empirical evidence. It is generally understood that they implicitly reflect, though they do not explicitly assert, causal relationships fundamental to reality, and are discovered rather than invented. Scientific laws summarize the results of experiments or observations, usually within a certain range of application. In general, the accuracy of a law does not change when a new theory of the relevant phenomenon is worked out, but rather the scope of the law's application, since the mathematics or statement representing the law does not change. As with other kinds of scientific knowledge, laws do not have absolute certainty (as mathematical theorems or identities do), and it is always possible for a law to be contradicted, restricted, or extended by future observations. A law can usually be formulated as one or several statements or equations, so that it can be used to predict the outcome of an experiment, given the circumstances of the processes taking place. Laws differ from hypotheses and postulates, which are proposed during the scientific process before and during validation by experiment and observation. Hypotheses and postulates are not laws since they have not been verified to the same degree, although they may lead to the formulation of laws. Laws are narrower in scope than scientific theories, which may entail one or several laws. Science distinguishes a law or theory from facts. Calling a law a fact is ambiguous, an overstatement, or an equivocation. The nature of scientific laws has been much discussed in philosophy, but in essence scientific laws are simply empirical conclusions reached by scientific method; they are intended to be neither laden with ontological commitments nor statements of logical absolutes.

Laws of Science are statements that describe or predict a range of phenomena behave as they appear to in nature. The term "law" has diverse usage in many cases: approximate, accurate, broad or narrow theories, in all natural scientific disciplines (physics, chemistry, biology, geology, astronomy etc.). Scientific laws summarize and explain a large collection of facts determined by experiment, and are tested based on their ability to predict the results of future experiments. They are developed either from facts or through mathematics, and are strongly supported by empirical evidence. It is generally understood that they reflect causal relationships fundamental to reality, and are discovered rather than invented. Testing.

Data Driven Science is an interdisciplinary field about scientific methods, processes and systems to extract knowledge or insights from data in various forms, either structured or unstructured, similar to Knowledge Discovery in Databases (KDD). Data science is a "concept to unify statistics, data analysis and their related methods" in order to "understand and analyze actual phenomena" with data. It employs techniques and theories drawn from many fields within the broad areas of mathematics, statistics, information science, and computer science, in particular from the subdomains of machine learning, classification, cluster analysis, data mining, databases, and visualization.

I will believe it when I see it means that you doubt that something can happen based on the fact that you have never personally seen it happen, but it could happen, you're just not depending on it to happen. And if it does happen, then you will believe it and except it.

Physical Law is a theoretical statement "inferred from particular facts, applicable to a defined group or class of phenomena, and expressible by the statement that a particular phenomenon always occurs if certain conditions be present." Physical laws are typically conclusions based on repeated scientific experiments and observations over many years and which have become accepted universally within the scientific community. The production of a summary description of our environment in the form of such laws is a fundamental aim of science. These terms are not used the same way by all authors. The distinction between natural law in the political-legal sense and law of nature or physical law in the scientific sense is a modern one, both concepts being equally derived from physis, the Greek word (translated into Latin as natura) for nature. Forces of Nature.

Scientific Study

Observational Study draws inferences about the possible effect of a treatment on subjects, where the assignment of subjects into a treated group versus a control group is outside the control of the investigator.

Randomized Controlled Trial is a type of scientific experiment, often in the medical field, where the people being studied are randomly allocated one of the different treatments. Research.

Scientific Progress is the idea that science increases its problem-solving ability through the application of the scientific method.

Retrospective Cohort Study is a longitudinal cohort study that studies a cohort of individuals that share a common exposure factor to determine its influence on the development of a disease, and are compared to another group of equivalent individuals that were not exposed to that factor. Retrospective cohort studies have existed for approximately as long as prospective cohort studies.

Prospective Cohort Study is a longitudinal cohort study that follows over time a group of similar individuals (cohorts) who differ with respect to certain factors under study, to determine how these factors affect rates of a certain outcome. For example, one might follow a cohort of middle-aged truck drivers who vary in terms of smoking habits, to test the hypothesis that the 20-year incidence rate of lung cancer will be highest among heavy smokers, followed by moderate smokers, and then nonsmokers.

Meta-Analysis is a statistical analysis that combines the results of multiple scientific studies.

Nomenclature is a system of names or terms, or the rules for forming these terms in a particular field of arts or sciences. The principal of naming vary from the relatively informal conventions of everyday speech to the internationally agreed principles, rules and recommendations that govern the formation and use of the specialist terms used in scientific and any other disciplines. Naming "things" is a part of general human communication using words and language: it is an aspect of everyday taxonomy as people distinguish the objects of their experience, together with their similarities and differences, which observers identify, name and classify. The use of names, as the many different kinds of nouns embedded in different languages, connects nomenclature to theoretical linguistics, while the way humans mentally structure the world in relation to word meanings and experience relates to the philosophy of language. Onomastics is the study of proper names and their origins, includes anthroponymy (concerned with human names, including personal names, surnames and nicknames); toponymy is the study of place names. Etymology is the derivation, history and use of names as revealed through comparative and descriptive linguistics. The scientific need for simple, stable and internationally accepted systems for naming objects of the natural world has generated many formal nomenclatural systems. Probably the best known of these nomenclatural systems are the five codes of biological nomenclature that govern the Latinized scientific names of organisms.

Related Subjects - Problem Solving Methods - Creativity - Planning - Reasoning - Communication - Train - Instruct - Independent Learning - Investigation - Questioning - Develop - Development Meaning - Development Process

Science Literature

Scientific Literature comprises scholarly publications that report original empirical work and theoretical work in the natural and social sciences, and within an academic field, often abbreviated as the literature.

Thesis - Argument - Research - Evidence - Junk Science - Conflict of Interest

Scientific Journal is a periodical publication intended to further the progress of science, usually by reporting new research.

Academic Publishing is the process of contributing the results of one's research into the literature, which often requires a peer-review process. Original scientific research published for the first time in scientific journals is called the primary literature. Patents and technical reports, for minor research results and engineering and design work (including computer software), can also be considered primary literature. Secondary sources include review articles (which summarize the findings of published studies to highlight advances and new lines of research) and books (for large projects or broad arguments, including compilations of articles). Tertiary sources might include encyclopedias and similar works intended for broad public consumption.

Citations - Information Literacy - Peer Reviewed - Repeatable

Academic Journal is a periodical publication in which scholarship relating to a particular academic discipline is published. Academic journals serve as permanent and transparent forums for the presentation, scrutiny, and discussion of research. They are usually peer-reviewed or refereed. Content typically takes the form of articles presenting original research, review articles, and book reviews.

Journal is a collection of articles that is published regularly throughout the year, like a magazine. Journals present the most recent research, and journal articles are written by experts, for experts.

Research Article is a journal article in which the authors report on the research they did. A research article is a report that details the results of an author's original research. It typically aims to contribute to the existing body of academic material within a given field. Research articles are sometimes primary sources. Whether or not a research article is peer reviewed depends on the journal that publishes it.

Technical Report is a document that describes the process, progress, or results of technical or scientific research or the state of a technical or scientific research problem. It might also include recommendations and conclusions of the research. Unlike other scientific literature, such as scientific journals and the proceedings of some academic conferences, technical reports rarely undergo comprehensive independent peer review before publication. They may be considered as grey literature. Where there is a review process, it is often limited to within the originating organization. Similarly, there are no formal publishing procedures for such reports, except where established locally.

Plain Language - Technical Writing - Articulate - Third Party

Grey Literature are materials and research produced by organizations outside of the traditional commercial or academic publishing and distribution channels. Common grey literature publication types include reports (annual, research, technical, project, etc.), working papers, government documents, white papers and evaluations. Organizations that produce grey literature include government departments and agencies, civil society or non-governmental organisations, academic centres and departments, and private companies and consultants. Grey literature may be made available to the public, or distributed privately within organizations or groups, and may lack a systematic means of distribution and collection. The standard of quality, review and production of grey literature can vary considerably. Grey literature may be difficult to discover, access, and evaluate, but this can be addressed through the formulation of sound search strategies.

White Paper is an authoritative report or guide that informs readers concisely about a complex issue and presents the issuing body's philosophy on the matter. It is meant to help readers understand an issue, solve a problem, or make a decision. In business, a white paper is closer to a form of marketing presentation, a tool meant to persuade customers and partners and promote a product or viewpoint. White papers may be considered grey literature.

Working Paper is a preliminary scientific or technical paper. Often, authors will release working papers to share ideas about a topic or to elicit feedback before submitting to a peer reviewed conference or academic journal. Working papers are often the basis for related works, and may in themselves be cited by peer-review papers. They may be considered as grey literature.

Science Communication is the public communication of science-related topics to non-experts. This often involves professional scientists called outreach or popularization, but has also evolved into a professional field in its own right. It includes science exhibitions, journalism, policy or media production. Science communication also includes communication between scientists through scientific journals, as well as between scientists and non-scientists during public controversies over science and in citizen science initiatives. Science communication may generate support for scientific research or study, or to inform decision making, including political and ethical thinking. There is increasing emphasis on explaining methods rather than simply findings of science. This may be especially critical in addressing scientific misinformation, which spreads easily because it is not subject to the constraints of scientific method. Science communicators can use entertainment and persuasion including humor, storytelling and metaphors. Scientists can be trained in some of the techniques used by actors to improve their communication.

Galley Proof are the preliminary versions of publications meant for review by authors, editors, and proofreaders, often with extra-wide margins. Galley proofs may be uncut and unbound, or in some cases electronically transmitted. They are created for proofreading and copyediting purposes, but may also be used for promotional and review purposes.

Preprint is something that is printed in advance, especially a part of a work printed and issued before general publication of that work. In academic publishing, a preprint is a version of a scholarly or scientific paper that precedes formal peer review and publication in a peer-reviewed scholarly or scientific journal. The preprint may be available, often as a non-typeset version available free, before or after a paper is published in a journal. Academic Papers.

The Intelligent Man's Guide to Science is a general guide to the sciences by the American writer and scientist Isaac Asimov. It was first published in 1960 by Basic Books. Revised versions were published as The New Intelligent Man's Guide to Science (1965), Asimov's Guide to Science (1972), and Asimov's New Guide to Science (1984). Asimov began work on the book on 2 October, and found that he had no trouble with it at all, writing anywhere from 6,000 to 10,000 words a day without any sense of strain. By 27 January 1958, Asimov was able to deliver the first half of the completed manuscript to Basic Books, but at a meeting a month later, Svirsky suggested cutting the book in half so it could fit in one volume. At that point, Asimov was only two chapters shy of finishing the book, but saw no reason to complete it if it would be subjected to such radical abridgment, and halted work. He resumed work after being informed on 11 March that Svirsky would not try to reduce the book by half, but would instead publish it in two volumes. When he began proofing the book's galleys, Asimov was horrified to find that Svirsky still cut out some 30% of the book's material. Asimov reinserted as much information into the galley proofs as he could, but he remained unhappy with the book. The Intelligent Man's Guide to Science was first published in 1960 by Basic Books. It was published, in revised editions, as The New Intelligent Man's Guide to Science in 1965, Asimov's Guide to Science in 1972, and Asimov's New Guide to Science in 1984. Bell considered the book thorough and engaging, crediting Asimov with "encyclopedic knowledge of astronomy, geology, physics, and chemistry" and "considerable understanding and knowledge of organic chemistry, cellular function and theory, microbiology, the human body and its needs, evolution, and the mind", and providing useful "figures, sketches, and maps. Williams complimented Asimov for his updated treatment of artificial intelligence, computers, cancer, the solar system, quasars, black holes, evolution, and the energy crisis, but considered it disappointing that there was no update on genetic engineering.

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine provide independent, objective advice to inform policy with evidence, spark progress and innovation, and confront challenging issues for the benefit of society.

Research Gate - Access over 135 million publication pages and stay up to date with what's happening in your field. Discover scientific knowledge and stay connected to the world of science. Knowledge Base.

Basic Books is a book publisher founded in 1950 and located in New York, now an imprint of Hachette Book Group. It publishes books in the fields of psychology, philosophy, economics, science, politics, sociology, current affairs, and history.

Process - Processing

Process is a series of actions or a set of interrelated activities or steps that are taken in order to achieve a particular goal. To perform a series of mechanical or chemical operations that would accomplish a particular goal or obtain the necessary results needed. To perform mathematical and logical operations on data according to programmed instructions in order to obtain the required information for some purpose, improvement or condition. To deal with something in a routine way to shape, form, or improve a material.

Process in engineering is a series of interrelated tasks that, together, transform inputs into outputs. These tasks may be carried out by people, nature or machines using various resources. An engineering process must be considered in the context of the agents carrying out the tasks and the resource attributes involved.

Development - Personal Development - Practice Skills

Process in computing is a process made up of multiple threads of execution that execute instructions at the same time or a different times depending on the program.

Process in science is constructing an accurate, reliable, repeatable model of the real world.

Parallel Processing is the ability of the brain to simultaneously process incoming stimuli of differing quality. With vision, the brain divides what it sees into four components: color, motion, shape, and depth. These are individually analyzed and then compared to stored memories, which helps the brain identify what you are viewing. The brain then combines all of these into the field of view that you see and comprehend. Batch Processing - Multitasking.

Unit Operation is a basic step in a process. Unit operations involve a physical change or chemical transformation such as separation, crystallization, evaporation, filtration, polymerization, isomerization, and other reactions.

Processed is information prepared or converted from a natural state in order to extract important information and subject it to a process, established procedure or treatment, with the aim of readying it for some purpose, or improving, or remedying a condition. A series of actions, changes, or functions bringing about a result. A series of operations performed in the making or treatment of a product. Understanding - Thinking.

Processer (computers) - Processing (information) - Process Management

Processing is performing mathematical and logical operations on Data according to instructions or prescribed procedures in order to obtain the required information. Interpretation.


Instructions is describing how something should be done and when certain actions should happen. Giving directions on how to complete a task helps to make doing something easier or more reliable. Instructions include a detailed outline of the activities needed to be performed with step by step easy-to-follow directions and simple explanations that have clear and specific messages in logical order.

Directions is a message describing how something is to be done. Helpful suggestions regarding a decision or future course of action. The concentration of attention or energy on something. A general course along which something has a tendency to develop. The act of setting and holding a course. Navigation.

Without instructions, life could not exist. DNA Code - DNA Expression - Operating System

Knowing what to do when something bad happens. Emergencies - Planning - Tutor - Teaching - Guidance - Procedure.

Manual is a handbook that instructs someone on how to use a particular device or a piece of software. A concise reference book providing specific information about a subject or a location.

Operators Manual is a handbook used to communicate proper operation information and technical information, as well as scientific information or engineering information, that helps to instruct someone on how to use a particular machine safely.

Instruction Manual is an instructional book or booklet that is supplied with almost all technologically advanced consumer products such as vehicles, home appliances and computer peripherals. Information contained in the owner's manual typically includes safety instructions; for liability reasons these can be extensive, often including warnings against performing operations that are ill-advised for product longevity or overall user safety reasons. Assembly instructions; for products that arrive in pieces for easier shipping. Installation instructions; for products that need to be installed in a home or workplace. Setup instructions; for devices that keep track of time or which maintain user accessible state. Instructions for use. Programming instructions; for microprocessor controlled products such as VCRs, programmable calculators, and synthesizers. Maintenance instructions. Troubleshooting instructions; for when the product does not work as expected. Service locations; for when the product requires repair by a factory authorized technician. Regulatory code compliance information; for example with respect to safety or electromagnetic interference. Product technical specifications. Warranty information; sometimes provided as a separate sheet.

Explaining - Meaning - Algorithms - Quality Control

User Guide is a technical communication document intended to give assistance to people using a particular system. It is usually written by a technical writer, although user guides are written by programmers, product or project managers, or other technical staff, particularly in smaller companies.

Operation is a planned activity involving many people performing various actions. A process or a series of acts especially of a practical or mechanical nature involved in a particular form of work. Operation in computing is data processing in which the result is completely specified by a rule, especially the processing that results from a single instruction. Operation in psychology is the performance of some composite cognitive activity; an operation that affects mental contents. operation in mathematics is calculation by mathematical methods. Operation in surgery is a medical procedure involving an incision with instruments that are performed to repair damage or arrest disease in a living body.

Procedures - Methods

Procedure is a particular course of action intended to achieve a result. A process or series of acts especially of a practical or mechanical nature involved in a particular form of work. A set sequence of steps, part of larger computer program.

Standards - Instructions - Algorithms - Traditions - Strategy - Script - Movie Making

Guideline is a detailed plan or explanation to guide you in setting standards or determining the best course of action. A guideline aims to streamline particular processes according to a set routine or sound practice. A course of action is a procedure adopted to deal with a situation. Regulations.

Way is how something is done or how it happens. How a result is obtained or an end is achieved. A line leading to a place or point. A journey or passage. Any artifact consisting of a road or path affording passage from one place to another. The property of distance in general. Space for movement. To a great degree or by a great distance; very much. A course of conduct. Doing as one pleases or chooses.

Procedure as a term is designed to describe Who, What, Where, When, and Why?

Procedure Format (image) - Rules - Practices - Structure - Mind Map - Drawings

By the Book is to do something according to standard procedure. To do something by the book is to follow the set rules and guidelines and carry something out using the typical, accepted methods.

Systematically is doing something according to a fixed plan or system, or in a methodical manner that is organized.

Medical Procedure is a course of action intended to achieve a result in the care of persons with health problems.

Procedural Task involves performing a procedure, which is a sequence of activities to achieve a goal. Synonyms include method, technique, skill, and sometimes rule. A procedure can be either of two types: A physical procedure, which entails the execution of physical movements, like performing a serve in tennis. A mental procedure, which entails the execution of mental operations, like adding two numbers in your head. Procedural Skills encompass the areas of clinical care that require physical and practical skills of the clinician in order to accomplish a specific and well characterized technical task or medical procedure.

Method is a way of doing something, especially a systematic way. Implies an orderly logical arrangement, usually in steps.

Scientific Method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, based on empirical or measurable evidence that is subject to the principles of logic and reasoning. Acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. It involves careful observation, applying rigorous skepticism about what is observed, given that cognitive assumptions can distort how one interprets the observation. It involves formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental and measurement-based testing of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.

Mindset - Scholarly Method - Image (photo)

Methodology is a system of methods used in a particular area of study or activity. It comprises the theoretical analysis of the body of methods and principles associated with a branch of knowledge. Typically, it encompasses concepts such as paradigm, theoretical model, phases and quantitative or qualitative techniques. A methodology does not set out to provide solutions—it is therefore, not the same as a method. Instead, a methodology offers the theoretical underpinning for understanding which method, set of methods, or best practices can be applied to a specific case, for example, to calculate a specific result. It has been defined also as follows: "the analysis of the principles of methods, rules, and postulates employed by a discipline"; the systematic study of methods that are, can be, or have been applied within a discipline"; "the study or description of methods".

Research Methods - Learning Methods

Modality is the way or mode in which something exists or is done. Mode is how something is done or how it happens. A particular functioning condition or arrangement. Modality refers to the ways language can express various relationships to reality or truth. Modality is a classification of propositions on the basis of whether they claim necessity, possibility or impossibility. A method of therapy that involves physical or electrical therapeutic treatment. Modal in statistics relates to or constituting the most frequent value in a distribution.

Methodically is doing something in an orderly or systematic manner.

Modus Operandi or MO is a particular way or method of doing something, or the way in which something operates or works, especially something that is characteristic or well-established. Modus Operandi in criminology is a distinct pattern or manner of working that comes to be associated with a particular criminal with the means, motive and opportunity. It's someone's habits of working, particularly in the context of business or criminal investigations. The term is often used in police work when discussing crime and addressing the methods employed by criminals. It is also used in criminal profiling, where it can help in finding clues to the offender's psychology. It largely consists of examining the actions used by the individuals to execute the crime, prevent its detection and facilitate escape. A suspect's modus operandi can assist in their identification, apprehension, or repression, and can also be used to determine links between crimes. In business, modus operandi is used to describe a firm's preferred means of executing business and interacting with other firms. Modus operandi is latin for operating method. Professionalism.

Operation is a planned activity involving many people performing various actions. A process or series of acts especially of a practical or mechanical nature involved in a particular form of work. (psychology) the performance of some composite cognitive activity; an operation that affects mental contents. Operation Types (wiki).

Technique is a practical method or art applied to some particular task. Skillfulness in the command of fundamentals deriving from practice and familiarity.

Application is the act of creating something and using it for a particular purpose, or an action of putting something into operation. Application can also mean a program that gives a computer instructions that provide the user with tools to accomplish a task. Application can also mean a verbal or written request that is sometimes used for applying for a particular type of work that a particular service organization provides, which sometimes lists your qualifications and experience.

Formula is a set of directions for making something. A representation of a substance using symbols for its constituent elements. A group of symbols that make a mathematical statement. An Algorithm. Formula is a concise way of expressing information symbolically as in a mathematical or chemical formula. Formulate (problem solving).

Prediction (planning) - Orders of Approximation (odds)

Defining the Question

Models of Scientific Inquiry have two functions: first, to provide a descriptive account of how scientific inquiry is carried out in practice, and second, to provide an explanatory account of why scientific inquiry succeeds as well as it appears to do in arriving at genuine knowledge.

Instructions - Processes

Runbook is a compilation of routine procedures and operations that the system administrator or operator carries out.

Procedural Programming also known as routines, subroutines, or functions that contain a series of computational steps to be carried out.

Protocol in science is a predefined written procedural method in the design and implementation of experiments. Protocols are written whenever it is desirable to standardize a laboratory method to ensure successful replication of results by others in the same laboratory or by other laboratories. Detailed protocols also facilitate the assessment of results through peer review. In addition to detailed procedures and lists of required equipment and instruments, protocols often include information on safety precautions, the calculation of results and reporting standards, including statistical analysis and rules for predefining and documenting excluded data to avoid bias. Protocols are employed in a wide range of experimental fields, from social science to quantum mechanics. Written protocols are also employed in manufacturing to ensure consistent quality.

are rules determining the format and transmission of data. Code of correct conduct and etiquette. Protocol is a predefined written procedural method in the design and implementation of experiments.

Communication Protocol - Diplomacy

Policy is a plan of action adopted by an individual or social group. A deliberate system of principles to guide decisions and achieve rational outcomes. A policy is a statement of intent, and is implemented as a procedure or protocol. A line of argument rationalizing the course of action of a government.

Stored Procedure is a subroutine available to applications that access a relational database management system (RDBMS). Such procedures are stored in the database data dictionary.

Programming (code)

Formality is compliance with formal rules. A manner that strictly observes all forms and ceremonies. A requirement of etiquette or custom.

Compliance is acting according to certain accepted standards. Regulate.

Task Analysis is the analysis of how a task is accomplished, including a detailed description of both manual and mental activities, task and element durations, task frequency, task allocation, task complexity, environmental conditions, necessary clothing and equipment, and any other unique factors involved in or required for one or more people to perform a given task. Task analysis emerged from research in applied behavior analysis and still has considerable research in that area.

Frederick Winslow Taylor scientific management consisted of four principles: Replace rule-of-thumb work methods with methods based on a scientific study of the tasks. Scientifically select, train, and develop each employee rather than passively leaving them to train themselves. Provide "Detailed instruction and supervision of each worker in the performance of that worker's discrete task". Divide work nearly equally between managers and workers, so that the managers apply scientific management principles to planning the work and the workers actually perform the tasks.

Standards - SOP

Standard Operating Procedure are procedures that are a set of step-by-step instructions to achieve a predictable, standardized, desired result, often within the context of a longer overall process. Detailed, written instructions to achieve uniformity of the performance of a specific function. A document that generally lists the associated hazards involved in performing a task, what risk score is associated with the HazardsStandard Operating Procedure is a set of step-by-step instructions compiled by an organization to help workers carry out routine operations. SOPs aim to achieve efficiency, quality output and uniformity of performance, while reducing miscommunication and mistakes and the failure to comply with industry regulations.

Safe Operating Procedure is a written document that provides step-by-step instructions on how to safely perform a task or activity which involves some risk to health and safety. A safe operating procedure is sometimes referred to as a safe work procedure or safe work method statement. Safe Use Instructions are used to communicate correct and safe handling guidelines for equipment and supplies.

Standard is a basis for comparison and a reference point against which other things can be evaluated. The ideal in terms of which something can be judged. Established or well-known or widely recognized as a model of excellence or authority. Representing a standard of measurement or value. A reference.

International Organization for Standardization or ISO is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations, which are organizations whose primary activities are developing, coordinating, promulgating, revising, amending, reissuing, interpreting, or otherwise producing technical standards that are intended to address the needs of a group of affected adopters. Formats for Documents - ISO Graphical Symbols.

Standard of Care - Evidence - Quality Control (ISO) - Safety

International Electrotechnical Commission prepares and publishes international standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies – collectively known as "electrotechnology". IEC standards cover a vast range of technologies from power generation, transmission and distribution to home appliances and office equipment, semiconductors, fibre optics, batteries, solar energy, nanotechnology and marine energy as well as many others. The IEC also manages four global conformity assessment systems that certify whether equipment, system or components conform to its international standards. All electrotechnologies are covered by IEC Standards, including energy production and distribution, electronics, magnetics and electromagnetics, electroacoustics, multimedia, telecommunication and medical technology, as well as associated general disciplines such as terminology and symbols, electromagnetic compatibility, measurement and performance, dependability, design and development, safety and the environment. International Electro-technical Commission.

We need things that are universal and commonly used or regularly and widely used and that are established and well-known, like money is, in a way.

Universal is something that is applicable worldwide and common to all members of a group or set and adaptable to various purposes, sizes, forms or operations. A Reliable and easily recognizable Pattern that is characteristic of all members of a particular culture or of all human beings.

Compatible - Repeatable - Reusable

Consistent is something that is capable of being reproduced or easily repeated. Something that is reliable and is also accurate in function and purpose.

Rigorous is an action demanding strict attention to rules and procedures and allowing no deviation from a standard. An action that is painstakingly careful and accurate and performed comprehensively and completely. Procedure.

Standard in metrology is an object, system, or experiment that bears a defined relationship to a unit of measurement of a physical quantity. Standards are the fundamental reference for a system of weights and measures, against which all other measuring devices are compared. Historical standards for length, volume, and mass were defined by many different authorities, which resulted in confusion and inaccuracy of measurements. Modern measurements are defined in relationship to internationally standardized reference objects, which are used under carefully controlled laboratory conditions to define the units of length, mass, electrical potential, and other physical quantities.

Standardization is the process of implementing and developing technical standards based on the consensus of different parties that include firms, users, interest groups, standards organizations and governments Standardization can help to maximize compatibility, interoperability, safety, repeatability, or quality. It can also facilitate commoditization of formerly custom processes. In social sciences, including economics, the idea of standardization is close to the solution for a coordination problem, a situation in which all parties can realize mutual gains, but only by making mutually consistent decisions. This view includes the case of "spontaneous standardization processes", to produce de facto standards.

International Standard are standards developed by international standards organizations. International standards are available for consideration and use worldwide. The most prominent organization is the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), which is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.

Standards Organization is an organization whose primary activities are developing, coordinating, promulgating, revising, amending, reissuing, interpreting, or otherwise producing technical standards that are intended to address the needs of a group of affected adopters. Quality Control.

American National Standards Institute is a private non-profit organization that oversees the development of voluntary consensus standards for products, services, processes, systems, and personnel in the United States. The organization also coordinates U.S. standards with international standards so that American products can be used worldwide.

Technical Standard is an established norm or requirement in regard to technical systems. It is usually a formal document that establishes uniform engineering or technical criteria, methods, processes, and practices. In contrast, a custom, convention, company product, corporate standard, and so forth that becomes generally accepted and dominant is often called a de facto standard.

Open Standard is a standard that is publicly available and has various rights to use associated with it, and may also have various properties of how it was designed (e.g. open process). There is no single definition and interpretations vary with usage.

Specification is a technical standard that often refers to a set of documented requirements to be satisfied by a material, design, product, or service. A specification is often a type of technical standard. A requirement specification is a documented requirement, or set of documented requirements, to be satisfied by a given material, design, product, service, etc. It is a common early part of engineering design and product development processes, in many fields. A functional specification is a kind of requirement specification, and may show functional block diagrams. A design or product specification describes the features of the solutions for the Requirement Specification, referring to either a designed solution or final produced solution. It is often used to guide fabrication/production. Sometimes the term specification is here used in connection with a data sheet (or spec sheet), which may be confusing. A data sheet describes the technical characteristics of an item or product, often published by a manufacturer to help people choose or use the products. A data sheet is not a technical specification in the sense of informing how to produce. An "in-service" or "maintained as" specification, specifies the conditions of a system or object after years of operation, including the effects of wear and maintenance (configuration changes). Specifications are a type of technical standard that may be developed by any of various kinds of organizations, both public and private. Example organization types include a corporation, a consortium (a small group of corporations), a trade association (an industry-wide group of corporations), a national government (including its military, regulatory agencies, and national laboratories and institutes), a professional association (society), a purpose-made standards organization such as ISO, or vendor-neutral developed generic requirements. It is common for one organization to refer to (reference, call out, cite) the standards of another. Voluntary standards may become mandatory if adopted by a government or business contract.

Specification is a detailed description of design criteria for a piece of work. A document drawn up by the applicant for a patent of invention that provides an explicit and detailed description of the nature and use of an invention. A restriction that is insisted upon as a condition for an agreement.

Requirement is something that is necessary or absolutely essential in advance.

Engineering Tolerances - Quality Control - Safety - Rules - Systems - Ethics - Education Standard - Bias - Surveys

Template is a model, standard or outline to follow or adapt. An object whose shape is used as a guide to make other objects, e.g. by cutting around. Template (wiki).

Calibration - Calibrate

Calibration is the act of checking or adjusting by comparison with a standard the accuracy of a measuring instrument. Calibration in measurement technology and in metrology is the comparison of measurement values delivered by a device under test with those of a calibration standard of known accuracy. Such a standard could be another measurement device of known accuracy, a device generating the quantity to be measured such as a voltage, or a physical artifact, such as a meter ruler. Calibration is the process of finding a relationship between two quantities that are unknown (when the measurable quantities are not given a particular value for the amount considered or found a standard for the quantity). When one of quantity is known, which is made or set with one device, another measurement is made as similar way as possible with the first device using a second device. The measurable quantities may differ in two devices which are equivalent. The device with the known or assigned correctness is called the standard. The second device is the unit under test, test instrument, or any of several other names for the device being calibrated.

Calibrate to make fine adjustments or divide into marked intervals for optimal measuring. Mark the scale of a measuring instrument so that it can be read in the desired units. Measure the caliber of something or a degree or grade of excellence or worth.

Who's Calibrating the Calibrator? Baseline Mental States.

Proof Mass or test mass is a known quantity of mass used in a measuring instrument as a reference for the measurement of an unknown quantity. A mass used to calibrate a weighing scale is sometimes called a calibration mass or calibration weight. A proof mass that deforms a spring in an accelerometer is sometimes called the seismic mass. In a convective accelerometer, a fluid proof mass may be employed. Calibration Weights.

Are you sure that the instruments that you're using are calibrated? And do you know that the calibration may not be part of the equation? Calibration is a reference point. So the reference needs to be defined. So the first question is "What is this in reference to?" "Don't forget to Calibrate the Calibrator."

Comparisons - Repeatable - Baseline - Odds (probability).

Bias of an Estimator is the difference between this estimator's expected value and the true value of the parameter being estimated. An estimator or decision rule with zero bias is called unbiased. In statistics, "bias" is an objective property of an estimator.

"It's good to have data, but remember to always know how the data was collected because the numbers could be misleading. There may also be bias in the research or even mistakes made, so always check for accuracy before making a decision on what action to take or when determining how to use data."

Physical Measurement Laboratory is a world leader in the science of measurement. We determine the definitive methods for nearly every kind of measurement employed in commerce and research, provide NIST-traceable calibrations, and disseminate standards and best practices throughout the nation. At the same time, PML works continuously at the outermost frontiers of metrology, devising tools and techniques to meet the ever-changing demands of American industry and science.

What is Science

Science are various methods, processes, tools and skills used for learning. Science uses procedures, testing techniques, experiences and accumulated knowledge and information to learn and understand how things work and why things work. In just the last 500 years, science has given humanity incredible amounts of  knowledge and information. And just in the last 20 years, there are now over 1 billion people with access to more knowledge and information then any other time in human history. This mass collaboration is our great awakening. Science gives us many abilities for examining and analyzing things in our world so that we can have a better understanding of ourselves and the world around us. This understanding that science gives us, helps us to predict future outcomes so that we can make better decisions and make better plans. Science is also used to create complex tools, which in return gives us the ability to create even more complex tools and create even more complex machines, thus we learn even more. Science is also a process for discovering, which everyone can benefit from. But the greatest power of science is that anyone can be a contributor to this valuable knowledge resource, as millions have done in our past. And millions of people can also benefit from this knowledge, whether they're living in the present or people who will be living in our future. So all this accumulated knowledge becomes the building blocks of new discoveries and new understandings. Not just progressing our advances in technologies, but progressing our understanding of ourselves, so we can be more aware and make better choices and make better decisions. Another benefit from science is that, if and when things do change, we can use our knowledge and tools to react accordingly instead of just suffering from the changes in our world, or suffer from the changes in ourselves. So science is also part early warning system, but only if it is used effectively and efficiently. Just experiencing something doesn't guarantee that you will understand it, or learn from it, or benefit from it. That is why knowledge is so extremely important, because knowledge helps us understand our experiences a lot better. You have to see inward as well as see outward. Science helps us to define reality or define what is perceived to be real. Science also helps us define cause and effect, which is extremely important to everyone. And just because we know how something works does not mean that we actually know "why" it works, or do we fully understand the dangers, because we don't know everything. But we are learning a lot more now and we are also learning faster now. And we are also communicating more and we're communicating faster. But we're not efficient or effective enough in order to benefit from our increased speed. So science needs to solve this problem before we waste this momentum and miss our chance in creating a better world for everyone. Sometimes if you're moving too fast you may fly past important information that you need in order to understand something. But luckily, Science doesn't only speed up our ability to learn, science can also be used to slow us down, so that we can see more details and become more and more aware, so that we can make better choices and make better decisions. But just like every tool in our world, tools can be misused. So science must explain the proper uses of our technologies and the proper uses of our accumulated knowledge. Science must also explain the dangers of misusing our tools by creating a good Operators Manuals and good Instruction Manuals that anyone can understand. Remember, science does not know everything, but what science does know is extremely important, and extremely valuable.

Sometimes Progress is Slow - Some Ideas take time to be understood or excepted.

Copernican Revolution in 1543 was the paradigm shift from the Ptolemaic model of the heavens, which described the cosmos as having Earth stationary at the center of the universe, to the heliocentric model with the Sun at the center of the Solar System.

Scientific Revolution was the emergence of modern science during the early modern period (1600), when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology (including human anatomy) and chemistry transformed the views of society about nature.

"There are reasons why things happen, and knowing the reasons why certain things happen is the first step in controlling these actions or adapting to these actions. That what science does."

"If we don't keep moving forward, we'll end up having to start all over, again."

Why we need more Scientists. The internet has made us aware of all kinds of possibilities in the science world. We have discovered so much. This is one of the main reasons why we need more scientists. We need more people researching all these new discoveries that we are making everyday. So much more needs to be understood in order for us to effectively utilized all this knowledge. It's a gold mine.

Science in the Classroom - Teachers Science Lesson Plans

Project Exploration is a not-for-profit educational program whose goal is to "change the face of science" by encouraging interest in science among students—especially girls and minorities—who traditionally have not found effective career routes into scientific disciplines.

Next Generation Science Standards

We have discovered order in our universe, but that does not say that order is present everywhere or that order is always a constant, so we must always proceed with caution and care.

Do not Accept or Reject claims at Face Value, but withhold Judgment until Sufficient Evidence is available to make a decision, if time is allowed.

Validity - Accuracy - Reasoning

Empirical is the knowledge or source of knowledge acquired by means of the senses, particularly by observation and experimentation. Reality.

Skepticism - Questioning - Beliefs - Science Research Fraud

You don't have to be a physicist or a rocket scientist in order to use scientific methods. These skills are very useful for anyone who cares about improving themselves or improving their surroundings. Science will also increase a persons awareness about themselves and the world, exposing a sea of possibilities.

Scientists should not just try to impress people with knowledge, they should also give people the facts. One of the favorite lines that scientists like to use is "You are made of the same elements as a Star. You are star dust". No, I'm much more then just star dust. Just because I share many of the same genes as a monkey, this does not make me a monkey. And just because my body is 90 percent microbes this does not make me a microbe. Scientist should tell people more about the elements and the percentages, after that, then they can share how wonderful it is to have things in common. We want to inspire learning, not just impress people with wonder.

"Science may not have all the answers, but it will help you to understand things a little better, so that maybe you will find the answers that you need. This is what we found to be true, but every situation is different, so it might not be true for you."

Science is a Language all its own. I'm bilingual, but my other language is an unspoken language, it's called computer programming language. I use symbols and characters to communicate instructions to computerized machines. But they are more then just machines. Computers are one of the most incredible tools that man has ever made, besides language. computers are an extension of human intelligence. Computers provide us with more processing abilities and more memory capacities then any other time in human history. These computerized machines are humans analytical partner that aids us in understanding ourselves, and our world. Humans quest for knowledge now has a powerful tool, a tool that gives us endless potential. And with the internet, we can now for the first time combine the collective wisdom, knowledge and experiences of millions of people from all over the world. We no longer need to depend on one country, or on one leader, or on one government. Because we now have the collective strength of each other. And together we will create a better world for everyone. So, what does your language do? Zero's and Ones, On or Off.

If I learned how to speak Spanish I could speak to 518 million more people then I do now. Knowing how to speak Computer Language I can now communicate with 2 billion personal computers and 3 billion internet usersCommunication.

"When you can Convert Atoms into a Language, then you can do almost anything, like communicate to the Universe."

We connect to each other through particles. Calls and texts ride flecks of light, Web sites and photographs load on electrons. All communication is, essentially, physical. Information is recorded and broadcast on actual objects, even those we cannot see.

Science Films

Film Symbol Richard Feynman: The Pleasure Of Finding Things Out (video)
BBC The Story Of Science Power, Proof And Passion (youtube)
Sci-Show (youtube channel)
What is One Degree? (youtube) - Temperature
Race for Absolute Zero (youtube)
Nottingham Science (youtube)
Science Under Attack BBC Horizon (youtube)
Tyler DeWitt (youtube)
The Genius of Britain (youtube)
Sixty Symbols (youtube)
K-12 Science (youtube) 
Award Winning Teen Age Science in Action (video) this is why teaching science is important
Laura Snyder; The Philosophical Breakfast Club (video)
E=Mc2 Einstein's Big Idea (youtube)
Sixty Symbols (youtube)
The Atom Smashers (PBS) - Atoms
Sap Science (youtube)
TROM - 1.1 Science (youtube)
E. O. Wilson: Advice to Young Scientists (video)
Proto G (youtube)
Tal Golesworthy: How I Repaired my own Heart (video) - Exstent - Aortic Root Support
Beau Lotto + Amy O'Toole: Science is for everyone, kids included (youtube)
Food Science • Liquid Nitrogen Under Vacuum • ChefSteps (youtube)
Asap Science (youtube)
Thought (youtube)
The Geek Group (youtube)
Veritasium (youtube)
Science Channel (youtube)
Kreosan (youtube)
Janet Iwasa: How Animations can help Scientists Test a Hypothesis (video)
Engineer Guy Video (youtube)
Schlieren Optics optical technique that allows us to see small changes in the index of refraction in air.
DNews Channel (youtube)
Pure Science Specials (youtube)
Applied Science (youtube channel)
The Scientific Method: Steps, Terms and Examples (youtube)
In a Nutshell – Kurzgesagt (youtube)
Physics Woman (youtube)
Science Online (youtube)
Generation Genius is online Science Videos and Lessons For K-8. Try it free. Get instant access to hours of fun, standards-based videos, reading material, quiz games, simple DIY activities & more.

Cells - Universe

The Journal of Visualized Experiments Jove is a database of more than four thousand videos, with about eighty more added each month. They are usually between ten and fifteen minutes long, and they range in subject from biology and chemistry to neuroscience and medicine.

Sci-Show Science Videos should not be confusing - Rockwell Turbo Encabulator Version 2 (youtube)

Science News - Documentaries - Online Education Sources - Science Photo Library - Science Photos - Science Resources and Tools.

Turboencabulator: The original machine had a base-plate of prefabulated amulite, surmounted by a malleable logarithmic casing in such a way that the two spurving bearings were in a direct line with the pentametric fan. The main winding was of the normal lotus-o-delta type placed in panendermic semi-boloid slots in the stator, every seventh conductor being connected by a nonreversible trem'e pipe to the differential girdlespring on the 'up' end of the grammeters. Unilateral Phase Detractor. Alan Alda Center for Communicating Science. Jargon.

Science Resources

Science Tools - Science Equipment

Work Station Electronic Equipment for Data Monitoring Scientific Instrument is an instrument used for scientific purposes. Most are measuring instruments. They may be specifically designed, constructed and refined for the purpose. Over time, instruments have become more accurate and precise. Scientific instruments are part of laboratory equipment, but are considered more sophisticated and more specialized than other measuring instruments as scales, rulers, chronometers, thermometers or even waveform generators. They are increasingly based upon the integration of computers to improve and simplify control, enhance and extend instrumental functions, conditions, parameter adjustments and data sampling, collection, resolution, analysis (both during and post-process), storage and retrieval. Calibration.

Equipment Types List (wiki)

Chemistry Sets - Experiment Kits - Lab Tools

Engineering Tools - Prototypes - Drawings

Electronic Test Equipment is used to create signals and capture responses from electronic devices under test (DUTs). In this way, the proper operation of the DUT can be proven or faults in the device can be traced. Use of electronic test equipment is essential to any serious work on electronics systems. Practical electronics engineering and assembly requires the use of many different kinds of electronic test equipment ranging from the very simple and inexpensive (such as a test light consisting of just a light bulb and a test lead) to extremely complex and sophisticated such as automatic test equipment (ATE). ATE often includes many of these instruments in real and simulated forms. Generally, more advanced test gear is necessary when developing circuits and systems than is needed when doing production testing or when troubleshooting existing production units in the field.

Little Devices Science Kits

Science Tools and Science Equipment

Arduino - Aliexpress - Apex Electronic

DIY Research - Research Resources

Little Bits has 60 modules and growing. Every module works with every other in millions of combinations.

FORMcard is a handy, pocket sized card of meltable bio-plastic that can be used to make things and fix things.

Wolfram Data Science Platform. Take numerical, textual, image, GIS or other data and give it the Wolfram treatment, carrying out a full spectrum of data science analysis and visualization and automatically generating rich interactive reports—all powered by the revolutionary knowledge-based Wolfram Language.

Curious Minds - Keysight - Analog

Open Builds Part Store

Neuroscience (brain) - Human to Human Interface - Interfaces

Computer Components - Surplus Center - Spare Parts

Norton Sales Inc

3D Printing - Learn to Code

Technology News - Science Education

Games and Toys for Learning
Science Toys for Learning
Using Toys to Teach Physics

Home Training Tools
Backyard Brains
Scientifics Online
Science for Students
Poly Science
Science Kits

Science Tools and Parts
Radio Shack DIY
Kinoma Create
Electronic Modules for Prototyping and Play
Makey Makey
Clip-it using plastic bottle caps to make molecules
Conductive Ink (wiki)
Bare Conductive
Kate Stone: DJ Decks made of Paper (video)
Infento Rides

DIY Kit for the Connected Life
Elemental Scientific
E Science Labs
Science Buddies

P-Tech, Pathways in Technology

Instrumentation Today is useful content & resources for Instrumentation engineers and professionals.

Microscopes - Seeing Small Things

Microscope Microscope is an instrument used to see objects that are too small to be seen by the naked eye.

Optical Microscope or light microscope, is a type of microscope which uses visible light and a system of lenses to magnify images of small samples.

Digital Microscope is a variation of a traditional optical microscope that uses optics and a digital camera to output an image to a monitor, sometimes by means of software running on a computer.

is to enlargement of an object in an image. To increase in size, volume or significance.

Magnifying Glass is an instrument made of convex glass that is used to magnify things and make them appear to be bigger and larger then they really are. Resolution.

Magnifier is a scientific instrument that magnifies an image. Telescopes (optics).

Loupe is a small magnifying glass, usually mounted in an eyepiece, often used by jewelers and watchmakers.

Microscopic is something that is invisible to the eye unless aided by a microscope.

Underwater microscopy for in situ studies of benthic ecosystems (youtube) - Benthic Ecosystems.

Microscopy is the technical field of using microscopes to view objects and areas of objects that cannot be seen with the naked eye. There are three well-known branches of microscopy: optical, electron, and scanning probe microscopy. Optical microscopy and electron microscopy involve the diffraction, reflection, or refraction of electromagnetic radiation/electron beams interacting with the specimen, and the collection of the scattered radiation or another signal in order to create an image. This process may be carried out by wide-field irradiation of the sample (for example standard light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy) or by scanning a fine beam over the sample (for example confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy). Scanning probe microscopy involves the interaction of a scanning probe with the surface of the object of interest. The development of microscopy revolutionized biology, gave rise to the field of histology and so remains an essential technique in the life and physical sciences. Microscopy is the science of investigating small objects and structures using such an instrument.

Spectrometer is an apparatus to measure a spectrum that shows intensity as a function of wavelength, of frequency, of energy, of momentum, or of mass. SCiO: Molecular Sensor, Optical Sensor, Spectrometer.

Photoresistor is a light-controlled variable resistor.

Smartphone Microscopes - Advanced Microscopes (physics)

Imaging Machines (EEG) - Telescopes (optics)

Position Sensor is any device that permits position measurement.

Photoelectric Sensor or photo eye, is an equipment used to discover the distance, absence, or presence of an object by using a light transmitter, often infrared, and a photoelectric receiver. Sensors.

Work Shops

Hackerspace Workshop TechShop is a chain of member-based workshops that lets people of all skill levels come in and use industrial tools and equipment to build their own projects. Tech Shop.

Workshop a room or building which provides both the area and tools (or machinery) that may be required for the manufacture or repair of manufactured goods. Citizen Science.

Hackerspace - Science Space

Maker Faire
Rulof Italian Maker (youtube)
Cesar Harada: How I teach kids to love science (video)
Generator Vermont
Hub Space
National Lab Network
Thrill Laboratory
Open Design City
Lighthouse Creativity Lab
Creative Learning Systems

Harvard Innovation Lab (i-lab) is a unique collaboration and education space designed to foster entrepreneurship and innovation across Harvard.

Experience Learning - Collaboration Knowledge

Ideas - Innovation - Inventions - Funding for Ideas

Amazing Science Toys/Gadgets 2 (youtube) - Mr. Mind Blow

Fab Lab is a small-scale workshop offering (personal) digital fabrication. A fab lab is typically equipped with an array of flexible computer-controlled tools that cover several different length scales and various materials, with the aim to make "almost anything". This includes technology-enabled products generally perceived as limited to mass production. While fab labs have yet to compete with mass production and its associated economies of scale in fabricating widely distributed products, they have already shown the potential to empower individuals to create smart devices for themselves. These devices can be tailored to local or personal needs in ways that are not practical or economical using mass production. The fab lab movement is closely aligned with the DIY, the open source hardware and the free and open source movement, and shares philosophy as well as technology with them.

Fairs - Museums - Festivals - Displays

Science Fair Poster Board Display Science Fair Ideas - Science Fair Projects - Science Fair Project

Project Display Board  - Display Boards
Science Fair Poster Boards (youtube)
Interactive Simulations - Presentations

Science Festivals - Science Museum - Children's Museums - Intel International Science and Engineering Fair.

Google Science Fair
Robotics - Robots

Science Made Simple
Create Research Teams
Digital Media Learning Competition
Technology Challenge Programs
Ecosystem of Creators and inventors

Young Scientist Challenge 2013: Peyton Robertson (youtube) - Young Scientist Challenge.

My Potato Project; The Importance of "Organic" (youtube) - Organic - GMO

EPA Factsheet (pdf)
Exploravision competition for K-12 students.

Think Zone
Solve Puzzles for Science
Visual Science
Jove: Journal of Visualized Experiments
Society for Science

Automatic Pool Stick vs. Strangers (youtube) - See good skills and knowledge of different technologies and what great trouble shooting skills look like.

International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) is the world’s preeminent forum for reporting technological breakthroughs in the areas of semiconductor and electronic device technology, design, manufacturing, physics, and modeling. IEDM is the flagship conference for nanometer-scale CMOS transistor technology, advanced memory, displays, sensors, MEMS devices, novel quantum and nano-scale devices and phenomenology, optoelectronics, devices for power and energy harvesting, high-speed devices, as well as process technology and device modeling and simulation.

Arduino Starter Kit ARDX Arduino Starter Kit - Experimentation Kit for Arduino (Uno R3) - v1.3 , Tackle 13 Different Projects w/ This Fully-Stocked Beginner's Toolkit.

Evive: Electronic Prototyping Platform - Learn & build your projects easily, debug them smartly. #Arduino #Robotics #IoT #Embedded #STEM.

MATRIX Creator: IoT Computer Vision Dev Board #Pi - AI on a Pi. Build your own Amazon Echo + endless IoT apps with a dev board for Raspberry Pi.

Learn, Teach and Make with the Tinusaur - Small microcontroller board that could run Arduino and help you learn, teach others and make things.

RoboHERO by TTRobotix is a Arduino-based Intelligent, Interactive and Programmable Humanoid Robot for Kids, Makers & Educators.

Tinylab: Prototype easier than ever
Play Piper

PC Boards Components - Building Blocks

WSU physicists write with light into a crystal to create an electrical circuit, opening up the possibility of transparent, three-dimensional electronics that, like an Etch A Sketch, can be erased and reconfigured. Electronic Circuits.

MIT Researchers Have Developed Modular Blocks That Can Be Configured To Make Different Diagnostic Devices (youtube)

Sensors - Environmental Monitoring - Education Games and Toys

Citizen Science - DIY Science - Robotic Building Kits - Chemistry

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