Reading - Learn to Read and then Read to Learn
is the cognitive
process of understanding
a written linguistic message.
Reading is to interpret
and make sense of a
that is written
is a complex cognitive process
in order to
or derive meaning.
Reading is a means of language acquisition,
, and the sharing of information
is understanding a mental representation
or the significance of something.
is the acquisition and
understand the meaning
behind printed words
. For a fairly good reader, the
skill of reading often feels simple, effortless, and automatic; however,
the process of learning
to read is complex and builds on
developed from a very early age.
Learn to Read
Read to Learn
. When learning
how to read you should be reading words that teach you about yourself and
the world around you. When learning how to read you should be learning the
words that make you a better reader.
Like with all
, reading is a
between the text
and the reader
shaped by the reader’s prior
, experiences, attitude, and language community which is
culturally and socially situated. The reading process requires continuous
practice, development, and refinement. In addition, reading requires
creativity and critical analysis
. Consumers of literature make ventures
with each piece, innately deviating from literal words
to create images
that make sense
to them in the unfamiliar places the texts describe.
Because reading is such a complex process, it cannot be controlled or
restricted to one or two
. There are no concrete laws in reading, but rather
allows readers an escape to produce their own products introspectively.
This promotes deep exploration of texts during interpretation. Readers use
a variety of reading strategies to assist with decoding
symbols into sounds
) and comprehension. Readers
may use context clues to identify the meaning
unknown words. Readers integrate the words they have read into their
existing framework of knowledge or schema (schemata theory). Other types
of reading are not speech based writing systems, such as music notation or
pictograms. The common link is the interpretation of symbols
from the visual notations or tactile signals (as in the case
- Reading Speeds
“The more that you read, the more
things you will know. The more that you learn, the more places you'll go.”
Theodor Seuss Geisel
"Reading is important, because if you can read, you can learn anything
about everything and everything about anything".
Reading is a form
of deliberate learning
, you can read what you want to read and read at
your own speed
and stop reading at anytime, which gives you time to think
about what has been written. And being able to stop reading also gives you
time to do more research and learn more about what has been written, which
would give you a better understanding of what has been written. This keeps
the process of learning moving forward, but you still have to read the
right things at the right time, deliberately learn what you need to learn
and learn the right things at the right time. But reading has
vulnerabilities, because just knowing how to read is not enough, and only
the beginning. Now you have to read the right things at the right time.
And you also need to learn how to comprehend
of the message, and not just the words. Though reading the
right things at the right time does not always happen, you should at least
understand why it's important. Learning is more effective and more
efficient, but only when you understand why.
Reading is a form of listening
. You get to
choose who to listen
to and you
don't have to worry about missing a word because all the words are
written. The only problem with having only the written word is when you
compared it to having a face to
. When you only have the written word, there is no
one to ask questions about the true meaning
something that has been written. But not every one on one conversation
will give you the chance to ask
. So it's
good to do both. Read a lot, and talk to people when you can. The Key is
listening and learning. Reading is listening with
how to read will not guarantee success because
the person who does not Read the
Right Books has very little advantage over a person who can't read at all
Knowing how to read is extremely important, but knowing how to effectively
use this skill is even more important. Having
access to the worlds most valuable knowledge and information
extremely important. "If you don't read the things that matter, than
knowing how to read will not matter". Math
Children may learn new words better when they learn them in the context of
other words they are just learning
.You are what you Read
If your body is a reflection of what you eat, then your mind is a
reflection of what you read and study.
Fill it with good
, not candy, like social media. You are
what you Know
. The Power of Words
- The Power of Language
"Read the best books first
, or you may not
have a chance to read them at all."
Henry David ThoreauReading for pleasure falls after
primary school years.
A significant drop in boys' reading enjoyment
between the ages of eight and 16 - from 72% at ages eight-to-11 to 36% at
ages 14-16. Girls' pleasure in picking up a book also dropped off in the
teenage years, though not quite as markedly. At ages eight-to-11, 83% of
girls said they enjoyed reading, but this dropped back to 53% at ages
14-16. If you don't enjoy Learning and Reading,
then you have not learned anything of value
Poor Reading Skills is why Fewer Men Go to College
. Boys' poor reading
skills might help explain higher education gender gap. Study finds ability
to read well can help explain why fewer men go to college than women.
about Why Reading Matters
[BBC] Why Reading Matters Part 1 of 6]
Patricia Ryan: Don't
insist on English!
Content Areas - With Research-Based CRISS Strategies
is the love of
individual who loves to
, admires books and collects books.
is someone who spends a great deal of time reading.
Why do kids
read more cereal boxes instead of reading things of value? Kids need to
learn how to maximize their time learning so they can have more time
having fun and more time exploring the world, the way a kid should.
Childhood can be a glorious journey if children can just
learn the right things at the right time
774 million people in the world are illiterate
and two thirds are
cost the U.S. 238 billion per year.
About 30 million
people, 14 percent of the US population 16 and
older, have trouble with
basic reading and writing.
adults don’t read well enough to earn
a living wage. 63% of prison inmates can’t read.
About 30 million people, 14
percent of the US population 16 and older, have trouble with
basic reading and writing.
Learning How to Read
When learning how to read English
, the child must figure out the relationship
. Thus, the beginning reader must learn the
connections between the approximately 44 sounds or
of spoken English, and the 26 letters of the alphabet
. Why are phoneme awareness
and the development of the alphabetic principle so critical for the
beginning reader? Because if children cannot perceive the sounds in spoken
words – for example, if they cannot "hear" the at sound in fat and cat and
perceive that the difference lies in the first sound, they will have
difficulty decoding or "sounding out" words in a rapid and accurate
fashion. Children vary in the amount of
that is required for
fluency and automaticity in reading to occur. Some youngsters can read a
word only once to recognize it again with greater speed; others need 20 or
more exposures. The average child needs between
four and 14 exposures
automatize the recognition of a new word. The ultimate goal of reading
instruction is to enable children to understand what they read
read to understand
begins in infancy as a
parent helps their child develop language skills. This pleasant
interaction helps the baby learn about the give and take of conversation
and the pleasures of communicating with other people.
is a term that is used to explain a child's
knowledge of reading and writing skills before they learn how to read and
write words. It signals a belief that, in literate society, young
children—even one- and two-year-olds—are in the process of becoming
literate. Through the support of parents, caregivers, and educators, a
child can successfully progress from emergent to conventional reading. The
basic components of emergent literacy include: Print motivation: Being
interested in and enjoying books. Vocabulary
Knowing the names of things. Print awareness
Noticing print, knowing how to handle a book, and knowing how to follow
words on a page. Narrative skills
able to describe things and events and to tell stories.
: Understanding letters
are different from each other, knowing their names and sounds, and
recognizing letters everywhere. Phonological awareness
Being able to hear and play with the smaller sounds in words. Emergent
literacy is of critical importance in early education in light of research
showing that children learn skills that prepare them to read years before
they start school.Reading Level
simply a way to identify how complex a book a child can read
independently. You might be tempted to reason that if your child is in the
second grade, then books that are labeled for second graders will be the
perfect fit for him.Guided Reading
is an instructional approach that involves a teacher working with a small
group of students who demonstrate similar reading behaviors and can read
similar levels of texts. The text is easy enough for students to read with
your skillful support; it offers challenges and opportunities for problem
solving, but is easy enough for students to read with some fluency. You
choose selections that help students expand their strategies. You select
books that students can read with about 90 to 94 percent accuracy.
Students can understand and enjoy the story because it's accessible to
them through their own strategies, supported by your introduction. They
focus on meaning but also use problem-solving strategies to figure out
words they don't know, deal with difficult sentence structure, and
understand concepts or ideas they have never before encountered in print.
Readers should know how to do research using multiple sources. Readers
should know how to analyze themes, and be able to read complex fiction and
nonfiction works. Decoding is the ability to use patterns to figure out
words and decipher their separate sounds. Fluency is reading quickly and
accurately. The reader should regularly draw on their ability to figure
out new words to read accurately. A good way to think of phonics is being
able to easily see “chunks” in words to figure out a word’s meaning. A
good reader will also learn more advanced prefixes (e.g. ex- in excavate,
extract, exhale) and suffixes (e.g. -ible in audible, plausible, legible)
and use them to decode dozens of multisyllabic words, such as pedestrian
and exasperate. A reader should understand what they read and be able to
read it aloud accurately, smoothly, and with plenty of expression. Readers
should examine all types of literature, including novels, dramas and
poetry, but focus more on nonfiction or focus more on factual information
and knowledge based literature, such as science
food and nutrition
and so on. Readers
should learn how to analyze multiple points of view and learn a topic from
different sources and understand how the information varies based on the
source. A reader should use evidence to compare and summarize what they
read in order to determine a story’s theme or the main point of a message.
A good reader should be able to take in the information and digest it
accurately. Readers should continue to learn about structure and pay
attention to the organization of what they’re reading. Focusing on banking
facts and saving knowledge for future use.
that every reader should
have, including, summarizing a text’s main points and explaining how those
points are supported by specific details. Pointing out how an author is
using evidence to explain or support their topic overall and the points
within the topic. Giving in-depth descriptions of characters, setting, and
events in a story. Explaining the relationship or interaction between two
or more individuals, events, or ideas based on specific information in one
or more texts. A readers vocabulary plays an important role in helping a
student become college-ready. Every reader should be acquiring a firm
grasp of language and its basic conventions. A reader should be able to
intuitively figure out more complicated unknown words, relying on skills
including using a text’s context for clues and recognizing common affixes
and root words to decipher a word’s meaning (e.g. photograph,
photosynthesis). Also, she should regularly be using dictionaries,
thesauruses, and glossaries to look up words and phrases. Readers should
learn how to use figurative language, such as similes (e.g. busy as a
bee), metaphors (e.g. you are what you eat), alliteration (e.g. she sells
seashells by the seashore), and a favorite, hyperbole (a.k.a. wild
exaggeration). Readers should be able to recognize common idioms (e.g.
jump on the bandwagon) and proverbs (e.g. two wrongs do not make a right).
They can also rely on the relationship between words — using synonyms,
antonyms, and homographs — to better understand new words.
is a website used by teachers and parents to improve or
"accelerate" their reading skills.
Developmental Reading Assessment
is an individually administered
assessment of a child's reading capabilities. It is a tool to be used by
instructors to identify a students reading level, accuracy, fluency, and
comprehension.Lexile Reader Measure
represents a person's reading ability on the Lexile scale. A Lexile text
measure represents a text's difficulty level on the Lexile scale. When
used together, they can help a reader choose a book or other reading
material that is at an appropriate difficulty level.
is to obtain a
Lexile measure for a book or article, text is split into 125-word slices.
Each slice is compared to the nearly 600-million word Lexile corpus, which
is taken from a variety of sources and genres, and the words in each
sentence are counted.
A Level 1 book is generally for ages 3 to 6,
and a Level 2 book is usually good for ages 4 to 8.
Resources for Learning How to Read
Read - Phonics - ABC's - Math) -
Learn to Read and Learn the Alphabet Online
Click n Kids
for Learning to Read -
Learn to Read Software Review
Learn to Read Software Review
Software Children's Reading
Years 2-6, 450 Lessons, 3,000 Learning
Activities, Virtual Field Trips and
Global Learning Xprize
Talk, Sing, Read, Write and Play. -
- Learn to Read 1:
Phonics & Rhyming - The Kids' Picture Show
(Fun & Educational Learning
National Reading Panel
Teach Your Child to Read
Your Baby Can Read
Succeed to Read
Everybody Wins NY
Read Write Think
International Reading Assoc.
- Story Bird
ABC of Reading
English Course Videos
English Grammar Lessons
Stages of Learning
(sounds) - Dyslexia
is a website link that
quickly directs you to a place in a document
without needed to scroll.Related Subjects
- Word Games
- Writing Tips
- Book Types
Child Development Books
Explicit instruction provides dramatic benefits in learning to read
People who were taught to read by receiving
the relationship between sounds and spelling experienced a dramatic
improvement compared to learners who discovered this relationship
naturally through the reading process. The ability
to read is foundational to education
Read to Learn
Learning to Read
should be an incredible journey.
When you first learn to how to read
, you should
also be learning about yourself and the world
at the same time
. Reading should be
constantly moving you forward in life.
. The goal of a balanced literacy program is to include the
strongest elements of each. The components of a 'balanced literacy'
approach are as follows: The read aloud, guided reading, shared reading,
interactive writing, shared writing, Reading Workshop, Writing Workshop
and Word study). Letters
is a complex "cognitive process"
of decoding symbols
in order to construct
or derive meaning (reading comprehension). Reading is a means of
, communication, and of
sharing information and ideas.
It was believed that the
fourth grade was when students stop learning to read and
started reading to learn
that was only when they had access to valuable knowledge and information.
Reading Shift Theory
Three of the most important things in
1: Learn How to Read.
2: Learn how to Comprehend what you are Reading.
3: Read the most Valuable Knowledge and Information that you can
find, things that will increase your understanding of yourself
and things that will increase your understanding of the world
around you. Learn to Read
and then Read
, but remember, the Person who does not Read the
Right Books has very little advantage over a person who can't read at all.
"Read the best books first
, or you may not
have a chance to read them at all."
Henry David Thoreau
And with over a 130 million
with over 2 trillion words you can easily say that
there is not a lot of time to be wasted on reading things that
will not benefit you. Math Too
Why learn to read and write if you never
read anything of value
or write anything of
And what happens if you never learn what is
Attacks on Books
There's a huge difference between someone who is
and someone who has excellent
knows only how to read, and the other fully understands what they are reading.
Most Literate Countries:
Norway, Iceland, Denmark, Sweden, Switzerland, United States,
Germany, Latvia, Netherlands.
Just because some one has been
does not mean that they have
If you don't Read the
things that Matter, then Knowing how to Read doesn't Matter
Comprehending what you read is just the beginning
Concentrating on word sounds helps reading instruction and intervention
What Reading Comprehension level should you have in order to induce
Literacy rates only show how many people can read, it does not
say that people have read things that are valuable or important,
things that would make them educated and aware.
Phonics - Speech Sounds
is a method for teaching reading and
by developing learners' phonemic awareness—the ability to
, and manipulate
—in order to teach the
correspondence between these sounds
that represent them. The goal of phonics is to enable beginning readers to
new written words by sounding them out, or, in phonics terms,
blending the sound-spelling
. Since it focuses on the
units within words
, phonics is a sublexical approach and, as a
result, is often contrasted with whole language, a word-level-up
philosophy for teaching reading.
. Articulatory phonetics
is the study of the production of
sounds by the
and vocal tract by the speaker.
is the study of the physical
sounds from the speaker
to the listener.
is the study
of the reception and perception of speech sounds
areas are inter-connected through the common mechanism of sound, such as
wavelength (pitch), amplitude, and
Phonetics – The Sound of American English
Flash Animation Project: University of Iowa
Novel software assesses phonologial awareness
. Understanding sounds in
language is a critical building block for child literacy, yet this skill
is often overlooked. Researchers have now developed a new software tool to
assess children's phonological awareness -- or, how they process the sound
structure of words.
What If English
Were Phonetically Consistent
Children who match sounds to letters earlier learn to
read faster. Text to
Words Sound the Same as other Words
” simply by touching a word or phrase, one can
listen to related information such as its pronunciation
or meaning. The gadget “whispers” the information into
the ear, thus enabling one to read on without having to
stop and check up the dictionary.
25 percent of young participants who had reading difficulties
mild or moderate hearing impairment
is the idea that vocal sounds
or phonemes carry
in and of themselves.
is a word that
, suggests or
resembles the sound that it describes
Common onomatopoeias include animal noises such as "oink", "meow" (or "miaow"),
"roar" and "chirp". Onomatopoeia can differ between languages: it conforms
to some extent to the broader linguistic system; hence the sound of a
clock may be expressed as "tick tock" in English, "tic tac" in Spanish and
Italian (shown in the picture), "dī dā" in Mandarin, "katchin katchin" in
Japanese, or "tik-tik" in Hindi. The term onomatopoeia means 'the
imitation of a sound'. Sound
is a branch of
concerned with the
systematic organization of sounds
is the study of the
of a given language and the analysis and classification
of its phonemes.
is one of the units of sound
that distinguish one word from another in a particular language
is a speech
sound made with the vocal tract open. 5 of the 26 Alphabet Letters
, and U
The letter Y
is sometimes considered a
sixth vowel because it can sound like other vowels. Unlike
, each of the vowel letters has more than
one type of sound or can even be silent with no sound at all
is a sound in spoken language
, with two competing
definitions. In the more common phonetic
definition, a vowel is a sound
pronounced with an open vocal tract, so that the tongue does not touch the
lips, teeth, or roof of the mouth, such as the English "ah" or "oh".
There is no build-up of air pressure at any point above the glottis. This
contrasts with consonants, such as the English "sh", which have a
constriction or closure at some point along the vocal tract. In the other,
phonological definition, a vowel is defined as syllabic, the sound that
forms the peak of a syllable. A phonetically
equivalent but non-syllabic
sound is a semivowel. In oral languages, phonetic vowels normally form the
peak (nucleus) of many to all syllables
, whereas consonants form the onset
and (in languages that have them) coda. Some languages allow other sounds
to form the nucleus of a syllable
, such as the
syllabic (i.e., vocalic) in the English word table (when not
considered to have a weak vowel sound:) or the syllabic r in the Serbo-Croatian word vrt "garden".
is the omission of one or more sounds (such as a vowel, a
consonant, or a whole syllable) in a word or phrase. Sometimes sounds are
elided to make a word easier to
. The word elision is frequently used in linguistic
description of living languages, and deletion is often used in
historical linguistics for a historical sound
is a speech sound
complete or partial closure of the vocal tract
. Examples are [p],
pronounced with the lips; [t], pronounced with the front of the tongue;
[k], pronounced with the back of the tongue; [h], pronounced in the
throat; [f] and [s], pronounced by forcing air through a narrow channel
(fricatives); and [m] and [n], which have air flowing through the nose
(nasals). Contrasting with consonants are vowels.
is a consonant formed by the audible release of the
airstream after complete closure of the
It is widespread in some nonstandard English accents and in some other
languages, such as Arabic, it is a standard consonant. Glottal plosive or
stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages,
produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract or, more precisely, the
glottis. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents
this sound is. As a result of the obstruction of the airflow in the
glottis, the glottal vibration either stops or becomes irregular with a
low rate and sudden drop in intensity.
is a unit of organization for a
sounds. For example, the
word water is composed of two syllables: wa and ter. A syllable is
typically made up of a syllable nucleus (most often a vowel) with optional
initial and final margins (typically, consonants). Syllables are often
considered the phonological "building
" of words
. They can influence
the rhythm of a language, its prosody, its poetic meter and its stress
is a branch of
that comprises the study of the sounds of
, or—in the case of
sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign. It is concerned with the
physical properties of speech sounds or signs (phones): their
physiological production, acoustic properties,
, and neurophysiological status. Phonology, on the
other hand, is concerned with the abstract, grammatical
of systems of sounds or signs.
is a branch of
concerned with the
systematic organization of sounds in languages
. It has traditionally
focused largely on the study of the systems of phonemes in particular
languages (and therefore used to be also called phonemics, or phonematics),
but it may also cover any linguistic analysis either at a level beneath
the word (including syllable, onset and rime, articulatory gestures,
articulatory features, mora, etc.) or at all levels of language where
sound is considered to be structured for conveying linguistic
. Phonology also includes the study of
equivalent organizational systems in
in phonetics is any distinct speech sound or
of whether the exact sound is critical to the meanings of words. In
contrast, a phoneme is a speech sound that, in a given language, if it
were swapped with another phoneme, would change the meaning of the word.
Phones are absolute, not specific to any language, but phonemes can be
discussed only in reference to specific languages.
is the visual representation
of speech sounds (or phones). The most common type of phonetic
transcription uses a phonetic alphabet, such as the
International Phonetic Alphabet
, which is an alphabetic system of
phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet. (Phonetic
Transcription is also known as phonetic script or
the way a word
or a language
is spoken, or the manner in which someone utters a word. If one is said to
have "correct pronunciation", then it refers to both within a particular
is a regular phonetic respelling of a word that does
have a standard spelling
, so as to indicate the pronunciation.
Pronunciation respellings are sometimes seen in dictionaries
. The 26 code words
in the NATO
are assigned to the 26 letters
of the English alphabet in
alphabetical order as follows: Alfa, Bravo, Charlie, Delta, Echo, Foxtrot,
Golf, Hotel, India, Juliett, Kilo, Lima, Mike, November, Oscar, Papa,
Quebec, Romeo, Sierra, Tango, Uniform, Victor, Whiskey, X-ray, Yankee,
id the pronunciation of words in English.
IPA Conventions for English
is a subset of phonological awareness in
are able to
, identify and manipulate phonemes, the
smallest units of sound that can differentiate meaning. Separating the
spoken word "cat" into three distinct phonemes, /k/, /æ/, and /t/,
requires phonemic awareness. The National Reading Panel has found that
phonemic awareness improves children's word reading and reading
, as well as helping children learn to
awareness is the basis for learning phonics.
is an individual's awareness of the
phonological structure, or sound structure, of words. Phonological
awareness is an important and reliable predictor of later reading ability
and has, therefore, been the focus of much research.
The Sound of Your Own Voice
includes any processes of language change that affect
pronunciation (phonetic change) or sound system structures (phonological
change). Sound change can consist of the replacement of one speech sound
(or, more generally, one phonetic feature value) by another, the complete
loss of the affected sound, or even the introduction of a new sound in a
place where there had been none. Sound changes can be environmentally
conditioned, meaning that the change only occurs in a defined sound
environment, whereas in other environments the same speech sound is not
affected by the change. The term "sound change" refers to diachronic
changes—that is, irreversible changes in a language's sound system over
time; "alternation", on the other hand, refers to changes that happen
synchronically (i.e. within the language of an individual speaker,
depending on the neighboring sounds) and which do not change the
language's underlying system (for example, the -s in the English plural
can be pronounced differently depending on what sound it follows; this is
a form of alternation, rather than sound change). However, since "sound
change" can refer to the historical introduction of an alternation (such
as post-vocalic /k/ in Tuscan—once [k], but now [h])—the label is
inherently imprecise and often must be clarified as referring to phonetic change or restructuring.
is the use whistling to emulate speech and
facilitate communication. A whistled language is a system of whistled
communication which allows fluent whistlers to transmit and comprehend a
potentially unlimited number of messages over long distances. Whistled
languages are different in this respect from the restricted codes
sometimes used by herders or animal trainers to transmit simple messages
or instructions. Generally, whistled languages emulate the tones or vowel
formants of a natural spoken language, as well as aspects of its
intonation and prosody, so that trained listeners who speak that language
can understand the encoded message. Whistled language is rare compared to
spoken language, but it is found in cultures around the world. It is
especially common in tone languages where the whistled tones transmit the
tones of the syllables (tone melodies of the words). This might be because
in tone languages the tone melody carries more of the functional load of
communication while non-tonal phonology carries proportionally less. The
genesis of a whistled language has never been recorded in either case and
has not yet received much productive study. Musical
- Speech Recognition
Human whistled languages may offer model for how to study dolphin
. More than 80 cultures employ a whistled form of their
native language to communicate over long distances. Whistled human speech
mostly evolved in places where people live in rugged terrain, such as
mountains or dense forest, because the sounds carry much farther than
ordinary speech or even shouting. While these whistled languages vary by
region and culture, the basic principle is the same: People simplify
words, syllable by syllable, into whistled melodies. Trained whistlers can
understand an amazing amount of information. In whistled Turkish, for
example, common whistled sentences are understood up to 90 percent of the
time. This ability to extract meaning from whistled speech has attracted
linguists and other researchers interested in investigating the
intricacies of how the human brain processes and even creates language.
While humans and dolphins produce sounds and convey information
differently, the structure and attributes found across human whistle
languages may provide insights as to how bottlenose dolphins encode
How do you accurately measure,
reading and writing ability
Knowing how to read
is very important for
. You can learn
many things from reading. You can learn
from other people, you can learn to
and you can acquire important
about yourself and the world around you. Reading is the path to
- Read to Learn
"Words are a vehicle to transmit information to the Brain"
"Reading Enriches the Mind"
"Learning to communicate is for our survival and
for our universal well being."
"A majority of the worlds most important
information is communicated using words."
"An Intelligent speaker, a
powerful talker and those who can influence others through
speech, will always be heard more then the best writers. But
listening to good speakers
are both equally important because in order to be a good speaker
you have to read good writing.
Sustained Silent Reading
is only one half of the skills
needed to Communicate effectively."
is the ability to read text
is to get the meaning of something. To become aware of
through the senses
. Include in
; include as part of something
; have as one's
or territory. -
is something that is capable
of being apprehended or understood
and something that is well
or enunciated, and loud enough to be heard distinctly, or
written clear enough
so as to be understood.
is something well known or
and within normal
everyday experience. Something common and ordinary and not strange. To be
something or to know something thoroughly.
carefully and to consider something with
to detail. Reading
carefully with intent to remember
is the message that is intended or expressed or signified. Rich in
or implication. Have in mind as a
what makes a text semantically meaningful
Text-based features that provide cohesion in a text do not necessarily
help achieve coherence, that is, they do not always contribute to the
meaningfulness of a text, be it written or spoken. A text coheres best if
the world around it is also coherent.
is something with an
logical, and aesthetically
consistent relation of parts
in a clear
and consistent manner. Coherent also means sticking together.
is the grammatical and lexical linking within a text or
sentence that holds a text together and gives it meaning.
does not take the given text at face value,
but involves a deeper examination
of the claims put forth as well as the
supporting points and possible counterarguments.
encourages readers to actively analyze
texts and offers strategies for what proponents describe as uncovering
is a critical
with the relationship
text and meaning
describes, the careful, sustained
interpretation of a brief passage of a text. A close reading
emphasizes the single and the particular over the general,
effected by close attention to individual words, the syntax, and
the order in which the sentences unfold ideas, as the reader
scans the line of text.Read Between the Lines
is to look
for meaning or to discover a meaning that is hidden
or implied rather than explicitly stated. To understand what someone is
really feeling or implying from what they say or write when they haven't
openly stated the truth. To understand what someone really means, or what
is really happening in a situation, even though it is not said openly. To
see the whole
Principle of Compositionality
is the principle that the
of a complex expression is determined by
the meanings of its constituent expressions and the rules used to combine
them. The principle of compositionality states that in a meaningful
sentence, if the lexical parts are taken out of the sentence, what remains
will be the rules of composition. It is frequently taken to mean that
every operation of the syntax should be associated with an operation of
the semantics that acts on the meanings of the constituents combined by
the syntactic operation.
when the reading speed is fewer than 100 words per minute
wpm. Reading for learning is best when the reading speed is 100
to 200 wpm.
Reading for comprehension is best when the reading speed is 200
to 400 wpm. Speed reading
or Skimming is around 400
average adult reads
text around 150 to 300 wpm. People talk or speak at
around 180 wpm, and people hear words around 150–160 wpm. Intensive Reading
is a slow
reading of a small amount of difficult text. This is an
activity that requires great mental effort and
. Reading short texts
thoroughly and with clear goals
, such as to answer reading comprehension
questions or to identify how sentences are linked
. To read intensively is
to completely deconstruct
a text, with the goal of absorbing as much
meaning from it as possible. This is done by taking a text, and
systematically looking up every word, phrase, or collocation that you do
not understand. Intensive reading involves learners reading in
is the intentional reduction in the speed of reading, carried
out to increase comprehension or pleasure.
is mostly beneficial when you're reading
valuable, especially something that increases your knowledge and
understanding. Extensive Reading
- Speed Reading
Read with Purpose
. Skim first
and high light
the things that
are important or of interest, and take notes. Learn
think in pictures
Rehearse as you go along. Stay within your
and work to increase that span.
Impression, Association, Repetition.
is a form of semantic holism holding that a
philosopher should "never ask for the meaning of a word in isolation, but
only in the
of a proposition".
is a theory in the philosophy of language to the
effect that a certain part of language, be it a term or a complete
sentence, can only be understood through its relations to a (previously
understood) larger segment of language.
of words through structured sets of semantic features, which
are given as "present", "absent" or "indifferent with reference to
involves collecting a corpus of utterances and
then attempting to classify all of the elements of the corpus at their
different linguistic levels: the phonemes, morphemes, lexical categories,
noun phrases, verb phrases, and sentence types.
is the property of a person or of a system that
and with expertise, often used in conjunction with accuracy
and complexity, their speed and coherency of
, or the length and rate
speech output. Reading fluency
the link between the recognition of words while reading and reading
comprehension, which manifests itself in the speed
and accuracy that one is able to read text. Research on reading fluency
aligns concepts of accuracy, automaticity, and prosody. To achieve reading
fluency, readers must have knowledge of the content of the language as
well as the vocabulary being used. Interventions designed to help children
learn to read fluently generally include some form of repeated reading,
but this process may differ for children with learning disabilities, who
may struggle with reading fluency. Oral fluency
or speaking fluency
is a measurement both
of production and reception of speech, as a fluent speaker must be able to
understand and respond to others in conversation. Spoken language is
typically characterized by seemingly non-fluent qualities (e.g.,
fragmentation, pauses, false starts, hesitation, repetition) because of
‘task stress.’ How orally fluent one is can therefore be understood in
terms of perception, and whether these qualities of speech can be
perceived as expected and natural (i.e., fluent) or unusual and
problematic (i.e., non-fluent). Oral reading
is sometimes distinguished from oral fluency. Oral reading
fluency refers to the ability to read words accurately and quickly while
using good vocal expression and phrasing. Oral reading fluency is often
linked to Schreiber’s Theory of Prosody, which places importance on the
tone, rhythm, and expressiveness of speech.
Written or compositional fluenc
y can be measured in a variety of
ways. Researchers have measured by length of the composition (especially
under timed conditions), words produced per minute, sentence length, or
words per clause. Ratio measures (e.g., words per clause, words per
sentence, and words per error-free sentence) have historically been most
valid and reliable. Pronunciation
The two most important skills to have when reading are. First, you
need excellent reading comprehension skills, which is to understand the
meaning of words and the context that surrounds the words. Then the second
most important skills to have is a higher level of information processing,
which is knowing the accuracy of the
, the relevance of the message, knowing why the message was
created and who created it, and you need to know the reason why you are
reading this message, which could be for work, or for personal preference,
or something random that you just happen to read. This higher level of
you to be totally aware
you're reading.To help remember what you
, you need to experience what you are reading and enjoy the
experience. Feel what you're reading, visualize what you're reading, hear
it, taste it, smell it. Be immersed in what you're reading and let the
text transport you to another place and time.
If you don't
read the things that matter
or fully understand the things that you're reading, then knowing how to
read will never benefit you as much as it can. So you have to learn how to
use reading effectively and efficiently in order to receive all the
benefits. Otherwise you will miss out on an amazing opportunity to reach
your full potential. If something that your reading is not increasing your
understanding of yourself and the world around you, then why are you
reading it? Reading should provide you with continuous
, if not, then you are
definitely not reading anything important or
Learning to Read between the Lines.
Busy pictures hinder reading ability in children
. Extraneous images
draw attention from text, reducing comprehension in beginning readers.
Zoom in to Focus on what you are Reading and then
Expand Outward to see the Whole Picture.
You need to process
information on several layers or levels. You start off reading, you
understand the meaning of the word, then the meaning of the sentence, then
the meaning of the paragraph, then the meaning of the chapter, then the
meaning of the subject, then how it relates to a area of knowledge, then
processing what you have read, then understanding what you have read, then
confirming if the information is accurate, then confirming if the
information is relevant or important, then knowing how you will categorize
this information, then knowing how you will remember this information,
good or bad? This can be done in about few seconds, and not always in
the exact same order, sometimes you need to understand
first before understanding the meaning of the word.
Visualize the sentence as you read. Identify relationships between words
in sentences using knowledge of the individual words and linking known
meanings together in a way that can be used to learn new information.
Reading without comprehension is like eating food but still
being malnourished. You're not starving to death, but you're
also not able to live up to your full potential, or develop normally.
Yes you can read, but you can't fully understand what is
written, because the message goes beyond the words that are
written. And it's not just the words, it's all the other things that
the original words do not express. You have to
see the whole
. This is the one flaws of writing, the clarity and
meaning can not be confirmed when the writer is not there to
explain what is written. But now that writing is digital,
, we can
link to more information when needed. So things can be explained
more insight and better understanding. Reading with
can help improve
comprehension, but the goal is to be able not to have to click on the
links at all, meaning that you know what that information is, and you can
see beyond what is written. I Comprehend.
is the ease with which a reader can
understand a written text.
Documentation Writing Standards
is the ease with which a reader can
recognize individual characters in text
Flesch-Kincaid Readability Test
tests designed to indicate how difficult a reading passage in English is
Neuroscience of Text Comprehension
shaping of a text's meaning by another text.
Intertextuality is a literary device that creates an ‘interrelationship
between texts’ and generates related understanding in separate works.
comprises the skills and competencies needed
for reading, writing
and participating on the web. It has been described
as "both content and activity"
Greek to Me
is an idiom expressing that something is difficult to
understand. The idiom is typically used with respect to something of a
foreign nature. Interpret
Learning Words from Contextual Clues
the contents of a book, written as part of a class assignment issued to
students in schools, particularly at the elementary school level. A book
review makes an evaluation of a particular book outlining the various pros
and cons of the book to help the reader know if it is the right book to
acquire. The book review also provides a conclusion giving a
recommendation on whether you should purchase the book or not. A book
report, on the other hand, is meant to outline the key aspects of that
particular book helping readers understand what the book generally talks
about. Basically, a book report is a summary of what a particular book
talks about. If you need to write a quality book report, therefore, it is
important that you get to know the major attributes that constitute the
book report which includes. A brief summary of the book. Theme and
character analysis. The tone, time and also the setting of the story. The
author of the book and when it was published among other key details of
the book. You can also state out quotes used to support the message being
emphasized on the story. To ease the process of writing the narrative and
stories of the main characters, students may be advised to write sequence
of action summaries, story 'pyramids', or story journals. Book reports may
be accompanied by other creative works such as illustrations, "shoe box"
dioramas, or report covers. Individual components of the book report can
also be made into separate artistic works, including pop-up cards,
newsletters, character diaries, gameboards, word searches, and story maps.
Students are typically advised to produce the report in multiple stages,
including prewriting, first draft writing, revision, first evaluation,
editing and rewriting, publishing, and post-project evaluation.
How to Underline or Highlight a Reading:
Study begins when you decide what you will learn. When you
underline, you decide what you will learn.
If you underline accurately, you will be able to review and make
notes more easily. Guides for underlining or
A. Read an entire section first.
B. Do not underline too much.
C. Select information you want to learn to make into notes.
D. Make major points stand out clearly.
Use double underlining.
E. Make margin notes.
Use key words.
Use brief summaries.
Make questions if you do not understand, so that you can return
to that section.
F. Realize that introductions rarely contain material that needs
to be underlined.
G. Turn major headings and sub-headings into questions.
Underline the condensed answer.
Answers may include information in: Topic sentences. Words
printed in special type. Numbered lists.
Pay attention to and be aware of words of transition,
introduction, conclusion, and definition (in other words,
accordingly, since, then, of course, but, yet, more important,
likewise, besides, for these reasons, subsequently, afterwards,
that is, that means, etc.)
Should see major facts in an outline form.
H. Use brackets when several lines are important to underline.
I. Use numbers when a series of ideas are important.
J. Make a question mark beside unclear sections of information.
K. Write down questions in your notebook for class that you have
for the Professor.
What Is the Difference in the Reading Assessment Between
Comprehension and Interpretation
You need to do more then just read, you need to do some
research. Just reading is for idiots who don't know any better.
You read to learn. If what you're reading doesn't provide you
with enough information to fully understand the value of the
words you just read, then you have to seek out more information
and do some research, other wise you learn very little about
everything. And the sad part is, you don't even know your
lacking key information
Measure and Assess.
You have to make sure that your
reading comprehension is improving every year and make sure that
you are increasing your vocabulary as well.
Functional Literacy may be adequate, but you still need to fully
understand what you are reading and read the things that matter, things
that will increase your understanding of yourself and the world around
Word Identification Assessment
is reading and writing skills that are
inadequate "to manage daily living and employment tasks that require
reading skills beyond a basic level". Functional illiteracy is contrasted
with illiteracy in the strict sense, meaning the inability to read or
write simple sentences in any language. Foreigners who cannot read and
write in the native language where they live may also be considered
Cortex Influences Word Comprehension
. Comprehension of a word’s
meaning involves not only the ‘classic’ language brain centres but also
the cortical regions responsible for the
control of body muscles
as hand movements. The resulting brain representations are, therefore,
distributed across a network of locations involving both areas specialized
for language processing and those responsible for the control of the
"If you don't Remember, Comprehend or Learn what you read, then
your reading speed does not matter." Ignorance
If you don't comprehend the things that matter then good
reading comprehension doesn't matter. So reading comprehension
must be about comprehending important information and
knowledge, otherwise good reading comprehension is almost
So the first reading comprehension tests should include the
actual skills that are needed for good comprehension.
Increasing the size of spacing between certain words could
improve people’s reading comprehension
Chunking in writing
You have to understand the definitions of words. But more
importantly, you have to understand the meaning of words when
they are used together with other words.
Words can be misleading
, you have to pay attention and learn
how words can be used to deceive.
"Having good reading comprehension is
great, but if you never read anything important or valuable,
then it's almost useless."
"The unfolding of your words
gives light; it gives understanding to the simple. The teaching of your
word gives light, so even the simple can understand."
You're not going to remember all the details of everything you
read, especially when you're not interested in the information
or interested in the subject. And you don't want to force
students to remember useless details
just so they can pass a
test. You want students to comprehend what they read only when
it's important. Being able to
is one thing, but knowing when to pay attention, and do it
effectively, is the most important aspect of reading
Speech-language experts can help kids who struggle to read and write
. RAP stands for read a paragraph, ask questions about the main idea and
details, and put main ideas and details into your own words. Other
successful strategies include:
information into visual maps
using a pencil or sticky note to mark
confusing, important or surprising portions of a text with specific
symbols (?, * or !, for example) Underlining or circling key words and
phrases that the reader doesn’t understand and/or that occur repeatedly in
a text writing a very brief summary of each paragraph or section in the
margin of the text or on a sticky note.
Oral Reading Fluency
Practice Reading Tests
Northwest Evaluation Association
Mechanics of Reading -
Skillful Reading Techniques:
In order to read at a good
speed, it is good to keep in mind.
A minimum number of fixations to the line of type.
Wide eye span which encompass phrases and thought sequence
rather than isolated words.
A complete absence of lip movements and vocalization.
Move the eyes consistently forward, regularly, and
rhythmically-- pick up groups of words rather than isolated
Practice quick and rhythmic return from the end of the line to
the beginning of the next.
Practice looking down quickly at a line of print, lifting your
eyes, and checking to see how many words you saw in this
Do this until you are actually aware of a broadened span.
Cover the print of a single line with a plain white card. By
moving the card downward, expose the line, cover it up, expose
it, cover it up, etc. Do this until you are aware of seeing more
words at a glance.
Practice reading a column of newsprint, restricting yourself to
only two fixations per line.
Keep in mind that the length of fixation and span is determined
by the type of material you are reading.
Watch for signs of fatigue: twitching muscles, burning
sensations in the eyelids, fading, or blurring of print. Look
away from your reading often and give momentary rest to your
Place the forefinger on your lips and your thumb and other
fingers on your larynx.
Practice reading with your mouth tightly closed; attempt to
restrict movement of the larynx, tongue, and lips.
Check to see whether you are actually "hearing" words as you
read; this is another form of vocalization which can be
eliminated only through determination to use only your eyes and
the meaning centers of your brain.
Regressions often occur because you are attempting to take such
long spans that you miss essential words and relationships. If
this is noticeable in your reading, shorten the span. Practice
covering all of the material which you have just read with a
This will not permit you to regress and will force you to
concentrate on essential words and essential relationships in
the sentence or paragraph. Read so fast, in easy materials, that
there is no time for regressions. Recognize the fact, at all
times, that some regression is necessary to establish
relationships within the selection which you are reading.
Dyslexia - Reading Difficulties
is having trouble with reading despite normal
intelligence. Difficulties include spelling words, reading quickly,
writing words, "sounding out" words in the head, pronouncing words when
reading aloud and understanding what one reads.
Neural Changes following Remediation in Adult Developmental Dyslexia
Sensitivity to dynamic auditory and visual stimuli predicts nonword
reading ability in both dyslexic and normal readers
Language-Based Learning Disability
differences that can affect skills such as listening, reasoning, speaking,
reading, writing, and maths calculations. It is also associated with
movement, coordination, and direct
- Text to Speech
- Hearing Impaired
The Brain can be Trained to Avoid Dyslexia, study suggests
ability of the brain to synchronize with the tone and intonation of speech
influences how language is processed. Auditory regions of the brain
synchronize with external auditory stimuli. That is to say, the brain is
able to naturally adjust the frequency of its brain waves with the
oscillations or the rhythm of what it listens at each moment.
Neuroimaging reveals hidden communication between brain layers during
. Language involves many different regions of the brain.
Researchers have discovered previously hidden connections between brain
layers during reading, in a neuroimaging study. The team used laminar
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (lfMRI) to investigate what happens
when people read Dutch words like ''zalm'' (salmon) compared to
pseudowords (''rorf''), revealing top-down influences on deep brain layers
for the first time. When people read a word, they combine 'bottom-up'
(lower level) visual information to recognise the letters, and 'top-down'
(higher level) cognitive information to recognise the word and retrieve
its meaning from memory. Such top-down and bottom-up information streams
are notoriously difficult to measure noninvasively (without having to open
up the brain).
Humans are born with brains 'prewired' to see words
. Study finds
connections to language areas of the brain
Humans are born with a part of the brain that is prewired to be receptive
to seeing words and letters, setting the stage at birth for people to
learn how to read. Analyzing brain scans of newborns, researchers found
that this part of the brain -- called the 'visual word form area' (VWFA)
-- is connected to the language network of the brain.
Visual Word Form Area
is a functional region of the left fusiform
gyrus and surrounding cortex (right-hand side being part of the fusiform
face area) that is hypothesized to be involved in
identifying words and letters
from lower-level shape images, prior
to association with phonology or semantics. Because the alphabet is
relatively new in human evolution, it is unlikely that this region
developed as a result of selection pressures related to word recognition
per se; however, this region may be highly specialized for certain types
of shapes that occur naturally in the environment and are therefore likely
to surface within written language. In addition to word recognition, the
VWFA may participate in higher-level processing of word meaning. Anomalies
in the activation of this region have been linked to reading disorders. If
the area is subjected to a surgical lesion, the patient will suffer a
clear impairment to reading ability but not to recognition of objects,
names, or faces or to general language abilities. There will be some
improvement over the next six months, but reading will still take twice as
long as it had before surgery. Electrical brain stimulation to the VWFA
causes reading-specific disruptions and can cause letter misperception.
is part of the temporal lobe and occipital lobe in
Brodmann area 37
. The fusiform gyrus is located between the lingual
gyrus and parahippocampal gyrus above, and the inferior temporal gyrus
below. Though the functionality of the fusiform gyrus is not fully
understood, it has been linked with various neural pathways related to
recognition. Additionally, it has been linked to various neurological
phenomena such as synesthesia, dyslexia
, and prosopagnosia.
is a shallow sulcus that divides the fusiform
gyrus into lateral and medial partitions. Functionally, the MFS divides
both large-scale functional maps and identifies fine-scale functional
regions such as the anterior portion of the fusiform face area.
Learning to Read in your thirties profoundly transforms brain networks
Only a few months of reading training can modify the
fundamentally. These deep
structures in the thalamus and brainstem help our
from the flood of visual input even before we consciously perceive it. It
seems that the more the signal timings between the two brain regions are
aligned, the better the reading capabilities. Therefore it is believed
that these brain systems increasingly fine-tune their communication as
learners become more and more
proficient in reading
and why experienced readers navigate more
efficiently through a text.
Book helps identify risks of reading difficulties in preschoolers
screening tool that directly engages preschool-age children during clinic
visits to assess their early literacy skills. The tool has the potential
to identify reading difficulties as early as possible, target
interventions and empower families to help their child at home, according
to researchers. The children completed standardized assessments of
important literacy skills:
, vocabulary, rhyming and rapid automatized naming (how
quickly they can access linguistic information about objects, letters or
words). We found significantly thicker gray matter cortex in the
left-sided areas of the brain in children with higher TRH scores, which
align with cortical thickness patterns found in older children and adults
with higher reading skills. Concepts of Print, Onset Sounds, Letter Names,
Letter Sounds, Word Rhyming, Word Blending, Word Segmenting, Sight Word
Reading, Decodable Word Reading, Nonsense Word Reading- Sentence Reading,
Oral Language (Sentence Repetition).
is the average of your four test scores, rounded to
the nearest whole number. Fractions less than one-half are rounded down;
fractions one-half or more are rounded up.
Scientists at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston
have now identified a crucial region in the temporal lobe, know as the
mid-fusiform cortex, which appears to act as the brain's visual
dictionary. if we temporarily disrupt activity in the mid-fusiform cortex
using briefly applied electrical pulses, it causes a temporary inability
to read, a dyslexia, but doesn't disrupt other language functions like
naming visual objects or understanding speech.
Extra spacing can boost children’s reading speed
. New study finds
significant benefits for both dyslexic and non-dyslexic children. A new
study has found that a child's reading speed can be improved by simply
increasing the space between letters within a piece of text. The study
discovered that text with increased space between each letter provided a
benefit to both dyslexic and non-dyslexic children. On average, the
dyslexia group showed a 13% increase in reading speed, while the
comparison group of non-dyslexic children showed a 5% increase in reading
Reading Fast - Speed Reading
Words Per Minute
is a common metric for
assessing reading speed. Research done in 2012 measured the speed at which
subjects read a text aloud
, and found the
average speed across 17 different languages to be
±29 or 863 characters per minute ±234. However, for the
languages that use the Latin or Cyrillic alphabets, the number of wpm
varied, as low as 161±18 for Finnish and as high as 228±30 for English.
The reason for this is different word structures in each language (longer
words in such languages as Finnish and shorter words in English). However,
the number of characters per minute tends to be around 1000 for all the
tested languages. For the tested Asian languages that use particular
writing systems (Arabic, Hebrew, Chinese, Japanese) these numbers are
lower. Scientific studies have demonstrated that reading—defined here as
capturing and decoding all the words on every page—faster than 900 wpm is
not feasible given the limits set by the anatomy of the eye. While
materials, people are able to
at 200 WPM
paper, and 180 wpm
on a monitor
has a signing speed
of 110-130 wpm.
are recommended to be
words per minute
, which is the range that people comfortably hear and
vocalize words. A measure of words processed in a minute, can also be used
as a measurement of the speed of typing or Morse code sending and
receiving. Since the length or duration of words is clearly variable, for
the purpose of such measurement, the definition of each word is often
standardized to be five characters or keystrokes long in English,
including spaces and punctuation. For example, under such a method applied
to plain English text the phrase "I run" counts as one word, but
"rhinoceros" and "let's talk" would both count as two. The average adult
reading speed is between 200 and 300 words per minute (same reading rate
you want to achieve by the 6th grade). For success in college you should
be able to read 350 to 450 words per minute.
- Scan and Scroll
is any of several techniques used
to improve one's ability to read quickly. Speed reading methods include
chunking and minimizing subvocalization. Frames Per Second
Reading Speed Benefits from Increased Vertical Word Spacing in Normal
. Crowding, the adverse spatial interaction due to
proximity of adjacent targets, has been suggested as an explanation for
slow reading in peripheral vision. Reading speed increased with vertical
up to about 1.2× to 1.5×
the standard spacing and remained constant and similar to the unflanked
reading speed at larger vertical word spacings. In the periphery, reading
speed also increased with vertical word spacing, but it remained below the
unflanked reading speed for all spacings tested. At 2× the standard
spacing, peripheral reading speed was still about 25% lower than the
unflanked reading speed for both eccentricities and
from a control experiment showed that the greater reliance of peripheral
reading speed on vertical word spacing was also found in the right visual
or silent speech, is the
made when reading; it provides the sound of the word as it is read.
is a process of speed reading
that involves visually searching the sentences of a page for clues to
meaning. Skimming alone may not be ideal when complete comprehension of
the text is the main objective. Skimming is mainly used when researching
and getting an overall idea of the text. When time is limited, skimming or
skipping over text can aid comprehension when layered reading is employed.
When reading an essay, it can mean reading the beginning and ending for
summary information, then optionally the first sentence of each paragraph
to quickly determine whether to seek still more detail, as determined by
the questions or purpose of the reading. For some people, this comes
naturally, but is usually acquired by practice. Skimming is usually seen
more in adults than in children. It is conducted at a higher rate (700
words per minute and above
) than normal
reading for comprehension
(around 200–230 wpm
and results in lower comprehension rates, especially with information-rich
reading material. Scanning
is the process
where one actively looks for information using a
information in a visually hierarchical manner that showcases the
interrelatedness of the information for better retrievability) formed from
skimming. These techniques are used by meta-guiding your eyes, which is
the visual guiding of the eye using a finger or pointer, such as a pen, in
order for the eye to move faster along the length of a passage of text.
There are 3 types of Reading: Mental
or Subvocalization: Sounding out each word internally, as
reading to yourself. This is the slowest form of reading. Mental readers
generally read at approximately 250 words per minute
. Auditory Reading: hearing out the read
words. This is a faster process. Auditory Readers
read at approximately 450 words
. Visual Reading
understanding the meaning of the word, rather than sounding or hearing.
This is the fastest process. Visual readers read at approximately
700 words per
is a quick, simultaneous movement of
both eyes between two or more phases of fixation in the same direction.
Saccade movements are very fast jumps from one eye position to another
whereas in smooth pursuit movements, eyes move smoothly instead of in
jumps. Saccades are one of the fastest movements produced by the human
body (blinks may reach even higher peak velocities). The peak
of the eye during a saccade reaches up to 900°/s in humans.
Rapid Serial Visual Presentation
is an experimental model frequently
used to examine the temporal characteristics of
. The RSVP paradigm
requires participants to look at a
of visual items which is around
10 items per second
. They are all shown in
the same place. The targets are placed inside this stream of continuous
items. They are separate from the rest of the items known as distracters.
The distracters can either be a color change or it can be letters that are
among the numbers.
Steady State Visually Evoked Potential
are signals that are natural
responses to visual stimulation at
the retina is excited by a visual stimulus ranging from 3.5 Hz to 75 Hz,
the brain generates electrical activity at the same (or multiples of)
frequency of the visual stimulus
Frequency recognition based on
canonical correlation analysis
for SSVEP-based BCIs.
Visual Processing Speed
can be defined as the amount of time needed to
make a correct judgment about a visual stimulus. These responses can be
made with reference to many types of visual tasks.
Howard Berg -
describes techniques to read faster and more efficiently - theDove.us
How to read a book: Lessons from the World’s Fastest Reader
Speed Reading Resources
Speed Reading Exercises
Instant Speed Learning
Technical Reading Exercise
ATOS Readability Formula
Multimodal Literacy Narrative
Test 4 Free
There's a big difference
what you're reading and fully
what you're reading.
should be done for scanning large amounts of text,
but not used for comprehending.
Meanings - Definitions
is what you mean or
. The idea
that is intended. The
that is intended
or expressed or signified. Have in mind as a purpose
is to have a particular sense or
meaning or have a specified degree of importance. Destine or designate for
a certain purpose. Have as a logical consequence.
- Word Games
or concepts that a
intends to convey
, or actually does convey, in communication with a
Words can have Several Meanings
is a word that changes its meaning and sometimes
when it is
capitalized. Such as march and March.
component of meta-communication that may modify meaning, give nuanced
meaning, or convey emotion, by using techniques such as prosody, pitch,
volume, intonation, etc. It is sometimes defined as relating to
nonphonemic properties only. Paralanguage may be expressed consciously or
the nonlexical component of communication by speech,
for example intonation, pitch
of speaking, hesitation noises,
is a secondary communication (including indirect
cues) about how a piece of information is meant to be
. It is based on the
idea that the same message accompanied by different meta-communication can
mean something entirely different, including its opposite, as in
is a statement that makes something
by describing the
structure or operation
or circumstances etc. Thought that makes something
. The act of describing something. To
give an account
refers to an author's intent as it is encoded
is a mental state that represents a commitment to carrying out an action
or actions in the future
Intention involves mental activities such as
planning and forethought
is an actual or possible derivation from
, which is not associated with signs that have any original or
primary intent of communication
. It is a general term of art used to
capture a number of different senses of the word
from its linguistic uses. Non-linguistic
language that is not consisting of or related to language. Nonlinguistic
sounds such as whistles, yells, laughs, and cries.
in philosophy of language
is the nature of meaning, its
definition, elements, and types, was discussed by
Augustine, and Aquinas. According to them "meaning is a relationship
between two sorts of things
: signs and the kinds of things they mean
(intend, express or signify)". One term in the relationship of meaning
necessarily causes something else to come to the mind. In other
sign is defined as an entity that indicates another entity to some agent
for some purpose".
is defined as a mental dictionary
regarding a word's meaning, pronunciation, syntactic
characteristics, and so on. The mental lexicon is a
linguistics and psycholinguistics to refer to individual speakers'
lexical, or word, representations. However, not all scientists agree as to
the utility of the mental lexicon as a scientific construct. The
mental lexicon differs from the lexicon in that it is not just a general
collection of words
it deals with how those words are activated, stored, processed, and
retrieved by each speaker. An individual's mental lexicon changes and
grows as new words are learned
and is always
developing, but there are several theorists that argue exactly how this
occurs. Some theories about the mental lexicon include the spectrum
theory, the dual-coding theory, Chomsky's nativist theory, as well as the
semantic network theory. Scientists also study the
areas of the brain
involved in lexical
representations. The following addresses some of the physiological,
social, and linguistic aspects of the mental lexicon. Recent studies have
also shown the possibility that the mental lexicon can shrink as an
individual ages, limiting the amount of words they can remember and learn.
The development of a second mental lexicon (L2) in
has also emerged
as a topic of interest, suggesting that a speaker's multiple languages are
not stored together, but as separate entities that are actively chosen
from in each linguistic
is to establish
meaning after a calculation,
survey, or study. To shape or influence and give direction to something.
To reach, make, or come to a
is to define, qualify, or direct. Helps to clarify
meaning and interpretation
is a person or thing that determines or decides something.
is to convey
Make something known
is the most direct or specific
meaning of a word or expression; the class of objects that an expression
refers to. The act of indicating or pointing out by name.
is the study of meaning,
in language, programming languages, formal logics,
and semiotics. It focuses on the relationship between signifiers like
, phrases, signs, and
and what they stand for, their
philosophical theory of the functions of signs and symbols.
is the evolution of
to the point that the modern meaning is radically different from the
Latent Semantic Analysis
is a technique in
natural language processing
particular distributional semantics, of analyzing
relationships between a set of
and the terms they contain by producing a set of concepts
related to the documents and terms. LSA assumes that words that are close
in meaning will occur in similar pieces of text (the distributional
hypothesis). A matrix
containing word counts
paragraph (rows represent unique words and columns represent each
paragraph) is constructed from a large piece of text and a mathematical
technique called singular value decomposition (SVD) is used to reduce the
number of rows while preserving the similarity
among columns. Words are then compared by taking the cosine
of the angle between the two vectors (or the dot product between the
normalizations of the two vectors) formed by any two rows. Values close to
1 represent very similar words while values close to 0 represent very
is the repeated sequential
use of a particular type of linguistic element or grammatical structure.
Also called linguistic recursion. A linguistic element or grammatical
structure that can be used repeatedly in a sequence is said to be
recursive. Recursion has also been described more simply as the ability to
place one component inside another component of the same kind. A
linguistic element or grammatical structure that can be used repeatedly in
a sequence is said to be recursive. English permits more
than one adjective
in a sequence in this manner is an example of a
more general feature of languages that linguists call recursion. In
English, prenominal adjectives are recursive. Simply put, this means that
prenominal adjectives can be 'stacked,' with several appearing
successively in a string, each of them attributing
some property to the noun
. In principle, there is no limit to the
number of adjectives that can modify a noun. In English, recursion is
often used to create expressions that modify or change the meaning of one
of the elements of the sentence. (Hand me the nails that Dan bought.) -
Recursion in computer science
is a method of solving a problem where
the solution depends on solutions to smaller instances of the same problem
(as opposed to iteration). The approach can be applied to many types of
problems, and recursion is one of the central ideas of computer science.
Recursion in mathematics
an expression such
that each term is generated by repeating a particular.
is a statement of the meaning
of a term, a word, phrase, or other set of
. Definitions can be
into two large categories,
definitions (which try to give the essence of a term) and
extensional definitions (which proceed by
listing the objects
that a term
). Another important category of definitions is the class of
, which convey the meaning of a term by
. A term may have many different senses and multiple meanings, and
thus require multiple definitions.
- Words can have Several Meanings
- Not Limit
is to give the meaning of a word
. To determine the essential quality of
something as being
and establish the identity
of someone or
. To give the
identifying characteristics of something. To
apply the appropriate name to something. Having the identity known or
The definition of a word does not
explain everything about the word
. And when people don't know the full
meaning of a word, then that word becomes almost meaningless or
is much more than
its definition explains.
is much more than its definition explains.
is much more
than its definition explains.
more than its definition explains. Life
is much more than its definition explains.
is much more than its
definition explains.In the Definition of a
is a word in the definition of the word that needs to be more defined,
then there will be a link
that words definition. This way the person can understand the original
word more fully and more clearly. Avoid
is the art or craft of compiling,
writing and editing
. Theoretical lexicography is the scholarly
discipline of analyzing and describing the semantic, syntagmatic and
paradigmatic relationships within the lexicon (vocabulary) of a language,
developing theories of dictionary components and structures linking the
data in dictionaries, the needs for information by users in specific types
of situations, and how users may best access the data incorporated in
printed and electronic dictionaries. This is sometimes referred to as 'metalexicography'.
of an anticipated outcome
that guides your planned
actions. Your Goal
is what you must
know in order to determine
the reference of
gives the meaning
of a term by specifying necessary and
for when the term should be used
. In the case of nouns, this is
equivalent to specifying the properties that an object needs to have in
order to be counted as a referent of the term. For example, an intensional
definition of the word "bachelor" is "unmarried man". This definition is
valid because being an unmarried man is both a necessary condition and a
sufficient condition for being a bachelor: it is necessary because one
cannot be a bachelor without being an unmarried man, and it is
sufficient because any unmarried man is a bachelor.
of a concept or term
formulates its meaning
, that is, every object that falls under the definition of the
concept or term in question. For example, an extensional definition of the
term "nation of the world" might be given by listing all of the nations of
the world, or by giving some other means of recognizing the members of the
. An explicit listing of the extension, which is only
possible for finite sets and only practical for relatively small sets,
is a type of enumerative definition. Extensional definitions are used when
would give more applicable information than other
types of definition, and where listing the members of a set tells the
questioner enough about the nature of that set. This is similar to an
, in which one or more
members of a set (but not necessarily all) are pointed out as examples.
The opposite approach is the intensional definition, which defines by
listing properties that a thing must have in order to be part of the set
captured by the definition. An ostensive definition conveys the meaning of
a term by pointing out examples. This type of definition is often used
where the term is difficult to define verbally, either because the words
will not be understood (as with children and new speakers of a language)
or because of the nature of the term (such as colors or sensations). It is
usually accompanied with a gesture pointing out the object serving as an
example, and for this reason is also often referred to as "definition by
pointing". Ostensive definitions rely on an analogical or case-based
reasoning by the subject they are intended to educate or inform.
is a definition that
extends the lexical definition of a term for a
including additional criteria
that narrow down the set of things meeting
the definition. For example, a dictionary may define the term "student" as
"1. anyone attending an educational institution of any type, or 2. anyone
who studies something." However, a movie theater may propose a precising
definition for the word "student" of "any person under the age of 18
enrolled in a local school" in order to determine who is eligible to
receive discounted tickets. Precising definitions are generally used in
is unacceptable; many
are precising definitions, as are company policies. This type of definition is
useful in preventing disputes
that arise from the involved parties using
different definitions of the term in question. A precising definition is
intended to make a vague word more precise so that the word's meaning is
not left to the interpretation
of the reader or listener. Here is an
example: From a class syllabus: "Class participation" means attending
class, listening attentively
, answering and
participating in class discussions
. This is similar to a stipulative
definition, but differs in that a stipulative definition may
the lexical definition, while a precising definition does not.
is a type of
definition in which a new or currently-existing term is given a specific
meaning for the purposes of argument or discussion in a given context.
When the term already exists, this definition may, but does not
the dictionary (lexical) definition of the term.
Because of this, a stipulative definition cannot be "correct" or
"incorrect"; it can only differ from other definitions, but it can be
useful for its intended purpose
. For example, in the riddle of induction
by Nelson Goodman, "grue" was stipulated to be "a property of an object
that makes it appear green if observed before some future time t, and blue
if observed afterward." "Grue" has no meaning in standard English;
therefore, Goodman created the new term and gave it a stipulative
is an abstract concept that defines a term in an academic
discipline. Without a falsifiable operational definition, conceptual
definitions assume both knowledge and acceptance of the
depends on. A hypothetical construct may serve as a theoretical
definition, as can a stipulative definition. A theoretical definition is a
proposed way of thinking about potentially related events. Indeed,
theoretical definitions contain built-in theories; they cannot be simply
reduced to describing a set of observations. The definition may contain
implicit inductions and deductive consequences that are part of the
theory. A theoretical definition of a term can change, over time, based on
the methods in the field that created it. Does defining something limit that
With meanings, nothing is ever just black or just white,
or just right or
just wrong, or just good or just bad. When people see things as only black or white, they
are more vulnerable to mistakes. And people also have a tendency to make
, which breaks down
communications. Everything needs to be defined in order to communicate
effectively and efficiently. Just like with
, it's either on or off, stop or go.
One Word can have Several Meanings
capacity for a word
to have multiple meanings
usually related by contiguity or closeness of meaning within a
, which is a lexical set of words grouped
by meaning that refers to a specific
words which sound alike
, but have different meanings
but have different meanings.
of different origins. Ambiguity
is a word that can be pronounced almost the same as
another word but differs in meaning, spelling or both. Examples
pale/pail - ate/eight - alter/altar - band/banned - buy/bye/by - red/read
- blew/blue - boar/bore - bare/bear - canon/cannon - coarse/course - fair/fare -
genes/jeans - foul/fowl - grate/great - in/inn - hour/our - knight/night -
no/know - nose/knows - maize/maze - meddle/metal - rain/reign - sea/see -
role/roll - their/there/they're - veil/vale.
is a word
that shares the same written form as another word but has a different
meaning. spelt the same, but have different pronunciations and meanings.
describes the case when different meanings can be
expressed by the same word in a language. Colexification is meant as a
neutral, descriptive term that avoids distinguishing between vagueness,
polysemy, and homonymy.
World's largest database of cross-linguistic lexical associations
are two words that can be
interchanged in a context
and are said to be
synonymous relative to that context
. Synonymous are
two words meaning the same or nearly the same.
is a word that expresses a
meaning opposed to the meaning of another word, in which case the two
words are antonyms of each other.
or opposites are words that lie in an inherently
incompatible binary relationship as in the opposite pairs big : small, long : short.
A word that expresses a meaning opposed to the meaning of another word, in
which case the two words are antonyms of each other.
is a word with a homograph (another word of the
same spelling) which is also an antonym (a word with the opposite meaning).
Words having several definitions
and meanings which makes
communication sometimes more complicated than it needs to be, which means that a person needs to be more
knowledgeable, if not, then communication
breaks down, and people can be
is the capacity for a sign (such as a word, phrase, or
symbol) to have multiple meanings
multiple semes or sememes and thus multiple senses), usually related by
contiguity of meaning within a semantic field. Polysemy is thus distinct
from homonymy – or homophony – which is an accidental similarity between
two words (such as bear the animal, and the verb
to bear); while
homonymy is often a mere linguistic coincidence, polysemy is not.
Top Five Words with Multiple Definitions:
Set (464 definitions) - Run (396 definitions) - Go (368 definitions) -
Take (343 definitions) - Stand (334 definitions). Break - Cut - Play -
Make - Light - Clear - Draw - Give - Hold - Fall - Pass - Head - Carry -
Call - Charge - Point - Catch - Check - Turn - Close - Get - Right - Cover
- Lift - Line - Open - Beat.
one of two main parts of a sentence, the other part being the subject; the
purpose of the predicate is to complete an idea about the subject, such as
what it does or what it is like.
is when something appears on the surface to be the case, but differs
radically from what is actually the case. The difference of opinions
between what might be expected and what actually occurs.
Back and forth Method
is a method for showing isomorphism between countably infinite
satisfying specified conditions.
two isomorphic objects cannot be distinguished by using only the
properties used to define morphisms; thus isomorphic objects may be
considered the same as long as one considers only these properties and
is a commonly understood cultural or emotional
association that some word or phrase carries, in addition to the word's or
phrase's explicit or literal meaning, which is its denotation.
is a word, phrase or other form used in informal language.
Catch My Drift
is what someone says
to someone when they want the other person to understand what they mean
without them telling the other person exactly what they mean. They want
the person to fill in the blanks.
is one that uses the term(s) being defined as a
part of the definition or assumes a prior understanding of the term being
defined. There are several kinds of circular definition, and several ways
of characterising the term: pragmatic, lexicographic and linguistic.
contexts. Sometimes you only need one word to describe something or to
communicate something. There are certain situations when you can have a
high degree of certainty that the receiver will clearly understand what a
single word means. There is no explanation or instructions needed because
the person is aware and has previously learned what that single word means
and knows what actions are needed to be taken. A person can also know what
one sound means or what one color means, like when seeing a red light when
driving a car in the city, you know that the colored red light means that
you should stop. So sometimes you only need one word, and other times you
may need many words to explain and understand something, which is almost
all the time.
is the process a procedure goes through when one of the
steps of the procedure involves invoking the procedure itself. A procedure
that goes through recursion is said to be 'recursive'. To understand
recursion, one must recognize the distinction between a procedure and the
running of a procedure. A procedure is a set of steps based on a set of
rules, while the running of a procedure involves actually following the
rules and performing the steps. Recursion is related to, but not the same
as, a reference within the specification of a procedure to the execution
of some other procedure. When a procedure is defined as such, this
immediately creates the possibility of an endless loop; recursion can only
be properly used in a definition if the step in question is skipped in
certain cases so that the procedure can complete. But even if it is
properly defined, a recursive procedure is not easy for humans to perform,
as it requires distinguishing the new from the old, partially executed
invocation of the procedure; this requires some administration as to how
far various simultaneous instances of the procedures have progressed. For
this reason, recursive definitions are very rare in everyday situations. A
sentence can have embed instances of one category inside another.
occurs in natural or formal languages when a sentence,
idea or formula refers to itself. The reference may be expressed either
directly—through some intermediate sentence or formula—or by means of some
encoding. In philosophy, it also refers to the ability of a subject to
speak of or refer to itself, that is, to have the kind of thought
expressed by the first person nominative singular pronoun "I" in English.
in linguistics is the capability of language to
communicate about things that are not immediately present (spatially or
temporally); i.e., things that are either not here or are not here now.
to the text
, or speech
act. Context is the discourse
that surrounds a language unit and helps to
determine its interpretation
Context is the set of facts
a situation or event. Verbal context influences
the way an
which is why citing people out of context
can be very manipulative
is data that gives context to a person,
entity or event. Context-awareness is the ability to
from or apply
knowledge to information.
helps define meaning
but you can take things out of context and change the meaning of the
, so it's the level of context that
creates meaning, not just any context itself. Like taking a page from a
book, there may be enough words to give you some understanding about what
is being said on the page, but not enough
that explains the
true meaning of that page. If the context that you use to explain
something or show an example
of something, if the
context itself is
, then the knowledge that
you're trying to communicate becomes more harmful than beneficial. Codes
Same word Different Meaning
Read Between the LinesWarning:
Context can also be used to
the meaning of a message, so
is not always a guarantee.
Some people just
and don't understand
. So there is this invisible context
the layers of meaning
not visible or written. Twisting someone's words
is when someone repeats something that you said, but tries
to change the meaning
of what you said by twisting
your words around. Cherry Picking Data
- False Advertising
Out of Context
is a message without the
surrounding words or circumstances from which it was originally created,
so the message is not fully
is an informal fallacy
in which a passage is removed from its surrounding matter in such a way as
its intended meaning.
Contextomies may be either intentional or accidental if someone
misunderstands the meaning and omits something essential to clarifying it,
thinking it to be non-essential.
the understanding that the action, utterance, or expression can only be
refers to the selective excerpting of words from their
original linguistic context in a way that distorts the source's intended
is isolating or removing information from its
normal or expected context. It may occur deliberately, as when visual
artists isolate a familiar object from its everyday context by turning it
upside down or vastly expanding its size to reveal a
about it, or nonconsciously, as when one’s memory of a
traumatic event becomes dissociated from the context in which the trauma
occurred and acquires a quality of unreality.
is the shaping of a text's meaning
by another text. It is the interconnection
between similar or related
works of literature that reflect and influence an
of the text.
Intertextual figures include: allusion,
, calque, plagiarism, translation, pastiche and parody.
Intertextuality is a literary device that creates an 'interrelationship
between texts' and generates related understanding in separate works.
These references are made to influence the reader and add layers of depth
to a text, based on the readers' prior knowledge and understanding.
Intertextuality is a literary discourse strategy utilised by writers in
novels, poetry, theatre and even in non-written texts (such as
performances and digital media). Examples of intertextuality are an
author's borrowing and transformation
of a prior text, and a reader's referencing of one text in reading
another. Intertextuality does not require citing or referencing
punctuation (such as quotation marks) and is often mistaken for
plagiarism. Intertextuality can be produced in texts using a variety of
functions including allusion, quotation and referencing. However,
intertextuality is not always intentional and can be utilised
inadvertently or without knowledge or intention.
Story within a Story
describes the process of understanding a text hermeneutically.
It refers to the idea that one's understanding of the text as a whole is
established by reference to the individual parts and one's understanding
of each individual part by reference to the whole. Neither the whole text
nor any individual part can be understood without reference to one
another, and hence, it is a circle. However, this circular character of
interpretation does not make it impossible to interpret a text; rather, it
stresses that the meaning of a text must be found within its cultural,
historical, and literary context. The whole defines the parts as
the parts define the whole
Word in Context
is an alphabetical list of the principal words
used in a
book or body of work, listing every instance of each word with its
immediate context. Word Count
is any content of a creative work which is
by the characters or author, but is implicit or
becomes something understood by the observer of the work as the production
is a linguistic context in which it is not always
possible to substitute "co-referential" expressions (expressions referring
to the same object) without
altering the truth
of sentences. substitution of co-referential
expressions into an opaque context does not always preserve truth. For
example, "Lois believes x is a hero" is an opaque context because "Lois
believes Superman is a hero" is true while "Lois believes Clark Kent is a
hero" is false, even though 'Superman' and 'Clark Kent' are co-referential
Researchers use Wikipedia to give AI context clues
is the improved recall
of specific episodes or information when the context present at
and retrieval are the same. One particularly
common example of context-dependence at work occurs when an individual has
lost an item (e.g. lost car keys) in an unknown location. Typically,
people try to systematically "retrace their steps" to determine all of the
possible places where the item might be located. Based on the role that
context plays in determining recall, it is not at all surprising that
individuals often quite easily discover the lost item upon returning to
the correct context. This concept is heavily related to the encoding
is the ways in which context contributes to meaning.
are the words
or the main body of a written
is what a
communication is about or what something is about
. The sum or range of
what has been perceived, discovered, or learned. Everything that is
included in a collection and that is held or included in something.
Content can also mean being satisfied or showing
with things as they are, satisfy in a limited way.
is a research method for studying
artifacts, which might be
texts of various formats, pictures
Social scientists use content analysis
in communication in a replicable and systematic manner. One
of the key advantages of using content analysis to analyze social
phenomena is its non-invasive nature, in contrast to simulating social
experiences or collecting survey answers.
is a critical outlook
concerned with the
relationship between text and meaning.
is the process by which people give meaning to
is to know and
the nature or meaning of. To become aware of through the
is expressing yourself clearly and easily.
occurs when a thing is defined in terms of itself
or of its type.
The process of repeating items in a self-similar way.
Do I have to Spell it out for
Sometimes you need to
spell it out
if you want someone to
understand you. Spell it out means to provide a
is wording that attempts to influence an
audience by using appeal to emotion or stereotypes.
is something a
of the same type. Widely different. Become different in some
particular way, without permanently losing one's or its former
characteristics or essence.
in media is the
that are directed towards an
. Content is "something
that is to be expressed through some medium, as
or any of various arts
can be delivered via many different media including the
audio CDs, books, e-books
, magazines, and live
events, such as speech, conferences and
the theory that the meaning of any text is
determined by the intentions of its author, whether stated or not.
the manner in which written and spoken language is used, the "points of
grammar, syntax, style, and the choice of words", and "the way in which a
word or phrase is normally and correctly used". Usage can mean the way
people actually use language or prescriptively the way one group feels
that people ought to use it.
Affirmative and Negative
are terms of opposite meaning which may be
applied to statements, verb phrases, clauses, or other utterances.
Essentially an affirmative (positive) form is used to express the validity
or truth of a basic assertion, while a negative form expresses its
falsity. Examples are the sentences "Jane is here" and "Jane is not here";
the first is affirmative, while the second is negative.
is a type of uncertainty of meaning in which
several interpretations are plausible
An expression whose meaning cannot be determined from its context.
Unclearness by virtue of having more than one meaning
is something that can have two or
more interpretations, sometimes
intended to mislead
more than one possible meaning. Having no intrinsic or objective meaning.
not organized in conventional patterns and having uncertain nature or
is a figure
of speech in which a thing or concept is called not by its own name,
rather by the name of something associated in meaning with that thing or
is the process of resolving the
conflicts that arise when a potential article title is ambiguous, most
often because it refers to more than one subject covered.
is the study of terms and their use. Terms are words and compound words or
multi-word expressions that in specific contexts are given specific
meanings—these may deviate from the meanings the same words have in other
contexts and in everyday language.
is a result of the process of operationalization
and is used to define something (e.g. a variable, term, or object) in
terms of a process (or set of validation tests) needed to determine its
existence, duration, and quantity.
This is your brain on sentences
. Brain activity patterns of word
meanings within sentences measured by Brain Scans
is a school of literary criticism and literary
theory having mainly to do with structural purposes of a particular text.
is a term used at the interface between neuroscience, cognitive science
and philosophy of mind that has multiple meanings.
is a subjunctive
conditional containing an
is contrary to fact.
in linguistics is the identification, analysis and
description of the structure of a given language's morphemes and other
linguistic units, such as root words, affixes, parts of speech,
intonations and stresses, or implied context. In contrast, morphological
typology is the classification of languages according to their use of
morphemes, while lexicology is the study of those words forming a
is a linguistic resource that contains
correspondences between surface form and lexical forms of words. Surface
forms of words are those found in any text. The corresponding lexical form
of a surface form is the lemma followed by grammatical information (for
example the part of speech, gender and number). In English give, gives,
giving, gave and given are surface forms of the verb give. The lexical
form would be "give", verb. There are two kinds of morphological
dictionaries: aligned and non-aligned.
is a linguistic blend of words
, in which parts of multiple words, or their
phones (sounds), and their meanings are combined into a new word, as in
smog, coined by blending smoke and fog, or motel, from motor and hotel. In
linguistics, a portmanteau is defined as a single morph that represents
two or more morphemes.
happens when a word changes form depending on the other words to which it
is a part of speech that connects words,
sentences, phrases, or clauses.
is a part
of a word
. In one usage, a stem is a form
to which affixes can be attached. Thus, in this usage, the English word
friendships contains the stem friend, to which the derivational suffix
-ship is attached to form a new stem friendship, to which the inflectional
suffix -s is attached. In a variant of this usage, the root of the word
(in the example, friend) is not counted as a stem. In a slightly different
usage, which is adopted in the remainder of this article, a word has a
single stem, namely the part of the word that is common to all its
inflected variants. Thus, in this usage, all derivational affixes are part
of the stem. For example, the stem of friendships is friendship, to which
the inflectional suffix -s is attached.
is the study of the history of words, their
origins, and how their form and meaning have changed over time.
is an expression (word, phrase, clause, etc.) that gives its meaning to a
pro-form (pronoun, pro-verb, pro-adverb, etc.)
making clear the meaning
of things, so as to make the
says friends are no better at interpreting
correct emotional intent
e-mails than complete strangers.
. A language is a set of surface forms and meanings, and a
mapping between the surface forms and their associated meanings. In the
earliest human languages, the surface forms were sounds but surface forms
can be anything that can be perceived by the communicating parties such as
drum beats, hand gestures, or pictures. A natural language is a language
spoken by humans, such as English or Swahili. Natural languages are very
complex since they have evolved over many thousands years of individual
and cultural interaction. We focus on designed languages that are created
by humans for some a specific purpose such as for expressing procedures to
be executed by computers. We focus on languages where the surface forms
are text. In a textual language, the surface forms are linear sequences of
characters. A string is a sequence of zero or more characters. Each
character is a symbol drawn from a finite set known as an alphabet. For
English, the alphabet is the set a,b,c,…,za,b,c,…,z (for the full
language, capital letters, numerals, and punctuation symbols are also
Deep Structure and Surface Structure
is a theoretical construct that seeks to unify several related structures.
is the abstract form that a word or morpheme
is postulated to have before any phonological rules have applied to it.
Figure of Speech
Figure of Speech
a special repetition, arrangement or
omission of words
with literal meaning, or a phrase with a specialized
meaning not based on the literal meaning of the words.
or Literally Speaking?
is a nicer word or expression used in place of one
that may be found offensive or suggest something unpleasant.
is the use of figurative language, via word, phrase or an image,
for artistic effect such as using a figure of speech. The word trope has
also come to be used for describing commonly recurring literary and
rhetorical devices, motifs or clichés in creative works.
are words and phrases typically associated with the
subversion of a standard variety.
is an expression, idea, or element of an artistic work
which has become
overused to the point of losing its original meaning or effect, even to
the point of being trite or irritating, especially when at some earlier
time it was considered meaningful or novel.
is an insinuation or intimation about a person or
thing, especially of a denigrating or a derogatory nature.
is the use of an incorrect word in place of a word with a similar sound,
resulting in a nonsensical, often humorous utterance.
is an idiosyncratic substitution of a word or phrase for a word or words
that sound similar or identical in the speaker's dialect (sometimes called
oronyms). "Ice Cream" and "I scream"
usually considered of inferior quality to the good it replaces.
is the manner of moving (transition) or mode of relationship between two
consecutive sounds. It is the relationship between two successive
syllables in speech.
is a word or term that suggests a meaning that is
known to be wrong.
is a word or name formed as an
the initial components in a phrase or a word, usually
constructed phrase that purports to be the source of a word that is an
acronym. Backronyms may be invented with either serious or humorous
intent, or they may be a type of false etymology or folk etymology.
is when acronyms or other
abbreviations do not stand for anything and cannot be expanded to some
meaning. Such pseudo-acronyms may be pronunciation-based, such as "BBQ"
(bee-bee-cue), for "barbecue", or "K9" (kay-nine) for "canine".
Pseudo-acronyms also frequently develop as "orphan initialisms"; an
existing acronym is redefined as a non-acronymous name, severing its link
to its previous meaning. For example, the letters of the "SAT", a US
college entrance test originally dubbed "Scholastic Aptitude Test", no
longer officially stand for anything. Codes
(word games) -
is a word, phrase, number, or other sequence of characters
which reads the same backward as forward, such as madam or “taco cat” or
. Sentence-length palindromes may be
written when allowances are made for adjustments to capital letters,
punctuation, and word dividers, such as "A man, a plan, a canal, Panama!",
"Was it a car or a cat I saw?" or "No 'x' in Nixon". Composing literature
in palindromes is an example of constrained writing.
is a shortened form of a word or phrase.
is short for "Also
", which is used to introduce any alternative name, which
may be the actual real name or pseudonym, alias, nickname, working name,
legalized name, pen name, maiden name, or title.
is a substitute for the proper name of a familiar
person, place, or thing, for affection or ridicule.
or alias is a name that a person or group assumes
for a particular purpose, which can differ from their original or true
Unequivocally or Unambiguously
or exhibiting a single clearly defined meaning. Admitting of no doubt or
misunderstanding; having only one meaning or interpretation and leading to
only one conclusion
is precisely and clearly
expressed or readily observable; leaving nothing to implication.
In accordance with fact
primary meaning of a term.
is expressing yourself easily or characterized by clear expressive
language. Put into words or an expression.
Express or state clearly.Speaking Tips
- Writing Tips
is to provide interlinear
explanations for words or phrases. Add explanatory notes to or
supply with critical comments.
is written between lines of text.
though not directly expressed; inherent in the nature of something. Being
without doubt or reserve.
is a system of
and symbolic representations,
represents something else that is invisible. Express indirectly by an
in linguistics is the study and interpretation of texts in
regard to their linguistic and tonal
is a way of pronunciation, or a way of saying a word so that it sounds
different. (loudness, length).
is a variety of a language that is a characteristic
of a particular group of the language's speakers. A pattern of speech.
is a variety of a language used for a particular
purpose or in a particular social setting. (e.g. father vs. dad,
child vs. kid, etc.).
form of word play
suggests two or more meanings
, by exploiting
of words, or of
similar-sounding words, for an intended humorous or rhetorical effect.
is an allusion device that uses
pictures to represent words
or parts of words.
Time flies like an arrow; fruit flies like a banana
is a humorous
saying that is used in linguistics as an example of a garden path sentence
or syntactic ambiguity, and in word play as an example of punning,
, and antanaclasis.
Sayings, Mottos, Proverbs
Does defining something limit that something
Garden Path Sentence
is a grammatically correct sentence that starts
in such a way that a reader's most likely
interpretation will be
; the reader is lured into a parse that turns out to be a dead
end or yields a clearly unintended meaning. "Garden path" refers to the
saying "to be led down [or up] the garden path", meaning to be deceived,
, or seduced. Such a sentence leads the reader toward a seemingly
familiar meaning that is actually not the one intended. It is a special
type of sentence that creates a momentarily ambiguous interpretation
because it contains a word or phrase that
can be interpreted in multiple
, causing the reader to begin to believe that a phrase will mean one
thing when in reality it means something else. When read, the sentence
seems ungrammatical, makes almost no sense, and often requires rereading
so that its meaning may be fully understood after careful parsing.
Analogies - Metaphors
is a hidden comparison
things that are unrelated
some common characteristics. A figure of speech
in which an
to refer to something that it does not literally denote in order to
suggest a similarity
. Metaphor is to suggest a
similarity between two things
in order to increase the
something by showing an example
not directly related but shares certain underlying features. Metaphor is
to use something as an example of how to look at something else in order
to understand it more accurately. Even though two things are not related,
they can share some common details or factors, that
when applied to a particular
, they can have similar understandings or make you aware
of certain contradictions
. Show a
- The Other
Way to Look at It
is a type of reasoning
states if things
agree in some respects they probably agree in others. Drawing a
in order to show a similarity
in some respect.
Analogical reasoning is any type of thinking that relies upon an analogy.
is to convey hidden meanings
through symbolic figures,
actions, imagery, and/or events. A metaphor in which a character, place or
event is used to deliver a broader message
about real-world issues and
occurrences. It can readily illustrate or
convey complex ideas
concepts in ways that are comprehensible
striking to its viewers, readers
or listeners. Writers or speakers typically use allegories as
that convey semi-hidden
or complex meanings through symbolic figures,
actions, imagery, or events, which together create the moral, spiritual,
or political meaning the author wishes to convey.
- Fantasy Films
conveyed or a
to be learned from a
or event. The moral may be left to the hearer, reader or viewer to
determine for themselves, or may be explicitly encapsulated in a maxim,
which is a saying that is widely accepted on its own merits.
is a short moral story
and a type of an analogy
is a brief
story, in prose or verse,
that features animals, legendary creatures, plants, inanimate objects, or
forces of nature that are
(given human qualities, such
as the ability to speak human language) and that illustrates or leads to a
particular moral lesson (a "moral"), which may at the end be added
explicitly as a pithy maxim or saying
is the study of signs and sign processes (semiosis),
indication, designation, likeness, analogy, metaphor,
signification, and communication. Pun
is something that can be interpreted as having a meaning, which is
something other than itself, and which is therefore able to communicate
information to the one interpreting or decoding the sign. Signs can work
through any of the senses
, visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory or taste,
and their meaning can be intentional such as a word uttered with a
specific meaning, or unintentional such as a symptom being a sign of a
particular medical condition.
Not to confuse Metaphoric Symbols with
is a figure of speech or a particular way of
wording that is devised to be understood in either of two ways, having a
is a word or phrase that means exactly or nearly the same as another word
or phrase in the same language.
is a partition of a whole (or a set) into two
parts (subsets). In other words, this couple of parts must be, jointly
exhaustive: everything must belong to one part or the other, and, mutually
exclusive: nothing can belong simultaneously to both parts.
refers to the sequence of events inside a
which affect other events through the principle of cause and effect.
is a balance within one or more sentences of similar phrases or clauses
that have the same grammatical structure.
a simple story used to illustrate a moral or spiritual lesson, as told by
Jesus in the Gospels. A short moral story, sometimes with animal
characters. Parable is a succinct, didactic story, in prose or verse, that
illustrates one or more instructive lessons or principles. It differs from
a fable in that fables
plants, inanimate objects, or forces of nature as characters, whereas
parables have human characters. A parable is a type of metaphorical
is a relation between objects in which one object
designates, or acts as a means by which to connect to or link to, another object.
is the act of
, differences and
based on similarities
in dissimilar things.
Pros and Cons
Two Sides to a Coin
is having the same or
expressing closely related meanings
. Capable of replacing or changing
places with something else; permitting
without loss of
appear like something or be similar or bear a
likeness to something else. Similarity
in psychology refers to the psychological nearness or proximity of two
"That's nice, but on the other hand, it can also be bad".
equal the same thing
to one another" ~
Is everything Connected
is a basis for
comparison; a reference point against which other things can be evaluated.
The ideal in terms of which something can be judged.
if whenever an element a is related to an element b, and
b is in turn related to an element c, then a is also related to c.
Transitivity (or transitiveness) is a key property of both partial order
and equivalence relations.
organization holding that (other things being equal) parts of a stimulus
field that are similar to each other tend to be perceived as belonging
together as a unit.
is a measure
of two series as a
function of the displacement of one
to the other. This is also
known as a sliding dot product or sliding inner-product. It is commonly
used for searching a long signal for a shorter, known feature. It has
, single particle analysis, electron tomography,
cryptanalysis, and neurophysiology.Correlations
is the problem of finding the best
from all feasible solutions.
Optimization problems can be divided into two categories depending on
are continuous or discrete.
of a best element
(with regard to some criterion) from some set of available alternatives.Dichotomy
or contrast between two things that are or are represented as
being opposed or entirely different.
partition of a whole (or a set) into two parts (subsets
). In other words,
this couple of parts must be jointly exhaustive:
everything must belong to
one part or the other
, and mutually exclusive: nothing can belong
simultaneously to both parts. Such a partition is also frequently called a
bipartition. The two parts thus formed are complements. In logic, the
are opposites if there exists a proposition such that it holds
over one and not the other. Treating continuous variables or ulticategorical
as binary variables is called dichotomization. The discretization error
inherent in dichotomization is temporarily ignored for modeling
is the act of
distinguishing by comparing differences. A conceptual separation or
distinction. The opposition or dissimilarity of things that are compared.
To show differences when compared. The perceptual effect of the
juxtaposition of very different colors
a set A is a subset of a set B, or equivalently B is
a superset of A, if A is "contained" inside B, that is, all elements of A
are also elements of B. A and B may coincide. The relationship of one set
being a subset of another is called inclusion or sometimes containment.
property of a device
measured under closely specified
description of distinct differences
between things being unlike or
dissimilar. A distinguishing difference or quality.
is being unlike or
dissimilar. A significant change. A
is one of a number of things
from which only one can be chosen. Serving or used in place of another.
Necessitating a choice between mutually exclusive possibilities.Option
is something that can be chosen. Another choice from which to chose from
or one of a number of things from which only one can be chosen. The act of
choosing or selecting. Plan B
is a syntactic construction that serves to express a
comparison between two (or more) entities or groups of entities in
quality, quantity, or degree.
occurs when one considers a set of
statistical inferences simultaneously or infers a subset of parameters
selected based on the observed values. It is also known as the
look-elsewhere effect, which is a phenomenon in the
, particularly in complex
particle physics experiments, where an apparently statistically
significant observation may have actually arisen by
because of the size of the parameter
space to be searched
is any process of
pairs to judge which of each entity is
, or has a greater amount of some quantitative property, or
whether or not the two entities are identical. The method of pairwise
comparison is used in the scientific study of
voting systems, social choice, public choice, and multiagent
In psychology literature, it is often referred to as paired comparison.
is any process of comparing entities in pairs to
judge which of each entity is preferred, or has a greater amount of some
quantitative property, or whether or not the two entities are identical.
The method of pairwise comparison is used in the scientific study of
preferences, attitudes, voting systems, social choice, public choice,
requirements engineering and multiagent AI systems. In psychology
literature, it is often referred to as paired comparison.
Multiple Comparisons Problem
occurs when one considers a set of
statistical inferences simultaneously or infers a subset of parameters
selected based on the observed values. It is also known as the
is the quality of being
important or prominent.
of an item is the state or quality by which it stands out
from its neighbors. Saliency detection is considered to be a key
facilitates learning and survival by enabling organisms to focus their
limited perceptual and cognitive resources on the
subset of the
available sensory data. Saliency typically arises from contrasts between
items and their neighborhood, such as a red dot surrounded by white dots,
a flickering message indicator of an answering machine, or a loud noise in
an otherwise quiet environment. Saliency detection is often studied in the
context of the visual system, but similar mechanisms operate in other
sensory systems. What is salient can be influenced by training: for
example, for human subjects particular letters can become salient by
training. When attention deployment is driven by salient stimuli, it is
considered to be bottom-up, memory-free, and reactive. Conversely,
attention can also be guided by top-down, memory-dependent, or
anticipatory mechanisms, such as when looking ahead of moving objects or
sideways before crossing streets. Humans and other animals have difficulty
paying attention to more than one item simultaneously, so they are faced
with the challenge of continuously integrating and prioritizing different
bottom-up and top-down influences.
is a logical
which describes a
situation where there is a logical and apparent equivalence, but when in
fact there is none. This fallacy is categorized as a fallacy of
Choices - Options
is judging the merits of multiple options
and selecting one or more of them.
The illusion of Choice
when people have made choices for you, so that you
may not have a choice
is to select, or
pick out from a number of alternatives
. Select as an alternative over
another. See fit or proper
act in a certain way; decide to act in a certain way.
is one of a number of things from
which only one can be chosen. The act of choosing or selecting.
is a test
where you are shown several possible answers but only one is
correct. You must choose the right answer from other possible answers or
select only the correct answer from the choices offered on a list. Multiple
choice items consist of a stem and several alternative answers, among
which are the correct ("keyed") answer and one or more incorrect
"No one can see beyond a choice they don't understand, so choice
can either be the problem or the solution."
is the failure to detect a
or when two
things are bad or unsuitable and do not go together.
retroactively thinking that our choices were more informed than they
actually were. We also assign positive attributes to the choices we made,
after the fact. So a person may keep making the same mistakes.
Fork in the Road
is when you have to
make a decision
something and choose a direction
Fork in the road
is a metaphor
deciding moment in life when you have to make a choice
from several options.
is an at-grade junction where two or more roads or
streets meet or cross.
studies self-interested agents and their interactions,
which can be represented in a number of ways. Public choice theory is also
closely related to social choice theory, a mathematical approach to
aggregation of individual interests, welfares, or votes.
Social Choice Theory
is a theoretical framework for analysis of
combining individual opinions, preferences, interests, or welfares to
reach a collective decision or social welfare in some sense.
is choosing between alternatives; someone has a
for A over B if they would choose A rather than B.
is something more desirable than
another thing and liked
better and value more highly above all others. Select as an alternative
over another and promote over another.
is the order that a person or agent gives to
alternatives based on their relative utility
a process which results in an optimal "choice" (whether real or
theoretical). Instead of the prices of goods, personal income, or
availability of goods, the character of the preferences is determined
purely by a person's tastes. However, persons are still expected to act in
their best (that is, rational) interest. Using the scientific method,
social scientists try to model how people make practical decisions in
order to test predictions about human behavior. Although economists are
usually not interested in what causes a person to have certain
preferences, they are interested in the theory of choice because it gives
a background to empirical demand analysis. Preference
is the ordering of alternatives based on personal wants instead of
or practical use
.One choice will not change
, but one choice could change the path that your on or
change the direction of your life, which will lead you to have a lot of
different experiences that you never planned for. So I would not say that
one choice will change everything, I would say that some things are going
to change if you make a particular choice, but how many things will change
or how much things will change will depend on the choice, and the timing
of the choice and the place where the choice was made. Some choices may
seem small and insignificant, but they could have a big impact on your
life, and some choices may be big and monumental but have very little
impact on your life. So it's more than the choice, it's everything else
surrounding the choice. Decisions
is the ability to choose
between different possible courses of
. It is closely linked to
the concepts of responsibility
praise, guilt, sin, and other judgments which apply only to actions that
are freely chosen. It is also connected with the concepts of advice,
prohibition. Traditionally, only actions that are freely willed are seen
as deserving credit or blame. There are numerous different concerns about
threats to the possibility of free will, varying by how exactly it is
conceived, which is a matter of some debate. Some conceive free will to be
the capacity to make choices in which the outcome has not been determined
by past events. Free Will comes from
and having knowledge
of what is right and wrong, good and
. If you believe that you don't have freewill, then you will
on other people
and other influences, even though it's your own
making bad decisions.
What's the Point
in philosophy is that faculty of
the mind which intentionally
, at the moment of decision
the strongest desire from among the various desires present. Will does not
refer to any particular desire, but rather to the capacity to act
decisively on one's
. Within philosophy
the will is important as one of the distinct parts of the mind, along with
and understanding. It is
considered important in ethics because of its central role in enabling a
person to act
the capability of conscious choice
and decision and intention. The act of making a choice.
Path to Take
Rational Choice Theory
are determinants of the individual choice based
attempts to model the decision process of an
individual or segment via revealed preferences or stated preferences made
in a particular context or contexts. Typically, it attempts to use
discrete choices (A over B; B over A, B & C) in order to infer positions
of the items (A, B and C) on some relevant latent scale (typically
"utility" in economics and various related fields).
Dan Gilbert: Choices
Sheena Iyengar: On the Art of Choosing
of the Second Best
if one optimality condition in an economic model
cannot be satisfied, it is possible that the next-best solution involves
changing other variables away from the values that would otherwise be
optimal. Politically, the theory implies that if it is infeasible to
remove a particular market distortion, introducing a second (or more)
market distortion may partially counteract the first, and lead to a more
is the calculation and display of the differences and similarities between
data objects, typically text files such as source code.
Social Comparison Theory
is the belief that there is a drive within
individuals to gain accurate self-evaluations. The theory explains how
individuals evaluate their own opinions and abilities by comparing
themselves to others in order to reduce uncertainty in these domains, and
learn how to define the self.
is comparing one's business
and performance metrics
to industry bests and best practices
from other companies.
Side by Side Comparisons
is a figure of speech that directly compares two
is the likelihood of a thing
occurring rather than not occurring. The ratio by which one better's wager
is greater than that of another.
a relationship between two numbers
indicating how many times the first
number contains the second. The relative magnitudes of two quantities
(usually expressed as a quotient). The relation between things (or parts
of things) with respect to their comparative quantity, magnitude, or
degree. Information Ratio
the study of finite or countable discrete
is a way of selecting items from a
is a permutation of the elements of a set, such that no
element appears in its original position.
elates to the act of arranging all the members of a set
into some sequence or order, or if the set is already ordered, rearranging
(reordering) its elements, a process called permuting.
Coded Messages - Secret Code
is a method of transmitting
information as a series of on-off tones
or clicks that
can be directly understood
the practice of concealing
a file, message, image, or video within another
file, message, image
, or video. Computer
is the practice and study of techniques for
in the presence of third parties called adversaries.
More generally, cryptography is about constructing and analyzing protocols
that prevent third parties or the public from reading
aspects in information security such as data confidentiality, data
integrity, authentication, and non-repudiation are central to modern
cryptography. Crack the Code
how to do something
that is difficult or complex. To solve
difficult problem or mystery. Deciphering
intelligence. Cryptic Message
message that is difficult to understand
because it has a
is unclear and mysterious because of the way it was written.
- Private Information
is the study of analyzing
information systems in order to study the hidden
aspects of the systems
language into code. Translate
is the process of encoding messages or
information in such a way that only authorized parties can read it.
Encryption does not of itself prevent interception
, but denies the message
content to the interceptor.
is software that can encrypt and decrypt
, often in the
form of files on a hard drive or packets sent over a network.
Researchers help close security hole in popular encryption software:
Cybersecurity researchers have helped close a security vulnerability that
could have allowed hackers to steal encryption keys from a popular
security package by briefly listening in on unintended 'Side
' signals from smartphones. Side channel attacks extract
sensitive information from signals created by electronic activity within
computing devices during normal operation.
is to mix together into
order or in a
disorderly fashion to make something unintelligible, or not clearly
understood or expressed.
is one of two or more graphemes, characters, or glyphs with
shapes that appear identical or very similar. Like the letter 0 and the
number Zero O; or the number 1 and the letter l and I.
Ones and Zeros
are people in the 20th century who used obscure
languages as a means of secret communication during wartime.
is a situation in which a language
is an element of a standardized code or protocol.
Each code word is assembled in accordance with the specific rules of the
code and assigned a unique meaning. Code words are typically used for
reasons of reliability, clarity, brevity, or secrecy.
is a word or a phrase designed to convey a
to a receptive audience, while remaining
inconspicuous to the uninitiated
word or name used, sometimes clandestinely, to refer to another name,
word, project or person. Names are often used for military purposes, or in
espionage. They may also be used in industrial counter-industrial
espionage to protect secret projects and the like from business rivals, or
to give names to projects whose marketing name has not yet been
determined. Another reason for the use of names and
phrases in the military
they transmit with a lower level of cumulative errors over a walkie-talkie
or radio link than actual names.
occurs when a speaker alternates between two
or more languages, or language varieties, in the context of a single
Interactive Proof System
that models computation as the exchange of messages
between two parties. The parties, the verifier and the prover, interact by
exchanging messages in order to ascertain whether a given string belongs
to a language or not. The prover is all-powerful and possesses unlimited
computational resources, but cannot be trusted, while the verifier has
bounded computation power. Messages are sent between the verifier and
prover until the verifier has an answer to the problem and has "convinced"
itself that it is correct.
Proof of Knowledge
is an interactive proof in which the prover
succeeds in 'convincing' a verifier that the prover knows something.
is a challenge to prove that someone possesses
knowledge of certain information without revealing the information itself
or any additional information. It is a method by which one party (the
prover) can prove to another party (the verifier) that they know a value
x, without conveying any information apart from the fact that they know
the value x. The statement being proved must include the assertion that
the prover has such knowledge, but not the knowledge itself. Otherwise,
the statement would not be proved in zero-knowledge because it provides
the verifier with additional information about the statement by the end of
the protocol. A zero-knowledge proof of knowledge is a special case when
the statement consists only of the fact that the prover possesses the
is the activity of making a message clear or
converting a coded message
from code into plain text. Convert code into ordinary language. The
a message sent by an
(the person sending), to an addressee
(the person receiving). Encoding
the process of creating a message
transmission to an addressee
to the person to whom something is addressed to or
Encoding Specificity Principle provides a framework for understanding
how the conditions present while encoding information relate to
memory and recall of that information.Semiotics
is a philosophical theory
of the functions of signs and symbols
from cryptic to
. Convert code into
ordinary language. Change from one system
is the discovery of the meaning
texts written in obscure languages
, which are almost always ancient.
is the process
into codewords of a
given code. There have been many common methods of mapping messages to
codewords. These are often used to recover messages sent over a noisy
channel, such as a binary symmetric channel.
how messages can be interpreted differently from
what was intended by their sender. Every communication act requires that
must be encoded
into a set of signs by the sender. These signs must then be transmitted
and decoded by the receiver to understand the contained messages. The code
system must be shared by both the sender and the receiver in order for the
communication to succeed. For example, thoughts must be encoded into
words, transmitted through air, and then be decoded back to thoughts.
Often the sender has a certain meaning to convey with his message, hoping
the receiver will interpret it correctly. This right interpretation can be
called the preferred decoding or preferred reading. When the
interpretation of the message is different from what was intended, this
can be called aberrant decoding. Aberrant decodings can occur in a more
widespread range of situations, as wrong
of a media product
or text whose incoming message is not the one intended by the creator of
the product or text.
is the process of creating a message for transmission by
an addresser to an addressee. The complementary process – interpreting a
message received from an addresser – is called decoding.
is used to represent a repertoire of characters by some kind
of encoding system. Depending on the abstraction level and context,
corresponding code points and the resulting code space may be regarded as
bit patterns, octets, natural numbers, electrical pulses, etc. A character
encoding is used in computation, data storage, and transmission of textual
data. "Character set", "character map", "codeset" and "code page" are
related, but not identical, terms. Early character codes associated with
the optical or electrical telegraph could only represent a subset of the
characters used in written languages, sometimes restricted to upper case
letters, numerals and some punctuation only. The low cost of digital
representation of data in modern computer systems allows more elaborate
character codes (such as Unicode) which represent most of the characters
used in many written languages. Character encoding using internationally
accepted standards permits worldwide interchange of text in electronic
List of Unicode Characters
contains a repertoire of over 136,000
characters covering 139 modern and historic scripts, as well as multiple
is like cracking a secret code, if you don't start learning how to crack
the code, then you will never crack it because codes don't crack
is the jargon or argot of a group, often employed to
exclude or mislead people outside the group. (Cryptolect)
is a word or string of characters used for user
authentication to prove identity or access approval to gain access to a
resource (example: an access code is a type of password), which is to be
kept secret from those not allowed access.
Code word as a figure of speech
is a word or a phrase
designed to convey a predetermined meaning to a receptive audience, while
remaining inconspicuous to the uninitiated.
is a covert distress signal used by an
individual who is being coerced by one or more hostile persons. It is used
to warn others that they are being forced to do something against their
is an attack model for cryptanalysis where the attacker has access to both
the plaintext (called a crib), and its encrypted version (ciphertext).
These can be used to reveal further secret information such as secret keys
and code books.
is the telegraphy system conveying information at a
distance by means of visual signals with hand-held
, rods, disks, paddles, or occasionally
bare or gloved hands. Information is encoded by the position of the flags;
it is read when the flag is in a fixed position. Semaphores were adopted
and widely used (with hand-held flags replacing the mechanical arms of
shutter semaphores) in the maritime world in the 19th century. It is still
used during underway replenishment at sea and is acceptable for emergency
communication in daylight or, using lighted wands instead of flags, at
night. Meaning to bear; altogether the sign-bearer. It's kind of like
readingnumbers on a clock, telling the time using letters and different
is something not open or public; kept private,
revealed. Not openly made known. Conducted with or marked by
hidden aims or methods. Prevent from being seen or discovered.
Be or go into hiding; keep out of sight, as for protection and
safety. Make undecipherable or imperceptible by obscuring or
Codes and special phrases have a purpose, to transmit
information in social groups so that only the receiver knows the
meaning, and codes can also provide technical information
quickly and easily.
is a system of
rules to convert information—such as a letter, word, sound,
image, or gesture—into another form or representation, sometimes
shortened or secret, for communication through a channel or storage in a medium.
is a type of information matrix barcode (or two-dimensional barcode) first designed for
the automotive industry in Japan. A barcode is a machine-readable optical
label that contains information about the item to which it is attached. A
QR code uses four standardized encoding modes (numeric, alphanumeric,
byte/binary, and kanji to efficiently store data; extensions may also be
used. Barcode only holds information in the horizontal direction.
can carry information both vertically and horizontally and
two-dimensionally and is capable of being read in 360 degrees from any
direction, thus eliminating any interference and negative effects from
backgrounds. QR code also has an algorithm which is used to create QR
codes that allows for an error margin of approx. 7-30%. QR code can also
carry hundred times more information in a smaller space when compared to a barcode.
is an optical, machine-readable, representation of data; the data usually
describes something about the object that carries the barcode.
Supply Chain Traceability
The USPS Facility Deciphers Illegible Handwriting at the United
States Postal Service Remote Encoding Center
"Hey, thanks for defining the word "many"
for me. It means a lot."
Right Words using
Thesaurus and other Tools
or significance of
something. An explanation
of something that is not immediately
is a section of text
, particularly a section of medium length. The
act of passing from one state or place to the next.
is a statement that makes something comprehensible by describing
. Structure or operation or circumstances etc.
Thought that makes something comprehensible
is fully apprehended as to purport or meaning or explanation. Know
and comprehend the nature or meaning of.
Make sense of a language.
Does Language and Vision work together to help you interpret
what you're seeing
- Story Telling
- Book Types
"People can still get the wrong impressions even when
you modify a message to make sure that people don't get the wrong
impression. People can still can get the wrong impression because of the
way you modified the question in anticipation of the possible wrong
impression. This is why we sometimes need to say, "please don't take this
in the wrong way, but..."
Labels - Labeling
that is written
about something or
that is in violation of statutory requirements
or is not adhering to normal labeling rules for
Labels can be very useful and also time saving. But labels can
, so you don't always see
the whole picture
understand something enough, usually because you're
lacking certain information
There are many
and you're only seeing the
. So you have to be extremely careful how you use labels and how
you see them. Some labels can
some labels can even manipulate
meaning. Words have can have more than one meaning
and labels can have more than one word
. Never allow your thinking and
understanding to be restricted or boxed in by single words or by labels
that can easily blind you from
seeing the whole picture
. Labels don't
, labels only make
. And people would
assume that you're an idiot since you believe that a label is a
replacement for facts and evidence. People have names and names are not
labels. So the only way to know someone is to talk to someone, which takes
time and effort, and the ability to have a
is a skill
that not everyone has. This goes way beyond having patience and tolerance,
you need to be knowledgeable, and you need to be educating yourself on a
regular basis. That takes commitment. You have to promise yourself to
never stop learning. Investing in yourself is the most important
investment that you will ever make. Invest wisely in your education and
you will reap the benefits of being wise
mislabeling your thoughts
. It would be
extremely stupid to label something before you actually knew what it was.
If you don't understand something accurately enough, then you should not
label it, because you would be a moron if you did. Mislabeling or labeling
something incorrectly can be damaging and dangerous, like with
or mislabeled products
mislabeling anything that would cause
is a wrong name or inaccurate name or designation. A name that is
lot of people just love to slap labels onto things as if that thoroughly explains
all the contents about what something is. This is why ignorant
people are so easily confused. Most people never read the label or
Read the Fine
. And they never educate themselves enough to understand what the
mean, or that there is missing
information that you may not have knowledge of. You can
what are the associations
When things are not explained properly then people become content with
being unaware, which means they will be ignorant their entire life.
is a label attached to an item, or contained in an
item's instruction manual, warning
the user about
associated with the
use of the item, and may include restrictions
by the manufacturer or seller on certain uses. Most of them are placed to
limit civil liability in lawsuits against the item's manufacturer or
seller. That sometimes results in labels which for some people seem to
state the obvious. (even when you label a
pack that says "smoking kills
there are still some people who will smoke".)
(not always accurate)
is describing someone or something in a
is the theory of how the self-identity and
behavior of individuals may be determined or influenced by the terms used
to describe or classify them.
- Define is to
- Butterfly Effect
(cause and effect)
You have to be careful how you
see labels and understand them. Though labels are convenient to
use, labels are not a full definition
, or a full description of
the contents. Whether a label refers to people, or material
objects, you have to see beyond just a few details, you have to
is thinking by assigning people or things to
using the categories as though they represented something in the real
world. For example, we think of people as either male or female, and force
to fit into one of the categories, even when it doesn't seem to
fit at all. Relative
The words we use to describe things are just temporary labels.
In order to fully describe anything, so that it can be fully
understood, you need to use more then words and
. This is
because meaning is not just what you see on the surface. There
several layers of meaning beyond what you can see
beyond what the label describes. So never see things as being
one dimensional. Because everyone knows that we live in a
and that we are always discovering more and
more about the world, a world that goes way beyond what we see
or feel. Visual Tools
(magnets) - Chemistry
is a label attached to
someone or something for the purpose of identification or to
give other information.
Labels do not describe all the
, labels only give you a starting point from which to inquire more information.
We should identify individuals by their
and not label them with an
. If a person wants to label themselves with
something that cannot accurately define them as a person
they should be described as a unidentified
If a group of individuals commits a
, then those
individuals must be apprehended and questioned. This is not
, this is about learning from these particular
individuals, and finding out why this crime was committed so
that we can correct this misunderstanding and find ways to keep
these crimes from repeating in the future.
If a person or persons claims to represent a group
, we cannot
use this label publicly when referring to these particular
criminals, because that would cause other people who are not
involved in the crime to be apprehended, questioned and
victimized, which would waste time, people and resources, and
not help find the actual criminals. Guantanamo
Labels like terrorist
, or any
religious name, are confusing and distracting. A
of a person is the most effective means
finding a criminal
. And if they have a
that would also help.
A persons religion or affiliation does not explain who a person
is as an individual. A persons personal beliefs can not be
defined by a single name, or can an individual be defined by
. The only way to know some one is to spend
time with them and learn, listen and understand the story of
their life, and the experiences that help shape them into
that they are today.
Everyone is born an
, and that
is how we treat each other, as individuals.
are all barriers. They
destroy the mind, they destroy communication, they destroy the
hearts and the the souls of all who are afflicted with these
Letters - Words - Symbols
is a standard set of letters
or basic written symbols
that are used to write
in one or more languages
based on the
general principle that the letters
phonemes or basic significant
of the spoken language. There are
that can be used to create over million different
words. (English letters written in uppercase and lower case in the photo
is a grapheme or written character
in an alphabetic system of writing.
is a letter at the beginning of a word
a chapter, or a paragraph that is larger than the rest of the text.
Uppercase or Capital Letter. Acronym
is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upper
case (also uppercase, capital letters, capitals, caps, large letters, or
more formally majuscule) and smaller lower case (also lowercase, small
letters, or more formally minuscule) in the written representation of
is a letter that, in a particular word, does not
correspond to any sound in the word's pronunciation.
that better depict
note changes due to grammar
proximity of other words require a symbol to show that the letter is mute.
Handwritten notes use a circle with a line through it and the sound is
called "zero"; It resembles the symbol for the "empty set", but must not
be confused with the Danish and Norwegian letter Ø. In printed or
computer's graphic presentation, the symbol Ø is used.
is any object that can be read. Words
of something written.
is a written symbol
that is used
to represent speech
. Characters are the basic
symbols that are used to write or print a language.
is a sign. Character
has 50,000 to 100,000 different characters in
, though a comprehensive modern dictionary will rarely list
over 20,000 in use. An educated Chinese person will know about 8,000
characters, but you will only need about 2-3,000 to
be able to read a newspaper
. Letters don't have any meaning by
themselves. A Chinese character on the other hand is a more complex unit.
It contains an indication of pronunciation as well as an indication of
meaning. English Words
or logograph is a written character that represents a
are a written
used to represent
is the smallest unit of a writing system
of any given
is an elemental
within an agreed set of symbols, intended to
character for the purposes of writing
abbreviated from American Standard Code
for Information Interchange, is a
standard for electronic communication. ASCII codes
represent text in computers
equipment, and other
devices. Most modern character-encoding
schemes are based on ASCII,
although they support many additional characters. ASCII is the traditional
name for the encoding system; the
Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
(IANA) prefers the updated
name US-ASCII, which clarifies that this system was developed in the US
and based on the typographical symbols predominantly in use there. ASCII
is one of a 1963 List of IEEE milestones.
Letter Like Symbols
is a Unicode block containing 80 characters which
are constructed mainly from the glyphs of one or more letters. In addition
to this block, Unicode includes full styled
although Unicode does not explicitly categorize these characters as being
"letterlike". Math Symbols
(sounds) - Vowels
is a character of the ancient Egyptian writing
system. Visual Language
were the formal writing system
. It combined
and alphabetic elements, with a total of some
1,000 distinct characters. Cursive hieroglyphs were used for religious
literature on papyrus and wood. The later hieratic and demotic Egyptian
scripts are derived from hieroglyphic writing; Meroitic was a late
derivation from Demotic. Symbols
a disk of fired clay from the Minoan palace of Phaistos on the island of
Crete, possibly dating to the middle or late Minoan Bronze Age (second
millennium B.C.). The disk is about 15 cm (5.9 in) in diameter and covered
on both sides with a spiral of stamped symbols. Its purpose and meaning,
and even its original geographical place of manufacture, remain disputed,
making it one of the most famous mysteries of archaeology. This unique
object is now on display at the archaeological museum of Heraklion.
Features 241 tokens, comprising 45 distinct signs.
is an illustrated codex
an unknown writing system. The vellum on which it is written has been
carbon-dated to the early 15th century (1404–1438), Some of the pages are
missing, with around 240 remaining. The text is written from left to
right, and most of the pages have illustrations or diagrams. Some pages
are foldable sheets.
is a large design or motif (generally longer than 4 metres) produced on
the ground and typically formed by clastic rocks or similarly durable
elements of the landscape
, such as
stones, stone fragments, live trees, gravel, or earth. A positive geoglyph
is formed by the arrangement and alignment of materials on the ground in a
manner akin to petroforms, while a negative geoglyph is formed by removing
patinated clasts to expose unpatinated ground in a manner akin to
Motif in visual arts
is an element of an
. A motif may be repeated in a
, often many times, or may
just occur once in a work.
studies the identification, description, and the
of the content of
: the subjects depicted, the
particular compositions and details used to do so, and other elements that
are distinct from artistic style
is the writing system originally used by the
to write the
. (c. 700 BC – present).
The classical Latin alphabet consisted of 23 letters, 21 of which were
derived from the
. In medieval times the letter I was differentiated
into I and J and V into U, V, and W, producing an alphabet equivalent to
that of modern English with 26 letters.
Basic Latin Alphabet
was used to write the Greek language since the late
9th or early 8th century BC. It was derived from the earlier Phoenician
alphabet, and was the first alphabetic script to have distinct letters for
vowels as well as consonants. It is the ancestor of the Latin and Cyrillic
scripts. Apart from its use in writing the Greek language, in both its
ancient and its modern forms, the Greek alphabet today also serves as a
source of technical symbols and labels in many domains of mathematics,
science and other fields.
used from around either the fifteenth century BCE
or 1300 BCE for Ugaritic, an extinct Northwest Semitic language, and
discovered in Ugarit (modern Ras Shamra), Syria, in 1928. It has 30
letters. Other languages (particularly Hurrian) were occasionally written
in the Ugaritic script in the area around Ugarit, although not elsewhere.
is the oldest verified alphabet. The
Phoenician alphabet is an abjad consisting of 22 letters, all consonants,
with matres lectionis used for some vowels in certain late varieties. It
was used for the writing of Phoenician, a Northern Semitic language, used
by the civilization of Phoenicia. (c.1200–150 BC)
was a thalassocratic ancient Semitic speaking
Mediterranean civilization that originated in the Levant in the west of
the Fertile Crescent. Scholars generally agree that it included the
coastal areas of today's Lebanon, northern Israel and southern Syria
reaching as far north as Arwad, but there is some dispute as to how far
south it went, the furthest suggested area being Ashkelon. Its colonies
later reached the Western Mediterranean (most notably Carthage) and even
the Atlantic Ocean. The civilization spread across the Mediterranean
between 1500 BC and 300 BC.
Numbers are the Root of Language
- Geometric Language
is a mark, sign
, or word that indicates,
, or is understood as
representing an idea
, object, or
. Symbols allow people to go
beyond what is known or seen by
between otherwise very different concepts and experiences. All
(and data processing) is achieved through the use of
symbols. Symbols take the form of words
are used to convey
other ideas and beliefs. For example, a red
be a symbol for "STOP". On a map, a blue line might represent a river.
Numerals are symbols for numbers
may be symbols for sounds. Personal names are symbols representing
. A red
rose may symbolize love and compassion. The variable 'x', in a
, may symbolize the position of a particle in space.
is a system of symbols and
symbolic representations. The practice of investing things with symbolic
(wiki) - Samples of Symbols
is the study or the use of symbols.
is a philosophical theory of the
functions of signs and symbols.
ISO 7000 Graphical Symbols for use on equipment
includes symbols for
all types of equipment, from automobiles and home entertainment products
to earth-moving machinery.
OCHA Humanitarian Icons v.02
- Math Symbols
were adopted from old
symbols used to alert others in the know of dangers
, marks, and
obstacles in the area. Many Foundation task forces have their own set,
with symbols unique to their usual assignments. At least one has refined
their code to such a degree it's practically a language on its own, able
to communicate multiple details with a few strokes added or changed. It's
important to keep in mind that in the field when dealing with anomalies,
we never know exactly what will have to be dealt with. Reality benders and
paranatural phenomena turn the chaos of entering a hostile environment
inside out and upside down. Every week I read reports of teams sent on
routine exploration missions only for them to wander into alternate
realities, houses with warped space-time and death machines built by
madmen and anartists. Contact with command will be lost. Technology will
fail. Rooms will shift. Teams will be split up. Imposters will try to pass
as teammates. To not be prepared for the unexpected is suicidal and has
lead to the deaths of more men and women than we have any right to forget.
When choosing symbols and what they represent, it is important for teams
to agree upon their meaning together and to keep the designs simple. A
stick figure with an X over its face. Two circles next to each other with
a line connecting them. A half-circle ending in two parallel lines. Signs
should be easy to draw in as few strokes as possible under stressful
circumstances. Whether drawn in chalk, marker or blood. You may need to
draw it before sprinting out of the room or with your one remaining hand.
There is no central database of field codes. It is considered best
practice for teams to come up with their own symbols and to change the
designs as time goes on. A lot of rookies like to point out the "symbols
have been compromised," sign being the scariest to see, right along with,
"do not be taken alive." While there are threats that can reach into the
mind and glean the meaning of the symbols, those are few and far between.
You face something like that, you're already fucked more ways to Sunday.
Most anomalies and hostile environments don't have that level of
intelligence or ability. Some don't even register us as sentient beings.
We're nothing more than food or material to them. Even a sentient skip
watching from the shadows will be hardpressed to see a symbol and
correctly assume the meaning left behind. At best they might copy what
they see drawn, but without the proper understanding of the meaning, it
can be easy enough to spot when a copycat is trying to sow confusion.
Signs for cleared rooms, staying quiet, strange phenomena can have wide
application. The, "do not follow the little girl," symbol is a bit of a
tongue in cheek joke about how many creepy little girls seem to hang out
in abandoned mansions, laughing from the shadows and asking people to play
with them. In actuality, the symbol is more properly explained as, "do not
follow the obvious bait." Predatory anomalies often use humans or the
pretense of a human in distress to lure personnel into dangerous
situations and away from the main group. If someone seems out of place or
is too conveniently found, there's a good chance you're walking into a
trap. While every potential threat and possible scenario can't be planned
for and expressed with a few lines, taking the time to draw up shorthand
for expected anomalies or common obstacles in the field can save lives.
Established ahead of time, field codes bring a strategical advantage in
otherwise overwhelming hostile environments.
- Computer Codes
ideogram that conveys its meaning through its pictorial
resemblance to a physical object.
symbol that represents an
or concept, independent of any
particular language, and specific words or phrases.
is a written character that represents a word or
phrase. Visual Language
artificial language developed for use by non-human primates. It employs a
keyboard whose keys contain lexigrams, symbols corresponding to objects or
ideas. A lexigram represents a word but is not necessarily indicative of
the object to which it refers. Lexigrams
were notably used by the Georgia
State University Language Research Center to communicate with bonobos and
chimpanzees. Researchers and primates were able to communicate using
lexigram boards made in up to three panels with a total of 384 keys.
indicates a hazard
the road that may not be readily apparent to a driver.
is a set of written symbols that represent the syllables or (more
which make up
a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds. For example, the
word water is composed of two syllables: wa and ter. A syllable is
typically made up of a syllable nucleus (most often a vowel) with optional
initial and final margins (typically, consonants). Syllables are often
considered the phonological "building blocks" of words. They can influence
the rhythm of a language, its prosody, its poetic meter and its stress
is the study of ancient and historical
handwriting (that is to say, of the forms and processes of writing, not
the textual content of documents). Included in the discipline is the
practice of deciphering, reading, and dating historical manuscripts, and
the cultural context of writing, including the methods with which writing
and books were produced, and the history of scriptoria. The discipline is
important for understanding, authenticating, and dating ancient texts.
However, it cannot in general be used to pinpoint dates with high
is a school of
that states immutable deep
structures exist in all cultures, and consequently, that all cultural
practices have homologous counterparts in other cultures, essentially that
all cultures are equitable.
Text Analysis Software
is a logo-syllabic
that was used to write several
of the Ancient Near East. The script was in active use from
the early Bronze Age
until the beginning
of the Common Era. It is named for the characteristic wedge-shaped
impressions which form its signs.
is one of the earliest systems of writing, was invented
by the Sumerians
. It is distinguished by its wedge-shaped marks on clay
tablets, made by means of a blunt reed for a stylus. The name cuneiform
itself simply means "wedge shaped".
Cistercian Monks Numbering System - 13th Century
were written in cuneiform, using a wedge-tipped reed stylus
to make a mark on a soft clay tablet which would be exposed in the sun
to harden to create a permanent record.
is the art and technique of
make written language legible
, readable, and appealing when displayed.
symbol indicating that a control activates or deactivates a particular
device. Universal power symbols are described in the
International Electro-Technical Commission
symbols for use on equipment, appearing in the 1973 edition of the
document (as IEC 417) and informally used earlier. The well-known on/off
power symbol was the result of the logical evolution in
design. Originally, most early power controls consisted of switches that
were toggled between two states demarcated by the words
On and Off
. As technology
became more ubiquitous, these English words were replaced with the
universal symbols line "|" and circle "o" (typically without serifs) to
bypass language barriers. This standard is still used on
. The symbol for the standby button was created by superimposing
the symbols "|" and "o"; however, it is commonly interpreted as the
numerals "0" and "1". Yet the IEC holds these symbols as a graphical
representation of a line and a circle.
(reboot) - Power Switch.
is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding,
representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's
. Unicode 10.0, contains a repertoire of 136,755 characters
covering 139 modern and historic scripts, as well as multiple symbol sets
. The character repertoire of the Unicode Standard is
synchronized with ISO/IEC 10646, and both are code-for-code identical.
Unicode Special Characters
or X followed by Zero. Xs and Os, another name for the game
. XOXO is a term used for expressing sincerity, faith,
love, or good friendship at the end of a written letter, email or SMS text
message. X/0, a notation for the division by zero.
, one of the 12 signs of the Chinese zodiac.
Ox Chinese constellation
, one of the 28 mansions of the Chinese
in chemistry sometimes abbreviated as ox when it forms coordination
a sex-determination system
as found in insects.
, a "collaboration software" suite and the company that
representation of the number
'0' (zero), with a slash through it. The
slashed zero glyph
is often used to distinguish the digit "zero" ("0")
from the Latin script letter "O" anywhere that the distinction needs
emphasis, particularly in encoding systems, scientific and engineering
applications, computer programming (such as software development), and
telecommunications. It thus helps to differentiate characters that would
otherwise be homoglyphs. It was commonly used during the punched card era,
when programs were typically written out by hand, to avoid ambiguity when
the character was later typed on a card punch. Unlike in the Scandinavian
vowel 'Ø' and the "empty set" symbol '∅', the slash of a slashed zero
usually does not extend past the ellipse in most typographic designs.
However, the slashed zero is sometimes approximated by overlaying zero and
slash characters, producing the character "0̸". In character encoding
terms, it has no explicit codepoint, but it is an alternate glyph (in
addition to the open zero glyph) for the zero character.
Letter O or the number Zero?
zero and the letter “O” both circles? The answer involves both science and
mysticism. Ayin (also ayn, ain;) is the sixteenth letter of the
Semitic abjads. Egyptian hieroglyph for “eye,” the letter O is the
fourth most popular letter in the English alphabet. The sound is probably
a derivation of the Arabic letter called ‘Ayn. Greek O, or omicron,
which literally means “small o.” In contrast, the Greek word omega means
“great O.” English alphabet has stayed true to the original Egyptian
graphic. In mathematics, the number 0, or simply zero, most likely
derived its shape from the sun and the moon. Many have ascribed divine
qualities to circles. The study of the circle eventually led to the
development of astronomy, geometry and calculus.
is a single distinct meaningful element
, used with
other words or sometimes alone
to form a sentence
and typically shown
with a space on either side
when written or printed
. A unit of
that native speakers can identify. Choose and use particular words in
order to say or write (something). A brief statement. A verbal
action. Put into words or an expression.
about recent and
important events. An exchange of views on some topic. A promise. A word is
a string of bits
stored in computer memory. A secret word
or phrase known
only to a restricted group. Word
is the smallest element
that may be uttered in isolation with semantic or
(with literal or practical meaning
). This contrasts
deeply with a morpheme, which is the smallest unit of meaning but will not
necessarily stand on its own. Vocabulary
are only two one-letter
words in English,
they are A and I (ai
Common two-letter words are of, to, in, it, is, be, as, at, so, we, he,
by, or, on, do, if, me, my, up, an, go, no, us, am.
is a word that does not have a prefix (in front of
the word) or a suffix (at the end of a word).
Sounds that Words Make
is a word which occurs in a
text more often
than we would expect to occur by chance alone.
is a word that
academics use to reveal the internal structure of an author's reasoning.
can be used to
and used to
believing that they understand the message, even when it is
Keywords that advertisers like to use
, easy, limited,
get, guaranteed, you, because. Keywords that
politicians like to use
, witch hunt, taxes, jobs.
(wiki) - Metadata
- Library Science
in computer programming
is a word or identifier that has a particular meaning
to the programming language
is a word used as the
key to determine the letter
matching's of the cipher
to the plain
a word or expression used as a keyword
such as a catalog or a search engine
are the roots of verbs and most nouns in the
Semitic languages that are characterized as a sequence of consonants or
"radicals" (hence the term consonantal root). Such abstract consonantal
roots are used in the formation of actual words by adding the vowels and
non-root consonants (or "transfixes") which go with a particular
morphological category around the root consonants, in an appropriate way,
generally following specific patterns. It is a peculiarity of Semitic
linguistics that a large majority of these consonantal roots are triliterals (although there are a number of quadriliterals, and in some
languages also biliterals).
has been highly influential in the grammar used in
second language acquisition and English Language teaching. Function words
(also called functors) are words that have little lexical meaning or have
ambiguous meaning, but instead serve to express grammatical relationships
with other words within a sentence
, or specify the
attitude or mood
speaker. They signal the structural relationships that words have to one
another and are the glue that holds sentences together. Thus, they serve
as important elements to the structures of sentences. Words that are not
function words are called content words (or open class words or lexical
words or autosemantic words): these include nouns, verbs, adjectives, and
most adverbs, although some adverbs are function words (e.g., then and
why). Dictionaries define the specific meanings
of content words, but can
only describe the general usages of function words. By contrast, grammars
describe the use of function words in detail, but treat lexical words in
general terms only.
is the smallest grammatical unit in a language. In
other words, it is the smallest meaningful
unit of a language. The field
of study dedicated to morphemes is called morphology. A morpheme is not
identical to a word, and the principal difference between the two is that
a morpheme may or may not stand alone, whereas a word, by definition, is
freestanding. When it stands by itself, it is considered as a
it has a meaning of its own (e.g. the morpheme cat) and when it depends on
another morpheme to express an idea, it is an
because it has a
(e.g. the –s in cats to indicate that it is plural).
Every word comprises one or more morphemes.
is the study of words
, how they are
formed, and their relationship to other words in the same
. It analyzes the structure of words
and parts of words, such as stems, root words, prefixes, and suffixes.
Morphology also looks at parts of speech, intonation and stress, and the
ways context can change a word's pronunciation and
. Morphology differs from morphological typology, which is the
classification of languages based on their use of words, and lexicology,
which is the study of words and how they make up a language's
is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories
such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood. The
inflection of verbs is also called conjugation, and one can refer to the
inflection of nouns, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, determiners,
participles, prepositions, postpositions, numerals, articles etc, as
is the property of a person or of a system that
quickly and with expertise
is the study of the history of words.
(the power of words)
a blend of words in which parts of multiple words are combined into a new
word. (motel, from motor and hotel) - (smog, by blending smoke and fog).
is a word that phonetically imitates,
suggests the sound that it describes
. Onomatopoetic - (of words) formed in
imitation of a natural sound
; "onomatopoeic words are imitative of
noises"; the formation of a word from a sound associated with what is named (e.g., cuckoo, sizzle).
is a word
that functions as the
name of some specific
or set of things, such as living creatures,
actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas. The word class that can
serve as the subject or object of a verb, the object of a preposition, or
in apposition. Noun is a content word that can be used to refer to a
. Lexical categories (parts of
speech) are defined in terms of the ways in which their members combine
with other kinds of expressions. The syntactic rules for nouns differ from
language to language. In English, nouns are those words which can occur
with articles and attributive adjectives and can function as the head of a
noun phrase. Word
- Transition Words
phrase which has a noun (or indefinite pronoun) as its head, or which
performs the same grammatical function as such a phrase. Noun phrases are
very common cross-linguistically, and they may be the most frequently
occurring phrase type. Noun phrases often function as verb subjects and
objects, as predicative expressions, and as the complements of
prepositions. Noun phrases can be embedded inside each other; for
instance, the noun phrase some of his constituents contains the shorter
noun phrase his constituents.
is a special grammatical category of a noun, pronoun,
adjective, participle or numeral whose value reflects the grammatical
function performed by that word in a phrase, clause or sentence. In some
languages, nouns, pronouns, adjectives, determiners, participles,
prepositions, numerals, articles and their modifiers take different
inflected forms, depending on their case. As a language evolves, cases can
merge (for instance, in Ancient Greek, the locative case merged with the
dative case), a phenomenon formally called syncretism.
is a word, phrase, or affix that occurs together with a
noun or noun phrase and serves to express the reference of that noun or
noun phrase in the context. That is, a determiner may indicate whether the
noun is referring to a definite or indefinite element of a class, to a
closer or more distant element, to an element belonging to a specified
person or thing, to a particular number or quantity, etc. Common kinds of
determiners include definite and indefinite articles (like the English the
and a or an), demonstratives (this and that), possessive determiners (my
and their), quantifiers (many, few and several), numerals,
distributive determiners (each, any), and interrogative determiners (which).
is a word to which an independent
can be assigned. Context
that surrounds another word or a language unit that helps to determine its interpretation.
is a word that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase.
(I, me, he, she, herself, you, it, that, they, each, few, many, who,
whoever, whose, someone, everybody, etc.) Grammar
is a pronoun expressing a
distinction of person.Verb
content word that denotes an action
, occurrence, or state of existence.
The word class that serves as the predicate of a sentence.
word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk,
), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be,
is used to refer
to a verb category or form which indicates whether the verb expresses a
fact (the indicative mood), a command (the imperative mood), a question
(the interrogative mood), a condition (the conditional mood), or a wish or
possibility (the subjunctive mood). Verb inflections that express how the
action or state is conceived by the speaker.
is one of
the two main constituents of a sentence
the predicate contains the verb
and its complements. Make the
(grammatical) predicate in a proposition. Affirm or declare as an
attribute or quality of. Involve as a necessary condition of consequence;
as in logic. (logic) what is predicated of the subject of a proposition;
the second term in a proposition is predicated of the first term by means
of the copula.
as one of two main parts of a sentence
, the other
part being the subject; the purpose of the predicate is to complete an
idea about the subject, such as what it does
what it is like
predicate of a sentence mostly corresponds to the main verb and any
auxiliaries that accompany the main verb; whereas the arguments of that
predicate (e.g. the subject and object noun phrases) are outside the
is a thing or
event that existed before or logically precedes another. Preceding in time
or order; previous or preexisting.
is a function word that combines with a noun or pronoun
or noun phrase to form a prepositional phrase that can have an adverbial
or adjectival relation to some other word. (linguistics) the placing of
one linguistic element before another (as placing a modifier before the
word it modifies in a sentence or placing an affix before the base to
which it is attached).Appositive
a noun or noun phrase that renames another noun right beside it. The
appositive can be a short or long combination of words. Look at these
appositive examples, all of which rename insect: The insect, a spider, is
crawling across the kitchen table.
is any verb whose conjugation follows the typical
pattern, or one of the typical patterns, of the language to which it
belongs. A verb whose conjugation follows a different pattern is called an
irregular verb. (This is one instance of the distinction between regular
and irregular inflection, which can also apply to other word classes, such
as nouns and adjectives.).
is a verb that adds functional or grammatical meaning
to the clause in which it appears, such as to express tense, aspect,
modality, voice, emphasis, etc. Auxiliary verbs usually accompany a main
verb. The main verb provides the main semantic content of the clause. An
example is the verb have in the sentence I have finished my dinner. Here,
the main verb is finish, and the auxiliary have helps to express the
perfect aspect. Some sentences contain a chain of two or more auxiliary
verbs. Auxiliary verbs are also called helping verbs, helper verbs, or
(verbal) auxiliaries. Profanity
are typological descriptions of a way that verb phrases in a
language can describe the path of motion or the manner of motion,
respectively. Some languages use it and others do not.
is a term for a verb form that functions as a noun.
In English, the term has been applied to -ing forms in certain uses.
Traditional grammar made a distinction within -ing forms between present
participles and gerunds, a distinction that is not observed in such modern
linguistically-informed grammars as A Comprehensive Grammar of the English
Language and The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language.
is of any of several verb forms that are not finite
verbs; they cannot serve as the root of an independent clause. Most
nonfinite verbs found in English are infinitives, participles and gerunds.
(They sometimes are called verbals, but that term has traditionally
applied only to participles and gerunds.) Additional nonfinite forms found
in some other languages include converbs, gerundives and supines.
is a word that modifies
a verb, adjective,
another adverb, determiner, noun phrase, clause, or sentence.
is a describing word, the main syntactic role of
which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about
the object signified.
is any of several verb forms that are not finite verbs; they cannot serve
as the root of an independent clause. Most nonfinite verbs found in
English are infinitives, participles and gerunds. (They sometimes are
called verbals, but that term has traditionally applied only to
participles and gerunds.) Additional nonfinite forms found in some other
languages include converbs, gerundives and supines.
is a part of speech
that connects words, phrases, or
clauses that are called the conjuncts of the conjoining construction. The
term discourse marker is mostly used for conjunctions joining sentences.
This definition may overlap with that of other parts of speech, so what
constitutes a "conjunction" must be defined for each
. In general,
a conjunction is an invariable grammatical particle and it may or may
not stand between the items in a conjunction. The definition may also be
extended to idiomatic phrases that behave as a unit with the same
function, e.g. "as well as", "provided that". Conjunctions may be placed
at the beginning of sentences
: "But some superstition about the practice
it was raining, we had to cancel
the class picnic. The house was a mess after
the crazy party we had last night. He didn't go skiing any more,
he had the accident. Her favorite
colors were purple and
red. He was late for
he took a shortcut. She doesn't
like coffee, nor
does she like tea.
is an affix
which is placed before the stem of a word. Adding it to the beginning of
one word changes it into another word. For example, when the prefix un- is
added to the word happy, it creates the word unhappy. Particularly in the
study of languages, a prefix is also called a preformative, because it
alters the form of the words to which it is affixed.
as a prefix means to undo, reverse,
remove or do the opposite.
is a word that is used alongside a
(as a standalone word
or a prefix or suffix) to specify grammatical
of the noun,
and in some languages extending to volume or numerical scope. The articles
in English grammar are the and a/an, and in certain contexts some. "An"
and "a" are modern forms of the Old English "an", which in Anglian
dialects was the number "one" (compare "on" in Saxon dialects) and
survived into Modern Scots as the number "owan". Both "on" (respelled
"one" by the Norman language) and "an" survived into Modern English, with
"one" used as the number and "an" ("a", before nouns that begin with a
consonant sound) as an indefinite article.
is an affix
which is placed after the stem of a
. Common examples are
case endings, which indicate the grammatical case of nouns or adjectives,
and verb endings, which form the conjugation of verbs.
as a suffix means to be full of or
having a quantity that would fill something named, like in the words
helpful, thankful, plentiful, mouthful and cheerful.
that is attached to a word stem to form a new
form. Affixes may be derivational, like English -ness and pre-, or
inflectional, like English plural -s and past tense -ed. They are bound
morphemes by definition; prefixes and suffixes may be separable affixes.
Affixations, the linguistic process speakers use form different words by
adding morphemes (affixes) at the beginning (prefixation), the middle (infixation)
or the end (suffixation) of words.
an affix inserted inside a word stem (an existing word or the core of a
family of words). It contrasts with adfix, a rare term for an affix
attached to the outside of a stem such as a prefix or suffix. When marking
text for interlinear glossing, most affixes are separated with a hyphen
but infixes are separated with (angle brackets).
is used to denote two or of something or more than one of something,
although they may also denote more than fractional, zero or negative
amounts. An example of a plural is the English word cats, which
corresponds to the singular cat
category of words
(or, more generally, of
lexical items) which have similar grammatical properties. Words that are
assigned to the same part of speech generally display similar behavior in
terms of syntax—they play similar roles within the grammatical structure
of sentences—and sometimes in terms of morphology, in that they undergo
inflection for similar properties. Commonly listed English parts of speech
are noun, verb, adjective, adverb, pronoun, preposition, conjunction,
interjection, and sometimes numeral, article or determiner.
is the person or thing about whom the statement is made, such as John runs, John is a teacher, or John
was hit by a car. In this case 'John' is the subject. Traditionally the subject is the word or phrase which
controls the verb
in the clause
, that is to say with which the verb agrees
(John is but John and Mary are). If there is no verb, as in John - what an
idiot!, or if the verb has a different subject, as in John - I can't stand
him!, then 'John' is not considered to be the grammatical subject, but can
be described as the 'topic' of the sentence
in a sentence as the entity that is acted upon by the
subject. There is thus a primary distinction between subjects and objects
that is understood in terms of the action expressed by the verb, e.g. Tom
studies grammar - Tom is the subject and grammar is the object.
is a grammatical term referring to certain verb
forms existing in many languages, most often used as non-finite verbs. As
with many linguistic concepts, there is not a single definition applicable
to all languages. The word is derived from Late Latin [modus] infinitivus,
a derivative of infinitus meaning "unlimited".
is when different languages arrange words differently in a
particular order. There are six theoretically possible basic word orders
for the transitive sentence: subject–verb–object (SVO),
subject–object–verb (SOV), verb–subject–object (VSO), verb–object–subject
(VOS), object–subject–verb (OSV) and object–verb–subject (OVS). The
overwhelming majority of the world's languages are either SVO or SOV, with
a much smaller but still significant portion using VSO word order.
is the set of
rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of
in a given language,
specifically word order. The term syntax is also used to refer to the
study of such principles and processes.
is a grammatical voice
common in many
languages. In a clause with passive voice, the grammatical subject
expresses the theme or patient of the main verb – that is, the person or
thing that undergoes the action or has its state changed. This contrasts
with active voice, in which the subject has the agent role. For example,
in the passive sentence "The tree was pulled down", the subject (the tree)
denotes the patient rather than the agent of the action. In contrast, the
sentences "Someone pulled down the tree" and "The tree is down" are active
English Auxiliaries and Contractions
is generally conceived
as one with little semantic meaning of its own, which modifies the meaning
of another verb with which it co-occurs. In English, verbs are often
classed as auxiliaries on the basis of certain grammatical properties,
particularly as regards their syntax – primarily whether they participate
in subject–auxiliary inversion, and can be negated by the simple addition
of not after them.
is a linguistic phenomenon observed in
language acquisition, language development and language change typified by
the replacement of irregular forms in morphology or syntax by regular
ones. Examples are "gooses" instead of "geese" in child speech and
replacement of the Middle English plural form for "cow", "kine", with
"cows". Regularization is a common process in natural languages;
regularized forms can replace loanword forms (such as with "cows" and "kine")
or coexist with them (such as with "formulae" and "formulas" or "hepatitides"
is a form of a verb that is used in a sentence to
modify a noun, noun phrase, verb, or verb phrase, and plays a role similar
to an adjective or adverb. A simpler, but less comprehensive, definition
is that it is a verbal adjective.
is the creation of derived forms of a verb from its principal parts by
inflection (alteration of form according to rules of grammar). Conjugation
may be affected by person, number, gender, tense, aspect, mood, voice,
and/or other grammatical categories such as possession, definiteness,
politeness, causativity, clusivity, interrogativity, transitivity, valency,
polarity, telicity, volition, mirativity, evidentiality, associativity,
pluractionality, agreement, polypersonal agreement, incorporation, noun
class, noun classifiers, and verb classifiers in some languages.
is the inflection of nouns, pronouns, adjectives,
and articles to indicate number (at least singular and plural), case
(nominative or subjective, genitive or possessive, etc.), and gender. A
declension is also a group of nouns that follow a particular pattern of
is a grammatical case for nouns, pronouns and
adjectives in the grammar of various languages; it is sometimes used to
express motion away from something, among other uses.
verb forms usually express perfective aspect and refer to past events,
similar to a preterite. Ancient Greek grammar had the aorist form, and the
grammars of other Indo-European languages and languages influenced by the
Indo-European grammatical tradition, such as Middle Persian, Sanskrit,
Armenian, the South Slavic languages, and Georgian also have forms
referred to as aorist.Vowels
is a stylistic literary device identified by
the repeated sound of the first letter in a series of multiple words, or
the repetition of the same letter sounds in stressed syllables of a
phrase. "Alliteration" is from the Latin word littera, meaning "letter of
the alphabet", and the first known use of the word to refer to a literary
device occurred around 1624. Alliteration narrowly refers to the
repetition of a letter in any syllables that, according to the poem's
meter, are stressed, as in James Thomson's verse "Come…dragging the lazy
languid Line along". Another example is "Peter Piper picked a peck of
is a shortened version of the written and spoken
forms of a word
, syllable, or word group, created by omission of internal
letters and sounds. In linguistic analysis, contractions should not be
confused with crasis, abbreviations nor acronyms (including initialisms),
with which they share some semantic and phonetic functions, though all
three are connoted by the term "abbreviation" in loose parlance.
Contraction is also distinguished from clipping, where beginnings and
endings are omitted.
A word is like
. You can send the word instead of the whole
of the word. Then the person who receives the word can then
the word by knowing its definition. (The brain unzips the file, or in this
case the word, or words).
- Writing Tips
alphabetical list of words
information and definitions
With so many words, it makes sense
to know Which words are the most important, How many words do you need to
know? How do you measure how many words you know? 20,000 effective words
in your vocabulary would be the minimum.
Vocabulary - Words you Know
is a set of familiar words
within a person's
language. A vocabulary, usually developed with age, serves as a useful and
fundamental tool for communication
vocabulary is the set of words
familiar to that person. A vocabulary usually develops with age, and
serves as a useful and fundamental tool for communication
. Acquiring an extensive vocabulary is one of the largest
challenges in learning a second language.
is the vocabulary of a person, language, or
branch of knowledge
nautical or medical).
There are currently around
words in the
including thousands of obsolete words.
It's not just the size of your vocabulary that
counts, but more importantly, it's the
quality of words
have in your vocabulary and your ability to use those words effectively
and efficiently, to
The Power of Words
powerless) - Core VocabularyThe
average person knows an average of about 5,000 - 20,000 words
, which varies depending on their level of
education, their spoken language and their environment. In 1950
the average 14-year-old had a vocabulary of 25,000 words. By 1999, the
average 14-year-old's vocabulary had dropped to only 10,000 words. A
college-educated speaker of English could have a vocabulary as large as
80,000 words. The biggest individual vocabulary found was 192,500 words.
"Can most adults quickly and effortlessly recall as many as 100,000
regularly used words when prompted?"
When starting to learn how to read and write, you should
learn words that are
relevant to your everyday life
one of your priorities
, and read the most important knowledge, your
vocabulary should increase a few words a day. This should happen your
entire life, but sadly to many adults stop learning new words, which puts
the at a disadvantage and makes adults vulnerable to
. 2 people can read the
same thing and have 2 different opinions.
are flawed because they don't use the most
effective words we have.
What good is having a large vocabulary of words if the words are
obsolete or ineffective?
Children's Vocabulary Differences related to the Process of Word Learning.
The nation's 31 million children growing up in homes with low
socioeconomic status have, on average, significantly smaller vocabularies
compared with their peers.
is an interactive educational tool that
facilitates vocabulary acquisition through
Most Common Words in English
500 WordsHistory of the
List of English words of Sanskrit origin
The words in this Website will make up the rest of your
50,000 word vocabulary.
your students’ Vocabulary Size
Test Your Vocab
English words do you know
Scots have 421 words for snow. Meanings
Word Games - Playing with Words
that matter that are known to be
valuable and are know to increase your
Physical Health Words
is the application of game-design elements and
game principles in non-game contexts.
Create a Word Cloud
Letters in Half
Everyone should learn a new word everyday. The ‘Word
of the Day
’ will be used in 3 sentences. And each
sentence used will have more meaning then the word itself. The
sentences used will also have lessons involved
so you are not
just learning the meaning of a word, you are also learning why that
particular word is used, and why that particular sentence needs that
word and learning what the sentence means as a whole, whether
it's a quote or passage from a book. Word
- Media Literacy
is a literary technique and a form of wit in which the words that are used
become the main subject of the work, primarily for the purpose of intended
effect or amusement. Examples of word play include puns
phonetic mix-ups such as spoonerisms, obscure words and
, clever rhetorical excursions, oddly formed sentences,
, and telling character names
(such as in the play The Importance of Being Earnest, Ernest being a given
name that sounds exactly like the adjective earnest).
Figure of Speech
Games with Words
is a word guessing game. Originally, the game was a dramatic form of
literary charades: a single person would
each syllable of a word
or phrase in order, followed by the whole phrase together, while the rest
of the group guessed. A variant was to have teams who
acted scenes out
together while the others guessed. Today, it is common to require the
actors to mime their hints without using any spoken words, which requires
some conventional gestures
. Puns and visual puns were and remain common.
is a word guessing party game where the objective of the game is for a
player to have their partners guess the word on the player's card without
using the word itself or five additional words listed on the card.
The game was published by Parker Brothers in 1989 and subsequently purchased by Hasbro.
Say the definition
of a word instead
using just the word itself. Describe the meaning
the word instead of saying the word.
Word Masters Challenge
is a game in which the object is to use guessing to
discover some kind of information, such as a word, a phrase, a title, or
the identity or location of an object. A guessing game has as its core a
piece of information that one player knows, and the object is to coerce
others into guessing that piece of information without actually divulging
it in text or spoken word.
is a common word game involving an exchange of words that are
. The game is based on
the noun phrase word association, meaning "stimulation of an associative
pattern by a word" or "the connection and production of other words in
response to a given word, done spontaneously as a game, creative
technique, or in a psychiatric evaluation."
Watch Out 4 Snakes
Word of the Day
Word of the Day
form of word play that exploits multiple meanings
of a term, or of
, for an intended
humorous or rhetorical effect. Puns
is a figure of speech in which a thing or concept is referred to by the
name of something closely associated with that thing or concept.
is an idiosyncratic substitution of a word or phrase for a word or words
that sound similar
or identical in the
speaker's dialect (sometimes called oronyms).
is the study of the history of words, their
origins, and how their form and meaning have changed over time. By
extension, the term "the etymology (of a word)" means the origin of the
is direct word switch or word play
result of rearranging the letters of a word or phrase to produce a new
word or phrase, using all the original letters exactly once; for example,
the word anagram can be rearranged into nag-a-ram. Someone who creates
anagrams may be called an "anagrammatist". The original word or phrase is
known as the subject of the anagram. Anagrams are often used as a form of
mnemonic device as well. Any word or phrase that exactly reproduces the
letters in another order is an anagram. However, the goal of serious or
skilled anagrammatists is to produce anagrams that in some way reflect or
comment on the subject. Antonyms
is a word, phrase, number, or other sequence of characters
which reads the same backward as forward, such as
palindromes may be written when allowances are made for adjustments to
capital letters, punctuation, and word dividers, such as "A man, a plan, a
canal, Panama!", "Was it a car or a cat I saw?" or "No 'x' in Nixon".
is a word game played using a plastic grid of
lettered dice, in which players attempt to find words in sequences of
- Memory Games
Word Recall Game
"I love words. Words
can be so wonderful. I couldn't imagine a world without words."
What are words for when no one listens anymore?
Missing Persons - Words
is a phrase that is designed to be difficult to
properly, and can
be used as a type of spoken (or sung) word game. Some tongue-twisters
produce results that are humorous (or humorously vulgar) when they are
mispronounced, while others simply rely on the confusion and mistakes of
the speaker for their amusement value.
70 People Try 70
Tongue-Twisters From 70 Countries | Condé Nast Traveler
Literacy - Ability to Read and Write
and to write with accuracy
and coherence and to use information and insights from text as the basis
for informed decisions and creative thought.
is also the
ability to use language
, and other basic means to
, gain useful
knowledge, solve mathematical problems and use the dominant symbol systems
of a culture. Literacy are the skills used to access knowledge through
and the ability to
assess complex contexts
. The key to literacy is
reading development and a progression of skills which begins with the ability
to understand spoken words and decode written words
and which culminates in the deep understanding of text
Reading development involves a range of complex language-underpinnings
including awareness of speech sounds or phonology
patterns or orthography, word meaning
grammar or syntax and patterns of word formation or morphology, all of which
provide a necessary platform for reading fluency and
. Once these skills are
acquired, a reader can attain full language literacy, which includes the
abilities to apply to printed material critical analysis, inference and
synthesis. The inability to read and write is called illiteracy or analphabetism.
40% OF WORLD'S CHILDREN CAN'T READ:
At least 250 million of the world's 650
million primary school age children are unable to read, write or do basic
mathematics, almost 120 million have spent little or no time in a
classroom including 57 million youngsters who are not attending school.
Percentages of Africans who can Read
.35 million U.S.
reading skills are below a fourth-grade level. 1 in 6 U.S.
adults. More Stats
High-income families are being exposed too
30 million more words
than children from families on welfare, which seems
catastrophic, but if the extra words in your vocabulary are
never used effectively and efficiently, then extra words in your
only give you a little more potential. You have to define the
most important words, and then you have to learn how to use them
effectively and efficiently.
Thirty Million Words
Learning to read boosts the visual brain
Literacy Resources -
- Literacy Center
- Literacy and Technology
LINCS Literacy Information and Communication System
(mouse over items and hear recorded
High school students today
are reading books
intended for children with reading levels around
5.3, which is barely above the fifth grade reading level
criminal and abusive. How do you accurately measure
Learning pathways could guide children who miss best start to improved
literacy by age 11
. A study of 7,000 children shows that the early
talk and communication experienced when very young, while essential
preparation for school, does not directly impact on literacy skills by age
11. Although talking, reading, or singing to a young child is very
important, children who experience this less - typically those from
less-advantaged backgrounds - need not be permanently disadvantaged. By
targeting specific learning pathways
they could be helped to catch up with their more fortunate peers. The
importance of children's Early
Language and Communication Environment
is widely acknowledged in
research and policy. It refers to how much parents and caregivers talk,
read, sing and play with very young children, to the quality of that
engagement, and to children's access to resources like books and toys.
Book Types - Printing Materials
is a set of
, or blank sheets, made of ink,
paper, parchment, or other materials, fastened together to hinge at one
side. A single sheet within a book is a leaf, and each side of a leaf is a
page. A set of text-filled or illustrated
book intended for
intermediate readers, generally age 7–10. Unlike picture books for
beginning readers, a chapter book tells the story primarily through prose,
rather than pictures. Unlike
, chapter books contain plentiful illustrations. The
name refers to the fact that the stories are usually divided into short
chapters, which provide readers with opportunities to stop and resume
reading if their attention spans are not long enough to finish the book in
one sitting. Chapter books are usually works of
of moderate length and
combines visual and verbal narratives in a book format,
most often aimed at young children. With the narrative told primarily
through text, they are distinct from comics, which do so primarily through
sequential images. The images in picture books are commonly produced in a
range of media, such as oil paints, acrylics, watercolor, and pencil,
or composition book
that is used in schools to copy
down schoolwork and notes. A student will usually have a different
exercise book for each separate
lesson or subject
is a book
containing a comprehensive
branch of study
with the intention of explaining it. Textbooks are produced to meet the
needs of educators, usually at educational institutions. Schoolbooks are
textbooks and other books used in schools. Today, many textbooks are
published in both print format and digital formats
are the words
. The main body of a written work. A book
prepared for use in schools
or colleges. A
that is used as the subject of a
. Text can also mean a short text
sent between mobile phones or
other electronic devices.
is a record
discrete entries arranged by date reporting
on what has happened over the
course of a day or other period. A personal diary may include a person's
, and/or thoughts or feelings, including
events outside the writer's direct experience
. Someone who keeps a diary
is known as a diarist. Diaries undertaken for institutional purposes play
a role in many aspects of human civilization, including government records
(e.g. Hansard), business ledgers and military records. In British English,
the word may also denote a preprinted journal format. (originally in
handwritten format). Epigram
is a daily record
of events or business; a private journal is usually referred to as a
diary. Note Book
is a visual diary and record
keeping combined with creativity. It's a place to record your thoughts,
memories, and emotions through images, art and words.
Digital Art Journaling
is using a computer
program like Photoshop to create journal pages.
is a way to compile knowledge
, usually by
information into books. Such books are essentially scrapbooks filled with
items of every kind: recipes
, tables of weights
and measures, proverbs, prayers
, legal formulas. Commonplaces are used by
readers, writers, students, and scholars as an aid for
concepts or facts they have learned. Each commonplace book is unique to
its creator's particular interests. They became significant in Early
is a method, an art for
personal and family history
in the form of a book, box, card. Typical
include photographs, printed media, and artwork. Scrapbook
albums are often decorated and frequently contain extensive journaling.
Scrapbooking is a hobby commonly practiced in many parts of the world.
is a detailed description
of a person's
involves more than just the basic facts
like education, work,
relationships, and death; it portrays a person's experience of these life
events. Unlike a profile or
, a biography presents a subject's life story, highlighting
various aspects of his or her life, including intimate details of
, and may include an analysis of the subject's personality. Biography
is an account of the series of
events making up a person's life.
is a written account of the life
of a person
written by that person. In other words, it is the
that a person
wrote about themselves. Narrative
is a brief summary of a research article
, thesis, review, conference
proceeding or any in-depth analysis of a particular subject and is often
used to help the reader quickly ascertain the paper's purpose. When used,
an abstract always appears at the beginning of a manuscript or typescript,
acting as the point-of-entry for any given academic paper or patent
application. Abstracting and indexing services for various academic
disciplines are aimed at compiling a body of literature for that
- Document Writing
is a brief literary description
. A small illustrative sketch (as sometimes
placed at the beginning of chapters in books). A photograph whose edges
shade off gradually.
written by hand or typewritten, as opposed to being
mechanically printed or reproduced in some automated way. More recently,
it is understood to be an author's written, typed, or word-processed copy
of a work, as distinguished from the print of the same.
is the business of issuing printed matter for sale or
. Put into print and prepare
and issue for public distribution or sale.
of a printed work offered
for distribution. The act of issuing printed materials. The communication
of something to the public and
is a roll of papyrus, parchment, or paper containing writing, which became
popular around the 1st century AD
. A scroll
is usually divided up into pages, which are sometimes separate sheets of
papyrus or parchment glued together at the edges, or may be marked
divisions of a continuous roll of writing material. The scroll is usually
unrolled so that one page is exposed at a time, for writing or reading,
with the remaining pages rolled up to the left and right of the visible
page. It is unrolled from side to side, and the
text is written in lines from the top to the bottom of the page
Depending on the language, the letters
may be written left to right
, right to
left, or alternating in direction (boustrophedon). Some scrolls are simply
rolled up pages; others may have wooden rollers on each end:
have rather elaborate rollers befitting their ceremonial
is a long narrative
, normally in prose, which
describes fictional characters and events, usually in the form of a
is a book made up of comics content. Although the word
"novel" normally refers to long fictional works, the term "graphic
novel" is applied broadly and includes fiction, non-fiction, and
anthologized work. It is distinguished from the term "comic book", which
is used for comics periodicals.
is any single body of written works. More
restrictively, it is writing considered as an art form, or any single
writing deemed to have artistic or intellectual value, often due to
deploying language in ways that differ from ordinary usage.
is any body of written works
restrictively, literature refers to writing considered to be an art form
or any single writing deemed to have artistic or
, often due to deploying language in ways that
differ from ordinary usage.
is an agent
writers and their written works to publishers, theatrical producers, film
producers, and film studios, and assists in the sale and deal negotiation
of the same. Literary agents most often represent novelists,
screenwriters, and non-fiction writers. They are paid a fixed percentage
(usually twenty percent on foreign sales and ten to fifteen percent for
domestic sales) of the proceeds of sales they negotiate on behalf of their
is a category of literary composition. Genres may be
determined by literary technique, tone, content, or even (as in the case
of fiction) length. The distinctions between genres and categories are
flexible and loosely defined, often with subgroups.
is the ability to
, negotiate, and make
presented in the form of
, extending the meaning of literacy, which commonly signifies
of a written or printed text. Visual literacy is based on
the idea that pictures can be “read” and that meaning can be through a
process of reading. Logos
is a book with a series of pictures that vary gradually
from one page to the next, so that when the pages are turned rapidly, the
pictures appear to animate by simulating motion or some other change.
is a medium used to
express ideas by images
, often combined with text or other visual
information. Comics frequently takes the form of juxtaposed sequences of
panels of images. Often textual devices such as speech balloons, captions,
and onomatopoeia indicate dialogue, narration, sound effects, or other
information. Size and arrangement of panels contribute to narrative
is a form of literature written by a
usually consisting of dialogue
between characters, intended for theatrical
performance rather than just reading. Plays are performed at a variety of
levels, from Broadway, Off-Broadway, regional theater, to Community
theatre, as well as University or school productions. There are rare
dramatists, notably George Bernard Shaw, who have had little preference
whether their plays were performed or read. The term "play" can refer to
both the written works of playwrights and to their complete theatrical
is a written work
by screenwriters for a film,
video game, or television program. These screenplays can be original works
or adaptations from existing pieces of writing. In them, the movement,
actions, expression, and dialogues of the characters are also narrated. A
screenplay written for television
is also known as a teleplay.
is the insertion of important background information within a story
example, information about the setting, characters' backstories, prior
plot events, historical context
, etc. In a specifically literary context,
exposition appears in the form of expository writing embedded within the
narrative. Exposition is one of four rhetorical modes (also known as modes
of discourse), along with description, argumentation
elucidated by Alexander Bain and John Genung. Each of the rhetorical modes
is present in a variety of forms, and each has its own purpose and
conventions. There are several ways to accomplish exposition.
is something written by hand that describes a play
, dramatic composition
Human Interest Story
is a feature
that discusses a
person, or people, or a companion animal in an emotional way. It presents
people and their problems, concerns, or achievements in a way that brings
about interest, sympathy or motivation in the reader or viewer.
is a written work published in a
medium. It may be for the purpose of
academic analysis, or debate.
- Research Papers
is to give an account
or representation of in
describing the findings of some
individual or group. Announce as the result of an
or experience or finding.
is a discussion or
the World Wide Web consisting of discrete, often
informal diary-style text entries ("posts").
is a file format used to present documents in
a manner independent of application software, hardware,
and operating systems. Each PDF file encapsulates a
complete description of a fixed-layout flat document,
including the text, fonts, graphics, and other
information needed to display it. (PDF stands for
is one person's written message
to another pertaining to some matter of common concern. Letters have
several different types: Formal letters and informal letters. Letters
contribute to the protection and conservation of literacy. Letters have
been sent since antiquity and are mentioned in the Iliad. Both Herodotus
and Thucydides mention letters in their histories.
is a form of paper advertisement intended for wide distribution
and typically posted or distributed in a public place, handed out to
individuals or sent through the mail. In the 2010s, flyers range from
inexpensively photocopied leaflets to expensive, glossy, full-color
circulars. A flyer is also called a "flier", "circular", "handbill", "pamphlet
"poster", "lit'" (literature), "weekly ad", "catalogue" or "leaflet".
are usually used for advertising or marketing purposes,
or for information supplementary to labels. There are many types of folds.
Although it is difficult to put a date on when some of these folds were
first used, it is evident that their popularity boomed when the first mass
production printers were introduced.
is an informative paper document that can be folded into a
, pamphlet or leaflet. A brochure
can also be a set of related unfolded papers put into a pocket folder or
packet. Brochures are promotional documents, primarily used to introduce a
company, organization, products or services and inform prospective
customers or members of the public of the benefits. Brochures are
distributed in many different ways: as newspaper
, handed out personally, by mail or placed in brochure racks
in high traffic locations especially in tourist precincts. They may be
considered as grey literature. A brochure is usually folded and only
includes summary information that is promotional in character. A booklet
is usually several sheets of paper with a cardstock cover and bound with
staples, string or plastic binding. In contrast, a single piece of
unfolded paper is usually called an insert, flyer or bulletin.
is a periodical publication containing written information
about current events.
can cover a wide variety of fields such as politics,
business, sports and art, and often include materials such as opinion
columns, weather forecasts, reviews of local services, obituaries, birth
notices, crosswords, editorial cartoons, comic strips, and advice columns.
Most newspapers are businesses, and they pay their expenses with a mixture
of subscription revenue, newsstand sales, and advertising revenue. The
journalism organizations that publish newspapers are themselves often
metonymically called newspapers. Newspapers have traditionally been
published in print (usually on cheap, low-grade paper called newsprint).
However, today most newspapers are also published on websites as online
newspapers, and some have even abandoned their print versions entirely.
Newspapers developed in the 17th century
as information sheets for businessmen. By the early 19th century, many
cities in Europe, as well as North and South America, published
newspapers. Some newspapers with high editorial independence, high
journalism quality, and large circulation are viewed as newspapers of
is a publication, usually a periodical publication, which is printed or
electronically published as an online magazine. The root word "magazine"
refers to a collection or storage location. In the case of written
publication, it is a collection of written articles.
academic study of books
as physical, cultural objects.
is the fear or
hatred of books
Writing Tips and Styles
"I sometimes hesitant when reading particular comic books, this is because some of them may not be so
. I just don't like wasting time reading something useless."
Digital Text Books - Electronic Books - eBooks - Online Books
publication made available in digital form
, consisting of text,
both, readable on the flat-panel display of computers or other electronic
devices. Although sometimes defined as "an electronic version of a
", some e-books exist without a printed equivalent
produced and sold e-books are usually intended to be read on dedicated
e-reader devices. However, almost any sophisticated
features a controllable viewing screen can also be used to read e-books,
including desktop computers
, laptops, tablets and
general term for any document
that is read in digital
form, and especially a document that is mainly text. For
example, a computer based book of art with minimal
or a set of photographs or scans of pages, would not
usually be called an "e-text". The term is usually
synonymous with e-book. An e-text may be a binary or a
plain text file, viewed with any open source or
proprietary software. An e-text may have markup or other
formatting information, or not. An e-text may be an
electronic edition of a work originally composed or
published in other media, or may be created in
electronic form originally.
is sliding text
, images or video
across a monitor
display, vertically or horizontally. "Scrolling", as such, does not change
the layout of the text or pictures, but moves (pans or tilts) the user's
view across what is apparently a larger image that is not wholly seen. A
common television and movie special effect is to
leaving the background stationary. Scrolling may take place completely
without user intervention (as in film credits) or, on an interactive
device, be triggered by
touchscreen or a keypress
and continue without further intervention
until a further user action, or be entirely controlled by input devices.
Scrolling may take place in discrete increments (perhaps one or a few
lines of text at a time), or continuously (smooth scrolling).
at which an entire image is redisplayed. It is related to
scrolling in that changes to text and image position can only happen as
often as the image can be redisplayed. When frame rate is a limiting
factor, one smooth scrolling technique is to blur images during movement
that would otherwise appear to "jump".
Digital Public Library
E Books Store
- Google E-Books
app, thousands of eBooks, audiobooks, and videos from your
(book types) -
E Pub Books
Mike Matas Interactive
Push Pop Press Next
Generation Digital Books
Light and Matter
World Book Online
Barnes & Noble
National Academies Press
- McGraw Hill Elementary Books
Adobe Digital Editions
Open Source Content
is any content
that exists in the form of
. Also known as
digital media, digital content is stored on digital or analog storage in
specific formats. Forms of digital content include information that is
digitally broadcast, streamed, or contained in computer files. Viewed
narrowly, digital content includes popular media types, while a broader
approach considers any type of digital information (e. g. digitally
updated weather forecasts, GPS maps, and so on) as digital content.
Digital content has increased as more households have accessed the
Internet. Increased access has made it easier for people to receive their
news and watch TV online, challenging the popularity of traditional
platforms. Increased access to the Internet has also led to the mass
publication of digital content through individuals in the form of eBooks,
blog posts, and even Facebook posts.
textual, visual, or aural content that is encountered as part of the user
experience on websites. It may include—among other things—text, images,
sounds, videos, and animations.
is an encoded
format for converting
a specific type of data to displayable
recording of a book or other work being read out loud. A reading of the
complete text is described as "unabridged", while readings of a shorter
version are an abridgement.
Emic 2 Text-to-Speech Module
Learn out Loud
Can listening to
150 or 200 percent, increase
Iee Explore Digital Library
What is Propaganda
Text Books - Old text Books - Rent or Reuse Books
is a book
containing a comprehensive
branch of study
with the intention of explaining it. Textbooks are produced to meet the
needs of educators, usually at educational institutions. Schoolbooks are
textbooks and other books used in schools. Today, many textbooks are
published in both print format and digital formats.
Buy and Sell Old Text Books
Remixable Textbooks Online
Used Text Books
College Book Renter
College Open Textbooks
Make Your Own Text Books or Photo
was a provider of e-textbooks and digital course materials. It was
acquired by Ingram Content Group subsidiary VitalSource Technologies in
early 2014, and was integrated into the parent company under the
VitalSource name and platform by 2016.
The Academic Library
Open Source Curriculum
Crowd Source Research
Organize Research and Share
- Public Zero Publications
Popular Books to Read
is a book that
serves as a primer for study.
Frontiers is a community-rooted, open-access academic publisher
grand vision is to build an Open Science platform where everybody has
equal opportunity to seek, share and generate knowledge, and that empowers
researchers in their daily work.
Lumière: Eye Protection Lamp you take anywhere, Cordless, Simple and 360º Adjustable
Books about Reading and Writing
Literacy Assured: Integrating Language Arts With a
New 3 R's
Relationships - Reasoning - Responsibility.
More Books by Robert and Lois Wolsch
The Three R's
Reading - Writing - Arithmetic.
How to Write, Speak and Think More Effectively
Dimensions of Literacy: A Conceptual
Base for Teaching Reading and Writing in
School Settings Paperback – April 20,
Making Literacy Real: Theories and
Practices for Learning and Teaching
Paperback – October 3, 2005
How to Teach Balanced Reading and
Writing Paperback – May 16, 2006
Best Practices in Literacy Instruction,
Third Edition Paperback – January 11,
I do not agree with everything that has been written in
put them together
to form an
And then I write down my understandings so that I can
share this information
Every person must learn how to recognize
what information is
You need some kind of a
Types of Text I Read the
Most: News Articles
Types of Videos I Watch
Be extremely aware of
on the Radio, on the TV, and in the News Papers and in
Try not to
that certain words are
directly meant for you until you are absolutely sure of the
to which those words were
originally intended for.
Knowing how to read is like knowing how to walk. If you
know how to walk, then why would you crawl around
on your hands and knees? If you can read, then you read.
You can't expect to learn and become more intelligent
without reading. Get off your knees and start reading.
You have unlimited potential, you either use it or lose it. It's
like being in the
cockpit of an airplane
, if you
never learn how to read the instruments, then you will never
have the freedom to fly and explore the world on your own terms.
Everything hinges on knowing how to Read
. From there, everything
hinges on having access to highest quality knowledge available. From
there, everything hinges on learning and continually progressing. From
there, everything hinges on everything. Because everything is Cause and
Effect, and everything is connected.
Knowing how to read is one of
the most important skills to have in your life. But just knowing how to
read is not enough. You need to know a lot of good words and know how to
use words effectively.
When using a dictionary
, sometimes you have
to know the meaning of several different words in order to understand that
particular word and its meaning. To express an idea you have to use your words
accurately and effectively, especially if you want your message understood
in the way you
intended.Words can have several different meanings
. It's how the word
is used in a sentence or they way it is spoken that helps to define the words meaning or message.
This is called context. Context are the words that surrounds other words
that helps to determine the meaning of the word and the interpretation of
the message. Even the tone of a word can change it's meaning. A message can only be accurate if the person knows how to use
words correctly, and is also not trying to manipulate you or confuse you.
is the set of facts
or circumstances that surround a
situation or event. Information that helps explain the meaning
You need to have a big vocabulary
. There is a big
difference between knowing a 1000 words and knowing 50,000 words. Words have power, but you have to
learn how to use words, and you have to have a lot of words, and know word
meanings and uses.
The power of knowledge has
not yet been realized. We have documented all the advancements that came
form language over the last 500 years, but most people have only been
alive for the last fifty years, and so have no clear understanding of
these advances, or the power of language. Reading and language is way
beyond what you think it is. You can see more, understand more, have more
potential and have more abilities.
It's not just knowing how to read a lot of
words, you have to understand the meanings of words
and how to use words
effectively and efficiently. You have to be able to assemble words to
express complex information. And you have to be able to not get fooled or
manipulated by other peoples words. So you need to be aware of false
information. and know how to correct errors in information. This will make
you better at expressing your own information more accurately.
this is realized, it's a game changer. The worlds
physical appearance will still look the same in a lot of ways, but when
people become more knowledgeable, people will experience life in the most
amazing ways ever dreamed of, or even imagined. Even your dreams during
improve, along with most everything else.
All the things that you
thought you knew about life, are going to blow your mind, as if most
everything was a lie. But don't feel bad, your journey is just beginning.
If you don't continually educate yourself
, no matter what you
believe, it will never be enough. If you stop asking questions and stop
learning, then you never find the answers. And if you live a life with too
many unanswered questions, then your life will be riddled with doubt,
instead of certainty and consistency.
It's not just having knowledge, it's also having everything that makes
knowledge possible, like language, information, words, symbols, meanings,
uses and instructions. You have to master all these things in order to
extract the full power of knowledge and language.
Knowledge is the
Electricity changed the world. And the realization
of language and knowledge will also change the world.
Most people today have no idea what electricity has done
for human civilization. But most of our electrical energy is being wasted and abuse.
are being used to enslave people, physically and mentally.
Technologies are supposed to free people and liberate people, not used to
And our most important technology is language,
which was also designed to free people and liberate people, and not used
to enslave people. And slaves are being born into slavery.
knowledge is the control panel of the universe. The key within a key that
unlocks everything that has been locked away from you and unseen, all because of your lack of
There's nothing to compare
limit your future to one lifetime. A lot of things are not going to happen
in your lifetime. So you must look beyond your lifetime. Some things that you
do in life will be for future generations. Just like the 100 billion people who have
lived before you. Things did not happen in their lifetime either.
So you see, a lot of things are not going to happen in your lifetime. It
was never about one lifetime, how boring would that be. One lifetime would
totally suck. But if you don't make improvements in this lifetime, then
the next lifetime, you are going to have even more problems.
The more words people
have in their vocabulary, and the more they understand the meanings of
words, and the more skill they have with using words to transmit
information, or too express ideas, then the more power people will have.
Books that Schools want you to Read, But Why?
Most Read Books by High School Students
BEACH BOOKS: 2014-2016
: What Do Colleges and Universities Want Students to Read Outside Class? (pdf)
- Open Syllabus Project