Permaculture - Forest Garden

Forest Gardening is a low maintenance sustainable plant-based food production and agroforestry system based on woodland ecosystems, incorporating fruit and nut trees, shrubs, herbs, vines and perennial vegetables which have yields directly useful to humans. Making use of companion planting, these can be intermixed to grow in a succession of layers, to build a woodland habitat. Permaculture is a system of agricultural and social design principles centered on simulating or directly utilizing the patterns and features observed in natural ecosystems. Biology.

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Forest Garden with 1 Acre can Feed 5-10 People, only take 1 Day a Week Harvesting, and only 10 Days a Year Maintaining.

Forest GardenForest Gardening is a low-maintenance sustainable plant-based food production and agroforestry system based on woodland ecosystems, incorporating fruit and nut trees, shrubs, herbs, vines and perennial vegetables which have yields directly useful to humans. Making use of companion planting, these can be intermixed to grow in a succession of layers, to build a woodland habitat.

Edible Forest Gardens - Plants for a Future

The Most Abundant Tropical Food Forest Tour Yet! (youtube)

Canopy in biology is the aboveground portion of a plant community or crop, formed by the collection of individual plant crowns. In forest ecology, canopy also refers to the upper layer or habitat zone, formed by mature tree crowns and including other biological organisms (epiphytes, lianas, arboreal animals, etc.). Sometimes the term canopy is used to refer to the extent of the outer layer of leaves of an individual tree or group of trees. Shade trees normally have a dense canopy that blocks light from lower growing plants. Canopy structure is the organization or spatial arrangement (three-dimensional geometry) of a plant canopy. Leaf Area Index (LAI), leaf area per unit ground area, is a key measure used to understand and compare plant canopies. It is also taller than the understory layer. Canopy.

Layering has evolved as a common means of vegetative propagation of numerous species in natural environments. Layering is also utilized by horticulturists to propagate desirable plants. Natural layering typically occurs when a branch touches the ground, whereupon it produces adventitious roots. At a later stage the connection with the parent plant is severed and a new plant is produced as a result. The horticultural layering process typically involves wounding the target region to expose the inner stem and optionally applying rooting compounds. In ground layering or simple layering, the stem is bent down and the target region buried in the soil. This is done in plant nurseries in imitation of natural layering by many plants such as brambles which bow over and touch the tip on the ground, at which point it grows roots and, when separated, can continue as a separate plant. In either case, the rooting process may take from several weeks to a year. Layering is more complicated than taking cuttings, but has the advantage that the propagated portion continues to receive water and nutrients from the parent plant while it is forming roots. This is important for plants that form roots slowly, or for propagating large pieces. Layering is used quite frequently in the propagation of bonsai; it is also used as a technique for both creating new roots and improving existing roots.

Stratification refers to the vertical layering of a habitat; the arrangement of vegetation in layers. It classifies the layers (sing. stratum, pl. strata) of vegetation largely according to the different heights to which their plants grow. The individual layers are inhabited by different animal and plant communities (stratozones). (Shrub Layer - Sub-Tree Layer - Tree Layer - Canopy Layer.
Natural World: Farm for the Future).

Pruning - Grafting

Trees and Shrubs offer new Food Crops to Diversify the Farm. A landscape should provide a variety of nutritious foods, high-quality habitat, and ecosystem services, while also delivering a healthy profit to the landowner.

Sustainable Farming - Sustainable Landscaping - Vertical Farming

Syntropic Farming is an intensive form of agroforestry that imitates market gardening and slash and mulch agroforestry, in order to provide yields at all stages of succession, generate its own fertility, and with the end goal of creating a productive forest that imitates the structure and function of the native forests.

Forest Farming is the cultivation of high-value specialty crops under a forest canopy that is intentionally modified or maintained to provide shade levels and habitat that favor growth and enhance production levels. Forest farming encompasses a range of cultivated systems from introducing plants into the understory of a timber stand to modifying forest stands to enhance the marketability and sustainable production of existing plants.

Forest Management

Forest Management is a branch of forestry concerned with overall administrative, legal, economic, and social aspects, as well as scientific and technical aspects, such as silviculture, protection, and forest regulation. This includes management for aesthetics, fish, recreation, urban values, water, wilderness, wildlife, wood products, forest genetic resources, and other forest resource values. Management can be based on conservation, economics, or a mixture of the two. Techniques include timber extraction, planting and replanting of different species, cutting roads and pathways through forests, and preventing fire.

Forestry is the science and craft of creating, managing, using, conserving, and repairing forests and associated resources to meet desired goals, needs, and values for human and environment benefits

Agroforestry is a land use management system in which trees or shrubs are grown around or among crops or pastureland. This intentional combination of agriculture and forestry has varied benefits, including increased biodiversity and reduced erosion. Agroforestry practices have been successful in sub-Saharan Africa and in parts of the United States. Agroforestry shares principles with intercropping. Both may place two or more plant species (such as nitrogen-fixing plants) in close proximity.

Sustainable Forest Management is the management of forests according to the principles of sustainable development. Sustainable forest management has to keep the balance between three main pillars: ecological, economic and socio-cultural. Successfully achieving sustainable forest management will provide integrated benefits to all, ranging from safeguarding local livelihoods to protecting the biodiversity and ecosystems provided by forests, reducing rural poverty and mitigating some of the effects of climate change.

Forest Informatics is the combined science of Forestry and informatics, with a special emphasis on collection, management, and processing of data, information and knowledge, and the incorporation of informatic concepts and theories specific to enrich forest management and forest science; it has a similar relationship to library science and information science. Dendrochronology is the scientific method of dating tree rings (also called growth rings) to the exact year they were formed. As well as dating them this can give data for dendroclimatology, the study of climate and atmospheric conditions during different periods in history from wood.

Forest Inventory is the systematic collection of data and forest information for assessment or analysis. An estimate of the value and possible uses of timber is an important part of the broader information required to sustain ecosystems. When taking forest inventory the following are important things to measure and note: species, diameter at breast height (DBH), height, site quality, age, and defects. From the data collected one can calculate the number of trees per acre, the basal area, the volume of trees in an area, and the value of the timber.

Coppicing an area of woodland in which the trees or shrubs are, or formerly were, periodically cut back to ground level to stimulate growth and provide firewood or timber. Coppicing is a traditional method of woodland management which exploits the capacity of many species of trees to put out new shoots from their stump or roots if cut down. In a coppiced wood, which is called a copse, young tree stems are repeatedly cut down to near ground level, known as a stool. New growth emerges and after a number of years, the coppiced tree is harvested and the cycle begins anew. Pollarding is a similar process carried out at a higher level on the tree in order to prevent grazing animals from eating new shoots. Daisugi (台杉, where sugi refers to Japanese cedar), is a similar Japanese technique. Many silviculture practices involve cutting and regrowth; coppicing has been of significance in many parts of lowland temperate Europe. The widespread and long-term practice of coppicing as a landscape-scale industry is something that remains of special importance in southern England. Many of the English language terms referenced in this article are particularly relevant to historic and contemporary practice in that area. Typically a coppiced woodland is harvested in sections or coups on a rotation. In this way, a crop is available each year somewhere in the woodland. Coppicing has the effect of providing a rich variety of habitats, as the woodland always has a range of different-aged coppice growing in it, which is beneficial for biodiversity. The cycle length depends upon the species cut, the local custom, and the use of the product. Birch can be coppiced for faggots on a three- or four-year cycle, whereas oak can be coppiced over a fifty-year cycle for poles or firewood. Coppicing maintains trees at a juvenile stage, and most coppiced tree will not ever die of old age; some coppice stools may therefore reach immense ages. The age of a stool may be estimated from its diameter, and some are so large—perhaps as much as 5.4 metres (18 ft) across—that they are thought to have been continually coppiced for centuries.

Keyline Design is a landscaping technique of maximizing the beneficial use of the water resources of a tract of land. The "keyline" denominates a specific topographic feature related to the natural flow of water on the tract. Keyline design is a system of principles and techniques of developing rural and urban landscapes to optimize use of their water resources.

Forest Ecology is the scientific study of the interrelated patterns, processes, flora, fauna and ecosystems in forests. The management of forests is known as forestry, silviculture, and forest management. A forest ecosystem is a natural woodland unit consisting of all plants, animals and micro-organisms (Biotic components) in that area functioning together with all of the non-living physical (abiotic) factors of the environment. The forest ecosystem is very important.

Silviculture is the practice of controlling the establishment, growth, composition, health, and quality of forests to meet diverse needs and values. Alley Cropping.

Silvopasture or wood pasture, now also known as agroforestry, is the practice of combining woodland trees and the grazing of domesticated animals in a mutually beneficial way. Advantages of a properly managed silvopasture operation are enhanced soil protection and increased long-term income due to the simultaneous production of trees and grazing animals. The trees are managed for high-value sawlogs, brushwood, foliage, fodder and, at the same time, provide shade and shelter for livestock and some forage, reducing stress and sometimes increasing forage production. Silvopasture is Latin, silva forest.

Silvopastoral Systems are agroforestry arrangements that purposely combine fodder plants, such as grasses and leguminous herbs, with shrubs and trees for animal nutrition and complementary uses.

Silvology is the biological science of studying forests and woods, incorporating the understanding of natural forest ecosystems, and the effects and development of silvicultural practices. The term compliments silviculture, which deals with the art and practice of forest management. Horticulture is the culture of plants. Arboriculture is the management of individual trees. Dendrology is the study of woody plants, a branch of botany. Forestry is the management of forests and woods.

Forest Ecology is the scientific study of the interrelated patterns, processes, flora, fauna and ecosystems in forests. The management of forests is known as forestry, silviculture, and forest management. A forest ecosystem is a natural woodland unit consisting of all plants, animals and micro-organisms (Biotic components) in that area functioning together with all of the non-living physical (abiotic) factors of the environment. The forest ecosystem is very important.

Perennial Agriculture is the cultivation of crop species that live longer than two years without the need for replanting each year. Perennial crops used in perennial agriculture are grown worldwide in various climates and are adapted to local environmental stressors. City Farming.

Oak Savanna is a type of savanna-or lightly forested grassland- where oaks (Quercus spp.) are the dominant trees, the term oakery or woodlands is also used commonly, though the former is more prevalent when referencing the Mediterranean area. These savannas were maintained historically through wildfires set by lightning, humans, grazing, low precipitation, and/or poor soil. Although there are pockets of oak savanna almost anywhere in North America where oaks are present, there are three major oak savanna areas: 1) California, British Columbia, Washington and Oregon in the west; 2) Southwestern United States and Mexico; and 3) the prairie/forest border of the Midwest. There are also small areas of oak savannas in other parts of the world. (See also Eastern savannas of the United States for information on pine savannas of the U.S. South.) The savanna biome is a type of grassland biome that consists of areas of open grassland with very few trees. There are two kinds of savannas: tropical and semi-tropical savannas.

Autecology is an approach in ecology that seeks to explain the distribution and abundance of species by studying interactions of individual organisms with their environments.

Climax Community is a biological community of plants, animals, and fungi which, through the process of ecological succession in the development of vegetation in an area over time, have reached a steady state. This equilibrium was thought to occur because the climax community is composed of species best adapted to average conditions in that area. The term is sometimes also applied in soil development. Nevertheless, it has been found that a "steady state" is more apparent than real, particularly if long-enough periods of time are taken into consideration. Notwithstanding, it remains a useful concept.

Films about Forest Gardening and Permaculture

Martin Crawford's 3 Dimensional Forest Garden (youtube 13 mins.)
300 Year Old Food Forest (youtube)
Forest Gardening Explained - Low Maintenance (youtube) 
"Permaculture Trio" -- Forest Gardening, Edible Landscapes & Urban Permaculture with Robert Hart (youtube)
Shubhendu Sharma: How to Grow a Tiny Forest Anywhere (video)
Satoyama I Japans Secret Water Garden (youtube) - Satoyama (wiki)
A Permaculture Food Forest (youtube)
Permaculture Principles at Work (youtube)
Permaculture - A Quiet Revolution (video)
How to grow a forest in your backyard: Shubhendu Sharma (video and interactive text)

Turning 90 Acres of Waste Land into a Food Forest with a Bank of Traditional Seeds (youtube)

Swaleny is a edible forest garden on a floating platform barge that is 110-foot by 30-foot.  An Acre is 43,560 square feet.

Creating a Forest Garden: Working with Nature to Grow Edible Crops (Book on Amazon by Martin Crawford).

Homestead Paradise: got barren land, boosted it at a profit (youtube) - In the early 90s, Mark and Jen Shepard bought a degraded corn farm in Viola, Wisconsin, and began to slowly convert it from row-crops back to a native oak savanna that would become one of the most productive perennial farms in the country. Over the past nearly three decades, Mark has planted an estimated 250,000 trees on the 106-acre farm. The main agroforestry crops are chestnuts, hazelnuts, and apples, followed by walnut, hickory, cherry, and pine (for the nuts). For short-term income, the couple planted annual crops, like grains and asparagus, in alleys between the fruit-and-nut-bearing trees. Cattle, pigs, lambs, turkeys, and chickens act as pest control and free composters as they roam the savannas of the farm. STUN stands for Sheer Total Utter Neglect. Restoring Agriculture - New Forest Farm.


Forset Garden Layout Map Permaculture is a system of agricultural and social design principles centered on simulating or directly utilizing the patterns and features observed in natural ecosystems. Permaculture was developed, and the term coined by Bill Mollison and David Holmgren in 1978. It has many branches that include but are not limited to ecological design, ecological engineering, environmental design, construction and integrated water resources management that develops sustainable architecture, and regenerative and self-maintained habitat and agricultural systems modeled from natural ecosystems.

Permaculture - Perma-Culture Design

Polyculture is agriculture using multiple crops in the same space, in imitation of the diversity of natural ecosystems. Monoculture.

Common Circle - Earth Flow - Permaculture Video

Seattle Builds Nations First Food Forest - Home Biome

Seeds of Permaculture - Permaculture Education Cente

Composting - Cropping

Edible Landscapes - Foraging Wild Foods

Moringa Oleifera young seed pods and leaves are used as vegetables. It can also be used for water purification and hand washing, and is sometimes used in herbal medicine. It is a fast-growing, drought-resistant tree, native to the southern foothills of the Himalayas in northwestern India. Moringa - Miracle Trees.

Fruit Tree is a tree which bears fruit that is consumed or used by humans and some animals — all trees that are flowering plants produce fruit, which are the ripened ovaries of flowers containing one or more seeds. In horticultural usage, the term 'fruit tree' is limited to those that provide fruit for human food. Types of fruits are described and defined elsewhere (see Fruit), but would include "fruit" in a culinary sense, as well as some nut-bearing trees, such as walnuts.

Fruit Tree Planting - Tree Values

Edible Plants List (wiki) - Soil Testing - Botany (plants)

Occidental Art & Ecology - The Land Institute

Urban Forestry is the care and management of single trees and tree populations in urban settings for the purpose of improving the urban environment. Urban forestry advocates the role of trees as a critical part of the urban infrastructure. Urban foresters plant and maintain trees, support appropriate tree and forest preservation, conduct research and promote the many benefits trees provide. Urban forestry is practiced by municipal and commercial arborists, municipal and utility foresters, environmental policymakers, city planners, consultants, educators, researchers and community activists.


Plant Nursery is a place where plants are propagated and grown to usable size. They include retail nurseries which sell to the general public, wholesale nurseries which sell only to businesses such as other nurseries and to commercial gardeners, and private nurseries which supply the needs of institutions or private estates. Some retail and wholesale nurseries sell by mail. Nurseries may supply plants for gardens, for agriculture, for forestry and for conservation biology. Some nurseries specialize in one phase of the process: propagation, growing out, or retail sale; or in one type of plant: e.g., groundcovers, shade plants, or rock garden plants. Some produce bulk stock, whether seedlings or grafted, of particular varieties for purposes such as fruit trees for orchards, or timber trees for forestry. Some produce stock seasonally, ready in springtime for export to colder regions where propagation could not have been started so early, or to regions where seasonal pests prevent profitable growing early in the season.

Start a Plant Nursery Business
Start a Plant Nursery
Nursery Business
How to Start a Profitable Backyard Plant Nursery
Forest Farm
Walnut Tree Nursery (youtube)

Sawmill is a facility where logs are cut into lumber. Prior to the invention of the sawmill, boards were rived (split) and planed, or more often sawn by two men with a whipsaw, one above and another in a saw pit below.

Forest Protection - Trees

Gristmill grinds grain into flour. The term can refer to both the grinding mechanism and the building that holds it. (Sorghum Mill).

Farmers Markets

Land and Water Management

Danny Woo International District Community Garden Seattle, Wash.
Emergent Layer (tropical rainforest)
Ornamental Food Scapes

RuBisCO is an enzyme involved in the first major step of carbon fixation, a process by which atmospheric carbon dioxide is converted by plants and other photosynthetic organisms to energy-rich molecules such as glucose. In chemical terms, it catalyzes the carboxylation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (also known as RuBP). It is probably the most abundant enzyme on Earth.

Architecture of the photosynthetic oxygen-evolving center
Photosynthetic Vesicle Architecture and Constraints on Efficient Energy Harvesting

Temperate Agroforestry Research: considering multifunctional woody polycultures and the design of long-term field trials.

Agronomy Day is a collaborative field day hosted by the Department of Crop Sciences in partnership with several academic units in the College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences (ACES). From nitrogen management to drone demonstrations Agronomy Day shares cutting-edge research with practical implications for your farm or business. CEU and CCA credits are available during tour stops.

Edible Landscapes - Growing Food instead of Non-Edible Plants

Edible Lawns - Edible Landscaping - Edible Landscapes London

From Lawns to Edible Landscapes (youtube)

Pam Warhurst Edible Landscapes (video)

Seeds - Grass - Plant Maintenance

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