is the capacity
future outcomes. The ability to seek out
solutions to complex problems. The ability to calmly
problems without making things
"There are No Problems, Only Solutions" -
Modern problems sometimes require modern solutions. Almost any
Every problem can be solved, you just have to learn how to solve it.
There is a
process to problem solving
, but you also need
knowledge and information in order to be a good problem solver.
are the most important skills to have. They are the most widely used
skills in every human’s life. The majority of our lives are spent solving
problems. Most problems are easy to solve and take very little time, while
other problems could take hours, days, weeks, months and even years to
solve. But if you don't start, you will never finish, and
the problem will
never go away
. So if you don't learn how to solve problems, then you
will always have problems. Never underestimate the
importance of learning
. The benefits
from learning are endless.
Cause and Effect
Know how to think for yourself
and know how to
make decisions on your own
. You have to be able
to solve a problem without being
dependent on a tool
on another person,
and you also have to be able to solve a problem without
transferring your problem
or forcing your
problem on other people.
Some things you have to learn how to do yourself
, that is a
fact of life
. Some problems will
never be solved unless you learn how to solve them yourself. Sometimes you
can't wait for other people to solve problems for you.
Some things you
have to do yourself
. But if you have a chance to
work with other people
order to solve a problem, then you should consider the
help of others
because when people work
to solve a problem, then problem solving can be a lot easier
and be a lot faster
than trying to solve a problem all by yourself.
Everyone has responsibilities
that are needed to maintain
healthy and comfortable life. But not everyone learns the
knowledge and skills
that are needed to become a problem solver. But once
you learn the necessary knowledge and skills, then your potential and
possibilities are endless. This is our future, and in 2019 we are
on the verge of an enormous
, the advancement of the human mind.
"Modern Problems require Modern Solutions
Problems - Difficult Situations
is a state or a source of
that needs to be
. A question
raised for consideration or solution.
A problem could be an accident, or a
, or a
, or a consequence
or an emergency
, or a
is the area of
application that needs to be
to solve a problem.
on a problem domain is simply looking at only the topics of
an individual's interest
and excluding everything else.
is something open to doubt or
. Making great mental
demands; hard to comprehend or solve or believe. Not settled, uncertain,
of uncertain outcome; debatable, questionable, open to doubt. Difficult to
overcome, solve, or decide.
consists of using generic or
ad hoc methods
in an orderly manner, for finding solutions to problems.
First gather as much information about the subject as you can.
Then learn as much as you can about how this
relates to each other and to the subject.
is an event causing distress
or pain. To
cause inconvenience or discomfort to.
is a situation from which extrication is
difficult especially an unpleasant or trying one.Circumstances
are the set of facts or
surround a situation or event. Information that should be kept
in mind when making a decision. A condition that accompanies or
influences some event or activity.
is the state of things at a
particular time. The prevailing context that influences
the performance or the outcome of a process. The set of
circumstances that affect someone's welfare. A state at a
particular time. An assumption on which rests the
effect of something else. Information that should be kept in mind when making a decision. The
that is varied in order to estimate a
effect by comparison with a
control condition. Odds
is the general state of things
combination of circumstances
at a given time. A complex or
critical or unusual difficulty.
is a problem or situation that occurs only at an extreme maximum
or minimum operating parameter. For example, a stereo speaker might
noticeably distort audio when played at maximum volume, even in the
absence of any other extreme setting or condition. An edge case can be
expected or unexpected. In engineering, the process of planning for and
gracefully addressing edge cases can be a significant task, and yet this
task may be overlooked or underestimated
Non-trivial edge cases can result in the failure of an object that is
being engineered. They may not have been foreseen during the design phase.
And they may not have been thought possible during normal use of the
object. For this reason, attempts to formalize good engineering standards
often include information about edge cases.
is not easy
that requires great physical or mental effort to accomplish or
comprehend or endure
. Something hard to control and almost beyond one's
ability to deal with or overcome
. A factor causing trouble in achieving
a positive result or tending to produce a negative result. Stress
is a demanding or stimulating situation. Risk
is something difficult to
is a confusing and
or question. A difficult problem or a riddle that involves a pun
or an unexpected twist.
is the development of a mechanized state of mind of
a person's predisposition to solve a given problem in a specific manner
even though better or more appropriate methods of solving the problem
exist. The Einstellung effect is the negative effect of previous
experience when solving new problems.Rabbit Hole
is a metaphor for when you enter what seems to be a simple process or
journey but then becomes increasingly complex, strange, problematic and
difficult as it develops or unfolds, becoming a bizarre or difficult state
or situation conceived of as a hole into which one falls or descends.
"I have gone down the rabbit hole
and it's more incredible than you
can imagine. But I have to poke my head out of the rabbit hole every now
and then just to make sure that I'm not missing anything or missing
anyone. It's important to know how deep the rabbit hole goes, but not more
important than losing touch
how the whole thing began."
something that baffles understanding and cannot be explained. A difficult
is contrary to
what is usual, traditional, or accepted. Not orthodox.Riddle
is a difficult
problem that is hard to figure out.
is a problem or puzzle designed to be solved.
is a confusing or perplexing
problem that is hard to think clearly about and difficult to find a
a tiling puzzle that requires the
of often oddly shaped
interlocking and mosaicked pieces
Each piece usually has a small part of a picture on it; when complete, a
jigsaw puzzle produces a complete
is a game
that tests your ingenuity
Solving - Finding Solutions
is to find the solution to a problem or
of. Figure out. Answer Correctly. Sort it Out
or arrangements to do what is necessary to deal with a problem,
disagreement, or difficult situation successfully.
Process of Elimination
Reason by Deduction
Problem Solving Tips
Piece Things Together
is to create
something or understand something by
joining the separate
of it together or by joining different things together. Connect the Dots
is finding a solution to a problem. The outcome of decision making or
something settled or resolved. A statement that solves a problem or
explains how to solve the problem. A decision
do something or to behave in a certain manner.
reach a conclusion
discussion or deliberation
conclusively. Reach a decision
. Find the solution.
is being firm in
or belief and characterized by quickness and
is a statement that solves a problem or explains how to
solve the problem. A method for solving a problem. Work out in
Detail. The successful action of solving a problem. The set of values
that give a true statement when substituted into an equation.
Solution as a Substance
is having the ability
to find quick
and clever ways
The Power of Re
make something up on the spot
, or figure it out as you go.
Manage in a makeshift way; do with whatever is at hand.
Perform without preparation.
- Creative Problem Solving
is used to describe
that are made separately
, each according to the facts
of a particular
. Ad hoc
is for one specific
case, or improvised
for one specific purpose.
solution designed for a specific problem or task, non-generalizable, and
not intended to be adapted to other purposes (compare with a priori).
Common examples are ad hoc committees and commissions created at the
national or international level for a specific task. The term ad hoc
networking typically refers to a system of network elements that combine
to form a network requiring little or no planning
. Ad hoc testing is a
commonly used term for software testing
performed without planning and documentation, but can be applied to early
scientific experimental studies. It is performed by improvisation. The
tester seeks to find bugs by any means that seem appropriate. Ad hoc
testing can be seen as a light version of error guessing, which itself is
a light version of exploratory testing
is something that is
capable of being done with the means at hand and with the circumstances as they are.
Something that is doable, manageable or workable.
is a statement that solves a problem or explains how to solve the
problem. Being sufficient and adequate enough to fulfill a need
or requirement. Having the requisite qualities or resources to meet a task. Be
satisfactory for; meet the requirements of or serve the
of, either in quality or quantity.
is an event that occurs when
something passes from one state or
phase to another
. Become different in some particular way,
without permanently losing one's or its former characteristics
or essence. The result of alteration or modification. Exchange
or replace with another, usually of the same kind or category. A
difference that is usually pleasant.
is an act of formulating a program for a
definite course of action
The act or process of drawing up plans or layouts for some
project or enterprise. The cognitive process of
about what you
will do in the event of something happening. Have the will and
intention to carry out some action. Make a design of;
in systematic, often graphic form.
is a way of doing something, especially a
. Method is
an orderly logical arrangement
that is usually in steps
A condition of regular or proper arrangement. Science Methodology
is instrumentality that
combines interrelated interacting artifacts
designed to work as a coherent entity. An
for arranging or classifying. A procedure
or process for obtaining an objective. An ordered manner; orderliness by
virtue of being methodical and well organized.
Positive Feed Back Loop
- Feedback from the Public
is the act of releasing from a
snarled or tangled condition. Trauma
is being guided by practical experience and
rather than theory. Being actually such in almost every respect. Having or put to a practical purpose or use.
Kill Two Birds with One Stone
is an old saying that means to achieve two aims at once, or achieving two
things in a single action, or solving two problems at once with one
something that a person needs to deal with or work on before they can move
on to something else. A responsibility that needs to be taken care of so
as to avoid leaving a problem for someone else to solve. To complete
something that has not yet been done or dealt with.
Why our brains miss opportunities to improve through subtraction
Researchers explain the human tendency to make change through addition. A
new study explains why people rarely look at a situation, object or idea
that needs improving -- in all kinds of contexts -- and think to remove
something as a solution. Instead, we almost always add some element,
whether it helps or not. Additive ideas come to mind quickly and easily,
but subtractive ideas require more cognitive effort. Because people are
often moving fast and working with the first ideas that come to mind, they
end up accepting additive solutions without considering subtraction at
- Communication Skills
- Problem Solving Tips
Root Causes - The Source - Where the Problem Began
initiating cause of either a condition or a
that leads to an
outcome or effect of interest. Commonly, root cause is used to describe
the depth in the causal chain where an
could reasonably be
implemented to improve performance or prevent an undesirable outcome.
is the place
where something begins or originates from
or where it springs into
Cause and Effect
- Underlying Causes
Root Cause Analysis
is a method of problem solving used for identifying the root causes of
faults or problems. A factor is considered a root cause if removal thereof
from the problem-fault-sequence prevents
the final undesirable event from
recurring; whereas a causal factor is one that affects an event's outcome,
but is not a root cause. Though removing a causal factor can benefit an
outcome, it does not prevent its recurrence with certainty. "The Root of the Problem
is one of the main reasons
for a problem that needs to be addressed. This cause of a problem that may
be overlooked and not even considered. If you don't address the root cause
of the problem, you may be only temporally putting off a problem, a
problem that wasn't solved, only delayed. So the problem will most likely
resurface again and be worse or even more deadly. Like with some
pharmaceutical drugs. They don't solve the real problem, they only give
you the illusion that you're being treated. You can't take a drug for
weight loss without eating healthy and exercising. You can't effectively
treat drug addiction by using another addictive drug.
Get to the Bottom of It
is to find an
for a problem by doing
a thorough investigation
finding out its real cause or the true reason.
actions are not always visible
or noticeable. The only time you realize that your actions are causing
harm, is when you investigate all the people and all the places that are
, things that are negatively effected
by your actions. It may not
you, but it does effect other people. Many of our biggest problems start
. Wrong actions
can have a domino effect
And if a product causes cancer, it may not be known for years. So you need
to understand all the levels
layers and latter stages that are effected by your actions, and you need
to remember, polluters of
are just as destructive as the
polluters of the human mind
Critical Thinking - Thinking Carefully
is clear and rational thinking
. Making clear and reasoned
. An intellectually disciplined process of actively
conceptualizing, applying, analyzing
synthesizing, and/or evaluating
gathered from, or generated by,
, or communication, as a guide to belief and action.
that should be reasoned and well thought out and judged. "Critical
Thinking is Critical
is the ability to
both complex and uncomplicated problems by making decisions that are
sensible given the available information. Such skills include
demonstration of the ability to apply
to breaking complex problems into their component
Seeing the Whole Picture
is reflective assessments and
critique of society and
by applying knowledge from the social sciences and the humanities.
Critical thinking can be taught
Foreign Language Logic
. The language we use can affect the
we make. People can sometimes make more
rational decisions when using a second langue instead of their native
tongue or the language they usually speak.
- Over Thinking
is being in precise accordance with details
. Marked by extreme care in
treatment of details.
is an approach to teaching designed to develop
students' thinking ability
. CA acknowledges a set of sub-skills which
underpin abstract thinking and shares with constructivism the view that
concepts cannot be learned in the same way as facts and descriptions.
Learners need to construct meaning for themselves
. Lessons centre on a
challenge which can only be mastered by using an
. Early CASE
lessons focus on: classification, scale, ratio, proportion, probability,
variables, fair testing. Role of the mediator. The teacher sets up good
learning-context and intervenes to guide the learners toward the learning
goal. A mediator asks probing questions
: "What do you think?", "Which one
will heat up most?" "What's happening to the atoms?" gradually leading the
learners to discover the answer for themselves
. The mediator can offer
clues which direct the learner, improving the chance of successful
thinking. Lessons which develop abstract thinking directly have the
following structure. Setting the scene Concrete preparation serves a
similar purpose to the "bridging
" section and links the activity to
current knowledge, explains the task and checks vocabulary. Challenge must be set just above the current level of secure knowledge -
hard enough to be a challenge, but not so hard as to make the learners
switch off. In a science
this can take the form of a demonstration
with an unexpected effect. In English it could be reading a text which has
an implied meaning. Group work The teacher cannot be the mediator for
every child in the class. If pupils work in groups and discuss their ideas
(social construction) there are several benefits: Group members act as
for each other, suggesting solutions, trying out ideas.
individuals feel less vulnerable and more able to participate. Random
ideas from group-members act as the clues offered by the mediator. Plenary
Once the groups have solutions, the class shares ideas. The teacher does
not give the answer but asks a group for a solution, then asks another if
they agree or disagree and why. The discussion continues until there is
agreement. The teacher leads the group towards the answer through
questioning. Meta cognition During group-work and the plenary, the teacher
asks questions that reveal the thinking process, meta-cognition, which has
been shown to be effective in securing knowledge. The learner has to
enunciate a line of thinking - making the process available to others.
Bridging Knowledge in isolation from the learner's secure knowledge is
usually lost. The learner needs to bridge new learning to existing
experiences. CA lessons conclude with a discussion about where ideas could
be used in everyday life, the same concept as "scaffolding" in
, which is a theory in education that recognizes the
learners' understanding and
knowledge based on their own experiences
prior to entering school. It
is associated with various philosophical positions, particularly in
epistemology as well as ontology, politics, and ethics.
Understanding Information - Formulating
is a person with responsibility for the
formulation and implementation of a strategy
. Strategy generally involves
setting goals, determining actions to achieve the goals, and mobilizing
resources to execute the actions. A strategy describes how the ends
(goals) will be achieved by the means (resources).
Levels of Complexity
is the coordination of events to operate a
system in unison. The familiar conductor of an orchestra serves to keep
the orchestra in time. Systems operating with all their parts in
are said to be synchronous or in sync; those which are not are
is a hypothesis that is testable on the
basis of observing a process
that is modeled via a set of random
. A statistical
test is a method of
. Commonly, two statistical data sets are compared, or a data set
obtained by sampling is compared against a synthetic data set from an
idealized model. A hypothesis is proposed for the statistical relationship
between the two data sets, and this is compared as an alternative to an
idealized null hypothesis that proposes no relationship between two
a false statement
presented as a fact.
is a statement in mathematics
often shown in symbolic
form that is so evident or well-established, that it is accepted without
controversy or question. Thus, the axiom can be used as the premise or
starting point for further reasoning or arguments, usually in
- Analyzing Information
is the process of finding a
two quantities that are unknown
(when the measurable quantities are not
given a particular value for the amount considered or found a standard for
the quantity). When one of quantity is known, which is made or set with
one device, another measurement
is made as similar way as possible with
the first device using a second device. The measurable quantities may
differ in two devices which are equivalent. The device with the known or
assigned correctness is called the standard. The second device is the unit
under test, test instrument
, or any of several other names for the device
is a conclusion or proposition based on incomplete information, for which
has been found.
is a strategy to control search in problem-solving. Given a current state
and a goal state, an action is chosen which will reduce the difference
between the two. The action is performed on the current state to produce a
new state, and the process is recursively applied to this new state and
the goal state. Note that, in order for MEA to be effective, the
goal-seeking system must have a means of associating to any kind of
detectable difference those actions that are relevant to reducing that
difference. It must also have means for detecting the progress it is
making (the changes in the differences between the actual and the desired
state), as some attempted sequences of actions may fail and, hence, some
alternate sequences may be tried. When knowledge is available
concerning the importance of differences, the most important difference is
selected first to further improve the average performance of MEA over
other brute-force search strategies. However, even without the ordering of
differences according to importance, MEA improves over other search
heuristics (again in the average case) by focusing the problem solving on
the actual differences between the current state and that of the goal.
- Brain Games
Sometimes the simplest explanation is most likely the correct one
the likelihood that the event will take place. Odds
against reflect the
likelihood that a particular event will not take place.
Problem Solving Planning
Having a Plan for Solving a Problem. Determining the
of Problem Solving.
1: Use a Team
: Establish a
team of people
with product/process knowledge.2:
Describe the Problem:
Specify the problem by identifying in quantifiable terms the who, what,
where, when, why, how, and how many (5W2H) for the problem.
Interim Containment Plan: Define and implement containment actions to
isolate the problem from any customer.4:
Determine, and Verify Root
Causes and Escape Points: Identify all applicable causes that could
explain why the problem has occurred. Also identify why the problem was
not noticed at the time it occurred. All causes shall be verified or
proved. One can use five whys or Ishikawa diagrams to map causes against
the effect or problem identified.5:
Verify Permanent Corrections (PCs)
for Problem will resolve problem for the customer: Using pre-production
programs, quantitatively confirm that the selected correction will resolve
the problem. (Verify that the correction will actually solve the problem.)
Define and Implement Corrective Actions: Define and Implement the best
Prevent System Problems: Modify the management
systems, operation systems, practices, and procedures to prevent
recurrence of this and all similar problems.8:
Congratulate Your Team:
Recognize the collective efforts of the team. The team needs to be
formally thanked by the organization.
Big 6 Methods
is a theory that posits that knowing is
inseparable from doing by arguing that all knowledge is situated in
activity bound to social, cultural and physical contexts.
How to Solve It
. First, you have to understand the problem.
"Understanding the problem is the first step in solving it."
After understanding, then make a plan. Then carry out
the plan. Then look back on your work and ask "How could it be better?"
After Action Review
is a structured review or de-brief
process for analyzing what happened, why it happened, and how it can be
done better by the participants and those responsible for the project or event.
is the process of solving new problems based on
the solutions of similar past problems.
is the process of devising a solution to a
requirement by making-do, despite
absence of resources that might be expected to produce a
is a method for overcoming a problem or limitation in a program
or system by bypassing
a recognized problem or limitation in a system. A
workaround is typically a temporary fix that implies that a genuine
solution to the problem is needed.
Sometimes you have to go
several layers deep
order to find the true source of a problem. If you never stop the
of a problem, then you will never stop the
problem. You may be able to manage the problem a little but you are just
treating the disease and not curing the disease. It's kind of like
when you have weeds, you can pull the weeds out, but if you leave the
roots, then the weeds will always grow back. You have to solve problems at
their core. So you have to invest some of your time and energy in
understanding the root-cause of a problem, because that will always save
you the most time and energy in the long run. What if a problem is related
to a particular behavior
you will have to modify or change the behavior, if not, then that problem
will never get better and it will most likely get worse. Try not to
jump to conclusions
or be quick to
. Do your
"Any problem worth solving will always be difficult to solve, it's not
impossible, it's just a lot of work"
"Intellectuals solve problems; geniuses prevent them." -
"It's always better to solve a problem when
it's small then to wait for it to be big problem."
The Five W's and an H
are questions whose answers are considered basic in information-gathering or problem-solving.
, theoretical analysis of the
applied to a field of study. It comprises the theoretical analysis
of the body of methods and principles associated with a branch of
knowledge. Typically, it encompasses concepts such as paradigm,
theoretical model, phases and quantitative or qualitative techniques.
are the ideas or actions
intended to deal with a problem or situation.
is a kind of logical argument that applies
to arrive at a conclusion based on two or more
propositions that are asserted or assumed to be true.
in the philosophy of science is an ideal object,
where the existence of the thing may be said to depend upon a
. This contrasts with a real object, where existence does not seem to
depend on the existence
of a mind
is a generalization or
or the result of a transformation of existing
problem into another problem
. A reduction from one problem to another may
be used to show that the second problem is at least as difficult as the
is a student-centered pedagogy in which
students learn about a subject through the experience of solving an open-ended problem. Students learn both
and domain knowledge.
Project Based Learning
is a student-centered pedagogy that involves a dynamic classroom approach
in which students acquire a deeper knowledge through active exploration of
real-world challenges and problems
. Students learn about a subject by
working for an extended period of time to investigate and respond to a
complex question, challenge, or problem. It is a style of active learning
and inquiry-based learning
. PBL contrasts with paper-based,
, or teacher-led instruction
that simply presents established facts or portrays a smooth path to
knowledge by instead posing questions, problems or scenarios.
is a form of problem solving, often applied to repair failed products or
processes. It is a logical, systematic search for the source of a problem
in order to solve it, and make the product or process operational again.
Troubleshooting is needed to identify the
. Determining the most
likely cause is a Process
—eliminating potential causes of a
problem. Finally, troubleshooting requires confirmation that the solution
restores the product or process to its working state.
is a fundamental
of solving problems. It is
characterized by repeated, varied attempts which are continued until
success, or until the agent stops trying. Deductive
is a software testing method
by which individual units of
source code, sets of one or more computer program modules together with
associated control data, usage procedures, and
tested to determine whether they are fit for use.
is the final consequence of a sequence of actions or
events expressed qualitatively or quantitatively. Possible results include
advantage, disadvantage, gain, injury, loss, value and victory. There may
be a range of possible outcomes associated with an event depending on the
point of view, historical distance or relevance. Reaching no result can
mean that actions are inefficient, ineffective, meaningless or flawed.
is a systematic determination of a subject's
merit, worth and significance, using criteria governed by a set of
is the assignment of a
to a characteristic of an object or event
, which can be compared with
other objects or events.
is a deductive argument for a mathematical
statement. In the argument, other previously established statements, such
as theorems, can be used. In principle, a proof can be traced back to
self-evident or assumed statements, known as axioms, along with accepted
rules of inference.
is anything presented in support of an assertion.
This support may be strong or weak. The strongest type of evidence is that
which provides direct proof of the truth of an assertion. At the other
extreme is evidence that is merely consistent with an assertion but does
not rule out other, contradictory assertions, as in
from anecdotes. Where only
one or a few anecdotes are presented, there is a larger chance that they
may be unreliable due to cherry-picked or otherwise non-representative
samples of typical cases.
is a remarkable
concurrence of events
circumstances which have no apparent causal connection
with each other.
deviation from the normal
or common order or form or
involves a problem or situation that occurs only outside of
normal operating parameters—specifically one that manifests itself when multiple environmental
or conditions are simultaneously at extreme levels, even though each
parameter is within the specified range for that parameter. (or pathological case).
is a discipline that deals with the application of advanced analytical
methods to help make better decisions
is when a solution exists, the solution is unique,
and the solution's behavior changes continuously with the initial
Regularization in mathematics
is a process of introducing additional
information in order to solve an ill-posed problem or to prevent
is to fit a "model" to a set of training data, so as to be
able to make reliable predictions
untrained data. In overfitting, a statistical model
describes random error or noise instead of the underlying relationship.
Overfitting occurs when a model is excessively complex, such as having too
many parameters relative to the number of observations. A model that has
been overfit has poor predictive performance, as it overreacts to minor
fluctuations in the training data.
Verification and Validation
are independent procedures that
are used together for checking that a product, service, or system meets
requirements and specifications and that it fulfills its intended
is the act or process of deriving
from premises known or assumed to be
refers to anticipatory, change-oriented and
self-initiated behavior in situations
, particularly in the workplace.
Proactive behavior involves acting in advance of a future situation,
rather than just reacting. It means taking control and making things
happen rather than just adjusting to a situation or waiting for something
to happen. Proactive employees generally do not need to be asked to act,
nor do they require detailed instructions.
- Creative Process
is any characteristic that can help in defining or
classifying a particular system (meaning an event, project, object, or
situation, etc). That is, a parameter is an
element of a system
useful, or critical, when evaluating the identity of a system; or, when
evaluating the performance, status, condition, etc. of a system.
is a condition that is not limited to a specific
set of values but can vary infinitely within a continuum.
Accuracy and Precision
is one of a number of choices
and options from which to
Alternative Dispute Resolution
processes and techniques that act as a means for
to come to an agreement short of
. It is a
collective term for the ways that parties can settle disputes, with (or
without) the help of a third party.
Using Experience in Learning and Problem Solving
You don't have to be an expert to solve big problems: Tapiwa Chiwewe
(video and text)
"Problem solving doesn't have to be stressful or
irritating. Most big problems should be seen as being a challenge, like
when you're trying to win a game, because
problem solving can be fun
if you want it to be."
Decisions - Decision Making - Making Up Your Mind
the cognitive process
resulting in the selection
of a belief or a
among several alternative possibilities
. Every decision-making
process produces a final choice
that may or may not prompt action.
Decision-making is the process
of identifying and choosing alternatives
based on the values
and preferences of the decision-maker.
is to reach a decision or to make a decision, or to come
to a decision about something. To find out,
something with certainty,
usually by making an
or by other efforts. To
settle something conclusively
and come to terms. To establish something after a
, survey, or
The best decision that we can make at this time should be based on our current level of
knowledge and information, the feedback
we get from
and our experiences
If someone believes that something is working for them, they will keep
doing it. If you believe that what you're doing is beneficial and
effective, then you will keep repeating
. If you don't know that you are harming yourself or
harming other people, then you will not change your behavior. If you don't
know about better choices that are more beneficial or more effective, then
you will never make the better choices or
Complex Decision Making
is a situation
where there is no obviously correct choice. Instead, there are multiple
answers that warrant further experimentation before committing to a single
For Complex Decisions, Narrow Options down to two
. When choosing
between multiple alternatives, people usually focus their attention on the
two most promising options. The quicker we do that, the faster we make the
Suspension of Judgment
involves waiting for all the
before making a
decision. Much of the scientific method
is designed to encourage the
suspension of judgments until observations
can be made, tested
. The advance of social science often
depends on excluding cognitive bias
of which many forms are known.
Chew on It
about something carefully
for a long time, before making a decision about it.
, focus on target-based decisions.
Don't base your life decisions on the advice from people who don't have to
deal with the results. Evidence
Everyone can make better decisions, and everyone has the ability
to make good decisions, but not everyone is aware of what good
decisions they can make or what good choices are available. This
is why informing the public, and educating every student to the
highest degree is absolutely necessary. This is life or death
decision. And I choose life, like most people do.
People realize the problems in the world but they don't know how
to solve these problems. You must put the process of problem
solving in motion. You need to find short term and long term
solutions. We need to go beyond just treating social diseases,
we need to cure these diseases once and for all.
be kept in mind
when making a
decision. To specify as a condition, provision or requirement in a
state at a particular time
A mode of being or form of existence of a person or thing. The state of
or being in good condition
or in good shape. A bad condition would be an illness, disease, or other
medical problem. Condition can also mean
develop children's behavior
instructions and practice, especially to teach self-control or establish a
conditioned response. Condition can also mean
to make an assumption on which rests the validity or effect of something
else. The procedure that is varied in order to estimate a variable's
effect by comparison
control condition. To specify as a condition, provision, demand or
contract or agreement
8 Disciplines of Problem Solving
- Persuasive Definitions
a higher-level procedure
or heuristic designed to find, generate, or
select a heuristic (partial search
that may provide a sufficiently good solution to an
problem, especially with
incomplete or imperfect information or limited computation capacity.
Metaheuristics sample a set of
which is too large to be completely sampled. Metaheuristics
may make few assumptions about the optimization problem being solved, and
so they may be usable for a variety of problems.
generally signifies a solution designed for a specific
problem or task, non-generalizable, and not intended to be able to be
adapted to other purposes
(compare with a priority).
is a solution for
. Hypothetical remedy for all ills or
diseases; Improving Education is a Panacea
in relation to computer science is a method where the
solution to a problem depends
on solutions to smaller instances
of the same problem (as opposed to
). The approach can
be applied to many types of problems, and recursion is one of
the central ideas of computer science.
is a sequence of steps used by an entity on a repeated
basis to reach and implement decisions and to learn from the results. A
decision cycle is said to occur when an explicitly specified decision
model is used to guide a decision and then the outcomes of that decision
are assessed against the need for the decision. This cycle includes
specification of desired results (the decision need), tracking of outcomes
and assessment of outcomes against the desired results.
Finite Element Method
is a numerical technique for
to boundary value problems for partial differential equations.
It is also referred to as finite element analysis (FEA). FEM subdivides a
large problem into smaller, simpler, parts, called finite elements.
A new view of how the brain decides to make an effort
. How the human
ventral striatum kicks in during decision-making
New research gives the
first detailed view of ventral striatum activity during three phases of
effort-based decision-making -- the anticipation of initiating an effort,
the actual execution of the effort and the reward, or outcome, of the
Sometimes it's hard to know if you could have made a better
decision. It could have been a good decision, it could have been a bad
decision, and the decision you made, could have made no difference at all.
It's hard to know for sure with so many different variables and scenarios.
You can say that you know what happened, but you're not always aware of
all the different things that made something happen. We can only put our
faith into what is known and what we have learned so far. We can't put our
faith into the unknown. We just can't pray for luck. We must keep
Over Thinking - Can't Decide which way to Go
paralysis by analysis
is the state of
a situation so that a
or action is never taken, which could in effect paralyze the outcome. A
decision can be seen as being
detailed options or scenarios
, thus being
so that a choice is never made.
But you have to
try something and change something if a major problem arises.
Seek the optimal or perfect solution upfront while always searching for
ways for a better solution as time goes on. But always remember that
can make any decision
lead to erroneous
And asking the wrong questions could make finding the right answers a lot
more difficult. Priorities
- Fight or Run
He Who Hesitates is Lost
is concerned with the problem of choosing a time to
take a particular action, in order to maximize an expected reward or
minimize an expected cost.
or stopping rule is a mechanism for deciding whether to
continue or stop a process on the basis of the present position and past
events, and which will almost always lead to a decision to stop at some
finite time. Thinking
is normal, but most people confuse "thinking about possible outcomes" with
possible outcomes." The next time you're thinking about something, be
aware of it, and ask this question, does this possible scenario that I'm
thinking about have any
value? Are you actually solving a problem and seeking a solution? Or are
you just wasting time
about things for too long, and not spending enough time doing things?
There has to be a balance
thinking and doing. You need to keep
A person who thinks in circles usually walks in circles, or does things
that are wasteful and never seems to
Thinking too much
is ignorant statement. It
on what you're
thinking about and for how long you think about something, and, if you're
making any progress about what you're
is unable to act or
decide quickly or firmly. Lacking decisiveness of character. Indecisive
is not having the
ability to make decisions quickly and effectively. Not settling an issue.
refers to the deteriorating quality of decisions made by an individual
after a long session of decision making. It is now understood as one of
the causes of irrational trade-offs in decision making. For instance,
judges in court have been shown to make poorer quality decisions late in
than they do early in the day. Decision fatigue may also lead to
consumers making poor choices with their purchases. There is a paradox in
that "people who lack choices seem to want them and often will fight for
them", yet at the same time, "people find that making many choices can be
[psychologically] aversive." Notably, major politicians and businessmen
such as former United States President Barack Obama, Steve Jobs, and Mark Zuckerberg have been known to reduce their everyday clothing down to one
or two outfits in order to limit the number of decisions they make in a
When in Doubt - Work it Out
characterizes a status in which the mind remains
suspended between two contradictory
propositions and unable to assent to
either of them. Doubt on an emotional level is indecision between belief
and disbelief. Doubt involves uncertainty, distrust or lack of sureness of
an alleged fact, an action, a motive, or a decision. Doubt questions a
notion of a perceived "reality", and may involve delaying or rejecting
relevant action out of concerns for mistakes or faults or appropriateness.
problem offering two possibilities
, neither of
which is unambiguously acceptable or preferable. One in this position has
been traditionally described as "being on the horns of a dilemma", neither
horn being comfortable. This is sometimes more colorfully described as
"Finding oneself impaled upon the horns of a dilemma", referring to the
sharp points of a bull's horns, equally uncomfortable (and dangerous).
is uncertain or unable
to decide about what course to follow.
is a statement that, despite apparently sound
reasoning from true premises, leads to a
or a logically
unacceptable conclusion. Some logical paradoxes are known to be invalid
arguments but are still valuable in promoting critical thinking.
is a distinct set of concepts or thought patterns, including theories,
research methods, postulates, and standards for what constitutes
legitimate contributions to a field. Systematic arrangement of all the
inflected forms of a word. The generally accepted perspective of a
particular discipline at a given time.
is a paradoxical situation
from which an individual cannot escape because
of contradictory rules
. An example would be: To apply for a job, you
need to have a few years of experience
. But in order to gain experience,
you need to get a job first.
is a decision problem for which it is proved to be
impossible to construct an algorithm that always leads to a correct
yes-or-no answer. The halting problem is an example: it can be proven that
there is no algorithm that correctly determines whether arbitrary programs
eventually halt when run. A decision problem is any arbitrary yes-or-no
question on an infinite set of inputs. Because of this, it is traditional
to define the decision problem equivalently as the set of inputs for which
the problem returns yes.
Proof of Impossibility
is a proof
demonstrating that a particular problem cannot be solved as described in
the claim, or that a particular set of problems cannot be solved in
general. Proofs of impossibility often put decades or centuries of work
attempting to find a solution to rest. To prove that something is
impossible is usually much harder than the opposite task; as it is often
necessary to develop a theory. Impossibility theorems are usually
expressible as negative existential propositions, or universal propositions in logic.
Quick Decisions - Decisiveness
is a mental shortcut
that allows people to
and solve problems quickly and
. Mental shortcuts
are efficient mental processes
that help humans solve problems and learn new concepts. These processes
make problems less complex
ignoring some of the information
that's coming into the brain, either consciously or unconsciously.
/thinking quick) -
Recognition Primed Decision
is a model of how people make quick,
when faced with
. In this
model, the decision maker is assumed to generate a possible course of
action, compare it to the constraints imposed by the situation, and select
the first course of action that is not rejected.
is any approach to problem solving
, learning, or
that employs a practical method
not guaranteed to be optimal or
, but sufficient for the immediate goals
. Where finding an optimal
solution is impossible or impractical, heuristic methods can be used to
speed up the process of finding a satisfactory solution
. Heuristics can be
mental shortcuts that ease the cognitive load
of making a decision.
Examples of this method include using a rule of thumb, an
an intuitive judgment
, or common sense
is using a general
formulation that serves to guide investigation. A commonsense rule or set
of rules intended to increase the probability of solving some problem.Decisiveness
the ability to make decisions quickly and effectively. The conclusive
nature of an issue that has been settled or a result that has been
is settling an
issue and producing a definite result. Determining or having the power to
determine an outcome
is a hurried decision
made quickly without thinking. A quick
Put your Foot in your Mouth
is to say or do
something without carefully thinking about it, something that ends up
offending, upsetting or embarrassing someone. Hasty
something excessively quick without due
Spur of the Moment
is a decision made
in advance and occurring or developing
is to move
or act fast at high speed
to cause something to occur rapidly. A sudden
burst of activity. The act of moving hurriedly, sometimes in a careless
manner when under pressure.Rush Into Things
means to make a big decision too quickly.
is to move or act fast at
. A condition of urgency
making it necessary to move or act fast. The act of moving hurriedly,
sometimes in a careless manner when urged to an unnatural high speed.
In a Hurry
is being eager to get a
thing done quickly in a rushed manner.Fast
is capable of acting or moving quickly.
is to accomplished something rapidly and without delay.
Hurried and brief. Moving quickly and lightly. Performed with little or no
delay. Apprehending and responding with speed and sensitivity.
Make it Quick
is used to tell someone to do
something quickly or to hurry up. Make it fast or make it snappy.
the time it takes for a person to make a decision
as a result of the possible choices
he or she has: increasing the number
of choices will increase the decision time logarithmically. The Hick–Hyman
law assesses cognitive information capacity in choice reaction
experiments. The amount of time taken to process a certain amount of bits
in the Hick–Hyman law is known as the rate of gain of information.
- 37% Rule
- if a decision must
be made immediately, and you don't have all the information that you need,
then a hasty decision will be made.
Clean Sheet of Paper
denotes a situation
where a decision can be made without reference to prior events or be
limited or affected by past happenings.
is a discipline
that deals with the
application of advanced analytical methods to help make better decisions.
Eisenhower Decision Principle
is when tasks are evaluated using the
/unimportant and urgent/not urgent, and then placed in
according quadrants in an Eisenhower Matrix (also known as an "Eisenhower
Box" or "Eisenhower Decision Matrix").
Taking your Time
careful when rushing to solve a problem fast, because you could make the
problem worse, or even prolong
How a racing heart may alter decision-making brain circuits
Body-state monitoring neurons can hijack the decision-making process. In
an effort to understand how the internal state of the body influences the
brain's decision-making processes, scientists analyzed the data from a
previous study pre-clinical study. They found that two of the brain's
decision-making centers contain neurons that may exclusively monitor the
body's internal dynamics. Furthermore, a heightened state of arousal
appeared to rewire one of the centers by turning some decision-making
neurons into internal state monitors. Anxiety, addiction, and other
psychiatric disorders are often characterized by intense states of what
scientists call arousal: The heart races, blood pressure readings rise,
breaths shorten, and "bad" decisions are made. In an effort to understand
how these states influence the brain's decision-making processes,
scientists at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai analyzed the
data from a previous study of non-human primates. They found that two of
the brain's decision-making centers contain neurons that may exclusively
monitor the body's internal dynamics. Furthermore, a heightened state of
arousal appeared to rewire one of the centers by turning some
decision-making neurons into internal state monitors.
Group Decision Making
is a situation when individuals
collectively make a choice
before them. The
is then no longer attributable to any single individual who is a member of
the group. This is because all the individuals and social group processes
such as social influence
contribute to the outcome.
The decisions made by
groups are often different from those made by individuals
is one example.
Groups tend to make decisions that are
more extreme than those of its individual members, in the direction of
the individual inclinations. According to the idea of synergy, decisions
made collectively also tend to be more effective than decisions made by a
single individual. In this vein, certain collaborative arrangements have
the potential to generate better net performance outcomes than individuals
acting on their own. Under normal everyday conditions,
group decision-making would often be preferred and would generate more
benefits than individual decision-making when there is the time for proper
, and dialogue. This can be achieved through the
use of committee, teams, groups, partnerships, or other collaborative
social processes. Lack of information sharing
is a common problem in group decision making. This happens when certain
members of the group have information that is not known by all of the
in the group. If the members were to all combine all of their
information, they would be more likely to make an optimal decision. But if
people do not share all of their information, the group may make a
sub-optimal decision. Group discussion pitfalls
Procrastination. Replacing high-priority tasks with tasks of lower
priority. The group postpones the decision rather than studying the
alternatives and discussing their relative merits.
The group may quickly or arbitrarily formulate a
decision without thinking things through to completion. They then bolster
their decision by exaggerating the favorable consequences of the decision
and minimizing the importance of unfavorable consequences.
The group delegates
the decision to a subcommittee or diffuses accountability throughout the
entire group, thereby avoiding responsibility.
The group muddles through the issue by
considering only a very narrow range of alternatives that differ to only a
small degree from the existing choice. Satisficing
A combination of the words "satisfy" and "suffice". Members accept a
low-risk, easy solution instead of searching for the best solution.
The group will avoid
dealing with larger issues by focusing on minor issues. The misuse, abuse
and/or inappropriate use of information, including:
A group utilises
information in their decision-making that has already been deemed
inaccurate. Sunk cost bias.
A group remains
committed to a given plan primarily due to the investment already made in
that plan, regardless of how inefficient and/or ineffective it may have
become. Extra-evidentiary bias.
choosing to use some information despite having been told it should be
ignored. Hindsight bias
. Group members
falsely over-estimate the accuracy of and/or the relevance of their past
knowledge of a given outcome. Overlooking useful
. This can include: Base rate bias. Group members ignore
applicable information they have concerning basic trends/tendencies.
Fundamental attribution error.
members base their decisions on inaccurate appraisals of individuals'
behavior—namely, overestimating internal factors (e.g., personality) and
underestimating external or contextual factors. (Note: This phenomenon is
reliably observed in individualist cultures, not in collectivist
cultures.) Relying too heavily on heuristics that over-simplify complex
decisions. This can include: Availability
Group members rely on information that is readily
available. Conjunctive bias.
are not aware that the probability of a given event occurring is the least
upper bound on the probability of that event and any other given event
occurring together; thus if the probability of the second event is less
than one, the occurrence of the pair will always be less likely than the
first event alone. Representativeness heuristic.
Group members rely too heavily on decision-making factors that seem
meaningful but are, in fact, more or less misleading.
Do You See What I
- Difference of Opinion
Shared Information Bias
is known as the tendency for group members to
spend more time and energy discussing information that all members are
already familiar with (i.e., shared information), and less time and energy
discussing information that only some members are aware of (i.e., unshared
information). Harmful consequences related to poor decision-making can
arise when the group does not have access to unshared information (hidden
profiles) in order to make a well-informed decision.
is a paradigm that occurs in the process of group
decision making. It is found in a situation when part of some information
is shared among group members (i.e. all members possess this information
prior to discussion), whereas other pieces of information are unshared
(i.e. information known to only one member prior to discussion).
Furthermore, shared information and unshared information have different
decisional implications, and the alternative implied by the unshared
information is the correct one given all information available to the
group. However, no group member can detect this best solution on the basis
of her or his individual information prior to discussion; it can only be
found by pooling the unshared information during group discussion.
is a group decision-making process in which
develop, and agree to support
, a decision in the
. Consensus may be defined
,, one that can be supported, even if not the "favourite
" of each
- Public Forums
refers to group decision-making processes in
which participants develop and decide on proposals with the aim, or
requirement, of acceptance by all
. Characteristics of
decision-making include: Collaborative
Participants contribute to a shared proposal and shape it into a decision
that meets the concerns of all group members as much as possible.
: Participants in an effective
consensus process should strive to reach the best possible decision for
the group and all of its members, rather than competing for personal
: All members of a
consensus decision-making body should be afforded, as much as possible,
equal input into the process. All members have the opportunity to present,
and amend proposals. Inclusive
: As many
stakeholders as possible should be involved in the consensus
decision-making process. Participatory
consensus process should actively solicit the input and participation of
all decision-makers. Blocking and other forms of
. Providing an option for those who do not support a
proposal to “stand aside” rather than block. Requiring a block from two or
more people to put a proposal aside. Requiring the blocking party to
supply an alternative proposal or a process for generating one. Limiting
each person's option to block consensus to a handful of times in one's
life. Limiting the option of blocking to decisions that are substantial
to the mission or operation of the group and not allowing blocking on
routine decisions. Limiting the allowable rationale for blocking to issues
that are fundamental to the group's mission or potentially disastrous to
the group. Quaker-based consensus is said to be effective because it puts
in place a simple, time-tested structure that moves a group towards unity.
The Quaker model is intended to allow hearing individual voices while
providing a mechanism for dealing with disagreements.
The Quaker model
has been adapted by
Earlham College for application to secular settings, and can be
effectively applied in any consensus decision-making process.
Its process includes
: Multiple concerns and information are shared
until the sense of the group is clear. Discussion involves active
listening and sharing information. Norms limit number of times one asks to
speak to ensure that each speaker is fully heard. Ideas and
belong to the group; no names are recorded. Ideally, differences are
resolved by discussion. The facilitator ("clerk" or "convenor" in the
Quaker model) identifies areas of agreement and names disagreements to
push discussion deeper. The facilitator articulates the sense of the
discussion, asks if there are other concerns, and proposes a "minute" of
the decision. The group as a whole is responsible for the decision and the
decision belongs to the group. The facilitator can discern if one who is
not uniting with the decision is acting without concern for the group or
in selfish interest. Ideally, all dissenters'
into the final outcome for a whole that is greater than the sum of its
parts. Should some dissenter's perspective not harmonize with the others,
that dissenter may "stand aside" to allow the group to proceed, or may opt
to "block". "Standing aside" implies a certain form of silent consent.
Some groups allow "blocking" by even a single individual to halt or
postpone the entire process. Key components of Quaker-based consensus
include a belief in a common humanity and the ability to decide together.
The goal is "unity, not unanimity." Ensuring that group members speak only
once until others are heard encourages a diversity of thought. The
facilitator is understood as serving the group rather than acting as
person-in-charge. In the Quaker model, as with other consensus
decision-making processes, articulating the emerging consensus allows
members to be clear on the decision in front of them. As members' views
are taken into account they are likely to support it.
Consensus Decision Making
is the collective judgment
position, and opinion
of the community of scientists
in a particular field
of study. Consensus implies general agreement, though not necessarily
unanimity. Consensus is normally
achieved through communication at conferences, the publication process,
replication (reproducible results by others
), and peer review. These lead
to a situation in which those within the discipline can often recognize
such a consensus where it exists, but communicating to outsiders that
consensus has been reached can be difficult, because the 'normal'
through which science progresses may seem to outsiders as contestation. On
institutes issue position statements intended to
communicate a summary of the science from the "inside" to the "outside" of
the scientific community
. In cases where there is little controversy
regarding the subject under study, establishing what the consensus is can
be quite straightforward. Collaboration
a decision based on a
rather than on a unanimous one, especially on a court
panel or among referees
judging the winner of a boxing match.
- Court Decisions
refers to a verdict of a
that is reached by a
verdicts can be taken in both criminal and civil cases. The verdict need
not be unanimous if there are no fewer than 11 jurors and 10 of them agree
on the verdict or if there are 10 jurors and 9 of them agree on the
judicial jury that cannot agree
verdict after extended deliberation
and is unable to reach the required
unanimity or supermajority.
is agreement by all people
a given situation. Groups may consider unanimous
as a sign of e.g. social, political or procedural
agreement, solidarity, and unity. Unanimity may be assumed explicitly
after a unanimous vote or implicitly by a lack of objections. It does not
necessarily mean uniformity and can sometimes be the opposite of
in terms of outcomes.
is when a group of people collectively decide on a
course of action that is
counter to the preferences of many
or all of the individuals in the
group. It involves a common breakdown of group communication in which each
member mistakenly believes that their own preferences are counter to the
group's and, therefore, does not raise objections. A common phrase
relating to the Abilene paradox
a desire to not to rock the boat
differs from groupthink
that the Abilene paradox is characterized by an inability to manage
of a persons work by one or more people
. It can also be a
form of self-regulation
qualified members of a profession within the relevant field. Peer review
methods are employed to maintain
standards of quality
, improve performance, and provide
is a social, largely linguistic phenomenon whereby a group
of people produce a sequence of utterances that performs a cognitive act.
That is, if a similar sequence was uttered or thought by an individual it
would be considered an act of cognition or thinking. The group can be a
small group, such as 3-5 people talking together or working together
online. The group can also be a larger collective, such as a classroom of
students or a global community contributing asynchronously to an extended
discourse on a problem or topic or to a knowledge repository like
Wikipedia. The theory of group cognition is a postcognitivism philosophy,
which considers a larger unit of analysis than an individual mind as a
producer of cognitive activities such as creative problem solving.
- Bias in
is an approach in which
communicate together using the best available evidence when faced
with the task of making decisions. Patients are supported to deliberate
about the possible attributes and
of options, to arrive at
informed preferences in making a determination about the best course of
action which respects patient autonomy, as well as
A new model for group decision-making shows how 'followers' can influence
. From small committees to national elections, group
decision-making can be complicated -- and it may not always settle on the
best choice. That's partly because some members of the group do research
on their own, and others take their cues from the people around them. A
new mathematical framework predicts that decision-making groups have a
critical threshold of people who get their information from others. Below
that threshold, the group chooses the high-quality outcome. Above it, the
group can end up choosing the better or worse option.
When learning on your own is not enough
. We make decisions based on
not only our own learning experience, but also learning from others. Is
social learning processed differently from direct learning?
Neuroscientists provide empirical evidence that there are parallel
computations for direct and social learning and they are carried out in
distinct but interacting regions in the brain.
A brain network supporting social influences in human decision-making
Decision Tree Learning
uses a decision tree as a predictive model
which maps observations
about an item (represented in the branches) to conclusions about the
item's target value (represented in the leaves). It is one of the
approaches used in
, data mining and
. Tree models where the target variable can take a
finite set of values are called classification trees; in these tree
structures, leaves represent class labels and branches represent
conjunctions of features that lead to those class labels. Decision trees
where the target variable can take continuous values (typically real
numbers) are called regression trees.
is a decision support tool that uses a
of decisions and their possible consequences, including
chance event outcomes, resource costs, and utility. It is one way to
display an algorithm. Decision trees are commonly used in operations
research, specifically in decision analysis, to help identify a strategy
most likely to reach a goal, but are also a popular tool in machine
are an ensemble learning method for
regression and other tasks that operates by constructing a multitude of
decision trees at training time and outputting the class that is the mode
of the classes (classification) or mean prediction
(regression) of the individual trees.
forests correct for decision trees' habit of overfitting to their
Random Subspace Method
are a concise visual representation for
which actions to perform depending on given conditions
. They are
whose output is a set of actions. The information expressed
in decision tables could also be represented as decision trees or in a
programming language as a series of if-then-else and switch-case
statements. Each decision corresponds to a variable, relation or predicate
whose possible values are listed among the condition alternatives. Each
action is a procedure or operation to perform, and the entries specify
whether (or in what order) the action is to be performed for the set of
condition alternatives the entry corresponds to. To make them more
concise, many decision tables include in their condition alternatives a
don't care symbol. This can be a hyphen or blank, although using a blank
is discouraged as it may merely indicate that the decision table has not
been finished. One of the uses of decision tables is to reveal conditions
under which certain input factors are irrelevant on the actions to be
taken, allowing these input tests to be skipped and thereby streamlining
decision-making procedures. Aside from the basic four quadrant structure,
decision tables vary widely in the way the condition alternatives and
action entries are represented. Some decision tables use simple true/false
values to represent the alternatives to a condition (similar to
if-then-else), other tables may use numbered alternatives (similar to
switch-case), and some tables even use fuzzy logic or probabilistic
representations for condition alternatives. In a similar way, action
entries can simply represent whether an action is to be performed (check
the actions to perform), or in more advanced decision tables, the
sequencing of actions to perform (number the actions to perform). A
decision table is considered balanced or complete if it includes every
possible combination of input variables. In other words, balanced decision
tables prescribe an action in every situation where the input variables
are provided.Menu Interfaces
Info-Gap Decision Theory
is a non-probabilistic decision
theory that seeks to optimize robustness to failure – or opportuneness for
windfall – under severe uncertainty, in particular applying sensitivity
analysis of the stability radius type to perturbations in the value of a
given estimate of the parameter of interest. It has some connections with
Wald's maximin model; some authors distinguish them, others consider them
instances of the same principle.
is the Value
of the best alternative forgone where, given limited
resources, a choice needs to be made between several mutually exclusive
alternatives. Assuming the best choice is made, it is the "cost
by not enjoying the benefit that would have been had by taking the second
best available choice.
Does probability measure the
real, physical tendency of something to occur or is it a measure of how
strongly one believes it will occur, or does it draw on both these
elements? In answering such questions, mathematicians interpret the
probability values of probability theory. Odds
is a discipline that deals with the application of advanced
analytical methods to help make better decisions.
is the quality of being "determined by chance,
whim, or impulse, and not by necessity, reason, or principle."
Decision Making and Problem Solving
Problem Solving Techniques
Two Types of Problem-Solving Models
(PDF) - Tuition
College Student’s Guide to Computers
in Education - Chapter 3: Expertise and Problem Solving
Dan Ariely Decisions
(video and text)
(output - input) -
is the process of
dispersing functions, powers, people
or things away from a central
location or authority.
Decision Support System
is a computer-based information
system that supports business or organizational decision-making
activities. DSSs serve the management, operations, and planning levels of
an organization (usually mid and higher management) and help people make
decisions about problems that may be rapidly changing and not easily
specified in advance—i.e. Unstructured and
problems. Decision support systems can be either fully computerized,
human-powered or a combination of both.
is used to help individuals and
organizations with their decision-making processes, typically resulting in
or choosing from among
is a list of
values in rows and columns
allows an analyst to systematically
identify, analyze, and rate the
performance of relationships between sets of values and information.
Elements of a decision matrix show decisions based on certain decision
criteria. The matrix
is useful for looking at large masses of decision
factors and assessing each factor’s relative significance. Decision matrix
is used to describe a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) problem.
is a way of solving problems,
designing systems, and understanding human behavior that draws on concepts
fundamental to computer science
. Computational thinking is thinking in
terms of abstractions, invariably
of abstraction at once.
Computational thinking is about the automation of these abstractions. The
automaton could be an algorithm, a
, a tangible device, a
—or the human brain.
is the thought processes involved in formulating a problem and expressing
its solution(s) in such a way that a computer—human or machine—can
effectively carry out. Computational Thinking is an iterative process
based on three stages: 1) Problem Formulation (abstraction), 2) Solution
Expression (automation), and 3) Solution Execution & Evaluation (analyses)
captured by the figure to the right.
is the study of the reasoning
underlying an agent's
. Decision theory can be broken
into two branches: normative decision theory, which gives advice on how to
make the best decisions, given a set of uncertain beliefs and a set of
; and descriptive decision
theory, which analyzes
irrational agents actually make decisions.
Bayesian Decision Theory
refers to a decision theory which is informed
by Bayesian probability. It is a statistical system that tries to
quantify the tradeoff between various decisions, making use of
probabilities and costs. An agent operating under such a decision theory
uses the concepts of Bayesian statistics to estimate the expected value of
its actions, and update its expectations based on new information. These
agents can and are usually referred to as estimators. From the perspective
of Bayesian decision theory, any kind of probability distribution - such
as the distribution for tomorrow's weather - represents a prior
distribution. That is, it represents how we expect today the weather is
going to be tomorrow. This contrasts with frequentist inference, the
classical probability interpretation, where conclusions about an
experiment are drawn from a set of repetitions of such experience, each
producing statistically independent results. For a frequentist, a
probability function would be a simple distribution function with no
special meaning. Suppose we intend to meet a friend tomorrow, and expect
an 0.5 chance of raining. If we are choosing between various options for
the meeting, with the pleasantness of some of the options (such as going
to the park) being affected by the possibility of rain, we can assign
values to the different options with or with rain. We can then pick the
option whose expected value is the highest, given the probability of rain.
One definition of rationality, used both on Less Wrong and in economics
and psychology, is behavior which obeys the rules of Bayesian decision
theory. Due to computational constraints, this is impossible to do
perfectly, but naturally evolved brains do seem to mirror these
probabilistic methods when they adapt to an uncertain environment.
Such models and distributions may be reconfigured according to feedback
from the environment.
Reflective Decision Theory
is a term occasionally used to
refer to a decision theory that would allow an agent to take actions in a
way that does not trigger regret. This regret is
to the Causal Decision Theory, as a Reflective inconsistency, a divergence
between the agent who took the action and the same agent reflecting upon
Rational Choice Theory
is a framework for understanding and
often formally modeling
social and economic behavior. The basic premise of
theory is that aggregate social behavior results from the
behavior of individual actors, each of whom is making their individual
decisions. The theory therefore focuses on the determinants of the
Predictions - Thinking Ahead - Panning - Strategy
is a combination of measurements
that are based on
information and knowledge
that helps to
and the type of an
that will happen in the
or likely to happen. A probable occurrence based on
about the future
. To tell in advance
what will most likely happen.
is something capable
of being foretold in advance
that is usually indicated by signs or
in advance or ahead in time
.Having a Plan
- Being Prepared
is to predict something in
advance, something that is coming
and judged to be probable. A sign of
things to come.
is the process of making predictions of the future
and present data
is providence by virtue of
planning prudently for the future. Seeing ahead and knowing in advance.
is to realize beforehand and act
in advance of an event to deal with it ahead of time.
is perceiving the
significance of events before they occur.
Cause and Effect
is to prepare for a
future event or situation by thinking
about what might happen. To
about a future event or situation and plan for it
be prepared for it
Think it Through
is to consider
in all its aspects before taking action.
is something planned or
plotted in advance.
is the activity of
for some future act or event. The
about what you will do in the event of something happening. Activity
leading to skilled
is to be ready
or make suitable or equip in advance for a particular
or for some use or event. Arrange by systematic planning and
united effort. Educate
for a future role or function
. Create by
Undergo training or instruction in preparation for a particular role,
function, or profession.
actions taken in advance
against possible danger
failure, damage or injury. Maintenance
and put on guard.
to possible danger.
A warning against certain acts.
is the quality of being
with great confidence
- Real-Time Computing
is a general
in which something
tends to move. General
Comprehensive Plan of Actions) -
Far Future Planning
- Planning is in our DNA
is a theory of brain function in which the brain is constantly
generating and updating a mental model of the environment. The model is
used to generate predictions of sensory input that are compared to actual
sensory input. This comparison results in prediction errors that are then
used to update and revise the mental model.
is an approach to
that emphasizes the prediction of future
based on past
to predict outcomes. Most often the
event one wants to predict is in the future, but predictive modelling can
be applied to any type of unknown event, regardless of when it occurred.
For example, predictive models are often used to detect crimes and
identify suspects, after the crime has taken place.
is an estimate of an interval in which future observations will fall, with
a certain probability, given what has already been observed. Prediction
intervals are often used in regression analysis.
is a measure of the probability of
an event given that (by assumption, presumption, assertion or evidence)
another event has occurred.
(PDF) - Assess, Analyze, Articulate, Act.
encompasses a variety of statistical
techniques from predictive modeling
, machine learning, and data mining
that analyze current and historical facts to make predictions about future
or otherwise unknown events
not only anticipates what will happen and when
it will happen, but also why it will happen. Further, prescriptive
analytics suggests decision options on how to take advantage of a future
opportunity or mitigate a future risk and shows the implication of each
decision option. Prescriptive analytics can continually take in new data
to re-predict and re-prescribe, thus automatically improving prediction
accuracy and prescribing better decision options. Prescriptive analytics
ingests hybrid data, a combination of structured (numbers, categories) and
unstructured data (videos, images, sounds, texts), and business rules to
predict what lies ahead and to prescribe how to take advantage of this
predicted future without compromising other priorities. It is the third
and final phase of business analytics, which also includes descriptive and
predictive analytics. Descriptive analytics
is a preliminary stage of data processing that creates a summary of
historical data to yield useful information and possibly prepare the data
for further analysis. Diagnostic analytics is a deeper look at data to
attempt to understand the causes of events and behaviors.
act in advance
some event in order to deal with it ahead of time. To make a prediction
about something and to tell in advance and realize something beforehand
and regard that something as
or likely to happen.
Anticipatory is in
is predicting and
something to happen in the future, sometimes causing you to feel
or excitement if
you believe that something good is going to happen, or sometimes feel
anxiety if you believe that something bad will happen.
in relation to artificial intelligence is the concept of an agent
making decisions based on predictions, expectations, or beliefs about
the future. It is widely considered that anticipation is a vital component
of complex natural cognitive systems. As a branch of
systems is a specialization still echoing the debates from the 1980s about
the necessity for AI for an internal model.
Stress thwarts our ability to plan ahead by disrupting how we use memory
Hippocampal-frontal lobe network disruption takes
replay offline during a planning session due to
. Kind of like our brain is
pushed into a more low-level thought-process state.
is the prudence and care
exercised by someone in the management
is knowing how to avoid
embarrassment or distress
is being careful and
and marked by
the process of self-projection
into alternate temporal, spatial, social, or
a distinctively human capacity. Numerous lines of research also suggest
that the tendency for mental
is associated with enhanced meaning.
to obtain better predictive performance than could
be obtained from any of the constituent learning algorithms alone. Unlike
a statistical ensemble in statistical mechanics, which is usually
infinite, a machine learning ensemble consists of only a concrete finite
set of alternative models, but typically allows for much more flexible
structure to exist among those alternatives.
"If we could
not predict the future, life could not exist. Every cell in our body has a
way to predict the future through the
receives from its environment. It's not the reward that keeps us moving
forward, it's knowing that a
is just a signal
that the actual prize is still waiting for us, and hopefully we can
eventually figure out what that prize is."
Theory of Change
is a specific type of methodology
for planning, participation, and evaluation that is used in the
philanthropy, not-for-profit and government sectors to promote social
change. Theory of Change defines long-term
and then maps backward to
identify necessary preconditions.
is the development of forecasts of behavior or
recommended courses of action to the
on a wide range of available information
sources both overt and covert.
Assessments are developed in response to requirements declared by the
in order to inform
is the process of identifying, quantifying,
Black Swan Event
occurrence that deviates
beyond what is
of a situation
and is extremely difficult to predict; describes an event that comes as a
surprise, has a major effect, and is often inappropriately rationalized
after the fact with the benefit of hindsight. The term is based on an
ancient saying which presumed black swans did not exist, but the saying
was rewritten after black swans were discovered in the wild.
is a phrase meaning "before the event
". Something based on
rather than actual results.
Ex-ante or notional
demand refers to the desire for goods and services which is not backed by
the ability to pay for those goods and services. This is also termed as
‘wants of people’. Ex-ante is used most commonly in the commercial world,
where results of a particular action, or series of actions, are forecast
in advance (or intended). The opposite of ex-ante is ex-post (actual) (or
ex post). Buying a lottery ticket loses you money ex ante (in
), but if you win, it was the right decision ex post. Examples:
In the financial world, the ex-ante return is the
return of an
investment portfolio. In the recruitment industry, ex-ante is often used
when forecasting resource requirements on large future projects.
is a location where organisms, people, vehicles,
equipment or material are assembled before use.
Early Warning System
is a major element of
disaster risk reduction
. It prevents loss of life
and reduces the economic and material impact of disasters. To be
effective, early warning systems need to actively involve the communities
at risk, facilitate public education and awareness of risks, effectively
disseminate alerts, and warnings and ensure there is constant state of
preparedness. A complete and effective early warning system supports four
main functions: risk analysis
, monitoring and
warning; dissemination and communication
; and a response capability.
is the application of project management
to the creation and development
of large scale events such as festivals, conferences, ceremonies, formal
parties, concerts, or conventions. It involves studying the brand,
identifying it's target audience, devising the event concept, and
coordinating the technical aspects before actually launching the event.
The process of planning and coordinating the event is usually referred to
as event planning and which can include budgeting, scheduling, site
selection, acquiring necessary permits, coordinating transportation and
parking, arranging for speakers or entertainers, arranging decor, event
security, catering, coordinating with third party vendors, and emergency
plans. The events industry now includes events of all sizes from the
Olympics down to business breakfast meetings. Many industries, charitable
organizations, and interest groups hold events in order to market
themselves, build business relationships, raise money, or celebrate achievement.
is understanding the nature of an
it has happened.
is the cognitive process of studying and
understanding systems of every kind. For others, the focus is on social
organizations in particular.
Strategy - Strategic Planning
elaborate and systematic
is a high level plan to achieve one or more
under conditions of uncertainty
The art of the general
which includes several subsets of skills
Course of Action
adopted to deal with a
systematic planning and united effort
is an act of formulating a program for a definite course of action. Using
process of thinking to
organize the activities
required to achieve a desired goal
of a plan.
you Fail to Plan, then you're planning
." "The journey of a thousand miles begins with a single
step, and a plan."
is an organization's process
of defining its strategy, or
on allocating its resources to pursue this strategy. It
may also extend to control mechanisms for
the implementation of
Concept Driven Strategy
is a process for formulating
strategy that draws on the explanation of how humans inquire provided by
linguistic pragmatic philosophy. This argues that thinking starts by
selecting (explicitly or implicitly) a set of concepts (frames, patterns,
lens, principles, etc.) gained from our past experiences. These are used
to reflect on whatever happens, or is done, in the future
is doing something that was carefully thought out in advance
, something unhurried and with
about something carefully
in order to
weigh and discuss
the pros and cons
something to be probable
is to think about something carefully.
To regard or treat something with consideration
respect, and esteem. Information
that should be kept in mind when making a
. Kind and considerate regard for others.
is to make or work out or
devise a plan for some goal. To come up with an idea, plan,
theory, or principle, after a mental effort. To put or send forth
is to evaluate or
the nature, quality, ability,
extent, or significance of. How much there is or how many there are of
something that you can quantify.Debate
is a discussion
reasons are advanced for and against some proposition or proposal. Discuss
the pros and cons
of an issue. The formal presentation of a stated
proposition and the opposition to it (usually followed by a vote).
To Predict the Future, the Brain uses Two Clocks
. In music, sports and
other activities, we calculate movement in two different parts of the
brain. One type of anticipatory timing relies on
memories from past experiences
. The other on
. A rhythm-based system is sensitive
to periodic events in the world such as is inherent in speech and music,
and an interval system provides a more general anticipatory ability,
sensitive to temporal regularities even in the absence of a rhythmic signal.
implementation of the major goals and initiatives taken by a company's top
management on behalf of owners, based on consideration of resources and an
of the internal and external environments in which the organization competes.
is a mental or thinking process applied
by an individual in the context of achieving success in a game or other
endeavor. As a cognitive activity, it produces thought.
concerns the ‘content’ of strategy – initiatives,
choices, policies and decisions adopted in an attempt to improve
performance, and the results that arise from these managerial behaviors.
is to develop or execute
an action with care, an action that's marked by complexity and is examined
in detail. To clarify the meaning
is a plan for attaining a
is a tactic or maneuver
intended to gain an advantage. An elaborate or deceitful scheme
to deceive or evade.
is a strategic planning technique
used to help a person or organization identify strengths, weaknesses,
opportunities, and threats related to business competition or project
planning. SWOT -
Strengths - Weaknesses - Opportunities - Threats. It is intended to specify the objectives of the business venture
or project and identify the internal and external factors that are
favorable and unfavorable to achieving those objectives. Users of a SWOT
analysis often ask and answer questions to generate meaningful information
for each category to make the tool useful and identify their competitive
has been described as the tried-and-true tool of strategic
analysis, but has also been criticized for its limitations. Strengths and
weakness are frequently internally-related, while opportunities and
threats commonly focus on the external environment. The name is an acronym
for the four parameters the technique examines: Strengths
of the business or project that give it an advantage over others.
: characteristics of the business that place the business or
project at a disadvantage relative to others. Opportunities
: elements in
the environment that the business or project could exploit to its
: elements in the environment that could cause trouble
for the business or project. The degree to which the internal environment
of the firm matches with the external environment is expressed by the
concept of strategic fit. Identification of SWOTs is important because
they can inform later steps in planning to achieve the objective. First,
decision-makers should consider whether the objective is attainable, given
the SWOTs. If the objective is not attainable, they must select a
different objective and repeat the process. Strengths and weaknesses
(internal factors within an organization): Human resources — staff,
volunteers, board members, target population. Physical resources — your
location, building, equipment. Financial — grants, funding agencies, other
sources of income. Activities and processes — programs you run, systems
you employ. Past experiences — building blocks for learning and success,
your reputation in the community. Legislation — do new federal
requirements make your job harder...or easier?
that is used to document the primary strategic goals being
pursued by an organization or management team. It is an element of the
documentation associated with the Balanced Scorecard, and in particular is
characteristic of the second generation of Balanced Scorecard designs that
first appeared during the mid-1990s. The Kaplan and Norton approach to
strategy maps has: An underlying framework of horizontal perspectives
arranged in a cause and effect relationship, typically Financial,
Customer, Process and Learning & Growth. Objectives within those
perspectives. Each objective as text appearing within a shape (usually an
oval or rectangle). Relatively few objectives (usually fewer than 20).
Vertical sets of linked objectives that span the perspectives. These are
called strategic themes. Clear cause-and-effect relationships between
these objectives, across the perspectives. The strategic themes represent
hypotheses about how the strategy will bring about change to the outcomes
of the organization.
is a set of ideas implemented by military
organizations to pursue desired strategic goals. Military strategy deals
with the planning and conduct of campaigns, the movement and disposition
of forces, and the deception of the enemy. Military strategy refers to the
employment of all of a nation's military capabilities through high level
and long term planning, development and procurement to guarantee security
or victory. Tactics is the
employed to secure objectives defined as part of the
military strategy; especially the methods whereby men, equipment,
aircraft, ships and weapons are employed and directed against an enemy.
is a military strategy which attempts to defeat the enemy by
incapacitating their decision-making through shock and disruption.
, developed by military strategist and
United States Air Force Colonel John Boyd. Boyd applied the concept to the
combat operations process, often at the operational level during military
campaigns. It is now also often applied to understand commercial
operations and learning processes. The approach explains how agility can
overcome raw power in dealing with human opponents. It is especially
applicable to cyber security and cyberwarfare. The OODA loop has become an
important concept in litigation, business, law enforcement, and military
strategy. According to Boyd, decision-making occurs in a recurring cycle
of observe–orient–decide–act. An entity (whether an individual or an
organization) that can process this cycle quickly, observing and reacting
to unfolding events more rapidly than an opponent, can thereby "get
inside" the opponent's decision cycle and gain the advantage.
Strategic Planning Models
- Failure to prepare means that you're preparing to fail.
Make plans and have goals
but always remember that there are things in life
that you can never be prepared for
, so be prepared for the
unexpected and not just the expected. You can't plan for everything, but
you can plan for excepting the fact that you can't plan for everything. If
you know that
, then you should be prepared for when mistakes do happen.
Rational Planning Model
is a model of the planning process involving a number of rational actions
or steps....Definition of the problems and/or goals; Identification
of alternative plans/policies; Evaluation of alternative
plans/policies; Implementation of plans/policies; Monitoring of
effects of plans/policies.
focuses on creating the future by
designing a desirable present. Interactive planning is unlike other types
of planning, such as reactive planning, inactive planning, and preactive
planning. Interactive planning has three unique characteristics:
Interactive planning works backwards from where an organization wants to
be now to where it is now. Interactive planning is continuous; it does not
start and stop. Interactive planning lets the organization’s stakeholders
to be involved in the planning process. Interactive Planning has six
phases, divided into two parts: Idealization and Realization.
Automated Planning and Scheduling
is a branch of artificial
intelligence that concerns the realization of strategies or action
sequences, typically for execution by intelligent agents, autonomous
robots and unmanned vehicles. Unlike classical control and classification
problems, the solutions are complex and must be discovered and optimized
in multidimensional space. Planning is also related to decision theory.
refers to the skills, technologies, practices for
continuous iterative exploration and investigation of past business
performance to gain insight and drive business planning. Business
analytics focuses on developing new insights and understanding of business
performance based on data and statistical methods. In contrast, business
intelligence traditionally focuses on using a consistent set of metrics to
both measure past performance and guide business planning, which is also
based on data and statistical methods. Business analytics makes extensive
use of statistical analysis, including explanatory and predictive
modeling, and fact-based management to drive decision making. It is
therefore closely related to management science. Analytics may be used as
input for human decisions or may drive fully automated decisions. Business
intelligence is querying, reporting, online analytical processing (OLAP),
and "alerts." In other words, querying, reporting, OLAP, it is alert tools
can answer questions such as what happened, how many, how often, where the
problem is, and what actions are needed. Business analytics can answer
questions like why is this happening, what if these trends continue, what
will happen next (predict), and what is the best outcome that can happen (optimize).
Backup Plan - Plan B - What are your Options?
is an American Football play where a quarterback can have two or more
or potential plays
to choose from, whether to
. The quarterback reads the defense
and then calls out the play
in a coded message
before the ball is
is a plan devised for an outcome
other than in the usual
or expected plan.
is something determined
refers to the process of planning in a
under continual change
. Traditionally, as new world information is
encountered, a planner adapts
to it through the refinement of the plans
that are under construction.
that are not the ones
foreseen and intended by a purposeful action.
that can go wrong, will go wrong.
can happen too.
What's the worst case
Can you determine cause and
? What do you do in an
Worst-case execution time
is the maximum length of
task could take to execute on a specific hardware platform.
Best, worst and average case
what the resource usage is on
refers to a very concrete
based set of
actions that are taken as precautionary measures
in the face of
. These actions can include both physical preparations (such as
emergency supplies depots, adapting
buildings to survive earthquakes and
so on) and trainings for emergency action. Preparedness is an important
quality in achieving goals
and in avoiding and
. There are different types of preparedness, such as public health
preparedness and local emergency preparedness or snow preparedness (i.e.:
Snow Preparedness Teams - SPT), but probably the most developed type is
", defined by the UN as involving "forecasting and
taking precautionary measures
prior to an imminent
warnings are possible". This includes not only natural disasters, but
all kinds of severe damage caused in a relatively short period, including
warfare. Preparedness is a major phase of
, and is
particularly valued in areas of
such as sport and military
Things To Do ListThere's only so much planning that you
. You can't plan for
everything because something's are difficult to plan for. The
best thing that you can do is to
learn from your
, and also share what you've learned so that others
can avoid making the same mistakes that you did. There is always
going to be some level of risk, but you have to make a decision.
Just don't let the fear of risk stop you. And don't forget to
balance your time between planning and doing. If you spend all
your time planning, then you may end up planning to do nothing.
Think Aloud Protocol
is a protocol used to gather data in usability testing in product design
and development, in psychology and a range of social sciences (e.g.,
reading, writing, translation research, decision making, and process
is the process of implementing and
developing technical standards based on the consensus
of different parties that include firms, users, interest groups, standards
organizations and governments Standardization can help to maximize
compatibility, interoperability, safety, repeatability, or quality. It can
also facilitate commoditization of formerly custom processes. In social
sciences, including economics, the idea of standardization is close to the
solution for a coordination problem, a situation in which all parties can
realize mutual gains, but only by making
mutually consistent decisions
This view includes the case of "spontaneous standardization processes", to
produce de facto standards.
Positive Feed Back Loop
Researchers add a splash of Human Intuition to Planning Algorithms
Incorporating strategies from skilled human planners improves automatic planners’ performance.
Intuition - Supernatural Predictions
is someone who perceives the future
some inexplicable perceptive powers.
is someone who is believed to speak by
is foretelling events as if by
is a belief that knowledge about a future event was obtained from a divine
source, and not from facts or evidence.
French physician and reputed seer, who is best known for his book Les
Propheties, a collection of 942 poetic
allegedly predicting future events. The book was first
published in 1555 and has rarely been out of print since his death.
You can almost predict anything. All you have to do
and use words that will have some resemblance to a
future event. Hindsight
Correlation does not
"Bringing hindsight to the present moment."
is a managerial
strategy in which a manager imagines
that a project or
organization has failed, and then works backward to determine
what potentially could lead to the failure of the project or
organization. The technique breaks possible group thinking by
facilitating a positive discussion on threats, increasing the
likelihood the main threats are identified. Management can then
analyze the magnitude and likelihood of each threat, and take
preventative actions to protect the project or organization from
suffering an untimely "death". (A pre-mortem, also known as a premortem).
Collaboration Techniques - Collaboration Tools - Outsourcing - Brainstorming
is the process of two or more people
realize mutual goals
Collaborative Innovation Network
to describe innovative teams
people with a
, enabled by the web to collaborate in achieving a common
goal by sharing
ideas, information, and work.
refers to projects where written works are
created by multiple people
together collaboratively rather than
individually. Some projects are
overseen by an editor
or editorial team,
but many grow without any oversight.
Collaborative Working Environment
supports people, such as
e-professionals, in their individual and cooperative work. Research in CWE
involves focusing on organizational, technical, and social issues.
is a prearranged
for consultation or exchange of
information or discussion
with a formal agenda. A
participants who have agreed upon a particular topic.
Integrated Collaboration Environment
is an environment in
which a virtual team does its work. Such environments allow companies to
realize a number of competitive advantages by using their existing
computers and network infrastructure for group and personal collaboration.
These fully featured environments combine the best features of
and collaboration, desktop
, and instant
message into a single easy-to-use, intuitive environment. Recent
developments have allowed companies include streaming in real-time and
archived modes into their ICE.
of groups of organisms working or acting together for
common or mutual benefit, as opposed to working in
in relation to evolution is the
where groups of organisms work
or act together for common or mutual benefits
. It is commonly defined as
any adaptation that has evolved, at least in part, to increase the
reproductive success of the actor’s social partners.
is a form of qualitative research in which a group of people are asked
about their perceptions, opinions, beliefs, and attitudes towards a
product, service, concept, advertisement, idea, or packaging.
is a group creativity technique
efforts are made to find a conclusion for a specific problem by gathering
a list of ideas spontaneously contributed by its members.
Meeting of the Minds
used to describe the intentions of
the parties forming the contract. In particular it refers to the situation
where there is a common understanding in the formation of the contract.
Formation of a contract is initiated with a proposal or offer. This
condition or element is often considered a necessary requirement to the
formation of a contract.
is an organization that performs
and advocacy concerning
topics such as social policy
, political strategy,
economics, military, technology, and culture. Most policy institutes are
non-profit organizations. Other think tanks are
advocacy groups, or businesses, or derive revenue from consulting or
research work related to their projects.
is a group of people who assemble suddenly
in a public place, perform an unusual and seemingly pointless act for a
brief time, then quickly disperse, often for the purposes of
entertainment, satire, and artistic expression.
Word of Mouth
is the passing of information from person to person
by oral communication,
which could be as simple as telling someone the time of day.
is a common form of word-of-mouth communication
where one person tells
others a story about a real event or something made up. Oral tradition is
material and traditions transmitted by word of mouth through
is the process of obtaining needed
services, ideas, or content by soliciting contributions from a large group
of people, especially an online community, rather than from employees or
is an online discussion
site where people can hold
in the form of posted messages. They differ from chat rooms
in that messages are often longer than one line of text, and are at least
temporarily archived. Also, depending on the access level of a user or the
forum set-up, a posted message might need to be approved by a moderator
before it becomes visible. Forums have a specific set of jargon associated
with them; example: a single conversation is called a "thread", or topic.
A discussion forum is hierarchical or tree-like in structure: a forum can
contain a number of subforums
, each of which may have several topics.
Within a forum's topic, each new discussion started is called a
, and can be replied to by as many people as so wish. Depending
on the forum's settings, users can be anonymous or have to register with
the forum and then subsequently log in in order to post messages. On most
forums, users do not have to log in to read existing messages.
is primarily used to describe any form of synchronous
conferencing, occasionally even asynchronous conferencing. The term can
thus mean any technology ranging from real-time online chat and online
interaction with strangers (e.g., online forums) to fully immersive
graphical social environments
. The primary use of a chat room is to
share information via text
a group of other users. Generally speaking, the ability to converse with
multiple people in the same conversation differentiates chat rooms from
instant messaging programs, which are more typically designed for
one-to-one communication. The users in a particular chat room are
generally connected via a shared internet or other similar connection, and
chat rooms exist catering for a wide range of subjects. New technology has
enabled the use of file sharing and webcam to be included in some
programs. This would be considered a chat room.
is the formal term used in computing, in
, collaboration and learning, to
describe technologies informally known as online chat. It is sometimes
extended to include audio/video conferencing or instant messaging systems
that provide a text-based multi-user chat function. The word synchronous
is used to qualify the conferencing as real-time, as distinct from a
system such as e-mail, where messages are left and answered later.
We Can Do This! Tools to Unleash Our Collective Genius
evaluation of work by one or more people of similar competence to the
producers of the work (peers). It constitutes a form of self-regulation by
qualified members of a profession within the relevant field.
is the practice of groups producing
works together through individual contributions. Effective choices in
group awareness, participation, and coordination are critical to
successful collaborative writing outcomes.
certain parts of the video, emphasize, share, and discuss them online or
Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning
approach wherein learning takes place via social interaction
computer or through the Internet. This kind of learning is characterized
by the sharing and construction of knowledge among participants using
technology as their primary means of communication or as a common
resource. CSCL can be implemented in online and classroom learning
environments and can take place synchronously
is the generic term used in architectural and
interior design for any floor plan which makes use of large, open spaces
and minimizes the use of small, enclosed rooms such as private offices.
is a concept in Swedish culture with the basic
meaning "to have coffee".
Collaborative Framework facilitates
productivity and decision making for both scientists and project managers.
is a new approach to working
together on projects online which puts the document and its contents at
the centre of the process.
may be used as an umbrella term for various types of
online collaborative services including web seminars ("webinars"),
webcasts, and peer-level web meetings. It may also be used in a more
narrow sense to refer only to the peer-level web meeting context, in an
attempt to disambiguate it from the other types of collaborative sessions.
is a type of
provides shared computer processing resources and data to computers and
other devices on demand. It is a model for enabling ubiquitous, on-demand
access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources.
is the tendency for people working in groups
to get stuck on other people’s ideas.
"More hands make light work, but too many cooks in the kitchen
could be less productive."
is a technique used by
two senses, a narrow one and a more general one. In the newer, narrower
sense, collaborative filtering is a method of making automatic predictions
(filtering) about the interests of a user by collecting preferences or
taste information from many users (collaborating). The underlying
assumption of the collaborative filtering approach is that if a person A
has the same opinion as a person B on an issue, A is more likely to have
B's opinion on a different issue than that of a randomly chosen person.
For example, a collaborative filtering recommendation system for
television tastes could make predictions about which television show a
user should like given a partial list of that user's tastes (likes or
dislikes). Note that these predictions are specific to the user, but use
information gleaned from many users. This differs from the simpler
approach of giving an average (non-specific) score for each item of
interest, for example based on its number of votes. In the more general
sense, collaborative filtering is the process of filtering for information
or patterns using techniques involving collaboration among multiple
agents, viewpoints, data sources, etc. Applications of collaborative
filtering typically involve very large data sets. Collaborative filtering
methods have been applied to many different kinds of data including:
sensing and monitoring data, such as in mineral exploration, environmental
sensing over large areas or
; financial data, such as financial service
institutions that integrate many financial sources; or in electronic
commerce and web applications where the focus is on user data, etc. The
remainder of this discussion focuses on collaborative filtering for user
data, although some of the methods and approaches may apply to the other
major applications as well.
is an application software
designed to help people
involved in a common task to achieve their goals. One of the earliest
definitions of collaborative software is 'intentional group processes plus
software to support them'.
List of Collaborative Software
Wiki Web Collaboration Tools
Project Management Collaboration
PC to PC
Free Conference Call
World Cafe Conversational Process
World CafeData Sharing Tools
platforms to organize and curate content.
workshops. An Introduction to Systems Thinking and Wicked Problem Solving.
is a gathering of people under the roof of an
inspiring host, held partly to amuse one another and partly to refine the
taste and increase the knowledge of the participants through conversation.
Resources for Collaboration Tools -
- Hip Chat
- Solve For X
- Ever Note
powerful tools and
advanced collaboration technology
can simplify the way your team
works. Manage your workload, communicate with your team, and celebrate
First Model to capture Crosstalk in Social Dilemmas
. The idea that
previous interactions can affect unrelated future decisions might seem
obvious. The prisoner's dilemma where both people would be better off if
they both defected.
are a part of Steiner's taxonomy of group
tasks. They are often studied when dealing with process losses in groups.
Process loss is observed in groups when there is a reduction in their
performance effectiveness or efficiency. This could be due to a variety of
interpersonal processes, which may be caused by either motivation loss or
coordination loss. Conjunctive tasks fall into the latter category of
coordination problems in groups.
is a pact or treaty among individuals or groups,
during which they cooperate in
, each in their own self-interest,
for a common cause. This
may be temporary or a matter of convenience. A
coalition thus differs from a more formal
. Possibly described as a joining of 'factions',
usually those with overlapping interests rather than opposing.
activity by which businesspeople and
entrepreneurs meet to form business relationships and to recognize,
create, or act upon business opportunities, share information and seek.
potential partners for ventures.
- Mesh Networking
Wireless Mesh Network
- Community Collaboration Methods
- Group Decision Making
- Shared Decision-Making
- Consensus Decision Making
(meeting of the minds) -
- Public Service Announcement
- Social Networks
(charts and graphs) -
- Money Alternatives
Decision Support System
is a computer-based information
system that supports business or organizational decision-making
activities. DSSs serve the management, operations, and planning levels of
an organization (usually mid and higher management) and help people make
decisions about problems that may be rapidly changing and not easily
specified in advance—i.e. Unstructured and Semi-Structured decision
problems. Decision support systems can be either fully computerized,
human-powered or a combination of both.
enabling devices to easily
connect with each other without requiring a wireless access point.
Electronic Mailing List
is a special use of email that
allows for widespread distribution of information to many Internet users.
It is similar to a traditional mailing list – a list of names and
addresses – as might be kept by an organization for sending publications
to its members or customers.
Operations Support System
are computer systems used by
telecommunications service providers to manage their networks (e.g.,
telephone networks). They support management functions such as network
inventory, service provisioning, network configuration and fault
Life Support System
is a group of devices that allow a human
being to survive in space.
- The Wisdom of Crowds
Agile Software Development
describes a set of principles
for software development under which requirements and solutions evolve
through the collaborative effort of self-organizing cross-functional
teams. It advocates adaptive planning, evolutionary development, early
delivery, and continuous improvement, and it encourages rapid and flexible
response to change. These principles support the definition and continuing
evolution of many software development methods.
is the ability of an
enterprise—a company or other large organization—to functionally link
activities, such as product design, supply chains, manufacturing, in an efficient and competitive way.
Facilitation of Meetings
refers to the process of designing and running a
Facilitation concerns itself with all the tasks needed to run a productive
and impartial meeting.
serves the needs of any
meeting with a common purpose, whether it be making a decision
, solving a
problem, or simply exchanging ideas and information. It does not lead the
group, nor does it try to distract or to entertain. A slightly different
interpretation focuses more specifically on a group that is engaged in
particular this is associated with
and concepts of tutelary authority. Guidelines
of meeting -
Have someone record the meeting or take minutes - Take
attendance - Specify the agenda and the purpose of meeting - List the
- List topics - List important questions that
need answering - List important information - Provide documents -
Review results and the progress of previous related meetings -
Specify the rules of the meeting if needed - Specify speaking
time allowed for each person if needed -
people to speak and ask questions
- Assign people to solve
End meeting with brief overview.
is when two or more
people come together
one or more topics,
often in a formal setting.
When should you
? When should you ask for
? When should you
When should you use humor
an elected representative sent to a conference. Someone who attends or
communicates the ideas
acts on behalf
of an organization at a
meeting or conference between organizations, which may be at the same
level or involved in a common field of work or interest.
who provides expert
in a particular area such as security (electronic or physical),
management, education, accountancy, law, human resources, marketing (and
public relations), finance, engineering, science or any of many other
specialized fields. Remote Work
is a natural person, business,
or corporation that provides goods or services to another entity under
terms specified in a contract or within a verbal agreement. Unlike an
, an independent contractor
does not work regularly for an employer but works as and
during which time he or she may be subject to law of agency. Independent
contractors are usually paid on a freelance basis. Contractors often work
through a limited company or franchise, which they themselves own, or may
work through an umbrella company.
refers to an employment situation where
the working arrangement
is limited to a certain period of time based on
the needs of the employing organization.
called "contractual", "seasonal", "interim", "casual staff",
"outsourcing", "freelance"; or the word may be shortened to "temps
some instances, temporary, highly skilled professionals (particularly in
the white-collar worker fields, such as law, engineering, and accounting)
refer to themselves as consultants. Part Time Work
is to substitute for someone when they are unable to do their job.
- Maker Labs
is a person or thing acting or
serving in place of another.
is a person who teaches a school class when the
regular teacher is unavailable.
involves the contracting out of a business
process (e.g. payroll processing, claims processing) and operational,
and/or non-core functions (e.g. manufacturing
center support) to another party (see also business process outsourcing).
is the practice of
assigning, or outsourcing, part of the obligations and tasks under a
contract to another party known as a subcontractor. Subcontracting is
especially prevalent in areas where complex projects are the norm, such as
construction and information technology.
is an individual or a business that signs a contract to
perform part or all of the obligations of another's contract. A
subcontractor is a company or person whom a general contractor (or prime
contractor, or main contractor) hires to perform a specific task as part
of an overall project and normally pays for services provided to the
project. While subcontracting often occurs in building works and in civil
engineering, the range of opportunities for subcontractor is much wider
and it is possible[original research?] that the greatest number of
subcontractors now operate in the information technology and information
sectors of the economy. One hires subcontractors either to reduce costs or
to mitigate project risks. In employing subcontractors, the general
contractor hopes to receive the same or better service than the general
contractor could have provided by itself, at lower overall risk. Many
subcontractors do work for the same companies rather than different ones.
This allows subcontractors to further specialize their skills. Some
subcontractors also work under "Pay-If-Paid" clauses where a general
contractor will work with subcontractors and the subcontractor is only
paid if and when the general contractor is paid for their duties.
and not necessarily committed to a particular employer
long-term. Freelance workers are sometimes represented by a company or a
that resells freelance labor to clients; others
or use professional associations or websites to get work.
(free money -
is an employment relationship
which is considered non-permanent
. These jobs are typically part time
(typically with variable hours), have limited job security, and result in
payment on a piece work basis. Contingent work is usually not considered
to be a career or part of a career. One of the features of contingent work
is that it usually offers little or no opportunity for
Contingent workers are also often called freelancers, independent
professionals, temporary contract workers, independent contractors, or
Temporary Workforce Resources -
- Task Us
Amazon Mechanical Turk
designers. Speak with your dedicated matcher who will understand your
project goals, technical needs, and team dynamics.
- Social Networking
(social learning) -
is a multifaceted assignment that serves as a
academic and intellectual experience for students that shows
that they have completed the monumental task of earning their degree. A
capstone may also involve a
final research paper
exploring a topic of
interest, emerging from a student's individualized program of study.
Capstone projects are generally designed to encourage students to
, solve challenging problems, and develop skills such as oral
communication, public speaking
, research skills,
, self-sufficiency, or
help prepare them for college. It's called a capstone because it
represents a crowning achievement as a capstone does in architecture and
is analogous to the capstone or top and final stone added to a building. A
capstone is the final stone
usually flat, that is laid at the top of a wall or building to protect it
and to symbolize it is finished. A capstone experience is the final
"stone" laid on an education that symbolizes the
completion of a
and the peak of
having many aspects
distinct feature or element in a problem.
Capstone projects should
be about working on Real Problems, problems that need solving and problems that are plaguing the world and
plaguing local communities. This should involve extensive original
, methods of inquiry, critical thinking skills,
creativity, scholarly research, communicating ideas,
presentation, reading and writing skills and so on.
And these skills need to be measured, tested and confirmed.
Problems should not be considered to big to solve for this is a
part of the learning experience. Capstone projects should
prepare students for reality, otherwise you are just wasting
time, people and resources. Just teaching
will not be enough.
Counting the things that Matter
In order to solve the plethora of problems in our
world you first have to educate people on how to be problem
solvers, then and only then will our problems be solved.
Capstone Project for Basic Knowledge 101
The First Problem: # 1 -
Students need to create ways to improve education on all levels.
To accomplish this, students must collect the worlds most
important and the most valuable knowledge and information that
is available. Then design a curriculum based on that knowledge
and information. This would include creating computerized
courses and videotaping the best and most effective teaching lessons, and so on. Then
Why Improve Education
Open Source Curriculum
The Second Problem: # 2 -
Once we have created the perfect education, students have to
create ways to make sure that every person on the planet has access to a
good education. The more educated and aware people are the more prepared
they will be to solve problems. Educated people will also have the skills
that are needed to improve their quality of life and improve the quality
of life for others.
Laptops and USB Flash Memory Drives
- Teaching Methods
- Open Source Education Resources
The Third Problem: # 3 -
Clean water for everyone, healthy food for everyone, clean and
safe homes for everyone, clean and safe electricity for
jobs that make a positive difference for everyone
Big 5 Needs
Gilding: The Earth is full
Of course the problems in # 3, along with the thousands of
other problems that people are faced with today, will never
improve unless we fix problems # 1 and # 2. Team
effort between schools is a must when working on this project. Working as a
team will save time, people and resources, and at the same time,
teach students about one of the important aspects of problem solving,
which is teamwork.
How would you Teach it? How
would you Learn it? How Would you Test it?
Capstone Research Projects Ideas
Capstone Project # 2
We'll call this "The Logic Movement" -
you're not part of the solution, then you're part of the
"A journey of a thousand miles begins with a single
"The problems that exist in the world today cannot be solved by
the same level of thinking that created them." (Albert Einstein
"Problems can't be solved unless they are identified"
"I see most
as just a puzzle, a puzzle I must learn to solve.
So when a computer problem arises I usually say "How do I solve
this puzzle and where would be the best place to start?" So can
learning how to solve
teach us about
course. Problem solving is not a problem, it's a part of
learning." Learning Games
"Everything on this planet that is alive today is a direct result
of information being passed forward and shared with the next
generation of its species"...More
"To assume what other people are assuming is a
I like to avoid.
with a backwards brain is
as useless as looking
with a backwards brain.
Backwards Brain Meaning: Making assumptions based on outdated,
incorrect or insufficient information.
You don't have a question If you have
your question makes
. There's no
to it's timing and it applies to situations of little importance."
Problem Solving Tips
Avoid asking the wrong
, take time to define each
problem carefully before trying to solve it.
Ask yourself lots of different questions about the nature of the
problem. Strive to look at problems from different
generate multiple solutions.
solutions, take time to think about how you
should choose between options. Evaluate potential solutions carefully and thoroughly against a
Once you choose
a solution to a problem, develop an
implementation plan with the sequence of events necessary for completing the problem solving task.
After a solution has been implemented, immediately look for ways
to improve the idea and avoid future problems.
Address any belief issues and other consequences of the proposed
solution so that others will understand and support the
search for issues that may become problems in the
Sometimes even small problems often become much bigger in scope,
and thus very difficult to solve, but not impossible.
Remember that making a decision is not the end of the problem-solving process.
Skills to Problem Solving
We all have choices and options, but
bad decisions can waste a lot of time, and we only have so much
time. You don't want to miss out on opportunities because you
were not realistic in your planning. It's good to be organized,
but you also have to be efficient and effective and have a good
understanding of your goals and a good understanding of your
responsibilities. As a human you have a finite amount of time, use it well. And
remember that all those little moments of wasted time add up in
the end. You could lose days and even years of missed potential.
If you don't solve the
Root of the Problem
, then you will still have a problem.
We must have immediate solutions when solving problems and long-term solutions when
solving problems. We must also learn how to solve problems
before they present themselves, especially problems that are critical to our survival.
Having ideas on possible solutions to problems
that you can anticipate will save you time and energy. One of
the first problem solving skills we need to have is Learning how to
. This will be
one of the first things that you need to solve.
has to be done
everyday and sometimes several times a day, so defining your
priorities is essential. Other wise you will waste precious time
doing things at
with no real purpose. This is when mistakes can be
made that could have serious consequences.
Once you define your priorities you have to balance your priorities in the most
logical order that will maximize your time and available
resources. Knowing what needs to be done first and knowing
what needs to be done next is crucial
. You also have to be
prepared and ready to solve new problems that may possibly
change your priorities. So knowing how to approach problems is
critical. What can you teach and what could be learned about
this problem must be considered when approaching and evaluating
problems. You must also learn to Recognize Variables to
(low priority problem, high priority
problem, new problem, old problem, risks, threats and options).
Two key elements to problem solving and prioritizing are having
Self-Discipline and the Ability to Focus
So if you have not yet learned to focus or if you lack
self-discipline then these two skills will be two of your top
priorities. Prioritizing could take just several seconds or
several minutes to accomplish (immediate solutions). But
sometimes prioritizing could take several hours or several days
to accomplish (long-term solutions). So knowing how much time you have is critical.
the next important problem solving skill to learn.
Goals and a timeframe of when they should be accomplished have to be determined.
I try to plan ahead as best as I can, and I usually don't cross bridges until I get to
them. But in order for me to focus on my goals, I know it's impossible
to plan for everything. So I try not to waste too much time
preparing for things that may never happen.
But I also don't want to ignore the possibility that things can
happen. Believing that I will be able to overcome what ever
challenges that come my way, is fine. As long as I except the
fact that mistakes can be easily made when you are
. I plan as best as I can. And when I learn how to
plan better, I do.
"Don't cross a bridge till you come to it"
is a metaphor for waiting until a vague or low-probability
problem arises so you can learn more about what the problem is,
before trying to solve or overcome it.
The following sentences paraphrase various aspects of the proverb:
"Wait for ill-defined problems to be clarified before dealing with them."
"Don't be concerned about distant-future problems until they
become near-present problems."
"Don't try to solve that problem until you are prepared to deal with it."
"Don't waste your time preparing for all potential problems,
because most of them will no longer be problems when you get to
them, or because conditions will have changed by then."
"Don't work on that problem until the scheduled time."
Problem Solving Skills
also need to expand, improve and evolve as more information and
knowledge is gained at each grade level and at each level of
comprehension so that it can cover the many different aspects,
and specialized areas of unique problems.
the consequences of one's conduct are the
ultimate basis for any judgment
or wrongness of that
conduct. Thus, from a consequentialist standpoint, a morally right act (or
omission from acting) is one that will produce a good outcome, or
. In an extreme form, the idea of consequentialism is commonly
encapsulated in the English saying, "the end justifies the means", meaning
that if a goal
enough, any method of achieving it is
acceptable. But not Always
You first have to be aware of the
or problem before you can correct it.
Just knowing about
Cause and Effect
is not enough. You also have to fully
of actions. You have to see the
so that you can easily confirm good
from bad and right from wrong (Pros & Cons). Positive and
negatives results would be based on
that can be
so that the highest degree of accuracy can be
cannot be used in
because Facts and Evidence have a much higher percentage of
accuracy then just
(physics) - Cause and Effect
is the body of principles and practices
used by scholars to make their claims about the world as
and trustworthy as
possible, and to make them known to the scholarly public.
is a method developed by Fritz Zwicky
(1967, 1969) for exploring all the possible solutions to a
multi-dimensional, non-quantified complex problem.
You don't have to be a
to be good at
"Even a Small Leak will Sink a Great Ship."
You want kids to struggle a little bit to figure things out, as long as
you have kids figure things out that benefit them. This way they
learn how problem solving is extremely important and extremely
valuable. Figuring things out that don't benefit you will not
inspire you to learn.
"Good reasoning skills are extremely
important to have, but if you are not reasoning the things that
matter, then knowing how to reason wont matter."
"There are some problems that you can run
away from, but there are problems that will follow you no matter
where you go. So learning how to solve problems is an incredibly useful tool and skill to have."
Passing the Buck - Forcing your Problems on other People
Pass the Buck
is moving or
shifting the responsibility
something to someone else. Expecting someone else to do something for you,
someone else to solve
a problem that you refuse to take responsibility for. Passing the buck
else to pay for your mistakes
by passing on costs
innocent people and future generations, which is a type of theft
Passing the Buck can also cause anger and confusion because people may
someone else for
your mistakes. Scapegoat
to Pay Paul
is a phrase that means to take from one person or thing
and then give it to another person or yourself. Taking the money from one
debt to pay off another debt. Stealing from one person in order to pay
another person who's stealing from you or stealing from someone else. Taxes
come in many forms
is a socioeconomic term describing how a
business maximizes its profits by off-loading indirect costs
negative effects to a third party.
At Other Peoples Expense
Somebody Else's Problem
is a psychological effect where people choose to
from an issue
that may be in critical need of recognition. Such issues may
be of large concern to the population as a whole but can easily be a
choice of ignorance by an individual.
Positive Feed Back Loop
Diffusion of Responsibility
is when a person is less likely to
for action or inaction when others are present.
Considered a form of
, the individual assumes
that others either are
for taking action or have already done so. The phenomenon tends to occur
in groups of people above a certain critical size and when responsibility
is not explicitly assigned. It rarely occurs when the person is alone and
diffusion increases with groups
of three or more.
unintentional or incidental damage
, deaths, injuries
inflicted on an unintended target.
is the cost
that affects a party who
did not choose to incur that cost
is a phenomenon characterized by unconscious redirection of
one person to another.Exacerbate
to make a problem or a bad situation worse. Make very annoyed or
What is the
True Cost of your Actions
- Planned Obsolescence
MoralsSometimes a Solution to a Problem Creates
That's not problem solving, that's problem transference.
Transferring your problems to other people does not make the
problems go away.
Solution Caused Problems
is an indication
of an incomplete approach to resolving issues.
You need to know when to
Some people tend to solve their problems by giving their
problems to other people and make other people
suffer the consequences of that problem. If someone steals from you, you shouldn't
someone else to make up for your loss. All humans are good at
solving problems, but it's the way that some people solve their
problems that ends up being the most important part of the
problem solving process. If solving your problem causes other
people to have problems, then that's not problem solving, that's
, and that's
. These are the
of corporations, politicians, and even some citizens.
Why are you forcing other people to pay for your comforts? Why
are you stealing from future generations by exploiting resources
poison water and land
as a result. You have to know that
some of your actions are indirectly murdering people now, and
murdering people in the future. If you don't understand this,
you need to remove your head from your ass
learning, and stop killing.
is to channel into a new
is when someone avoids dealing with or discussing
something problematic or disagreeable.
“If it Ain't Broke, Don't Fix it”
is a stupid idiom
ignores the word maintenance
it also does not prepare you for when something does break. Though it's
true that sometimes trying to fix something can actually make something
worse, but that only means that you were not ready to fix it. You should
wait until you are ready to fix something completely and be fully prepared
for other problems to arise.
"Most people spend more time and energy going around problems than in
trying to solve them." -
(1863 - 1947).
"Why would you force other people to fix your problems just
because you don't want to take the time to fix your own
problems, problems that you could easily fix yourself? This is
not the same as asking for help. It's just that when people
transfer or force their personal problems to other people without their
permission, it only creates more problems."
is the condition human societies experience when, in pursuing
through human ingenuity
they do not
have the resources or political will
to solve, for fear of short-term
losses in status, stability or quality of life. This prevents further
progress and sometimes leads to collapse
is a situation in which a group of people act to obtain
short-term individual gains, which in the long run leads to a loss for the
group as a whole. Unsustainable
social traps include overfishing, energy "brownout" and "blackout" power
outages during periods of extreme temperatures, the overgrazing of cattle
on the Sahelian Desert, and the destruction of the rainforest by logging
interests and agriculture.
to discourage particular behaviors will
never succeed if the understanding of those rules and laws are never
taught in schools or thoroughly explained in the media. Public knowledge
is essential to maximize order. But if certain rules or laws are
unjustified and are not scientifically proven, so that it shows evidence
of the cause and effects and the damage that these rules are doing to
people and the environment, and if the schools do not teach people about
these ignorant rules, then those rules will continue to kill people and
damage the world. So who's worse, the criminals who made the laws or the
people who don't teach others about how criminal these particular laws
If people are smart enough to know how to
, then they are
smart enough to find better ways of doing things
that require no
stealing at all. Options and choices are there, but you need to
learn what they are.
Don't make problems worse
Punishing a person, because of a problem, is illogical. If you
want to help someone solve a problem, then help them, you can't
help people solve their problems when you're adding to their
problems. It's just common sense,
helping someone is a lot better then
"You don't make things better by
making things worse."
"Replacing worn-out systems with more of
the same outdated processes, is wasteful and negligent."
"What you're doing for work should be
solving problems, and not adding to our problems or ignoring our
problems. So why would you add to our problems when we can be
solving our problems?" Instead of making problems, you
should be solving problems.
is when we
tend to ignore negative information and bad news
because we are trying to
avoid the pain or distress, which does not solve the problem, you're just
temporally avoiding a problem by burying your head in the sand.
Sometimes the first solution to a problem does not always solve
the problem, or solve the problem completely. Problem solving
takes more then one try. And the solution itself can also can be
improved and modified. So the first solution is seldom the last
solution you will have. Problem solving also needs periodic
maintenance, because things change. Problem solving is an
ongoing process. Don't ever think that something is totally
fixed. Just because you solved a problem today doesn't mean that
that same problem will be solved tomorrow, because things
change. That is one of the main
reasons why problem solving skills are extremely important.
generally signifies a solution designed for a
specific problem or task, non-generalizable, and not intended to
be able to be adapted to other purposes.
is tending to hinder the achievement of a goal. Behavior that goes
against the goals of an organization or community.
Anything that is more of an "obstacle" than a help in the
achieving of a productive project or an objective. A situation
that prevents a group, organization, or other collective
entities from performing or accomplishing its originally stated
We can run away from our problems
any where on the planet, but we can not run away from what
we need to face
. To retreat is only
temporary. We need to face the enemy. We need to learn how to protect
ourselves. The key word is 'learn
"When you see a problem, solve it, Don't
run away from a problem and pretend that it will go away on its
own, because you could create more problems."
"Being able to solve every problem in the
world does mean that you wont see every problem coming that will
harm you or kill you. But if you do see the problem coming, and
you learn how to defend yourself from this problem, and stop
this problem from recurring, then you can solve every problem,
or at least make others aware of this problem so they may have a
chance to solve it."
"If you ever need a helping hand, sometimes
you have to use the hand that's at the end of your arm, because
some of life's greatest tests we have to face alone."
"You might see the problem, but you might
not see all the other problems that are related to that problem.
Problems are like weeds, if you don't get to the
root of the problem
, then the problem will keep coming back.
And if everyone is spreading the seeds of these problems, then
those problems will never go away."
Chess is like Life, but Life is not a Chess Game
will not prepare
but chess does teach some important skills that you should know how to use
Chess forces you to focus
and to be
your doing, which is really important in life. Chess also forces you
to see the whole picture
not just see where you're going, but also see all the
comes with every move that you make or from every move that your
makes. Chess also makes you
plan several moves ahead
and forces you to
when things change.
Chess also makes you anticipate
. If you can
predict a possible reaction
you can make a more accurate decision
. So chess makes you pay attention to your
, because with chess, you only have a certain
number of choices
and with each choice that you make, you will either have more choices
or less choices, which depends on the
of the previous
choice. So depending on how your
moves, or how the
, will determine
the next choices you will have. So there
are good moves
, and one wrong move could have
devastating consequences, just like in life. An early
in the game can
make it very difficult to overcome and recover, so even the first move
that you make can be extremely important. You can
for the future, but the
future may change because of how your opponent reacts or
how the world changes
So you must be prepared
for changes in
life and learn how to
to these new
changes, so that you can make the appropriate moves or choices and be
ready to make new plans. In life, and in the game of chess, you may have
to take some risks
, but they must be
, but even
you must be prepared for the mistakes
and the effects
that are the result of your actions. As the game progresses, and as
life progresses, with every move or choice that you make, this
means that you will have one less choice, and eventually you will
have fewer and fewer choices, but the game is not over.
in a draw
is when life and humans have agreed that this game
cannot be won
by either player. You may have a billion
but each move is as important as the last.
Just being good at chess will not
make you good at life,
but chess could make you a better problem solver
. Sometimes you
, and sometimes you have to
things in order to gain things
in order to achieve
future objectives. But this does not mean that you
are less effective or more in danger. It's just that your
options have changed. Chess is also a horrible reminder of how
cruel people, society and governments can be. Forcing people
to always have to
be on the defensive
, and forcing them to react
to life, instead of living life. This gives people very little chance to make progress,
unless people can see that their ability to defend themselves will
eventually end in a draw
, which will prove that even if people
get themselves into a mess of trouble, they still have options,
so don't give up, because if you do give up, then you will
eventually have no options, and you will eventually lose, as
have done in the past. So chess is
but life is not a chess game.
What makes a good chess player?
Someone who can see the farthest into the future and
what events could happen, and then apply a particular action, or
chess move, based on that information and knowledge, while at the
same time, correctly adapt to changes as they happen, and have
the ability to recalculate
what events could happen based on
those changes. So can
be used as a learning tool for problem solving? Of
course it can. The more you can see into the future, the better
will be in making a good decision
, and on top of that,
it also makes you more aware
that things could change at
anytime, so you have to be ready to change the path that you're on.
And chess is not the only
game that can teach you problem solving
. We can even
teach artificial intelligence to play games
, which will make us even
better players, on the board and off the board.
Club and Scholastic Center of Saint Louis
History of Chess
can be traced back nearly 1500 years. Chess
originated in India, where it was called Chaturanga, which appears to have
been invented in the 6th century AD.
Chess Hall of Fame
(Sven Magnus Øen Carlsen) is a Norwegian chess
grandmaster and the current World Chess Champion. A chess prodigy, Carlsen
earned his grandmaster title in 2004, at the age of 13 years and 148 days.
Born: November 30, 1990, Tønsberg, Norway.
is a Hungarian chess teacher and educational psychologist. He is the
father of the famous "Polgár sisters": Zsuzsa, Zsófia, and Judit, whom he
raised to be chess prodigies, with two of them becoming the best and
second best women chess players in the world.
shape and its side being divided into
parts, resulting in a total of
subdivisions. In other variants, the total number of
subdivisions may range from nine to one hundred and twelve. Each
subdivision of the board is called a square
and receives a unique
identification to be used in chess notation, which may be descriptive,
algebraic, or numeric. In two-dimensional boards, each horizontal
rectilinear array of squares is called a rank, each vertical rectilinear
array of squares is called a file, and each line of squares of the same colour touching corner to corner is called a
Algebraic Notation in chess
is a method for recording and describing
the moves in a game of chess. It is based on a
system of coordinates
uniquely identify each square on the chessboard. Algebraic notation exists
in various forms and languages
and is based
on a system developed by Philipp Stamma. Stamma used the modern names of
the squares, but he used p for pawn moves and the original file of a piece
(a through h) instead of the initial letter of the piece name. This
article describes standard algebraic notation (SAN) required by FIDE.
is a chess move early in the
game in which the player sacrifices
in order to obtain an advantageous position. A
or maneuver intended to gain an
. An opening
remark intended to secure an advantage for the speaker.
"The one who can see the farthest
into the future
and make the
change, will always win, or at the least, survive the longest."
is about foresight
. It's about anticipating your
opponent's moves and devising counter measures. It's plotting one step
ahead of the opposition. And playing your trump card just after the
opponent play theirs. It's about making sure you surprise them. And they
don't surprise you."
In order to be a really good chess player you need to
several moves ahead
, which is one of the key factors when
solving problems. You need to see into the future goal, you need
to see all the steps involved, you need to see the
that you may have, you need to know your options if
things change. But just because you're good at chess does not
mean that you're good at solving problems. You need to learn
"If a computer can play chess, then a
computer can use chess pieces as symbols to represent all kinds
of different information."
is a relatively new form of chess, wherein each human
player uses a computer chess program to help him explore the possible
results of candidate moves. The human players, despite this
, are still fully in
control of what moves their "team" (of one human and one computer) makes.
is a two-player strategy
played on a chessboard, a checkered gameboard with 64 squares
arranged in an 8×8 grid. Chess is believed to have originated in India
sometime before the 7th century. Play does not involve hidden information.
Each player begins with 16 pieces: one king, one queen, two rooks, two
knights, two bishops, and eight pawns. Each of the six piece types moves
differently, with the most powerful being the queen and the least powerful
the pawn. The objective is to checkmate the opponent's king by placing it
under an inescapable threat of capture. To this end, a player's pieces are
used to attack and capture the opponent's pieces, while supporting each
other. During the game, play typically involves making exchanges of one
piece for an opponent's similar piece, but also finding and engineering
opportunities to trade one piece for two, or to get a better position. In
addition to checkmate, the game can be won by voluntary resignation, and
there are also several ways a game can end in a draw.
is any chess variant that uses
multiple boards representing
, allowing the chess pieces to move in three physical
dimensions. In practical play, this is usually achieved by boards
representing different layers being laid out next to each other. 3D chess
is used colloquially to describe complex, dynamic systems with many
competing entities and interests, including politics, diplomacy and
warfare. To describe an individual as "playing three-dimensional chess"
implies a higher-order understanding and mastery of the system beyond the
comprehension of their peers or ordinary observers.
Game of Skill
is a game where the outcome is determined mainly by
mental or physical skill
rather than by chance
is a game of
where the competition is based on a particular type of the
as opposed to
is a game in which the players' uncoerced
, and often
autonomous decision-making skills
have a high
significance in determining the outcome. Almost all strategy games require
internal decision tree style thinking, and typically very high
is a game where one player
chooses their action
the others choose theirs. Importantly, the later players must have some
information of the first's choice
otherwise the difference in time would have no strategic effect.
Sequential games hence are governed by the time axis, and represented in
the form of decision trees.
consists of two adjacent clocks with buttons to stop one clock
while starting the other, so that the two clocks never run simultaneously.
Chess clocks are used in chess and other two-player games where the
players move in turn. The purpose is to keep track of the total time each
player takes for his or her own moves, and ensure that neither player
overly delays the game.
title regulated by a chess governing body and bestowed upon players based
on their performance and rank. Such titles are usually granted for life.
The international chess governing body FIDE grants several titles, the
most prestigious of which is
; many national chess federations also grant titles such as
"National Master". More broadly, the term "master" can refer to any highly
skilled chess player.
Subgame Perfect Equilibrium
is a refinement of a Nash equilibrium used
in dynamic games. A strategy profile is a subgame perfect equilibrium if
it represents a Nash equilibrium of every subgame of the original game.
Informally, this means that if the players played any smaller game that
consisted of only one part of the larger game, their behavior would
represent a Nash equilibrium of that smaller game. Every finite extensive
game has a subgame perfect equilibrium. A common method for determining
subgame perfect equilibria in the case of a finite game is backward
induction. Here one first considers the last actions of the game and
determines which actions the final mover should take in each possible
circumstance to maximize his/her utility. One then supposes that the last
actor will do these actions, and considers the second to last actions,
again choosing those that maximize that actor's utility. This process
continues until one reaches the first move of the game. The strategies
which remain are the set of all subgame perfect equilibria for
finite-horizon extensive games of perfect information. However, backward
induction cannot be applied to games of imperfect or incomplete
information because this entails cutting through non-singleton information
sets. A subgame perfect equilibrium necessarily satisfies the One-Shot
deviation principle. The set of subgame perfect equilibria for a given
game is always a subset of the set of Nash equilibria for that game. In
some cases the sets can be identical. The Ultimatum game provides an
intuitive example of a game with fewer subgame perfect equilibria than
is a solution concept of a non-cooperative game
involving two or more players in which each player is assumed to know the
equilibrium strategies of the other players, and no player has anything to
gain by changing only their own strategy. If each player has chosen a
strategy and no player can benefit by changing strategies while the other
players keep theirs unchanged, then the current set of strategy choices
and the corresponding payoffs constitutes a Nash equilibrium. The Nash
equilibrium is one of the foundational concepts in game theory. The
reality of the Nash equilibrium of a game can be tested using experimental
is a specification of a game in game theory,
allowing (as the name suggests) for the explicit representation of a
number of key aspects, like the sequencing of players' possible moves,
their choices at every decision point, the (possibly imperfect)
information each player has about the other player's moves when they make
a decision, and their payoffs for all possible game outcomes.
Extensive-form games also allow for the representation of incomplete
information in the form of chance events modeled as "moves by nature".
is the study of mathematical models of strategic
between rational decision-makers
. It has applications in all
fields of social science, as well as in logic and computer science.
Originally, it addressed zero-sum games, in which
one person's gains
result in losses for the other participants
. Today, game theory applies to
a wide range of behavioral relations, and is now an umbrella term for the
science of logical decision making
in humans, animals, and computers.
Modern game theory began with the idea regarding the existence of
mixed-strategy equilibria in two-person zero-sum games and its proof by
John von Neumann. Winning and
- Self Interest
is a mathematical representation of a situation in which
each participant's gain or loss of utility is exactly balanced by the
losses or gains of the utility of the other participants
. If the total
gains of the participants are added up and the total losses are
subtracted, they will sum to zero. Thus, cutting a cake, where taking a
larger piece reduces the amount of cake available for others, is a
zero-sum game if all participants value each unit of cake equally (see
marginal utility). In contrast, non-zero-sum describes a situation in
which the interacting parties' aggregate gains and losses can be less than
or more than zero. A zero-sum game is also called a strictly
competitive game while non-zero-sum games can be either competitive or
non-competitive. Zero-sum games are most often solved with the minimax
theorem which is closely related to linear programming duality, or with
Game of Chance
is a game whose outcome is strongly influenced by some
randomizing device, and upon which contestants may choose to wager money
or anything of monetary value. Common devices used include dice, spinning
tops, playing cards, roulette wheels, or numbered balls drawn from a
container. A game of chance may have some skill element to it, however,
chance generally plays a greater role in determining the outcome than
skill. A game of skill, on the other hand, also may have elements of
chance, but with skill playing a greater role in determining the outcome.
are methods invoked by agents designed for interaction
with the game state, thus providing
. All games use
mechanics; however, there are different theories as to their ultimate
importance to the game. In general, the process and study of game design
are efforts to come up with game mechanics that allow for people playing a
game to have an engaging, but not necessarily fun, experience. The
interaction of various game mechanics in a game determines the complexity
and level of player interaction in the game, and in conjunction with the
game's environment and resources determine game balance. Some forms of
game mechanics have been used in games for centuries, while others are
relatively new, having been invented within the past decade. Complexity in
game mechanics should not be confused with depth or even realism. Go is
perhaps one of the simplest of all games, yet exhibits an extraordinary
depth of play. Most computer or video games feature mechanics that are
technically complex (in terms of making a human do all the calculations
involved) even in relatively simple designs. In general, commercial video
games have gone from simple designs (such as Space Invaders and Asteroids)
to extremely complex ones (such as Gran Turismo 5 and Crysis 2) as
processing power has increased. In contrast, casual games have generally
featured a return to simple, puzzle-like designs, though some are getting
more complex. In physical games, differences generally come down to style,
and are somewhat determined by intended market.
Simultaneous Action Selection
is a game mechanic that occurs when
players of a game take action (such as moving their pieces) at the same
time. Examples of games that use this type of movement include
rock–paper–scissors and Diplomacy. Typically, a "secret yet binding"
method of committing to one's move is necessary, so that as players' moves
are revealed and implemented, others do not change their moves in light of
the new information. Thus, in Diplomacy, players write down their moves
and then reveal them simultaneously. Because no player gets the first
move, this potentially arbitrary source of advantage is not present. It is
also possible for simultaneous movement games to proceed relatively
quickly, because players are acting at the same time, rather than waiting
for their turn. Simultaneous
action selection is easily implemented in
card games such as Apples to Apples in which players simply select cards
and throw them face-down into the center. Some games do not lend
themselves to simultaneous movement, because one player's move may be
prevented by the other player's. For instance, in chess, a move of a
bishop takes queen would be incompatible with a simultaneous opposing move
of queen takes bishop. By contrast, the simultaneous movement is possible
in Junta because each coup phase has a movement stage and a separate
combat stage; no units are removed until all have had a chance to move. It
has been noted that "a certain amount of reverse psychology and
reverse-reverse psychology ensues" as players attempt to calculate the
implications of others' potential actions. Junta also has simultaneous
action selection in that players secretly choose their locations at the
same time. This is important in that, for instance, a player plotting an
assassination may choose the bank for his or her own location (hoping to
quickly deposit the ill-gotten gains) before finding out whether the
location of his or her assassination was on the mark. Simultaneous action
selection is used in many real-world applications such as first-price
sealed-bid auctions. The fact that no bidder knows what others are
planning to bid may provide an incentive to bid high if there is a strong
desire to win the auction, which can result in much higher winning bids
than if better information were available. The prisoner's dilemma is
another classic example of simultaneous action selection. SAS can also be
used to introduce an element of chance, as when rock-paper-scissors is
used to decide a matter.
is a game where each player chooses his action
without knowledge of the actions chosen by other players. Simultaneous
games contrast with sequential games, which are played by the players
taking turns (moves alternate between players). Normal form
representations are usually used for simultaneous games.
People make the mistake sometimes
of zooming in to much on
problems that they can't see the whole picture
. They seem to
focus to much on unique details. When you're zoomed in to far
all you can see is a small part of a much larger issue. You need
to zoom out and backup far enough to see the whole picture from
the beginning and be able to see all the way to a possible
outcome. Being able to see a single pixel can be useful
sometimes, but just seeing things close is like putting on
blinders, which makes it impossible to understand what you're
really looking at. So you need to zoom out to see all the pixels
that create a picture. This way you can begin to understand what
you're truly looking at. You have to see all the levels, all the
time frames, and all the different angles. As you
zoom out more you will notice that the more you see the more
your questions will change at each level of focus. So if you
never zoom out enough you will never know if you're asking all
the right questions.
"Remember, just solving one problem does
not solve all your problems. You have to see the whole picture
in order to understand it correctly and collectively, meaning,
people acting together as well as seeing the world as a
collective, a whole, but made up of different elements."
"Don't worry, we'll figure it out, we can figure out almost anything."
When solving problems sometimes you have
to stop, step back and take some time to think. Think about the
problem and study it carefully. Think about all the different ways that you can go
about solving this problem. You don't want to bang your head against the
wall and try to solve problems to quickly because you may end up
wasting time, or make it worse, or not totally fix the problem,
because quick fixes never last. Plus, when you're feeling
stressed or when you're struggling to solve a problem, your
thinking becomes less clear and you become less focused. So walk
around or lay down, you will be amazed on how much you can
learn when you're
Did you know that you can learn things and use that knowledge to
solve problems. Humans have been doing this since the beginning. But
not many people truly understand what
in order to effectively use learning to increase their
potential. If every school and university in the world taught students how
to learn, and what to learn, then every problem in the world would be
Every problem can be solved, but that's easier said then done. There are
several skills to acquire and many things that you have to learn in order
to be a good problem solver. There are skills and knowledge that
will make you good at asking the right questions at the right time.
But just knowing that every problem can be solved is not going to
benefit you. You have to learn how to solve problems. I can say
internet is the greatest tool in the world,
but if you
don't know how to use the Internet effectively, then the internet
is not the greatest tool in the world
. So that is a problem in
itself, but this is a problem that we can solve.
Just knowing that there are answers to every question that you
have is not going to help you. You have to know what questions
to ask and when to ask those questions. And that is a skill you
need to learn. So here we go...
Whip It - Devo
When a problem comes along
Before the cream sits out too long
You must whip it
something's going wrong
You must whip it
Now whip it
Shape it up
Try to detect
It's not too late
To whip it
Whip it good
When a good time
You must whip it
You will never live it down
you whip it
No one gets away
Until they whip it.
"No problem can withstand the assault of sustained thinking." -
(1694 - 1778).