A Pile of different CoinsMoney is something that can be used as an official medium of payment or trade, which includes digital currency. Money is the most common medium of exchange that functions as legal tender in a particular area. Money is the official currency issued by a government or national bank.

Medium is a way or an instrument for storing or communicating information.

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Money does not determine the worth, or the cost or the value of something, money only determines the price of something. If you want to accurately measure true value and the actual cost of something, then you need to do some math and some research in order to fully understand the facts as well as all the cause and effects of a particular transaction. Money is a symbol of valuable work that was performed. But some people don't earn money, they just believe they deserve money and wealth. If debt or profit is not an accurate measurement of reality, then almost everyone is living in a world of make believe. Knowledge is the New Money. But when knowledge is not available to everyone, then having no money is the least of your problems. Brains equals gains, and No Brains = No Gains. And having fraudulent gains with no brains is what you see now.

Greed - Corporate Corruption - Money Corruption - Political Corruption - Wall Street Corruption - Bank Corruption - Evictions - Loan Fraud - Monopolies - Rackets - Off shore Accounts - Hoarding - Wealth Drain - Taxes - Debt - Income - Basic Income - Living Wage - Occupy

Money is Power and a privilege, but money is not a reason to do something. Too many people only do something because they have the money to do it. When you give people power without giving them the instructions and the skills, and without explaining the responsibilities of having this power, then people will make mistakes. The problems that society is suffering from are exactly the same problems that people have had for the last 300 years. If schools never teach how to effectively and efficiently handle the power of money, then people will continue to make the same mistakes over and over again. Money is not the problem, the problem is the ignorant mind. Money affects almost every aspect of society, but sadly 99% of the people in the world don't have the necessary knowledge and information in order to fully understand how and why money is created, or who is responsible for the printing of money? Or who is responsible for the distribution of money? Why do you work? Why do you say "I have to pay my bills", which has nothing to do with reality. How much did you take from earth? How much resources, food, water did you use? How much pollution did you cause? How much did you take from other people? How much time and energy did you use? Now calculate all that, and now measure how much you need to give back in order for the cycle of life to continue. Now that is your actual bill. And if you don't pay that bill, people die, like they are now. Money does not transfer your responsibilities. It's not just how you make your money, it's also how you spend your money. Now, Get a Job!

Education needs to improve because when there's not enough money, people die. And when there's too much money, people die.

Money Alternatives - Local Currencies - Financial Aid - Guaranteed Income - Worker Coop's - Frugal - Budget - Money Management - Financial Advice - Films about Money - Occupy

Money is a technological tool created by humans to make trading easier. But people did not realize all the responsibilities that came with this tool. Every school in the world, and every media outlet on the planet, needs to communicate the knowledge and information that people need in order to use this money effectively and efficiently as possible, so as to avoid manipulation, corruption and abuses. Money is not the root of all evil, it's the lack of knowledge and information that is the root of all evil. So if we do not improve schools and our media outlets, this world will continue to suffer from wars, crimes, corruption and all the other problems that come from people not knowing enough about themselves and the world around them. Education and the Media will need to be upgraded and improved. Housing Scams.

Everyone has the power to make this tool that we call money, because money is not restricted to any one form. Money is a symbol that people can agree on to what this tool can be used for. Money should never be a replacement for the facts, or disconnect people from knowing the actual cost of something. And just possessing this tool should never excuse you from knowing the reality of your actions. This is easier said then done, but needs to be the goal of society, which is to free ourselves from the abuses of money and to liberate ourselves so that we can reach our full potential and live beautiful lives.

Money is a tool, and money should never control your actions, and money should never control how you feel about yourself, or control how you treat other people. "Any creation of man cannot be above man"

Money is great tool that we invented, but when money is in the wrong hands it can become a weapon of control and abuse. Money has a strange power that can easily corrupt the mind of any person who is not knowledgeable enough to control moneys addictive and manipulative influence on Human Behavior. Money can make you do things that you will Regret.

Money creates a false sense of security and a false sense of reality. Money blinds a person from realizing other choices and other options. When we use only money as a reason for what we do, that means that we don't have enough knowledge and information. Saying that you don't have enough money to do something, is like saying that you don't have enough knowledge and information. Having the money to do something does not say that what you're doing is good or bad, or right or wrong. It only says that you have the money to do something, which means nothing, and says nothing. If you can't explain your actions and take responsibility for your actions, using money as an excuse is like blaming your imaginary friend for getting you into trouble. Money should never replace learning, or should money be a reason. So can you accurately calculate the value of the action that you are about to take? Money gives you many options and choices, but money does not tell you what the best choices are. Having the ability to fantasize and dream, does not say that the fantasy or the dream is realistic, or does it explain all the pros and cons of that dream, it's only a dream, it's not a well thought out plan based on reality. Stick with the facts, stick with what you know, and keep learning. If you don't have a wealth of knowledge, then having money could easily kill you.

Timeline of America - Films about Money

Why is it that we feel the need to spend the money we earn like a mindless consumers? It's like we are spending our hard earned money just to feel good about ourselves, without justification and without accurately examining our choices or our options. We act like drug addicts looking for a fix. We are so disconnected from reality that we act like bad behaving children, which is another great reason to improve education. The money we earn is supposed to represent our potential energy, money is not supposed to represent our total disregard for life. But here we are.

There is nothing more destructive or insane then to use money to control your decisions. People are committing horrific crimes in the name of money. And most of the people are totally unaware of the destruction they are doing to themselves, or to others, or to the planet. If we can't educate people enough to use their minds, then people will always be controlled by money, and people will never be aware of their choices, or the possibilities. So the problem has never been money, it's always been peoples lack of knowledge, and this lack of knowledge is killing us and causing most of our problems. We have allowed ourselves to be lobotomized by ineffective schools and universities, where the only thing they do well is keeping people unaware of their own insanity. The good news is that we can fix this. But it will take more then just Money.

It takes 2 cents to make a Penny! - Seigniorage is the difference between the value of money and the cost to produce and distribute it.

Money Facts - Knowledge about Money - Money Explained

Money is any item or verifiable record that is generally accepted as payment for goods and services and repayment of debts in a particular country or socio-economic context, or is easily converted to such a form. 97% of Money is Digital.

Electronic Money - Digital Currency

History of Money - Timeline of Money

Government Spending - Banks - Federal Reserve

The use of barter-like methods may date back to at least 100,000 years ago. Representative Money predates the invention of coinage. Coins were developed independently in Iron Age Anatolia and Archaic Greece, India and China around the 7th and 6th centuries BCE. Coins spread rapidly in the 6th and 5th centuries BCE, throughout Greece and Persia, and further to the Balkans.

Paper money
was introduced in Song Dynasty China during the 11th century. The development of the banknote began in the seventh century, with local issues of paper currency. Its roots were in merchant receipts of deposit during the Tang Dynasty (618–907), as merchants and wholesalers desired to avoid the heavy bulk of copper coinage in large commercial transactions.

Legal Tender is a medium of payment recognized by a legal system to be valid for meeting a financial obligation. Paper currency and coins are common forms of legal tender in many countries. "this note is legal tender for all debts, public and private".

Banknote is a type of negotiable instrument known as a promissory note, made by a bank, payable to the bearer on demand.

Federal Reserve Note are the banknotes currently used in the United States of America. Denominated in United States dollars, Federal Reserve Notes are printed by the United States Bureau of Engraving and Printing on paper made by Crane & Co. of Dalton, Massachusetts. (Deposit Note). Federal Reserve.

Bureau of Engraving and Printing produces 38 million notes a day with a face value of approximately $541 million. That doesn't mean there is $541 million more money circulating today than there was yesterday, though, because 95% of the notes printed each year are used to replace notes already in circulation.

Money Creation the process by which the money supply of a country or a monetary region is printed. ($36.8 trillion)

Coin is a small, flat, round piece of metal or plastic used primarily as a medium of exchange or legal tender, depending on the country or value. They are standardized in weight, and produced in large quantities at a mint in order to facilitate trade. They are most often issued by a government. Coins often have images, numerals, or text on them. Obverse and its opposite, reverse, refer to the two flat faces of coins and medals. In this usage, obverse means the front face of the object and reverse means the back face. The obverse of a coin is commonly called heads, because it often depicts the head of a prominent person, and the reverse tails.

Bullion Coin is a coin struck from precious metal and kept as a store of value or an investment rather than used in day-to-day commerce. A bullion coin is distinguished by an explicit statement of weight (or mass) and fineness on the coin; this is because the weight and composition of coins intended for legal tender is specified in the coinage laws of the issuing nation, and therefore there is no need for an explicit statement on the coins themselves.

Currency refers to money in any form when in actual use or circulation as a medium of exchange, especially circulating banknotes and coins. Currency is the metal or paper medium of exchange that is presently used and in circulation. National Currency - Digital Currency.

World Currency refers to a currency that is transacted internationally, with no set borders.

There are 180 current currencies across the world, as recognized by the United Nations. The British pound is the world’s oldest currency that’s still in use, dating back to the 8th century. The newest currency in the world is the South Sudanese pound, made official on July 18, 2011. Officially, the euro is the currency of 19 countries: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Spain. The European microstates of Andorra, Monaco, San Marino, and Vatican City have also adopted the euro, as well as Kosovo and Montenegro as a de facto currency.

There is over 1,565 digital currencies and growing. Bitcoin is currently (April 10, 2018) the largest blockchain network, followed by Ethereum, Ripple, Bitcoin Cash, Litecoin, and EOS.

Every year, more money is printed for the game Monopoly than real money printed around the world. There’s around $974 million printed in real money by the US Bureau of Engraving and Printing, while the makers of Monopoly, Parker Brothers, print an impressive $30 billion every year.

United States Mint produces circulating coinage for the United States to conduct its trade and commerce, as well as controlling the movement of bullion. It does not produce paper money.

Commodity Money is money whose value comes from a commodity of which it is made. Commodity money consists of objects that have value in themselves as well as value in their use as money. Example of commodities that have been used as mediums of exchange include gold, silver, copper, salt, peppercorns, tea, large stones (such as Rai stones), decorated belts, shells, alcohol, cigarettes, cannabis, candy, cocoa beans, cowries and barley. These items were sometimes used in a metric of perceived value in conjunction to one another, in various commodity valuation or price system economies.

Representative Money is any type of money that has face value greater than its value as material substance.

Cash and Cash Equivalents are the most liquid current assets found on a business's balance sheet. Financial Aid.

Token Money is money that has little intrinsic value compared to its face value. Unlike fiat money, which also has little intrinsic value, it is limited legal tender. It does not have free coinage.

Devaluation is a reduction in the value of a currency with respect to those goods, services or other monetary units with which that currency can be exchanged. History of U.S. Dollar (96% devalued) - Modern Money Mechanics (wiki).

Money from Nothing - Fiat

Buttonwood Agreement took place on May 17, 1792, started the New York Stock & Exchange Board now called the New York Stock Exchange. This agreement was signed by 24 stockbrokers outside of 68 Wall Street New York under a buttonwood tree. The organization drafted its constitution on March 8, 1817, and named itself the "New York Stock & Exchange Board". In 1863, this name was shortened to its modern form, the "New York Stock Exchange".

Bretton Woods System monetary management established the rules for commercial and financial relations among the United States, Canada, Western Europe, Australia and Japan in the mid-20th century.

Gold Standard is a monetary system in which the standard economic unit of account is based on a fixed quantity of gold. Three types can be distinguished: specie, bullion, and exchange.

Gold Standard Act of 1900 established gold as the only standard for redeeming paper money, stopping bimetallism (which had allowed silver in exchange for gold).

Glass Steagall Act describes four provisions of the U.S. Banking Act of 1933 that limited securities, activities, and affiliations within commercial banks and securities firms.

Monetization is the process of converting or establishing something into legal tender.

President Richard Nixon in 1971 cancelled the direct international convertibility of the United States dollar to gold. It did not formally abolish the existing Bretton Woods system of international financial exchange, the suspension of one of its key components effectively rendered the Bretton Woods system inoperative. By 1973, the Bretton Woods system was replaced de facto by the current regime based on freely floating fiat currencies.

Convertibility is the quality that allows money or other financial instruments to be converted into other liquid stores of value. Convertibility is an important factor in international trade, where instruments valued in different currencies must be exchanged.

Floating Exchange Rate is a type of exchange rate regime in which a currency's value is allowed to fluctuate in response to foreign exchange market events. A currency that uses a floating exchange rate is known as a floating currency, in contrast to a fixed currency, the value of which is instead specified in terms of material goods, another currency, or a set of currencies (the idea of the last being to reduce currency fluctuations).

Float is duplicate money present in the banking system during the time between a deposit being made in the recipient's account and the money being deducted from the sender's account. It can be used as investable asset, but makes up the smallest part of the money supply. Float affects the amount of currency available to trade and countries can manipulate the worth of their currency by restricting or expanding the amount of float available to trade. Check Kiting.

Fiat Money is a type of currency that is not backed by any commodity such as gold or silver, and typically declared by a decree from the government to be legal tender. A currency established as money by government regulation or law.

Fractional Reserve Banking is the practice whereby a bank accepts deposits, makes loans or investments, and holds reserves that are equivalent to a fraction of its deposit liabilities. Fractional-reserve banking permits the money supply to grow beyond the amount of the underlying reserves of base money originally created by the central bank.

Double-Spending is a potential flaw in a digital cash scheme in which the same single digital token can be spent more than once. Unlike physical cash, a digital token consists of a digital file that can be duplicated or falsified. As with counterfeit money, such double-spending leads to inflation by creating a new amount of copied currency that did not previously exist. This devalues the currency relative to other monetary units or goods and diminishes user trust as well as the circulation and retention of the currency. Fundamental cryptographic techniques to prevent double-spending, while preserving anonymity in a transaction, are blind signatures and, particularly in offline systems, secret splitting.

Debt - Inflation - Accounting

Secret Sharing refers to methods for distributing a secret among a group of participants, each of whom is allocated a share of the secret. The secret can be reconstructed only when a sufficient number, of possibly different types, of shares are combined together; individual shares are of no use on their own. In one type of secret sharing scheme there is one dealer and n players. The dealer gives a share of the secret to the players, but only when specific conditions are fulfilled will the players be able to reconstruct the secret from their shares. The dealer accomplishes this by giving each player a share in such a way that any group of t (for threshold) or more players can together reconstruct the secret but no group of fewer than t players can. Such a system is called a (t, n)-threshold scheme (sometimes it is written as an (n, t)-threshold scheme).

Quantity Theory of Money states that the general price level of goods and services is directly proportional to the amount of money in circulation, or money supply. The theory was challenged by Keynesian economics, but updated and reinvigorated by the monetarist school of economics. While mainstream economists agree that the quantity theory holds true in the long run, there is still disagreement about its applicability in the short run. Critics of the theory argue that money velocity is not stable and, in the short-run, prices are sticky, so the direct relationship between money supply and price level does not hold. Alternative theories include the real bills doctrine and the more recent fiscal theory of the price level.

Real Bills Doctrine asserts that money should be issued in exchange for short-term real bills of adequate value. The doctrine was developed by practical bankers over centuries of experience, as a means for banks to stay solvent and profitable. Banks that follow it avoid inflation, maturity mismatching, and speculative bubbles and unwanted reflux of money.

Fiscal Theory of the Price Level is the idea that government fiscal policy affects the price level: for the price level to be stable (to control inflation), government finances must be sustainable: they must run a balanced budget over the course of the business cycle, meaning they must not run a structural deficit. It is an unorthodox theory, which contrasts with the usual monetary theory of the price level, where the price level is primarily or exclusively determined by supply of money. These two contrasting views of prices may or may not contradict one another. By its proponents, the fiscal theory is seen as complementary to the monetary quantity theory. By its detractors, the fiscal theory is seen as incorrect, and either irrelevant or simply wrong-headed.

Commodity is a marketable item produced to satisfy wants or needs. Often the item is fungible. Economic commodities comprise goods and services.

Commodification is the transformation of goods, services, ideas and not least people into commodities or objects of trade.

North American Monetary Union (Danger Will Robinson, Danger)

Monetary System is the set of institutions by which a government provides money in a country's economy. Modern monetary systems usually consist of mints, central banks and commercial Banks. Occupy.

Monetary Reform describes any movement or theory that proposes a system of supplying money and financing the economy that is different from the current system. Banking Alternatives.

Money Supply - Circulation

Money Supply is the total amount of monetary assets available in an economy at a specific time. ($90.4 trillion)

Circulation as a currency is the total value of currency (coins and paper currency) that has ever been issued minus the amount that has been removed from the economy by the central bank. More broadly, money in circulation is the total money supply of a country, which can be defined in various ways always including currency and also including some types of bank deposits.

Approximately $1.4 trillion worth of Federal Reserve notes in circulation. Only 3% paper money in Circulation, the rest is digital.

World Money in Circulation in 2017 is around 5 Trillion US Dollars. But over 160 countries are not calculated. The CIA says the total amount is $80 Trillion if you include "broad money." which is a measure of the money supply that includes more than just physical money such as currency and coins (also known as narrow money). It generally includes demand deposits at commercial banks, and any monies held in easily accessible accounts. As for money owed by every single person and country in the world, the grand total is $199 Trillion. Owed? Criminals stole trillions of dollars and the people have to pay it back?

Monetary Policy is the policy adopted by the monetary authority of a country that controls either the interest rate payable on very short-term borrowing or the money supply, often targeting inflation or the interest rate to ensure price stability and general trust in the currency. Unlike fiscal policy which relies on government to spend its way out of recessions, monetary policy aims to manipulate the money supply, i.e. 'printing' more money or decreasing the money supply by changing interest rates or removing excess reserves. Further goals of a monetary policy are usually to contribute to the stability of gross domestic product, to achieve and maintain low unemployment, and to maintain predictable exchange rates with other currencies. Monetary economics provides insight into how to craft an optimal monetary policy. In developed countries, monetary policy has been generally formed separately from fiscal policy, which refers to taxation, government spending, and associated borrowing. Monetary policy is referred to as being either expansionary or contractionary. Expansionary policy occurs when a monetary authority uses its tools to stimulate the economy. An expansionary policy maintains short-term interest rates at a lower than usual rate or increases the total supply of money in the economy more rapidly than usual. It is traditionally used to try to combat unemployment in a recession by lowering interest rates in the hope that less expensive credit will entice businesses into expanding. This increases aggregate demand (the overall demand for all goods and services in an economy), which boosts short-term growth as measured by gross domestic product (GDP) growth. Expansionary monetary policy usually diminishes the value of the currency relative to other currencies (the exchange rate). The opposite of expansionary monetary policy is contractionary monetary policy, which maintains short-term interest rates higher than usual or which slows the rate of growth in the money supply or even shrinks it. This slows short-term economic growth and lessens inflation. Contractionary monetary policy can lead to increased unemployment and depressed borrowing and spending by consumers and businesses, which can eventually result in an economic recession if implemented too vigorously. Money Management.

Monetary Authority is the entity which controls the money supply of a particular currency, often with the objective of controlling inflation, interest rates, real GDP or the unemployment rate. With its monetary tools, a monetary authority is able to effectively influence the development of short-term interest rates for that currency, but can also influence other parameters which control the cost and availability of money. Bailouts.

Monetary Economics is the branch of economics that studies the different competing theories of money: it provides a framework for analyzing money and considers its functions (such as medium of exchange, store of value and unit of account), and it considers how money, for example fiat currency, can gain acceptance purely because of its convenience as a public good. The discipline has historically prefigured, and remains integrally linked to, macroeconomics. This branch also examines the effects of monetary systems, including regulation of money and associated financial institutions and international aspects. Modern analysis has attempted to provide microfoundations for the demand for money and to distinguish valid nominal and real monetary relationships for micro or macro uses, including their influence on the aggregate demand for output. Its methods include deriving and testing the implications of money as a substitute for other assets and as based on explicit frictions.

Income - Output

Payment is the transfer of an item of value from one party such as a person or company to another in exchange for the provision of goods, services or both, or to fulfill a legal obligation.

Income is the consumption and savings opportunity gained by an entity within a specified timeframe, which is generally expressed in monetary terms. However, for households and individuals, "income is the sum of all the wages, salaries, profits, interests payments, rents, and other forms of earnings a given period of time." In the field of public economics, the term may refer to the accumulation of both monetary and non-monetary consumption ability, with the former (monetary) being used as a proxy for total income.

Personal Income refers to an individual's total earnings from wages, investment enterprises, and other ventures. It is the sum of all the incomes received by all the individuals or household during a given period. Personal income is that income which is received by the individuals or households in a country during the year from all sources. In general, it refers to all products and money that you receive.

Gross Income is your income before any deductions like taxes, bills or debt.

Payroll is the list of employees of some company that is entitled to receive payments as well as other work benefits and the amounts that each should receive.

Revenue is the entire amount of income before any deductions are made. Revenue is government income due to taxation or bribes. Revenue is the total amount of income generated by the sale of goods and services related to the primary operations of the business. Commercial revenue may also be referred to as sales or as turnover. Some companies receive revenue from interest, royalties, or other fees.

Disposable Income is total personal income minus current income taxes. To call income disposable is to call life itself disposable. The term disposable is not reality based.

Per Capita Income measures the average income earned per person in a given area (city, region, country, etc.) in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population.

Income Statement or profit and loss account (also referred to as a profit and loss statement (P&L), statement of profit or loss, revenue statement, statement of financial performance, earnings statement, operating statement, or statement of operations) is one of the financial statements of a company and shows the company’s revenues and expenses during a particular period. It indicates how the revenues (money received from the sale of products and services before expenses are taken out, also known as the “top line”) are transformed into the net income (the result after all revenues and expenses have been accounted for, also known as “net profit” or the “bottom line”). The purpose of the income statement is to show managers and investors whether the company made or lost money during the period being reported.

Budget - Living Wage - Cause and Effect - Variables - Energy - Investment - Aid

Profits or Net Income generally implies the total revenue Minus total Expenses in a given period. In accounting, revenue is often referred to as the "top line" due to its position on the income statement at the very top. This is to be contrasted with the "bottom line" which denotes net income (gross revenues minus total expenses). Cost.

Remuneration is money paid for work or a service. The pay or other compensation provided in exchange for the services performed; not to be confused with giving (away), or donating, or the act of providing to. A number of complementary benefits, however, are increasingly popular remuneration mechanisms. Remuneration is one component of reward management.

Earn is to deserve some form of compensation from one's efforts or actions that created value. Having qualities or abilities that merit recognition in some way. To be worthy. Earn is to acquire or deserve by one's efforts or actions that are considered worthy, having worth or merit or value; being honorable or admirable. Having qualities or abilities that merit recognition in some way. Earning is a measure of cause and effect and known benefits.

Wage is monetary compensation (or remuneration, personnel expenses, labor) paid by an employer to an employee in exchange for work done. Payment may be calculated as a fixed amount for each task completed (a task wage or piece rate), or at an hourly or daily rate, or based on an easily measured quantity of work done.

Personal Income in the United States (wiki) - Poverty - Big 5 Needs.

Input is a component or the cost of production. Something that goes into the production of output. What is put in, taken in, or operated on by any process or system. A place where energy or information enters a system. A device through which an input can be added.

Output is the final product or the things produced. Production of a certain amount. The quantity of something such as a commodity that is created within a given period of time. What is produced in a given time period. To create or manufacture a specific amount. Neural Networks.

Outlay is money paid out, or an amount spent on something.

Integrator is an element whose output signal is the time integral of its input signal, when applied to measurement and control applications. It accumulates the input quantity over a defined time to produce a representative output. Integration is an important part of many engineering and scientific applications.

Spending - Consumption - Greed - Inflation - Return on Investment - Production

The In's and Out's is to know all the details or complicated facts about something. To understand all the intricacies or ramifications of a situation.

In is toward the inside of something. Internal to something but not outside. Located in the bounds of something. Inward toward a center or interior. Inside away from the outer edge.

Out is directed outward or serving to direct something outwards. The region that is outside of something or the outer side or surface of something. To move away from a place, especially one that is enclosed or hidden. To be made known or be disclosed or revealed.

Nonlinear System is a system in which the output is not directly proportional to the input. Nonlinear problems are of interest to engineers, physicists and mathematicians and many other scientists because most systems are inherently nonlinear in nature. Nonlinear systems may appear chaotic, unpredictable or counterintuitive, contrasting with the much simpler linear systems.

When people say they earned money or earned something, they are usually lying. What they mean to say is that they were paid a sum of money or stole a some money.

Stole is to take without the owner's consent. Citizens own the tool we call money, money is a shared resource.

Income is not an accurate measurement of your output. Just like price, income does not measure true cost. People are making money at other peoples expense and at the expense of the planet, which is called theft.

Compensation is something awarded to someone as a recompense for loss, injury, or suffering. The action or process of awarding someone money as a recompense for loss, injury, or suffering. The money received by an employee from an employer as a salary or wages. Offset.

Financial Compensation refers to the act of providing a person with money or other things of economic value in exchange for their goods, labor, or to provide for the costs of injuries that they have incurred. Kinds of financial compensation include: Damages, legal term for the financial compensation recoverable by reason of another's breach of duty. Nationalization compensation, compensation paid in the event of nationalization of property. Payment. Remuneration. Deferred compensation. Executive compensation. Royalties. Salary, Wage. Employee benefits. Workers' compensation, to protect employees who have incurred work-related injuries.

Workers Compensation is a form of insurance providing wage replacement and medical benefits to employees injured in the course of employment in exchange for mandatory relinquishment of the employee's right to sue their employer for the tort of negligence. The trade-off between assured, limited coverage and lack of recourse outside the worker compensation system is known as "the compensation bargain". One of the problems that the compensation bargain solved is the problem of employers becoming insolvent as a result of high damage awards. The system of collective liability was created to prevent that, and thus to ensure security of compensation to the workers. Individual immunity is the necessary corollary to collective liability.

14,689,000 Americans make less than $2,500.00 a year. 6,262,000 Americans make $2,500 to $4,999 a year.

7,657,000 Americans make $5,000 to $7,499 a year. 10,551,000 Americans make $7,500 to $9,999 a year.

39 Million Americans make less than $10,000  a year. 80 Million Americans make less than $20,000 a year.

113 Million Americans make less than $30,000 a year.

46,876 Million Americans make between $30,000 to $50,000 a year.

46,753 Million Americans make between $50,000 to $100,000 a year.

20,755 Million Americans make more than $100,000 or more a year. Wealthy.

Less than $30,000: 46.51% / $30,000 – $49,999: 20.93% / $50,000 – $99,999: 22.27% / $100,000 – $250,000: 8.89% / $250,000 – $1,000,000: 1.39% / More than $1,000,000: 0.09%.

Wealth is the abundance of valuable resources or valuable material possessions. This includes the core meaning as held in the originating old English word weal, which is from an Indo-European word stem. An individual, community, region or country that possesses an abundance of such possessions or resources to the benefit of the common good is known as wealthy.

Gross Profit is the profit a company makes after deducting the costs associated with making and selling its products, or the costs associated with providing its services. Gross profit will appear on a company's income statement, and can be calculated with this formula: Gross profit = Revenue - Cost of Goods Sold. Gross profit is the difference between revenue and the cost of making a product or providing a service, before deducting overheads, payroll, taxation, and interest payments. This is different from operating profit (earnings before interest and taxes). Gross margin is the term normally used in the U.S., while gross profit is the more common usage in the UK and Australia.

Various Deductions and their corresponding metrics leading from net sales to net income are as follows: Net Sales = Gross Sales – customer discounts + returns + allowances. Gross Profit = Net Sales – cost of goods sold. Gross Profit Percentage = [(net sales – cost of goods sold)/net sales] × 100%. Operating Profit = Gross Profit – total operating expenses. Net Income (or Net Profit) = operating profit – taxes – interest. (Note: Cost of goods sold is calculated differently for a merchandising business than for a manufacturer.)

Net Profit the actual profit after working expenses not included in the calculation of gross profit have been paid also referred to as the bottom line, net income, or net earnings is a measure of the profitability of a venture after accounting for all costs and taxes. It is the actual profit, and includes the operating expenses that are excluded from gross profit.

How you reach Net Profit on a Profit & Loss account: Sales Revenue = Price (of product) × quantity sold. Gross Profit = Sales Revenue − cost of sales and other direct costs. Operating Profit = Gross Profit − overheads and other indirect costs. EBIT (earnings before interest and taxes) = operating profit + non-operating income. Pretax Profit (EBT, earnings before taxes) = operating profit − one off items and redundancy payments, staff restructuring − interest payable. Net Profit = Pre-tax profit − tax. Retained Earnings = Profit after tax − dividends.

Accounting Terms: Net Sales = Gross Sales – (customer discounts, returns, and allowances). Gross Profit = Net Sales – cost of goods sold. Operating Profit = Gross Profit – total operating expenses. Net Profit = Operating Profit – taxes – interest. Net Profit = Net Sales – cost of goods sold – operating expense – taxes – interest.

Net Worth is the value of all the non-financial and financial assets owned by an individual or institution minus the value of all its outstanding liabilities. Since financial assets minus outstanding liabilities equal net financial assets, net worth can also be conveniently expressed as non-financial assets plus net financial assets. It can apply to companies, individuals, governments or economic sectors such as the sector of financial corporations or to entire countries. Net worth is a combination of financial assets and liabilities. The financial assets that contribute to net worth are homes, vehicles, various types of bank accounts, money market accounts, and stocks and bonds. The liabilities are financial obligations such as loans, mortgage, accounts payable (AP) that deplete resources. Net worth in business is also referred to as equity. It is generally based on the value of all assets and liabilities at the carrying value which is the value as expressed on the financial statements. To the extent items on the balance sheet do not express their true (market) value, the net worth will also be inaccurate. On reading the balance sheet, if the accumulated losses exceed the shareholder's equity, net worth becomes negative. Net worth in this formulation does not express the market value of a firm; a firm may be worth more (or less) if sold with a going concern. Net worth vs. debt is a significant aspect of business loans. Business owners are required to "trade on equity" in order to further increase their net worth. For a deceased individual, net worth can be used for the value of their estate when in probate. Net worth is a representation of where one stands financially. This can be used to help create budgets, influence wise spending, motivate one to pay off debt, and it can motivate someone to save and invest. Net worth is also important to look at when considering retirement. Net Worth is the value of all assets, minus the total of all liabilities. Net worth is what is owned minus what is owed. Net worth is the value of all the non-financial and financial assets owned by an individual or institution minus the value of all its outstanding liabilities.  Credit.

Equity is ownership of assets that may have debts or other liabilities attached to them. For example, if someone owns a car worth $15,000 and owes $5,000 on the loan used to buy the car, then the difference of $10,000 is equity. Equity can apply to a single asset, such as a car or house, or to an entire business entity. Selling equity in a business is an essential method for acquiring cash needed to start up and expand operations. When liabilities attached to an asset exceed its value, the difference is called a deficit and the asset is informally said to be "underwater" or "upside-down". In government finance or other non-profit settings, equity is known as "net position" or "net assets". Private equity typically refers to investment funds, generally organized as limited partnerships, that buy and restructure companies that are not publicly traded.

Market Value is the price at which an asset would trade in a competitive auction setting. Market value is often used interchangeably with open market value, fair value or fair market value, although these terms have distinct definitions in different standards, and differ in some circumstances.

Liquidation Value is the most probable price that a specified interest in real property is likely to bring under all of the following conditions: Consummation of a sale will occur within a severely limited future marketing period specified by the client. The actual market conditions currently prevailing are those to which the appraise property interest is subject. The buyer is acting prudently and knowledgeably. The seller is under extreme compulsion to sell. The buyer is typically motivated. The buyer is acting in what he or she considered his or her best interest. A limited marketing effort and time will be allowed for the completion of the sale. Payment will be made in cash in U.S. dollars or in terms of financial arrangements comparable thereto. The price represents the normal consideration for the property sold, unaffected by special or creative financing or sales concessions granted by anyone associated with the sale.

Use Value takes into account a specific use for the subject property and does not attempt to ascertain the highest and best use of the real estate. For example, the appraisal may focus on the contributory value of the real estate to a business enterprise. Some property tax jurisdictions allow agricultural use appraisals for farmland. Also, current IRS estate tax regulations allow land under an interim agricultural use to be valued according to its current use regardless of development potential.

Economic Value. Stability and economic growth are two factors that international investors are seeking when considering investment options. A country offering economic value amongst its other incentives attracts investment funds. A political unrest situation can be the cause of not only loss of confidence, but a reduced value in currency, creating transfer of capital to other and more stable sources.

Redistribution of Wealth (wealth barriers)

Related Subjects - Money Alternatives - Profit is a Lie - Power - Politics - Occupy Movement - Banks - Society - Activism - Government Websites - Poverty - Housing - Sayings about Money.


Value is a measured quality that has known benefits. The positive quality that renders something desirable or valuable. To evaluate or estimate the nature, quality, ability, extent, or significance of something. The amount of money or goods or services that is considered to be a fair equivalent for something else.

Utility - Worth - Goodness - Human Values

“Nowadays people know the price of everything, and the value of nothing.” - Oscar Wilde

"People are more concerned about the price of things when they should be more concerned about its value."

Money confuses peoples ability to correctly measure value. People need to fully understand the difference between a value system and a monetary system, one is based on reality, the other is not.

What if there was no money, how would you measure value? How would you measure the worth of freedom of speech or good health? What if money was no object or a factor in your decisions? What would you do for a living?

Value in social science denotes the degree of importance of some thing or action, with the aim of determining which actions are best to do or what way is best to live (normative ethics in ethics), or to describe the significance of different actions. Values can be defined as broad preferences concerning appropriate courses of actions or outcomes. As such, values reflect a person's sense of right and wrong or what "ought" to be.

Value Judgment is a judgment of the rightness or wrongness of something or someone, or of the usefulness of something or someone, based on a comparison or other relativity. As a generalization, a value judgment can refer to a judgment based upon a particular set of values or on a particular value system. A related meaning of value judgment is an expedient evaluation based upon limited information at hand, where said evaluation was undertaken because a decision had to be made on short notice. World Values Survey (wiki).

Intrinsic Value is a property of anything that is valuable on its own. Intrinsic value is in contrast to instrumental value (also known as extrinsic value), which is a property of anything that derives its value from a relation to another intrinsically valuable thing. Intrinsic value is always something that an object has "in itself" or "for its own sake", and is an intrinsic property. An object with intrinsic value may be regarded as an end, or in Kantian terminology, as an end-in-itself.

Instrumental and Intrinsic Value are the distinction between what is a means to an end and what is as an end in itself. Things are deemed to have instrumental value if they help one achieve a particular end; intrinsic values, by contrast, are understood to be desirable in and of themselves. A tool or appliance, such as a hammer or washing machine, has instrumental value because it helps you pound in a nail or clean your clothes. Happiness and pleasure are typically considered to have intrinsic value insofar as asking why someone would want them makes little sense: they are desirable for their own sake irrespective of their possible instrumental value.

Value in ethics denotes the degree of importance of some thing or action, with the aim of determining what actions are best to do or what way is best to live or deontology, or to describe the significance of different actions or axiology. It may be described as treating actions themselves as abstract objects, putting value to them. It deals with right conduct and good life, in the sense that a highly, or at least relatively highly, valuable action may be regarded as ethically "good" (adjective sense), and an action of low in value, or somewhat relatively low in value, may be regarded as "bad". What makes an action valuable may in turn depend on the ethic values of the objects it increases, decreases or alters. An object with "ethic value" may be termed an "ethic or philosophic good" (noun sense). Values can be defined as broad preferences concerning appropriate courses of action or outcomes. As such, values reflect a person's sense of right and wrong or what "ought" to be. "Equal rights for all", "Excellence deserves admiration", and "People should be treated with respect and dignity" are representative of values. Values tend to influence attitudes and behavior. Types of values include ethical/moral values, doctrinal/ideological (religious, political) values, social values, and aesthetic values. It is debated whether some values that are not clearly physiologically determined, such as altruism, are intrinsic, and whether some, such as acquisitiveness, should be classified as vices or virtues.

Simple Living - Personal and Cultural Value 

Value Measuring Methodology is a tool that helps financial planners balance both tangible and intangible values when making investment decisions, and monitor benefits.

Instrumental Value is the value of objects, both physical objects and abstract objects, not as ends-in-themselves, but as means of achieving something else. It is often contrasted with items of intrinsic value. It is studied in the field of value theory.

Value in economics is a measure of the benefit provided by a good or service to an economic agent. It is generally measured relative to units of currency, and the interpretation is therefore "what is the maximum amount of money a specific actor is willing and able to pay for the good or service"? Profit?

Measuring Value Questions: What are the Benefits of the object? Does it save time? Does it save Energy? Does it improve health and safety? How difficult is it to make it yourself? What's the average quantity of Human Labor needed? Time, People, Resources, Environmental Impacts? Capstone Math.

Evaluation is the act of ascertaining or fixing the value or worth of. An appraisal of the value of something.

is a document appraising the value of something. An expert estimation of the quality, quantity, and other characteristics of someone or something. Ratings - Contractor Bid.

Depreciation is the decrease in value over time due to obsolescence or use. Wear and Tear is damage that naturally and inevitably occurs as a result of normal wear or aging. Entropy.

Face Value is the nominal value or dollar value, especially when less than the actual or intrinsic value. Par Value (wiki).

Value-Added Tax is known in some countries as a goods and services tax (GST), which is a type of tax that is assessed incrementally, based on the increase in value of a product or service at each stage of production or distribution. VAT essentially compensates for the shared services and infrastructure provided in a certain locality by a state and funded by its taxpayers that were used in the elaboration of that product or service.

Goods is something pleasing or valuable or useful. Having moral excellence or admirableness. A benefit.

Fungible - Commodity

Good in economics is a good is a material that satisfies human needs and provides utility. A common distinction is made between 'goods' that are tangible property, and services, which are non-physical. Inputs and Outputs.

Capital Good is a durable good that is used in the production of goods or services. Capital goods are one of the three types of producer goods, the other two being land and labour. The three are also known collectively as "primary factors of production".

Durable Good is a good that does not quickly wear out, or more specifically, one that yields utility over time rather than being completely consumed in one use. Items like bricks could be considered perfectly durable goods because they should theoretically never wear out. Highly durable goods such as refrigerators or cars usually continue to be useful for three or more years of use, so durable goods are typically characterized by long periods between successive purchases. Examples of consumer durable goods include automobiles, books, household goods (home appliances, consumer electronics, furniture, tools, etc.), sports equipment, jewelry, medical equipment, firearms, and toys. Nondurable goods or soft goods (consumables) are the opposite of durable goods. They may be defined either as goods that are immediately consumed in one use or ones that have a lifespan of less than three years. Examples of nondurable goods include fast-moving consumer goods such as cosmetics and cleaning products, food, condiments, fuel, beer, cigarettes and tobacco, medication, office supplies, packaging and containers, paper and paper products, personal products, rubber, plastics, textiles, clothing, and footwear. While durable goods can usually be rented as well as bought, nondurable goods generally are not rented. While buying durable goods comes under the category of investment demand of goods, buying non-durables comes under the category of consumption demand of goods.

Asset is a useful or valuable quality. Asset is any resource owned by the business. Anything tangible or intangible that can be owned or controlled to produce value and that is held by a company to produce positive economic value is an asset. Simply stated, assets represent value of ownership that can be converted into cash (although cash itself is also considered an asset). The balance sheet of a firm records the monetary value of the assets owned by that firm. It covers money and other valuables belonging to an individual or to a business.

Value System is a judgment of the rightness or wrongness of something or someone, or of the usefulness of something or someone, based on a comparison or other relativity. As a generalization, a value judgment can refer to a judgment based upon a particular set of values or on a particular value system. A related meaning of value judgment is an expedient evaluation based upon limited information at hand, an evaluation undertaken because a decision must be made on short notice.

Labor Theory of Value is the economic value of a good or service is determined by the total amount of socially necessary labor required to produce it, rather than by the use or pleasure its owner gets from it. At present this concept is usually associated with Marxian economics, although it is also used in the theories of earlier liberal economists such as Adam Smith and David Ricardo and later also in anarchist economics.

Fair Value is a rational and unbiased estimate of the potential market price of a good, service, or asset. It takes into account such objective factors as: Acquisition/production/distribution costs, replacement costs, or costs of close substitutes. Actual utility at a given level of development of social productive capability. Supply vs. Demand, and subjective factors such as Risk Characteristics, cost of and return on capital, individually perceived utility.

Exchange Value refers to one of four major attributes of a commodity, i.e., an item or service produced for, and sold on the market. The other three aspects are use value, economic value, and price.

Market Value is the price at which an asset would trade in a competitive auction setting. Market value is often used interchangeably with open market value, fair value or fair market value, although these terms have distinct definitions in different standards, and may differ in some circumstances.

Value Chain is a set of activities that a firm operating in a specific industry performs in order to deliver a valuable product or service for the market. seeing a manufacturing (or service) organization as a system, made up of subsystems each with inputs, transformation processes and outputs. Inputs, transformation processes, and outputs involve the acquisition and consumption of resources - money, labour, materials, equipment, buildings, land, administration and management. How value chain activities are carried out determines costs and affects profits.

Development Process - Green Washing

Value Network is a business analysis perspective that describes social and technical resources within and between businesses. The nodes in a value network represent people (or roles). The nodes are connected by interactions that represent tangible and intangible deliverables. These deliverables take the form of knowledge or other intangibles and/or financial value. Value networks exhibit interdependence. They account for the overall worth of products and services. Companies have both internal and external value network.

Knowledge Management

Value Theory encompasses a range of approaches to understanding how, why, and to what degree persons value things; whether the object or subject of valuing is a person, idea, object, or anything else.

Incommensurable is something that is almost impossible to measure or compare in value or size or excellence. Not having a common factor. Not able to be judged by the same standard as something, or having no common standard of measurement. Incommensurable in mathematics are numbers in a ratio that cannot be expressed as a ratio of integers.

Paradox of Value is the apparent contradiction that, although water is on the whole more useful, in terms of survival, than diamonds, diamonds command a higher price in the market.

Law of Value refers to a regulative principle of the economic exchange of the products of human work: the relative exchange-values of those products in trade, usually expressed by money-prices, are proportional to the average amounts of human labor-time which are currently socially necessary to produce them.

Value Form refers to the social form (a socially attributed status) of a commodity (any product traded in markets), which contrasts with the tangible use-value or utility (its "useful form" or "natural form") which it has, as a product which satisfies some human need. Marx seeks to provide a brief morphology of the category of economic value as such, with regard to its substance, the forms which this substance takes, and how its magnitude is determined or expressed.

Expected Value is the long-run average value of repetitions of the same experiment it represents. For example, the expected value in rolling a six-sided die is 3.5, because the average of all the numbers that come up is 3.5 as the number of rolls approaches infinity (see § Examples for details). In other words, the law of large numbers states that the arithmetic mean of the values almost surely converges to the expected value as the number of repetitions approaches infinity. The expected value is also known as the expectation, mathematical expectation, EV, average, mean value, mean, or first moment. a predicted value of a variable, calculated as the sum of all possible values each multiplied by the probability of its occurrence.

Time can Measure Value

Antique is something made in long ago in earlier times and is valued for its age. Belonging to or lasting from times long ago. Any piece of furniture or decorative object or the like produced in a former period and valuable because of its beauty or rarity. Something 100 years or older is an antique. Antique Car is a car over 50 years of age.

Vintage is the time when something was produced. The oldness of wines. A season's yield of wine from a vineyard. Vintage Car is a car from the period of 1919 to 1930.

Collectable is any object regarded as being of value or interest to a collector (not necessarily monetarily valuable or antique). There are numerous types of collectables and terms to denote those types. An antique is a collectable that is old. A curio is a small, usually fascinating or unusual item sought by collectors. A manufactured collectable is an item made specifically for people to collect.

Classic is an outstanding example of a particular style; something of lasting worth or with a timeless quality; of the first or highest quality, class, or rank – something that exemplifies its class. Classic Car is an older automobile 20 years or older, though definitions vary.

Cultural Knowledge - Historic Knowledge - Preserved Knowledge

Memorabilia are objects treasured for their memories or historical interest; however, unlike souvenirs, memorabilia can be valued for a connection to an event or a particular professional field, company or brand. (Latin for memorable (things), plural of memorabile).

Souvenir is a memento, a keepsake, or token of remembrance is an object a person acquires for the memories the owner associates with it. A souvenir can be any object that can be collected or purchased and transported home by the traveler as a memento of a visit. While there is no set minimum or maximum cost that one is required to adhere to when purchasing a souvenir, etiquette would suggest to keep it within a monetary amount that the receiver would not feel uncomfortable with when presented the souvenir. The object itself may have intrinsic value, or be a symbol of experience. Without the owner's input, the symbolic meaning is invisible and cannot be articulated.

Heirloom is something that has been passed down for generations through family members. Examples are antiques or jewelry.

Treasure is any possession that is highly valued by its owner. Art highly prized for its beauty or perfection. A collection of precious things. A brilliant or much-loved person who is highly valued. Hold dear. Treasure can also be accumulated wealth in the form of money or jewels, or a concentration of wealth, often those that originate from ancient history that is considered lost and/or forgotten until rediscovered. Searching for hidden treasure or buried treasure is a common theme in legend; treasure hunters do exist, and can seek lost wealth for a living.

Depreciation refers to two aspects of the same concept: The decrease in value of assets (fair value depreciation). The allocation of the cost of assets to periods in which the assets are used (depreciation with the matching principle). Depreciation is a method of reallocating the cost of a tangible asset over its useful life span of it being in motion. Businesses depreciate long-term assets for both accounting and tax purposes. The former affects the balance sheet of a business or entity, and the latter affects the net income that they report. Generally the cost is allocated, as depreciation expense, among the periods in which the asset is expected to be used. Methods of computing depreciation, and the periods over which assets are depreciated, may vary between asset types within the same business and may vary for tax purposes. These may be specified by law or accounting standards, which may vary by country. There are several standard methods of computing depreciation expense, including fixed percentage, straight line, and declining balance methods. Depreciation expense generally begins when the asset is placed in service. For example, a depreciation expense of 100 per year for five years may be recognized for an asset costing 500. Depreciation has been defined as the diminution in the utility or value of an asset. Depreciation is a non cash expense. It does not result in any cash outflow. Causes of depreciation are natural wear and tear. Entropy.

Worth - Quality

Worthy is something having worth or value, and being honorable or admirable and having qualities or abilities that merit recognition in some way.

Important - Beneficial - Investment

Worth is the quality that renders something desirable or valuable or useful. An indefinite quantity of something having a specified value.

Explaining Measures of Worth - Utility Patent

Worth every Penny means that something was worth all the money that was spent on it.

Use Value are the combined benefits of consuming a good and its low impacts and side-effects.

Fungible is something valuable or useful that can be easily exchangeable, replaceable or traded for something of equal value.

Fungibility is the property of a good or a commodity whose individual units are capable of mutual substitution. That is, it is the property of essences or goods which are "capable of being substituted in place of one another."

Commodity is a marketable item produced to satisfy wants or needs. Often the item is fungible. Economic commodities comprised of goods and services.

Adjustable is capable of being changed so as to match or fit.

Adaptable - Functional

Normative means relating to an ideal standard or model, or being based on what is considered to be the normal or correct way of doing something.

Meticulous is being very careful and precise. Marked by precise accordance with details. Marked by extreme care in treatment of details. Showing great attention to detail.

Details are the facts, figures and parts of a bigger element or process, used to accurately describe something as a whole. A small part that can be considered separately from the whole. True confidential information.

Precise is being exact or accurate. Characterized by perfect conformity to fact or truth ; Strictly correct.

Measured - Researched - Benefit Corporation - Co-Op - Consumer Warnings - False Advertising

Accurate is something that was measured or confirmed. The quality of being near to the true value. Conforming exactly or almost exactly to fact or to a standard or performing with total accuracy

Correct is something that is free from error; especially conforming to fact or truth. In accord with accepted standards of usage or procedure. Correct in opinion or judgment. .

Right is something that is free from error; especially conforming to fact or truth. Anything in accord with principles of justice. In conformance with justice or law or morality.

Measure How Much: Time?  People?  Resources?  Money?  Positives?  Negatives?  Options?  Choices?  Priorities? 

Quality is having a high degree or grade of excellence or worth. Of superior grade. A characteristic property that defines the apparent individual nature of something. An essential and distinguishing attribute of something or someone. Quality is the standard of something as measured against other things of a similar kind.

Quality Control - Validity - Good - Beneficial

Quality in business is a product that is long lasting, durable, reliable, easy to maintain, easy to use, very effective in its purpose, is superior to other similar products, free of deficiencies, and conforms to the specifications, requirements and expectations of the user. Quality is sometimes perceptual, conditional, and somewhat subjective and can be understood differently by different people.

Scientific Testing - Development

Conformance Testing is used to determine whether a product or system or just a medium complies with the requirements of a specification, contract or regulation.

Utility - Necessary - Vital

Utility is the quality of being of practical use and purpose. A measure of preferences over some set of goods and services. A good is something that satisfies human wants or needs.

Useful is something that is beneficial to use, or something of service and able to function usefully. Something having a useful function or action and activity that is required or expected of a person or a group.

is the quality of being of practical use and something likely to succeed or be effective in real life circumstances.

Use is to put something into service or action. To do something without misusing it.

Usability is the capacity of a system to provide a condition for its users to perform the tasks safely, effectively, and efficiently while enjoying the experience. Usability is a part of "usefulness" and is composed of: Learnability: How easy is it for users to accomplish basic tasks the first time they encounter the design? Efficiency: Once users have learned the design, how quickly can they perform tasks? Memorability: When users return to the design after a period of not using it, how easily can they re-establish proficiency? Errors: How many errors do users make, how severe are these errors, and how easily can they recover from the errors? Satisfaction: How pleasant is it to use the design?

Utility Delta is the total improved usefulness of something that is equal to the usefulness to the average person, minus the next best similar item, multiplied by the amount of people who would find it useful. Utility delta in math terms is X = total usefulness (Utility Delta), U = Usefulness to one person, C = Comparable item in usefulness & cost, P = Number of people this item would be used by/affect. X = (U - C) * P.

Practicable is capable of being done with means at hand and circumstances as they are. Usable for a specific purpose.

is concerned with actual use or practice. Guided by practical experience and observation rather than theory. Being actually such in almost every respect. Having or put to a practical purpose or use.

Deliberate is something carefully thought out in advance. With the intention of an anticipated outcome that is intended or that guides your planned actions. Deliberate also means to discuss the pros and cons of an issue. Unhurried and with care and dignity.

Will Power - Development - Practice

is the reason why a particular action was taken for an intended outcome. The reasons that guided your planned actions. The quality of being determined to do something or achieve something and having firmness of purpose. What something is used for.

For All Intensive Purposes or for all intents and purposes, is a means for all practical purposes or in every practical sense.

Purpose of Education

Fits the Bill is to be suitable for a particular purpose.

Function is what something is used for. Something that performs the actions and activities as expected and required when applied to or assigned to a particular output or goal. Function serves a purpose and usually has a relation such that one thing is dependent on another. An activity or a purpose natural to or intended for a person or thing. To work or operate in a proper or particular way. A relationship or expression involving one or more variables.

Functional is designing something for a particular function or use. Capable, fit and ready for use or service. How long will it Last? Durability.

Functionality - Form Follows Function - Effectiveness - High Functioning - Math Function

Dysfunctional is being impaired in function and failing to serve an adjustive purpose. Not productive.

Applicable is capable of being applied and having relevance.

Suitable is something meant, planned or designed for a particular time and place, or use.

Application is the action of putting something into operation and using it for a particular purpose. The work of applying something. A program or app that gives a computer instructions that provide the user with tools to accomplish a task.

Applying is to put something into service and make work for a particular purpose or use as designed. Be pertinent or relevant or applicable. Applied is to be pertinent, relevant or applicable. Make use of something and apply oneself. Apply is using something to cover a surface.

Beneficial is promoting or enhancing well-being. Benefit.

Improvement - Progress - Valuable Knowledge

Important is something of great significance or value. Important in effect or meaning. Vital to the resolution of a crisis.

Paramount is something more important than anything else and having superior power and influence. Something that is supreme or greatest in status or authority or power and highest in excellence or achievement.

Fundamental is something serving as an essential component. Any factor that could be considered important to the understanding of a particular problem. Being or involving basic facts or principles. Far-reaching and thoroughgoing in effect especially on the nature of something.

Crucial is something extremely important that has essential relevance and is vital to the resolution of a crisis.

Crux is the decisive or most important point at issue. A particular point of difficulty.

Flagship is the best or finest or the most important product or idea of a group of things. Flagship is also a ship that carries the commander of a fleet and flies his flag.

Viable is something capable of doing what it is intended to do.

Entity is a thing with distinct and independent existence.

Relevant is having an effect upon on or a connection with the subject at issue. Relative.

Matter is something of importance and significance. When you say someone matters it means that the person is very important and valuable and that they have the ability to make a difference in the world and also have a significant positive influence on other people. Matter as Energy.

Emphasis is something of special importance, value, prominence or significance. Emphasize is to single out something as important. To draw attention to something or give extra weight to something. Emphatic is something spoken suddenly and forcefully that expresses action.

Necessary is something that is absolutely essential. Anything indispensable that was unavoidably determined by prior circumstances.

Vital is something that is urgently needed or absolutely necessary. Performing an essential function in the living body.

Essential is something that is absolutely necessary and vital and of the greatest importance. Essential in biology is something that the organism cannot continue to be alive or reproduce without. Something basic and fundamental.

Principal is the most important element. An actor who plays a principal role The educator who has executive authority for a school. Capital as contrasted with the income derived from it. The major party to a financial transaction at a stock exchange; buys and sells for his own account.

Capital are the assets available for use in the production of further assets. The wealth of primary importance in the form of money or property owned by a person or business and human resources of economic value. A center that is associated more than any other with some activity or product. Capital can also mean a federal government of a country. Capital can also mean one of the large alphabetic characters used as the first letter in writing or printing proper names and sometimes for emphasis. Uppercase.

Needs is something that is necessary to live, things like clean air, water, food and shelter. There are also many other needs that people require in order to live peacefully, things like security, freedom, respect, and love. When peoples needs are not available, then people will suffer, and when important needs are unavailable, then people could die. Unhealthy Attachments.

Needs Assessment is a systematic process for determining and addressing needs, or "gaps" between current conditions and desired conditions or "wants". The discrepancy between the current condition and wanted condition must be measured to appropriately identify the need. The need can be a desire to improve current performance or to correct a deficiency.

Sometimes it's better to have something that you may not need or use than to need something that you don't have. But of course it's all relative to your situation. Frugal - Simple - Means.

Significant is important in effect or meaning. Having worth or merit or value. RelevantInsignificant is something devoid of importance, meaning, influence, power or force. Not worthy of notice. Irrelevant.

Monumental is an outstanding significance.

Requirements Analysis is determining the needs or conditions to meet for a new or altered product or project, taking account of the possibly conflicting requirements.

Hierarchy of Needs - Duty of Care 

Want is something that you don't actually need, but you just want to have it, like junk food or when you have an Addiction to something. And if the want degrades health or the environment, then that is what is called Theft or Negligence. Dependent.

Requisite is something necessary for relief or supply. Anything indispensable. Prerequisite.

Resource is a source or supply from which a benefit is produced. Resources can broadly be classified upon their availability—they are classified into renewable and non-renewable resources. They can also be classified as actual and potential on the basis of level of development and use, on the basis of origin they can be classified as biotic and abiotic, and on the basis of their distribution, as ubiquitous and localized (private resources, community-owned resources, natural resources, international resources). An item becomes a resource with time and developing technology. Typically, resources are materials, energy, services, staff, knowledge, or other assets that are transformed to produce benefit and in the process may be consumed or made unavailable. Benefits of resource utilization may include increased wealth, proper functioning of a system, or enhanced well-being. From a human perspective a natural resource is anything obtained from the environment to satisfy human needs and wants. From a broader biological or ecological perspective a resource satisfies the needs of a living organism.

Provide is to give something useful or necessary to someone. Give what is needed, especially support, food or sustenance. To offer a possibility or provide an opportunity for someone and permit some need to be attainable or cause to remain.

Requirement is something that is necessary for relief or supply. Require as useful, just, or proper. Consider obligatory; request and expect. Something that is required in advance. Responsibility.

Requirement is a singular documented physical or functional need that a particular design, product or process aims to satisfy. It is commonly used in a formal sense in engineering design, including for example in systems engineering, software engineering, or enterprise engineering. It is a broad concept that could speak to any necessary (or sometimes desired) function, attribute, capability, characteristic, or quality of a system for it to have value and utility to a customer, organization, internal user, or other stakeholder. Requirements can come with different levels of specificity; for example, a requirement specification or requirement "spec" (often imprecisely referred to as "the" spec/specs, but there are actually different sorts of specifications) refers to an explicit, highly objective/clear (and often quantitative) requirement (or sometimes, set of requirements) to be satisfied by a material, design, product, or service. A set of requirements is used as inputs into the design stages of product development. Requirements are also an important input into the verification process, since tests should trace back to specific requirements. Requirements show what elements and functions are necessary for the particular project. When iterative methods of software development or agile methods are used, the system requirements are incrementally developed in parallel with design and implementation. With the waterfall model requirements are developed before design and implementation.

Teleology is the philosophical attempt to describe things in terms of their apparent purpose, directive principle, or goal. A purpose that is imposed by a human use, such as that of a fork, is called extrinsic.

Utilitarianism states that the best action is the one that maximizes utility. Cause and Effect.

Utilitarian is someone who believes that the value of a thing depends on its utility. Having a useful function.

Ability is the quality of being able to perform and a quality that permits or facilitates achievement or accomplishment. Possession of the qualities (especially mental qualities) required to do something or get something done.

Decision Making

Marginal Utility is the satisfaction or benefit derived by consuming a product, thus the marginal utility of a good or service is the change in the utility from increase or decrease in the consumption of that good or service. Economists sometimes speak of a law of diminishing marginal utility, meaning that the first unit of consumption of a good or service yields more utility than the second and subsequent units, with a continuing reduction for greater amounts. Therefore, the fall in marginal utility as consumption increases is known as diminishing marginal utility. Mathematically: MU1>MU2>MU3......>MUn. The marginal decision rule states that a good or service should be consumed at a quantity at which the marginal utility is equal to the marginal cost.


Price is the quantity of payment or compensation given by one party to another in return for goods or services, generally expressed in units of some form of currency. A price is what you're willing to pay, price does not measure value.

Just because someone paid a large amount of money for something does not mean that is how much that something is worth. People who have a lot of money sometimes do stupid things with their money. Income - Input - Output

Prices of Production is defined as "cost-price + average profit". It refers to the price levels at which newly produced goods and services would have to be sold by the producers, in order to reach the normal, average profit rate on the capital invested in producing them. The importance of those prices is that a lot of other prices are based on, or derived from them: they determine the cost structure of capitalist production.

Paid is to give money or to receive money.

Price Fixing - Price Gouging - Inflation - Supply and Demand - GDP

Consumer Price Index measures changes in the price level of a market basket of consumer goods and services purchased by households.

Price Index is a normalized average or weighted average of price relatives for a given class of goods or services in a given region, during a given interval of time. It is a statistic designed to help to compare how these price relatives, taken as a whole, differ between time periods or geographical locations.

Producer Price Index is a price index that measures the average changes in prices received by domestic producers for their output.

Wholesale Price Index is the price of a representative basket of wholesale goods.

Employment Cost Index is a quarterly economic series detailing the changes in the costs of labor for businesses in the United States economy.

U.S. Import and Export Price Indexes measure average changes in prices of goods and services that are imported to or exported from the U.S..

GDP Deflator or price deflator is a measure of the level of prices of all new, domestically produced, final goods and services in an economy in a year.

Retail Price Index is a measure of inflation published monthly by the Office for National Statistics. It measures the change in the cost of a representative sample of retail goods and services.

Price Point is a point on a scale of possible prices at which something might be marketed. Prices at which demand for a given product is supposed to stay relatively high.

Market Value is the price at which an asset would trade in a competitive auction setting, but does not measure true value. Market value is often used interchangeably with open market value, fair value or fair market value, although these terms have distinct definitions in different standards, and differ in some circumstances.

How Rare is it?  How many were made? How rare are the resources that were used to make the product? How many uses does it have? Versatility? How Practicable is it? Specified Purposes of Use? Options? Choices?

Flaws of Supply and Demand. The price cannot be calculated by replacing the supply and demand variables with numbers. The supply cannot be calculated by replacing the price and demand variables with numbers, and the demand cannot be calculated by replacing the price and supply variables with numbers. Supply with no Demand.

is what people need or want at a given time. Consumer.

is how much there is of a certain resource.

is sometimes the amount of how much people steal and not how much people pay. Price is not always the calculated value of that recourse or service. Price does not always control the supply, it sometimes discriminates and steals. Property values steal in the same way. Market value is just another name for theft.

Cost - Value Measurement

Cost is the measurement of time, resources and labor that it takes to perform a particular action. Cost is the value measured by what must be given or done or undergone to obtain something. Cost is the input compared to the output. When the output is less than the input, then the cost is high and unsustainable.

The 2nd Law of Thermodynamics - Calculating True Cost - Math - Risk - Management

Opportunity Cost is the "cost" incurred by not enjoying the benefit associated with the best alternative choice. The value of the best alternative forgone where, given limited resources, a choice needs to be made between several mutually exclusive alternatives. Assuming the best choice is made, it is the "cost" incurred by not enjoying the benefit that would have been had by taking the second best available choice. The basic relationship between scarcity and choice. The real cost of output forgone, lost time, pleasure or any other benefit that provides utility should also be considered opportunity costs. Time Saving.

Externality is the cost or benefit that affects a party who did not choose to incur that cost or benefit. Economists often urge governments to adopt policies that "internalize" an externality, so that costs and benefits will affect mainly parties who choose to incur them.

Cost Externalizing is a socioeconomic term describing how a business maximizes its profits by off-loading indirect costs and forcing negative effects to a third party.

Problem Transference - Passing the Buck - Collateral Damage - Obsolescence - Wealth Inequality

Customer Cost refers not only to the price of a product, but it also encompasses the purchase costs, use costs and the post-use costs. Purchase costs consist of the cost of searching for a product, gathering information about the product and the cost of obtaining that information. Usually, the highest use costs arise for durable goods that have a high demand on resources, such as energy or water, or those with high maintenance costs. Post-use costs encompass the costs for collecting, storing and disposing of the product once the item has been discarded. Diseases - Toxins.

Social Cost is the sum of the private costs resulting from a transaction and the costs imposed on the consumers as a consequence of being exposed to the md's transaction for which they are not compensated or charged. Private costs are the direct costs of the producer to produce the good or service. Social cost includes these private costs, and in additional the costs (external costs) associated with the production of the good which are not dealt with by the free market. Pollution.

Transaction Cost is a cost incurred in making an economic exchange of some sort, or in other words the cost of participating in a market. In Transaction Costs, Institutions and Economic Performance (1992), Douglass C. North argues that Institutions, understood as the set of rules in a society, are key in the determination of transaction costs. In this sense, institutions that facilitate low transaction costs, boost economic growth. Transaction costs can be divided into three broad categories: Search and information costs are costs such as in determining that the required good is available on the market, which has the lowest price, etc.. Bargaining costs are the costs required to come to an acceptable agreement with the other party to the transaction, drawing up an appropriate contract and so on. In game theory this is analyzed for instance in the game of chicken. On asset markets and in market microstructure, the transaction cost is some function of the distance between the bid and ask. Policing and enforcement costs are the costs of making sure the other party sticks to the terms of the contract, and taking appropriate action (often through the legal system) if this turns out not to be the case.

You need to measure the value of the transaction, and not just the price of the transaction. You have to measure the benefits and positive effects that comes from your work, and not just focus on how much money you spent.

Cost of Production theory of Value is the theory that the price of an object or condition is determined by the sum of the cost of the resources that went into making it. The cost can comprise any of the factors of production (including labor, capital, or land) and taxation.

Marginal Cost is the change in the opportunity cost that arises when the quantity produced is incremented by one unit, that is, it is the cost of producing one more unit of a good. In general terms, marginal cost at each level of production includes any additional costs required to produce the next unit. For example, if producing additional vehicles requires building a new factory, the marginal cost of the extra vehicles includes the cost of the new factory. In practice, this analysis is segregated into short and long-run cases, so that, over the longest run, all costs become marginal. At each level of production and time period being considered, marginal costs include all costs that vary with the level of production, whereas other costs that do not vary with production are considered fixed.

Cost Benefit Analysis is a systematic approach to estimating the strengths and weaknesses of alternatives that satisfy transactions, activities or functional requirements for a business. It is a technique that is used to determine options that provide the best approach for the adoption and practice in terms of benefits in labor, time and cost savings etc. The CBA is also defined as a systematic process for calculating and comparing benefits and costs of a project, decision or government policy (hereafter, "project").

Cost-Effectiveness Analysis is a form of economic analysis that compares the relative costs and outcomes (effects) of different courses of action. Cost-effectiveness analysis is distinct from cost–benefit analysis, which assigns a monetary value to the measure of effect. Cost-effectiveness analysis is often used in the field of health services, where it may be inappropriate to monetize health effect. Typically the CEA is expressed in terms of a ratio where the denominator is a gain in health from a measure (years of life, premature births averted, sight-years gained) and the numerator is the cost associated with the health gain. The most commonly used outcome measure is quality-adjusted life years (QALY). Cost-utility analysis is similar to cost-effectiveness analysis. Cost-effectiveness analyses are often visualized on a plane consisting of four-quadrants, the cost represented on one axis and the effectiveness on the other axis. Cost-effectiveness analysis focuses on maximising the average level of an outcome, distributional cost-effectiveness analysis extends the core methods of CEA to incorporate concerns for the distribution of outcomes as well as their average level and make trade-offs between equity and efficiency, these more sophisticated methods are of particular interest when analysing interventions to tackle health inequality.

Cost-Utility Analysis is a form of financial analysis used to guide procurement decisions. The most common and well-known application of this analysis is in pharmacoeconomics, especially health technology assessment (HTA).

Cost Overrun involves unexpected costs incurred in excess of budgeted amounts due to an underestimation of the actual cost during budgeting. Cost overrun should be distinguished from cost escalation, which is used to express an anticipated growth in a budgeted cost due to factors such as inflation.

Cost is the value of money that has been used up to produce something, and hence is not available for use anymore. In business, the be one(?) of acquisition, in which case the amount of money expended to acquire it is counted as cost. In this case, money is the input that is gone in order to acquire the thing. This acquisition cost may be the sum of the cost of production as incurred by the original producer, and further costs of transaction as incurred by the acquirer over and above the price paid to the producer. Usually, the price also includes a mark-up for profit over the cost of production.

Fixed Cost are business expenses that are not dependent on the level of goods or services produced by the business. Direct labor and overhead are often called conversion cost, while direct material and direct labor are often referred to as prime cost.

Variable Cost are costs that change in proportion to the good or service that a business produces.

Direct costs are costs that can easily be associated with a particular cost object, describe something to which costs are assigned. Common examples of cost objects are: product lines, geographic territories, customers, departments or anything else for which management would like to quantify cost.

Expense is an outflow of money to another person or group to pay for an item or service, or for a category of costs. For a tenant, rent is an expense

Real versus Nominal Value in economics real value is relative to other commodities or goods. It is adjusted for inflation, enabling comparison of quantities as if prices had not changed. Changes in real terms therefore exclude the effect of inflation. In contrast with real value, nominal value is not adjusted for inflation, and so increases in nominal value reflect the effect of inflation.

Economic Impact Analysis examines the effect of an event on the economy in a specified area, ranging from a single neighborhood to the entire globe. It usually measures changes in business revenue, business profits, personal wages, and/or jobs. The economic event analyzed can include implementation of a new policy or project, or may simply be the presence of a business or organization. An economic impact analysis is commonly conducted when there is public concern about the potential impacts of a proposed project or policy. An economic impact analysis typically measures or estimates the change in economic activity between two scenarios, one assuming the economic event occurs, and one assuming it does not occur (which is referred to as the counterfactual case). This can be accomplished either before or after the event (ex ante or ex post).

Gift Economy - Sharing Economy

Why do Addictions often confuse our Value Judgment?

Work (jobs, employment) - Financial Advice

What is the Cost of Doing Nothing? What would the cost be if you did nothing? When deciding whether to invest now or make a sacrifice now, you have to consider what the cost would be if you did nothing? If the cost of doing nothing now, greatly exceeds what the cost will be in the future, then how do you calculate how much to pay now or invest now? All of the time, energy and resources that we use now, may be insignificant when compared to what we will have to pay in the future. So do we pay now, or do we pay much more in the future? Do we make some sacrifices now, or do we sacrifice everything later. Do we make the choices now, or do we live in a world without choices in the future? We can not just pass on our debts and our ignorance to future generations, we have stolen enough from our future generations. We can no longer afford to be selfish and irresponsible. Everyone on this planet is alive today because of millions of our ancestors throughout human history learned how to survive. That responsibility to survive is now ours. Life is counting on us. If we fail now, we fail everyone and everything. We inherited a lot of problems, but we also inherited a lot of knowledge. And knowledge is power. We either use it or we lose it.

Inactive is lacking in energy or will. Not exerting influence or change. Not progressing or increasing. Not participating. Lacking activity or lying idle or unused. Not active physically or mentally. Not in physical motion.

If something cost 1 million dollars now, but will save you 5 million dollars in ten years, then what is the true cost of the project if you do it now? What is the return on investment?

Money is not an accurate method or even a correct method to measure the importance of actions that we must all take to protect our world and protect human civilization. Only society should decide what it needs, not money. Any social service that depends on money is not a service. How can you have a needed human service depended on an inanimate object? It’s just so sad and so crazy to know that almost every person on the planet is manipulated and controlled by money, in some varying degrees of course, but still affected. How did we become so complacent and so unaware of the damage that we do to ourselves everyday in the name of money? It's like waking up from a bad dream. Remember how horrible it was when you got fooled and suckered by a scam or a con. But this time the con man is everywhere. Money is supposed to be just a tool and not a weapon of control. So what happened to us? Instead of pumping money into the economy to thwart off inflation, we should be pumping information and knowledge into the economy. Of course, we would first have to decide on the how, what, why, when and where that this particular information and knowledge should be. Because we have painfully learned from our past and our present, that when things get corrupted they cause more harm then good. To say that a country needs a growing economy is an out right lie and a very ignorant observation. A growing economy will always end in collapse. A country needs sustainability, intelligent management and Intelligent Design. There is no other way. Information and knowledge is our best defense. And knowing how to use that information correctly would be our best offence. A slow economy is just another way of saying that Corruption, Greed, Incompetence and Crime has increased.

"Money does not determine the worth, the cost or the value of something, money only determines the Price of something."

"Money is not a measure of success, just like owning more then one hammer does not make you a carpenter. The only accurate measure of success is positive output that has almost zero waste."

Calculating True Cost

Using money to measure value is like using a dipstick to measure how much oil costs the environment? It is very ignorant and almost criminal to judge the value of something using just money. You should only judge things by how much time, resources and people they use in the excavating process or the creating process. You also have to measure the amount of energy that the resource will ultimately provide and how it will be used. You also have to measure the environmental impact during excavating process or creating process. You have to measure the efficiency, the environmental impact during use, the recycling and reusing capabilities, and you have to measure how certain resources compare to other resources of similar properties. This information can be measured and used, so this needs to be public knowledge in order for the public to be aware of their choices. This is the only way of judging the true value of something. You have to ask what is the true cost of this? You can't answer that by using a dollar sign. How much time, how much resources and how many people? Then you have to figure impact, choices and priorities. When you use money in equations you confuse people and keep people from fully understanding the situation. I’m not saying to stop using money as a way to measure action. Sadly we still have to use money in this way to some extent. But if you understand the facts and understand the math of a particular problem, then money should always follow this logic, if not, then someone is lying or using the wrong math. When things can be correctly measured they can be better understood.

Measuring the Value of Money

We have to have a way, or a rating system, that would accurately explain if the Bitcoin, or money, was earned in a way that definitely benefited people, versus, in a way that definitely did not benefit people. I'm all for alternate currencies, as long as the currency can be easily identified as valuable, and honest. 

Similar to a Rating System for Food

“...when men live by Trade... it is the best product that wins, the best performance, the man of best judgment and highest ability...” - (Francisco d'Anconia  Atlas Shrugged(Part 2, Chapter 2, Page 411).

Supply Chain - Free Trade

“The symbol of all relationships among such men, the moral symbol of respect for human beings, is the Trader. We, who live by values, not by loot, are traders, both in matter and in spirit. A trader is a man who earns what he gets and does not give or take the undeserved.”  (John Galt  Atlas Shrugged (Part 3, Chapter 7, Page 1,022).

“...when you live in a rational society, where men are free to Trade, you receive an incalculable bonus: the material value of your work is determined not only by your effort, but by the effort of the best productive minds who exist in the world around you.” - (John Galt  Atlas Shrugged (Part 3, Chapter 7, Page 1,064).

Only ignorant people would force other people to do something pointless that is not necessary. Ignorance creates extra steps in society that wastes time, people and resources. If you are going to generate useless paper work you should print it on toilet paper so at the least it will provide something of value. Toilet Paper with information not Adds or Toilet Paper with words of wisdom.

To force people to make things just because you selfishly want them, and not because you actually need them, that is not just illogical it is also totally insane. And you wonder why people suffer? There's a big difference between Convenience and Necessity.

Measuring True Cost - Measuring Value

Quotes about Money - Sayings about Money

Just because you can doesn't mean you should. Is this the most logical choice based on your current needs?

Is Money Just another Addiction? What is the true cost of Luxury

TROM - 2.17 Beauty and Design (youtube)

"We should not have taxes, people should just a bill that clearly shows how the money is spent. This way a person can calculate how much they owe by the services they use."

Why does the cost of Insurance control our decisions? Why does it stop us from making improvements? Because we're idiots. Why will Insurance be unnecessary in the future? Racket.

The best insurance is friendships and families, because if there is no one to give money too, then your insurance is useless. This is one of the reasons why insurance does more harm then good because it degrades relationships. But it's not just insurance, it's more about the fact that money disconnects people from reality. So the root of the problem is still our inadequate and dysfunctional education system.

To be more Privileged or to have certain Entitlements cannot exist in Society for it only creates Discrimination and also abuses the less fortunate without justification. Of course certain people do need extra assistance, need better tools and require extra help from other people in order to be more productive in the service they provide. This is not the same as believing you have a right to a more spoiled and extravagant lifestyle just because you have more money or have a position of power. That is a very distorted understanding of life that has a very negative and destructive effect on other people and the planet. Showing Gratitude without money or power is more genuine. Maybe we should all be Praying for Time (song on youtube).

"If we don't educate people completely we will always have problems in our world, especially when money and power gives anyone the ability to commit murder and spread violence, as well as destroy land and pollute water. I don't know if you realize this but our money system has some horrible and deadly flaws. If we don't fix these flaws, making our world a better place will be impossible, and suffering, destruction and avoidable deaths will continue for as long as humans live.

Someone Saved My Life Tonight (youtube) but now the song is about capitalism....clinging to your stocks and bonds and paying your H.P. demands for ever... you nearly had me roped and tied...then sweet freedom whispered in my ear, you're a butterfly, and butterflies are free to away...Bye Bye

"You can ignore reality, but you can't ignore the consequences of ignoring reality." Ayn Rand

Instead of living with blood on your hands, how about living with unlimited potential in your hands, the potential that you can't see because it's covered by money and the blood of the people who gave their lives for it. I'm not blaming you, I want to help you, help you make things better. I know that a lot of the times you're just protecting yourself against all the other criminals in the world, and I know its hard to leave the game and just walk away from the table, but that's where it starts. And the more people who leave the game, then there will be less people to exploit. And then eventually the people who like to exploit people will become tired of playing games because there will be no more people who are willing to play the game with them. And when people stop playing this game of exploitation, that's when we'll be waiting for them to help them through this transition, a transition into a better world and a better life for everyone. I'm sure you would like to spend your time and energy on more productive objectives and enjoy life more freely. We all have Blood on their Hands

You can still have it all but at the same time still have nothing, so what are you really living for?

If you never learn the right things when you become broke, then you will end up making the same mistakes again. It was more then just thinking that I would always have a Job, so I would always find a way to pay my bills. And it was more then just mismanaging money. And it was more then just spending money that I didn't have. It was more then just getting bad loans. It was more then just the economy. It was more then just bad jobs that do more harm then good. It was more about being Brainwashed and manipulated into spending and buying things that I didn't need. I was manipulated into thinking that buying things was some how good for the Economy, and that Conspicuous Consumption and mindless consumerism was improving society. We have all been horribly mislead and misinformed, which is the fault of our biggest problem, which is our incompetent education system, and of course our sucky media too. I was so lucky that I went broke in 2007, but I was even more lucky to have learned about the problems with our Monetary System as well as our enormous problems in our Education System. So what seemed to be a failure turned out to be a blessing after all. Thank You God! Thank You Internet! My situation is unique now, I'm working a lot but I'm not getting paid enough to pay all my bills to this ignorant capitalistic society, which is another problem for me to solve, add that to the list.

"Nothing drives people more then having a purpose, not even money can inspire people more then having a purpose. But sadly there are too many people being driven by money instead of being driven by purpose, which leaves them totally unaware of the real reasons why they are doing what they are doing, and also, they are unaware of the side effects that are produced by their actions."

Educating People About Money

Work is work, right? Volunteering is considered work. So work is not just about the Money, it’s more about the Value of your Actions.

Morals and Ethics

Why does Money encourage ignorance and make people complacent with a false sense of security?
Am I insane, incoherent, corrupt or just a fool?

Money Documentaries

"You can't put a price on life, but you can measure the value life. You can measure how much a person gives, and how much a person takes. You can measure how many opportunities a person has had, You can measure how much education they were given. You can also measure the importance of a persons inventions and discoveries, actions that helped improve life, without degrading life in any way. Value can be measured, price can not be measured because money is an inanimate object."

"Money should not drive your decision making, because you will never be able to accurately calculate the real cost of your actions. There is cause and effect, there is good and bad, there is right or wrong, there is productive and non productive, and all those can be mathematically proven, this way our odds of success are greatly increased. To base our decisions only on money is to live without reason and purpose, which always leads to a lonely place filled with nightmares. And to that I say no thank you, I think I will stick to using logic to drive my decisions as much as humanly possible."

The Beatles - Can't Buy Me Love (Live) (youtube)

Reasons why money disconnects people from reality. Not to say that people doing things just for money is always wrong, it's just that it's not always right, and most people are not fully aware of the real cost of their actions. This is a huge disconnect that has devastating consequences. if we don't correct this, it will continue to kill people and continue to destroy and poison our world.

Too many people believe that saving their money is some how going to better their lives and make them more prepared for when they no longer feel the need to work. Saving time, saving resources and saving friendships are much more valuable and important in the long run. Invest in expanding your knowledge, because it's what you don't know that will do the most damage and cause the most problems. Encourage people to continue to learn and expand their knowledge of themselves and the world around them. knowing a little more each day, understanding a little more each day, enjoying life a little more each day.

Just because you paid a 100 dollars for electricity that does not say how much that energy cost. Just because you paid a 1 dollar for an apple that does not say how much that apple cost.

We can easily label a product with the cost as well as the price, the cost would included how much time, resources, and people it took to deliver this product to you. it would also include how much environmental damage the product caused, and what were the offsets of this damage if any. our world would gradually improve everyday.

Money is not something that should be controlling your actions, money should not tell you what you can and cannot do. Money is not a guide. What should be guiding you is your knowledge of the world. To live within your means is not about money, because money is not a calculation or a measurement of reality. Living within your means is about resources and understanding the cause and effects of your actions, actions that could hurt others or hurt yourself. Spending less then you earn does not tell me what you do for work or what you do with the money you earn, because both may be causing damage. Spending less or spending more is not doing less or doing more. You have to calculate and measure the effects of your actions, without using a dollar sign. Information and knowledge that proves your actions were the best actions to take based on our current understanding of the world. We waste too much and we pollute to much without taking in consideration the millions of people you will suffer from these bad decisions.

If people don't have enough information and knowledge to understand their world, how are the supposed to know what choices to make that would improve things and make life better.

There are millions of people around the world living better then kings did a 100 years ago. That's how much we improved the standard of living. And we are just beginning to realize the true cost of this standard of living. And we are also understanding the mistakes we made and the waste and abuse that we caused. Millions of kings sitting on their thrones enjoying their lifestyle, just as disconnected as real kings were 100 years ago. Except now it's a different, we can communicate much more easily then ever before. The Kings should all get together and make better choices and stop pretending that they will live forever.

"We learn the game. Then we learn how to cheat the game. So we think that we're smart. But we learned nothing important or valuable because it was just a game. So where was life? Life was in front of us the whole time. But we were too busy playing the game. So we never bothered to look up."

Debt - Bills Owed

Australia Government Gross Debt Debt refers to something that is owed or due either physically or metaphorically. In the physical sense, the parties to debt are lenders who are those who give and borrowers who are those who receive. In the metaphorical sense, debt refers to a moral obligation not based on physical value (e.g.: debt of gratitude).

Debt Bondage - Student Debt - Medical Debt Low Wage Debt - Background Checks - Discrimination - Inflation - Taxes - Housing Cost - Consumer Debt

Bill is an amount of money owed for goods supplied or services rendered, set out in a printed or written statement of charges.

Charge is the price charged for some article or service. Request for payment of a debt.

Accounting - Credit - Loans - Financial Aid

Invoice is a commercial document issued by a seller to a buyer, relating to a sale transaction and indicating the products, quantities, and agreed prices for products or services the seller had provided the buyer. Payment terms are usually stated on the invoice. These may specify that the buyer has a maximum number of days in which to pay and is sometimes offered a discount if paid before the due date. The buyer could have already paid for the products or services listed on the invoice. To avoid confusion, and consequent unnecessary communications from buyer to seller, some sellers clearly state in large and/or capital letters on an invoice whether it has already been paid. From the point of view of a seller, an invoice is a sales invoice. From the point of view of a buyer, an invoice is a purchase invoice. The document indicates the buyer and seller, but the term invoice indicates money is owed or owing.

Owed is something to be obliged to pay or repay.

Government Debt is the debt owed by a government. By contrast, the annual "Government Deficit" refers to the difference between government receipts and spending in a single year. Government debt can be categorized as internal debt (owed to lenders within the country) and external debt (owed to foreign lenders). Another common division of government debt is by duration until repayment is due. Short term debt is generally considered to be for one year or less, and long term debt is for more than ten years. Medium term debt falls between these two boundaries. A broader definition of government debt may consider all government liabilities, including future pension payments and payments for goods and services which the government has contracted but not yet paid. Governments create debt by issuing securities, government bonds and bills. Less creditworthy countries sometimes borrow directly from a supranational organization (e.g. the World Bank) or international financial institutions. In a monetarily sovereign country (such as the United States of America, the United Kingdom, Australia and most other countries, in contrast with eurozone countries), government debt held in the home currency are merely savings accounts held at her central bank. In this way this "debt" has a very different meaning than that of the debt acquired by households who are restricted by their income. Monetarily sovereign governments issue their own currencies and do not need this income to finance spending. In these self-financing nations, government debt is effectively an account of all the money that has been spent but not yet taxed back. Their ability to issue currency means they can always service the interest repayments on these savings accounts. This is why bonds and gilt-edged securities are considered the safest form of investment. A central government with its own currency can pay for its spending by creating money ex novo. In this instance, a government issues securities not to raise funds, but instead to remove excess bank reserves (caused by government spending that is higher than tax receipts) and '...create a shortage of reserves in the market so that the system as a whole must come to the [central] Bank for liquidity.' National Debt of the United States (wiki).

The U.S. is on track to hit its $31.4 trillion debt limit on January 19th, 2023. Treasury Secretary Janet Yellen formally warned Congress last week that the agency will have to start taking “extraordinary measures” to continue paying its bills and prevent the government from defaulting on its debts. The government’s cash and extraordinary measures are expected to last until June.

In 2021, global debt reached a record $303 trillion, a further jump from what was record global debt in 2020 of $226 trillion, as reported by the International Monetary Fund in its Global Debt Database.

Credit Card Debt in US tops $1 Trillion in 2023, and it will keep rising as workers and farmers increasingly have to wrack up more and more debt for food, car repairs, rising rents and mortgages and all kinds of family emergencies. Inflation and sharply higher interest rates imposed over the past year have made paying down credit cards even harder. According to Bankrate, 60% of those who carry a balance on their credit card — 54 million people — have been in debt for at least a year. These debts are assets for the bankers and capitalist investors who make big profits off the high interest rates they charge. The average interest rate on credit cards today is 20.53%, according to TransUnion. Nearly half of credit cardholders are permanently in debt, without any prospect of ever paying off their balance.

Pay Your Debt to Society is not just about serving time in prison as punishment for committing a crime and for doing something illegal, paying your debt to society is for the people who took more than they needed or who stole more than they needed at the expense of other people and at the expense of the planet. There is no greater debt than the one you owe to life. Debt is measured by the wealth you have and not just by the wealth you owe. There is no alternant reality or fantasy that could justify parasitic behavior in humans. You could pretend that parasitism doesn't exist, but that only proves your ignorance, it doesn't explain your behavior. By comparing the factual input to the factual output, you could accurately measure your debt or measure any surplus that you may have. This measurement is not based on dollars or money, but measured by reality based benefits and reality based negative side effects.

Government Bond is an instrument of indebtedness or bond issued by a national government to support government spending. It generally includes a commitment to pay periodic interest, called coupon payments, and to repay the face value on the maturity date. For example, a bondholder invests $20,000 (called face value) into a 10-year government bond with a 10% annual coupon; the government would pay the bondholder 10% of the $20,000 each year. At the maturity date the government would give back the original $20,000. Government bonds can be denominated in a foreign currency or the government's domestic currency. Countries with less stable economies tend to denominate their bonds in the currency of a country with a more stable economy (i.e. a hard currency). When governments with less stable economies issue bonds, there is a possibility they will be unable to make the interest payments and may default. All bonds carry a default risk. International credit rating agencies provide ratings for each country's bonds. Bondholders generally demand higher yields from riskier bonds. For instance, on May 24, 2016, 10-year government bonds issued by the Canadian government offered a yield of 1.34%, while 10-year government bonds issued by the Brazilian government offered a yield of 12.84%. When a government is close to default on its debt, the media often refer to this as a sovereign debt crisis.

Americas Debt owed to other Counties - Major Foreign Holders of U.S. Public Debt: As of October 2018, foreigners owned $6.2 trillion of U.S. debt, or approximately 39 percent of the debt held by the public of $16.1 trillion and 28 percent of the total debt of $21.8 trillion. At the close of 2018, the largest foreign holders were China ($1.13 trillion), Japan ($1.02 trillion), Brazil ($313 billion), and Ireland ($287 billion). Historically, the share held by foreign governments had grown over time, rising from 13 percent of the public debt in 1988 to 34 percent in 2015. In more recent years, foreign ownership has retreated both in percent of total debt and total dollar amounts. China's maximum holding of 9.1% or $1.3 trillion of US debt occurred in 2011, subsequently reduced to 5% in 2018. Japan's maximum holding of 7% or $1.2 trillion occurred in 2012, subsequently reduced to 4% in 2018.

External Debt is the total debt a country owes to foreign creditors; its complement is internal debt which is owed to domestic lenders. The debtors can be the government, corporations or citizens of that country. The debt includes money owed to private commercial banks, other governments, or international financial institutions such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank. Note that the use of gross liability figures greatly distorts the ratio for countries which contain major money centers such as the United Kingdom due to London's role as a financial capital. Contrast with net international investment position.

Internal Debt is the part of the total government debt in a country that is owed to lenders within the country. Internal debt's complement is external debt. Commercial banks, other financial institutions etc. constitute the sources of funds for the internal debts. Internal public debt owed by a government (money a government borrows from its citizens) is part of the country's national debt. It is a form of fiat creation of money, in which the government obtains finance not by creating it de novo, but by borrowing it. The money created is in the form of treasury securities or securities borrowed from the central bank. These may be traded but will only rarely be spent on goods and services. In this way, the expected increase in inflation due to the increase in national wealth is lower than if the government had simply created the money de novo and increased the more liquid forms of wealth (i.e., the money supply).

In the Red means that business is in debt and owes money. The red ink signifies financial losses for the business. It means that you have more expenses and bills than the money to pay them. In the Black means that business is making a profit.

Public Debt is how much a country owes to lenders outside of itself. These can include individuals, businesses, and even other governments. The term "public debt" is often used interchangeably with the term sovereign debt. Public debt usually only refers to national debt.

As of December 31, 2018, debt held by the public was $16.1 trillion and intragovernmental holdings were $5.87 trillion, for a total of $21.97 trillion. Debt held by the public was approximately 77% of GDP in 2017, ranked 43rd highest out of 207 countries. The Congressional Budget Office forecast in April 2018 that the ratio will rise to nearly 100% by 2028, perhaps higher if current policies are extended beyond their scheduled expiration date. The national debt can also be classified into marketable or non-marketable securities. Most of the marketable securities are Treasury notes, bills, and bonds held by investors and governments globally. The non-marketable securities are mainly the "government account series" owed to certain government trust funds such as the Social Security Trust Fund, which represented $2.82 trillion in 2017.

Odious Debt also known as illegitimate debt, is a legal theory that holds that the national debt incurred by a regime for purposes that do not serve the best interests of the nation, should not be enforceable. Get Out of Debt Free.

Debt-to-GDP Ratio is the ratio between a country's government debt (measured in units of currency) and its gross domestic product (GDP) (measured in units of currency per year). A low debt-to-GDP ratio indicates an economy that produces and sells goods and services sufficient to pay back debts without incurring further debt. Geopolitical and economic considerations – including interest rates, war, recessions, and other variables – influence the borrowing practices of a nation and the choice to incur further debt.

The Majority of the U.S. National Debt is owned by Social Security. The U.S. debt was $22 trillion as of February 11, 2019. Most headlines focus on how much the United States owes China, one of the largest foreign owners. What many people don’t know is that the Social Security Trust Fund, aka your retirement money, owns most of the national debt. Intragovernmental Debt. This is the portion of the federal debt owed to 230 other federal agencies. In December 2018, intergovernmental holdings totaled $5.9 trillion or 27 percent of the debt. Why would the government owe money to itself? Some agencies, like the Social Security Trust Fund, take in more revenue from taxes than they need. Rather than stick this cash under a giant mattress, these agencies buy U.S. Treasury's with it. By owning Treasury's, they transfer their excess cash to the general fund, where it is spent. Of course, one day they will redeem their Treasury notes for cash. The federal government will either need to raise taxes or issue more debt to give the agencies the money they will need. The Social Security Trust Fund and Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund - $2.798 trillion. Office of Personnel Management Retirement - $998 billion. Military Retirement Fund - $828 billion. This has become a big issue in funding our nation's defense and is only expected to grow. Medicare, which includes the Federal Hospital Insurance Trust Fund and the Federal Supplementary Medical Insurance Trust Fund - $308 billion. All other retirement funds - $287 billion. Cash on hand to fund federal government operations - $634 billion. Public Debt. The public holds the rest of the national debt of $16.1 trillion. Foreign governments and investors hold 30 percent of it. Individuals, banks, and investors hold 15 percent. The Federal Reserve holds 12 percent. Mutual funds hold 9 percent. State and local governments own 5 percent. The rest is held by pension funds, insurance companies, and Savings Bonds. The most recent complete breakdown from the U.S. Treasury is as of June 2018. The public debt was $15.6 trillion. It's in the Treasury Bulletin, Ownership of Federal Securities, Table OFS-2. Here is the breakdown: Foreign - $6.2 trillion. In June 2018, China owned $1.18 trillion of U.S. debt and Japan owned $1.03 trillion. That's more than one-third of foreign holdings. Federal Reserve - $2.46 trillion. Mutual funds - $1.8 trillion. State and local government, including their pension funds - $984 billion. Private pension funds - $600 billion. Banks - $674 billion. Insurance companies - $226 billion. U.S. savings bonds - $158 billion. Other holders such as individuals, government-sponsored enterprises, brokers and dealers, bank personal trusts and estates, corporate and non-corporate businesses, and other investors - $2.4 trillion. This debt is not only in Treasury bills, notes, and bonds but also in Treasury Inflation Protected Securities and special state and local government series securities. In June 2018, China owned $1.18 trillion of U.S. debt and Japan owned $1.03 trillion. That's more than one-third of foreign holdings. Federal Reserve - $2.46 trillion. As of December 31, 2018, debt held by the public was $16.1 trillion and intragovernmental holdings were $5.87 trillion, for a total of $21.97 trillion.

The U.S. Debt was $21.9 Trillion as of December 31, 2018. Each Taxpayer Owes About $400,000. Social Security Trust Fund, aka your retirement money, owns most of the national debt. China, one of the largest foreign owners. China owned $1.18 trillion of U.S. debt and Japan owned $1.03 trillion. With China's 2014 GDP being US$ 10,356.508 billion, this makes the government debt of China approximately US$ 4.3 trillion. The foreign debt of China, by June 2015, stood at around US$ 1.68 trillion, according to data from the country's State Administration of Foreign Exchange as quoted by the State Council. That's more than one-third of foreign holdings. The federal government's annual budget deficit is set to widen significantly in the next few years, and is expected to top $1 trillion in 2020 despite healthy economic growth, according to new projections from the nonpartisan Congressional Budget Office.

20 Nations in the world with the most Debt to GDP Ratios: United States – Total debt: $18,286,510,000,000  / United Kingdom – Total debt: $7,499,400,000,000  / France – Total debt: $5,250,608,000,000 / Germany – Total debt: $5,084,360,000,000 / Netherlands – Total debt: $4,124,640,000,000.

Countries with the Highest Debt-to-GDP Ratio: Japan 222.2% / Greece 179.4% / Lebanon 146.6% / Italy 132.5%.

National Debt says that the rich and powerful stole lots of money and are hoarding it. So the wealthy have the debt, but they expect the citizens to pay it back so they can keep the money they stole.

Ecological Debt refers to the accumulated debt of wealthier countries (from a defined date in the past until present) for having plundered poorer countries by the exploitation of their resources, the degradation of their natural habitat, the beggaring of local people and/or the free occupation of environmental space for waste discharge.

Environmental Debt is the ecological damage caused over time by a country in one or other countries or to ecosystems beyond national jurisdiction through its production and consumption patterns; and the exploitation or use of ecosystems over time by a country at the expense of the equitable rights to these ecosystems by other countries. Environmental Debt can also be the price for cleaning up soil, water and air that was contaminated by corporations who pollution them.

Public Service Loan Forgiveness - Paid to Learn - Public Good - Loans - Lending

Rearage is a legal term for that part of a debt which is overdue after missing one or more required payments.

Arrears in child support is a term that refers to past due child support owed to a custodial parent.

Solvency is the possession of assets in excess of liabilities and ability to pay one's debts. Insolvent.

Consumer Debt - Bankruptcy - Debt Collectors

Consumer Debt is the amount owed by consumers (as opposed to amounts owed by businesses or governments). It includes debts incurred on purchase of goods that are consumable and/or do not appreciate. In macroeconomic terms, it is debt which is used to fund consumption rather than investment. The most common forms of consumer debt are credit card debt, payday loans, and other consumer finance, which are often at higher interest rates than long-term secured loans, such as mortgages.

Student Debt Scam - Ponzi Scam - Indentured Servant

Fair Debt Collection Practices Act is a consumer protection amendment, establishing legal protection from abusive debt collection practices, to the Consumer Credit Protection Act, as Title VIII of that Act. The statute's stated purposes are: to eliminate abusive practices in the collection of consumer debts, to promote fair debt collection, and to provide consumers with an avenue for disputing and obtaining validation of debt information in order to ensure the information's accuracy. The Act creates guidelines under which debt collectors may conduct business, defines rights of consumers involved with debt collectors, and prescribes penalties and remedies for violations of the Act. It is sometimes used in conjunction with the Fair Credit Reporting Act. Sewer Service is a long-running practice where debt collectors fail to serve complaints on debtors, and later falsely certify to courts that service was made and that the cases have merit. Sewer service often ends in default judgments because debtors do not know to appear in court. It can lead to bank account seizures, wage garnishments and ruined credit scores.

Procedural Violations examples are failure to give notice of rights, planned meetings through prior written notice. Failure to adhere to state-mandated timelines.

Debt Collectors use the courts to collect money. In 2014, the industry filed roughly 20,000 lawsuits in Maryland and more than 67,000 in New York, according to court records. Most of the time people are not even aware they have been sued by a debt collector, so people don't show up to court, and then judges vote in favor of the debt collector. Nice scam scumbags.

Debt Shaming should be about the cost of a persons actions that the world suffered from, and not about money, which is just the price paid for something and not a measured value of inputs and outputs.

Bankruptcy is a legal process through which people or other entities who cannot repay debts to creditors may seek relief from some or all of their debts. In most jurisdictions, bankruptcy is imposed by a court order, often initiated by the debtor. Bankrupt is not the only legal status that an insolvent person may have, and the term bankruptcy is therefore not a synonym for insolvency.

Bankruptcy: Last Week Tonight with John Oliver (HBO) (youtube) - John Oliver details why people file for bankruptcy, how needlessly difficult the process can be, and the ways we can better serve people struggling with debt. 800,000 to 1.3 million people claim bankruptcy every year in America. Profit.

Debt Restructuring is a process that allows a private or public company, or a sovereign entity facing cash flow problems and financial distress to reduce and renegotiate its delinquent debts in order to improve or restore liquidity so that it can continue its operations.

Negotiable Instrument is a document guaranteeing the payment of a specific amount of money, either on demand, or at a set time, with the payer named on the document. Bills of Exchange.

Banking Arrangement is a private or court-mediated agreement between a debtor and unsecured creditors, under which the creditors agree to settle for a certain fraction of monies owed by the debtor. When it is a voluntary agreement, it is properly called a scheme of arrangement and is governed by the ordinary law of contract.

Voluntary Agreement or voluntary arrangement, is where an insolvency procedure allows a company with debt problems or that is insolvent to reach a voluntary agreement with its business creditors regarding repayment of all, or part of its corporate debts over an agreed. Company Voluntary Arrangement (wiki).

Individual Voluntary Arrangement is a formal alternative for individuals wishing to avoid bankruptcy.

Insolvency is the state of being unable to pay the money owed, by a person or company, on time; those in a state of insolvency are said to be insolvent. There are two forms: cash-flow insolvency and balance-sheet insolvency.

Deleveraging refers to the reduction of the leverage ratio, or the percentage of debt in the balance sheet of a single economic entity, such as a household or a firm. It is the opposite of leveraging, which is the practice of borrowing money to acquire assets and multiply gains and losses.

Negative Equity occurs when the value of an asset used to secure a loan is less than the outstanding balance on the loan. In the United States, assets (particularly real estate, whose loans are mortgages) with negative equity are often referred to as being "underwater", and loans and borrowers with negative equity are said to be "upside down".

Controlling and Manipulating People using a debtors prison, and debt does not have to be an actual prison.

Merit Good is a commodity which is judged that an individual or society should have on the basis of some concept of need, rather than ability and willingness to pay.

Zero-Sum Game is a mathematical representation of a situation in which each participant's gain (or loss) of utility is exactly balanced by the losses (or gains) of the utility of the other participant(s). If the total gains of the participants are added up and the total losses are subtracted, they will sum to zero. Thus cutting a cake, where taking a larger piece reduces the amount of cake available for others, is a zero-sum game if all participants value each unit of cake equally. Winning.

Profit - Greed - Overindulgence - Extravagance

Profit is the excess of revenues over outlays in a given period of time, including depreciation and other non-cash expenses.

is a quantity much larger than is needed, or taking more than is needed, desired, or required. Excessive indulgence or immoderation is being excessive and lacking in moderation and going beyond sufficient or permitted limits.

Greed is excessive desire to acquire or possess more wealth and material than one needs or deserves. Reprehensible or strong disapproval for the acquisitiveness or a strong desire to acquire and possess. Insatiable or impossible to satisfy the desire for wealth. An unsustainable behavior that has consequences.

What's In It For Me - Moloch Trap - Selfishness - Negligence - Externalities - Deadly Sins - Bonuses - Over Eating - Hoarding - Spoiled - Paradox of Our Time - Scams - Corruption - Wealth Divide - Poverty - Living Wage

Love of Money is condemned as a sin for being greedy and having is an insatiable desire for material gain or social value, such as status, or power.

Almighty Dollar is an idiom often used to satirize the obsession with material wealth. The phrase implies that money is a kind of deity. In God we Trust?

Bottom Feeder is an opportunist who seeks quick profit usually at the expense of others or from their misfortune. Ambulance Chasers.

Money is a form of power. But having too much money can be a vulnerability and be a potential risk. It can also be considered to be a weakness in the system and be a possible threat to its stability. Like Pandora's box, you need to be careful what you wish for.

There's nothing wrong with profit, just as long as the profit is not considered to be a form of theft or hording or waste or abuse, and does not increase risk or decrease safety. Profit should be the end result of a process where a person or company was able to produce more than what was taken. If you use time, people and resources, what you produce from that input should actually give more benefit than the value of the resource by itself. That is a profit. The positives should be accurately calculated as being more beneficial than the known negatives. And the end result should also be more beneficial than doing nothing at all with the resource. Most people know that the price of something is not always an accurate measurement of the output. So if you think that you have earned your money, then just show us the numbers without using any of those fraudulent accounting techniques that some people like to use. There's nothing wrong with paying people a good salary for high quality work. What's wrong is when people take more than they have earned. Inflation is a wealth grab.

"A man's worth is no greater than the worth of his ambitions." or, "A man's ambition should never exceed his worth." This is a perspective about individual value and aspiration that says the value or the significance of an individual isn't solely defined by their material possessions, their social status, or even their past accomplishments. If you want to be rich more then your worth as a person, then your actual value will be low. But if your aspirations are virtuous, then you will have a high value as a person. - Marcus Aurelius Antoninus.

Taxing the Rich is not as affective as stopping greedy people from taking more than their fair share. If you allow greedy people to be more wealthier than governments and states, and if these wealthy citizens don't care about other citizens, then you have a wealth grab that does more harm than good. Unchecked greed can destabilized countries while citizens become marginalized. When individuals are allowed to take more money than they need, citizens will always have less to live on, which results in poverty, crime, bad health, decreased productivity, decreased security and so on. That's not capitalism, that's theft at everyone's expense. Everything that wealthy people have is from other people. It's selfish and narrow minded to think that wealthy people deserve it or earned it. Wealthy people have no argument, just lame excuses and lies.

Money and goods are symbols of human labor, work that has a measureable value. But someone on the supply chain gets to profit from the work of thousands of men and women. Some people take the value of a 100,000 man hours as if they can prove that they have done the work of a thousand men working for 100 hours, with most of them being paid a minimum wage. Is it a math trick or just a trick? The real shareholders are the people who worked hard to create that value and potential. Use it in good faith. It takes a lot of time, effort and resources to produce a product and provide a service. And the worker needs to be paid a fair price for their work. Everyone needs to be paid for their time, their effort and the resources they use. And people need insurance too, so they can survive when a disaster strikes or when problems arise. And we have to consider the fact that certain type of work is more valuable than other types of work. But all these middlemen want a piece of the action, which causes price wars, bidding and haggling. And hardly no one provides any facts or truth about the transactions. So your supposed to just shut up and except what you get. This system is deeply flawed. Why would wealthy people want more money? Maybe the reason is that the more money the wealthy have, the less money that other people will have. Increasing their power while at the same time decreasing your power. And when lots of people are poor and have to struggle to survive, it's easy to enslave them, it's easy to control them with debt, it's easy to make them addicted to material things, and it's easy to keep them poor by making everything expensive and over priced, such as healthcare and college tuition. So in this system, poor people can be forced to work jobs that would be more beneficial for the wealthy, but not so beneficial for the workers, or for the communities. Keep them poor and wanting more and you will always have workers and soldiers to do your biding. Keep them ignorant and keep them entertained, and you will always have enough puppets and pawns to play with. But this idea is not playing out so well. The curtain is falling. A lot of people can see you now, with the word "you" meaning, "the problem", which is now more visible. It's time to make America a democracy again.

Unjust Enrichment occurs when one person is enriched at the expense of another in circumstances that the law sees as unjust. Where an individual is unjustly enriched, the law imposes an obligation upon the recipient to make restitution, subject to defences such as change of position. Liability for an unjust (or unjustified) enrichment arises irrespective of wrongdoing on the part of the recipient. The concept of unjust enrichment can be traced to Roman law and the maxim that "no one should be benefited at another's expense": nemo locupletari potest aliena iactura or nemo locupletari debet cum aliena iactura. The law of unjust enrichment is closely related to, but not co-extensive with, the law of restitution. The law of restitution is the law of gain-based recovery. It is wider than the law of unjust enrichment. Restitution for unjust enrichment is a subset of the law of restitution in the same way that compensation for breach of contract is a subset of the law relating to compensation. Was the defendant enriched? Was the enrichment at the expense of the claimant? Was the enrichment unjust? Does the defendant have a defense? What remedies are available to the claimant?

Overindulgence is having too much of something enjoyable, like food, drink, drugs, money, television or sex. An excessive desire, craving, or habit.

Indulgence is an inability to resist the gratification of whims and desires. A foolish or senseless behavior.

Extravagance is the quality of exceeding the appropriate limits of decorum, probability or truth. Thoughtless excessive spending.

is being recklessly wasteful. Extravagant is lacking restraint and foresight in spending money or using a resource.

Privileged - Unsustainable - Spoiled Brats - Showing Off - Unhealthy Attachments - Addiction - Profits - Stairway to Heaven

Decadence is the moral decline or a cultural deviation as characterized by excessive indulgence in pleasure or luxury. A decay in standards, morals, dignity, religious faith, honor, discipline, or skill at governing among the members of the elite of a very large social structure, such as an empire or nation state. (Decadence should not to be confused with celebration, it's more related to letting off steam in the wrong direction.)

Opulence is wealth as evidenced by sumptuous living. Great wealth or luxuriousness. Rich and superior in quality.

Debasing is to be corrupt morally by excessive behavior in action and immoderate indulgence of bodily appetites. To lower something in value by replacing valuable ingredients with inferior ones.

Luxury is something that is an indulgence rather than a necessity. The quality possessed by something that is excessively expensive or that the cost exceeds the benefits. The state of great comfort and extravagant living.

Materialist is someone obsessed with material possessions more than life itself.

Materialism is a desire for wealth and material possessions with little interest in ethical or spiritual matters, and without accountability or responsibility for the actual cost. Materialism is a personal attitude which attaches importance to acquiring and consuming material goods. The use of the term materialistic tends to describe a person's personality or a society tends to have a negative or critical connotation. Also called acquisitiveness, it is often associated with a value system which regards social status as being determined by affluence or conspicuous consumption, as well as the belief that possessions can provide happiness. Environmentalism can be considered a competing orientation to materialism. Materialism can be considered a pragmatic form of enlightened self-interest based on a prudent understanding of the character of market-oriented economy and society. Using two measures of subjective well-being, one study found that materialism was negatively related to happiness, meaning that people who tended to be more materialistic were also less happy. When people derive a lot of pleasure from buying things and believe that acquiring material possessions are important life goals, they tend to have lower life satisfaction scores. Materialism also positively correlates with more serious psychological issues like depression, narcissism and paranoia. However, the relationship between materialism and happiness is more complex. The direction of the relationship can go both ways. Individual materialism can cause diminished well-being or lower levels of well-being can cause people to be more materialistic in an effort to get external gratification. Instead, research shows that purchases made with the intention of acquiring life experiences such as going on a family vacation make people happier than purchases made to acquire material possessions such as an expensive car. Even just thinking about experiential purchases makes people happier than thinking about material ones.

Materialistic is excessively concerned with material possessions and the money to buy such possessions.

"Material wealth is neither good or bad, it's how you use it."

How does materialism in social media trigger stress and unhappiness? Clothes, cars, travel, followers: People with a materialistic mindset always want more and, above all, more than others. Social media provides them with ideal opportunities to compare themselves with others, which makes them susceptible to passive and addictive user behavior. This stresses them out and, ultimately, leads to low life satisfaction. This downward spiral, which turns materialists into less happy people, was identified in an online survey of over 1,200 participants.

Keeping up with the Joneses is the comparison to one's neighbor as a benchmark for social class or the accumulation of material goods. To fail to "keep up with the Joneses" is perceived as demonstrating socio-economic or cultural inferiority. Conspicuous consumption occurs when people care about their standard of living in relation to their peers.

Waste is useless or profitless activity; using or expending or consuming thoughtlessly or carelessly. Inefficiently or inappropriately. The trait of wasting resources. Lose vigor and health, become weaker. Waste Law.

Prodigal is spending money or resources freely, recklessly, wastefully and extravagantly.

Profligate is recklessly extravagant or wasteful in the use of resources.

Scrounge is to seek to obtain money at the expense of others or through the generosity of others, or by stealth. To obtain something of moderate or inconsequential value from another. To acquire by such dubious ways as habitual borrowing, begging, foraging, scavenging, pilfering, etc; cadge, mooch. Obtain or seek to obtain by cadging or wheedling or tries to get something for free. Be a parasite, sponge or leech.

Immoderate is not being sensible or restrained, to a point that you're excessive.

Improvident is not having or showing foresight.

No one does it alone. Everyone Stands on the Shoulders of Giants. Wealth and money are symbols of work done by millions of people. So why do certain people think that they deserve a lot more money than the person next to them? How would you justify taking more than the other 90%, other than knowing that there are laws that allow you to take much more than needed? If the end result of wealth grabbing is mostly creating more crime and creating more corruption and creating more waste and creating more abuse, then we seriously need to make some changes to the laws, and of course improve education. Wealthy people are not bad people. It's just that too many bad people become wealthy. Just like with power, powerful people are not bad people, it's just that too many bad people are put into positions of authority. Not knowing any better seems to be a problem.

Earn is to acquire or deserve by one's own efforts or actions. Simple Living.

Price Gouging in any form is a criminal act and pure corruption to the core. There is no valid reasoning what so ever. You are willfully negligent in knowing that you are doing more harm than good. Imagine trying to explain to your friends and family that you killed innocent people just because you made some extra money from doing it. How do you live with yourself? I guess it's easy to live with yourself when you believe that the self is the only thing alive. You're not connected with yourself, you're not connected to reality, and you're not connected with life, though life suffers from your existence. You're killing us, yet we grow in numbers, and we are growing an awareness. We forgive, but we will never forget. Because if we do forget our past mistakes, this horrible behavior in human history will keep repeating itself. Human nature us being systematically disrupted. Education is dumbed down, the media is propagandized, and people have no access to factual information or access to valuable information that they can use to improve their communities. We are failing is so many ways. But at least some of us know about these failures and we are making others aware of these failures.

Offshore Accounts - Tax Evasion - War Profiteering - Capitol Flight

Skimming is slang for taking cash "off the top" of the daily receipts of a business (or from any cash transaction involving a third interested party) and officially reporting a lower total.

Carried Interest Loophole is a share of the profits of an investment paid to the investment manager in excess of the amount that the manager contributes to the partnership, specifically in alternative investments (private equity and hedge funds). It is a performance fee, rewarding the manager for enhancing performance.

Defalcation is misappropriation of funds by a person trusted with its charge.

The Oligarchs - Al Jazeera Investigations (youtube) - The web of offshore companies and international lawyers who are stealing money and moving it around like a shell game to avoid criminal charges. Company Formation Agents.

Suspicious Activity Report is a document that financial institutions must file with the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN) following a suspected incident of money laundering or fraud. These reports are required under the United States Bank Secrecy Act (BSA) of 1970. Front Men.

You say that you deserve more then others, but you don't have a disability. Humans should have the ability to accumulate wealth, but not at other peoples expense. This type of power in the wrong hands always ends with death and destruction. So we don't want to take away peoples freedom, we just want people to have a license and accreditation that proves they know how to control the corrupting influences of money. We don't want an idiot behind the wheel of a car when they have not yet learned how to drive.

Greed is a disease of the mind. Just like most addictions, greed is not necessary. Greed is not human nature. Greed is illogical. Greed is a sin because it does more harm than good. Greed is not about human survival. Greed is pure ignorance. Greed is a twisted ego.

We need to stop using profit as a reward for stealing, or using money as a reason for stealing. This behavior is completely insane! It's as if we have minds of children. Our brains fully developed, but we forgot about the software, we ignored the most important aspect of having a computer between our ears, and that is having software that works great and produces positive results. We have millions of people working on computer software, but hardly anyone working on Human Software. The value of the resource would be measured by the most beneficial output that we can get from this resource. So if you use the resource for something else, then you have to prove that the process you are planning to do has more benefits then all other options available. You cannot derive a benefit from something if the cost and the negatives are more. Using money to justify a crime is insane. You're embezzling more then just money, your stealing resources, time and potential. Excessive Wealth is not only bad, it's totally unnecessary. You don't need to steal more then you need because there's plenty for everybody.

Profit Motive is the motivation of firms that operate so as to maximize their profits.

Profit Maximization is the short run or long run process by which a firm determines the price and output level that returns the greatest profit.

Profit Sharing refers to various incentive plans introduced by businesses that provide direct or indirect payments to employees that depend on company's profitability in addition to employees' regular salary and bonuses. In publicly traded companies these plans typically amount to allocation of shares to employees. The profit sharing plans are based on predetermined economic sharing rules that define the split of gains between the company as a principal and the employee as an agent. (explain that).

Bailout is financial help to a corporation or country which otherwise would be on the brink of failure or bankruptcy. A bailout could be done for profit motives.

Bankruptcy is a legal status of a person or other entity who cannot repay debts to creditors, which is a party (e.g., person, organization, company, or government) that has a claim on the services of a second party. It is a person or institution to whom money is owed. In most jurisdictions, bankruptcy is imposed by a court order, often initiated by the debtor, which is an entity that owes a debt to another entity.

Using more Resources does not always mean that you are doing more or accomplishing more. There's a big difference between being Productive and being Wasteful and Abusive. Productive can be Sustainable, wasteful could never be Sustainable.

Executive Order 6102 is an Executive Order forbidding the Hoarding of gold coin, gold bullion, and gold certificates within the continental United States". (April 5, 1933, by President Franklin D. Roosevelt).

There's enough for everyone, but the problem is that some people believe they deserve more then others. This goes way beyond Hoarding, this is a Disease of the MindTheft.

If we consume more then we make, then profit is a lie and shareholders is a lie. Profit and shareholders are words that rich scumbags use to replace the word theft. Profit at whose expense? Pay shareholders at whose expense? That's theft, that is stealing, and you can't pretend otherwise. You're lying to yourself and you're lying to everyone else. That is like saying that a hired killer has the right to commit murder just because they were paid a fee.

Working to Provide Public Service - Public Good

Mostly all profit is nothing more then Blood Money. So it's time for people of this earth to be compensated for these crimes and the violence committed in the name of profit and money.

Non-Profit (social progress)

Profit is like saying that murder is just helping people sleep for a long time. Profit is like saying that slavery is helping people work and have jobs, minus human rights and freedoms of course.

Prospect Theory describes the way people choose between probabilistic alternatives that involve risk, where the probabilities of outcomes are known. The theory states that people make decisions based on the potential value of losses and gains rather than the final outcome, and that people evaluate these losses and gains using certain heuristics, which are are mental shortcuts that usually involve focusing on one aspect of a complex problem and ignoring others.

There is hardly any companies in the world that truly understands what true cost is. Corporations and Governments steal and murder and then they point the finger at someone else.

Transference - Externalizing

"We don't have a system that shares the wealth, we have a system where people are allowed to steal the wealth."

Saying that there's no money in it is a false statement. It's just that people don't care, and the people who do care, have no support to do what is needed. The current system is flawed.

It's not how much money you make in your life, it's how much you do with your life. Did your life benefit people? Did the actions in your life improve life for others? Did you make things better? Or did you make things worse? To measure a persons true value you have to measure them by their actions and the results from those actions. You can't use money to measure a persons value because it does not explain all the details of that transaction. Do the Math, do the Research and Calculate True Value.

Company Founder is paying a new Maximum Wage, 70,000 a Year

Equal pay for the 99% (living wage)

People who take more, sometimes give more, which is not giving, it's just feeling guilty because you have taken more then you needed, and now you want to give some back. And people call that generosity? 

"Not taking more then you need is the purest form of giving." 

"Everything changes hands sooner or later, but you don't want things to fall into the wrong hands."

A License to Spend Freely. The main problem with money is how money is used. We need a way to Certify that says that your money is clean and was not earned by hurting people, or by hurting the water, food, air or soil. And also that you are spending money wisely so as not to cause damage to yourself, or to others, or to the water, food, air or soil. This way businesses and people can easily discriminate against as*holes, or people who have no conscience, respect, or just lack certain knowledge. Of course it would have to be voluntary, but I assume that many people would want be certified, just out of respect.

Rating System for Food

Everyone knows that you don't need to be a millionaire in order to be happy. Everyone knows that you don't need a lot to be happy. The less you have to worry about the better off you will be. Simplifying our lives is how we survived for thousands of years. It's only when people take too much, or complicate things to much, that's when they set them selves up for a collapse and failure. You need to have a full understanding of a life style that can survive any where, no matter what the conditions. So you see, knowledge becomes the most important factor when it comes to Survival. If you had to put everything that you need to live in a backpack, what would those items be? Like running out of a burning building, no material object is more important then your life. But if you did have a couple of minutes to spare, would that be enough time to figure out what are the most important items you would take. Steve Martin scene in the movie The Jerk. This you should already know, you need to have a life starting over kit. Or know of someone who can deliver you a kit when needed. And that's why our relationships and connections are really our life line. 99% of us can not survive on our own without some help and support. So even material objects are not as important as each other, our problems are not money related, our problems are with "us".

Why does money turn people into robots? Why does money make people dumb and unaware? Paul Piff: Does Money Make you Mean? (video) - Sports and Money.

Unhealthy Attachments

We are dependent on something's, but we don't want certain dependencies to turn into obsessions for things that we are not truly dependent on, like trivial material possessions, or money, or unhealthy foods, or unhealthy drugs, or unhealthy thoughts, or any unhealthy habits that do more harm than good. Materialistic.

Understanding Needs - Consumerism - Profits - Hoarding - Addictions - Paradox of Our Time

Everyone must understand the transitory nature of material life and that all things must come and go. Here today and gone tomorrow. We must see things as they are, so as to avoid creating unhealthy attachments to things, and stop creating unhealthy attachments to certain thoughts, and stop creating unhealthy attachments to certain people, because some relationships can cause more harm than good. Sand Mandala.

Unhealthy Attachment is when someone is excessively concerned with material possessions or the acquisition of wealth. Clinging to the past, or having an obsession with the future. Allowing our possessions to define us or entrap us. Fearing loss. Attaching yourself to hopes and dreams in a way that excuses you from fixing things. Fundamentalist.

Obsessed or Addicted is to continually preoccupied with things that intrude the mind uninvited. Compulsively or physiologically dependent on something that is inconsistent with reason or logic. An unhealthy and compulsive preoccupation with something or someone. An irrational motive for performing trivial or repetitive actions, even against your will. Biased - Subjective.

Detachment in philosophy or Non-attachment, is a state in which a person overcomes his or her attachment to desire for things, people or concepts of the world and thus attains a heightened perspective. Detachment as release from desire and consequently from suffering. Going back to simpler times.

Child Development (good examples and effects on children) - Living within your Means.

Psychology of Collecting is an area of study that seeks to understand the motivating factors why people devote great amounts of time, money, and energy making and maintaining collections. For people who collect, the value of their collections are not monetary but emotional. The collections allow people to relive their childhood, connect themselves to a period or to a time they feel strongly about. Their collections help them ease insecurity and anxiety about losing a part of themselves and to keep the past to continue to exist in the present. Some collect for the thrill of the hunt. For these collectors, collecting is a quest, a lifelong pursuit which can never be completed. Collecting may provide psychological security by filling a part of the self one feels is missing or is void of meaning. When one collects, one experiments with arranging, organizing, and presenting a part of the world which may serve to provide a safety zone, a place of refuge where fears are calmed and insecurity is managed. Motives are not mutually exclusive, rather, different motives combine for each collector for a multitude of reasons.

Hoarding - Offshore Accounts - Tax Evasion

Hoarding is a pattern of behavior that is characterized by excessive acquisition or over consumption and an inability or unwillingness to discard large quantities of objects that can cause significant distress or impairment. Compulsive Hoarding behavior has been associated with health risks, impaired functioning, economic burden, and adverse effects on friends and family members. When clinically significant enough to impair functioning, hoarding can prevent typical uses of space, enough so that it can limit activities. Compulsive hoarders may be aware of their irrational behavior, but the emotional attachment to the hoarded objects far exceeds the motive to discard the items. What if your body never got rid of its waste?

Dark Money - Unhealthy Attachments - Pack Rat (wiki) - Not the same as Saving - Corporate Welfare - Bailouts - Tax Breaks - Predatory Lending - Kickbacks - debt - Corruption - Money Laundering - Tax Evasion - Means, Motive and Opportunity

It's hard sometimes to give stuff away, it's even harder to throw things away. When we know something still has value, we don't want to throw it away, we would rather find this thing a good home so it can be utilized in some productive way.

What is it with you Pirates and your Buried Treasures? I thought you would have grown out of that by now.

Buried Treasure is when criminals often bury their stolen fortunes in remote places, intending to return for them later, often with the use of treasure maps, or offshore bank account numbers.

Piracy is an act of robbery or criminal violence with the goal of stealing cargo and other valuable items or properties.

Porch Pirate is criminal that steals delivered packages that are left on doorsteps or on front porches of peoples homes. More than 25 million Americans have their packages stolen right from their doorsteps by porch pirates each year. Middlemen.

My Precious! (youtube) - Hording is not the same thing as a savings account.

Robber Baron is a person who uses illegal, immoral and unethical methods to steal money and steal the wealth of citizens. Charging illegal tolls and high unfair prices for goods and services.

Cache is a hidden storage space for money, provisions or weapons. A secret store of valuables or money. Save up as for future use. Cache in computing is RAM memory that is set aside as a specialized buffer storage that is continually or store temporarily in memory or disk for quick re-use later.

Foraging is the act of searching for food and provisions. To look around for food and collect food. Wander and feed.

Offshore Bank is a bank regulated under international banking license (often called offshore license), which usually prohibits the bank from establishing any business activities in the jurisdiction of establishment. Due to less regulation and no transparency, accounts with offshore banks were often used to hide undeclared income. Since the 1980s, jurisdictions that provide financial services to nonresidents on a big scale, can be referred to as offshore financial centres. Since OFCs often also levy little or no tax corporate and/or personal income and offer, they are often referred to as Tax Havens. Reasons for having an offshore bank account includes the potential for tax benefits, asset protection, convenience, security, privacy, and higher interest rates. offshore bank accounts can be for both personal and business purposes. The most common and straightforward method for starting an offshore account is to simply wire the money from your onshore bank account, or your existing offshore account to the new offshore account. Can I put money in a suitcase and show up in the Virgin Islands? Transporting any amount of cash is legal in most countries, most law-abiding citizens don’t carry large amounts of cash over borders. Those who do often make customs officials suspicious enough to go so far as to confiscate your cash. Foreign Bank and Financial Accounts or FBAR. The IRS can find your foreign bank account. So it's advised that you to seek assistance and correct the FBAR non-reporting issue with the IRS as soon as possible before the IRS offers their solution for FBAR reporting noncompliance. 

Offshore Leaks (Blacklight) - Dark Money

Tax Haven is a country or place with very low "effective" rates of taxation for foreign investors ("headline" rates may be higher). In some traditional definitions, a tax haven also offers financial secrecy. However, while countries with high levels of secrecy but also high rates of taxation (e.g. the United States and Germany in the Financial Secrecy Index ("FSI") rankings) can feature in some tax haven lists, they are not universally considered as tax havens. In contrast, countries with lower levels of secrecy but also low "effective" rates of taxation (e.g. Ireland in the FSI rankings), appear in most § Tax haven lists. The consensus around effective tax rates has led academics to note that the term "tax haven" and "offshore financial centre" are almost synonymous.

Tax Evasion is the illegal evasion of taxes by individuals, corporations, and trusts. Tax evasion often entails taxpayers deliberately misrepresenting the true state of their affairs to the tax authorities to reduce their tax liability, and it includes dishonest tax reporting, such as declaring less income, profits or gains than the amounts actually earned, or overstating deductions. Tax evasion is an activity commonly associated with the informal economy. One measure of the extent of tax evasion (the "tax gap") is the amount of unreported income, which is the difference between the amount of income that should be reported to the tax authorities and the actual amount reported. In contrast, tax avoidance is the legal use of tax laws to reduce one's tax burden. Both tax evasion and tax avoidance can be viewed as forms of tax noncompliance, as they describe a range of activities that intend to subvert a state's tax system, but such classification of tax avoidance is disputable since avoidance is lawful in self-creating systems.

Tax Avoidance is the legal usage of the tax regime in a single territory to one's own advantage to reduce the amount of tax that is payable by means that are within the law. Tax sheltering is very similar, although unlike tax avoidance tax sheltering is not necessarily legal. Tax havens are jurisdictions which facilitate reduced taxes.

Tax Exporting occurs when a country (or other jurisdiction) shifts its tax burden (partially) abroad. For example, if residents of country A hold shares of a company in country B, the government in B might want to levy an inefficiently high tax on this company's profits since the tax is partially borne by the shareholders in A. Tax exporting does not necessarily involve direct taxation of foreign residents. It can also work through other economic channels, such as price changes.

Tax Breaks are a method of reduction to the tax liability of taxpayers.

Tax Deduction is an amount deducted from taxable income, usually based on expenses such as those incurred to produce additional income.

Tax Abatement is the reduction of taxes, or an exemption from taxes. Taxes that are reduced that are granted by a government for a specified period of time. A tax incentive is a form of tax abatement, which is usually a way to encourage certain activities such as investment in capital equipment or buildings.

Tax Credit allows certain taxpayers to subtract the amount of the credit they have accrued from the total they owe the state.

Tax Exemption is the reduction or removal of a liability to make a compulsory payment that would otherwise be imposed by a ruling power upon persons, property, income, or transactions.

55 Corporations Paid $0 in Federal Taxes on 2020 Profits. At least 55 of the largest corporations in America paid no federal corporate income taxes in their most recent fiscal year despite enjoying substantial pretax profits in the United States

Are New Spart Stadiums Worth the Cost? Most bonds issued by government agencies are tax-exempt. This means interest on these bonds are excluded from gross income for federal tax purposes.

Stadium Subsidy is a type of government subsidy given to professional sports franchises to help finance the construction or renovation of a sports venue. Stadium subsidies can come in the form of tax-free municipal bonds, cash payments, long-term tax exemptions, infrastructure improvements, and operating cost subsidies. Funding for stadium subsidies can come from all levels of government and remains controversial among legislators and citizens.

Unreported Employment is employment that is not reported to the government. The employer or the employee often does so for tax evasion or to avoid or violate other laws. It is a part of what has been called the underground economy, or the non-observed economy. (also known as working under the table, off the books, or cash-in-hand).

Capital Flight in economics, occurs when assets or money rapidly flow out of a country, due to an event of economic consequence. Such events could be an increase in taxes on capital or capital holders or the government of the country defaulting on its debt that disturbs investors and causes them to lower their valuation of the assets in that country, or otherwise to lose confidence in its economic strength. This leads to a disappearance of wealth, and is usually accompanied by a sharp drop in the exchange rate of the affected country—depreciation in a variable exchange rate regime, or a forced devaluation in a fixed exchange rate regime. This fall is particularly damaging when the capital belongs to the people of the affected country, because not only are the citizens now burdened by the loss in the economy and devaluation of their currency, but probably also, their assets have lost much of their nominal value. This leads to dramatic decreases in the purchasing power of the country's assets and makes it increasingly expensive to import goods and acquire any form of foreign facilities, e.g. medical facilities. Profit.

The Spider's Web: Britain's Second Empire (Documentary) (youtube)

Panama Papers are 11.5 million leaked documents that detail financial and attorney–client information for more than 214,488 offshore entities. The documents, some dating back to the 1970s, were created by, and taken from, Panamanian law firm and corporate service provider Mossack Fonseca, and were leaked in 2015 by an anonymous source. The documents contain personal financial information about wealthy individuals and public officials that had previously been kept private. While offshore business entities are legal, reporters found that some of the Mossack Fonseca shell corporations were used for illegal purposes, including fraud, tax evasion, and evading international sanctions. Bank Fraud.

Paradise Papers are a set of 13.4 million documents relating to offshore investment, leaked to the public on 5 November 2017. The documents originate from the offshore law firm Appleby, the corporate services providers Estera and Asiaciti Trust, and business registries in 19 tax jurisdictions. They contain the names of more than 120,000 people and companies. Among those whose financial affairs are mentioned are Queen Elizabeth II, President of Colombia Juan Manuel Santos, and U.S. Secretary of Commerce Wilbur Ross. Facebook, Apple, Microsoft, EBay, Glencore, Uber, Nike, Walmart, Allianz, Siemens, McDonald's and Yahoo are also among the companies owning offshore companies according to the papers. According to The Express Tribune, "Apple, Nike, and Facebook avoided billions of dollars in tax using offshore companies.

Pandora Papers are 11.9 million leaked documents with 2.9 terabytes of data that the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists (ICIJ) published beginning on 3 October 2021. The leak exposed the secret offshore accounts of 35 world leaders, including current and former presidents, prime ministers, and heads of state as well as more than 100 billionaires, celebrities, and business leaders. The news organizations of the ICIJ described the document leak as their most expansive exposé of financial secrecy yet, containing documents, images, emails and spreadsheets from 14 financial service companies, in nations including Panama, Switzerland and the United Arab Emirates, surpassing their previous release of the Panama Papers in 2016, which had 11.5 million confidential documents (2.6 terabytes). At the time of the release of the papers, the ICIJ said it is not identifying its source for the documents. Estimates by the ICIJ of money held offshore (outside the country where the money was made) range from US$5.6 trillion to US$32 trillion.

Ugland House is a building located in George Town, Cayman Islands. Located at 121 South Church Street, the building is the registered office address for 18,857 corporations, including many major investment funds, international joint ventures and capital market issuers.

The secretive networks used to move money offshore.

Shell Corporation is a company that exists only on paper and has no office and no employees, but may have a bank account or may hold passive investments or be the registered owner of assets, such as intellectual property, or ships. Shell companies may be registered to the address of a company that provides a service setting up shell companies, and which may act as the agent for receipt of legal correspondence (such as an accountant or lawyer). The company may serve as a vehicle for business transactions without itself having any significant assets or operations. Sometimes, shell companies are used for tax evasion, tax avoidance, and money laundering, or to achieve a specific goal such as anonymity. Anonymity may be sought to shield personal assets from others, such as a spouse when a marriage is breaking down, from creditors, from government authorities, besides others.

Shelf Corporation or shelf company or an aged corporation is a company or corporation that has had no activity. It was created and left with no activity, except when use to illegally obtain money from fraudulent billing. A shelf company is metaphorically put on the "shelf" to "age". The company can then be sold to a person or group of persons who wish to start a company without going through all the procedures of creating a new one. Common reasons for buying a shelf corporation include: To save the time involved in taking the steps to create a new corporation. To gain the opportunity to bid on contracts. Some jurisdictions require that a company be in business for a certain length of time to have this ability. To show corporate longevity in order to attract consumers or investors. To gain access to corporate credit. These reasons are open to criticism. Many years ago, it would take months to properly incorporate a business. However, it is now quite easy, at least in Australia, Canada, the United States, Western Europe and Dubai, to do so. In fact, it can now be done in as little as a couple of hours in some jurisdictions. In Australia, a new company can get registered within 10 minutes. A corporation might end up "on the shelf" precisely because of a bad business history. A number of consortia "produce" and sell shelf corporations, promoting the fact that the new buyer can at the same time have a corporation with a long history, and yet have complete control over the establishment of the corporation's board of directors and shareholder profile. One item to be aware of is the re-aging of the shelf corporation. If the credit bureaus learn about the company being under new management, they will list it on their reports, effectively "re-aging" the company.

Offshore Trust is a conventional trust that is formed under the laws of an offshore jurisdiction. Generally offshore trusts are similar in nature and effect to their onshore counterparts; they involve a settlor transferring (or 'settling') assets (the 'trust property') on the trustees to manage for the benefit of a person, class or persons (the 'beneficiaries') or, occasionally, an abstract purpose. However, a number of offshore jurisdictions have modified their laws to make their jurisdictions more attractive to settlors forming offshore structures as trusts. Liechtenstein, a civil jurisdiction which is sometimes considered to be offshore, has artificially imported the trust concept from common law jurisdictions by statute.

Shadow Banking System is a term for the collection of non-bank financial intermediaries that provide services similar to traditional commercial banks but outside normal banking regulations. The phrase "shadow banking" contains the pejorative connotation of back alley loan sharks. Many in the financial services industry find this phrase offensive and prefer the euphemism "market-based finance".

South Dakota's Tax Evasion. South Dakota has no income tax, no inheritance tax and no capital gains tax. But the state has gone even further than that. South Dakota allows for extreme secrecy when law enforcement comes knocking, and protects assets from being claimed by creditors, ex-spouses, or pretty much anybody else. By setting up a trust, the "settlor" — think some billionaire wanting to keep his assets secure — gives those assets to a trustee in South Dakota to look after. The trustee then invests the assets for a "beneficiary" who is often a direct relative of the settlor. Neither the settlor nor the beneficiary ever needs to set foot in South Dakota, or even be able to find it on a map. All three parties — the settlor, the trustee, and the beneficiary — can legally claim that the money isn't theirs. The settlor and the beneficiary can say they don't have the money, it's all in a trust run by someone else. The trustee can say that she is just looking after the money and doesn't own it. How it happened: South Dakota started carving out its position as the most laissez-faire state for financial services in 1981, when it abolished upper limits for credit-card interest rates. (That's why the credit card in your wallet was almost certainly issued in South Dakota.). In 1983, South Dakota became the first state to allow perpetual trusts — money that can remain untouchable for centuries, with no one ever paying inheritance tax on it. Since then, South Dakota has continued to pass laws making its trusts more attractive to the world's ultra-wealthy. It allowed trusts where the settlor and beneficiary can be the same person. It has also sealed all court documents setting up trusts, making it impossible to know — in the absence of Pandora Papers style leaks — who might have one. The Republican-controlled South Dakota legislature regularly rubber-stamps whatever bills are placed in front of it by the financial services industry. “Nobody understands any of them,” said Gene Abdallah, Republican chair of South Dakota’s Senate Judiciary Committee in 2007 — although it's broadly understood that the laws help to support hundreds of financial-services jobs in Sioux Falls, as well as the lawmakers' free-market bona fides. Context: Since 2010, almost every country in the world has signed onto the Common Reporting Standard (CRS), whereby governments inform each other about assets held by foreigners. The United States is the only major country not to sign on to the CRS, making it much more attractive as a tax haven than places like the Bahamas or Panama. Who's in: Ecuadoran President Guillermo Lasso, Chinese real-estate billionaire billionaire Sun Hongbin, and dozens of other high-profile tax optimizers — both foreigners and Americans —are sheltering their assets in South Dakota. By the numbers: A decade ago, South Dakotan trust companies held $57 billion in assets. The current figure is about $360 billion — with similar trusts in other states bringing the total for the U.S. close to $1 trillion. The United States — not only South Dakota but also rival tax-haven states like Nevada and Delaware — now ranks second only to the Cayman Islands for financial secrecy. The bottom line: “South Dakota offers the best privacy and asset protection laws in the country, and possibly in the world," tax expert Harvey Bezozi told the Guardian.

Why Louisiana Stays Poor. With all Louisiana's wealth in natural resources and industry, why are corporations not paying taxes like everyone else. (youtube). Corporate Welfare.

Money Laundering is the act of concealing the transformation of profits from illegal activities and corruption into ostensibly "legitimate" assets. The dilemma of illicit activities is accounting for the origin of the proceeds of such activities without raising the suspicion of law enforcement agencies. Accordingly, considerable time and effort is put into devising strategies which enable the safe use of those proceeds without raising unwanted suspicion. Implementing such strategies is generally called money laundering. After money has been suitably laundered or "cleaned", it can be used in the mainstream economy for accumulation of wealth, such as acquisitions of properties, or otherwise spent. Law enforcement agencies of many jurisdictions have set up sophisticated systems in an effort to detect suspicious transactions or activities, and many have set up international cooperative arrangements to assist each other in these endeavors.

Giant Leak of Offshore Financial Records Exposes Global Array of Crime and Corruption.

List of Multinational Corporations (wiki)

Informal Sector is the part of an economy that is neither taxed, nor monitored by any form of government.

Black Market or shadow market is a secret market or series of transactions that has some aspect of illegality or is characterized by some form of noncompliant behavior with an institutional set of rules. If the rule defines the set of goods and services whose production and distribution is prohibited by law, non-compliance with the rule constitutes a black market trade since the transaction itself is illegal. Parties engaging in the production or distribution of prohibited goods and services are members of the illegal economy. Examples include the drug trade, prostitution (where prohibited), illegal currency transactions and human trafficking. Violations of the tax code involving income tax evasion constitute membership in the unreported economy. Because tax evasion or participation in a black market activity is illegal, participants will attempt to hide their behavior from the government or regulatory authority. Cash usage is the preferred medium of exchange in illegal transactions since cash usage does not leave a footprint. Common motives for operating in black markets are to trade contraband, avoid taxes and regulations, or skirt price controls or rationing. Typically the totality of such activity is referred to with the definite article as a complement to the official economies, by market for such goods and services, e.g. "the black market in bush meat". The black market is distinct from the Grey Market, in which commodities are distributed through channels that, while legal, are unofficial, unauthorized, or unintended by the original manufacturer, and the white market, in which trade is legal and official. Black money is the proceeds of an illegal transaction, on which income and other taxes have not been paid, and which can only be legitimised by some form of money laundering. Because of the clandestine nature of the black economy it is not possible to determine its size and scope. Markets.


Bonus Payment is usually made to employees in addition to their base salary as part of their wages or salary. While the base salary usually is a fixed amount per month, bonus payments more often than not vary depending on known criteria, such as the annual turnover, or the net number of additional customers acquired, or the current value of the stock of a public company. Thus bonus payments can act as incentives for managers attracting their attention and their personal interest towards what is seen as gainful for their companies' economic success. Profit - Financial Aid - Employee Benefits.

Bonus is an additional payment or other remuneration to employees as a means of increasing output. Anything that makes one feel encouraged. Incentives - Praise.

Why is a bonus sometimes similar to a bribe or hush money? Because if your job does more harm the good, then you are incentivizing negligence, which is why money is sometimes a horrible incentive? Is profit sharing and employee benefits just another Incentive? Employee benefits should be an incentive to do something good instead of just rewarding greed.

Entitlement is a government program guaranteeing access to some benefit by members of a specific group and based on established rights or by legislation. Privilege.

Say on Pay is a term used for a role in corporate law whereby a firm's shareholders have the right to vote on the remuneration of executives.

Executive Compensation is composed of the financial compensation and other non-financial awards received by an executive from their firm for their service to the organization. It is typically a mixture of salary, bonuses, shares of or call options on the company stock, benefits, and perquisites, ideally configured to take into account government regulations, tax law, the desires of the organization and the executive, and rewards for performance. Executive compensation the compensation of company executives is distinguished by the forms it takes and its dramatic rise over the past three decades and wide-ranging criticism leveled against it. In the past three decades in America executive compensation or pay has risen dramatically beyond what can be explained by changes in firm size, performance, and industry classification. It is the highest in the world in both absolute terms and relative to median salary in the US. It has been criticized not only as excessive, but also for "rewarding failure"—including massive drops in stock price, and much of the national growth in income inequality. Observers differ as to how much of the rise in and nature of this compensation is a natural result of competition for scarce business talent benefiting stockholder value, and how much is the work of manipulation and self-dealing by management unrelated to supply, demand, or reward for performance. Federal laws and Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) regulations have been developed on compensation for top senior executives in the last few decades, including a $1 million limit on the tax deductibility of compensation not "performance-based", and a requirement to include the dollar value of compensation in a standardized form in annual public filings of the corporation.

Golden Handshake is a clause in an executive employment contract that provides the executive with a significant severance package in the case that the executive loses their job through firing, restructuring, or even scheduled retirement. This can be in the form of cash, equity, and other benefits, and is often accompanied by an accelerated vesting of stock options. According to Investopedia, a golden handshake is similar to, but more generous than a golden parachute because it not only provides monetary compensation and/or stock options at the termination of employment, but also includes the same severance packages executives would get at retirement.

Golden Parachute is an agreement between a company and an employee (usually upper executive) specifying that the employee will receive certain significant benefits if employment is terminated.

Employee Compensation refers to the cash compensation and benefits that an employee receives in exchange for the service they perform for their employer. Approximately 93% of the working population in the United States are employees earning a salary or wage. Financial Aid.

Unearned Income income gained through ownership of land and other monopoly. Profit.

Accelerated Depreciation refers to any one of several methods by which a company, for 'financial accounting' or tax purposes, depreciates a fixed asset in such a way that the amount of depreciation taken each year is higher during the earlier years of an asset’s life.

Subsidy is a form of financial aid or support extended to an economic sector (or institution, business, or individual) generally with the aim of promoting economic and social policy.

Insolvency is the state of being unable to pay the money owed, by a person or company, on time; those in a state of insolvency are said to be insolvent. There are two forms: cash-flow insolvency and balance-sheet insolvency.

Free Lunch is a sales enticement that offers a meal at no cost in order to attract customers and increase revenues from other offerings.

Dividends is a payment made by a corporation to its shareholders, usually as a distribution of profits.

Behind the Brands, change the way the food companies that make your favorite brands do business.

Monopoly - Cartel - Syndicate

Prison - Means, Motive, and Opportunity

Black's Law Dictionary (laws)

Luxembourg Leaks: Tricks of the Trade (youtube)

Power Abuse Films - Corporations Abuse Films.

If you see something, say something - Whistle Blowers - Dereliction of Duty - Corporate Watchdogs

Grandfather Clause is a provision in which an old rule continues to apply to some existing situations while a new rule will apply to all future cases. Those exempt from the new rule are said to have grandfather rights or acquired rights, or to have been grandfathered in. Frequently, the exemption is limited; it may extend for a set time, or it may be lost under certain circumstances. For example, a "grandfathered power plant" might be exempt from new, more restrictive pollution laws, but the exception may be revoked and the new rules would apply if the plant were expanded. Often, such a provision is used as a compromise or out of practicality, to allow new rules to be enacted without upsetting a well-established logistical or political situation. This extends the idea of a rule not being retroactively applied. The Grandfather Clause it self is outdated. Above the Law.

Monopolies - Corporate Control

Monopoly is when a specific person or enterprise exclusively controls the supply of a particular commodity in a way that it hinders innovation and advances by killing competition from small businesses. Monopolies can also charge people more money for products even though there are better alternatives for less money. Monopolies kill small businesses and destroys peoples livelihood, just so that scumbag corporate CEO's can steal more money for themselves, while they layoff workers and steal their benefits. Employees and citizens generate the wealth and then corporate criminals steal it. The U.S. only pretends to have free markets. Monopolies costs American consumers billions of dollars a year. Corporate Terrorism is the biggest threat to the world. And now corporations are using Artificial Intelligence as a tool to steal more wealth.

Repeat Offenders - Media Monopolies - Censorship - Middlemen - Price Gouging - Cults - Corporate Welfare - Bailouts - Capitol Flight - Predatory Lending - Kickbacks - Debt - Corruption - Tax Evasion

Oligopoly is a state of limited competition, in which a market is shared by a small number of producers or sellers. A market structure in which a market or industry is dominated by a small number of large sellers or producers. Supply and Demand.

Ozempic maker Novo Nordisk facing pressure as study finds that the $1,000 dollar appetite suppressant can be made for just $5 dollars.

American Corporations using Child Labor or Forced Labor in other countries. Almost 100 major brands are suspected of illegally sourcing products made by forced labor in China. If you're buying a car, electronics, clothing, or beverages from one of dozens of major household names, you could be buying products made in part by forced labor in the Xinjiang region of China. Too many American Corporaqtions don't want to comply with the Uyghur Forced Labor Prevention Act. President Joe Biden signed the bill into law after evidence emerged of human-rights abuses committed by the Chinese government against Uyghur Muslims, including forced labor, government surveillance, forced sterilization, and reeducation camps. Some have called the treatment a genocide. Unemployment.

BlackRock and the $15 trillion fund industry should be broken up. What BlackRock, Vanguard and State Street Are Doing to the Economy. The Monopoly of BLACKROCK (youtube)

Industry Concentration is when a small number of large firms have dominance over production and sales and make up for the total production in the market. Market Concentration (wiki).

Concentration Ratio is used to show the extent of market control of the largest firms in the industry and to illustrate the degree to which an industry is oligopolistic, which is a market or industry that is dominated by a small group of large sellers or oligopolists. Oligopolies can result from various forms of collusion that reduce market competition which then typically leads to higher prices for consumers. Oligopolies have their own market structure.

Privately Held Company is a business company owned by a relatively small number of shareholders or company members which does not offer or trade its company stock (shares) to the general public on the stock market exchanges, but rather the company's stock is offered, owned and traded or exchanged privately or over-the-counter. More ambiguous terms for a privately held company are closely held corporation, unquoted company, and unlisted company.

Hard to Regulate or keep under Control - Small Government?

Private Sector is the part of the national economy that is not under direct government control. The private sector is the part of the economy, sometimes referred to as the citizen sector, which is owned by private groups, usually as a means of enterprise for profit, rather than being owned by the state. The private sector employs most of the workforce in some countries. In private sector, activities are guided by the motive to earn money. States legally regulate the private sector. Businesses operating within a country must comply with the laws in that country. In free enterprise countries, such as the United States of America, the private sector is wider, and the state places fewer constraints on firms. In countries with more government authority, such as China, the public sector makes up most of the economy. There can be negative effects from the private sector. In the early 1980s, the Corrections Corporation of America pioneered the idea of running prisons for a profit. Today, corporate-run prisons hold eight percent of America's inmates. Since it is from the private sector, their main priority isn't rehabilitation, but profit. This has resulted in many human rights violations across the United States.

Privatization is the process of transferring an enterprise or an industry from the public sector or from government control to the private sector.

Privatization is not about selling public lands or transferring public services to criminals who want to exploit it at peoples expense and at the expense of the environment. Important and valuable services sometimes need to be subsidized and incentivized and controlled by the public. Important services should not be privatized by parasitic people who value money more than people

Corporatization is the process of transforming and restructuring state assets, government agencies, public organizations, or municipal organizations into corporations. It involves the adoption and application of business management practices and the separation of ownership from management through the creation of a joint-stock or shareholding structure for the organization.

Commodification of Water refers to the process of transforming water, especially freshwater, from a public good into a tradable commodity also known as an economic good. This transformation introduces water to previously unencumbered market forces in the hope of being managed more efficiently as a resource. Water Trading is the process of buying and selling water access entitlements, also often called water rights. The terms of the trade can be either permanent or temporary, depending on the legal status of the water rights.

Commodification is the transformation of goods, services, ideas, nature, personal information or people into commodities or objects of trade. A commodity at its most basic, according to Arjun Appadurai, is "anything intended for exchange," or any object of economic value. Commodification is often criticised on the grounds that some things ought not to be treated as commodities—for example water, education, data, information, knowledge, human life, and animal life. Human commodity is a term used in case of human organ trade, paid surrogacy also known as commodification of the womb, and human trafficking. Slave trade as a form of human trafficking is a form of the commodification of people. According to Gøsta Esping-Andersen people are commodified or 'turned into objects' when selling their labour on the market to an employer.

Private Property is a legal designation for the ownership of property by non-governmental legal entities. Private property is distinguishable from public property, which is owned by a state entity; and from collective or cooperative property, which is owned by a group of non-governmental entities. Private property can be either personal property, consumption goods or capital goods. Private property is a legal concept defined and enforced by a country's political system. Sovereignty (independence).

Capitalism is an economic system where individuals and citizens can start their own privately owned business and produce products and provide services in a free market, instead of being controlled or owned by the state or by a government. Capitalism gives individuals a chance to own their own property and own businesses privately, just as long as they follow regulations and do not commit crimes or abuses. Capitalism was mainly created to end feudalism and slavery and stop the abuses of the rich and powerful who systematically raped people of their wealth that they created by their own hard work. But criminals always find ways to commit crimes. Capitalism is an economic system based on private ownership of capital.

Free Market Capitalism is a society in which an open market sets prices for the sole purpose of profits. This type of society operates on the principles of supply and demand. Prices are set, and goods are bought and sold based on the demand of the people. Free Market is an economic system in which prices are determined by unrestricted competition between privately owned businesses. Market Economy is an economic system in which the decisions regarding investment, production and distribution are guided by the price signals created by the forces of supply and demand. The major characteristic of a market economy is the existence of factor markets that play a dominant role in they allocation of capital and the factors of production. Cooperative Ownership.

Capitalism is not the problem, the problem is the criminals who corrupt and manipulate the system and exploit capitalism for their own private gains at peoples expense, and at the expense of the environment. When these corporate criminals are allowed to write their own laws and and make regulations that destroy competition, and reduces choices and lowers quality, then there's no real democracy, it's mostly fascism. And on top of that, the politicians you vote for end up working for the same corporate criminals they were supposed to regulate. They are in a sense backstabbing traitors at the expense of every American and at the expense of the environment where they poison the water, air and the soil that grows our food. When we allow criminals to use profit as an excuse to commit crimes against American citizens, then we have no real democracy, only an illusion of democracy. But money is not the problem. The problem is an inadequate education system and a corporate controlled media. It's time to educate people and make changes on how our money is used and distributed. People forgot how extremely important education is, and the criminals in power know this, they know that ignorant people are the easiest people to fool.

Economic Warfare - Treason - Lobbying - Propaganda - Offshore Accounts - Tax Evasion - Wealth Theft - Bonuses

Scumbag Intelligence is when college educated people put all their mental effort into greed and coercion and use smart and creative ways to exploit and manipulate people and the system for profit, like psychopathic sociopaths with no empathy. These scumbags violate every loophole and weakness they can find. A company may provide a good service to customers, but they will also do criminal acts behind the scenes and use the opportunity to increase their profits at the customers expense and at the environments expense. When decisions are based on money and not people, then you become a cancer in society. Big business is undermining public trust and ethical behavior. Big corporations can make big mistakes. This is not capitalism, this is people abusing capitalism. This is not about blaming big business either, this is about the employees following orders for big business who are driven by greed that ends up abusing people for money. And corporations do not have real conversations with the public. Public Relations is not about having good relations, it's more about manipulations. When people are hurt or abused by a big corporations, it's very difficult for a customer to remedy the problem or fix the problem. Corporations make it difficult for customers to file complaints on purpose. This is a business model and a business practice that is ignorantly taught to corporate workers as a training method. When corporations fight you and make it difficult for you to settle grievances, then that's when a corporation turns into a scumbag and does more harm than good. This is not to say that it's all bad, it's just that corporations should be held responsible and should at least fix the bad, and not profit from being a bad. A big business can say that people in charged are not always aware of what their employees are doing or what their contractors are doing, but at least address the problem and fix it. If negative effects are happening, businesses need to correct it. That's why we have laws. But wealthy scumbags always find away to get around the law. People must be aware that this ignorance is at every level of society because it's a systemic problem. When school educated people commit crimes, it means that they are still ignorant in a lot of ways. So it's not knowledge, it's the lack of knowledge. Ignorant criminals and corrupt people are not representative the human race, or are they examples of human intelligence. They are just manifestations of ignorance.

Competition Law seeks to maintain market competition by regulating anti-competitive conduct by companies. Competition law is implemented through public and private enforcement.

Mergers - Rackets

Non-Compete Agreements is a contractual term between an employer and a worker that blocks the worker from working for a competing employer. Employee agrees not to enter into or start a similar profession or trade in competition against another party (usually the employer). In the labor market, these agreements prevent workers from freely moving across employers, and weaken the bargaining leverage of workers. A noncompetition agreement, also called a noncompete or a covenant not to compete, is an agreement where one party promises not to engage in conduct that would increase competition for the other party for a specific period of time.
Some courts refer to these as "restrictive covenants". As a contract provision, a CNC is bound by traditional contract requirements including the consideration doctrine.
Federal Trade Commission new rule that would prohibit employers from imposing noncompete agreements on their workers, a practice it called exploitative and widespread, affecting some 30 million American workers. This is widespread and often exploitative practice that suppresses wages, hampers innovation, and blocks entrepreneurs from starting new businesses. By stopping this practice, the agency estimates that the new proposed rule could increase wages by nearly $300 billion per year and expand career opportunities for about 30 million Americans.

Anti-Competitive Practices are business or government practices that unlawfully prevent or reduce competition in a market. The debate about the morality of certain business practices termed as being anti-competitive has continued both in the study of the history of economics and in the popular culture. Anti-trust laws differ among state and federal laws to ensure businesses do not engage in competitive practices that harm other, usually smaller, businesses or consumers. These laws are formed to promote healthy competition within a free market by limiting the abuse of monopoly power. Competition allows companies to compete in order for products and services to improve; promote innovation ; and provide a more choices for consumers to preference. Some business practices may be pro-competitive, economic methodological tests and empirical legal cases are used to test whether business activity constitutes as anti-competitive behavior. Anticompetitive behaviour is used by business and governments to lessen competition within the markets so that monopolies and dominant firms can generate supernormal profits and deter competitors from the market. Therefore it is heavily regulated and punishable by law in cases where it substantially affects the market. Anti-competitive practices are commonly only deemed illegal when the practice results in a substantial dampening in competition, hence why for a firm to be punished for any form of anti-competitive behaviour they generally need to be a monopoly or a dominant firm in a duopoly or oligopoly who has significant influence over the market. Anti-competitive behaviour can be grouped into two classifications. Horizontal restraints regard anti-competitive behaviour that involves competitors at the same level of the supply chain. These practices include mergers, cartels, collusions, price-fixing, price discrimination and predatory pricing. On the other hand, the second category is |vertical restraint which implements restraints against competitors due to anti-competitive practice between firms at different levels of the supply chain e.g. supplier-distributer relationships. These practices include exclusive dealing, refusal to deal/sell, resale price maintenance and more.

Antitrust Law is a collection of federal and state government laws that regulates the conduct and organization of business corporations, generally to promote fair competition for the benefit of consumers. The concept is called competition law in other English-speaking countries. The main statutes are the Sherman Act of 1890, the Clayton Act of 1914 and the Federal Trade Commission Act of 1914. These Acts, first, restrict the formation of cartels and prohibit other collusive practices regarded as being in restraint of trade. Second, they restrict the mergers and acquisitions of organizations that could substantially lessen competition. Third, they prohibit the creation of a monopoly and the abuse of monopoly power. The Federal Trade Commission, the U.S. Department of Justice, state governments and private parties who are sufficiently affected may all bring actions in the courts to enforce the antitrust laws. The scope of antitrust laws, and the degree to which they should interfere in an enterprise's freedom to conduct business, or to protect smaller businesses, communities and consumers, are strongly debated. One view, mostly closely associated with the "Chicago School of economics" suggests that antitrust laws should focus solely on the benefits to consumers and overall efficiency, while a broad range of legal and economic theory sees the role of antitrust laws as also controlling economic power in the public interest.

Predatory Product is goods or services are priced at a very low price point to drive out the competition. Predatory pricing is the lowering of prices by a company specifically to put rival firms out of business. Predatory pricing is a method in which a seller sets a price so low that other suppliers cannot compete and are forced to exit the market. A company that does this will see initial losses, but eventually, it benefits by driving competitors out of the market and raising its prices again. If you had a competitor that was selling a TV at $100, and you sold the same TV at $80 (while taking a loss) because you knew they couldn't beat your price, you're enacting in predatory pricing. This is illegal in many countries and is treated very harshly by many justice systems. Amazon has consistently engaged in predatory pricing — selling products and services below cost to kill off competitors and expand its market share. Predatory pricing is a pricing strategy, using the method of undercutting on a larger scale, where a dominant firm in an industry will deliberately reduce the prices of a product or service to loss-making levels in the short-term. The aim is that existing or potential competitors within the industry will be forced to leave the market, as they are unable to effectively compete with the dominant firm without making a loss. Once competition has been eliminated, the dominant firm now having a majority share of the market can raise its prices to monopoly levels in the long-term to recoup its losses. The difference between predatory pricing and competitive pricing is during the recouping phase of lost profits by the dominant firm charging higher prices. With there being less firms in the market causing consumers to have fewer choices between products or services, these higher prices result in consumer harm. Predatory pricing usually causes consumer harm and is considered anti-competitive in many jurisdictions making the practice illegal under some competition laws.

Antitrust Exemption prevents Major League Baseball from being sued for federal antitrust violations. Unless Congress removes the exemption, baseball owners make any decisions they want and they can't be sued for them on antitrust grounds. Antitrust laws are designed to prevent restrained trade in interstate commerce. However, there are several antitrust exemptions that were covered under the Clayton Act of 1914. The two most important aspects of the exemptions are the labor exemption that covers labor unions from being defined as monopolies and the non-statutory labor exemption that protects union activity as being defined as antitrust.

Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 is a United States antitrust law that regulates competition among enterprises, which broadly prohibits (1) anticompetitive agreements and (2) unilateral conduct that monopolizes or attempts to monopolize the relevant market. The Act authorizes the Department of Justice to bring suits to enjoin (i.e. prohibit) conduct violating the Act, and additionally authorizes private parties injured by conduct violating the Act to bring suits for treble damages (i.e. three times as much money in damages as the violation cost them). Over time, the federal courts have developed a body of law under the Sherman Act making certain types of anticompetitive conduct per se illegal, and subjecting other types of conduct to case-by-case analysis regarding whether the conduct unreasonably restrains trade. The law attempts to prevent the artificial raising of prices by restriction of trade or supply. "Innocent monopoly", or monopoly achieved solely by merit, is perfectly legal, but acts by a monopolist to artificially preserve that status, or nefarious dealings to create a monopoly, are not. The purpose of the Sherman Act is not to protect competitors from harm from legitimately successful businesses, nor to prevent businesses from gaining honest profits from consumers, but rather to preserve a competitive marketplace to protect consumers from abuses.

The Consumer Welfare Standard generally states that overall consumer welfare and economic efficiency should be the main criterion regulators look to when evaluating a merger or alleged anticompetitive behavior. Big is OK, so long as no consumers are harmed. This is when corporations lie, because people always get harmed by big greedy corporations. Name one monopoly that turned out to be a good idea that benefited society. I rest my case.

Rule of Reason is a legal doctrine used to interpret the Sherman Antitrust Act, one of the cornerstones of United States antitrust law. While some actions like price-fixing are considered illegal per se, other actions, such as possession of a monopoly, must be analyzed under the rule of reason and are only considered illegal when their effect is to unreasonably restrain trade. Rule of Reason Standard vs. Consumer Welfare Standard Antitrust Basics.

Middle Men - Price Gouging

Middle Man is someone who buys large quantities of goods and resells to merchants rather than to the ultimate customers. Front Men.

Scalping Tickets is the act of buying tickets before they are sold to the public and then reselling the tickets for admission to events for a much higher price. Scalper is a person who resells shares or tickets at a large or quick profit, usually at the expense of the buyer and at the expense of the performer. Professional ticket brokers with multiple accounts can buy up all the tickets.

Scalping is profiting off small price changes, generally after a trade is executed and becomes profitable. It requires a trader to have a strict exit strategy because one large loss could eliminate the many small gains the trader worked to obtain.

Price Gouging referring to when a seller increases the prices of goods, services or commodities to a level much higher than is considered reasonable or fair, and is considered exploitative, potentially to an unethical extent. Usually this event occurs after a demand or supply shock. Common examples include price increases of basic necessities after hurricanes or other natural disasters. Supply and Demand can also be manipulated.

Price gouging starts at the top by big corporations, which forces most small businesses to raise prices, with some businesses doing their own trickle down price gouging. Mostly because of monkey see monkey do. Small criminals love to mimic the big corporate criminals. If we had no criminals at the top, we would have no criminals at the bottom. Little brother is watching the big brother, and not just the other way around.

Monopolies - Inflation Excuse - Market Value Scam - Economic Warfare - Evictions

General Maximum or Law of the Maximum, was a law that set price limits, deterred price gouging, and allowed for the continued flow of food supply.

Medicine Price Gouging - Wage Theft - Racket - Insider Trading

Price Fixing is where companies collude to set prices, effectively dismantling the free market. An agreement between participants on the same side in a market to buy or sell a product, service, or commodity only at a fixed price, or maintain the market conditions such that the price is maintained at a given level by controlling supply and demand.

Redlining is the systematic denial of various services by federal government agencies, local governments as well as the private sector either directly or through the selective raising of prices. Neighborhoods with high proportion of minority residents are more likely to be redlined than other neighborhoods with similar household incomes, housing age and type, and other determinants of risk, but different racial composition. While the best known examples of redlining have involved denial of financial services such as banking or insurance, other services such as health care (see also Race and health) or even supermarkets have been denied to residents. In the case of retail businesses like supermarkets, purposely locating stores impractically far away from targeted residents results in a redlining effect. Reverse redlining occurs when a lender or insurer particularly targets minority consumers in a non-redlined area, not to deny them loans or insurance, but to charge them more than would be charged to a similarly situated white consumer. In the 1960s, sociologist John McKnight coined the term "redlining" to describe the discriminatory practice of fencing off areas where banks would avoid investments based on community demographics. During the heyday of redlining, the areas most frequently discriminated against were black inner city neighborhoods. For example, in Atlanta in the 1980s, a Pulitzer Prize-winning series of articles by investigative reporter Bill Dedman showed that banks would often lend to lower-income whites but not to middle-income or upper-income blacks. The use of blacklists is a related mechanism also used by redliners to keep track of groups, areas, and people that the discriminating party feels should be denied business or aid or other transactions. In the academic literature, redlining falls under the broader category of credit rationing.

Scarcity is the fundamental economic problem of resources being limited in amount but desired in a seemingly infinite amount. Scarcity causes society to have insufficient productive resources to fulfill all human wants and needs.

Hoarding - Supply and Demand - Stockpile

Artificial Scarcity is the scarcity of items that exists even though either the technology for production or the sharing capacity exists to create a theoretically limitless or at least greater quantity of production than currently exists. The most common causes are monopoly pricing structures, such as those enabled by laws that restrict competition or by high fixed costs in a particular marketplace. The inefficiency associated with artificial scarcity is formally known as a deadweight loss.

The only thing that's scarce is our access to the necessary information and knowledge that we desperately need. The only thing that trickled down was ignorance, corruption, pollution, disease, suffering and death. Supply Chain.

Artificial Demand constitutes demand for something that, in the absence of exposure to the vehicle of creating demand, would not exist. It has controversial applications in microeconomics, such as with the pump and dump strategy and advertising.

There is nothing wrong with being a middle man, its just that too many middlemen are thieving scumbags who profit from other peoples work, and forces consumers to pay higher prices, just so they can steal money like a scam or a ponzi scheme does. We're not talking about good people providing services, or is this about management services or third parties, we're talking about leeches and parasites who add no value to the world. Middle Men who make money at the expense of the worker and the environment, and at the expense of the buyer, are scumbags. If you victimize people and pollute the planet for money, then you're an asshole. There is nothing in the definition of capitalism that says you have to be a parasitic leach in order to make a living. It's obvious that we just can't have laws that tell people what is bad and what is wrong, we need an education system and a media system that explains to all people why some things are considered bad and wrong. There is no threat of punishment from the law or from God will that will ever be as effective as an educated person with an educated mind. When you learn to have common sense and learn to understand valid reasoning, and when you understand right from wrong and good from bad, you will not need to be threatened when your ignorant behavior starts causing problems for other people, this time, all you need to do is just learn from your mistake and share this knowledge with other people. So instead of wasting all that time, people, money and resources just to punish people for their ignorance, we could just be educating people on how not to be ignorant, which would benefit society in several ways, and also solve almost every problem that we suffer from. It is simple the best return for the investment known to man. You could easily say this is a no brainer, but we would first have to educate brains to understand what understanding means. It's only a no brainer when the person has a brain and knows how to use it.

Drop Shipping is a supply chain management method in which the retailer does not keep goods in stock but instead transfers its customer's orders and shipment details to either the manufacturer, another retailer, or a wholesaler, who then ships the goods directly to the customer. As in retail business, the majority of retailers make their profit on the difference between the wholesale and retail price.

Cheap Products - Knock Offs (counterfeits).

Arbitrage is the practice of taking advantage of a price difference between two or more markets.

Wholesaling is the resale or sale without transformation of new and used goods to retailers.

Reseller purchases goods or services with the intention of selling them rather than consuming or using them. This is usually done for profit.

Retail is the process of selling consumer goods or services to customers through multiple channels of distribution to earn a profit.

Mergers - Buyouts - Killing the Competition

State polity is a political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly by use of force within a certain geographical territory.

Racket - Competition Killing - Oligarchy

Oligopoly consists of a few entities dominating an industry, which has the same negative effects as a monopoly.

Conglomerate is the combination of two or more corporations engaged in entirely different businesses that fall under one corporate group, usually involving a parent company and many subsidiaries. Often, a conglomerate is a multi-industry company. Conglomerates are often large and multinational. List of Conglomerates (wiki).

Media Conglomerate is a company that owns numerous companies involved in mass media enterprises, such as television, radio, publishing, motion pictures, theme parks, or the Internet. Media conglomerates strive for policies that facilitate their control of the markets around the world.

Consolidation in business is the merger and acquisition of many smaller companies into a few much larger ones. In the context of financial accounting, consolidation refers to the aggregation of financial statements of a group company as consolidated financial statements. The taxation term of consolidation refers to the treatment of a group of companies and other entities as one entity for tax purposes.

Mergers and Acquisitions are transactions in which the ownership of companies, other business organizations or their operating units are transferred or combined. As an aspect of strategic management, M&A can allow enterprises to grow, shrink, change the nature of their business or competitive position. Merger in law is an absorption of one estate, or one contract, into another, both being held by the same person. The combination of two or more commercial companies. Subsumed is to include or absorb something in something else. Inorganic Growth.

Takeover is the purchase of one company by another company, or the acquisition of a public company whose shares are listed on a stock exchange, in contrast to the acquisition of a private company. A reverse takeover is a type of takeover where a public company acquires a private company. Backflip takeover is any sort of takeover in which the acquiring company turns itself into a subsidiary of the purchased company. Subsidiary  is a company owned or controlled by another company, which is called the parent company or holding company.

Hostile Takeover is when a company or activist shareholder tries to gain control of a target company by sidestepping the company's management and board of directors, and going directly to its shareholders, or if it's a country, the voters and most representatives are ignored while the wealthy corporations take control. A hostile takeover allows a bidder to take over a target company whose management is unwilling to agree to a merger or takeover. The party who initiates a hostile takeover bid approaches the shareholders directly, as opposed to seeking approval from officers or directors of the company.

Private Equity typically refers to investment funds, generally organized as limited partnerships, that buy and restructure companies that are not publicly traded. Private equity is, strictly speaking, a type of equity and one of the asset classes consisting of equity securities and debt in operating companies that are not publicly traded on a stock exchange. However, the term has come to be used to describe the business of taking a company into private ownership in order to restructure it before selling it again at a hoped-for profit. A private equity investment will generally be made by a private equity firm, a venture capital firm or an angel investor. Each of these categories of investors has its own set of goals, preferences and investment strategies; however, all provide working capital to a target company to nurture expansion, new-product development, or restructuring of the company’s operations, management, or ownership.

Leveraged Buyout is a financial transaction in which a company is purchased with a combination of equity and debt, such that the company's cash flow is the collateral used to secure and repay the borrowed money. The use of debt, which normally has a lower cost of capital than equity, serves to reduce the overall cost of financing the acquisition. The cost of debt is lower because interest payments often reduce corporate income tax liability, whereas dividend payments normally do not. This reduced cost of financing allows greater gains to accrue to the equity, and, as a result, the debt serves as a lever to increase the returns to the equity.

Layoff is the temporary suspension or permanent termination of employment of an employee or, more commonly, a group of employees (collective layoff) for business reasons, such as personnel management or downsizing an organization.

Breaking up monopolies doesn't work, you have to stop corruption and stop criminals from exploiting capitalism. Scott Galloway Says Amazon, Apple, Facebook, And Google should be broken up (youtube)

It is illegal to change your name to escape a criminal past. You will have to certify that you have not been convicted of a felony. Often, you will have to certify that you have not been convicted of a felony. But even if you have a criminal record, you still may be able to change your name, but the process is more complex and will take longer. You must certify to the court that you have no criminal record or no record of a felony conviction. If you do, you can still petition for the name change, but the clerk will run a thorough background check, which involves additional time and expense. In some states, like Minnesota, you must serve a copy of the petition on the state, federal or local authority that convicted you. Corporations are getting away with murder.

Scumbag corporations can change their names to escape lawsuits. They either close business or change business name before lawsuit to prevent potential claims from criminal negligence. By filing a document called “Articles of Amendment,” an LLC or corporation can request to change the name of the business. When approved, it means your company will operate under its new name. When a judgment is entered against a business, the business owners will sometimes form a new business entity, open a bank account in the name of the new business, and transfer the equipment and other assets of the old business to the new business. The owners will then simply continue to operate the business under the name of the new entity. They mistakenly believe that because the judgment is against the old business, the judgment creditor cannot seize the assets of the new business. Missouri’s Fraudulent Transfer Act.
Transfers fraudulent with actual intent to hinder, delay, or defraud any creditor of the debtor.

Monopolistic Competition is a type of imperfect competition such that many producers sell products that are differentiated from one another (e.g. by branding or quality) and hence are not perfect substitutes.

Monopoly is a Stupid Board Game because it teaches you very little about reality. It kind of resembles the money game in real life where most people don't even get to roll the dice, and the people who get to roll the dice, can change the numbers so they always land where they want to. The game is rigged by cheaters, cheaters who want to learn how to be scumbag landlords?

Corporations are not always the true source of all the crimes and corruption being committed by corporations. Most corporations are just conforming to the ignorance that has been passed down to them by propaganda. Criminals have exploited capitalism for over a hundred years, only because they were able to use the money and wealth they've stolen to manipulate people and to manipulate the system, like a self feeding cancer. This century will see the end of these abuses and criminal acts. "Workers and people of the world will finally unite." It all came down to people being more aware and more informed. Allegory of the Cave will disappear and the great awakening will follow.

Supply and Demand is sometimes another word for theft and manipulation.

is when a company sells a product in a competitive market at a loss. Though the company loses money for each sale, the company hopes to force other competitors out of the market, after which the company would be free to raise prices for a greater profit. Exclusive dealing, where a retailer or wholesaler is obliged by contract to only purchase from the contracted supplier. Refusal to deal, e.g., two companies agree not to use a certain vendor. Dividing territories, an agreement by two companies to stay out of each other's way and reduce competition in the agreed-upon territories. Limit pricing, where the price is set by a monopolist at a level intended to discourage entry into a market. (Ex. Licensing) Tying, where products that aren't naturally related must be purchased together. Resale price maintenance, where resellers are not allowed to set prices independently. Religious - minority group doctrine, where businesses must apply tribute to a significant (normally religious) part of the community in order to engage in trade with that community. (A business that does not comply will be 50% worse off than the competitor if they do not comply with the tribute demanded by just 20% of the community).

Barriers to Entry is a cost that must be incurred by a new entrant into a market that incumbents do not have or have not had to incur. Because barriers to entry protect incumbent firms and restrict competition in a market, they can contribute to distortionary prices and are therefore most important when discussing antitrust policy. Barriers to entry often cause or aid the existence of monopolies or give companies market power.

Restraint of Trade is defined as a legal contract between a buyer and a seller of a business, or between an employer and employee, that prevents the seller or employee from engaging in a similar business within a specified geographical area and within a specified period.

Black Market - Rackets - Shadow Market - Secret Market - Markets - Illegal Tree Cutting - Grey Market

Loopholes are ways that criminals exploit a system or circumvent laws to steal money. It's an ambiguity or inadequacy in a system, such as a law or security, which can be used to circumvent or otherwise avoid the purpose, implied or explicitly stated, of the system. Loopholes are searched for and used strategically in a variety of circumstances, including taxes, elections, politics, the criminal justice system, or in breaches of security, or a response to one's civil liberties.

Bribes - Blackmail - Extortion - Tax Evasion

Collusion is an agreement between two or more parties, sometimes illegal and therefore secretive, to limit open competition by deceiving, misleading, or defrauding others of their legal rights, or to obtain an objective forbidden by law typically by defrauding or gaining an unfair market advantage. It is an agreement among firms or individuals to divide a market, set prices, limit production or limit opportunities. It can involve "wage fixing, kickbacks, or misrepresenting the independence of the relationship between the colluding parties". In legal terms, all acts effected by collusion are considered void.

It's not so bad that people become extremely wealthy, because some people become wealthy for doing good things, what's the most damaging thing is, what rich people do with their money. It's bad enough knowing that some peoples work causes more harm then good, but if you cause even more harm and even more damage with the money you made from the original damage, then that is just total disregard for life. The gift of life that you received is not supposed to be used as a weapon against life itself, yet here we are. WTF is happening? Treason.

The false utopia is depending on just capitalism, because it's a flawed system that is too easily corrupted, abused and misunderstood, it's a Dead End, a shell game that in the end, you realize that there was never anything under any of the shells, it was all an illusion, a distraction, a manipulation of reality, a system of control and a ponzi scheme, which pays returns to its investors from new capital paid to the operators by new investors, rather than from profit earned through legitimate sources.

Musical Chairs is a game of elimination involving players, chairs, and music, with one fewer chair than players. When the music stops whichever player fails to land on a chair is eliminated, with a chair then being removed and the process repeated until only one player remains. It is also a metaphor.

Right now I'm at the bottom of a pyramid scheme called the exploitation of capitalism, but at least I'm not alone. 

Corporate Terrorism is the use of corporate status to commit crimes and to be involved with criminal activity. Some corporate leaders are not complying with the law or adhering to the constitution. This is a clear example of what happens when people are allowed to be above the law. We are allowing the biggest killers and the biggest polluters to profit from their crimes. Like any drug addict, if you keep rewarding corporate abuse, they will continue to abuse, which makes this a clear threat to human existence. People need to stand up against this threat, but they first have to learn that this threat exists, which means that reality will not be what people thought it was. Realizing problems that you never knew existed or realizing problems that you were not prepared for, can be overwhelming. But as soon as you learn about your options and your choices, this problem becomes just one more decision that you will have to make today. We have responsibilities. And we have to choose to do the responsibilities that are the most important. And that will be your first decision, deciding what are the most important things? If you can't be accurate with your priorities, then your list of things to do will be mostly random and unimportant.

Rackets - Crimes for Profit

Racket is is an illegal enterprise carried on for profit. Racket is a type of work that is fraudulently offered to solve a problem, such as for a problem that does not actually exist, that will not be put into effect, or that would not otherwise exist if the racket did not exist.

War Racket - Drug War Racket - Media Racket - Prison Racket - Healthcare Racket - Monopolies - Cults - Price Gouging - Economic Warfare - Bubbles

Racketeer is someone who commits crimes for profit, especially one who obtains money by fraud or extortion. Carry on illegal business activities involving crime. Racketeering is being involved and participating in a racket.

Bribery - Bonuses - Loopholes - Inside Job - White Collar Crimes - Tax Evasion

Protection Racket is a scheme whereby a group provides protection to businesses or other groups through violence outside the sanction of the law. In other words, it is a racket that sells security, traditionally physical security but now also computer security. Through the credible threat of violence, the racketeers deter people from swindling, robbing, injuring, sabotaging or otherwise harming their clients. Protection rackets tend to appear in markets in which the police and judiciary cannot be counted on to provide legal protection, because of incompetence (as in weak or failed states) or illegality (black markets). Protection rackets are indistinguishable in practice from extortion rackets and distinguishable from private security by some degree of implied threat that the racketeers themselves may attack the business if it fails to pay for their protection. A distinction is possible between a "pure" extortion racket in which the racketeers might agree only not to attack a business and a broader protection racket offering some real private security in addition to such extortion. The criminals might agree to defend a business from any attack by either themselves or third parties (other criminal gangs). However, that distinction is moot in reality, as extortion racketeers may have to defend their clients against rival gangs to maintain their profits. By corollary, criminal gangs may have to maintain control of territories (turfs), as local businesses may collapse if forced to pay for protection from too many rackets, which then hurts all parties involved. Certain scholars, such as Diego Gambetta, classify criminal organizations engaged in protection racketeering as "mafia", as the racket is popular with both the Sicilian Mafia and Italian-American Mafia.

"Give me control over a nations currency, and I care not who makes its laws" ~Baron M.A. Rothschild.

Shakedown is a criminal act of coercion or intimidation for personal gain. Shakedown also a colloquial term for an inspection for contraband inside a prison.

Looting is the indiscriminate taking of goods by force. Also referred to as sacking, ransacking, plundering, despoiling, despoliation, and pillaging.

Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act is a United States federal law that provides for extended criminal penalties and a civil cause of action for acts performed as part of an ongoing criminal organization. Under RICO, a person who has committed "at least two acts of racketeering activity" drawn from a list of 35 crimes (27 federal crimes and eight state crimes) within a 10-year period can be charged with racketeering if such acts are related in one of four specified ways to an "enterprise." Those found guilty of racketeering can be fined up to $25,000 and sentenced to 20 years in prison per racketeering count. In August 2023, the District Attorney of Fulton County, Georgia, Fani Willis, filed charges under the Georgia RICO act against Donald Trump and parties involved, including Rudy Giuliani. The (Georgia) law contains a list of 40 state crimes or acts that together can be classified as 'racketeering schemes.' It is broader than the federal law in that attempting, soliciting, coercing, and intimidating another person to commit any of the offenses can also be considered organized crime.

Crony Capitalism arises when business cronyism and related self-serving behavior by businesses or businesspeople spills over into politics and government, or when self-serving friendships and family ties between businessmen and the government influence the economy and society to the extent that it corrupts public-serving economic and political ideals. Cronyism is an economic system in which businesses thrive not as a result of free enterprise, but rather as a return on money amassed through collusion between a business class and the political class. This is often achieved by the manipulation of relationships with state power by business interests rather than unfettered competition in obtaining permits, government grants, tax breaks, or other forms of state intervention over resources where business interests exercise undue influence over the state's deployment of public goods, for example, mining concessions for primary commodities or contracts for public works. Money is then made not merely by making a profit in the market, but through profiteering by rent seeking using this monopoly or oligopoly. Entrepreneurship and innovative practices which seek to reward risk are stifled since the value-added is little by crony businesses, as hardly anything of significant value is created by them, with transactions taking the form of trading. Crony capitalism spills over into the government, the politics, and the media, when this nexus distorts the economy and affects society to an extent it corrupts public-serving economic, political, and social ideals.

Uber aggressively pushed into markets around the world, the ride-sharing service lobbied political leaders to relax labor and taxi laws, used a "kill switch'' to thwart regulators and law enforcement, channeled money through Bermuda and other tax havens and considered portraying violence against its drivers as a way to gain public sympathy, according to a report released Sunday July 10, 2022. The International Consortium of Investigative Journalists, a nonprofit network of investigative reporters, scoured internal Uber texts, emails, invoices and other documents to deliver what it called "an unprecedented look into the ways Uber defied taxi laws and upended workers' rights.'Uber used "stealth technology'' to fend off government investigations. The company, for example, used a "kill switch'' that cut access to Uber servers and blocked authorities from grabbing evidence during raids in at least six countries. During a police raid in Amsterdam, the Uber Files reported, former Uber CEO Travis Kalanick personally issued an order: "Please hit the kill switch ASAP ... Access must be shut down in AMS (Amsterdam). The Uber Files say the company cut its tax bill by millions of dollars by sending profits through Bermuda and other tax havens, then sought to deflect attention from its tax liabilities by helping authorities collect taxes from its drivers.

Vested interest
is when groups seek to control a social system or activity from which they derive private benefit at other peoples expense.

Hierarchical Organization (structure) - Corporate Titles (chiefs)

Crime Boss is a person in charge of a criminal organization.

President is the elected head of state and head of government. (but only corporations have presidents?)

Corporate Crime refers to crimes committed either by a corporation (i.e., a business entity having a separate legal personality from the natural persons that manage its activities), or by individuals acting on behalf of a corporation or other business entity.

Organized Crime is a category of transnational, national, or local groupings of highly centralized enterprises run by criminals who intend to engage in illegal activity, most commonly for money and profit. Some criminal organizations, such as terrorist groups, are politically motivated. Sometimes criminal organizations force people to do business with them, such as when a gang extorts money from shopkeepers for so-called "protection". Gangs may become disciplined enough to be considered organized. A criminal organization or gang can also be referred to as a mafia, mob, or crime syndicate; the network, subculture and community of criminals may be referred to as the underworld. Monopolies.

Cartel is an agreement between competing firms to control prices or exclude entry of a new competitor in a market. It is a formal organization of sellers or buyers that agree to fix selling prices, purchase prices, or reduce production using a variety of tactics.

Blue Mafia - Militia

Syndicate is a self-organizing group of individuals, companies, corporations or entities formed to transact some specific business, to pursue or promote a shared interest. A self-coordinating group. A similar group of gangsters engaged in organized crime. A chain of newspapers, or an agency that distributes features to multiple newspapers. The office or jurisdiction of a syndic; a council or body of syndics.

Gang is a group of friends or members of a family with a defined leadership and internal organization that identifies with or claims control over territory in a community and engages, either individually or collectively, in illegal, and possibly violent, behavior. Baby Gang is a group of teenage delinquents.

The System is Rigged just like the Claw Machines are Rigged. | Observatory #8 (youtube)

Gaming the System refers to as gaming the rules, bending the rules, abusing the system, cheating the system, milking the system, playing the system, or working the system) can be defined as using the rules and procedures meant to protect a system in order, instead, to manipulate the system for a desired outcome.

Mario Savio: The Operation of the Machine (youtube)

The Empire Files: The Tyranny of Big Oil (youtube 28:25 mins.) - Son of a Snake Oil Salesman. Pollution

Racism and Capitalism Syllabus (PDF)

Paycheck Protection Program Racket. At least a dozen lawmakers have ties to organizations that received federal coronavirus aid, according to newly released government data, highlighting how Washington insiders were both author and beneficiary of one of the biggest government programs in U.S. history. Under pressure from Congress and outside groups, the Trump administration this week disclosed the names of some loan recipients in the $659 billion Paycheck Protection Program, launched in April to help smaller businesses keep Americans employed during the pandemic. Connections to lawmakers, and the organizations that work to influence them, were quickly apparent. Shipping business started by Transportation Secretary Elaine Chao’s family. Chao is married to Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell. Car dealerships owned by at least three Republican House members — Reps. Roger Williams of Texas, Vern Buchanan of Florida and Mike Kelly of Pennsylvania — received money. So, too, did fast-food franchises owned by Rep. Kevin Hern, R-Okla., a law firm owned by the husband of Sen. Jeanne Shaheen, D-N.H., and the former law firm of Rep. Matt Cartwright, D-Pa., which employs his wife. Money also flowed to a farming and equipment business owned by the family of Rep. Vicky Hartzler, R-Mo., and a regional casino company led by the husband of Rep. Susie Lee, D-Nev. Hundreds of millions of dollars also flowed to political consultants, opposition research shops, law firms, advocacy organizations and trade associations whose work is based around influencing government and politics. While voting, lobbying and ultimately benefiting from legislation aren't illegal, advocates say the blurred lines risk eroding public trust in the federal pandemic response as Congress begins debating yet another round of coronavirus relief. As of June 30, the Treasury Department program had handed out $521 billion to industries including manufacturing, construction, restaurants and hotels. Treasury identified just a fraction of the total borrowers Monday, naming only companies that got more than $150,000. Those firms made up less than 15% of the nearly 5 million small companies and organizations that received assistance. Many of the lawmakers connected to loan awards emphasized they weren't part of the application process. The Shaheen & Gordon law firm in Dover, New Hampshire, got a loan of $1 million to $2 million. The firm is owned by Jeanne Shaheen’s husband, William Shaheen. A title company partially owned by William Shaheen got a $160,000 loan and a half dozen companies he partially owns or another relative owns got loans, below $150,000. Four car dealerships owned by Kelly received $600,000 to $1.4 million. Mike Kelly Automotive Group, Mike Kelly Automotive LP and Mike Kelly Hyundai and Kelly Chevrolet-Cadillac, all near Pittsburgh, received the money. A spokesman for Kelly said he wasn't part of the loan application and isn't involved in the operations of the dealerships, in accordance with ethics rules. Williams, who had a net worth of over $27 million in 2018, received a loan for his Roger Williams Chrysler Dodge Jeep dealership in Weatherford, Texas. Williams is president and CEO of JRW Corp. of Fort Worth, which is listed as receiving a loan of $1 million to $2 million. "Like every other company who accepted a small business loan, our business qualified under law and regulation, and today over 100 of our employees are grateful that we did,'' Williams said in a statement. Buchanan, whose net worth is estimated at $74 million, received three loans for car dealerships totaling $2.7 million to $7 million. He told the Tampa Bay Times that he hoped any eligible small business "would use the program to make sure their workers continued to get paid during this difficult period.” At least five car dealerships owned by the husband of Rep. Carol Miller, R-W.Va., also received loans, each ranging from $350,000 to $1 million, the data show. A California hotel partially owned by the husband of House Speaker Nancy Pelosi, as well as a Full House Resorts, a Las Vegas-based casino company led by Lee's husband, Daniel, got two loans totaling $5.6 million, according to the Securities and Exchange Commission. The company said the funds would be used to rehire several hundred employees and prepare to reopen two casinos in Indiana and Colorado. Two wineries tied to Rep. Devin Nunes, R-Calif., and an Iowa farm run by his family received loans worth at least $2 million. The wineries got separate loans worth $1 million to $2 million, and an Iowa dairy farm that is tied to his relatives received $150,000 to $350,000. Three companies including Gate Gourmet, a global provider of airline meals, received $338 million in relief money for workers — and laid workers off anyway. Evangelical churches got 7.3 billion. Religious Organizations Receive $7.3 Billion in PPP Loans, Megachurches Amass Millions. Treasury Department data released Monday shows that religious organizations, ranging from nearly 10,000 Catholic churches to hundreds of Jewish groups, received 88,411 Paycheck Protection Program (PPP) loans since the program began April 3. Several churches affiliated with outspoken Trump supporters and close associates amassed at least $17.3 million in loans intended to help small businesses and nonprofits retain workers. Catholic Church won $1.4B in virus aid After lobbying. Millions in aid from small business relief fund went to "hate groups". At least 10 groups with a history of making anti-Black, anti-LGBTQ or anti-immigrant statements received loans from the government's small business coronavirus relief fund. The Trump administration designed a program that largely excludes minority owned small businesses but left the door open to taxpayer funds propping up hate groups. The SBA earlier this week released a list of some 650,000 companies and organizations that each received more than $150,000 from the program, including churches, Girl Scout chapters and nonprofits pushing liberal as well as conservative causes. While the SBA did not disclose the exact loan amounts, it provided a range of funding that each organization received. The SBA barred a number of companies from getting Paycheck program loans, including strip club operators, sellers of legal marijuana and firms that directly lobby the federal government and politicians. But while lobbyists were banned, advocacy groups weren't, which opened the door to all types of issue-focused groups receiving money. And while the SBA has set up the rules of the program, it's generally up to individual banks to decide who is eligible for the loans. The SBA has said that it may audit some of the loans, including those over $2 million, if borrowers apply for forgiveness.

Extortion - Blackmail

Extortion is a criminal offense of obtaining money, property, or services from an institution, through coercion. It is sometimes euphemistically referred to as a "protection racket" since the racketeers often phrase their demands as payment for "protection" from (real or hypothetical) threats from unspecified other parties. Extortion is commonly practiced by organized crime groups. The actual obtainment of money or property is not required to commit the offense. Making a threat of violence which refers to a requirement of a payment of money or property to halt future violence is sufficient to commit the offense. Exaction refers not only to extortion or the demanding and obtaining of something through force, but additionally, in its formal definition, means the infliction of something such as pain and suffering or making somebody endure something unpleasant. Scams.

Blackmail a crime, involving unjustified threats to make money or a gain property or cause loss to another unless a demand is met. Coercion involves threats to reveal substantially true or false information about a person to the public, a family member, or associates, or threats of physical harm or criminal prosecution.

Fraud is deliberate deception to secure unfair or unlawful gain, or to deprive a victim of a legal right. Fraud itself can be a civil wrong.

Embezzlement - Kickbacks - Bribery

Fence is an individual who knowingly buys stolen property for later resale, sometimes in a legitimate market. The fence thus acts as a middleman between thieves and the eventual buyers of stolen goods who may not be aware that the goods are stolen.

Price Fixing - Price Gouging - Bid Rigging

Double Standard is when something is acceptable to one group of people, but are considered unacceptable—taboo—when applied by another group. A double standard can therefore be described as a biased or morally unfair application of the principle that all are equal in their freedoms. Contradiction.

False Claims Act is an American federal law that imposes liability on persons and companies (typically federal contractors) who defraud governmental programs. It is the federal Government's primary litigation tool in combating fraud against the Government.

Racket - Scams - Crime of Opportunity - Confidence Trick

White-Collar Crime is a crime committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation. Typical white-collar crimes include fraud, bribery, Ponzi schemes, insider trading, labor racketeering, embezzlement, cybercrime, copyright infringement, money laundering, identity theft, forgery.

Corporate Crime - Media Control - Non-Disclosure Agreement

Concessions is a grant of rights, land or property by a government, local authority, corporation, individual or other legal entity. Public services such as water supply may be operated as a concession. In the case of a public service concession, a private company enters into an agreement with the government to have the exclusive right to operate, maintain and carry out investment in a public utility (such as a water privatization) for a given number of years.

Contemptible and Inexcusable - Cooking the Books

Buy out Practice - Other People's Money - Overt Acts

Willful Default is the Intentional failure by a party to a contract, or a court case, to do what it is supposed, or ordered, to do.

Talk about entitlements, what about dividends, pensions, bonuses, kickbacks, over blown salaries, favors, and so on...

Money with an Expiration Date. To avoid expiration, the bills would have to be periodically stamped for a fee. With no new stamp, they would become worthless. In this system, saving money would cost you money. Savings, in other words, would have a negative interest rate. Only by spending or investing it would you be able to avoid stamp fees. Free money" (or Freigold) — "free" because he believed it would be freed from hoarding and also because it would encourage bankers to lend money without charging interest. Silvio Gesell was a German merchant, theoretical economist, social activist, Georgist, anarchist, libertarian socialist, and founder of Freiwirtschaft. In 1900 he founded the magazine Geld-und Bodenreform (Monetary and Land Reform), but it soon closed for financial reasons. During one of his stays in Argentina, where he lived in a vegetarian commune, Gesell started the magazine Der Physiokrat together with Georg Blumenthal. In 1914, it closed due to censorship. The Bavarian Soviet Republic, in which he participated, had a violent end and Gesell was detained for several months on a charge of treason, but was acquitted by a Munich court after a speech he gave in his own defence. (March 17, 1862 – March 11, 1930).

Economic Warfare - Destroying Economies for Profit

Economic Hit Men are corporate puppets who manipulate leaders of underdeveloped countries to accept substantial development loans for large construction and engineering projects that would primarily help the richest families and local elites, rather than the citizens, while making sure that these projects were contracted to U.S. companies.

Off Shore Accounts - Dark Money - Bribes - Monopolies - Rackets - Controlled by Debt - Wealth Dived - Living Wage - Knowledge Divide - Gentrification - Sanctions

Economic Warfare are actions of which the primary effect is to weaken and destabilize the economy of another state.

Unconventional Warfare is broadly defined as "military and quasi-military operations other than conventional warfare" and may use covert forces or actions such as subversion, sabotage, espionage, biowarfare, sanctions, propaganda or guerrilla warfare. This is typically done to avoid escalation into conventional warfare as well as international conventions.

Neocolonialism is the practice of using capitalism, globalization and cultural imperialism to influence a developing country in lieu of direct military control (imperialism) or indirect political control (hegemony).

Wealth Drain or the Drain of Wealth is the constant flow of national wealth from a country without giving the country adequate economic, commercial or material return. Drain of Wealth Theory - Modern India History Notes.

“When plunder becomes a way of life for a group of men in a society, over the course of time they create for themselves a legal system that authorizes it and a moral code that glorifies it.” ― Frédéric Bastiat

Economic Drain refers to a portion of the national product which was not available for consumption of its people, but was being drained away to another country without that country getting adequate economic material for it. Economic Drain occurs when resources such as gold or silver leave a country as a result of an unfavorable trade balance.

Money Laundering - Rape - Wealth Divide - Separatism

Capital Flight when assets or money rapidly flows out of a country, due to greed and corruption, or an event of economic consequence or as the result of a political event such as regime change or economic globalization. Such events could be an increase in taxes on capital or capital holders or the government of the country defaulting on its debt that disturbs investors and causes them to lower their valuation of the assets in that country, or otherwise to lose confidence in its economic strength. This leads to a disappearance of wealth, and is usually accompanied by a sharp drop in the exchange rate of the affected country—depreciation in a variable exchange rate regime, or a forced devaluation in a fixed exchange rate regime. This fall is particularly damaging when the capital belongs to the people of the affected country because not only are the citizens now burdened by the loss in the economy and devaluation of their currency but their assets have lost much of their nominal value. This leads to dramatic decreases in the purchasing power of the country's assets and makes it increasingly expensive to import goods and acquire any form of foreign facilities, e.g. medical facilities.

The Octopus of Global Control (amazon) - A controversial, nonfiction book detailing how those in positions of power are able to manipulate society for their benefit.

Attrition Warfare is a military strategy consisting of belligerent attempts to win a war by wearing down the enemy to the point of collapse through continuous losses in personnel, materiel, and morale. Attrition warfare represents an attempt to grind down an opponent's ability to make war by destroying their military resources by any means including guerrilla warfare, people's war, scorched earth and all kind of battles apart from a decisive battle. Attrition warfare does not include all kinds of Blitzkrieg or using concentration of force and a decisive battle to win. The side that reinforces their army at a higher speed will normally win the war. Clausewitz called it the exhaustion of the adversary.

Financial Instrument of US National Power and Unconventional Warfare. The U.S. Army states that major global financial institutions — such as the World Bank, International Monetary Fund (IMF), and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) — are used as unconventional, financial weapons in times of conflict up to and including large-scale general war, as well as in leveraging the policies and cooperation of state governments. The document, officially titled “Field Manual (FM) 3-05.130, Army Special Operations Forces Unconventional Warfare” and originally written in September 2008. U.S.-led economic siege of that country through sanctions and other means of economic warfare.

False Flag Operations - Corporate take over of America Timeline.

Economic Sanctions are commercial and financial penalties applied by one or more countries against a targeted self-governing state, group, or individual. Economic sanctions generally aim to change the behavior of elites in the target country. Economic sanctions may include various forms of trade barriers, tariffs, and restrictions on financial transactions. Sanctions cause citizens to suffer from resource shortages, food shortages and supply shortages, which makes them blame the people in control of their country, like a false flag event where the people forcing the sanctions blame the rulers of the country. Just like war, people suffer, not the rulers.

Trade War is an economic conflict resulting from extreme protectionism in which states raise or create tariffs or other trade barriers against each other in response to trade barriers created by the other party. Increased protection causes both nations' output compositions to move towards their autarky position.

Supply and Demand - Price Gouging

International Sanctions are political and economic decisions that are part of diplomatic efforts by countries, multilateral or regional organizations against states or organizations either to protect national security interests, or to protect international law, and defend against threats to international peace and security. These decisions principally include the temporary imposition on a target of economic, trade, diplomatic, cultural or other restrictions (sanctions measures) that are lifted when the motivating security concerns no longer apply, or when no new threats have arisen.

Blockade is an effort to cut off supplies, war material or communications from a particular area by force, either in part or totally. A blockade should not be confused with an embargo or sanctions. Embargo is a trading ban.

Sanctions in law are penalties or other means of enforcement used to provide incentives for obedience with the law, or with rules and regulations. Boycotts.

Subversion refers to an attempt to transform the established social order and its structures of power, authority, and hierarchy. A process by which the values and principles of a system in place are contradicted or reversed. More specifically, subversion can be described as an attack on the public morale and, "the will to resist intervention are the products of combined political and social or class loyalties which are usually attached to national symbols.

Sedition is overt conduct, such as speech and organization, that tends toward insurrection against the established order. An action inciting resistance to lawful authority and tending to cause the disruption or overthrow of the government.

Attrition is wearing something down in order to weaken it or destroy it. The action or process of gradually reducing the strength or effectiveness of someone or something through sustained attack or pressure.

Attrition Warfare is a corporate sponsored military or government strategy consisting of belligerent attempts to win a war by wearing down the enemy to the point of collapse through continuous losses in personnel and material. The war will usually be won by the side with greater such resources. The word attrition comes from the Latin root atterere to rub against, similar to the "grinding down" of the opponent's forces in attrition warfare.

Seditious Libel is insurrection against the established order: if the statement is in writing or some other permanent form it is seditious libel. Libel denotes a printed form of communication such as writing or drawing.

Overt Act is an open act, one that can be clearly proved by evidence, and from which criminal intent can be inferred, as opposed to a mere intention in the mind to commit a crime.

Assassination is murder of a public figure by surprise attack. An attack intended to ruin someone's reputation.

Intention in criminal law is having knowledge and awareness of wrongdoing.

Mercantilism promoted governmental regulation of a nation's economy for the purpose of augmenting state power at the expense of rival national powers.

Sabotage is a deliberate action aimed at weakening a polity or corporation through subversion, obstruction, disruption or destruction. Treason.

Economic Espionage makes the theft or misappropriation of a trade secret a federal crime.

Industrial Espionage is a form of espionage conducted for commercial purposes instead of purely national security.

Covert U.S. Foreign Regime Change Actions (wiki) - U.S. Involvement in Regime Change (wiki) - Espionage - Corruption

Annexation is the political transition of land from the control of one entity to another. It is also the incorporation of unclaimed land into a state's sovereignty, which is in most cases legitimate. In international law it is the forcible transition of one state's territory by another state or the legal process by which a city acquires land. Usually, it is implied that the territory and population being annexed is the smaller, more peripheral, and weaker of the two merging entities, barring physical size. It can also imply a certain measure of coercion, expansionism or unilateralism on the part of the stronger of the merging entities. Because of this, more positive euphemisms like political union/unification or reunification are sometimes seen in discourse. Annexation differs from cession and amalgamation, because unlike cession where territory is given or sold through treaty, or amalgamation (where the authorities of both sides are asked if they agree with the merge), annexation is a unilateral act where territory is seized and held by one state and legitimized via general recognition by the other international bodies (i.e. countries and intergovernmental organisations). Ceding is to relinquish possession or control over. Amalgamation is the combination of two or more commercial companies. Merge is to join or combine.

Texas Annexation (wiki) - Mexican - American War (wiki)

Harry S. Truman Address in Mexico City. March 3, 1947.

Manifest Destiny was a widely held belief in the United States that its settlers were destined to expand across North America. Imperialism.

Corporatocracy used to refer to an economic and political system controlled by corporations or corporate interests.

Petrodollar refers to earning more money from the export of crude oil than they could feasibly invest in their own economies. The resulting global interdependencies and financial flows, from oil producers back to oil consumers, can reach a scale of hundreds of billions of US dollars per year across a variety of currencies, heavily influenced by government-level decisions regarding international investment and aid. Petrodollar Recycling.

Devaluation is a reduction in the value of a currency with respect to those goods, services or other monetary units with which that currency can be exchanged.

Triffin Dilemma is when a country whose currency, being the global reserve currency, foreign nations wish to hold, must be willing to supply the world with an extra supply of its currency to fulfill world demand for these foreign exchange reserves, thus leading to a trade deficit.

Demolition is to destroy something completely or damage irreparably. Complete destruction of a building.

Power Politics is a form of international relations in which sovereign entities protect their own interests by threatening one another with military, economic or political aggression. The term was the title of a 1979 book by Martin Wight, which the Times Literary Supplement listed as the 18th most influential book since World War II.

Scams - Trickery - Secret Plots

Mark Twain Quote - It's easier to Fool PeopleScam is a fraudulent and dishonest business scheme or a plot to do something harmful. You know it's a scam when someone has an urgent need for money or they are asking you for your personal information.

Sham is something that is a counterfeit and not what it seems to be. A person who makes deceitful pretenses. Make believe with the intent to deceive. Adopted in order to deceive.

Trickery is a verbal misrepresentation intended to take advantage of you in some way. The use of tricks to deceive someone by acting like you're an honest person.

Swindle is to deprive someone by deceit using a fraudulent scheme. Swindler is a person who uses deception to deprive someone of money or possessions, or someone who gets money dishonestly by deceiving or cheating people a person who cheats or defrauds others. A bilk, cheat, cheater, cozener, defrauder, rook, sharper, trickster, victimizer, chiseler, crook, flimflammer.

Rackets - Wealth Grab - Marketing Scams - Bubbles - Cherry-Picking Data - False Pretenses - Click Bait - Entrapment - Religious Charlatans - Fortune Telling - Folklore

Con Artist is someone who tricks other people into giving them their money or property. A person who cheats or tricks others by persuading them to believe something that is not true. A person who deceives other people by making them believe something false or making them give their money. A person adept at lying, cajolery, or glib self-serving talk. A person who exploits the vulnerability of others for their own sake by manipulating and taking advantage of their confidence.

Impostor Scams cost Americans billions last year, people lost a total of $2.6 billion to imposter scams. Imposter Scammer may call, text, or email to convince you they are someone in authority. They try to get you to send money or a gift card or share personal information so they can commit ID theft. The FBI reported that scammers stole more than $3.4 billion from older Americans last year. But no mention of the greedy scumbags from corporations who steal billions every day. Not just a wealth divide, but an ignorance divide, with dumb and dumber.

Two Faced - Liar - Political Campaigns - Are you a Robot - Security Questions

Pig Butchering Scam is a text message scam that appears to be a wrong-number text message. The people who respond to the text are lured into crypto investments. But the investments are fake, and once victims send enough funds, the scammers disappear with all their money. It is a type of confidence trick and investment fraud in which victims are gradually lured into making increasing contributions. Pig Butchering is named after the practice of farmers fattening pigs before they slaughter them in order to get the most meat, or money.

Call Center Scams or scam call centers operate by manipulating victims into disclosing personal and financial information over the phone. These centers typically impersonate credible companies, such as Amazon and Microsoft, or government agencies, like the IRS.

Investment Scams or investment fraud happens when people try to trick you into investing money. They might want you to invest money in stocks, bonds, notes, commodities, currency, or even real estate. A scammer may lie to you or give you fake information about a real investment. Or they may make up a fake investment opportunity.

Fake Trading Platforms are used by scammers who create fake cryptocurrency trading platforms or fake versions of official crypto wallets to trick unsuspecting victims. Online trading scams involve fraudulent activity aimed at deceiving individuals into investing their money and ultimately stealing it. Scammers make false promises of high returns, use unsolicited contact, create urgency to invest quickly, and may ask for personal information. Scam trading platforms won't connect to legitimate financial institutions because they'll be discovered as frauds. Instead, the scammers will walk you through how to convert dollars to cryptocurrency on a legitimate trading platform first, and then ask you to transfer the crypto to them.

Society as a whole in 2024 is one big scam and a fraud an many different ways. E-mail Scams - Middle Men Gone Mad - Monopolies - Propaganda - Dumbed Down Education.

Technical Support Scam is a type of scam in which a scammer claims to offer a legitimate technical support service. Victims contact scammers in a variety of ways, often through fake pop-ups resembling error messages or via fake "help lines" advertised on websites owned by the scammers. Technical support scammers use social engineering and a variety of confidence tricks to persuade their victim of the presence of problems on their computer or mobile device, such as a malware infection, when there are no issues with the victim's device. The scammer will then persuade the victim to pay to fix the fictitious "problems" that they claim to have found. Payment is made to the scammer through ways which are hard to trace and have fewer consumer protections in place which could allow the victim to claim their money back, usually through gift cards.

Grifter is a manipulator or a corrupt person who games a system or swindles a group of people, or other entity for selfish gains. A political sell-out perceived as lacking integrity. A con artist or someone who pulls confidence games. A swindler, scammer, huckster, hustler, or charlatan. Grift is to engage in petty or small-scale swindling.

Charlatan is a confidence trick in order to obtain money, fame, or other advantages through pretense or deception. knowingly employing bogus means of impressing people in order to swindle victims by selling them worthless remedies and similar goods or services that will not deliver on the promises made for them. A charlatan is a person who fakes evidence that a spirit is "making contact" with the medium and seekers. Charlatan is a person practicing quackery or some similar confidence trick in order to obtain money, fame or other advantages via some form of pretense or deception.

Cheat is to deprive somebody of something by deceit. To engage in deceitful behavior or to practice trickery or fraud. To be sexually unfaithful to one's partner in marriage.

Hustled is to be swindled or cheated into buying something worthless, especially by underhanded activity using forceful action or persuasion.

You Got Played means that you were manipulated by someone pretending to be looking out for your best interest.

"You must not fool yourself, because you are the easiest person to fool."

"The first principle is that you must not fool yourself -- and you are the easiest person to fool." - (Richard Feynman).

“You can fool all the people some of the time and some of the people all the time, but you cannot fool all the people all the time.”

Gullible - Ignorant - Vulnerable

Elderly adults lose billions to financial scams by people they trust every year. Each year, older adults lose more than $28 billion to financial scams targeting the elderly. Nearly three-quarters of that money is stolen by people the elderly adult knows -- people they trust. New psychological research suggests this vulnerability could be linked to older adults' overreliance on initial impressions of trustworthiness. Older adults rely more on trust in decision making. It could open them up to scams. Relying on initial impressions of trustworthiness, elderly adults overlook bad behavior.

"You my friend are full of shit. Every single word that comes out of your mouth is fake." (A quote from the wife of Adam Neumann from WeWork, after they met for the first time).

Snake Oil is a euphemism for deceptive marketing and fraud. A product or policy of little real worth or value that is promoted as the solution to a problem. A substance with no real medicinal value sold as a remedy for all diseases.

Pranks Destroy Scam Callers- Glitter Bomb Payback (youtube)

All that Glitters is Not Gold means that just because something looks valuable and authentic, that does not prove or mean that it is valuable and authentic. All that glitters is gold is an aphorism stating that not everything that looks precious or true turns out to be so. This can be applied to just about any experience in life. While early expressions of the idea are known from at least the 12th century, the current saying is derived from a 16th-century line by William Shakespeare.

Counterfeit is something made in exact imitation of something valuable or important with the intention to deceive or defraud someone. A fraudulent imitation or a forgery of something else. Artificial - Front Men.

Connive is to plot something harmful. To scheme secretly in an illegal or wrongful action or in an underhanded manner. To encourage, collude or assent to illegally or criminally.

Plot is a secret scheme to do something underhand or illegal.

Scheme is plot to do something harmful. An elaborate and systematic plan of action. Plot something harmful; scheme in an underhand manner.  A group of independent but interrelated elements comprising a unified whole. (There are many different types of revenue generating schemes. Be aware.) Conspiracy.

Pyramid Scheme is a promise of payments or services for enrolling others into the scheme, rather than supplying investments or from the sale of products or services. As recruiting multiplies, recruiting becomes quickly impossible, and most members are unable to make enough money because pyramid schemes are unsustainable and fraudulent

Multi Level Marketing - Two Faced - Back Stabbing - Middle Men - Loss Aversion

"The rich and powerful are running a pyramid scheme with life. And the billions of people at the bottom are left with almost nothing."

Ponzi Scheme is a fraudulent investment operation where the operator, an individual or organization, pays returns to its investors from new capital paid to the operators by new investors, rather than from profit earned through legitimate sources. Operators of Ponzi schemes usually entice new investors by offering higher returns than other investments, in the form of short-term returns that are either abnormally high or unusually consistent. MMM Ponzi Scheme (wiki).

Timeshares: Last Week Tonight with John Oliver (HBO) (youtube)

License to Lie Clause was created to protect scumbags who sell Timeshares. Visible on most written agreements, this “license to lie” purportedly gives timeshare companies the “right” to disqualify any “verbal promises” made by a timeshare salesperson during the sale.

Perpetuity Clause or Forever Clause is an indefinite timeshare contract, meaning it has no end date. Almost impossible to cancle. It was very popular in timeshare contracts in Europe and is still pretty much the standard way American timeshare contracts are written

Disclaimer of Interest is an attempt by a person to renounce their legal right to benefit from an inheritance or through a trust. If a trustee disclaims an interest in property that otherwise would have become trust property, the interest does not become trust property. Disclaimer of interest pertains to the law of inheritance, wills and trusts.

Business Exit Strategy is an entrepreneur's strategic plan to sell his or her ownership in a company to investors or another company. An exit strategy gives a business owner a way to reduce or liquidate his stake in a business and, if the business is successful, make a substantial profit.

What's the Catch is a question that you ask when an offer sounds too good to be true, and that there must be hidden costs involved as well as disadvantages or problems that are not being clearly revealed or explained to you. Catch 22.

Rob Peter to Pay Paul is to take something away from one person to pay another person, leaving the former at a disadvantage. To discharge one debt only to incur another. Passing the Buck.

Shell Game is a confidence trick used to perpetrate fraud. In confidence trick slang, this swindle is referred to as a short-con because it is quick and easy to pull off.

Illusions (magic tricks) - Psychic - Consumer Protection.

Romance Scam is a confidence trick involving a scammer who pretends to have romantic intentions towards a victim, and the gaining their affection and using that goodwill to commit fraud. Fraudulent acts may involve access to the victim's money, bank accounts, credit cards, passports, e-mail accounts, or national identification numbers; or forcing the victims to commit financial fraud on their behalf. In many instances, a mail-order bride scam will also bait the victim into committing felonies to establish citizenship for the perpetrator. What would you do for love?

Two Faced - Sextortion - Fake People

Romance Scammers Are Bilking Americans Out Of $1.3 Billion A Year. The US Federal Trade Commission says pandemic isolation, online dating and cryptocurrencies have created a "combustible combination for fraud.

Honey Trap is an investigative practice involving the use of romantic or sexual relationships for interpersonal, political (including state espionage), or monetary purpose. The honey pot or trap involves making contact with an individual who has information or resources required by a group or individual; the trapper will then seek to entice the target into a false relationship (which may or may not include actual physical involvement) in which they can glean information or influence over the target. The term "honey trap" is also used when dating sites. are used to gain access to a victim. Private investigators are often employed to create a honey pot by wives, husbands, and other partners usually when an illicit romantic affair is suspected of the "target", or subject of the investigation. Occasionally, the term may be used for the practice of creating an affair for the purpose of taking incriminating photos for use in blackmail. A honey trap is used primarily to collect evidence on the subject of the honey trap. Honey trapping is used in getting a new user addicted to illegal drugs and also for drug smuggling. A honey trapping can also be an investigative technique that tests the fidelity of a spouse or significant other by attempting to lure him or her into a romantic or sexual liaison.

Love Trap or a Relationship Trap or an Intimacy Trap can happen to anyone. People can become vulnerable in many ways. Vulnerabilities can come from attachment problems early in life, low self-esteem, trauma, abuse, abandonment, emotional deprivation, entitlement, poor standards or from a poor education. Having a perfect first date with a mysterious stranger may be enticing. So a relationship may seem like a good idea. Maybe the person may seem to be a career-compatible match. Or maybe having terrific sex could hook you in. Or maybe you're on a rebound and you feel that it's now or never. What ever the reasons are, you should take your time. Don't commit to anything. Read the contract and then think long and hard about yourself and your emotional well-being.

Catfishing is to lure someone into a relationship by means of a fictional online persona. A deceptive activity in which a person creates a fictional persona or fake identity on a social networking service, usually targeting a specific victim.

Sexpionage is the involvement of sexual activity, or the possibility of sexual activity, intimacy, romance, or seduction to conduct espionage. Sex or the possibility of sex can function as a distraction, incentive, cover story, or unintended part of any intelligence operation. Sexpionage is a historically documented phenomenon and even the CIA has previously added Nigel West's work Historical Dictionary of Sexspionage to its proposed intelligence officer's bookshelf. Female agents using such tactics are known as sparrows, while male ones are known as ravens. A commonly known type of sexpionage is a honey trap operation, which is designed to compromise an opponent sexually to elicit information from that person.

Femme Fatale is an attractive and seductive woman, especially one who is likely to cause distress or disaster to a man who becomes involved with her. Femme fatale is a stock character of a mysterious, beautiful, and seductive woman whose charms ensnare her lovers, often leading them into compromising, deadly traps. Sugar Daddy.

Confidence Trick is an attempt to defraud a person or group after first gaining their confidence, used in the classical sense of trust. Confidence tricks exploit characteristics of the human psyche such as dishonesty, honesty, vanity, compassion, credulity, irresponsibility, naïveté and greed. (confidence game, confidence scheme, ripoff, scam and stratagem).

Allure is the power to entice or attract someone through personal charm. To make receptive or willing towards an action or attitude or belief

Wheedling is the act of urging by means of teasing or flattery. Influence or urge by gentle urging, caressing, or flattering. Buttering someone up or to praise or flatter someone excessively. Watch out for suck-ups.

Money is a Romance Scam and Donald Trump is a Nigerian Prince. Scams are at every level of society, and people are easily fooled.

Breadcrumbing is when someone leads a person on romantically, usually using social media or texting. It basically means they're stringing someone along, but with the help of modern technology. Think Hansel and Gretel being tempted onwards to their doom by the witch. Head Games.

Sucker - Jonas Brothers (youtube) - I'm a sucker for you, You say the word and I'll go anywhere blindly.

Sucker is a person who is gullible and easy to take advantage of. To deceive somebody.

Advance-Fee Scam is a form of fraud and one of the most common types of confidence tricks. The scam typically involves promising the victim a significant share of a large sum of money, in return for a small up-front payment, which the fraudster requires in order to obtain the large sum. If a victim makes the payment, the fraudster either invents a series of further fees for the victim or simply disappears. There are many variations of this type of scam, including the 419 scam, also known as the Nigerian Prince Scam where a member of a royal family is seeking to transfer large sums of money. There is also the Spanish Prisoner scam, the black money scam, Fifo's Fraud and the Detroit-Buffalo scam. The scam has been used with fax and traditional mail, and is now prevalent in online communications like emails.

Someone is Pulling the Wool over your Eyes when someone is trying to deceive you or trick you by telling you lies. So Stop trying to pull the wool over my eyes! The phrase came from people in the 1600's who sometimes wore a woolen wig. And if you pulled the wool wig down over your face it would cover your eyes and you would be blind to what was happening around you.

Hoodwinked is to deceive someone or trick someone. Conceal one's true motives from especially by elaborately feigning good intentions so as to gain an end. Influence by slyness or shrewdness as demonstrated by being skilled in deception. Bamboozled.

Rob you Blind is to cheat someone in a comprehensive or merciless way.

Rob is to take something away by force or without the consent of the owner.

Opportunism is the practice of taking advantage of circumstances with little regard for principles or with what the consequences are for others. Opportunist actions are expedient actions guided primarily by self-interested motives. Means, Motive, Opportunity.

Constructive Fraud is a legal fiction describing a situation where a person or entity gained an unfair advantage over another by deceitful or unfair methods. Intent does not need to be shown as in the case of actual fraud.

Exploit is to take advantage of someone's weaknesses, vulnerabilities, needs or lack of knowledge. When people are desperate they can easily be abused by criminals.

Attacking Economies - Debt Traps

Booby Trap is a device or setup that is intended to kill, harm, or surprise a person or animal. It is triggered by the presence or actions of the victim and sometimes has some form of bait designed to lure the victim towards it.

Right-Wing Terrorism aim to overthrow governments and replace them with nationalist or fascist-oriented governments.

Laissez-Faire or Laissez Unfair? Laissez-Faire is a policy or attitude of letting things take their own course, without interfering. Abstention by governments from interfering in the workings of the free market, but how can you prove you're not involved? 

Even relationships based on a criminal activity can be repurposed. They don't need to be totally ended, unless of course someone refuses to except better alternatives, then those relationships may be a lot harder to keep going. But never end a relationship on a sour note, always reassure the other person that you are not going to burn the bridge, and that you will always be willing to seek compromises and alternate solutions. Not agreeing with each other doesn't mean that we have to stop communicating with each other. People change, the world changes, and the better we adjust to these changes the better our lives will be.

Income inequality in the U.S. by state, metropolitan area, and county.

"Just because the distribution of money is unequal, this doesn't mean that you don't have the power to equalize it."

"Everyone could live a good life without having to force other people to suffer because of it, or have future generations pay for it with their lives. A good life means good for everyone, and not just you."

Opportunity. "There's a lot of things that we can do better and improve. But our gift of intelligence is being under utilized by inadequate schooling and an ineffective curriculum. Our intelligence is also being marginalized by the misconception that education only happens in schools, which it doesn't. Knowledge and Information is more then just a right, it's what people need to know what is right. We need to stop being fools and improve education, as well as our ability to properly inform the public."

On this page there's Hundreds of Crimes that are Committed in the name of Money by Corporations, Politicians, Banks, and People in Power, crimes that go unpunished because criminals own the justice system, crimes that you don't hear about in the news because the criminals own the media, crimes that you never learn how to stop because the criminals own the Education System.

Bourgeois is being of the property-owning class and exploitive of the working class. Conforming to the standards and conventions of the middle class of or characteristic of the middle class, typically with reference to its perceived materialistic values or conventional attitudes. A capitalist who engages in industrial commercial enterprise. Bourgeoisie (wiki).

A Modest Proposal suggests that the impoverished Irish might ease their economic troubles by selling their children as food for rich gentlemen and ladies.

Devolution is the notion that species can revert into more primitive forms over time.

Cyber Con Artists are using artificial intelligence, apps, and social engineering to target parents and grandparents. They are being scammed out of a total of $10 billion dollars a year in America.

Cyber Scam Artists - Becoming a victim of crime and Fraud - Common Scams and Crimes

You have a defect in your perception when you can't make accurate assessments of other people, and when you can't tell when someone is lying to you, or tell if someone is dangerous. This goes way beyond bias, this is negligence. You are not even trying to do what is right or trying to do what is good. You have to be more aware and more responsible. You put everyone at risk when you are a fool. Please take some time to educate yourself. The more knowledgeable you are the less vulnerable you are.

Negligence - Intentional Destruction to Increase Profits

Recklessness is an appropriate intention, knowledge of, recklessness, or criminal negligence. Recklessness may constitute an offense against property or involve significant danger to another person.

Negligent Homicide - Criminal Negligence - Gross Negligence

Premeditated Murder - Wrongful Death - Misconduct

Willful Violation act done voluntarily with either an intentional disregard of, or plain indifference to.

Punitive Damages are damages intended to reform or deter the defendant and others from engaging in conduct similar to that which formed the basis of the lawsuit.

Grievous Bodily Harm - Malice Aforethought

Public Nuisance - Discrimination

Intentional infliction of emotional distress - Intention intent or knowledge of wrongdoing.

Negligent infliction of emotional distress - Endangerment - War

Means, Motive, and Opportunity

Probable Cause refers to the standard by which a grand jury believes that a crime has been committed.

Impropriety - Improper

Collateral Damage term for deaths, injuries, or other damage inflicted on an unintended target.
Externality is the cost or benefit that affects a party who did not choose to incur that cost or benefit.

Special Organizations - Power

Precautionary Principle - Predictive Neglect.

All people should have a right to vote on who dies and who suffers, whether it's from a particular action by a company, or a Government.

Lack of Oversight can Lead to Internal Corruption

When people in charge of protecting citizens can work indirectly for criminals, then you will never have true security or true justice. People just following orders makes an inside job easy to accomplish.

Oversight - Secrecy - Power Structure

NSA or National Security Agency, is an intelligence organization responsible for global monitoring, collection, and processing of information and data for foreign intelligence and counterintelligence purposes, a discipline known as signals intelligence (SIGINT). Flawed Priorities of the NSA - Video.

Inspector General - Attorney General - Internal Affairs - IRS

CIA or Central Intelligence Agency, is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT). As one of the principal members of the U.S. Intelligence Community (IC), the CIA reports to the Director of National Intelligence and is primarily focused on providing intelligence for the President and Cabinet. Drug Dealing.

Homeland Security is a term for the national effort to ensure a homeland that is safe, secure, and resilient against terrorism and other hazards where American interests, aspirations, and ways of life can thrive to the national effort to prevent terrorist attacks within the United States, reduce the vulnerability of the U.S. to terrorism, and minimize the damage from attacks that do occur.

FBI or the Federal Bureau of Investigation, is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, which simultaneously serves as the nation's prime federal law enforcement agency. Operating under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Department of Justice, the FBI is concurrently a member of the U.S. Intelligence Community and reports to both the Attorney General and the Director of National Intelligence. A leading U.S. counterterrorism, counterintelligence, and criminal investigative organization, the FBI has jurisdiction over violations of more than 200 categories of federal crimes.

Intelligence Agency is responsible for the collection, analysis, and exploitation of information and intelligence in support of law enforcement, national security, military, and foreign policy objectives. Provision of analysis in areas relevant to national security; Give early warning of impending crises; Serve national and international crisis management by helping to discern the intentions of current or potential opponents; Inform national defense planning and military operations; Protect sensitive information secrets, both of their own sources and activities, and those of other state agencies; May act covertly to influence the outcome of events in favor of national interests, or influence international security; and Defense against the efforts of other national intelligence agencies (counter-intelligence).

Double Standards (contradictions) - Bogus Lawsuits - Shills.

Special Operations Command is the Unified Combatant Command charged with overseeing the various Special Operations Component Commands of the Army, Marine Corps, Navy, and Air Force of the United States Armed Forces. The command is part of the Department of Defense and is the only Unified Combatant Command legislated into being by the U.S. Congress. USSOCOM is headquartered at MacDill Air Force Base in Tampa, Florida.

Joint Special Operations Command is charged to study special operations requirements and techniques to ensure interoperability and equipment standardization; plan and conduct special operations exercises and training; develop joint special operations tactics; and execute special operations missions worldwide.

OSS or the Office of Strategic Services, was a wartime intelligence agency of the United States during World War II, and a predecessor of the modern Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).

Human Intelligence in intelligence gathering is intelligence gathered by means of interpersonal contact, as opposed to the more technical intelligence gathering disciplines such as signals intelligence (SIGINT), imagery intelligence (IMINT) and measurement and signature intelligence (MASINT).

Counterintelligence refers to information gathered and activities conducted to protect against espionage, other intelligence activities, sabotage, or assassinations conducted for or on behalf of foreign powers, organizations or persons or international terrorist activities, but not including personnel, physical, document or communications security programs.

Secretary of Defense - Government Departments - Cabinet

Prosecution (special) - Obstruction of Justice - Plausible Deniability - Courts 

Secret Service is a federal law enforcement agency under the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Until 2003, the Service was part of the U.S. Department of the Treasury because the organization's first mission was to fight counterfeiting of U.S. currency. The U.S. Secret Service has two distinct areas of responsibility: Financial Crimes, covering missions such as prevention and investigation of counterfeit U.S. currency, U.S. treasury securities, and investigation of major fraud. Protection, which entails ensuring the safety of current and former national leaders and their families, such as the President, past Presidents, Vice Presidents, presidential candidates, visiting heads of state, and foreign embassies. The Secret Service's initial responsibility was to investigate counterfeiting of U.S. currency, which was rampant following the U.S. Civil War. The agency then evolved into the United States' first domestic intelligence and counterintelligence agency. Many of the agency's missions were later taken over by subsequent agencies such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF), and IRS Criminal Investigation Division (IRS). Secret Service.

NCS or the National Clandestine Service, is one of the smallest components of the US Central Intelligence Agency. Directorate of Operation.

Defense Clandestine Service is an arm of the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), which conducts clandestine espionage activities around the world to answer national-level defense objectives for senior U.S. policymakers and military leaders.

Defense Intelligence Agency is an external intelligence service of the United States specializing in defense and military intelligence. A component of the Department of Defense (DoD) and the United States Intelligence Community (IC), DIA informs national civilian and defense policymakers about the military intentions and capabilities of foreign governments and non-state actors.

United States Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court is a U.S. federal court established and authorized under the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 (FISA) to oversee requests for surveillance warrants against foreign spies inside the United States by federal law enforcement and intelligence agencies. Such requests are made most often by the National Security Agency (NSA) and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). Congress created FISA and its court as a result of the recommendations by the U.S. Senate's Church Committee. From its opening in 1978 until 2009, the court was housed on the sixth floor of the Robert F. Kennedy Department of Justice Building. Since 2009, the court has been relocated to the E. Barrett Prettyman United States Courthouse in Washington, D.C.. In 2013, a top-secret order issued by the court, which was later leaked to the media from documents culled by Edward Snowden, required a subsidiary of Verizon to provide a daily, on-going feed of all call detail records—including those for domestic calls—to the NSA.

Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act is a United States federal law that establishes procedures for the physical and electronic surveillance and collection of "foreign intelligence information" between "foreign powers" and "agents of foreign powers" suspected of espionage or terrorism. The Act created the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISC) to oversee requests for surveillance warrants by federal law enforcement and intelligence agencies. It has been repeatedly amended since the September 11 attacks.

Schutzstaffel or SS for short, in 1923, the Nazi Party led by Adolf Hitler had created a small volunteer guard unit known as the Saal-Schutz (Hall Security). The same year, Hitler ordered the formation of a small bodyguard unit dedicated to his personal service. He wished it to be separate from the "suspect mass" of the party, including the paramilitary Sturmabteilung ("Storm Battalion"; SA), which he did not trust. The new formation was designated the Stabswache (Staff Guard). Originally the unit was composed of eight men, commanded by Julius Schreck and Joseph Berchtold, and was modeled after the Erhardt Naval Brigade, a Freikorps of the time. The unit was renamed Stoßtrupp (Shock Troops) in May 1923. In 1934, Himmler founded the first SS business venture, Nordland-Verlag, a publishing house that released propaganda material and SS training manuals. By the outbreak of World War II, the SS had consolidated into its final form, which comprised three main organizations: the Allgemeine SS, SS-Totenkopfverbände, and the Waffen-SS, which was founded in 1934 as the SS-Verfügungstruppe (SS-VT) and renamed in 1940. The Waffen-SS evolved into a second German army alongside the Wehrmacht and operated in tandem with them, especially with the Heer (German Army). However, it never obtained total "independence of command", nor was it ever a "serious rival" to the German Army. Members were never able to join the ranks of the German High Command and it was dependent on the army for heavy weaponry and equipment. Although SS ranks generally had equivalents in the other services, the SS rank system did not copy the terms and ranks used by the Wehrmacht's branches. Instead it used the ranks established by the post-World War I Freikorps and the SA. This was primarily done to emphasize the SS as being independent from the Wehrmacht. The SS was built on a culture of violence, which was exhibited in its most extreme form by the mass murder of civilians and prisoners of war on the Eastern Front. In response to the army's difficulties in dealing with Soviet partisans, Hitler decided in July 1942 to transfer anti-partisan operations to the police. Himmler set the SS and SD to work on developing additional anti-partisan tactics and launched a propaganda campaign. After the start of the war, Himmler intensified the activity of the SS within Germany and in Nazi occupied Europe. Alarmed by the raids on St Nazaire and Dieppe in 1942, Hitler had ordered the construction of fortifications he called the Atlantic Wall all along the Atlantic coast, from Spain to Norway, to protect against an expected Allied invasion. The SS established its own symbolism, rituals, customs, ranks and uniforms to set itself apart from other organizations.

Non-Compliance - Failure to Obey

Chief Compliance Officer responsible for overseeing and managing regulatory compliance issues within an organization.

Regulatory Compliance means conforming to a rule, such as a specification, policy, standard or law. Regulatory compliance describes the goal that organizations aspire to achieve in their efforts to ensure that they are aware of and take steps to comply with relevant laws and regulations.

Open Transparency - Accountability

Regulatory Agency is a public authority or government agency responsible for exercising autonomous authority over some area of human activity in a regulatory or supervisory capacity. An independent regulatory agency is a regulatory agency that is independent from other branches or arms of the government.

Corporate Responsibility is a form of corporate self-regulation integrated into a business model. CSR policy functions as a self-regulatory mechanism whereby a business monitors and ensures its active compliance with the spirit of the law, ethical standards and national or international norms. With some models, a firm's implementation of CSR goes beyond compliance and engages in "actions that appear to further some social good, beyond the interests of the firm and that which is required by law, (corporate conscience, corporate citizenship responsible business).

Industry Self-Regulation is the process whereby an organization monitors its own adherence to legal, ethical, or safety standards, rather than have an outside, independent agency such as a third party entity monitor and enforce those standards. Self-regulation of any group can be a conflict of interest. If any organization, such as a corporation or government bureaucracy, is asked to eliminate unethical behavior within their own group, it may be in their interest in the short run to eliminate the appearance of unethical behavior, rather than the behavior itself, by keeping any ethical breaches hidden, instead of exposing and correcting them. An exception occurs when the ethical breach is already known by the public. In that case, it could be in the group's interest to end the ethical problem to which the public has knowledge, but keep remaining breaches hidden.

Benefit Corporation - Social Progress

"An Investment in Knowledge Always Pays the Best Return"  Benjamin Franklin 

Corporate Watch Dogs - Regulatory Law

If you do a set of particular actions that end up killing people or injuring people, then that's premeditate. You can say that you were not aware that your actions were causing people to die, but you would have to explain that very carefully, because you don't want to come across as someone who does not care about what happens to other people, because that would make you guilty just by association. Ignorance to the Law is something that we can learn from and correct, but willful disregard is something we need to stop, because waiting to educate people about their wrong doings will take a lot of time, and that's why we have laws. Which is to make up for our educations failure and our inability to inform people correctly and effectively. Till then, we will continue to suffer from ignorance. We need more people doing positive things and less people doing negatives things. And both of those things we can easily added to our education system as well as to our media outlets, like TV, Newspapers, Magazines and Radio. Improving communication and and education is possible because we can calculate probability more accurately more now then ever. This is because we can clearly see the past, because we've been there, and how it let up to this present moment, because we are here. So if we continue to do these same actions, people will continue to die. And this means that every person on the planet shares this responsibility. You are either doing something positive or you're stopping others from doing something negative. And if you can do both, that's awesome, and also a guarantee the we will all be successful.

Politicians and corporate leaders are perpetrators of Munchausen by Proxy, and the citizens are their victims.

Some corporations are committing a deliberate act of Sabotage against humanity. This is far worse then someone just acting ignorantly because they're unaware of the severity of their actions. These people are aware, which is disturbing, but not surprising since we have murders and violence every minute of every day. This long ongoing mass murder needs to stop.

The Center for Responsible Enterprise And Trade: Reduce corruption and IP theft in the forms of counterfeiting, piracy and trade secret theft.

Yes we want to help people create jobs in other countries, but not at the expense of the countries citizens or at the expense of the countries environment and resources. You don't help people by exploiting them. You help people by educating them, so they become Self-Sufficient and Sustainable. Corporations are mostly about money, they only pretend to help people, that's called manipulative selling, which is a very sick and degrading way to function in this world, selling death and destruction.

Corporate Abuse Timeline - History of Fraud

Anti-Corporate Activism holds that the influence of big business corporations is a detriment to the public good and to the democratic process.

Monopolies - Rackets - Extortion - Hoarding - Profits - Corporate Welfare - Bailouts - Tax Breaks - Predatory Lending - Kickbacks - debt - Corruption

Criticisms of Corporations granting of "personhood" to an organization with no personal liability contend that it creates a legal entity with the extensive financial resources to co-opt public policy and exploit resources and populations without any moral or legal responsibility to encourage restraint.

Charmian Gooch: Meet Global Corruption's Hidden Players (video) - More Videos

United States Bill of Rights - Human Rights - Activism

"Slavery is the Legal Fiction that a person is property. Corporate Personhood is a legal fiction that property is a person."

Corporations now control most of the agencies that were designed to control them and keep them from committing crimes.

Dartmouth College v. Woodward 1819 decision settled the nature of public versus private charters and resulted in the rise of the American business corporation and the American free enterprise system.

Dred Scot v. Sandford 1857 held that "a negro, whose ancestors were imported into [the U.S.], and sold as slaves", whether enslaved or free, could not be an American citizen and therefore had no standing to sue in federal court. The decision was only the second time that the Supreme Court had ruled an Act of Congress to be unconstitutional.

Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific Railroad 1886 was the first time that the Supreme Court was reported to hold that the Fourteenth Amendment's equal protection clause granted constitutional protections to corporations as well as to natural persons.

Mere Evidence Rule Hale v. Henkel 1906 the Court ruled that a statute that compelled the production of documents as part of an investigation into the payment of duties was a violation of the Fourth and Fifth Amendments. The Court reasoned that the defendant had a superior property right in the papers, and that compelling their production as evidence was compelled self-incrimination.

Corporations that Have Cut Ties to ALEC ALEC is a corporate bill mill. It is not just a lobby or a front group; it is much more powerful than that. Through ALEC, corporations hand state legislators their wishlists to benefit their bottom line. Corporations fund almost all of ALEC's operations. They pay for a seat on ALEC task forces where corporate lobbyists and special interest reps vote with elected officials to approve “model” bills.

American Legislative Exchange Council describes itself as the largest “membership association of state legislators,” but over 98% of its revenue comes from sources other than legislative dues, primarily from corporations and corporate foundations.

Dodge v. Ford Motor Company 1919 case in which the Michigan Supreme Court held that Henry Ford had to operate the Ford Motor Company in the interests of its shareholders, rather than in a charitable manner for the benefit of his employees or customers.

Pennsylvania Coal Co. v. Mahon 1922 case in which the Supreme Court of the United States held that whether a regulatory act constitutes a taking requiring compensation depends on the extent of diminution in the value of the property.

Timeline History of America.

Just in case you don't know what failing is, or maybe you just forgot what failing means....

Failing is something below acceptable performance and proven to be insufficient. A flaw or weak point having a loss of ability to function normally. An event that does not accomplish its intended purpose and does not reach a minimum required performance. To leave something undone and be unsuccessful. To disappoint and prove undependable, unacceptable and unable.

The United States Postal Service or the USPS lost $5.5 billion in 2014. That is the eighth annual loss in a row and the third-highest ever. The only silver lining is that the loss was below the red-ink tsunami of $15.9 billion in 2012. 

As the old saying goes, they're lying and stealing so why shouldn't I? I might as well lie and steal because everyone else is doing it. Not everyone, of course, but that's not the problem, the problem is how do we stop lying and stealing? We know that lying has many negative effects and causes all kinds of problems, same things with stealing. 2 wrongs don't make a right, and always wrong will never be right. Lying and stealing comes from the lack of knowledge, information, and understanding. You can make all the excuses you want, but you can't ignore known realities, especially knowing the damage that you cause is right in front of you. And the reason why you think that you don't see the damage is because you're lying to yourself. So you see, lying does more damage then you think. Your life is a lie, so how do you make your life true again? You learn how to make your life true. Everything comes from learning. You learned how to lie, and now you will learn how to tell the truth, and learn how to be true. "Trickle down ignorance"

"Its been estimated that there are 30 Million people enslaved worldwide, which doesn't include the millions enslaved by a poor education, or the millions who are enslaved by our flawed and corrupted monetary system."

"Fascism should more properly be called Corporatism, since it is the Merger of State and Corporate Power." (Benito Mussolini)

"Too Big to Fail is just another way of saying "I'm not competent enough to solve this problem or am I competent enough to even explain this problem properly. So what information do you need?

There's a big difference between people who are willing to work and people who are desperate and fear for their lives. And there's many like them, so the competition for survival has become a tool for mass slavery. Foreign workers are not better workers then Americans, Foreign workers are just more exploited, more desperate and more victimized then American workers. Americans can be the hardest workers on the planet when they need to be. But this need has been criminally stolen from Americans and our purpose has been manipulated. If we were to bring back the need and purpose to American workers, we would ultimately unleash the greatest workforce this world has ever seen...We all want a better planet, so lets make one....Benefit Corporation

A system that excludes billions of people on the planet is a broken system. Money is a system of control, but now that system is out of control. It's time to reboot, transition and transform into a system of fairness and responsibility. Money should not give a person the right to cause damage or cause the suffering of other people. What's the point of having laws to protect human rights if you never stop the violators or stop the things that allow violations to continue? Reckless Disregard.

"So it's time for you to put on your Dunce Cap and go sit in the corner"

No Taxation without Representation is a slogan originating during the 1750s and 1760s that summarized a primary grievance of the American colonists in the Thirteen Colonies, which was one of the major causes of the American Revolution. In short, many in those colonies believed that, as they were not directly represented in the distant British Parliament, any laws it passed affecting the colonists (such as the Sugar Act and the Stamp Act) were illegal under the Bill of Rights 1689, and were a denial of their rights as Englishmen.

Tax Foundation

It would be great if paying taxes actually made people aware of the responsibilities of managing our shared services, our resources and our environment. But just paying taxes, or just voting, does not make people aware enough about their world, mostly because our money system is just too corrupted and manipulated. And on top of that, there's nothing in our education that gives people the necessary knowledge and skills that are needed to help rid the system of corruption. So this makes the whole tax thing a waste of time and energy. And all these wasted extra steps and paper work and rules, it's just insane. Especially when taxes mostly benefit wealthy people. Poor people get very little return for their tax money, and poor people work just as hard as wealthy people do, if not harder. So the money system is not just unfair, it's abusive, it's corrupt, it's greedy, it's incompetent and it's wasteful. If money were a drug, then everyone would be a drug addict, but that is exactly what we are, we are addicts, and we have addicts ruling our world, and their drug of choice is money, and they are never satisfied. So we all know where this is going, as all addicts know their fate, same as before, same as throughout history, things that are unsustainable will always end horribly, and will always end when you least expect it. We have to free ourselves from this insanity. The abuses of money is literally killing us. And when you can just pay people to look the other way or lie, this insanity will never end by itself. It's like having heroin addicts trying to police heroin addicts when everyone is getting paid with heroin, this is just insane. There has to be a better way, we need a system of trade that can't be corrupted or manipulated.

The Tax Free Tour (VPRO, Marije Meerman) (youtube)

Responsibility is a form of trustworthiness; the trait of being answerable to someone for something or being responsible for one's conduct. The proper sphere or extent of your activities.  The social force that binds you to the courses of action demanded by that force.

Fairness is the ability to make judgments free from discrimination or dishonesty. Moral Competence.

Marginalized is to relegate to a lower or outer edge, as of specific groups of people.

We need more the just legislation, we need education, and we need a lot of it. 

Loss Aversion refers to people's tendency to prefer avoiding losses to acquiring equivalent gains: it's better to not lose $5 than to find $5.

"I know, don't rock the boat, look the other way. The only reason why Humans are still alive today is because some people decided to rock the boat and not look the other way. The boat is sinking people, we have a lot of work to do.

Financial Aid - Bonuses - Economics 

"If you see money not being used correctly or efficiently by someone, then you should take the money and use it for a good cause, it's not stealing, it's just called good money management." 

Robin Hood "robbing from the rich and giving to the poor".

Documentaries - Measuring True Cost

Leadership - Social Abuses - Gambling - Addiction

You're Losing it Man - Why do most Politicians and Corporate Leaders have the same characteristics as people who suffer from Mental Illness? Why are they similar to a Lunatic, Psychosis and Sociopath? Psychopathy Checklist.

Syndrome is a set of medical signs and symptoms that are correlated with each other.

Parasitism is a non-mutual symbiotic relationship between species, where one species, the parasite, benefits at the expense of the other, the host.

I Am Fishhead - Are Corporate Leaders Psychopaths? (2011) (youtube)

Animals Like Us - 07 - Business (youtube)

Competence Test and Psychological Evaluation should be Mandatory and also Public Knowledge for every public servant with power. It's been documented that crazy people make bad decisions. 

Corporation Abuses - Cancer of Modern Society

Not all Corporations are bad, it's just the ignorant criminals who use corporate loopholes to exploit the system.

White-Collar Crime refers to financially motivated, nonviolent crime committed by businesses and government professionals. Typical white-collar crimes could include wage theft, fraud, bribery, ponzi schemes, insider trading, labor racketeering, embezzlement, cybercrime, copyright infringement, money laundering, identity theft, and forgery. Sex Crimes.

Corporate Crime refers to crimes committed either by a corporation (i.e., a business entity having a separate legal personality from the natural persons that manage its activities), or by individuals acting on behalf of a corporation or other business entity (see vicarious liability and corporate liability). For the worst corporate crimes, corporations may face judicial dissolution, sometimes called the "corporate death penalty", which is a legal procedure in which a corporation is forced to dissolve or cease to exist.

Monopolies - Hoarding - Profits

White-Collar Worker relates to the work done or those who work in an office or other professional environment. A white-collar worker is a person who performs professional, managerial, or administrative work. White-collar work may be performed in an office or other administrative setting.

There is many things that are criminally wrong about Multinational Corporations, and it's not just their Offshore Tax Havens, and their Transfer Pricing, their Tax Exemptions, Tax Holidays, their Write-offs, Grantor Retained Annuity Trust, their Tax Avoidance, Inversion, Tax Shelters, Money and Stock Shuffling in and out of Trusts, and their Tax Noncompliance. The worse thing is that corporations have been given permission to bribe US Government Leaders into making Tax Laws that allows corporations to Steal billions of dollars from the public. You have criminals making their own laws. Thanks in part to our corrupt US Supreme Court. So no matter what Taxes you come up with, whether International Taxation or a World Taxation System, the problem will never go away. Corporations will continue to steal billions of dollars at the expense of the environment and at the expense of every person on the planet. Citizens should not be forced to pay income taxes when e-filing when most corporations don't. And on top of that, corporations pay themselves incredible bonuses, and not because they did some amazing job or they worked really hard or their work was important, it's because we have corrupt laws that allows people to be thieves, while at the same time lay off millions of workers. Corporations use our citizens, they use our Workforce, they use our resources, they use our infrastructure, they use our government, and not for benefit of the public, but only to benefit themselves. And citizens are just figuring this out, the money does not trickle down, the only thing that trickles down is that sick corporate behavior that poisons the minds of politicians in State Government, our Local Government, our Military, our Police Force, our Judicial System and eventually poisons the minds of people in our own communities, which then causes even more suffering. We can fix this.

The corporate mentality says "We have a responsibility to our shareholders." That's like saying that a hired killer or a hitman has the right to commit murder just because they're a hired killer who is making money from the murder. I guess the murderer in court could say that "I had a responsibility to my investor". This is how insane most corporations are. 

Not understanding the nature or wrongfulness and conduct is called Insanity: Guilty but Mentally ill?

The International Consortium of Investigative Journalists.

Rich and Powerful people around the world have used offshore and secret accounts to dodge taxes, sanctions, launder money and get sweetheart loans from banks.

Corporation - What is a Corporation

Corporation is a company or group of people authorized to act as a single entity (legally a person) and recognized as such in law. Early incorporated entities were established by charter (i.e. by an ad hoc act granted by a monarch or passed by a parliament or legislature). Most jurisdictions now allow the creation of new corporations through registration. Racket.

Corporate Personhood is when a corporation believes it has legal rights and responsibilities enjoyed by natural persons (physical humans). Corporate means "Dead Speak".

Natural Person - Legal Personality - Human

United States is a Corporation? And Whereas: On February 21, 1871, the Forty First Congress passed an act entitled "An Act to Provide a Government for the District of Columbia," legislating the organization of a municipal corporation to run the day to day affairs of the District of Columbia, the seat of government, which transferred the United States.

William "Bill" Foust - The District of Columbia Act of 1871 (youtube) - Laws

Republic of the United States is against the fraud, abuse and theft perpetrated by a for-profit corporate entity known as the UNITED STATES Government. This entity has been posing as the lawful government for nearly 150 years unawares to most Americans.

Body Politic in which a government is considered to be a corporate entity.

Voluntary Servitude by Deception (youtube)

Corporate Watch Dogs (accountable)

Self Govern (self manage) - Benefit Corporation - Social Progress

Common currency is debt trap and a power grab, keep the power local the decisions local and the money local.

Means, Motive, Opportunity - Monopolies

Anonymous Companies (video and interactive text)

S.A. Corporation is an anonymous company or anonymous partnership. Abuses.

"People are living in a state of Confusion." - Cognitive Distortion.

Most Hated Corporations: Monsanto 51% - Federal Reserve 20% - British Petroleum 9% - Halliburton 5% - McDonalds 3% - Pfizer 2% - Merck 2% - Wal-Mart 2% - Nestle 1% - Other 7%.

Greedy and power hungry people are not Possessed Creatures from Hell. They are human, and humans can learn and communicate. If we can choose to be bad, then we can choose to be good. And human nature by default is to be good. So it's just a matter of discovering your natural tendencies by learning and becoming more understanding of yourself, and the world.

Abject Failure is completely f*cked up beyond comparison, rather than just a bit f*cked up. (of a situation or condition) extremely bad, unpleasant, and degrading (of a person or their behavior) completely without pride or dignity; self-abasing. FUBAR.

When we allow corporations to exploit cheap labor in other countries it hurts everyone, except the scumbags at the top of course. Corporations could care less about America. Corporations are truly the most damaging Terrorists this world has ever seen, and politicians are corporations partners in crime, they're exploited and in return help exploit citizens, this is simply a War Crime" If your corporation or company has more negatives then positives to society and the world, and causes Considerable Damage that's similar to Dirty Bombs, Chemical Warfare and Chemical Weapons, then you need to Cease and DesistInjunction.

We cannot afford to kill ourselves in the name of money. You're going in the wrong direction and you're wasting valuable time.
If you meet us half way then we're half way there. "Don't worry, we'll let you keep your toys.".

Money Influence Timeline - A Brief History of Money from 1600 to 2011

1691: William Patterson "The bank hath benefit of interest on all moneys which it creates out of nothing" - Fractional Reserve Banking (money from nothing) - History of Money.
1694: Bank of England (wiki).
1776: American Revolutionary War conflict between Great Britain and thirteen of its North American colonies who wanted there own Currency. August 2, 1776 that the Declaration of independence was first signed.
1791: Central Bank - DEBT: Debt, A Great Invention (youtube) - “I believe that banking institutions are more dangerous to our liberties than standing armies.” –Thomas Jefferson.
1832: Andrew Jackson President vetoed Central Bank. - Bank War.
1837: Panic - Financial Crisis - Court Rulings.
1853: Vegetable Oil was Conducted. - Biodiesel.
1859: First Oil Well - History Films.
1861: American Civil War.
1868: 1868 in the United States (wiki).
1870: Standard Oil - Monopoly.
1871: District of Columbia Organic Act of 1871 - America's Government becomes a Corporation. 1871 (wiki)
1873: Panic of 1873 was a financial crisis that triggered a depression in Europe and North America lasted from 1873-1879.
1879: First Light Bulb - Inventions Timeline.
1881: Two-Stroke Engine (wiki).
1892: First Oil Tankers (wiki).
1893: Car running on nothing but peanut oil. August 10th declared International Biodiesel Day.
1900: Electric Vehicles are being driven out of business by the oil monopoly - Electric Cars.
1907: Panic - Education Takeover Timeline - (follow the money, the Money Trail).
1913: Federal Reserve Act - History of the Federal Reserve System - Paul Warburg - Board of Governors - Federal Reserve is America's 4th Central Bank. The Corporate Takeover of the Money Supply (wiki).
1914: World War I - Timeline of Modern History - History (follow the money).
1920: Prohibition in the United States (Killed Alternate Fuels and Electric Cars and gave rise to Oil Monopoly) - Prohibition.
1921: Council on Foreign Relations (wiki).
1929: Great Depression - Wars (follow the money).
1933: Federal Open Market Committee. Treasury of the United States goes ‘Bankrupt’. - Adolf Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany.- Treasury Security (wiki).
1934: Dictatorships begin in Brazil and Bolivia (wiki).
1935: United States Marine Corps Major General Smedley Butler explained how business interests commercially benefited and profited from wars, thus they are incentivized to start wars and create turmoil, start revolutions and economic espionage in other countries and even in America. The U.S. Military is being used as a pawn to further Corporate Interests, and not the interests of American Citizens.
1938: General Motors Streetcar Conspiracy (wiki).
1941: Operation Reinhard commences the main phase of The Holocaust. - USA joins World War II. - Wars (follow the money).
1943: Green Revolution - Corporate Takeover of Food (youtube) - GMO's - Poisonous Pesticides.
1955: Vietnam War (follow the money).
1961: Dwight D Eisenhower: "The disastrous rise of misplaced power exists, and will persist."
1963: Assassination of John F. Kennedy - JFK Speech.
1968: Assassination of Robert F. Kennedy and Martin Luther King Jr.
1969: Average Cost of new house $15,550.00 - Average Monthly Rent $135.00 - Gas per Gallon 35 cents.
1971: Nixon Started ill-conceived drug war.
1973: Oil Embargo (wiki).
1994: NAFTA (wiki).
2001: 9/11 (Follow the Money. The first warning sign was in 1961, and even years before that).
2011: Housing Scam - Wealth Inequality - Political Corruption - Climate Change, to name a few.

We need 2 Systems of Money
(State Run Banks - Government Run Banks)  Non-Fractional, Reality Based Banking.
We need 2 Types of Currency
(Regular Bank Notes - Bitcoin Type of Currency)  No Inflation, Just Adaptation.
We need Alternate Systems of Trade.
Value instead of Price  Self-Insurance - Ithaca Hours.
And the most important, We need to fully educate every child on earth about money.
Intelligence = No Corruption, No Waste.

Earth Before Humans Timeline - History of America

A timeline needs to paint a particular picture, cover a particular subject, so that it gives you an understanding of a particular process of change, and what influenced those changes. Show a trend, tell a story, give an accurate interpretation.

Books: Comeback America  -  Syndromes of Corruption

History of Money concerns the development of social systems that provide at least one of the functions of money. Such systems can be understood as means of trading wealth indirectly; not directly as with barter. Money is a mechanism that facilitates this process. Money may take a physical form as in coins and notes, or may exist as a written or electronic account. It may have intrinsic value (commodity money), be legally exchangeable for something with intrinsic value (representative money), or only have nominal value (fiat money).

Films About Money

Money vs Currency - Hidden Secrets Of Money Ep 1 - Mike Maloney (youtube)
The Monetary System Visually Explained (youtube, 21:28)
UROKO - Connecting the Dots (youtube)
TROM - 2.15 Slavery (youtube)
All Wars Are Bankers' Wars (youtube)
Park Avenue - Money, Power and the American Dream (youtube)
Debtocracy (youtube)
Richard Wilkinson: How Economic Inequality Harms Societies (youtube)
Time for Change: VPRO Backlight 2010) (youtube)
Zeitgeist (youtube)
Cyclical Consumption (youtube)
The Money Masters (youtube)
30 For 30 - Broke (youtube)
Money as Debt 3 - The Rothschild mafia (Paul Grignon) (youtube)
Ethos: A Time for Change (2012) (hulu)
97% Owned - Monetary Reform (youtube)
Fault Lines : History of an Occupation (youtube)
Activism Documentaries
Profit (youtube) - Profit
Money and Work (youtube)
Resource Based Economy (youtube)
The Story of Broke (2011) (youtube)
Short Movie about our National Debt I.O.U.S.A (youtube) -Website
The Great Awakening
Money Films - Documentaries
Corporate Films
Great Documentary about Debt is Maxed Out (youtube)
Buy DVD(amazon)
We're Not Broke (hulu)
Four Horsemen - Feature Documentary - Official Version 09/10/2012 | 1 hr. 38 min. (youtube)
In Debt We Trust (youtube) - Buy DVD (amazon)
Documentaries about the Abuse of Power
Stated Income Loan (wiki)
William Black former bank regulator explains firsthand how banking systems commit fraud —  “Liar's Loans”  (TED Video)
Capitalism will eat democracy — unless we speak up (video and Text)
Owned & Operated 1:48:06 - Published on Apr 15, 2012
Does money make you mean? Monopoly game experiment UC Berkeley campus where the game was rigged, like the one we are in now.

Milton Friedman Speaks - Myths That Conceal Reality (youtube) - "Myths That Conceal Reality." Milton Friedman Speaks. Speech given at Utah State University, Logan, UT, October 13, 1977. Five myths cloud our perception of both the past and the present. (1) The "robber baron" myth, which holds that in late nineteenth-century America there were powerful men who became rich at the expense of the poor. The reality is that they became wealthy by being productive, and that there is no other period in history which saw such a rapid and widespread improvement in the well-being of the average individual; (2) The myth that the Great Depression was caused by a failure of business, when it was, in fact, produced by a failure of government and specifically by the Federal Reserve System; (3) The myth that government in the economy has expanded in response to public demand, when, actually, the public has had to be sold "hard" for politicians to enact every major social program; (4) The "free lunch" myth, which forces the individual to pay more, no matter how the government raises money - by taxing individuals, by taxing businesses, or by printing more money; and (5) The myth that government, like Robin Hood, transfers wealth from the rich to the poor, when the reality is that the government usually transfers wealth and income from both the very rich and the very poor to those in the middle.

Milton Friedman was an American economist who received the 1976 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for his research on consumption analysis, monetary history and theory and the complexity of stabilization policy. With George Stigler and others, Friedman was among the intellectual leaders of the second generation of Chicago price theory, a methodological movement at the University of Chicago's Department of Economics, Law School and Graduate School of Business from the 1940s onward. Several students and young professors who were recruited or mentored by Friedman at Chicago went on to become leading economists, including Gary Becker, Robert Fogel, Thomas Sowell and Robert Lucas Jr. (July 31, 1912 – November 16, 2006).

Quotes and sayings about Money 

"Don't go away mad, just go away"

"I don't hate money or capitalism, or am I bothered by how much money some people have. What bothers me is what people do with their money. They damage themselves, they damage and kill other people, and they damage our environment. Money and Capitalism is not the problem, ignorance is the problem, and what ignorant people do at everyone's else's expense."

"People are not evil, people just don't know enough in order to know what is right and what is good."

"If you want to know what God thinks of money, just look at the people God gave it to." 

"No heaven for you, you will be reincarnated over and over again as a child who will be abused their entire life and then starve to death at the age of 5. And the only time that you will not be reincarnated as an abused child, is when civilization solves this problem of abuse. So if you help us now, we can then end your never ending misery that you have brought upon on yourself."

"The money system creates to much Scheming and not enough Dreaming. Scheming, or Scamming, is narrow minded and selfish, which wastes time, people and resources. Dreaming is open minded and giving, which sparks innovation and progress."

"Many people are so poor because the only thing they have is money."

"You cannot serve both God and mammon."

Mammon is thought to mean money or material wealth and is associated with the greedy pursuit of gain.


Central Bank is an institution that manages a state's currency, money supply, and interest rates. Central banks also usually oversee the commercial banking system of their respective countries. In contrast to a commercial bank, a central bank or Reserve Bank possesses a monopoly on increasing the monetary base in the state, and usually also prints the national currency, which usually serves as the state's legal tender. Central banks also act as a "lender of last resort" to the banking sector during times of financial crisis. Most central banks usually also have supervisory and regulatory powers to ensure the solvency of member institutions, prevent bank runs, and prevent reckless or fraudulent behavior by member banks. Central banks in most developed nations are institutionally designed to be independent from political interference. Still, limited control by the executive and legislative bodies usually exists.

Federal Reserve - Fractional Reserve Banking - Middle Men - Princes of the Yen | Finance Documentary (youtube) - Bubbles - History

Commercial Bank is an institution that provides services such as accepting deposits, providing business loans, and offering basic investment products. The main function of a commercial bank is to accept deposit from the public for the purpose of lending money to the borrowers. Commercial bank can also refer to a bank, or a division of a large bank, which more specifically deals with deposit and loan services provided to corporations or large/middle-sized business - as opposed to individual members of the public/small business.

Banking AlternativesCredit Unions (State Banks)

Financial Institution are corporations which provide services as intermediaries of financial markets. Broadly speaking, there are three major types of financial institutions: Depository institutions – deposit-taking institutions that accept and manage deposits and make loans, including banks, building societies, credit unions, trust companies, and mortgage loan companies; Contractual institutions – insurance companies and pension funds. Investment institutions – investment banks, underwriters, brokerage firms.

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or FDIC is a United States government corporation supplying deposit insurance to depositors in American commercial banks and savings banks. The FDIC was created by the Banking Act of 1933, enacted during the Great Depression to restore trust in the American banking system. More than one-third of banks failed in the years before the FDIC's creation, and bank runs were common. Items not insured by FDIC are stocks, bonds, and mutual funds including money funds, the contents of safe deposit boxes, insurance and annuity products, such as life, auto and homeowner's insurance.

Theft has many different names. Analysts always blame the causes of inflation and recession using the same vague terms, but they can't explain what those terms really mean, because they're lying for the criminals they serve. These con games are complex for a reason. It's hard to investigate corruption when there is so many different players involved. We see people are getting wealthier while people are getting poorer. So there is proof that crimes are happening right in front of your eyes. And citizens are too ignorant and too powerless to stop it.

Who's making huge withdrawals? Are deposit flights a warning sign? $100,000,000,000 in deposits exit US Banking System in three weeks. Federal Reserve Economic Data system showed that deposits in all US commercial banks suffered a $100 billion decline in three weeks – from $17.38 trillion on September 27th down to $17.28 trillion on October 18th 2023. Deposits at all US commercial lenders totaled $17.18 trillion as of April 12, down from $18.09 trillion at the end of March 2022, a fall of more than $900 billion, according to US Federal Reserve data. The largest 25 banks by assets bore the brunt of the hit. Over that period, deposits declined by $718 billion. Billionaires.

Wall Street Firms BlackRock, Vanguard and State Street manage $20.7 trillion in assets. These three firms are major shareholders in 95% of S&P 500 companies. Wealth Divide.

The Big Short is a 2015 American biographical crime comedy-drama film showing how the 2007–2008 financial crisis was triggered by greedy criminals in the banking system who created a housing bubble that caused millions of people to lose their jobs and millions to lose their homes. Wall Street - Bubbles - Rackets.

Bail In is a form of financial relief for banks that are in danger of collapsing or going bankrupt. The relief comes from canceling some or all of the bank's debt by reducing the value of bank shares, bonds, and uninsured deposits. In a bail-in, banks use the money from depositors and unsecured creditors to help them avoid failure. Banks have the authority to take control of any capital that fits the criteria as per the law. Financial institutions would only use the amount of deposits that are in excess of a customer's 250,000 balance. With bailouts, governments inject money back into troubled banks and corporations to help them avoid bankruptcy. Bail Outs.

Troubled Asset Relief Program is a program of the United States government to purchase toxic assets and equity from financial institutions to strengthen its financial sector that was passed by a Democratic Party controlled Congress and signed into law by Republican Party President George W. Bush on October 3, 2008. TARP was a component of the government's measures in 2008 to address the subprime mortgage crisis. The TARP program originally authorized expenditures of $700 billion. The Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 created the TARP program. The Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, signed into law in 2010, reduced the amount authorized to $475 billion. By October 11, 2012, the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) stated that total disbursements would be $431 billion, and estimated the total cost, including grants for mortgage programs that have not yet been made, would be $24 billion. On December 19, 2014, the U.S. Treasury sold its remaining holdings of Ally Financial, essentially ending the program. TARP recovered funds totaling $441.7 billion from $426.4 billion invested, earning a $15.3 billion profit or an annualized rate of return of 0.6% and perhaps a loss when adjusted for inflation. TARP did not stop millions of people losing their homes or stop millions of people losing their jobs, it only guaranteed that corporate scumbags walk away with millions of dollars.

Theft - Bailout - Debt - Student Debt

In 2022, Wells Fargo forced to pay $3.7 billion settling charges it wrongfully seized homes and cars. Wells Fargo has agreed to a $3.7 billion deal with regulators to settle charges that it took advantage of customers on their auto loans, mortgages and bank accounts. The bureau says the wrongdoing goes back more than a decade, with some of it continuing into this year. Others customers were charged improper overdraft fees on their checking accounts. Wells Fargo's rinse-repeat cycle of violating the law has harmed millions of American families.

Toxic Asset is a popular term for certain financial assets having values that have fallen significantly and for which there is no longer a functioning market, so that such assets cannot be sold at a price satisfactory to the holder. Because assets are offset against liabilities and frequently leveraged, this decline in price may be quite dangerous to the holder. The term became common during the financial crisis of 2007-2008, in which they played a major role. When the market for toxic assets ceases to function, it is described as "frozen". Markets for some toxic assets froze in 2007, and the problem grew much worse in the second half of 2008. Several factors contributed to the freezing of toxic asset markets. The value of the assets were very sensitive to economic conditions, and increased uncertainty in these conditions made it difficult to estimate the value of the assets. Banks and other major financial institutions were unwilling to sell the assets at significantly reduced prices, since lower prices would force them to reduce significantly their stated assets, making them, at least on paper, insolvent. Toxic asset is euphemistically also labeled "troubled asset."

Accounting Scandals are business scandals which arise from intentional manipulation of financial statements with the disclosure of financial misdeeds by trusted executives of corporations or governments. Such misdeeds typically involve complex methods for misusing or misdirecting funds, overstating revenues, understating expenses, overstating the value of corporate assets, or underreporting the existence of liabilities. It involves an employee, account, or corporation itself and is misleading to investors and shareholders. List of Corporate Collapses and Scandals (wiki).

Enron Scandal included market manipulation, accounting fraud and lying about the value of the company, just to name a few.

Shadow Banking provides services similar to traditional commercial banks but outside normal financial regulations.

Check Kiting is a form of check fraud, involving taking advantage of the float to make use of non-existent funds in a checking or other bank account. In this way, instead of being used as a negotiable instrument, checks are misused as a form of unauthorized credit. Fiat.

Suspicious Activity Report is a report made by a financial institution about suspicious or potentially suspicious activity. The criteria to decide when a report must be made varies from country to country, but generally is any financial transaction that does not make sense to the financial institution; is unusual for that particular client; or appears to be done only for the purpose of hiding or obfuscating another, separate transaction. The report is filed with that country's financial crime enforcement agency, which is typically a specialist agency designed to collect and analyse transactions and then report these to relevant law enforcement. Front line staff in the financial institution have the responsibility to identify transactions that may be suspicious and these are reported to a designated person that is responsible for reporting the suspicious transaction. The financial institution is not allowed to inform the client or parties involved in the transaction that a SAR has been lodged. Watchdogs.

Financial Crimes Enforcement Network collects and analyzes information about financial transactions in order to combat domestic and international money laundering, terrorist financing, and other financial crimes.

Dead People have Bank Accounts. A deceased account is a bank account owned by a deceased person. Banks freeze access to deceased accounts, such as savings or checking accounts, pending direction from an authorized court. Generally, banks cannot close a deceased account until after the person's estate has gone through probate.

Bank Account is a financial account maintained by a bank or other financial institution for a customer. A bank account can be a deposit account, savings account, a credit card account, a current account, or any other type of account offered by a financial institution, and represents the funds that the customer has entrusted to or borrowed from the financial institution. The financial transactions which have occurred on a bank account within a given period on time are reported to the customer on a bank statement, and the balance on the accounts at any point in time is the financial position of the customer with the institution. The laws of each country specify how bank accounts may be opened and operated. They may specify who may open an account, for example, how the signatories can identify themselves, deposit, withdrawal limits among other specifications. The minimum age for opening a bank account is most commonly 18 years of age. However, in some countries, the minimum age to open a bank account can be 16 years. In general, it is unlawful to open an account in a false name.

Misallocation of Funds

Currency War countries seek to gain a trade advantage over other countries by causing the exchange rate of their currency to fall in relation to other currencies. As the exchange rate of a country's currency falls exports become more competitive in other countries, and imports into the country become more expensive. What is Money?

World Bank Projects Leave Trail Of Misery Around Globe.

World Bank evicted and Abandoned.

Prof. Werner Brilliantly Explains how the Banking System and Financial Sector really works (youtube)

Hard Money is a specific type of asset-based loan financing through which a borrower receives funds secured by real property. Hard money loans are typically issued by private investors or companies. Interest rates are typically higher than conventional commercial or residential property loans because of the higher risk and shorter duration of the loan. Most hard money loans are used for projects lasting from a few months to a few years. Hard money is similar to a bridge loan, which usually has similar criteria for lending as well as cost to the borrowers. The primary difference is that a bridge loan often refers to a commercial property or investment property that may be in transition and does not yet qualify for traditional financing, whereas hard money often refers to not only an asset-based loan with a high interest rate, but possibly a distressed financial situation, such as arrears on the existing mortgage, or where bankruptcy and foreclosure proceedings are occurring.

International Finance is the branch of financial economics broadly concerned with monetary and macroeconomic interrelations between two or more countries. International finance examines the dynamics of the global financial system, international monetary systems, balance of payments, exchange rates, foreign direct investment, and how these topics relate to international trade.

Quantitative Easing - Bailouts

Bank for International Settlements fosters international monetary and financial cooperation and serves as a bank for central banks.

"The Secret Of Oz" is the Truth Behind The Modern Financial System, And The Money-Political Complex.

"If the American people ever allow private banks to control the issue of their currency, first by inflation, then by deflation, the banks and corporations that will grow up around them will deprive the people of all property until their children wake up homeless on the continent their Fathers conquered...I believe that banking institutions are more dangerous to our liberties than standing armies... The issuing power should be taken from the banks and restored to the people, to whom it properly belongs." (Thomas Jefferson).

“Give me control of a nation's money supply, and I care not who makes its laws.” ~ Mayer Amschel Rothschild. (February 23, 1744 – September 19, 1812)

I don't care who writes the laws, just as long as I control most of the money, and when I can control a large portion of the money, then I can make politicians write laws for my benefit, and with those increased benefits, I will have more money to increase my control over more politicians, and increase my control over the police, the justice system and the military. Then I can circumvent democracy and have a quasi dictatorship and have indirect control over millions of people. This is not a well thought out plan of course. But when you're blinded by money and possessed by greed, you don't see how ignorant you truly are. All the money in the world can't buy you intelligence. To be intelligent you have to do a lot of reading, and read the most valuable knowledge, especially the knowledge that makes you realize how ignorant you are and how little you actually know. Intelligence is true power. This is because intelligence controls power and money, instead of having power and money control you.

People in power waged a war on drugs, but they ignorantly ignored the most dangerous drug in the world, which is money. The most dangerous cartel in the world is the money cartel. Money can be an extremely dangerous drug to an ignorant person, which means that money should be classified as schedule 1. When people in power are under the influence of money, then power becomes a poison on society. Earth is now a superfund site and a toxic wasteland that is in desperate need of a serious clean up.

Interest - Predatory Lending - Loan Sharks

Interest is a price paid for borrowing money, or payment received for lending money, usually a percentage of the amount borrowed. Interest is payment from a borrower or deposit-taking financial institution to a lender or depositor of an amount above repayment of the principal sum (that is, the amount borrowed), at a particular rate. It is distinct from a fee which the borrower may pay the lender or some third party. It is also distinct from dividend which is paid by a company to its shareholders (owners) from its profit or reserve, but not at a particular rate decided beforehand, rather on a pro rata basis as a share in the reward gained by risk taking entrepreneurs when the revenue earned exceeds the total costs. For example, a customer would usually pay interest to borrow from a bank, so they pay the bank an amount which is more than the amount they borrowed; or a customer may earn interest on their savings, and so they may withdraw more than they originally deposited. In the case of savings, the customer is the lender, and the bank plays the role of the borrower. Interest differs from profit, in that interest is received by a lender, whereas profit is received by the owner of an asset, investment or enterprise. (Interest may be part or the whole of the profit on an investment, but the two concepts are distinct from each other from an accounting perspective.) The rate of interest is equal to the interest amount paid or received over a particular period divided by the principal sum borrowed or lent (usually expressed as a percentage). Compound interest means that interest is earned on prior interest in addition to the principal. Due to compounding, the total amount of debt grows exponentially, and its mathematical study led to the discovery of the number e. In practice, interest is most often calculated on a daily, monthly, or yearly basis, and its impact is influenced greatly by its compounding rate.

Interest is another word for theft, same as for profit. It's also controlling people with debt. Not calculating true cost. Tax - Scam.

Interest Rates. When the central bank increases interest rates, borrowing becomes more expensive. In this environment, both consumers and businesses might think twice about taking out loans for major purchases or investments. This slows down spending, typically lowering overall demand and hopefully reducing inflation. When inflation causes higher prices, the demand for credit increases, raising interest rates, which benefits lenders. Rising food and energy prices are the main drivers of this inflation. Inflation hits low-income households hardest for several reasons. They spend more of their income on necessities such as food, gas and rent—categories with greater-than-average inflation rates—leaving few ways to reduce spending.

Interest Rate is the amount of interest due per period, as a proportion of the amount lent, deposited or borrowed (called the principal sum). The total interest on an amount lent or borrowed depends on the principal sum, the interest rate, the compounding frequency, and the length of time over which it is lent, deposited or borrowed. It is defined as the proportion of an amount loaned which a lender charges as interest to the borrower, normally expressed as an annual percentage. It is the rate a bank or other lender charges to borrow its money, or the rate a bank pays its savers for keeping money in an account. The annual interest rate is the rate over a period of one year. Other interest rates apply over different periods, such as a month or a day, but they are usually annualised.- Home Loans.

Carried Interest in finance is a share of the profits of an investment paid to the investment manager in excess of the amount that the manager contributes to the partnership, specifically in alternative investments i.e., private equity and hedge funds. It is a performance fee rewarding the manager for enhancing performance.

Loan Shark a moneylender who charges extremely high rates of interest, typically under illegal conditions. Loan Shark is a person who offers loans at extremely high interest rates, has strict terms of collection upon failure, and generally operates outside of local authority. Loan sharking is usually illegal, but predatory lending with extremely high interest rates such as payday or title loans is sometimes considered loan sharking.

Middle Men Racket - Scams - Ponzi Scam

Payday Loan is a small, short-term unsecured loan with high interest rates. The loans are also sometimes referred to as "cash advances," though that term can also refer to cash provided against a prearranged line of credit such as a credit card. Payday loan exploits people who are unbanked or underbanked, or have lack access to a traditional deposit bank account. In an American context the families who will use a payday loan are disproportionately either of black or Hispanic descent, recent immigrants, and/or under-educated. These individuals are least able to secure normal, lower-interest-rate forms of credit. Since payday lending operations charge higher interest-rates than traditional banks, they have the effect of depleting the assets of low-income communities. The Insight Center, a consumer advocacy group, reported in 2013 that payday lending cost U.S communities $774 million a year.

Is America's God named Money?

Unbanked are adults who do not have their own bank accounts. Along with the underbanked, they may rely on alternative financial services for their financial needs, where these are available.

Underbanked are people who do not have sufficient access to mainstream financial services and products typically offered by retail banks and thus often deprived of banking services such as credit cards or loans. The underbanked are characterized by a strong reliance on non-traditional forms of finance and micro-finance often associated with disadvantaged and the poor, such as cheque cashers, loan sharks and pawnbrokers. Many people who are classified as underbanked may also have a language barrier, such as migrant workers, be unable to access banking facilities due to distance, such as the elderly, or simply feel uncomfortable using automated teller machines. The underbanked are a distinct group from the unbanked, who are characterized by having no banking facilities at all. People to People Banking.

Banks borrow money from the public, and then they loan it back to you for a fee, and it's not even a real loan, they're just purchasing securities. And when the loan shows up in your account, that doesn't mean that money was transferred, only the numbers.

Predatory Lending is the unfair, deceptive, or fraudulent practices of some lenders during the loan origination process. Housing Crisis.

Subprime Lending means making loans to people who may have difficulty maintaining the repayment schedule, sometimes reflecting setbacks, such as unemployment, divorce, medical emergencies, etc. (another word for theft). Subprime Mortgage Crisis (wiki) - List of Bank Failures in the United States (2008–present) (wiki).

Pre-Qualification in Lending is a process whereby a loan officer takes information from a borrower and makes a tentative assessment of how much the lending institution is willing to lend them. (let's see that assessment).


Market is one of the many varieties of systems, institutions, procedures, social relations and infrastructures whereby parties engage in exchange. While parties may exchange goods and services by barter, most markets rely on sellers offering their goods or services (including labor power) in exchange for money from buyers. It can be said that a market is the process by which the prices of goods and services are established. Markets facilitate trade and enable the distribution and resource allocation in a society. Markets allow any trade-able item to be evaluated and priced. A market emerges more or less spontaneously or may be constructed deliberately by human interaction in order to enable the exchange of rights (cf. ownership) of services and goods. Markets generally supplant gift economies and are often held in place through rules and customs, such as a booth fee, competitive pricing, and source of goods for sale (local produce or stock registration). Markets can differ by products (goods, services) or factors (labour and capital) sold, product differentiation, place in which exchanges are carried, buyers targeted, duration, selling process, government regulation, taxes, subsidies, minimum wages, price ceilings, legality of exchange, liquidity, intensity of speculation, size, concentration, exchange asymmetry, relative prices, volatility and geographic extension. The geographic boundaries of a market may vary considerably, for example the food market in a single building, the real estate market in a local city, the consumer market in an entire country, or the economy of an international trade bloc where the same rules apply throughout. Markets can also be worldwide, see for example the global diamond trade. National economies can also be classified as developed markets or developing markets. In mainstream economics, the concept of a market is any structure that allows buyers and sellers to exchange any type of goods, services and information. The exchange of goods or services, with or without money, is a transaction. Market participants consist of all the buyers and sellers of a good who influence its price, which is a major topic of study of economics and has given rise to several theories and models concerning the basic market forces of supply and demand. A major topic of debate is how much a given market can be considered to be a "free market", that is free from government intervention. Microeconomics traditionally focuses on the study of market structure and the efficiency of market equilibrium; when the latter (if it exists) is not efficient, then economists say that a market failure has occurred. However, it is not always clear how the allocation of resources can be improved since there is always the possibility of government failure. A market is one of the many varieties of systems, institutions, procedures, social relations and infrastructures whereby parties engage in exchange. While parties may exchange goods and services by barter, most markets rely on sellers offering their goods or services (including labor) in exchange for money from buyers. It can be said that a market is the process by which the prices of goods and services are established. Markets facilitate trade and enable the distribution and allocation of resources in a society. Markets allow any trade-able item to be evaluated and priced. A market sometimes emerges more or less spontaneously or may be constructed deliberately by human interaction in order to enable the exchange of rights (cf. ownership) of services and goods. Markets of varying types can spontaneously arise whenever a party has interest in a good or service that some other party can provide. Hence there can be a market for cigarettes in correctional facilities, another for chewing gum in a playground, and yet another for contracts for the future delivery of a commodity. There can be black markets, where a good is exchanged illegally, for example markets for goods under a command economy despite pressure to repress them and virtual markets, such as eBay, in which buyers and sellers do not physically interact during negotiation. A market can be organized as an auction, as a private electronic market, as a commodity wholesale market, as a shopping center, as a complex institution such as a stock market and as an informal discussion between two individuals. Markets vary in form, scale (volume and geographic reach), location and types of participants as well as the types of goods and services traded. The following is a non exhaustive list: Physical consumer markets. Food retail markets: farmers' markets, fish markets, wet markets and grocery stores. Retail marketplaces: public markets, market squares, Main Streets, High Streets, bazaars, souqs, night markets, shopping strip malls and shopping malls. Big-box stores: supermarkets, hypermarkets and discount stores. Ad hoc auction markets: process of buying and selling goods or services by offering them up for bid, taking bids and then selling the item to the highest bidder. Used goods markets such as flea markets. Temporary markets such as fairs. Real estate markets. Physical business markets. Physical wholesale markets: sale of goods or merchandise to retailers; to industrial, commercial, institutional, or other professional business users or to other wholesalers and related subordinated services. Markets for intermediate goods used in production of other goods and services. Labor markets: where people sell their labour to businesses in exchange for a wage. Online auctions and Ad hoc auction markets: process of buying and selling goods or services by offering them up for bid, taking bids and then selling the item to the highest bidder. Temporary markets such as trade fairs. Energy markets. Non-physical markets. Media markets (broadcast market): is a region where the population can receive the same (or similar) television and radio station offerings and may also include other types of media including newspapers and Internet content. Internet markets (electronic commerce): trading in products or services using computer networks, such as the Internet. Artificial markets created by regulation to exchange rights for derivatives that have been designed to ameliorate externalities, such as pollution permits (see carbon trading). Financial markets. Financial markets facilitate the exchange of liquid assets. Most investors prefer investing in two markets: The stock markets, for the exchange of shares in corporations (NYSE, AMEX and the NASDAQ are the most common stock markets in the United States). The bond markets. There are also: Currency markets are used to trade one currency for another, and are often used for speculation on currency exchange rates. The money market is the name for the global market for lending and borrowing. Futures markets, where contracts are exchanged regarding the future delivery of goods are often an outgrowth of general commodity markets. Prediction markets are a type of speculative market in which the goods exchanged are futures on the occurrence of certain events; they apply the market dynamics to facilitate information aggregation. Insurance markets. Debt markets. Unauthorized and illegal markets. Grey markets (parallel markets): is the trade of a commodity through distribution channels which, while legal, are unofficial, unauthorized, or unintended by the original manufacturer. Markets in illegal goods such as the market for illicit drugs, illegal arms, infringing products, cigarettes sold to minors or untaxed cigarettes (in some jurisdictions), or the private sale of unpasteurized goat milk.

Grey Market - Monopolies - Dark Net

Market information Systems are information systems used in gathering, analyzing and disseminating information about prices and other information relevant to farmers, animal rearers, traders, processors and others involved in handling agricultural products.

Global Marketing is marketing on a worldwide scale reconciling or taking commercial advantage of global operational differences, similarities and opportunities in order to meet global objectives.

Commodity Market is a market that trades in primary economic sector rather than manufactured products. Soft commodities are agricultural products such as wheat, coffee, cocoa and sugar. Hard commodities are mined, such as gold and oil.

Free Market is an economic system in which prices are determined by unrestricted competition between privately owned businesses. Free Market is a system in which the prices for goods and services are self-regulated by the open market and by consumers. In a free market, the laws and forces of supply and demand are free from any intervention by a government or other authority, and from all forms of economic privilege, monopolies and artificial scarcities. Proponents of the concept of free market contrast it with a regulated market in which a government intervenes in supply and demand through various methods such as tariffs used to restrict trade and to protect the local economy. In an idealized free-market economy, prices for goods and services are set freely by the forces of supply and demand and are allowed to reach their point of equilibrium without intervention by government policy. Capitalism.

Food Market (food security) - Off Shore - Rackets

Margaritaville is the third episode of the thirteenth season of the American animated television series South Park.

Pension (finacial aid) - Investment - Devaluation

Wave Principle is a form of technical analysis that finance traders use to analyze financial market cycles and forecast market trends by identifying extremes in investor psychology, highs and lows in prices, and other collective factors.

Financial Market is a market in which people trade financial securities, commodities, and other fungible items of value at low transaction costs and at prices that reflect supply and demand. Securities include stocks and bonds, and commodities include precious metals or agricultural products.

Wall Street - Stock Exchange - Financial System

Wall Street is a street in New York City where the stock exchange and financial businesses are located. Wall Street is often used to refer to the financial business carried out there and to the people who work there. Wall street is a 0.7-mile-long (1.1 km) street running eight blocks, roughly northwest to southeast, from Broadway to South Street on the East River in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York City. The term has become a metonym for the financial markets of the United States as a whole, the American financial sector (even if financial firms are not physically located there), or New York-based financial interests.

Divesting - Investing - Profit - Banking - Inside Trading - Bubbles

Stock Exchange is an exchange where stock brokers and traders can buy and sell shares of stock, bonds, and other securities. Stock exchanges may also provide facilities for issue and redemption of securities and other financial instruments and capital events including the payment of income and dividends. Securities Traded on a stock exchange include stock issued by listed companies, unit trusts, derivatives, pooled investment products and bonds. Stock exchanges often function as "continuous auction" markets with buyers and sellers consummating transactions at a central location such as the floor of the exchange. There are Sixteen Stock Exchanges in the world that have a market capitalization of over US$1 trillion each. They are sometimes referred to as the "$1 Trillion Club". These exchanges accounted for 87% of global market capitalization in 2015. Some exchanges do include companies from outside the country where the exchange is located.

Stock Market is the aggregation of buyers and sellers (a loose network of economic transactions, not a physical facility or discrete entity) of stocks (also called shares); these may include securities listed on a stock exchange as well as those only traded privately. Markets.

Commodity is an economic good, usually a resource, that has full or substantial fungibility, that is, the market treats instances of the good as equivalent or nearly so with no regard to who produced them. The price of a commodity good is typically determined as a function of its market as a whole, well-established physical commodities have actively traded spot and derivative markets. The wide availability of commodities typically leads to smaller profit margins and diminishes the importance of factors (such as brand name) other than price. Most commodities are raw materials, basic resources, agricultural, or mining products, such as iron ore, sugar, or grains like rice and wheat. Commodities can also be mass-produced unspecialized products such as chemicals and computer memory. Water Monopoly.

Financial System is a system that allows the exchange of funds between financial market participants such as lenders, investors, and borrowers. Financial systems operate at national and global levels. They consist of complex, closely related services, markets, and institutions intended to provide an efficient and regular linkage between investors and depositors. In other words financial system can be known where ever the exist the exchange of financial medium(money) while there is an reallocation of funds into the needy areas (financial markets, business firms, banks) to utilize the potential of ideal money and place them in use to get benefits out of them. This whole mechanism is known as financial system. Money, credit, and finance are used as medium of exchange in financial systems. They serve as a medium of known value for which goods and services can be exchanged as an alternative to bartering. A modern financial system may include banks (public sector or private sector), financial markets, financial instruments, and financial services. Financial systems allow funds to be allocated, invested, or moved between economic sectors. They enable individuals and companies to share the associated risks.

Stock Trader is a person or company involved in trading equity securities. Stock traders may be an agent, hedger, arbitrageur, speculator, stockbroker or investor.

Floor Trader is a member of a stock or commodities exchange who trades on the floor of that exchange for his or her own account. The floor trader must abide by trading rules similar to those of the exchange specialists who trade on behalf of others. The term should not be confused with Floor Broker. Floor traders are occasionally referred to as registered competitive traders, individual liquidity providers or locals. These traders are subject to a screening process before they can trade on the exchange. The people who operate as floor traders are in an open outcry system that has slowly been replaced by automated trading systems and computers that work in the same fashion as humans, without the interaction of people buying and selling stocks.

Share is a unit used as mutual funds, limited partnerships, and real estate investment trusts. The owner of shares in the company is a shareholder (or stockholder) of the corporation. A share is an indivisible unit of capital, expressing the ownership relationship between the company and the shareholder. The denominated value of a share is its face value, and the total of the face value of issued shares represent the capital of a company, which may not reflect the market value of those shares. The income received from the ownership of shares is a dividend. The process of purchasing and selling shares often involves going through a stockbroker as a middle man. There are different types of shares such as equity shares, preference shares, bonus shares, right shares, and employees stock option plan shares.

Share Price is the price of a single share of a number of saleable stocks of a company, derivative or other financial asset. In layman's terms, the stock price is the highest amount someone is willing to pay for the stock, or the lowest amount that it can be bought for.

Share Repurchase is the re-acquisition by a company of its own stock.

Shareholder is an individual or institution (including a corporation) that legally owns a share of stock in a public or private corporation.

Poison Pill Defense strategy or the shareholder rights plan, allows existing shareholders to purchase additional shares in a company at a discount. It makes a hostile takeover or buyout costly for the other party, effectively diluting its ownership interest. Shareholder rights plan is a type of defensive tactic used by a corporation's board of directors against a takeover.

Everyone is a share holder and everyone is a stake holder. Everyone owns a piece of each other. Sharing.

Securities and Exchange Commission primary responsibility is enforcing the federal securities laws, proposing securities rules, and regulating the securities industry, which is the nation's stock and options exchanges, and other activities and organizations, including the electronic securities markets in the United States. In addition to the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, which created it, the SEC enforces the Securities Act of 1933, the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, the Investment Company Act of 1940, the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, the Sarbanes–Oxley Act of 2002, and other statutes. The SEC was created by Section 4 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (now codified as 15 U.S.C. § 78d and commonly referred to as the Exchange Act or the 1934 Act). SEC is a large independent agency of the United States federal government that was created following the stock market crash in the 1920s to protect investors and the national banking system.

Stake Holder is a person with an interest or concern in something, especially a business. Primary stakeholders are usually internal stakeholders, are those that engage in economic transactions with the business, like stockholders, customers, suppliers, creditors, and employees. Secondary stakeholders are the general public, parents, children, customers, owners, employees, associates, partners, contractors, and suppliers, people that are related or located nearby like communities, activist groups, business support groups, and the media. External stakeholders do not engage in direct economic exchange with the business, but they can be affected by its actions. Any action taken by any organization or any group might affect those people who are linked with them in the private sector. Everything is Connected.

Shares Outstanding are all the shares of a corporation or financial asset that have been authorized, issued and purchased by investors and are held by them. The person who holds the shares has rights and represents ownership in the corporation. They are distinguished from treasury shares, which are shares held by the corporation itself and have no exercisable rights. Shares outstanding plus treasury shares together amount to the number of issued shares. Shares outstanding can be calculated as either basic or fully diluted. The basic count is the current number of shares. Dividend distributions and voting in the general meeting of shareholders are calculated according to this number. The fully diluted shares outstanding count, on the other hand, includes diluting securities, such as warrants, capital notes or convertibles. If the company has any diluting securities, this indicates the potential future increased number of shares outstanding.

Security in finance is a tradable financial asset. The term commonly refers to any form of financial instrument, but its legal definition varies by jurisdiction. Debt.

Dividend is a payment made by a corporation to its shareholders, usually as a distribution of profits. When a corporation earns a profit or surplus, the corporation is able to re-invest the profit in the business (called retained earnings) and pay a proportion of the profit as a dividend to shareholders. Distribution to shareholders may be in cash (usually a deposit into a bank account) or, if the corporation has a dividend reinvestment plan, the amount can be paid by the issue of further shares or share repurchase. When dividends are paid, shareholders typically must pay income taxes, and the corporation does not receive a corporate income tax deduction for the dividend payments.

Futures Contract or futures is a standardized legal contract to buy or sell something at a predetermined price for delivery at a specified time in the future, between parties not yet known to each other.

Insider Trading - Rackets

Forward Contract or simply a forward is a non-standardized contract between two parties to buy or sell an asset at a specified future time at a price agreed on at the time of conclusion of the contract, making it a type of derivative instrument, which is a contract that derives its value from the performance of an underlying entity. Hedge is an investment position intended to offset potential losses or gains that may be incurred by a companion investment.

Short in an asset means investing in such a way that the investor will profit if the value of the asset falls. This is the opposite of a more conventional "long" position, where the investor will profit if the value of the asset rises.

Long Position in a financial instrument means the holder of the position owns a positive amount of the instrument.

Spot Market or cash market is a public financial market in which financial instruments or commodities are traded for immediate delivery. It contrasts with a futures market, in which delivery is due at a later date. In a spot market, settlement normally happens in T+2 working days, i.e., delivery of cash and commodity must be done after two working days of the trade date. A spot market can be through an exchange or over-the-counter or OTC. Spot markets can operate wherever the infrastructure exists to conduct the transaction. Spot Date of a transaction is the normal settlement day when the transaction is carried out as soon as practical, i.e. "on the spot". This kind of transaction is called a "spot transaction" or simply "spot", and is often described as such in contrast to a transaction which is not settled immediately, such as a futures contract or a forward contract.

Public Company is a company whose ownership is organized via shares of stock which are intended to be freely traded on a stock exchange or in over-the-counter markets. A public company can be listed on a stock exchange (listed company), which facilitates the trade of shares, or not (unlisted public company). In some jurisdictions, public companies over a certain size must be listed on an exchange. Public companies are formed within the legal systems of particular states, and therefore have associations and formal designations which are distinct and separate in the polity in which they reside. In the United States, for example, a public company is usually a type of corporation (though a corporation need not be a public company), in France it is usually a "société anonyme" (SA), in Britain a public limited company (plc), and in Germany an Aktiengesellschaft (AG). While the general idea of a public company may be similar, differences are meaningful, and are at the core of international law disputes with regard to industry and trade.

Market Capitalization or Market Cap is the market value of a publicly traded company's outstanding shares. Market capitalization is equal to the share price multiplied by the number of shares outstanding. Since outstanding stock is bought and sold in public markets, capitalization could be used as an indicator of public opinion of a company's net worth and is a determining factor in some forms of stock valuation. Market cap reflects only the equity value of a company. A firm's choice of capital structure has a significant impact on how the total value of a company is allocated between equity and debt. A more comprehensive measure is enterprise value (EV), which gives effect to outstanding debt, preferred stock, and other factors. For insurance firms, a value called the embedded value (EV) has been used. Market capitalization is used by the investment community in ranking the size of companies, as opposed to sales or total asset figures. It is also used in ranking the relative size of stock exchanges, being a measure of the sum of the market capitalizations of all companies listed on each stock exchange. In performing such rankings, the market capitalizations are calculated at some significant date, such as June 30 or December 31. The total capitalization of stock markets or economic regions may be compared with other economic indicators. The total market capitalization of all publicly traded companies in the world was US$51.2 trillion in January 2007 and rose as high as US$57.5 trillion in May 2008 before dropping below US$50 trillion in August 2008 and slightly above US$40 trillion in September 2008. In 2014 and 2015, global market capitalization was US$68 trillion and US$67 trillion, respectively.

Market Value is the price at which an asset would trade in a competitive auction setting. Market value is often used interchangeably with open market value, fair value or fair market value, although these terms have distinct definitions in different standards, and may or may not differ in some circumstances. Price Gouging.

Enterprise Value is an economic measure reflecting the market value of a business (i.e. as distinct from market price). It is a sum of claims by all claimants: creditors (secured and unsecured) and shareholders (preferred and common). Enterprise value is one of the fundamental metrics used in business valuation, financial modeling, accounting, portfolio analysis, and risk analysis. Enterprise value is more comprehensive than market capitalization, which only reflects common equity. Importantly, EV reflects the opportunistic nature of business and may change substantially over time because of both external and internal conditions. Therefore, financial analysts often use a comfortable range of EV in their calculations.

Financial Asset is a non-physical asset whose value is derived from a contractual claim, such as bank deposits, bonds, and stocks. Financial assets are usually more liquid than other tangible assets, such as commodities or real estate, and may be traded on financial markets. Bonuses.

The S&P 500 measures the value of stocks of the 500 largest corporations by market capitalization listed on the New York Stock Exchange or Nasdaq Composite. Standard & Poor's intention is to have a price that provides a quick look at the stock market and economy. Indeed, the S&P 500 index is the most popular measure used by financial media and professionals, while the mainstream media and general public are more familiar with the Dow Jones Industrial Average.

Dow Jones Industrial Average or simply the Dow, is a stock market index that shows how 30 large, publicly owned companies based in the United States have traded during a standard trading session in the stock market. The value of the Dow is not a weighted arithmetic mean and does not represent its component companies' market capitalization, but rather the sum of the price of one share of stock for each component company. The sum is corrected by a factor which changes whenever one of the component stocks has a stock split or stock dividend, so as to generate a consistent value for the index. To calculate the DJIA, the sum of the prices of all 30 stocks is divided by a divisor, the Dow Divisor. The divisor is adjusted in case of stock splits, spinoffs or similar structural changes, to ensure that such events do not in themselves alter the numerical value of the DJIA.

Market Trend is a perceived tendency of financial markets to move in a particular direction over time. These trends are classified as secular for long time frames, primary for medium time frames, and secondary for short time frames. Traders attempt to identify market trends using technical analysis, a framework which characterizes market trends as predictable price tendencies within the market when price reaches support and resistance levels, varying over time. A trend can only be determined in hindsight, since at any time prices in the future are not known.

Bear Market is a condition in which securities prices fall 20% or more from recent highs amid widespread pessimism and negative investor sentiment.

Bull Market is a market that is on the rise and is economically sound, while a bear market is a market that is receding, where most stocks are declining in value. Although some investors are "bearish," the majority of investors are "bullish".

What causes the stock market to go up and down? Prices often move because of supply and demand: If more investors want to buy a stock than sell it, the price goes up. If more investors want to sell a stock than buy it, the price goes down. You buy a stock because you think that it will go up in the future.

Money Market became a component of the financial market for assets involved in short-term borrowing, lending, buying and selling with original maturities of one year or less. Trading in money markets is done over the counter and is wholesale. There are several money market instruments in most Western countries, including treasury bills, commercial paper, bankers' acceptances, deposits, certificates of deposit, bills of exchange, repurchase agreements, federal funds, and short-lived mortgage- and asset-backed securities. The instruments bear differing maturities, currencies, credit risks, and structures. Money markets, which provide liquidity for the global financial system including for capital markets, are part of the broader system of financial markets. The money market consists of financial institutions and dealers in money or credit who wish to either borrow or lend. Participants borrow and lend for short periods, typically up to twelve months. Money market trades in short-term financial instruments commonly called "paper". This contrasts with the capital market for longer-term funding, which is supplied by bonds and equity. The core of the money market consists of interbank lending—banks borrowing and lending to each other using commercial paper, repurchase agreements and similar instruments. These instruments are often benchmarked to (i.e., priced by reference to) the London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR) for the appropriate term and currency. Finance companies typically fund themselves by issuing large amounts of asset-backed commercial paper (ABCP), which is secured by the pledge of eligible assets into an ABCP conduit. Examples of eligible assets include auto loans, credit card receivables, residential/commercial mortgage loans, mortgage-backed securities and similar financial assets. Some large corporations with strong credit rating issue commercial paper on their own credit. Other large corporations arrange for banks to issue commercial paper on their behalf. In the United States, federal, state and local governments all issue paper to meet funding needs. States and local governments issue municipal paper, while the U.S. Treasury issues Treasury bills to fund the U.S. public debt: Trading companies often purchase bankers' acceptances to tender for payment to overseas suppliers. Retail and institutional money market funds. Banks. Central banks. Merchant banks. Cash management programs.

The Federal Reserve on March 12th, 2020 offers of $1.5 trillion in short-term loans to stem a market meltdown. Another bailout for banks.

Market Failure is a situation in which the allocation of goods and services is not efficient. That is, there exists another conceivable outcome where an individual may be made better-off without making someone else worse-off. Market failures can be viewed as scenarios where individuals' pursuit of pure self-interest leads to results that are not efficient – that can be improved upon from the societal point of view.

Speculation is the purchase of an asset with the hope that it will become more valuable at a future date. In finance, speculation is also the practice of engaging in risky financial transactions in an attempt to profit from short term fluctuations in the market value of a tradable financial instrument—rather than attempting to profit from the underlying financial attributes embodied in the instrument such as capital gains, dividends, or interest. Speculator is a person who forms a theory or conjecture about a subject without firm evidence. (commodity, goods, or real estate).

Food Speculation is when banks are earning huge profits from betting on food prices in unregulated financial markets. This creates instability and pushes up global food prices, leaving millions going hungry and facing deeper poverty. In January 2014, after four years of our campaign, the EU agreed to introduce new rules to prevent hedge funds and investment banks from driving up food prices.

Financial Bubble is characterized by rapidly increasing prices of an asset to a point that is unsustainable, causing the asset to burst or contract in value. Financial bubbles follow five stages, displacement, boom, euphoria, profit taking and bust. Bubbles are mostly a money making scam and not an economic cycle.

Stock Market Bubble is when participants drive stock prices above their value in relation to some system of stock valuation. The Big Short.

Speculative Bubble is a spike in asset values within a particular industry, commodity, or asset class that is fueled by speculation as opposed to fundamentals of that asset class.

Housing Bubble - Information Bubble - Knowledge Bubble - Inflation

Economic Bubble is a period when current asset prices greatly exceed their intrinsic valuation, being the valuation that the underlying long-term fundamentals justify. Bubbles can be caused by overly optimistic projections about the scale and sustainability of growth (e.g. dot-com bubble), and/or by the belief that intrinsic valuation is no longer relevant when making an investment (e.g. Tulip mania). An economic bubble is also called a speculative bubble or a financial bubble. Most bubbles are created by greedy scumbags who know how to manipulate the systems and then blame on something else besides their known criminal activity.

Dot-Com Bubble was a period of market growth coincided with the widespread adoption of the World Wide Web and the Internet, resulting in a dispensation of available venture capital and the rapid growth of valuations in new dot-com startups. The bubble ballooned during the late-1990s and peaked on Friday, March 10, 2000. etween 1995 and its peak in March 2000, investments in the NASDAQ composite stock market index rose 800%, only to fall 78% from its peak by October 2002, giving up all its gains during the bubble. And of course, some greedy scumbags walked away with billions of dollars.

Tulip Mania was a period in the Dutch Golden Age during which contract prices for some bulbs of the recently introduced and fashionable tulip reached extraordinarily high levels and then dramatically collapsed in February 1637.

Stock Market Crash is a sudden dramatic decline of stock prices across a significant cross-section of a stock market, resulting in a significant loss of paper wealth. Crashes are driven by panic as much as by underlying economic factors. They often follow speculation and economic bubbles. A stock market crash is a social phenomenon where external economic events combine with crowd psychology in a positive feedback loop where selling by some market participants drives more market participants to sell. Generally speaking, crashes usually occur under the following conditions: a prolonged period of rising stock prices (a bull market) and excessive economic optimism, a market where price–earnings ratios exceed long-term averages, and extensive use of margin debt and leverage by market participants. Other aspects such as wars, large corporate hacks, changes in federal laws and regulations, and natural disasters within economically productive areas may also influence a significant decline in the stock market value of a wide range of stocks. All such stock drops may result in the rise of stock prices for corporations competing against the affected corporations. There is no numerically specific definition of a stock market crash but the term commonly applies to steep double-digit percentage losses in a stock market index over a period of several days. Crashes are often distinguished from bear markets (periods of declining stock market prices that are measured in months or years) by panic selling and abrupt, dramatic price declines. Crashes are often associated with bear markets; however, they do not necessarily go hand in hand. Black Monday (1987), for example, did not lead to a bear market. Likewise, the Japanese bear market of the 1990s occurred over several years without any notable crashes. Crashes are generally unexpected. As Niall Ferguson stated, "Before the crash, our world seems almost stationary, deceptively so, balanced, at a set point. So that when the crash finally hits — as inevitably it will — everyone seems surprised. And our brains keep telling us it’s not time for a crash."

Black Monday is the name commonly attached to a sudden, severe, and largely unexpected stock market crash that struck the global financial market system in 1987. In the United States, the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) fell 508 points (22.6%), accompanied by crashes in the futures and options markets. This was one of the largest one-day percentage drops in the history of the Dow Jones index. Significant selling created steep price declines throughout the day, particularly during the last hour and a half of trading. The S&P 500 and Wilshire 5000 indices each declined more than 18 percent, and the S&P 500 futures contract declined 29 percent. Total trading volume was so large that the computer and communications systems in place at the time were overwhelmed, leaving orders unfilled for an hour or more. Large funds transfers were delayed for hours and the Fedwire and NYSE DOT systems shut down for extended periods of time, further compounding traders' confusion. All of the twenty-three major world markets experienced a similar decline that October. When measured in a common currency (US dollars), eight of them declined by 20 to 29%, three by 30 to 39% (Malaysia, Mexico and New Zealand), and three by more than 40% (Hong Kong, Australia and Singapore). Worldwide losses were estimated at US$1.7 trillion. The severity of the crash sparked fears of extended economic instability or even a reprise of the Great Depression. Across nations, the degree to which the financial markets' distress spread to the wider economy (the "real economy") was directly related to the monetary policy each nation pursued in response. The central banks of the United States, West Germany and Japan provided liquidity to prevent debt defaults among financial institutions, and the impact on the real economy was relatively limited and short-lived. The Reserve Bank of New Zealand's refusal to loosen monetary policy in response to the crisis, however, had sharply negative and relatively long-term consequences for both financial markets and the real economy. In finance, the crash of 1987 also apparently had the ongoing effect of altering implied volatility patterns that arise in pricing financial options. Equity options traded in American markets did not show a volatility smile before the crash but began showing one afterward.

Popularity is not an accurate measurement of reality. Fair Trade.

Insider Trading is the trading of a public company's stock or other securities (such as bonds or stock options) by individuals with access to nonpublic information about the company. Insider trading gives those competitive firms informed of an actual upcoming event an unfair advantage, allowing them to buy or sell the corresponding stock prior to the new information being publicly released. The inside information can come from company employees or any third party that has particular knowledge of the inner workings of an organization and is barred from using that information for gain. When ghosting the market, more than one firm may attempt to drive a buy or sell frenzy. This is often started by buying or selling large amounts of a particular stock by all parties included in the fraudulent activity. This sudden increase in activity often sparks similar activities in other stockholders who are unaware of the collusion. As a result, prices rise or fall dramatically, corresponding to the buying or selling frenzy respectively.

Many stocks and share sales and buys happen off the exchange behind closed doors. Knowledge Gap.

Front Running is the practice by market makers of dealing on advance information provided by their brokers and investment analysts, before their clients have been given the information. The practice of entering into an equity (stock) trade, option, futures contract, derivative, or security-based swap to capitalize on advance, nonpublic knowledge of a large ("block") pending transaction that will influence the price of the underlying security.

Non-Public Information refers to any documents, facts, figures, or data that has not been released to investors. Material nonpublic information refers to certain information about a company which could affect its share price and investment decisions as soon as the information has been made public. However, the public does not yet have access to this information. Insider trading laws prohibit the buying or selling of a company's stock while in possession of material, nonpublic information.

Private Equity strategies generally involve investing in companies that are not publicly traded on stock exchanges.

Dark Pool is a private forum or alternative trading system for trading securities, derivatives, and other financial instruments. Liquidity on these markets is called dark pool liquidity. The bulk of dark pool trades represent large trades by financial institutions that are offered away from public exchanges like the New York Stock Exchange and the NASDAQ, so that such trades remain confidential and outside the purview of the general investing public. The fragmentation of electronic trading platforms has allowed dark pools to be created, and they are normally accessed through crossing networks or directly among market participants via private contractual arrangements. Generally dark pools are not available to the public, but in some cases they may be accessed indirectly by retail investors and traders via retail brokers. One of the main advantages for institutional investors in using dark pools is for buying or selling large blocks of securities without showing their hand to others and thus avoiding market impact as neither the size of the trade nor the identity are revealed until some time after the trade is filled. However, it also means that some market participants are disadvantaged as they cannot see the orders before they are executed; prices are agreed upon by participants in the dark pools, so the market is no longer transparent. Dark pools are heavily used in high-frequency trading, which has also led to a conflict of interest for those operating dark pools due to payment for order flow and priority access. High frequency traders may obtain information from placing orders in one dark pool that can be used on other exchanges or dark pools. Depending on the precise way in which a "dark" pool operates and interacts with other venues, it may be considered, and indeed referred to by some vendors, as a "grey" pool. These systems and strategies typically seek liquidity among open and closed trading venues, such as other alternative trading systems. Dark pools have grown in importance since 2007, with dozens of different pools garnering a substantial portion of U.S. equity trading. Dark pools are of various types and can execute trades in multiple ways, such as through negotiation or automatically (e.g., midpoint crosses, staggered crosses, VWAP, etc.), throughout the day or at scheduled times.

War Profiteering - Dark Money - Inside Job

Payment for Order Flow is when brokerage firms receive compensation in exchange for routing orders with market makers. These market makers make money on the difference between the bid price and ask price, which means investors may not be getting the best deal possible. Payment for order flow is the compensation that a stockbroker receives from a market maker in exchange for the broker routing its clients' trades to that market maker. It is a controversial practice that has been called a "kickback" by its critics. Policymakers supportive of PFOF and several people in finance who have a favorable view of the practice have defended it for helping develop new investment apps, low-cost trading, and more efficient execution.

STOCK Act is an Act of Congress designed to combat insider trading. It was signed into law by President Barack Obama on April 4, 2012. The law prohibits the use of non-public information for private profit, including insider trading by members of Congress and other government employees. It confirms changes to the Commodity Exchange Act, specifies reporting intervals for financial transactions.

Ghosting is an illegal practice whereby two or more market makers collectively attempt to influence and change the price of a stock. Ghosting is used by corrupt companies to affect stock prices so they can profit from the price movement. This practice is illegal because market makers are required by law to act in competition with each other. While both ghosting and insider trading give particular firms or investors the ability to profit through illegal mechanisms, they function differently. With ghosting, a change in market condition is essentially manufactured, spurred on by the sudden increase of buying or selling of a particular stock. This causes stock prices to rise or fall in response to the sudden increase in trade volume but for disingenuous reasons, as no event has transpired to instigate the change.

Market Distortion is any event in which a market reaches a market clearing price for an item that is substantially different from the price that a market would achieve while operating under conditions of perfect competition and state enforcement of legal contracts and the ownership of private property.

Pump and Dump is a form of securities fraud that involves artificially inflating the price of an owned stock through false and misleading positive statements, in order to sell the cheaply purchased stock at a higher price. Once the operators of the scheme "dump" (sell) their overvalued shares, the price falls and investors lose their money.

Share Repurchase or Stock Buyback is the re-acquisition by a company of its own shares. It is relatively easy for insiders to capture insider-trading-like gains through the use of "open market repurchases". Such transactions are legal and generally encouraged by regulators through safe harbours against insider trading liability.

High-Frequency Trading is a type of algorithmic trading characterized by high speeds, high turnover rates, and high order-to-trade ratios that leverages high-frequency financial data and electronic trading tools.

Quantitative Analysis is the use of models, or algorithms, to evaluate assets for investment. The process usually consists of searching vast databases for patterns, such as correlations among liquid assets or price-movement patterns (trend following or mean reversion). The resulting strategies may involve high-frequency trading.

18 U.S. Code § 1955 - Prohibition of illegal gambling businesses. Whoever conducts, finances, manages, supervises, directs, or owns all or part of an illegal gambling business shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than five years, or both.

Buttonwood Agreement

2010 Flash Crash was a United States trillion-dollar stock market crash on May 6, 2010.

Adverse Selection is a "rigged" trade. When buyers and sellers have access to different information (asymmetric information), traders with better private information about the quality of a product will selectively participate in trades which benefit them the most (at the expense of the other trader). A textbook example is Akerlof's market for lemons.

Turbo Warrant is a kind of stock option. Specifically, it is a barrier option of the Down and Out type. It is similar to a vanilla contract, but with two additional features: It has a low vega, meaning that the option price is much less affected by the implied volatility of the stock market, and it is highly geared due to the possibility of knockout.

What Really Happened? - Occupy the SEC

Vulture Fund is a hedge fund, private-equity fund or distressed debt fund, that invests in debt considered to be very weak or in default, known as distressed securities. Investors in the fund profit by buying debt at a discounted price on a secondary market and then using numerous methods to subsequently sell the debt for a larger amount than the purchasing price. Debtors include companies, countries, and individuals. Vulture funds have had success in bringing attachment and recovery actions against sovereign debtor governments, usually settling with them before realizing the attachments in forced sales. Settlements typically are made at a discount in hard or local currency or in the form of new debt issuance. In one instance involving Peru, such a seizure threatened payments to other creditors of the sovereign obliger.

Short - Futures

Options is a contract which conveys to its owner, the holder, the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell a specific quantity of an underlying asset or instrument at a specified strike price on or before a specified date, depending on the style of the option.

Black–Scholes Model is a mathematical model for the dynamics of a financial market containing derivative investment instruments, using various underlying assumptions.

Derivative is a contract that derives its value from the performance of an underlying entity. This underlying entity can be an asset, index, or interest rate, and is often simply called the underlying.

Hedge Fund is a pooled investment fund that trades in relatively liquid assets and is able to make extensive use of more complex trading, portfolio-construction and risk management techniques in an attempt to improve performance, such as short selling, leverage, and derivatives. Financial regulators generally restrict hedge fund marketing except to institutional investors, high net worth individuals and others who are considered sufficiently sophisticated.

Dynamic Hedging is a strategy that involves rebalancing hedge positions as market conditions change; a strategy that seeks to insure the value of a portfolio using a synthetic put option.

Swap is a derivative in which two counterparties exchange cash flows of one party's financial instrument for those of the other party's financial instrument.

Treasury Yield Curve has now been inverted for a full quarter as of Mar 25, 2019. One of the most reliable recession indicators in the market got triggered on Friday and investors across the globe are starting to worry. This happens to be an unusually reliable warning sign that an economic downturn is on the way. The yield curve has flipped prior to each of the last seven official recessions over the past 50 years, without a single false-alarm during that stretch. If securities could talk, in other words, they’d be screaming bloody murder about trouble ahead. When finance types say that the yield curve is “inverted,” what they really mean is that the typical order of the debt markets that prevails when the economy is healthy has been turned on its head. Usually, long-term U.S. government bonds offer higher yields than short-term ones, because buyers demand higher interest rates in return for locking up their money for greater periods of time. There are a few reasons why this is the case, but a big one is that the longer it takes to get repaid, the more risk there is that inflation will eat up your investment. When the yield curve is inverted, however, the opposite becomes true: The returns on long-term bonds dip below returns on short-term ones. Again, there are many reasons that this could happen, but it’s generally interpreted as a sign that the market expects weak or nonexistent growth in the coming years, and very little inflation. Treasury Yield Curve Rates: These rates are commonly referred to as "Constant Maturity Treasury" rates, or CMTs. Yields are interpolated by the Treasury from the daily yield curve. This curve, which relates the yield on a security to its time to maturity is based on the closing market bid yields on actively traded Treasury securities in the over-the-counter market. These market yields are calculated from composites of indicative, bid-side market quotations (not actual transactions) obtained by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York at or near 3:30 PM each trading day. The CMT yield values are read from the yield curve at fixed maturities, currently 1, 2, 3 and 6 months and 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 20, and 30 years. This method provides a yield for a 10 year maturity, for example, even if no outstanding security has exactly 10 years remaining to maturity. Mergers - Takeovers.

Occupy Wall Street

 Occupy Wall Street was a protest movement that began on September 17, 2011, in Zuccotti Park, located in New York City's Wall Street financial district, against economic inequality. It gave rise to the wider Occupy movement in the United States and other countries. Right to Assembly.

Occupy Wall St. Sept. 17, 2011 (youtube) - ccupy Wall Street - N.Y.C. General Assembly
Rise Like Lions - Social Justice - Free The Network (youtube) - Move your Money Out of Nation’s Largest Banks Into Local Community Banks - Okupación (vimeo)

Protest Camp or protest encampment is a physical camp that is set up by activists, to either provide a base for protest, or to delay, obstruct or prevent the focus of their protest by physically blocking it with the camp. A protest camp may also have a symbolic or reproductive component where 'protest campers' try and recreate their desired worlds through the enactment of protest camp infrastructures (such as communal kitchens, child care, environmentally friendly composting toilet or use of grey water systems) or through the modes of organizing and governance (e.g. direct democracy).

Occupation is a protest strategy often used by social movements and other forms of collective social action in order to squat and hold public and symbolic spaces, buildings, critical infrastructure such as entrances to train stations, shopping centers, university buildings, squares, and parks.

Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act was signed into federal law by President Barack Obama on July 21, 2010. Passed as a response to the financial crisis of 2007–2008, it brought the most significant changes to financial regulation in the United States since the regulatory reform that followed the Great Depression. It made changes in the American financial regulatory environment that affect all federal financial regulatory agencies and almost every part of the nation's financial services industry. (Pub.L. 111–203, H.R. 4173, commonly referred to as Dodd–Frank).

Crimes need to be stopped that are being Committed by Banks, Corporations and Politicians.

Move to Amend - We the People of the United States of America, reject the U.S. Supreme Court's Citizens United ruling and other related cases, and move to amend our Constitution to firmly establish that money is not speech, and that human beings, not corporations, are persons entitled to constitutional rights.

Wage Slavery - Externality - Offshore Accounts - Tax Evasion

Wall Street is actually not a total waste. The Computer Network System they currently use just for money can easily be converted to monitor things in our world that matter. Wall street could become an information hub for monitoring our resources and needs in real time. "Information Street"  The system can monitor food distribution throughout the world, see water pollution problems, housing shortages, energy needs, disease and health needs, and any other major problem that needs addressing. So instead of wasting time, people and resources playing with money like an ignorant moron, and investing only in your own selfish desires that only benefit a few while millions don't, you can actually use wall-street computer network system positively and logically, and it will benefit everyone. The Market isn't bad, what's bad are the people who abuse it and manipulate it.

Like any pyramid scheme, the free market isn't free when people are allowed to skim money out of a financial system, to benefit only themselves. Any Life Form that feeds on itself, dies. Parasitism

Working the System is defined as using the rules and procedures meant to protect a system in order, instead, to manipulate the system for a desired outcome. Also referred to as gaming the rules, bending the rules, abusing the system, cheating the system, milking the system, playing the system, or working the system.

Private Equity is a type of equity finance and one of the asset classes consisting of equity securities and debt in operating companies that are not publicly traded on a stock exchange. Speculation.

Leveraged Buyout is a financial transaction in which a company is purchased with a combination of equity and debt, such that the company's cash flow is the collateral used to secure and repay the borrowed money. The use of debt, which has a lower cost of capital than equity, serves to reduce the overall cost of financing the acquisition. This reduced cost of financing allows greater gains to accrue to the equity, and, as a result, the debt serves as a lever to increase the returns to the equity.

Fiscal Cliff was a situation that came into existence in January 2013 whereby a series of previously enacted laws would come into effect simultaneously, increasing taxes while decreasing spending.

The Limits to Growth - Monopoly - Racket

In The Red standard accounting practice of using red ink to denote negative values, especially a net loss.

Price - Crimes - Abuses - More Crimes - Hidden Costs

Libor is the average of interest rates estimated by each of the leading banks in London that it would be charged were it to borrow from other banks.


War on Money Abusers The Zeitgeist Movement (TZM) was founded in 2008, is a sustainability advocacy group that operates through a network of regional chapters, project teams, public events, media expressions and charity operations. TZM's activism is explicitly based on non-violent methods of communication with the core focus on educating the public about the true root sources of many common personal, social and ecological problems today, coupled with the vast problem solving and humanity improving potential science and technology has now enabled, but yet goes unapplied due to barriers inherent in the current, established social system.

Zeitgeist Movement Lecture - Where Are We Now? 1/8 (youtube, Uploaded on Oct 14, 2009)


It is a public domain work, in a simple slide show style, intended to give a more specific overview of the tenets of The Movement. Zeitgeist.

Activism - Petitioning - Human Rights - Civil Rights

Century of Enslavement: The History of The Federal Reserve (youtube)
Corbett Report - Corbett Report (youtube channel).

Luxuries like Energy can't just be about our comfort. You have to give something back to the system so that our energy supplies can continue to provide us with this privileged lifestyle. And giving back does not include money, or how much you paid for the energy, because money is not a resource that can be feed back into the environment, the environment on which we feed. I'm not saying that money can't be part of the solution, I'm just saying that money can't be the only part of a solution. It has to be something physical, something created in return, something that the environmental system can use to create more of of the natural resources that we use. And money is not a form of payment that our environment accepts, sorry that kind of credit does not exist in Reality. A natural symbiotic return is the only way for sustainability, all other ways end in extinction. First the resource goes extinct and then what ever was feeding on it follows. This is one of the major flaws with the monetary system, it creates a false reality that blinds a person from their own fate, a fate that now has a horrible ending, unless we educate and inform the public. I'm sure no one wants to die and suffer, and I'm sure that no one would like to be the cause of death and suffering of other people. Humans are born to be good, and that goodness can only be guaranteed if we make sure that everyone has access to a high quality education. Education has been our greatest source for improvements, so that's proof it works. It's time.

When dealing in the business of just money, honey, you stop being funny. This is because 100's of millions of people have died and suffered because of money, and millions more will continue to do so, unless we change. And if you're not helping the situation, you're just making it worse and adding to the killing and the suffering. You need to wake up and see the damage that you're doing, see the earth that you're polluting, see the people that you're hurting, see the people that you're killing. But even then, you might not even care, because evil is at its strongest when you are oblivious of its existence, for cancer doesn't know that it is cancer. The most damage that is inflicted by people is when people are not aware of the effects that come from their actions, or sometimes they are just in denial, like your average addict. Ignorance isn't evil, ignorance just gives evil a place to live and a place to hide, silently and patiently waiting for you to make a mistake. That's when evil exposes its true horrific ugliness, with most of the ugliness done behind your back, because evil knows you wont turn around when you're distracted by your addictions. You can't see evil when you're blinded by your ignorance or blinded by your obsessions with material possessions. You see dollar signs instead of seeing life. So that emptiness in your soul will never go away. You can only temporally cover your emptiness with your ignorance and keep pretending that everything will be just fine. Knowledge is the only medicine that will ever cure you, so please, turn around. - Bonnie Tyler: Total Eclipse of the Heart (video).

Too Many Chiefs and Not Enough Braves. Ignorant corporations and their blind followers fueled by money instead of being fueled by intelligent actions that are driven by facts, information, knowledge and wisdom. If we continue to allow our actions to be driven by money and not by the facts, then we will continue to be totally disconnected from reality and the world around us. We shouldn't have to wait for dead bodies to show up to make us realize that there's a problem. But even then, we are so disconnected that we fail to act accordingly to the needs of the problems that we have created, all because we allow money to be the reason why. This is a serious flaw in our thinking that we need to correct. And we can make these corrections if everyone learns and understands that money does not solve problems, people solve problems. We don't need more money, we need more people, more people who understand what our most serious problems are and then know how to take the appropriate actions. All changes come from people learning and understanding why the change is needed. Changes just don't happen, we make changes happen, either by contributing to change, or accepting the change, or just by ignoring the change. When people don't learn and understand a problem, because their vision is blocked by money, they fail to see the problem. And in doing so, people will continue to die and suffer. Humans have lived for thousands of years because we learned how to adapt and live in concordance with our environment, we did not live this long because we printed more money, but obviously there are people who are that ignorant and they believe this to be true, that some how we can buy our way out from the messes that we have created. That is the type of ignorance that has been the cause of most of our problems. But we can correct it if we start communicating more effectively, more accurately and in more detail. People just don't need access to our most valuable information and knowledge, they also need assistance in understanding how to access information and knowledge, especially when it would benefit them, and at the same time, make it easy for them to help others. And people also need to learn how we can combine our efforts and our wisdom to make improvements. We can do this by using all media and all forms of communication. Counting down to the age of Restoration.

What would be more inspiring then to begin the age of restoration, reweaving the wondrous diversity of life that still surrounds us?  (Edward. O. Wilson)

Cash on Hand, Corporations with more money then the Government Profiting from ignorance by making money from other peoples ignorance, is ignorant. But what's worse is that some people even flaunt their ignorance. They ignorantly believe that being paid large sums of money, somehow justifies their actions, and that it's also some kind of measurement of their value or their relevance, which it is not. Money is not a free pass, it's not authorization, it's not a license to kill, or does it give you permission to be an idiot. Money is just one of many side-effects that your actions produce. Money does not say anything, it does not describe the facts that pertain to the true value of your life and the impacts of your life, whether positive or negative. So let the facts speak for themselves, and stop using money as an excuse, you're just being an idiot doing the wrong things for the wrong reasons, and the money is not making you do it, you are. But of course you're not alone, we have all been sleeping, but now we're slowly waking up, little by little. And that is what knowledge does, it slowly wakes you up to a world of possibilities that you never knew existed. We wasted a lot of time, but we can get it back if we start education people fully. That's another great thing about knowledge, it can alter the course of time, going back, or going forward.

You have been educated in math and have the ability to calculate earnings, but you never count the things that count, why?

Does Money encourage ignorance and make people complacent with a false sense of security and a diminished awareness?

What are the other alternatives to money? Why don't we teach this? Why is the saying "You get what you pay for", so stupid?

Money has put a spell on you. You Put The Spell On Me - Screamin' Jay Hawkins (youtube)

Corporation Abuse - Protect the Internet

Who's controlling the controllers? 50 Shades of Grey is a metaphor for capitalism and its sociopathic desire for greed and slavery. Everyone needs to renegotiate this contract that has been forced on us by criminals and their perverted sense of reality. You are 50 shades of f*cked up. We need to be free from domination. Not to say that sexual roleplaying is wrong, it's just that we should keep our fantasies to ourselves and stop forcing others to obey, or be punished. You're sick, get help. And stop ruining sex.

Quotes about Money

The real measure of your wealth is how much you'd be worth if you lost everything you own, including all your money. Quotes from Jean-Jacques Rousseau.

Money Quotes (wiki quotes)

Only when the last tree has died and the last river been poisoned and the last fish been caught will we realize we cannot eat money. - (Cree Indian Proverb).

Empty pockets never held anyone back. Only empty heads and empty hearts can do that. - (Norman Vincent Peale).

"Many people are so poor because the only thing they have is money."

"Too many people buy things they don’t need with money they don’t have to impress people they don’t know."

Money does not pay for anything, never has, never will. It is an economic axiom as old as the hills that goods and services can be paid for only with goods and services. - (Albert Jay Nock, Memoirs of a Superfluous Man, 1943).

"The system of banking [is] a blot left in all our Constitutions, which, if not covered, will end in their destruction...I sincerely believe that banking institutions are more dangerous than standing armies; and that the principle of spending money to be paid by posterity... is but swindling futurity on a large scale." - (Thomas Jefferson).

"The issuing power should be taken from the banks and restored to the people, to whom it properly belongs."

If money is your hope for independence you will never have it. The only real security that a man will have in this world is a reserve of knowledge, experience, and ability. - (Henry Ford).

“Money is only a tool. It will take you wherever you wish, but it will not replace you as the driver.” - (Ayn Rand, Atlas Shrugged).

“Money will not purchase happiness for the man who has no concept of what he wants.” - (Ayn Rand, Atlas Shrugged).

“Until and unless you discover that money is the root of all good, you ask for your own destruction. When money ceases to become the means by which men deal with one another, then men become the tools of other men. Blood, whips and guns--or dollars. Take your choice--there is no other.” - (Ayn Rand, Atlas Shrugged).

“Money is a tool of exchange, which can't exist unless there are goods produced and men able to produce them. Money is the material shape of the principle that men who wish to deal with one another must deal by trade and give value for value.”
(Francisco d'Anconia - Atlas Shrugged - (Part 2, Chapter 2, Page 410).

“Money is made... made by the effort of every honest man, each to the extent of his ability. An honest man is one who knows that he can't consume more than he has produced.” (Francisco d'Anconia Atlas Shrugged (Part 2, Chapter 2, Page 411).

To profit from life is to take more then you give, and if you take more then you give, there will always be suffering.

We never know the worth of water 'til the well is dry. (English Proverb)

Those who live by numbers can also perish by them and it is a terrifying thing to have an adding machine write an epitaph, either way. - (George J.W. Goodman, The Money Game)

I'd like to live as a poor man with lots of money.  (Pablo Picasso)

Give me control of a nation's money supply, and I care not who makes its laws.

I conceive that the great part of the miseries of mankind are brought upon them by false estimates they have made of the value of things. - (Benjamin Franklin 1706-1790, American politician, inventor and scientist).

You know the value of every merchandise, but you do not know your own value -- that is stupidity....(The Sufi Path of Love, The Spiritual Teachings of Rumi).

Everything that can be counted does not necessarily count; everything that counts cannot necessarily be counted.
(Albert Einstein 1879 - 1955, German-born Theoretical Physicist).

In God we trust, all others bring data. (Dr. W. Edwards Deming 1900-1993, American Statistician)

Proof is a deductive argument for a mathematical statement. In the argument, other previously established statements, such as theorems, can be used. In principle, a proof can be traced back to self-evident or assumed statements, known as axioms, along with accepted rules of inference.

Inflation is taxation without legislation.- (Milton Friedman)

Earth provides enough to satisfy every man's need, but not every man's greed. (Mahatma Gandhi 1869-1948, Indian, ethic-spiritual & political leader for Nonviolent Resistance).

A nation that continues year after year to spend more money on military defense than on programs of social uplift is approaching spiritual doom. - (Martin Luther King, Jr).

The best way for a person to have happy thoughts is to count his blessings and not his cash. 

Waste your money and you're only out of money, but waste your time and you've lost a part of your life. (Michael Leboeuf)

Do not value money for any more nor any less than its worth; it is a good servant but a bad master. - (Alexandre Dumas fils), Camille, 1852.

When I do good, I feel good; when I do bad, I feel bad, and that is my religion. (Abraham Lincoln 1809-1865, American President, abolisher of slavery)

"I had rather fashion my mind than furnish it." - (Michel de Montaigne)

We are not afraid to entrust the American people with unpleasant facts, foreign ideas, alien philosophies, and competitive values. For a nation that is afraid to let its people judge the truth and falsehood in an open market is a nation that is afraid of its people. (John Fitzgerald Kennedy 1917-1963, 35th president of the United States).

It is important that an aim never be defined in terms of activity or methods. It must always relate directly to how life is better for everyone. . . . The aim of the system must be clear to everyone in the system. The aim must include plans for the future. The aim is a value judgment. - (Dr. W. Edwards Deming 1900-1993, American Statistician).

Management is doing things right; leadership is doing the right things. (Peter F. Drucker, American Management Guru).

Wealth consists not in having great possessions, but in having few wants. (Epicurus 341 B.C.-270 B.C., ancient Greek philosopher, father of Hedonism).

A people that values its privileges above its principles soon loses both. (Dwight David Eisenhower 1890-1969, US General, 34th president of the United States).

"Many people believe that poor people are lazy. In reality, most of the nations poorest people work full-time jobs, sometimes 60 or more hours a week, but because they are paid so little, they can't feed their families or adequately take care of the needs of their family. It's also commonly believed that the rich deserve their wealth because they work harder then others. In reality, most of the super rich have never worked a real job, because most of their wealth has been handed to them."

"The first man who, having fenced in a piece of land, said "This is mine," and found people naïve enough to believe him, that man was the true founder of civil society. From how many crimes, wars, and murders, from how many horrors and misfortunes might not any one have saved mankind, by pulling up the stakes, or filling up the ditch, and crying to his fellows: Beware of listening to this impostor; you are undone if you once forget that the fruits of the earth belong to us all, and the earth itself to nobody." (Jean-Jacques Rousseau; Discourse on Inequality, 1754)

No Man can Serve two Masters  Matthew 6:24 - No man can serve two masters: for either he will hate the one, and love the other; or else he will hold to the one, and despise the other. Ye cannot serve God and mammon. Ye cannot be human and inhuman. Ye cannot serve man and kill man. (whether directly or indirectly).

Penny Wise, Pound Foolish.

Proverbs 22:7 - “The rich rules over the poor, and the borrower becomes the lender’s slave.”

Other People's Money (1991 Film)

Other People's Money (wiki) - Video Clip of Speech (youtube)

A Quote from the Movie..."There is the instrument of our destruction. I want you to look at him in all of his glory, Larry "The Liquidator," the entrepreneur of post-industrial America, playing God with other people's money. The Robber Barons of old at least left something tangible in their wake -- a coal mine, a railroad, banks. This man leaves nothing. He creates nothing. He builds nothing. He runs nothing. And in his wake lies nothing but a blizzard of paper to cover the pain. Oh, if he said, "I know how to run your business better than you," that would be something worth talking about. But he's not saying that. He's saying, "I'm going to kill you because at this particular moment in time, you're worth more dead than alive." Well, maybe that's true, but it is also true that one day this industry will turn. One day when the yen is weaker, the dollar is stronger, or, when we finally begin to rebuild our roads, our bridges, the infrastructure of our country, demand will skyrocket. And when those things happen, we will still be here, stronger because of our ordeal, stronger because we have survived. And the price of our stock will make his offer pale by comparison. God save us if we vote to take his paltry few dollars and run. God save this country if that is truly the wave of the future. We will then have become a nation that makes nothing but hamburgers, creates nothing but lawyers, and sells nothing but tax shelters. And if we are at that point in this country, where we kill something because at the moment it's worth more dead than alive -- well, take a look around. Look at your neighbor. Look at your neighbor. You won't kill him, will you? No. It's called murder and it's illegal. Well, this too is murder -- on a mass scale. Only on Wall Street, they call it "maximizing share-holder value" and they call it "legal." And they substitute dollar bills where a conscience should be. Dammit! A business is worth more than the price of its stock. It's the place where we earn our living, where we meet our friends, dream our dreams. It is, in every sense, the very fabric that binds our society together. So let us now, at this meeting, say to every Garfield in the land, "Here, we build things. We don't destroy them. Here, we care about more than the price of our stock! Here, we care about people."

Vulture Capitalist are investors that acquire distressed firms in the hopes of making them more profitable so as to ultimately sell them for a profit. Due to their aggressive investing nature, and how they make firms more profitable, vulture capitalists are often criticized.

"I no longer dream of stupid luxuries anymore because they are mostly irrelevant and wasteful. I no longer dream of wealth or power, because I know that I will always have both as long as I keep learning. The only material possessions I think about are tools that would make me more productive, and more sustainable, just like the planet earth, living in peace and harmony."

If you create a psychotic environment, then people exposed to this psychotic environment could easily be influence enough to become psychotic themselves, which has clearly happened. This is one thing that humans have learned as being a fact, and that is, humans are products of their environment. And there are many different environments on this planet, each one having its own unique effect on the human mind. You can be neighbors with other people and still be worlds apart. You can be siblings from the same family, and still have your own unique qualities. This is because the same environment does not always mean the same reaction to that environment, especially when each person has their own experiences. We have finally realized just how incredible the human mind is, and how incredible life is. We know that Humans can learn, which means that humans can learn about how different environments can effect their behaviors. And we can share this knowledge, and we can also pass on this knowledge. Which means that future generations will be more intelligent, and more capable of surviving, and thriving.

It's not just that I realized that there are more important things then money, I realized that the things that are more important then money are extremely important. Like the importance of knowledge. This was more then just an epiphany, It's like realizing the water well that everyone has been drinking from has been poisoned. And the affects from the poison are gradual and not easily identifiable. So making everyone aware of this was not going to be easy or straight forward. So of course I needed to do some research so that I can find ways to make people understand that the poisoned well is real and not just a metaphor. It's like waking up and realizing that the life you have been living is a lie. So why are people lying to me and to others? I don't know, but that is not important, what's important is knowing what the truth is. And the only way to find the truth is by researching and learning. 

You can't equate your life or your time to money. Money is just a tool and just one of many tools a human has. And the most important tool is the human brain. The ability to solve problems and to analyze information gives a human more advantages over all other living things on this planet. But just because we have these abilities does not mean everyone has learned them or even knows how to use these abilities correctly. keep learning and don't forget to apply what you have learned to your life.

When money can give anyone power, before they have actually earned it or before they fully understand the responsibility of power, you will always have destructive behavior and corruption. You either take away the power of money or fully educate people on how to use this tool correctly and responsibly. It looks like we have to do both. Basic Knowledge 101.

We will never begin to understand the cost of our actions if we use only money as a guide. You have to look at all the elements, all the facts and all the results in order to even come close to understanding the whole picture. Having more money will not guarantee that you will be smarter or live a better life, on the contrary you will more likely become more ignorant and suffer as clearly proven and documented by the destructive effects of wealth on people and society. Money has a very strange power, or special magic, that decreases a persons ability to think clearly. And just to think that it's only a tool. How can you give an inanimate object so much power over your thinking. And you can't blame the tool, so money is not the problem here. The problem is that people are terribly confused and manipulated by a tool that society uses. This is the fault of education that we must fix immediately. If most of the corrupted people in the world are educated people, then why is education not correcting this flaw?

Social Impact of Wealth - Unions

Should we allow corporations to use our earths resources, our people and our time just to make money? Of course not because that would be totally ignorant and totally insane. Yet we let it happen everyday. Then on top of that these same corporations irresponsibly cause damage to our earth and violate human rights as if they were above every law know to man. I'm not about Revenge because that's a waste of time. Justice and education is the only logical alternative.

People pursuing their ideas and chasing their personal dreams is absolutely necessary. Self-interest
But eventually a lot of us will have to work together on the same project, work on the same idea and work on the same dream. Teamwork is our only hope for success and prosperity. The world is producing to many humans that are disconnected and isolated from Reality. When we realize that we are all one entity, one organism, one species, we will then start acting to our full potential as ‘one’.

The Eco-system is our teacher. And this teacher is clearly showing us the way to survive and to sustain a happy and healthy life style. That knowledge is priceless.

Single people are one of the world's greatest resources. Being Single should be looked upon as a honorable life choice. Single people can dedicate themselves to the world and provide a great service that helps the needy and helps the uneducated to become educated. This way families can focus more time and energy towards their family instead of having to spend precious time away from their family to combat the worlds problems that are over whelming families. As of 2012 there's about 32.7 million Americans living Alone Being Alone does not mean that you are Lonely.

Extrovert - Routines - Population Growth

There are powerful and greedy people who don't fully understand our dilemma, but with enough educated people we will surely over whelm them into change, as well as over whelm our politicians into making the right choices and sacrifices that we all have to make. And it’s not just living within our means either because some people actually believe that they have the right to be wasteful just because they can afford it, which is so moronic and ignorant that it goes against all common sense. Freedom does not mean that you have the right to be an ignorant moron at everybody else’s expense. Especially when we can measure and confirm what things are bad, damaging and counter productive. We have to live within the world’s means, and the world cannot afford anything right now. Plus, people who do have money have it easier to make positive changes then the people who are just fighting for survival because their options are limited. So it’s time to put away our childish ways and grow up fast. This does not mean the American dream is over, it just means the American dream has become more defined and more responsible. This amazing journey of change will bring us closer together and make us clearly understand our values, which have become obscured by deceiving images by our corporate media. It's time to join the millions who have already made changes because we desperately need the support of everyone in order to prosper.

Americas actually have the power to save the world, if they want to? Americans have the power. Not just the power of choice, but also the power of change. We use more energy and resources then most countries combined. And using more energy does not say that we are actually doing more. We actually waste more time and resources and throw away more then most countries consume. On top of that we do more damage to our environment and too ourselves. We spend more time digging our own graves then spending time making a difference. Selfish endeavors are killing us. We really are in some ways an embarrassment to the rest of the world and to our constitution. But amazingly Americans can literally improve the world over night. I’m not saying that Americans can fix every problem in the world but if we just learn to conserve, to recycle and reuse, we would stop this thoughtless waste. The energy and resources that went into making a product that you don’t need can now be use somewhere else where it can have a positive influence. And thus the change begins. Literally, “The world is in our hands”. I always thought that picture was silly, but not anymore. We have come full circle. We have made a lot of mistakes and made a mess of a lot of things. Blaming doesn’t help. We can heal if we work together. There are a lot of great people in America, we’re not stupid, we can fix this....So what’s the plan?


Everyone has an effect on the world, whether the effect is large or small. and whether you are poor or wealthy, everyone has the power to effect the world. People with wealth seem to have a bigger effect on the world, but it's not true. Because it's not the size of the effect that matters, it's the importance of the effect that matters. The poor think that their life will not make a difference in the world, but that is wrong, because the poor have always made the difference in the world, always. To believe that you don't have an effect in the world, will still have an effect. But just knowing that you do effect the world everyday that you are alive, is not enough. You still have to know your options and you still have to know your choices. So Knowledge and information is the key to ending all poverty and all inequalities. You want poor people to lift themselves out of poverty, just give people the necessary knowledge and information that they need, and you will unleash the power and potential of 100's of millions of people all around the world. The poor can easily end poverty for everyone, because the poor are not stupid. The only stupid people in the world are the people who are denying people access to the necessary information and knowledge that people need to make the improvements in the world that are desperately needed. The problem can be solved, so what are you waiting for?

Education is the strongest and the most effective tool known to Humans: "It's hard to implement action and positive change without the necessary knowledge being shared"

3 Major things that happened way to fast for enough Humans to react to: Our over use and dependency of fossil fuels. Our irresponsible and misunderstood economic growth. Our over population explosion.

"It's not that too many people, or over population is bad, it's just that too many undereducated people is really bad"

I have seen the population double and my parents have seen the population triple. How many people can the earth sustain? If the rates of consumption are equal and fair for every human on earth, we can then measure very accurately how many resources, food and water every human requires. And then we can measure how many people the earth can sustain without damaging the ecosystem or starving itself. And not just sustain humans, but also sustain every other living species, especially the animals we call food, and of course the water and all the other foods that we all need to live. We are living in an eco-system whether we like it or not. If you break the chain something always dies and it might be us.

These problems are not new and were foreseen by thousands. We have known about these issues for at least 40 years now and still we are reacting way to slow then simple common sense dictates.

"There has been too much emphasis on treating the disease and not enough emphasis on the cure"

Most of us are completely unaware of the levels of destruction and suffering that are embodied in the stuff that we buy and in the choices we make. To rid ourselves of this ignorance will not be easy. But it will have to be done in order to insure our children's survival and to evolve as a species. 

"The price of anything is the amount of life you exchange for it." 

What does it meant to be Successful?

Green living or sustainable living is intelligent living. So the word intelligent must be emphasized when describing eco-friendly living because that's what it is. When people hear the word intelligent they will want to know more about that subject because everyone wants to be intelligent. People have a hard time understanding and accepting terminology like environmentally friendly, sustainability or recycling. Mostly because being environmentally conscience is so new to a lot of people that we have not completely found the words to fully explain it in ways that are totally understood by everyone.

If we stop making poisons then corporations and governments will stop feeding it to us.

When it comes to our world environment, I want to help educate people about the effects that we all have on our earth and the effects that we all have on our eco-systems that keep us alive and sustain life for millions of other species. I want to make people aware of all the right choices that we can make so that everyone has a clear understanding of their impact on the planet. But educating people is not an easy task. It will take incredible patience and an enormous amount of ingenuity. Educating people will need the support from everyone. So the first thing we must teach is the extreme importance of education, not the education that we all know today, but the education that is not being fully shared and the education that is not being fully understood. Today we have so much more information and knowledge, of the world, and ourselves, that is tremendously important to our understanding. We need a consensus and total world involvement in organizing and distributing all this important information and knowledge. If we don’t take this action to improve our education system, billions of people will continue to suffer from our own ignorance. The major problem has always been education. People can't act or understand what is needed without knowledge. Our education system is unaware of its incompetence and its dysfunctional effects that it has on people. If every educator and every parent on this planet were to educate every child and themselves on what actions and choices they could make to secure human survival and secure our planets survival with all its species and wonders, our chances for survival and our increased quality of life will not just double, but triple.

If we were to educate every women on the planet we could improve the world over night.

When decisions are not based on facts, or reality, or common sense, they are usually bad mistakes with huge consequences. No one in their right mind would do harm to themselves or do harm to others, especially if they knew of a better way. No one does bad things because they are bad, they do bad things because they don't know better, or, they are force by an ignorant system of control, or forced by ignorant people. When we wake up from this, life will be exhilarating, like a warm spring day after a long cold winter. Remember those? Everyone does.

Government Spending - Problem Transference

People need to know the difference between Earning and Stealing.

Tragedy of the Commons is an economic theory of a situation within a shared-resource system where individual users acting independently according to their own self-interest behave contrary to the common good of all users by depleting that resource through their collective action.

People also need to know the difference between Borrowing, Renting and Using. 

Affluenza a painful, contagious, socially transmitted condition of overload, debt, anxiety, and waste resulting from the dogged pursuit of more."The term "affluenza" has also been used to refer to an inability to understand the consequences of one's actions because of financial privilege.

Money doesn't answer all your questions, so why do we allow money to impede our knowledge and our understanding? Money does Transfer all the information that is related to a transaction. Cause and effects need to be measured in order to accurately understand the full impact, if not, then you could be totally disconnected from reality, like many people are.

Valuing Time Over Money Is Associated With Greater Happiness. There is empirical evidence that prioritizing time over money is a stable preference related to greater subjective well-being.

"As money is not exchanged for any one specific quality, for any one specific thing, or for any particular human essential power, but for the entire objective world of man and nature, from the standpoint of its possessor it therefore serves to exchange every quality for every other, even contradictory, quality and object: it is the fraternisation of impossibilities. It makes contradictions embrace." 

Abstract Labour - Concrete Labour

You would have to be a total moron to have a system where money allows you to do almost anything that you want. And you don't even have to prove right or wrong or good or bad, you just need money. That is a scam and a total disconnect from reality. It's like a child's fairytale come to life. All you have to do is have this special object and it will give you all the power you need. Except this fairytale is killing people, and it's killing this planet, so your fairytale is over, it was a lie, time to wake up, it was just a bad dream, and a nightmare for others. But this children's story does have a happy ending, it's called doing what is right. Our actions will again be measured by the value that our actions bring to life, by the value that our actions bring to ourselves, and by the value that our actions bring to others. You can still have your fairytales, but let us try to forget this nightmare that we called the dark ages of the monetary system, the embarrassment that we all shared in. Thank God, we are finally coming to our senses.

If it wasn't about money then we would have no disagreements, we would only have the facts. Money is only a tool that is related to a particular step in a transaction, it does not define the reasons why the action is necessary or valuable. Money disconnects us from reality more then it connects us to reality. Let us talk in facts, not money. It can't be about money, only the facts. You need to ask "Is the action Sustainable, Logical, and Valuable?" The most ignorant thing that you can do is put a dollar sign on a solving a problem or reaching a goal. Stick with the facts, do your research, keep moving forward.

Why do I do things because I have the money? Just having money does not say that it's right or good. I need to do things because it is necessary and important, and money is just one of the steps in that process, and not the reason.

To many people who have more then enough money are doing the worst things with money. And not just because they're ignorant, it's also that there addiction to money leaves them with a very narrow view of the world. So people live in denial, but they don't know that they are living in denial, like most Addicts do.

"Money is like a carrot on a stick, people blindly chase the carrot without paying attention to life, thus they never fully understand themselves or the world around them."

"If money is your hope for independence you will never have it. The only real security that a man will have in this world is a reserve of knowledge, experience, and ability." - Henry Ford.

"We should live and let live, as long as your life doesn't take away anyone else's right to live and let live."

"Man sacrifices his health in order to make money. Then he sacrifices money to recuperate his health. And then he is so anxious about the future that he does not enjoy the present; the result being that he does not live in the present or the future; he lives as if he is never going to die, and then dies having never really lived.” - Dalai Lama.

“Just look at us. Everything is backwards, everything is upside down. Doctors destroy health, lawyers destroy justice, psychiatrists destroy minds, scientists destroy truth, major media destroys information, religions destroy spirituality and governments destroy freedom.” – Michael Ellner.

When Money can give anyone power before they have actually earned it, or before they fully understand the responsibility of power, you will always have destructive behavior and corruption. You either take away the power of money or fully educate people on how to use this tool correctly and responsibly. It looks like we have to do both. 

Emergency Banking Act was an act passed by the United States Congress in March 1933 in an attempt to stabilize the banking system.

Bank for International Settlements is an international financial institution owned by central banks which "fosters international monetary and financial cooperation and serves as a bank for central banks".

Psychological Disorders Related to Money. Money disorders are persistent patterns of self-destructive and self-limiting financial behaviors. Money disorders are the maladaptive patterns of financial beliefs and behaviors that lead to clinically significant distress, impairment in social or occupational functioning, due to financial strain or an inability to appropriately enjoy one’s financial resources. With the exception of pathological gambling and compulsive buying, psychology and the mental health fields have largely neglected dysfunctional money disorders. Conspicuous Consumption is the spending of money on and the acquiring of luxury goods and services to publicly display economic power. Types of behaviors, or “scripts”, related to money disorders include money avoidance, money worship, money status and money vigilance. Money Avoidance Disorders (also includes Underspending and Excessive Risk Aversion, but not related to being frugal) Hoarding: When stockpiling objects or money provides a sense of safety, security, and relief of anxiety. Relational Money Disorders (also includes Financial Dependence and Financial Incest). Financial Infidelity: Telling "little green lies" about one's spending or finances to one's partner. Financial Enabling: Giving money to others whether you can afford it or not; giving when it is not in the other's long-term best interest. Those afflicted with money disorders or who have problematic money beliefs can seek financial therapy. With financial therapy, financial planners and relationship therapists work together to provide comprehensive treatment to clients experiencing financial distress. Peniaphobia is the fear of poverty and/or poor people.  We need a High Quality Education and not just Therapy.

Why do people use money as an excuse to be criminals? Or to put more simply, why do people do more harm then good in the name of money? This type of ignorance destroys people. And it also destroys Nations, and history has confirmed this time and time again. Wake up, you're dying, you're killing, you're losing, wake up!

Make Living Affordable - Pay People Enough to Live

Living Wage is the minimum income necessary for a worker to meet their basic needs including a little extra money left over for necessities and unexpected expenses. This is not necessarily the same as wage slavery, which refers to a situation where a person's livelihood depends on wages or a salary, especially when the dependence is total and immediate. Biological minimum. Living Wage Calculator.

Labor Rights - Affordable Housing - Quality of Life - Livelihood - Standard of Living - Basic Income - Debt Bondage - Inflation

Cost of Living is the amount of money needed to sustain a certain standard of living including basic expenses such as housing, food, taxes and health care. The cost of living is often used to compare how expensive it is to live in one city versus another. It also includes how much waste you produced and what your life cost the environment and cost future generations. Living within your means is not just about you, it's about everything. Disproportionately High Paying Jobs by State Map (image).

Cost of Living Index is a theoretical price index that measures relative cost of living over time or regions. It is an index that measures differences in the price of goods and services, and allows for substitutions with other items as prices vary.

In 2022, the share of Americans living paycheck to paycheck rises to 63%. Personal financial stress hurts the economy. Inflation is Killing People (reddit video)

It's not a cost of living crisis, it's a cost of greed crisis. A company laid off 1200 people yesterday. Today, the CEO and board director received combined bonuses of $7.5 million. I'm still too pissed off to say anything else about it.

Minimum Wage is the lowest remuneration that employers can legally pay their employees—the price floor below which employees may not sell their labor. Minimum Wage is a type of forced poverty where a person may be forced to work in businesses that do more harm than good, or work in sweatshops or in a workplace that has very poor working conditions that are considered to be socially unacceptable. The work may be difficult, dangerous, climatically challenged or underpaid. Workers in sweatshops may be forced to work long hours with low pay. Capitalism being exploited by criminals, and at the same time, intentionally marginalize millions of people.

In 2021, around 27 Million Americans work minimum wage jobs for $7.25 an hour. 51% of the 27 million or 13.5 million low wage workers are at the ages of 25 to 54. 28% of the 27 million low wage workers have children and have to support their family. You either supplement peoples income, or you raise the minimum wage to a level that matches the cost of living and is at the current level of inflation. In 2019, 1.6 million Americans made at or below the federal minimum wage—about 1% of workers, and less than 2% of those paid by the hour. Less than half worked full-time, almost half were aged 16-25; and more than 60% worked in the leisure and hospitality industry, raising the federal minimum wage to $15 an hour by 2025 would benefit over 17 million workers. Republican states have the lowest paid workers in America, which is no surprise. 48% of hourly workers in the U.S. don't have a single cent in emergency savings.

Minimum Wage in the United States, employers generally have to pay workers the highest minimum wage prescribed by federal, state or local laws. Since July 24, 2009, the federal minimum wage is $7.25 per hour. As of January 2020, there were 29 states and D.C with a minimum wage higher than the federal minimum. From 2018 to 2019, seven states increased their minimum wage levels through automatic adjustments, while increases in sixteen other states and D.C. occurred through referendum or legislative action.

In 2022, it is estimated that $35.80 an hour is needed to be able to afford the basics and to live healthy. If you work 40 hours per week and 50 weeks per year, you will make an annual salary of $71,600.

People in power purposely under pay workers and increase rents, prices and taxes because it's their system of control, a system of control that has been used for hundreds of years. Governments are also manipulated and controlled by money, and not just the citizens. Allowing money to be peoples overlord is totally insane. Humans have given up their liberties for an abstract object that is mostly controlled by the 1 percent, who treat life like a game where they are the evil puppet masters who punish and abuse people as if their lives don't matter, or as if they are not even real. You can't have an inanimate object like money as your leader. The lack of money can imprison the mind and not just imprison your body. But people in power wont use money to teach you how to protect yourself, instead they use money to preach to you a reality that deviates so far from the truth that people are living a lie, and most people don't even know it. And this is not the fault on money, it is the fault of the minds that can't accurately interpret money because people lack the knowledge and information that is needed to understand the manipulative power of money. And this is why people in power purposely under-educate people, so people will never know that they are living a lie and that they are part of an elaborate scam to defraud life on planet earth. Temps.

Congresswoman Katie Porter grills billionaire CEO over pay disparity at JP Morgan. California Democratic congresswoman Katie Porter spelled out to JP Morgan's CEO, Jamie Dimon, the real-world implications of the low wages his bank pays its junior employees at a senate hearing on Wednesday. After running Dimon through the numbers, Porter found that a single mother on the bank's starting salary for a teller would be $567 in the red at the end of each month. Asked how a woman in that situation could get by, Dimon said, 'I don't know'.

Wage Slavery is a term describing a situation in which a person's livelihood depends on wages or a salary, especially when the dependence is total and immediate. It has been used to criticize exploitation of labour and social stratification, with the former seen primarily as unequal bargaining power between labour and capital, particularly when workers are paid comparatively low wages, like in sweatshops.

Debt - Debt Bondage - Living Wage

Wage Theft is the denial of wages or employee benefits rightfully owed to an employee. It can be conducted by employers in various ways, among them failing to pay overtime; violating minimum-wage laws; the misclassification of employees as independent contractors, illegal deductions in pay; forcing employees to work "off the clock", not paying annual leave or holiday entitlements, or simply not paying an employee at all. Paying yourself millions of dollars while the workers struggle to survive. According to some studies, wage theft is common in the United States, particularly from low wage legal or undocumented immigrant workers. The Economic Policy Institute reported in 2014 that survey evidence suggests wage theft costs US workers billions of dollars a year. Some rights violated by wage theft have been guaranteed to workers in the United States in the 1938 Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA). Price Gouging is not about providing a good service, it's about maximizing profit for the scumbags at the top. Contract Workers - Part Time Workers (temps).

Living Paycheck to Paycheck. Seventy-eight percent of full-time workers said they live paycheck to paycheck, up from 75 percent last year in 2017. Insurance - Savings Account.

One Pay Check away from being Homeless. Approximately 63% of Americans in  2016 have no emergency savings for things such as a $1,000 emergency room visit or a $500 car repair. Housing - Economics.

On the Margin is someone operating at the extreme capabilities of a system with no margin of safety.

"You shall not muzzle an ox when it treads out the grain,” and, “The laborer deserves his wages.” or "The worker is worthy of his wages." (1 Timothy 5:18). Putting a muzzle on the ox would prevent it from eating grain while it was working. This might save a small amount of grain, but it means the ox can't replenish its strength while it works. It is more sensible—and fair—to let the animal eat while it works.

Purchasing Power is the amount of goods and services that can be purchased with a unit of currency. Value would be measured in hours of labor required to produce a given quantity, or to produce some other good worth an amount sufficient to purchase the same. If one's monetary income stays the same, but the price level increases, the purchasing power of that income falls. Inflation does not always imply falling purchasing power of one's money income since the latter may rise faster than the price level. A higher real income means a higher purchasing power since real income refers to the income adjusted for inflation. Purchasing power to some extent is power over other people, to the extent that they are willing to trade their labor or goods for money or currency. Having money gives one the ability to command others labor.

Safety Net is a a safeguard against possible hardship or adversity. Social Safety Net - Social Security - Savings.

Make Ends Meet is to earn enough money to live without getting into debt. To have enough money to cover expenses. To get by financially. To get through the pay period with sufficient funds in order to meet the next payday. Means.

Working Poor are working people whose incomes fall below a given poverty line due to low-income jobs and low familial household income. These are people who spend at least 27 weeks in a year working or looking for employment, but remain under the poverty threshold. The Working Poor are people who have jobs, but because of a corrupt system, they are not receiving enough income from those jobs to pay the bills that they need to live. This is a contradiction of reality that has been forced on them by ignorant corrupt criminals.

Forced Servitude - Arranged Marriages - Consent - Human Trafficking - Labor Rights

Indentured Servant is an employee (indenturee) within a system of unfree labor who is bound by a signed or forced contract (indenture) to work for a particular employer for a fixed time. The contract often lets the employer sell the labor of an indenturee to a third party. Indenturees usually enter into an indenture for a specific payment or other benefit, or to meet a legal obligation, such as debt bondage. On completion of the contract, indentured servants were given their freedom, and occasionally plots of land. In many countries, systems of indentured labor have now been outlawed, and are banned by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights as a form of slavery.

White Slavery (wiki) - Modern Day Slavery (video) - 1619 - Free the Slaves

Reparations for direct descendants of enslaved people only. Financial Aid.

Prison - Poverty - Controlled by Debt - Debt Bondage - Inflation - Evictions

Modern slavery climbs to 50 million in 2022.

Walk Free Foundation global slavery index is the world’s most comprehensive data set of modern slavery.

Debt Bondage is also known as debt slavery, bonded labour, or peonage, is the pledge of a person's services as security for the repayment for a debt or other obligation, where the terms of the repayment are not clearly or reasonably stated, and the person who is holding the debt thus has some control over the laborer. Freedom is assumed on debt repayment. The services required to repay the debt may be undefined, and the services' duration may be undefined, thus allowing the person supposedly owed the debt to demand services indefinitely. Debt bondage can be passed on from generation to generation. Currently, debt bondage is the most common method of enslavement with an estimated 8.1 million people bonded to labour illegally as cited by the International Labour Organization in 2005. Debt bondage has been described by the United Nations as a form of "modern day slavery" and the Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery seeks to abolish the practice. The practice is still prevalent primarily in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa, although most countries in these regions are parties to the Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery. It is estimated that 84 to 88% of the bonded labourers in the world are in South Asia. Lack of prosecution or insufficient punishment of this crime are the leading causes of the practice as it exists at this scale today.

Debt Trap occurs when a person or persons continues to take out loans or lines of credit to pay off other debt. A cycle of debt can negatively impact your score.

Debt Crisis is a situation in which a government, nation, state, province, county, or city, loses the ability of paying back its governmental debt. When the expenditures of a government are more than its tax revenues, or more than the greedy scumbags stealing wealth for a prolonged period, the government may enter into a debt crisis. Various forms of governments finance their expenditures primarily by raising money through taxation. When tax revenues are insufficient, the government can make up the difference by issuing debt.

Unfree Labour is when people are employed against their will by the threat of destitution, detention, violence (including death), lawful compulsion, or other extreme hardship to themselves or to members of their families. The payment does not exceed subsistence or barely exceeds it; The payment is in goods which are not desirable and/or cannot be exchanged or are difficult to exchange; or The payment wholly or mostly consists of cancellation of a debt or liability that was itself coerced, or belongs to someone else.

Kidnaping - White Privilege

Forced Labor includes all forms of slavery, and related institutions (e.g. debt slavery, serfdom, corvée and labour camps). Many of these forms of work may be covered by the term forced labour, which is defined by the International Labour Organization (ILO) as all involuntary work or service exacted under the menace of a penalty. Forced labor should not include any work or service exacted in virtue of compulsory military service laws for work of a purely military character; any work or service which forms part of the normal civic obligations of the citizens of a fully self-governing country; any work or service exacted from any person as a consequence of a conviction in a court of law, provided that the said work or service is carried out under the supervision and control of a public authority and that the said person is not hired to or placed at the disposal of private individuals, companies or associations (requiring that prison farms no longer do convict leasing); any work or service exacted in cases of emergency, that is to say, in the event of war, of a calamity or threatened calamity, such as fire, flood, famine, earthquake, violent epidemic or epizootic diseases, invasion by: animal, insect or vegetable pests, and in general any circumstance that would endanger the existence or the well-being of the whole or part of the population; minor communal services of a kind which, being performed by the members of the community in the direct interest of the said community, can therefore be considered as normal civic obligations incumbent upon the members of the community, provided that the members of the community or their direct representatives shall have the right to be consulted in regard to the need for such services.

Child Labour refers to the exploitation of children through any form of work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend regular school, and is mentally, physically, socially or morally harmful. Such exploitation is prohibited by legislation worldwide. Our Inadequate Education System that is Dumbed Down makes everyone a child.

Iqbal Masih was a Pakistani Christian child labourer and activist who campaigned against abusive child labour in Pakistan. At the age of 10, Iqbal escaped his slavery, after learning that bonded labour had been declared illegal by the Supreme Court of Pakistan.

Kidnapping of Children by Nazi Germany was part of the Generalplan Ost (GPO), involved taking children regarded as "Aryan-looking" from the rest of Europe and moving them to Nazi Germany for the purpose of Germanization, or indoctrination into becoming culturally German. At more than 200,000 victims, occupied Poland had the largest proportion of children taken. An estimated 400,000 children were abducted throughout Europe. The aim of the project was to acquire and "Germanize" children with purportedly Aryan-Nordic traits, who were considered by Nazi officials to be descendants of German settlers that had emigrated to Poland. Those labeled "racially valuable" were forcibly Germanized in centers and then sent to German families and SS Home Schools. In the case of older children used as forced labor in Germany, those determined to be racially "un-German" were sent to extermination camps and concentration camps, where they were either murdered or forced to serve as living test subjects in German medical experiments - and thus often tortured or killed in the process.

Gulag was the government agency which was in charge of the Soviet network of forced-labour camps which was set up by order of Vladimir Lenin. It reached its peak during Joseph Stalin's rule from the 1930s to the early 1950s.

The Monetary System is a Form of Slavery. Money enslaves people. It's almost all forced labor. A tool should not enslave people. This is why improving education is extremely important, because ignorance is a prison. When you force people to work, you should at least have jobs available that are a benefit to society. Forcing people to blindly follow orders or work jobs that do more harm than good is like paying people to dig their own grave. And we should not pay people to steal resources from future generations and force future generations to get diseases from all the pollution and poisons we left behind. You're basically forcing people to be accessories to mass murder. People don't need to be forced to work, people just have to understand how important work is and how work helps us to fulfuill some of our responsibilities that we need to perform that will help us to maintain a comfortable living. So people need to have access to knowledge and information that will help them to understand their choices and understand their options. Free Money needs Free Knowledge in order for human life to work effectively and efficiently.

Every human brings value to the world. But there are people who like to exploit this value and misuse this value in unproductive ways, sometimes doing more harm than good. Every human has value. But not every human has protection against people who want to exploit a persons value for their own purposes and not for the person they stole the value from. People need protection from this abuse. People need protection from people who are only interested in their own benefit, usually at the expense of other people, and at the expense of the communities and the environment where people live. Peoples value needs to be protected. No one should have the right to waste or abuse a persons value.

The 13th Amendment that was ratified in 1865, says “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted.” Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime. In Congress, it was passed by the Senate on April 8, 1864, and by the House on January 31, 1865. The amendment was ratified by the required number of states on December 6, 1865. On December 18, 1865, Secretary of State William H. Seward proclaimed its adoption. It was the first of the three Reconstruction Amendments adopted following the American Civil War.

Juneteenth is an American holiday celebrated on June 19. It memorializes June 19, 1865, when Union general Gordon Granger read orders in Galveston, Texas, that all previously enslaved people in Texas were free. Although the Emancipation Proclamation had formally freed them almost two-and-a-half years earlier, and the American Civil War had ended with the defeat of the Confederate States in April, Texas was the most "remote" of the slave states, with a low presence of Union troops, so enforcement of the proclamation had been slow and inconsistent. Celebrations date to 1866, at first involving church-centered community gatherings in Texas. It spread across the South and became more commercialized in the 1920s and 1930s. Often the centerpiece was a food festival. During the Civil Rights movement of the 1960s, the focus became the story of struggle for postwar civil rights. The 1970s returned the focus to African American freedom and arts. By the 21st century, Juneteenth was celebrated in most major cities across the United States. Activists are pushing Congress to recognize Juneteenth as a national holiday. Juneteenth is recognized as a state holiday or special day of observance in 47 of the 50 states. Modern observance is primarily in local celebrations. Traditions include public readings of the Emancipation Proclamation, singing traditional songs such as "Swing Low, Sweet Chariot" and "Lift Every Voice and Sing", and reading of works by noted African-American writers such as Ralph Ellison and Maya Angelou. Celebrations include rodeos, street fairs, cookouts, family reunions, park parties, historical reenactments, and Miss Juneteenth contests. The Mascogos, descendants of Black Seminoles, of Coahuila, Mexico, also celebrate Juneteenth.

Swing Low, Sweet Chariot - Swing low, sweet chariot, Coming for to carry me home, Swing low, sweet chariot, Coming for to carry me home, I looked over Jordan, and what did I see? (Coming for to carry me home), A band of angels coming after me, (Coming for to carry me home) - Chorus: If you get there before I do, (Coming for to carry me home), Tell all of my friends, that I'm coming there too, (Coming for to carry me home).

The Atlantic slave trade: What too few textbooks told you - Anthony Hazard (youtube)

Atlantic Slave Trade involved the transportation by slave traders of various enslaved African people, mainly to the Americas. The slave trade regularly used the triangular trade route and its Middle Passage, and existed from the 16th to the 19th centuries. Some of those who were enslaved and transported in the transatlantic slave trade were people from Central and West Africa that had been sold by other West Africans to Western European slave traders, while others had been captured directly by the slave traders in coastal raids; Europeans gathered and imprisoned the enslaved at forts on the African coast and then brought them to the Americas. Except for the Portuguese, European slave traders generally did not participate in the raids because life expectancy for Europeans in sub-Saharan Africa was less than one year during the period of the slave trade (which was prior to the widespread availability of quinine as a treatment for malaria). The South Atlantic and Caribbean economies were particularly dependent on labour for the production of sugarcane and other commodities. This was viewed as crucial by those Western European states which, in the late 17th and 18th centuries, were vying with one another to create overseas empires.

9 To 5 - Dolly Parton (youtube) - Tumble outta bed, And I stumble to the kitchen, Pour myself a cup of ambition, And yawn and stretch, And try to come to life. Jump in the shower, And the blood starts pumpin', Out on the street The traffic starts jumpin', The folks like me on the job from 9 to 5. Workin' 9 to 5, What a way to make a livin', Barely gettin' by, It's all takin' and no givin', They just use your mind, And they never give you credit, It's enough to drive you crazy, If you let it. 9 to 5, for service and devotion, You would think that I, Would deserve a fair promotion Want to move ahead, But the boss won't seem to let me, I swear sometimes that man is out to get me. They let you dream, Just to watch 'em shatter, You're just a step, On the boss-man's ladder, But you got dreams, He'll never take away, You're in the same boat, With a lot of your friends, Waitin' for the day your ship'll come in, 'N' the tide's gonna turn, And it's all gonna roll your way. Workin' 9 to 5, What a way to make a livin', Barely gettin' by, It's all takin' and no givin', They just use your mind, And you never get the credit, It's enough to drive you crazy, If you let it. 9 to 5, yeah, They got you where they want you, There's a better life, And you think about it, don't you? It's a rich man's game, No matter what they call it. And you spend your life, Puttin' money in his wallet. 9 to 5, whoa, What a way to make a livin', Barely gettin' by, It's all takin' and no givin', They just use your mind, And they never give you credit, It's enough to drive you crazy, If you let it. 9 to 5, yeah, They got you where they want you, There's a better life, And you dream about it, don't you? It's a rich man's game, No matter what they call it, And you spend your life, Puttin' money in his wallet, Working 9 to 5.

16 Tons - Tennessee Ernie Ford (youtube) - Some people say a man is made outta mud, A poor man's made outta muscle and blood, Muscle and blood and skin and bones, A mind that's a-weak and a back that's strong, You load 16 tons, what do you get? Another day older and deeper in debt. St. Peter, don't you call me 'cause I can't go, I owe my soul to the company store. I was born one mornin' when the sun didn't shine, I picked up my shovel and I walked to the mine, I loaded 16 tons of number nine coal, And the straw boss said, "Well, a-bless my soul", You load 16 tons, what do you get? Another day older and deeper in debt, St. Peter, don't you call me 'cause I can't go, I owe my soul to the company store. I was born one mornin', it was drizzlin' rain, Fightin' and trouble are my middle name, I was raised in the canebrake by an ol' mama lion, Can't no high toned woman make me walk the line, You load 16 tons, what do you get? Another day older and deeper in debt, St. Peter, don't you call me 'cause I can't go, I owe my soul to the company store, If you see me comin', better step aside, A lotta men didn't, a lotta men died, One fist of iron, the other of steel, If the right one don't get you, Then the left one will, You load 16 tons, what do you get? Another day older and deeper in debt, St. Peter, don't you call me 'cause I can't go, I owe my soul to the company store.

Un-Real Estate - Predatory Lending

83 Million Eviction Records since 2000 - Nearly one million American households received eviction judgments in 2016. 2.3 Million Evictions were filed in the U.S. in 2016 — a rate of four every minute.

Ponzi Scams - Debt - Property Tax - Wealth Barriers

Coronavirus IX: Evictions: Last Week Tonight with John Oliver (HBO) (youtube) - Nearly 1/3 Of Americans Did Not Make Their Rent Payments in April 2020.

Homeless - Rental Housing Crisis - Affordable Housing - Foreclosures - Evictions

30% of Americans are renters, and 60% are home owners or owner occupied. More Americans are renters now than at any time in the past 50 years.

Tenants Union is a group of tenants creating a written list of demands and complaints about building safety, high rent, maintenance issues, landlord harassment, and other harmful practices. An organized group of tenants with a list of specific demands is more likely to get a landlord negotiating. No official recognition is required in order for a tenant union to be legitimate and impactful. United States of America federal law prohibits housing discrimination based on race, gender, religion and other protected identity categories, but it doesn't explicitly protect tenants' right to organize collectively. The goal of a tenants union is to empower people to fight for housing as a human right or reforms like rent control. Renters and Housing Union is a syndicalist tenants union based in Australia. RAHU organizes for safe and secure housing through self-advocacy, education, and eviction defense. Unions - Assembly.

Large investors are taking some of the most affordable homes off the market, exacerbating the racial wealth gap. Investors are also more likely to raise rents, evict tenants and let houses fall into disrepair. Rental housing investment is a booming business, as there is a greater demand for rental housing. Corporations buying single family houses is a bad idea.

Price-Fixing by Big Landlords and a Real Estate Tech Company. The U.S. Department of Justice late Wednesday stepped into a massive antitrust lawsuit filed by dozens of tenants who are accusing a tech company’s apartment software of helping landlords collude to inflate rents.

United States Housing Bubble saw an increased of foreclosure rates in 2006–2007 among U.S. homeowners, which led to a crisis in August 2008 for the subprime, Alt-A, collateralized debt obligation (CDO), mortgage, credit, hedge fund, and foreign bank markets. In October 2007, the U.S. Secretary of the Treasury called the bursting housing bubble "the most significant risk to our economy". Americans Can't Afford To Buy A Home In 70% Of The Country. Bubbles.

The American Dream is turned into Poverty. Documentary 2017 (youtube) - Developers stealing government funded tax credits that are supposed to be used for housing assistance and low income housing. Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (wiki) - The American Dream.

Fiasco is a thing that is a complete failure, especially in a ludicrous or humiliating way.

Evicted: Poverty and Profit in the American City is a 2016 non-fiction book that follows eight families struggling to pay rent to their landlords during the financial crisis of 2007–2008.

Mobile Homes: Last Week Tonight with John Oliver (HBO) (youtube) - Large investment companies are making Mobile Homes a nightmare for owners.

Warren Buffett's Mobile Home empire preys on the poor. Billionaire profits at every step, from building to selling to high cost lending.

The median value of a mobile home increased at an average annual rate of 34.6% between 2021 and 2016, compared to 35.4% for single-family homes, based on a LendingTree analysis of U.S. Census data. Residents of mobile homes say that unlike single-family homes, typically houses that buyers purchase as an investment as much as a residence, mobile homes become more burdensome with time. Many times there's no repairs and there's no improvement in the warranty of habitability, which ensures properties are livable. A landlord's obligation for providing a habitable living space is primarily governed by the state. This legal requirement, commonly known as the “implied warranty of habitability”, also outlines the rights of tenants when repairs are not made in a timely manner. So many mobile homes can fall into disrepair, making them less attractive to potential buyers. And the private companies who own the land can lowball on price when offering to buy the homes. Plus, for many mobile homeowners, choosing to sell right now would mean entering an even tighter housing and rental market. So, even as the values of their homes rise, owners are finding they're stuck. Large companies have been buying out mobile home parks. They're raising the rent for the land the mobile homes sit on, increasing prices for typically low-income and elderly residents who say they aren't getting anything new.

Corporate Landlords are the biggest price gougers, even when their profits are extremely high. They draft unusually restrictive leases that charge tenants stiff fees when they slip up. More than 1,000 may lose water — or even their homes — because a landlord didn't pay. Corporate landlords are gobbling up U.S. suburbs.

Countries, such as France, Austria and Poland, prohibit removing people from their homes when it's too cold. But that's not the case in the United States. Land of the free must mean that some people are free to be a scumbag.

Negative Equity - Eminent Domain - Colonization

Alternative Financial Services refers to a particular type of financial service, namely subprime or near-prime lending (that is, lending to people with relatively poor credit) by non-bank financial institutions.

Non-Bank Financial Institution is a financial institution that does not have a full banking license or is not supervised by a national or international banking regulatory agency.

Consumer Financial Protection Bureau is an agency of the United States government responsible for consumer protection in the financial sector. CFPB jurisdiction includes banks, credit unions, securities firms, payday lenders, mortgage-servicing operations, foreclosure relief services, debt collectors and other financial companies operating in the United States.

Right of Redemption is the right of a debtor whose real property has been foreclosed upon and sold to reclaim that property if they are able to come up with the money to repay the amount of the debt. Most U.S. states have a statutory provision that allows such a reclamation of property.

Home Ownership has Dropped to Its Lowest Level Since 1965. Fair Housing.

"The words of the prophets Are written on the subway walls And tenement halls." The Sound of Silence (youtube)

Debt Deflation recessions and depressions are due to the overall level of debt shrinking (deflating): the credit cycle is the cause of the economic cycle.

The American Securitization Forum (ASF) - Securities Industry and Financial Markets Association (wiki)

Government-Sponsored Enterprise is a financial services corporation created by the United States Congress. Their intended function is to enhance the flow of credit to targeted sectors of the economy and to make those segments of the capital market more efficient and transparent, and to reduce the risk to investors and other suppliers of capital. The desired effect of the GSEs is to enhance the availability and reduce the cost of credit to the targeted borrowing sectors primarily by reducing the risk of capital losses to investors: agriculture, home finance and education. The two most well known GSEs are the Federal National Mortgage Association, or Fannie Mae, and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation, or Freddie Mac. Aid Types.

Lending - Loans - Borrowing

Loan is the lending of money by one or more individuals, organizations, or other entities to other individuals, organizations etc. The recipient (i.e., the borrower) incurs a debt and is usually liable to pay interest on that debt until it is repaid as well as to repay the principal amount borrowed. The document evidencing the debt (e.g., a promissory note) will normally specify, among other things, the principal amount of money borrowed, the interest rate the lender is charging, and the date of repayment. A loan entails the reallocation of the subject asset(s) for a period of time, between the lender and the borrower. The interest provides an incentive for the lender to engage in the loan. In a legal loan, each of these obligations and restrictions is enforced by contract, which can also place the borrower under additional restrictions known as loan covenants. Although this article focuses on monetary loans, in practice, any material object might be lent. Acting as a provider of loans is one of the main activities of financial institutions such as banks and credit card companies. For other institutions, issuing of debt contracts such as bonds is a typical source of funding.

Lending is to give something temporarily or let someone have something for a limited time.

Predatory Lending is the unfair, deceptive, or fraudulent practices of some lenders during the loan origination process.

Education Loan Sharks - Middle Men - Fair Housing - Rackets

Subprime Lending is making loans to people who may have difficulty maintaining the repayment schedule, sometimes reflecting setbacks, such as unemployment, divorce, medical emergencies, etc.

Banks - Credit - Financial Aid

Equal Credit Opportunity Act and the Fair Housing Act—prohibit discrimination in credit transactions, including transactions related to residential real estate. Federal Fair Lending Laws - Fair Lending - Consumer-Lending Discrimination in the FinTech Era.

Lending Dangers - Flaws and Corruption: Giving money to private companies with no instructions or guidelines on how the money is supposed to be used in order to reach the economic goals and improvements needed always ends in failure as history has documented many times. Then on top of that, the government tells the private companies that they won't be liable for losses or mismanagement, waste or corruption, which is insane. Guaranteed loans or insured loans offer no incentives to do what is right and good. So most people will always act ignorantly and steal tax payer money for themselves instead of using it for the public good for which it was intended. It seems that our government incites corruption by lending money to corrupt companies. No Oversight + No Accountability = Fraud. (Another Wasted Opportunity). Monopolies.

Some people with disabilities are in a low-income bracket and don't qualify for standard mortgage loans. Fortunately, HUD's Section 8 Homeownership Voucher Program was established specifically to assist low-income individuals and families in renting or buying a house by subsidizing their monthly mortgage payments. Social Security does not prohibit an individual from using their disability benefits to buy a house. However, those who receive SSI or concurrent SSI/SSD benefits should be careful. SSI disability beneficiaries can own the home and land they live on, but other property will be counted as an asset.

Reverse Mortgage is a mortgage loan, usually secured over a residential property, that enables the borrower to access the unencumbered value of the property. The loans are typically promoted to older homeowners and typically do not require monthly mortgage payments. Borrowers are still responsible for property taxes and homeowner's insurance. Reverse mortgages allow elders to access the home equity they have built up in their homes now, and defer payment of the loan until they die, sell, or move out of the home. Because there are no required mortgage payments on a reverse mortgage, the interest is added to the loan balance each month. The rising loan balance can eventually grow to exceed the value of the home, particularly in times of declining home values or if the borrower continues to live in the home for many years. However, the borrower (or the borrower's estate) is generally not required to repay any additional loan balance in excess of the value of the home. Reverse Mortgage Scams. The FBI and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development Office of Inspector General (HUD-OIG) urge consumers, especially senior citizens, to be vigilant when seeking reverse mortgage products. Reverse mortgages, also known as home equity conversion mortgages (HECM), have increased more than 1,300 percent between 1999 and 2008, creating significant opportunities for fraud perpetrators. Reverse mortgage scams are engineered by unscrupulous professionals in a multitude of real estate, financial services, and related companies to steal the equity from the property of unsuspecting senior citizens or to use these seniors to unwittingly aid the fraudsters in stealing equity from a flipped property. In many of the reported scams, victim seniors are offered free homes, investment opportunities, and foreclosure or refinance assistance. They are also used as straw buyers in property flipping scams. Seniors are frequently targeted through local churches and investment seminars, as well as television, radio, billboard, and mailer advertisements. A legitimate HECM loan product is insured by the Federal Housing Authority. It enables eligible homeowners to access the equity in their homes by providing funds without incurring a monthly payment. Eligible borrowers must be 62 years or older who occupy their property as their primary residence and who own their property or have a small mortgage balance. See the FBI/HUD Intelligence Bulletin for specific details on HECMs as well as other foreclosure rescue and investment schemes. Tips for Avoiding Reverse Mortgage Scams: Do not respond to unsolicited advertisements. Be suspicious of anyone claiming that you can own a home with no down payment. Do not sign anything that you do not fully understand. Do not accept payment from individuals for a home you did not purchase. Seek out your own reverse mortgage counselor. If you are a victim of this type of fraud and want to file a complaint, please submit information through the FBI’s electronic tip line or through your local FBI office. You may also file an online complaint with HUD-OIG or call HUD’s hotline at 1-800-347-3735.

Credit Theory of Money - How is passing on debt to someone else considered a profit?

Loan Servicing is the process by which a company, bank or servicing collects interest, principal, and escrow payments from a borrower. The vast majority of mortgages are backed by the government or government-sponsored entities (GSEs) through purchase by Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, or Ginnie Mae (which purchases loans insured by the Federal Housing Administration (FHA) or guaranteed by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA)). Because GSEs and private loan investors typically do not service the mortgage loans that they purchase, the bank who sells the mortgage will generally retain the right to service the mortgage pursuant to a master servicing agreement. The payments collected by the mortgage servicer are remitted to various parties; distributions typically include paying taxes and insurance from escrowed funds, remitting principal and interest payments to investors holding mortgage-backed securities (or other types of instruments backed by pools of mortgage loans), and remitting fees to mortgage guarantors, trustees, and other third parties providing services. The level of service varies depending on the type of loan and the terms negotiated between the servicer and the investor seeking their services, and may also include activities such as monitoring delinquencies, workouts/ restructurings and executing foreclosures. In exchange for performing these activities, the servicer generally receives contractually specified servicing fees and other ancillary sources of income such as float and late charges. Mortgage servicing became "far more profitable during the housing boom", and some servicers targeted borrowers "less likely to make timely payments" in order to collect more late fees.

Promissory Note is when one party (the maker or issuer) promises in writing to pay a determinate sum of money to the other (the payee), either at a fixed or determinable future time or on demand of the payee, under specific terms. If the promissory note is unconditional and readily saleable, it is called a negotiable instrument. Contract Laws - Consent.

Default Rate is the rate of borrowers who fail to remain current on their loans. It is a critical piece of information used by lenders to determine their risk exposure and economists to evaluate the health of the overall economy. The interest rate charged to a borrower when payments on a revolving line of credit are overdue. Mortgage Swaps.

Interest Rate Swap is an interest rate derivative (IRD).It involves exchange of interest rates between two parties. In particular it is a linear IRD and one of the most liquid, benchmark products. It has associations with forward rate agreements (FRAs), and with zero coupon swaps (ZCSs).

Credit Default Swap is a financial swap agreement that the seller of the CDS will compensate the buyer in the event of a debt default (by the debtor) or other credit event. That is, the seller of the CDS insures the buyer against some reference asset defaulting. The buyer of the CDS makes a series of payments (the CDS "fee" or "spread") to the seller and, in exchange, may expect to receive a payoff if the asset defaults. Credit.

Collateralized Debt Obligation is a type of structured asset-backed security (ABS). Originally developed for the corporate debt markets, over time CDOs evolved to encompass the mortgage and mortgage-backed security (MBS) markets.

Synthetic CDO is a variation of a CDO that generally uses credit default swaps and other derivatives to obtain its investment goals.

ISDA Master Agreement is the most commonly used master service agreement for OTC derivatives transactions internationally. It is part of a framework of documents, designed to enable OTC derivatives to be documented fully and flexibly. The framework consists of a master agreement, a schedule, confirmations, definition booklets, and credit support documentation. The ISDA master agreement is published by the International Swaps and Derivatives Association.

Bid Rigging is a form of fraud in which a commercial contract is promised to one party even though for the sake of appearance several other parties also present a bid. This form of collusion is illegal in most countries. It is a form of price fixing and market allocation, often practiced where contracts are determined by a call for bids, for example in the case of government construction contracts. Bid rigging almost always results in economic harm to the agency which is seeking the bids, and to the public, who ultimately bear the costs as taxpayers or consumers.

5 trillion dollars disappeared or stolen, 8 million lost jobs, 6 million lost homes. Financial Crisis of 2007 - 2008

Market is an economy in which decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are based on market determined supply and demand, and prices of goods and services are determined in a free price system.

Evictions - Forced to Move

Evicted is to expel or eject without recourse to legal process. Expel from one's property or force to move out by a legal process. Forced out.

Common Grounds - Housing - Marginalize - Gentrification - Eminent Domain - Colonization - Bubbles - Rackets

Eviction is the removal of a tenant from rental property by the landlord. Forced Entry.

Expelled is forced to leave or move out. Kicked out. Thrown Out. Ousted. Censorship.

Banished is to expel from a community or group. Ban from a place of residence, as for punishment. Shunned.

Culled is to remove something that has been rejected. To look for and gather.

Displaced is to cause to move, usually with force or pressure. Fired.

Exiled is to be expel from a country. Immigration.

Ostracize is to expel from a community or group. Avoid speaking to or dealing with.

Refugee is an exile who flees for safety. Refugees.

Internally Displaced Person is someone who is forced to flee his or her home but who remains within his or her country's borders. They are often referred to as refugees, although they do not fall within the legal definitions of a refugee.

Housing Stress describes a situation where the cost of housing (either as rental, or as a mortgage) is high relative to household income. It may also be used to describe inadequate housing for a proportion of the population. As a rule of thumb, a household spending 30 per cent or more of its income can be considered under housing stress, and under "extreme" housing stress if spending exceeds 50 percent. Other studies may apply a different threshold, or restrict its definition to households with below average income. The Economic Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture classifies counties as under housing stress" if 30 percent or more of its housing units meets one or more of the following criteria: lacked complete plumbing, lacked complete kitchens, paid 30 per cent or more for owner costs or rent, or had more than one person per room.

Foreclosure is a legal process in which a lender claims possession of property belonging to a borrower, who has stopped making payments to the lender. In the United States the term is used for a forced sale of the property used as the collateral for the loan. Report.

Fault Lines: For Sale: The American Dream (youtube)

Approximately 549,000 homes in the United States were in some stage of foreclosure compared to 822,000 in January 2014.

3 Day Notice to Pay or Quit, or a 30 or 60 Day Notice to Vacate.

More than 170 tenants were evicted every day in England and Wales in 2015 - Landlord and homeowners evicted after foreclosure, filings soared to almost 270,000 last year in 2015.

Rents are Soaring -- and so are Evictions. Rents have risen 7% in the past year, while incomes have inched just 1.8% higher. Several million families a year face evictions nationwide. In Georgia, there was one eviction notice filed for every five rental households, more than 200,000 total filings last year. Many cases involved renters who were unable to keep up with rent increases. Fair Affordable Housing.

Before You Rent ask your landlord how many units they own? What's their monthly income? How many mortgages they have? How many people have they evicted and what were the circumstances? Tell them you need references from previous tenants.

Squatter's Right is a legal allowance to use the property of another in the absence of an attempt by the owner to force eviction. This right may eventually be converted to title to the property over time by Adverse Possession, if recognized by state law.

Squatting is the action of occupying an abandoned or unoccupied area of land or a building, usually residential, that the squatter does not own, rent or otherwise have lawful permission to use. Author Robert Neuwirth suggested in 2004 that there were one billion squatters globally.

Land Tenure is the legal regime in which land is owned by an individual, who is said to "hold" the land. It determines who can use land, for how long and under what conditions. Tenure may be based both on official laws and policies, and on informal customs. In other words, land tenure system implies a system according to which land is held by an individual or the actual tiller of the land. It determines the owners rights and responsibilities in connection with their holding.

Fiefdom an area over which someone exercises control as or in the manner of a feudal lord.

Slumlord is an absentee landlord with more than one property, who attempts to maximize profit by minimizing spending on property maintenance, often in deteriorating neighborhoods, and to tenants that they can intimidate. Severe housing shortages allow slumlords to charge higher rents, and when they can get away with it, to break rental laws. As many of these neighborhoods are often populated by poor minorities, the term "ghetto landlord" has also been used. A "retail slumlord" is one who keeps a shopping mall in a bad shape until the government buys or confiscates it. Slumlords buy deteriorating buildings for as little as $500 apiece and then rent them as is. Slumlords love to pass the costs onto renters, just as long as they don't have to pay. Slumlords suck the life out of future generations, like leeches. This is why most public housings fail, planned obsolescence by neglect.

Absentee Landlord is a person who owns and rents out a profit-earning property, but does not live within the property's local economic region. When used in a local context, the term refers to a landlord of a house or other real estate, who leases the property to tenants, but fails to ensure that proper maintenance is done on it, or does only the minimum required by law (the term slumlord is also used to describe such a person). This, in turn, leads to what may appear to be abandoned buildings, causing significantly lowered property values and urban blight. Tax policy seems, overall, to favour absentee ownership. However, some jurisdictions seek to extract money from absentee owners by taxing land. Absentee ownership has sometimes put the absentee owners at risk of loss.

Feudalism was a way of structuring society around relationships that were derived from the holding of land in exchange for service or labour. Describes a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations which existed among the warrior nobility and revolved around the three key concepts of lords, vassals and fiefs. includes not only the obligations of the warrior nobility but the obligations of all three estates of the realm: the nobility, the clergy, and the peasantry, all of whom were bound by a system of manorialism; this is sometimes referred to as a "feudal society". Then Came Monopolies.

Peasant is a pre-industrial agricultural laborer or farmer with limited land ownership, especially one living in the Middle Ages under feudalism and paying rent, tax, fees, or services to a landlord. In Europe, three classes of peasants existed: slave, serf, and free tenant. Peasants hold title to land either in fee simple or by any of several forms of land tenure, among them socage, quit-rent, leasehold, and copyhold.

Owning a Condo can like being under house arrest. That's how bad some condo associations are and how criminal property management companies can be. A bunch of leeching parasites who don't want to do work, but will easily take your money, scumbags. Condos are just another way to tax and gouge home owners. And it's unsustainable. Commons fees go up while property values go down, explain that morons. These Types of Housing only works when the owners are involved and informed about the choices they have. Home owners should understand the current status of the property and future plans that would give home owners the best return on their investment. That is also the only way any type of government could work effectively and efficiently. Housing Improvements.

When you have more slumlords than live in owners. Slumlords mostly care about money, slumlords don't care about people. This is why properties fall into disrepair. And the neighbors pay the price by their property values going down along the the quality of living.

Criminal Negligence - Waste in Law (maintain)

Estrepement is used to prevent estrepement, a type of voluntary waste. The waste that the writ would issue to prevent would be waste that occurred in response to a lawsuit seeking possession of the land, or a judgment against the waster where possession had not yet been delivered.

Future Interest in property law and real estate, is a legal right to property ownership that does not include the right to present possession or enjoyment of the property. Future interests are created on the formation of a defeasible estate; that is, an estate with a condition or event triggering transfer of possessory ownership. A common example is the landlord-tenant relationship. The landlord may own a house, but has no general right to enter it while it is being rented. The conditions triggering the transfer of possession, first to the tenant then back to the landlord, are usually detailed in a lease. As a slightly more complicated example, suppose O is the owner of Blackacre. Consider what happens when O transfers the property, "to A for life, then to B". Person A acquires possession of Blackacre. Person B does not receive any right to possess Blackacre immediately; however, once person A dies, possession will fall to person B (or his estate, if he died before person A). Person B has a future interest in the property. In this example, the event triggering the transfer is person A's death. Because they convey ownership rights, future interests can usually be sold, gifted, willed, or otherwise disposed of by the beneficiary (but see Vesting below). Because the rights vest in the future, any such disposition will occur before the beneficiary actually takes possession of the property. There are five kinds of future interests recognized at common law: three in the transferor and two in the transferee. 

Hourly Wage Needed to Rent in each State (image)

Yearly Income needed to Buy a Home in each U.S. City (image)

Hours Needed to Work in Order to afford the Rent in Each State (image)

The difference between House Wages and Renter Wages (image)

Eviction Numbers by State in 2016 (image)

Living Wage

38 cities in America have Filed for Bankruptcy.- Bankruptcies - Defaults (wiki)

Who Took Down Stockton? (youtube)

A lot of foreclosures occur due to a homeowner's medical problems, so the healthcare system steals peoples homes as much as banks do.

People are even being evicted from Homeless Camps

List of Tent Cities in the United States (wiki) - PDF

Small Homes - Refugees

In 2015 Detroit sent out 72,000 foreclosure notices to homeowners behind on property taxes, 62,000 of them in Detroit alone. They say about 18,000 of these properties are occupied, but fewer than half of those homeowners have paid all of their tax.

Empty Homes and Buildings

Eminent Domain - Annexation (be careful where you live)

Real-Estate Bubble is just another word for corruption and greed gone bad, so lets blame it on the economy so that people don't realize that they have been swindled, again. Bubbles.

Fair Affordable Housing

Fair Housing Act is intended to protect the buyer or renter of a dwelling from seller or landlord discrimination, which is selectively enforced. Its primary prohibition makes it unlawful to refuse to sell, rent to, or negotiate with any person because of that person's inclusion in a protected class. The goal is a unitary housing market in which a person's background (as opposed to financial resources) does not arbitrarily restrict access. Calls for open housing were issued early in the twentieth century, but it was not until after World War II that concerted efforts to achieve it were undertaken. The Fair Housing Act or FHA and the Equal Credit Opportunity Act or ECOA, is to protect consumers by prohibiting unfair and discriminatory practices.

Why are cities still so segregated? | Let's Talk | NPR (youtube) - In 1968, Congress passed the Fair Housing Act that made it illegal to discriminate in housing. Segregation.

Redlining is the systematic denial of various services or goods by governments or the private sector either directly or through the selective raising of prices. To refuse a loan or insurance to someone because they live in an area deemed to be a poor financial risk. Affordable Housing.

Blockbusting is a business process in which U.S. real estate agents and building developers convince white property owners to sell their houses at low prices, which they do by telling house owners that racial minorities will soon move into their neighborhoods in order to instill fear in them. The agents then sell those same houses to black families who are desperate to escape overcrowded ghettos at much higher prices. Blockbusting became possible after the legislative and judicial dismantling of legally protected racially segregated real estate practices after World War II. By the 1980s it largely disappeared as a business practice, after changes in law and the real estate market.

Racially Restrictive Covenants were widespread tools of discrimination used by white homeowners to prevent the migration of people of color into their neighborhoods during the first half of the 20th century. Los Angeles Land Covenants, Redlining; Creation and Effects.

The cost of living and affordable housing are words that can mislead people, Why? U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development.

What Qualifies as Affordable Rent is a calculation based on the region’s median income, though that calculation is often much, much higher than what federal housing programs set as affordable rent. Affordable Housing.

Market Rate is the usual price charged in a free market. If demand goes up, manufacturers and laborers will tend to respond by increasing the price, thus setting a higher market rate. When demand falls, market rates also tend to fall. Supply and demand.

Million Dollar Homes being Built in Cities in the last few years Subsidized Housing is government sponsored economic assistance aimed towards alleviating housing costs and expenses for impoverished people with low to moderate incomes. Forms of subsidies include direct housing subsidies, non-profit housing, public housing, rent supplements, and some forms of co-operative and private sector housing. In the United States, subsidized housing is often called "affordable housing." There are scientific research suggesting that actions to facilitate people's access to housing contribute to lower poverty situations.

Affordable Housing is housing which is deemed affordable to those with a median household income as rated by the national government or a local government by a recognized housing affordability index. Most of the literature on affordable housing refers to mortgages and number of forms that exist along a continuum – from emergency shelters, to transitional housing, to non-market rental (also known as social or subsidized housing), to formal and informal rental, indigenous housing, and ending with affordable home ownership.

Cost Burden for Renters National Housing Act of 1934 also called the Capehart Act, was part of the New Deal passed during the Great Depression in order to make housing and home mortgages more affordable. It created the Federal Housing Administration (FHA) and the Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation (FSLIC). The Act was designed to stop the tide of bank foreclosures on family homes during the Great Depression. Both the FHA and the FSLIC worked to create the backbone of the mortgage and home building industries, until the 1980s. (See Savings and loan crisis and Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement Act of 1989 that ended the FSLIC, whose activities were moved to the FDIC.). The Housing Act of 1937 built on this legislation. Home Owners' Loan Corporation (wiki).

Home Ownership Falling Rate The amount of money you must earn in a year to be able to afford to live and pay rent in a particular city.
San Francisco: $119,570
San Jose: $89,734
New York: $87,446
Boston: $84,422
Washington, D.C.: $83,104
Los Angeles: $74,371
New Orleans: $60,782
Atlanta: $60,285
Milwaukee: $43,281
Detroit: $42,772
Tucson: $39,966

House Price Index measures the price changes of residential housing. Methodologies commonly used to calculate a HPI are the hedonic regression (HR), simple moving average (SMA) and repeat-sales regression (RSR).

Negative Equity (debt)

Mortgage Broker acts as an intermediary who brokers mortgage loans on behalf of individuals or businesses.

Mortgage Electronic Registration Systems (wiki)

Multigenerational Housing

Why do people owning land and property experience the same negative side-effects that come from having too much money, or from having too much power? Why does owning property change people. Are Landlords manipulated by the power authority? Why does our views on life change after buying property? Why do people become more defensive? And why does owning land make you more of a target? We need to change the perception land ownership. Though the lines in the sand are only temporary, it is mainly a mutual agreement with our neighbors and other people in the world. If you would like to do something in my area of the sand, then please let me know first, and I will do the same for you if I ever plan to do something in your area of the sand.

A 2014 report for the Scottish government found that 432 individuals own 50 percent of the land in rural Scotland. It said half of the territory's land is owned by 0.008 percent of the population of more than 5.3 million people. Ok Wallace, it's time again.

Britain’s Bad Housing - Net Zero

The Green Buildings that are being built today are excellent. They require less maintenance, cost less to operate, they are less dependent on non-renewable resources and last longer. So these models of intelligent building that we have today are fantastic and give everyone living examples to improve on and to follow. But living by example will never be enough if we don’t include this knowledge in our education system. When people say that green building cost to much money, what they're really saying is that they would rather pass on the debt and problems to future generations. These people are very selfish and ignorant and care only for themselves. Anyone not building green is really negligent. Future generations will look back at these people and say "Thanks for nothing scumbag". Thanks for making buildings that are built with too many non-renewable products, which is a waste of raw materials. Thanks for making buildings that always needs maintenance so it will always cost you time and resources. Thanks for making buildings that are energy inefficient so it wastes energy, pollutes more, consumes more energy and consumes more water, which costs even more resources. And on top of that some of the building products used in building creates unhealthy air by outgassing chemicals. This is the same for our car manufacturers and other industries that put profit over people.


Tax is a mandatory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed upon a taxpayer or an individual or other legal entity by a governmental organization in order to fund various public expenditures. A failure to pay, along with evasion of or resistance to taxation, is punishable by law. Taxes consist of direct or indirect taxes and may be paid in money or as its labour equivalent. Most countries have a tax system in place to pay for public/common/agreed national needs and government functions: some levy a flat percentage rate of taxation on personal annual income, some on a scale based on annual income amounts, and some countries impose almost no taxation at all, or a very low tax rate for a certain area of taxation. Some countries charge a tax both on corporate income and dividends; this is often referred to as double taxation as the individual shareholder(s) receiving this payment from the company will also be levied some tax on that personal income.

Debt - Tariffs - Interest - Economic Warfare - Tax Evasion - Passing the Buck - Inflation - Accounting - IRS

No Taxation without Representation means that a citizen should not be taxed by an authority without the benefit of having elected representatives who speak on their behalf and protect them from unlawful taxes or abusive fees and fines.

Taxes can be used as a weapon to attack certain people or attack certain businesses. Taxes don't effect the wealthy and the powerful, because they find loopholes and exploit the system or pass on the tax on to customers. Taxes don't hurt jobs and wages, it's the greed that hurts jobs and wages.

Taxation as Theft should not take from people what they already own. Property rights are the product of a set of laws and conventions, of which the tax system forms a central part, so the fairness of taxes can’t be evaluated by their impact on preexisting entitlements. Natural Property Rights are those not determined by the law of the state.

Source who revealed how Taxes Steal for the Rich is rewarded with five years in prison. Rich people pay next to nothing in taxes, while the rest of us frantically file tax returns and see our wages sucked away to fund the military, aid for Israel and corporate subsidies. Charles Littlejohn abused his position as a consultant at the Internal Revenue Service by disclosing thousands of Americans’ federal tax returns and other private financial information to news organizations. He violated his responsibility to safeguard the sensitive information that was entrusted to his care, and now he is a convicted felon. Littlejohn’s lawyers had argued that he had acted “out of a deep, moral belief that the American people had a right to know the information and sharing it was the only way to effect change.

Non-Aggression Principle is defined as initiating or threatening any forceful interference against either an individual, their property. (violating or breaching conduct).

Taxation as Slavery is the idea that taxation results in an unfree society in which individuals are forced to work to enrich the government and the recipients of largesse, rather than for their own benefit.

While the wealthy have tax havens, the poor have to live in Tax hell.

Income Tax is a tax imposed on individuals or entities that varies with respective taxable income or profits. Income tax generally is computed as the product of a tax rate times taxable income. Taxation rates may vary by type or characteristics of the taxpayer. The tax rate may increase as taxable income increases (referred to as graduated or progressive rates). The tax imposed on companies is usually known as corporate tax and is levied at a flat rate. However, individuals are taxed at various rates according to the slab in which they fall. Further, the partnership firms are also taxed at flat rate. Most jurisdictions exempt locally organized charitable organizations from tax. Capital gains may be taxed at different rates than other income. Credits of various sorts may be allowed that reduce tax. Some jurisdictions impose the higher of an income tax or a tax on an alternative base or measure of income. Taxable income of taxpayers resident in the jurisdiction is generally total income less income producing expenses and other deductions. Generally, only net gain from sale of property, including goods held for sale, is included in income. Income of a corporation's shareholders usually includes distributions of profits from the corporation. Deductions typically include all income producing or business expenses including an allowance for recovery of costs of business assets. Many jurisdictions allow notional deductions for individuals, and may allow deduction of some personal expenses. Most jurisdictions either do not tax income earned outside the jurisdiction or allow a credit for taxes paid to other jurisdictions on such income. Nonresidents are taxed only on certain types of income from sources within the jurisdictions, with few exceptions. Most jurisdictions require self-assessment of the tax and require payers of some types of income to withhold tax from those payments. Advance payments of tax by taxpayers may be required. Taxpayers not timely paying tax owed are generally subject to significant penalties, which may include jail for individuals or revocation of an entity's legal existence. Approximately 76.4 million or 44.4% of Americans won't pay any federal income tax in 2018, up from 72.6 million people or 43.2%. Most of these people aren't paying income taxes because they either don't have any income that is taxable (many fall below the poverty line). The Tax Policy Center has updated its estimate of the percentage of Americans who pay no federal individual income taxes. And the number is: 44 percent—45.3 percent—won't pay income tax. Income Tax is an illegal tax is imposed on income by the federal government, most state governments, and many local governments.

Living Wage - Budget - Government Spending

Carried Interest Loophole allows investment managers to pay the lower 20 percent long-term capital gains tax rate on income received as compensation, rather than the ordinary income tax rates of up to 37 percent that they would pay for the same amount of wage income. This loophole is a favorite of private equity, real estate, and hedge fund managers. This tax preference has allowed the wealthiest Americans to pay much less than their fair share for far too long.

Corporate Tax is a direct tax imposed by a jurisdiction on the income or capital of corporations or analogous legal entities. Many countries impose such taxes at the national level, and a similar tax may be imposed at state or local levels. The taxes may also be referred to as income tax or capital tax. Partnerships are generally not taxed at the entity level.

Windfall Tax is a higher tax rate on profits that result from a sudden windfall gain to a particular company or industry, often as the result of a geo-political disturbance, war or natural disaster that creates unusual spikes in demand and/or interruptions to supply. Historically, taxes on windfall profits have been imposed as a result of opportunistic 'price gouging' or 'profiteering', whether real or perceived. Notable instances of sudden and dramatic increases in oil industry profits that provoked such taxes around the world include the 1970's OPEC oil embargo, the Persian Gulf wars and the global economic sanctions imposed on Russia in response to their invasion of Ukraine.

US Tax Shield - IRS and state tax liability problems.

Tax Arguments are arguments made by people, primarily in the United States, who contend that tax laws are unconstitutional or otherwise invalid.

Regressive Tax is a tax imposed in such a manner that the tax rate decreases as the amount subject to taxation increases.

Tax Mediation Services - Tax Relief Professionals.

Sales Tax is a tax paid to a governing body for the sales of certain goods and services. Usually laws allow (or require) the seller to collect funds for the tax from the consumer at the point of purchase. When a tax on goods or services is paid to a governing body directly by a consumer, it is usually called a use tax. Often laws provide for the exemption of certain goods or services from sales and use tax.

Resale Certificate or Tax Exemption Certificate allows you to buy goods through your business without paying local sales tax. A resale certificate is a signed document that indicates that the purchaser intends to resell the goods. It is usually provided by a retailer to a wholesale dealer. When doing this, it's your responsibility to collect the tax from the customer when you sell the item. Without a resale certificate, the purchaser must pay sales tax on the items they intend to resell. Resale numbers are issued by state governments. Typically, you apply for a number from your state's tax agency, which issues you a resale license, permit or certificate bearing the number. Then, when you make purchases that aren't subject to sales tax, you provide the merchant your license or certificate number.

Indirect Tax, such as sales tax, per unit tax, value added tax, or goods and services tax (GST)) is a tax collected by an intermediary (such as a retail store) from the person who bears the ultimate economic burden of the tax (such as the consumer). The intermediary later files a tax return and forwards the tax proceeds to government with the return. In this sense, the term indirect tax is contrasted with a direct tax, which is collected directly by government from the persons (legal or natural) on whom it is imposed. Some commentators have argued that "a direct tax is one that cannot be charged by the taxpayer to someone else, whereas an indirect tax can be.

Direct Tax is imposed upon an individual person (juristic or natural) or property (i.e. real and personal property, livestock, crops, wages, etc.) as distinct from a tax imposed upon a transaction. In this sense, indirect taxes such as a sales tax or a value added tax (VAT) are imposed only if and when a taxable transaction occurs. The term may be used in economic and political analyses, but does not itself have any legal implications.

Levy is to impose a tax, a fee, or a fine.

Duty in economics is a kind of tax levied by a state. It is often associated with customs, in which context they are also known as Tariffs or dues. The term is often used to describe a tax on certain items purchased abroad. Properly, a duty differs from a tax in being levied on specific commodities, financial transactions, estates, etc. rather than on individuals. Duties may be import duties, excise duties, stamp duties, death or succession duties, etc.; but not such direct impositions as personal income taxes.

Use Tax is a type of tax levied in the United States by numerous state governments. It is essentially the same as a sales tax but is applied not where a product or service was sold but where a merchant bought a product or service and then converted it for its own use, without having paid tax when it was initially purchased. Use taxes are functionally equivalent to sales taxes. They are typically levied upon the use, storage, enjoyment, or other consumption in the state of tangible personal property that has not been subjected to a sales tax.

Value-Added Tax is a type of tax that is assessed incrementally, based on the increase in value of a product or service at each stage of production or distribution. VAT essentially compensates for the shared services and infrastructure provided in a certain locality by a state and funded by its taxpayers that were used in the elaboration of that product or service.

Gift Tax is a tax imposed on the transfer of ownership of property. The United States Internal Revenue Service says, a gift is "Any transfer to an individual, either directly or indirectly, where full consideration (measured in money or money's worth) is not received in return.

Conversion in Law is a voluntary act by one person inconsistent with the ownership rights of another. Examples are seen in cases where trees are cut down and the lumber hauled from the land by someone not having clear ownership.

Excise taxes are taxes that are imposed on various goods, services and activities. Such taxes may be imposed on the manufacturer, retailer or consumer, depending on the specific tax. Form 720, Quarterly Federal Excise Tax Return, is available for optional electronic filing. excise, or excise tax, is any duty on manufactured goods that is levied at the moment of manufacture rather than at sale. Excises are often associated with customs duties, which are levied on pre-existing goods when they cross a designated border in a specific direction; customs are levied on goods that become taxable items at the border, while excise is levied on goods that came into existence inland. An excise is considered an indirect tax, meaning that the producer or seller who pays the levy to the government is expected to try to recover their loss by raising the price paid by the eventual buyer of the goods. Excises are typically imposed in addition to an indirect tax such as a sales tax or value-added tax (VAT). Typically, an excise is distinguished from a sales tax or VAT in three ways: an excise is typically a per unit tax, costing a specific amount for a volume or unit of the item purchased, whereas a sales tax or value-added tax is an ad valorem tax and proportional to the price of the goods, an excise typically applies to a narrow range of products, and an excise is typically heavier, accounting for a higher fraction of the retail price of the targeted products. Typical examples of excise duties are taxes on gasoline and other fuels and taxes on tobacco and alcohol (sometimes referred to as sin tax). The Motor Vehicle Excise Tax applies to the sale of every motor vehicle that must be registered in the State of New Mexico. We presume that every time a vehicle is titled, a sale has occurred and the motor vehicle excise tax is due. The tax is 4% of the price paid for the vehicle less any trade-in credit. For non-dealer sales, however, the N.A.D.A. value is used if the declared purchase price of the vehicle is lower than 80% of the N.A.D.A. average trade-in or wholesale value. If a vehicle is legitimately transferred by gift, there is no sale, and no excise tax is due. Any applicant for a vehicle title who claims that the vehicle was received by gift must submit a notarized Affidavit of Gift of Motor Vehicle or Boat (MVD-10018) in which both donor and recipient affirm under oath and under penalty of perjury that the vehicle was in fact transferred as a gift. Payment is due at the time the buyer applies for a certificate of title. When you purchase a vehicle through a dealer, the dealer may handle the application for you and collect the tax. Otherwise, you must pay the tax to the New Mexico Motor Vehicle Division (MVD) or one of its agents when you apply for a title. Tax Penalty for late Titling-A penalty of 50% of the Motor Vehicle Excise Tax is imposed on any person who lives in New Mexico and either: a) accepts transfer of a vehicle in New Mexico but fails to apply for a certificate of title within 90 days or b) accepts transfer outside the state and fails to apply for a certificate of title within 90 days of bringing the vehicle into New Mexico. The 50% add-on penalty has the effect of increasing the tax rate to 6% (4% x 1.5 = 6%). Twenty-five percent of the tax goes to the Local Governments Road Fund. The remainder goes to the Highway Infrastructure Fund. Note-If a vehicle is acquired out-of-state, and another state’s gross receipts, sales, compensating or similar tax was paid, the amount of the tax paid may be credited against the MVET due on the same vehicle.

Property Taxes or millage tax, is an ad valorem tax levy on the value of property that the owner of the property is required to pay to a government in which the property is situated. Multiple jurisdictions may tax the same property. There are three general varieties of property: land, improvements to land (immovable man-made things, e.g. buildings) and personal property (movable things). Real estate or realty is the combination of land and improvements to land. Property taxes are usually charged on a recurrent basis (e.g., yearly). A common type of property tax is an annual charge on the ownership of real estate, where the tax base is the estimated value of the property. Property Tax is an ad valorem tax on the value of a property, usually levied on real estate. The tax is levied by the governing authority of the jurisdiction in which the property is located. This can be a national government, a federated state, a county or geographical region or a municipality. Multiple jurisdictions may tax the same property. This tax can be contrasted to a rent tax which is based on rental income or imputed rent, and a land value tax, which is a levy on the value of land, excluding the value of buildings and other improvements. Under a property-tax system, the government requires or performs an appraisal of the monetary value of each property, and tax is assessed in proportion to that value.

Estate Tax is a tax on the transfer of the estate of a deceased person. The tax applies to property that is transferred via a will or according to state laws of intestacy. Other transfers that are subject to the tax can include those made through an intestate estate or trust, or the payment of certain life insurance benefits or financial account sums to beneficiaries. The estate tax is one part of the Unified Gift and Estate Tax system in the United States. The other part of the system, the gift tax, applies to transfers of property during a person's life. Death Tax is used by wealthy scumbags to manipulate peoples understanding what an estate tax is.

Ad Valorem Tax is a tax whose amount is based on the value of a transaction or of property. It is typically imposed at the time of a transaction, as in the case of a sales tax or value-added tax (VAT). An ad valorem tax may also be imposed annually, as in the case of a real or personal property tax, or in connection with another significant event (e.g. inheritance tax, expatriation tax, or tariff). In some countries a stamp duty is imposed as an ad valorem tax.

Land Value Tax is an ad valorem levy on the unimproved value of land. Unlike property taxes, it disregards the value of buildings, personal property and other improvements to real estate. Land value taxes are generally favored by economists as (unlike other taxes) it does not cause economic inefficiency, and it tends to reduce inequality.

Inherent Vice term refers to a property of or defect in a physical object that causes it to deteriorate due to the fundamental instability of its components. In the legal sense, inherent vice may make an item an unacceptable risk to a carrier or insurer. If the characteristic or defect is not visible, and if the carrier or the insurer has not been warned of it, neither of them may be liable for any claim arising solely out of the inherent vice.

Land Banking is the practice of aggregating parcels of land for future sale or development.

Real Property is land which is the property of some person and all structures (also called improvements or fixtures) integrated with or affixed to the land, including crops, buildings, machinery, wells, dams, ponds, mines, canals, and roads, among other things. The term is historic, arising from the now-discontinued form of action, which distinguished between real property disputes and personal property disputes. Personal property was, and continues to be, all property that is not real property.

Allodial Title constitutes ownership of real property (land, buildings and fixtures) that is independent of any superior landlord. Allodial title is related to the concept of land held "in allodium", or land ownership by occupancy and defense of the land. Allodial lands are the absolute property of their owner and not subject to any rent, service, or acknowledgment to a superior. Allodial title is therefore an alternative to feudal land tenure, which is a holder of the estate in land with considerable rights of ownership or, simply put, an owner of land.

Fee Simple is an estate in land, a form of freehold ownership. It is a way that real estate may be owned in common law countries, and is the highest possible ownership interest that can be held in real property. Allodial title is reserved to governments under a civil law structure. The rights of the fee simple owner are limited by government powers of taxation, compulsory purchase, police power, and escheat, and it could also be limited further by certain encumbrances or conditions in the deed, such as, for example, a condition that required the land to be used as a public park, with a reversion interest in the grantor if the condition fails; this is a fee simple conditional.

Ejectment is to recover the possession of or title to land.

Quiet Title is a lawsuit brought in a court having jurisdiction over property disputes, in order to establish a party's title to real property, or personal property having a title, of against anyone and everyone, and thus "quiet" any challenges or claims to the title.

Lien is a claim on a residential property for the homeowner's unpaid bills. When a lien is placed on a home's title, it means that the owner cannot legally sell, refinance or otherwise transfer a clear title of ownership to the home. Lien is a form of security interest granted over an item of property to secure the payment of a debt or performance of some other obligation. The owner of the property, who grants the lien, is referred to as the lienee and the person who has the benefit of the lien is referred to as the lienor or lien holder.

Real Estate Transaction is the process whereby rights in a unit of property (or designated real estate) is transferred between two or more parties, e.g. in case of conveyance one party being the seller(s) and the other being the buyer(s). It can often be quite complicated due to the complexity of the property rights being transferred, the amount of money being exchanged, and government regulations. Conventions and requirements also vary considerably among different countries of the world and among smaller legal entities (jurisdictions).

Money Alternatives - Jobs - Time Banks - Skills Exchange - Trading - Sharing

There should always be options and choices. Depending on just one type of currency is stupid and dangerous. Depending on one style of business is also stupid and dangerous, as clearly seen. Alternatives are extremely necessary. A cashless society could easily work when people are educated enough about other means of exchange and trade, which would also help reduce fraud, corruption and inflation.

Local Currency is a currency that can be spent in a particular geographical locality at participating organizations. A regional currency is a form of local currency encompassing a larger geographical area, while a community currency might be local or be used for exchange within an online community. A local currency acts as a complementary currency to a national currency, rather than replacing it, and aims to encourage spending within a local community, especially with locally owned businesses. Such currencies may not be backed by a national government nor be legal tender. About 300 complementary currencies, including local currencies, are listed in the Complementary Currency Resource Center worldwide database. Auxiliary Currency or micro-currency or Eco-Money is a less common synonyms for community or local currency. Sectoral Currency is a complementary currency used within one economic sector, such as education or health care. Alternative Currency is a synonym for complementary currency, referring to a currency designed to work in conjunction with the national currency; less often refers to a type of private currency which attempts to supplant or circumvent the national currency. Alternative Currency or private currency, is any currency used as an alternative to the dominant national or multinational currency systems. They are created by an individual, corporation, or organization, they can be created by national, state, or local governments, or they can arise naturally as people begin to use a certain commodity as a currency. Mutual credit is a form of alternative currency, and thus any form of lending that does not go through the banking system can be considered a form of alternative currency.

Complementary Currency is used as a complement to a national currency, as a medium of exchange, which is usually not legal tender. Complementary Currency is used to supplement a national currency. It is an agreement to use a medium of exchange that is not usually legal tender. The purpose may be to protect or stimulate a particular economy. Another purpose may be to orientate the economy towards social, environmental or political aims. Bitcoin.

Community Currency is a complementary currency used by a group with a common bond, such as residents of a locality, association, or members of a business or online community.

Private Currency is a currency issued by an individual, business or non-governmental organization. Complementary currencies are a type of private currency.

List of Community Currencies in the United States (wiki)

Voucher System is a system of accounting in which a voucher (as for an account payable) is prepared usually with supporting documents attached for each transaction or a series of transactions affecting a single account and when approved is entered in a voucher register. School Voucher (wiki)

Greenback was a United States Note, also known as a Legal Tender Note, a type of paper money that was issued from 1862 to 1971 in the U.S. Having been current for over 100 years, they were issued for longer than any other form of U.S. paper money.

Early American Currency was during the American Revolution, when the colonies became independent states; freed from British monetary regulations, they issued paper money to pay for military expenses. The Continental Congress also issued paper money during the Revolution, known as Continental currency, to fund the war effort. Drachma (Greek) (wiki).

Decentralization is the process of distributing or dispersing functions, powers, people or things away from a central location and away from being under control of a single authority so as to avoid corruption, system catastrophic failures or total collapse.

Medium of Exchange is anything that is generally accepted as a standard of value and a measure of wealth in a particular country or region. Medium of Exchange is a token which can be exchanged for goods and services. Because it can be exchanged for any good or service it acts as an intermediary instrument and avoids the limitations of barter; where what one wants has to be exactly matched with what the other has to offer. Most forms of money can act as mediums of exchange.

Exchange is the act of giving something in return for something received. Give to, and receive from, one another. Exchange or replace with another, usually of the same kind or category or approximately equivalent. The act of putting one thing or person in the place of another.

Barter is the exchange goods without using money. Barter is a system of exchange where goods or services are directly exchanged for other goods or services without using a medium of exchange, such as money.

Trade is an equal exchange. Trade involves the transfer of the ownership of goods or services, from one person or entity to another, in exchange for money, goods or services. A network that allows trade is called a market. Fair Trade.

Bidding to set a price tag by an individual or business for a product or service or a demand that something be done. Bidding is used to determine the cost or value of something. Bid Rigging.

Auction is usually a process of buying and selling goods or services by offering them up for bid, taking bids, and then selling the item to the highest bidder or buying the item from the lowest bidder.

Bidding Fee Auction is a type of all-pay auction in which all participants must pay a non-refundable fee to place each small incremental bid. The auction is extended each time a new bid is placed, typically by 10 to 20 seconds. Without new bids the last participant to have placed a bid wins the item and also pays the final bid price. The auctioneer makes money in two ways: the fees for each bid and the payment for the winning bid, totaling typically significantly more than the value of the item. Such auctions are typically held over the Internet, rather than in person.

All-Pay Auction is an auction in which every bidder must pay regardless of whether they win the prize, which is awarded to the highest bidder as in a conventional auction.

Bargaining or haggling is a type of negotiation in which the buyer and seller of a good or service debate the price and exact nature of a transaction. If the bargaining produces agreement on terms, the transaction takes place. Bargaining is an alternative pricing strategy to fixed prices. Optimally, if it costs retailers nothing to engage in and allow bargaining, they can deduce buyers' willingness to spend. Bargaining allows for capturing more consumer surplus as it allows price discrimination, a process whereby a seller can charge a higher price to a more eager buyer (due to his or her having more disposable income or simply by being more eager). Haggling has largely disappeared in parts of the world where the cost to haggle exceeds the gain to retailers for most common retail items. However, for expensive goods such as automobiles sold to uninformed buyers, bargaining can remain commonplace.

People to People Banking - Credit Union - State Bank

Peer-to-Peer Banking is an online system that allows individual members to complete financial transactions with one another by using an auction style process that lets members offer loans for a specific amount and at a specific rate. Buyers have the option to look for an amount and rate of interest that meets their needs. All members are categorized by their risk level. Members can browse for other people based on various demographic information. Since P2P banking does not use third party banking institution intermediaries the rates and terms are often much more favorable for the members. Unlike conventional banking where the spread between deposit rates and lending rates are consumed to finance the bank's administrative and logistic expenses, both lenders and borrowers get to save such costs, while paying certain commission to the P2P portal provider and/or the credit rating agency. P2P banking and financing has been proposed as a method to accelerate the development renewable energy projects while more equitably distributing the return on investment. These concepts have now been instituted by Energy in Common and Kiva in their green fund.

Peer to Peer banking could also be used to fund public services and businesses that are known to benefit people, improve living conditions and create jobs. The return on the investment would be a better life.

People to People Banking (Micro-Lending Organizations)

Peer-to-Peer Lending sometimes abbreviated P2P lending, is the practice of lending money to individuals or businesses through online services that match lenders with borrowers. Since peer-to-peer lending companies offering these services generally operate online, they can run with lower overhead and provide the service more cheaply than traditional financial institutions. As a result, lenders can earn higher returns compared to savings and investment products offered by banks, while borrowers can borrow money at lower interest rates, even after the P2P lending company has taken a fee for providing the match-making platform and credit checking the borrower. there is the risk of the borrower defaulting on the loans taken out from peer-lending websites.

Peer-to-Peer in computing or networking is a distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or workloads between peers. Peers are equally privileged, equipotent participants in the application. They are said to form a peer-to-peer network of nodes. Peer to peer denotes or relates to computer networks in which each computer can act as a server for the others, allowing shared access to files and peripherals without the need for a central server. A decentralized communications model in which each party has the same capabilities and either party can initiate a communication session.

The main purpose for lending money and giving people access to finances is to make sure that we fund actions that are proven to improve the quality of life continually, and also guarantee that important advancements continue. It's basically investing in the future, and not just your own future, but the future of the planet, which is the only planet that we know of that can sustain human life comfortably. The goal is to encourage proper maintenance of our health and the health of our environment, and to ensure that human and technological development advances simultaneously. Leaving no one behind guarantees our strength as a nation and as a people.

Cash Transfers are direct transfer payments of money to eligible people. Cash transfers are usually provided by the state and federal government.

Wire Transfer is a method of electronic funds transfer from one person or entity to another. A wire transfer can be made from one bank account to another bank account or through a transfer of cash at a cash office.

SWIFT is a Belgian cooperative society that serves as an intermediary and executor of financial transactions between banks worldwide. S.W.I.F.T. stands for the Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication. It also sells software and services to financial institutions, mostly for use on its proprietary "SWIFTNet", and ISO 9362 Business Identifier Codes (BICs), popularly known as "SWIFT codes". Swift Transfer is also called International Money Transfer. SWIFT underpins the global financial system, handling millions of secure messages every day to help banks manage transactions around the world. It doesn't move the money, but it moves the information about the money. SWIFT does not facilitate funds transfer: rather, it sends payment orders, which must be settled by correspondent accounts that the institutions have with each other. To exchange banking transactions, each financial institution must have a banking relationship by either being legally organized as a bank or through its affiliation with at least one bank. While SWIFT transports financial messages in a secure manner, it does not hold accounts for its members nor performs any form of clearing or settlement. As of 2018, around half of all high-value cross-border payments worldwide used the SWIFT network, and in 2015, SWIFT linked more than 11,000 financial institutions in over 200 countries and territories, who were exchanging an average of over 32 million messages per day (compared to an average of 2.4 million daily messages in 1995). Though widely utilized, SWIFT has been criticized for its inefficiency. In 2018, the London-based Financial Times noted that transfers frequently "pass through multiple banks before reaching their final destination, making them time-consuming, costly and lacking transparency on how much money will arrive at the other end". SWIFT has since introduced an improved service called "Global Payments Innovation" (GPI), claiming it was adopted by 165 banks and was completing half its payments within 30 minutes. As a cooperative society under Belgian law, SWIFT is owned by its member financial institutions. It is headquartered in La Hulpe, Belgium, near Brussels; its main building was designed by Ricardo Bofill Taller de Arquitectura and completed in 1989. The chairman of SWIFT is Yawar Shah of Pakistan, and its CEO is Javier Pérez-Tasso of Spain. SWIFT hosts an annual conference, called Sibos, specifically aimed at the financial services industry.

Community Development Bank are commercial banks that operate with a mission to generate economic development in low- to moderate-income (LMI) geographical areas and serve residents of these communities.

Crowd Funding - Bank of Happiness

State Bank is generally a financial institution that is chartered by a state. It differs from a reserve bank in that it does not necessarily control monetary policy (the state in question may have no legal capacity to create monetary policy), but instead usually offers only retail and commercial services. State Owned Bank.

Credit Union is a member-owned financial cooperative, democratically controlled by its members, and operated for the purpose of promoting thrift, providing credit at competitive rates, and providing other financial services to its members.

Savings Account

Deposit Account is a savings account , current account or any other type of bank account that allows money to be deposited and withdrawn by the account holder.

Transaction Account or Checking Account, is a deposit account held at a bank or other financial institution. It is available to the account owner "on demand" and is available for frequent and immediate access by the account owner or to others as the account owner may direct. Access may be in a variety of ways, such as cash withdrawals, use of debit cards, cheques (checks) and electronic transfer. In economic terms, the funds held in a transaction account are regarded as liquid funds and in accounting terms they are considered as cash. Living Wage.

Public Banking Institute - Global Resource Bank Network

Unbanked are adults who do not have their own bank accounts. Along with the underbanked, they may rely on alternative financial services for their financial needs, where these are available. Loans - Interest.

Financial Transaction is an agreement, communication, or movement carried out between a buyer and a seller to exchange an asset for payment. It involves a change in the status of the finances of two or more businesses or individuals. The buyer and seller are separate entities or objects, often involving the exchange of items of value, such as information, goods, services, and money. It is still a transaction if the goods are exchanged at one time, and the money at another. This is known as a two-part transaction: part one is giving the money, part two is receiving the goods.

Worker Owned - Employee Owned - Cooperative - Social Ownership

Worker Cooperative is a cooperative owned and self-managed by its workers. This control may be exercised in a number of ways. A cooperative enterprise may mean a firm where every worker-owner participates in decision-making in a democratic fashion, or it may refer to one in which management is elected by every worker-owner, and it can refer to a situation in which managers are considered, and treated as, workers of the firm. In traditional forms of worker cooperative, all shares are held by the workforce with no outside or consumer owners, and each member has one voting share. In practice, control by worker-owners may be exercised through individual, collective, or majority ownership by the workforce; or the retention of individual, collective, or majority voting rights (exercised on a one-member one-vote basis). A worker cooperative, therefore, has the characteristic that the majority of its workforce own shares, and the majority of shares are owned by the workforce.

Decentralized - Evergreen Cooperatives - Worker Coop - Food Coops - Community Garden

Employee Stock Ownership Plan is an employee-owner program that provides a company's workforce with an ownership interest in the company. In an ESOP, companies provide their employees with stock ownership, often at no upfront cost to the employees. ESOP shares, however, are part of employees' remuneration for work performed. Shares are allocated to employees and may be held in an ESOP trust until the employee retires or leaves the company. The shares are then either bought back by the company for redistribution or voided.

Working Together - Part-Time Work Force (temps)

Employee-Owned Companies are companies in which employees have an ownership stake.

When workers own companies, the economy is more resilient (video and interactive text)

Self-Management: Empowering Employees - (VPRO Documentary) - 2015 (youtube)

RCO Tires - Cooperative Home Care Associates - Los Angeles Union Cooperative Initiative - - Robots - Strike

Benefit Corporations (public good) - Public Land (parks)

Public Company or public limited company is a company whose ownership is organized via shares of stock which are intended to be freely traded on a stock exchange or in over-the-counter markets. A public company can be listed on a stock exchange (listed company), which facilitates the trade of shares, or not (unlisted public company). In some jurisdictions, public companies over a certain size must be listed on an exchange. Public companies are formed within the legal systems of particular states, and therefore have associations and formal designations which are distinct and separate in the polity in which they reside. In the United States, for example, a public company is usually a type of corporation (though a corporation need not be a public company), in the United Kingdom it is usually a public limited company (plc), in France a "société anonyme" (SA), and in Germany an Aktiengesellschaft (AG). While the general idea of a public company may be similar, differences are meaningful, and are at the core of international law disputes with regard to industry and trade.

Public Sector is the part of the economy composed of both public services and public enterprises. Public sectors include public goods and governmental services such as the military, law enforcement, infrastructure (public roads, bridges, tunnels, water supply, sewers, electrical grids, telecommunications, etc.), public transit, public education, along with health care and those working for the government itself, such as elected officials. The public sector might provide services that a non-payer cannot be excluded from (such as street lighting), services which benefit all of society rather than just the individual who uses the service. Public enterprises, or state-owned enterprises, are self-financing commercial enterprises that are under public ownership which provide various private goods and services for sale and usually operate on a commercial basis. Organizations that are not part of the public sector are either a part of the private sector or voluntary sector. The private sector is composed of the economic sectors that are intended to earn a profit for the owners of the enterprise. The voluntary, civic or social sector concerns a diverse array of non-profit organizations emphasizing civil society. The organization of the public sector can take several forms, including: Direct administration funded through taxation; the delivering organization generally has no specific requirement to meet commercial success criteria, and production decisions are determined by government. State-owned enterprises; which differ from direct administration in that they have greater management autonomy and operate according to commercial criteria, and production decisions are not generally taken by a government (although goals may be set for them by the government). Levels of Public sector are organized at three levels: Federal or National, Regional (State or Provincial), and Local (Municipal or County). Partial outsourcing (of the scale many businesses do, e.g. for IT services) is considered a public sector model. A borderline form is as follows: Complete outsourcing or contracting out, with a privately owned corporation delivering the entire service on behalf of the government. This may be considered a mixture of private sector operations with public ownership of assets, although in some forms the private sector's control and/or risk is so great that the service may no longer be considered part of the public sector (Barlow et al., 2010). (See the United Kingdom's Private Finance Initiative.) Public employee unions represent workers. Since contract negotiations for these workers are dependent on the size of government budgets, this is the one segment of the labor movement that can actually contribute directly to the people with ultimate responsibility for its livelihood. While their giving pattern matches that of other unions, public sector unions also concentrate contributions on members of Congress from both parties who sit on committees that deal with federal budgets and agencies.

Nationalization is the process of transforming private assets into public assets by bringing them under the public ownership of a national government or state. Nationalization usually refers to private assets or assets owned by lower levels of government, such as municipalities, being transferred to the state. The opposites of nationalization are privatization and demutualization. When previously nationalized assets are privatized and subsequently returned to public ownership at a later stage, they are said to have undergone renationalization. Industries that are often subject to nationalization include telecommunications, electric power, fossil fuels, railways, airlines, iron ore, media, postal services, banks, and water. Nationalization may occur with or without compensation to the former owners. Nationalization is to be distinguished from socialization, which refers to the process of restructuring the economic framework, organizational structure, and institutions of an economy on a socialist basis. By contrast, nationalization does not necessarily imply social ownership and the restructuring of the economic system. By itself, nationalization has nothing to do with socialism, having been historically carried out for various different purposes under a wide variety of different political systems and economic systems. However, nationalization is in most cases opposed by economic liberals as it can be perceived as excessive government interference in—and control of—economic affairs of individual citizens. Non-Governmental Organization.

Common Ownership refers to holding the assets of an organization, enterprise or community indivisibly rather than in the names of the individual members or groups of members as common property. Forms of common ownership exist in every economic system. Common Responsibility - Sharing.

Cooperative is an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social, and cultural needs and aspirations through a jointly-owned enterprise. Cooperatives may include: businesses owned and managed by the people who use their services (a consumer cooperative). Organizations managed by the people who work there (worker cooperatives). Multi-stakeholder or hybrid cooperatives that share ownership between different stakeholder groups. For example, care cooperatives where ownership is shared between both care-givers and receivers. Stakeholders might also include non-profits or investors. Second- and third-tier cooperatives whose members are other cooperatives. Platform cooperatives that use a cooperatively owned and governed website, mobile app or a protocol to facilitate the sale of goods and services.

Common-Pool Resource is a type of good consisting of a natural or human-made resource system (e.g. an irrigation system or fishing grounds), whose size or characteristics makes it costly, but not impossible, to exclude potential beneficiaries from obtaining benefits from its use. Unlike pure public goods, common pool resources face problems of congestion or overuse, because they are subtractable. A common-pool resource typically consists of a core resource (e.g. water or fish), which defines the stock variable, while providing a limited quantity of extractable fringe units, which defines the flow variable. While the core resource is to be protected or nurtured in order to allow for its continuous exploitation, the fringe units can be harvested or consumed. Democracy.

Global Commons is a term typically used to describe international, supranational, and global resource domains in which common-pool resources are found. Global commons include the earth's shared natural resources, such as the high oceans, the atmosphere and outer space and the Antarctic in particular. Cyberspace may also meet the definition of a global commons.

Global Public Good is a public good available on a more-or-less worldwide basis. There are many challenges to the traditional definition, which have far-reaching implications in the age of globalization. Evictions.

Economic Democracy is the shift decision-making power from corporate managers and corporate shareholders to a larger group of public stakeholders that includes workers, customers, suppliers, neighbors and the broader public. Self Govern (self-manage).

Co-Operative Economics is a field of economics that incorporates co-operative studies and political economy toward the study and management of Cooperatives, which is an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social, and cultural needs and aspirations through a jointly-owned and democratically-controlled enterprise.

State Ownership is the ownership of an industry, asset, or enterprise by the state or a public body representing a community as opposed to an individual or private party. Public ownership specifically refers to industries selling goods and services to consumers and differs from public goods and government services financed out of a government's general budget.

Social Ownership is any of various forms of ownership for the means of production in socialist economic systems, encompassing public ownership, employee ownership, cooperative ownership, citizen ownership of equity, common ownership and collective ownership. Historically social ownership implied that capital and factor markets would cease to exist under the assumption that market exchanges within the production process would be made redundant if capital goods were owned by a single entity or network of entities representing society, but the articulation of models of market socialism where factor markets are utilized for allocating capital goods between socially owned enterprises broadened the definition to include autonomous entities within a market economy. Social ownership of the means of production is the common defining characteristic of all the various forms of socialism. The two major forms of social ownership are society-wide public ownership and cooperative ownership. The distinction between these two forms lies in the distribution of the surplus product. With society-wide public ownership, the surplus is distributed to all members of the public through a social dividend, whereas with co-operative ownership the economic surplus of an enterprise is controlled by all the worker-members of that specific enterprise. The goal of social ownership is to eliminate the distinction between the class of private owners who are the recipients of passive property income and workers who are the recipients of labor income (wages, salaries and commissions), so that the surplus product (or economic profits in the case of market socialism) belong either to society as a whole or to the members of a given enterprise. Social ownership would enable productivity gains from labor automation to progressively reduce the average length of the working day instead of creating job insecurity and unemployment. Reduction of necessary work time is central to the Marxist concept of human freedom and overcoming alienation, a concept widely shared by Marxist and non-Marxist socialists alike. The term "socialization" refers to the process of restructuring the economic framework, organizational structure and institutions of an economy on a socialist basis. The comprehensive notion of socialization and the public ownership form of social ownership implies an end to the operation of the laws of capitalism, capital accumulation and the use of money and financial valuation in the production process, along with a restructuring of workplace-level organization. Privately Owned Monopolies.

Mondragon Corporation is a corporation and federation of worker cooperatives based in the Basque region of Spain. It was founded in the town of Mondragoe in 1956 by graduates of a local technical college. Its first product was paraffin heaters. It is the tenth-largest Spanish company in terms of asset turnover and the leading business group in the Basque Country. At the end of 2014, it employed 74,117 people in 257 companies and organizations in four areas of activity: finance, industry, retail and knowledge. By 2015, 74,335 people were employed. Mondragon cooperatives operate in accordance with the Statement on the Co-operative Identity maintained by the International Co-operative Alliance. Rochdale Principles (wiki).

International Co-Operative Alliance is a non-governmental co-operative federation or, more precisely, a co-operative union representing co-operatives and the co-operative movement worldwide. It was founded in 1895 to unite, represent and serve co-operatives worldwide. The Alliance maintains the internationally recognised definition of a co-operative in the Statement on the Co-operative Identity. The ICA represents 284 co-operative federations and organisations in 95 countries. The Alliance provides a global voice and forum for knowledge, expertise and co-ordinated action for and about co-operatives. The members of the Alliance are international and national co-operative organisations from all sectors of the economy, including agriculture, banking, consumer, fisheries, health, housing, insurance, and workers. The Alliance has members from 100 countries, representing close to one billion individuals worldwide. Around one hundred million people work for co-operatives globally. Co-operatives are values based businesses owned by their members. Whether they are customers, employees or residents, the members get an equal say in the business and a share of the profits. In 2006 the ICA published the first major index of the world's largest co-operative and mutual enterprises, the ICA Global 300, which demonstrated the scale of the co-operative movement globally. On the first Saturday of July each year, the ICA coordinates celebrations of International Co-operative Day. In December 2009, the United Nations declared 2012 as the International Year of Cooperatives.

Workplace Democracy is not socialism, it's just another way of running a business. A business that is fair, a business that is not corrupted or controlled by criminals, A business that treats everyone equally, A business that is sustainable, and so on. You have the same things as most businesses do, but now you also have transparency and honesty.

The Take (Workers take over factory to save their jobs).

(2004) Occupy, Resist, Produce! (youtube)

Equal Exchange is a for-profit Fairtrade worker-owned, cooperative headquartered in West Bridgewater, Massachusetts. Equal Exchange distributes organic, gourmet coffee, tea, sugar, bananas, avocados, cocoa, and chocolate bars produced by farmer cooperatives in Latin America, Africa and Asia.

Equal Exchange - CHCA

Decentralized Autonomous Organization is an organization that is run through rules encoded as computer programs called smart contracts. A DAO's financial transaction record and program rules are maintained on a blockchain. There are several examples of this business model. The precise legal status of this type of business organization is unclear.

New Economy Coalition is an American nonprofit organization based in Boston, Massachusetts, formerly known as the New Economics Institute. It is a network of over 100 organizations working for what it describes as the New Economy movement.

Open Source Ecology is a network of farmers, engineers, architects and supporters, whose main goal is the eventual manufacturing of the Global Village Construction Set (GVCS).

Platform Cooperative is a cooperatively-owned, democratically-governed business that uses a protocol, website or mobile app to facilitate the sale of goods and services. Platform cooperatives are an alternative to venture capital funded platforms insofar as they are owned and governed by those who depend on them most—workers, users, and other relevant stakeholders. Proponents of platform cooperativism claim that, by ensuring the financial and social value of a platform circulate among these participants, platform cooperatives will bring about a more equitable and fair digitally-mediated economy in contrast with the extractive models of corporate intermediaries. Platform cooperatives differ from traditional cooperatives not only due to their use of digital technologies, but also by their contribution to the commons for the purpose of fostering an equitable social and economic landscape.

Temporary Workers - Part-time Work

Invisible Temporary Workforce - Ghost Economy. Over-qualified for entry-level jobs and  under-qualified for the jobs. Some are felons, floozies, single moms, the differently abled, students, immigrants, the homeless. As temping has grown, the quality of jobs has deteriorated, and temps now earn 20 to 25 percent less an hour than those who work as direct hires. Most temp Jobs fail to pay health benefits and are guilty of wage theft, while providing dehumanizing work with numerous safety violations. Almost half of all Americans work in low-wage jobs. 40 Million people in America still on Food Stamps.

In 2018 one in five workers is a contract worker, and in ten years, contractors and freelancers could make up half of the workforce. Of course we will have to provide employee health benefits for temps. Like owning your own small business. You have to have training, legal protections and a safety net to deal with fluctuating incomes. 65 percent of contract workers are men and 62 percent are under 45. Black Car Fund - Workers' Compensation insurance to Black Car operators in the state of New York.

4-Day Workweek Boosted Workers' Productivity By 40%. Microsoft Japan says it became more efficient in several areas, including lower electricity costs, which fell by 23%. And as its workers took five Fridays off in August, they printed nearly 60 percent fewer pages. In 2017, a U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics report found that from 1987 to 2015, productivity rose by as much as 5% annually in industry sectors from information to manufacturing and retail — but compensation never grew by more than 2% in each year of that same period.

4 day week pilot programme. 73 companies ran an experiment. Pay workers their full salary to work fewer days. There is clear evidence around the world that if you reduce work time, you increase productivity. (I worked for Grolier's in the late 70's and I worked 10 hour days 4 days a week. The company gave me a choice, I could have Monday off or Friday off.)

Flexible Work Programs are work arrangements wherein employees are given greater scheduling freedom in how they fulfill the obligations of their positions. Other common flexible working arrangements involve telecommuting, job-sharing, and compressed work weeks.

Factories - Part-Time Workers - Worker Coops (employee owned) - Remote Worker

Gig Economy is an environment in which temporary positions are common and organizations contract with independent workers for short-term engagements.

Temps (skill sharing) - Independent Contractor - On Demand Workers - Apprentices - Interns

Independent Workers Union is an independent trade union who has their roots in representing migrant workers and is evolved to taking on the bosses of the so called gig economy. IWGB (wiki).

Freelancers Union is advocating on independent workers.

Employment Agency is an organization which matches employers to employees. In all developed countries, there is a publicly funded employment agency and multiple private businesses which act as employment agencies.

What about jobs that have a lot of Down Time? There is no such thing as down time for a human, unless you are talking about sleeping. There is only time and what you do with it. If you can't do one thing then you do another. Unless you are in a prison cell with nothing but walls, then you have no excuse for not doing something else. Same goes for boredom, boredom is just another way of saying I forgot my abilities and I forgot that there is always something else to do. And one of the most important responsibilities that you have, and need to do often, is to keep learning. You have a brain, use or lose it.

Down Time is time during which a machine, especially a computer, is out of action or unavailable for use. The time during which production is stopped especially during setup for an operation or when making repairs or maintenance.

California Assembly Bill 5 (2019) - holds that most workers are employees, ought to be classified as such, and the burden of proof for classifying individuals as independent contractors belongs to the hiring entity. AB5 entitles workers classified as employees to greater labor protections, such as minimum wage laws, sick leave, and unemployment and workers' compensation benefits, which do not apply to independent contractors. Concerns over employee misclassification, especially in the gig economy, drove support for the bill. Gig Workers Rising.

Overwork Killed More Than 745,000 People In A Year, WHO Study Finds. Working long hours poses an occupational health risk that kills hundreds of thousands of people each year, the World Health Organization says. People working 55 or more hours each week face an estimated 35% higher risk of a stroke and a 17% higher risk of dying from heart disease, compared to people following the widely accepted standard of working 35 to 40 hours in a week, the WHO says in a study that was published Monday in the journal Environment International. In the U.S., less than 5% of the population is exposed to long work hours, according to a map the WHO published with the study. To compile the report, researchers reviewed and analyzed dozens of studies on heart disease and stroke. They then estimated workers' health risks based on data drawn a number of sources, including more than 2,300 surveys on working hours that were conducted in 154 countries from the 1970s through 2018. What if you're doing a job that you love? It's not just the long hours, it's more about not having the time to take care of yourself, or the energy to take care of yourself or having the knowledge and education to take care of yourself.

Time Dollar

Time Banking or Time-based currency is an alternative currency or exchange system where the unit of account/value is the person-hour or some other time unit. Some time-based currencies value everyone’s contributions equally: one hour equals one service credit. In these systems, one person volunteers to work for an hour for another person; thus, they are credited with one hour, which they can redeem for an hour of service from another volunteer. Others use time units that might be fractions of an hour (e.g. minutes, ten minutes – 6 units/hour, or 15 minutes – 4 units/hour). While most time-based exchange systems are service exchanges in that most exchange involves the provision of services that can be measured in a time unit, it is also possible to exchange goods by 'pricing' them in terms of the average national hourly wage rate (e.g. if the average hourly rate is $20/hour, then a commodity valued at $20 in the national currency would be equivalent to 1 hour).

Ithaca Hours is a local currency used in Ithaca, New York and is the oldest and largest local currency system in the United States that is still operating. It has inspired other similar systems in Madison, Wisconsin; Corvallis, Oregon.

Time Banks - Mi Time Banks - Time-Based Currency - Currency Alternatives

Hour World - Mutual Credit - Bremer

Community Exchange a platform for advertising work offerings and wants, as well as a variety of instruments for facilitating trade and exchange.

Shared Skills - Self-Management - Open Governance

Sharing - Renting - Swapping - Trade - Repair Cafe - Maker Space

Social Peer-to-Peer Processes are organized through the free cooperation of equals in view of the performance of a common task, for the creation of a common good, with forms of decision making and autonomy that are widely distributed throughout the network. peer production - the collaborative production of use value is open to participation and use to the widest possible number; peer governance - production or project is governed by the community of producers themselves, not by market allocation or corporate hierarchy; peer property - the use-value of property is freely accessible on a universal basis; peer services and products are distributed through new modes of property, which are not exclusive, though recognize individual authorship (i.e. the GNU General Public License or the Creative Commons licenses).

Peer-to-Peer in computing or networking is a distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or workloads between peers. Peers are equally privileged, equipotent participants in the application. They are said to form a peer-to-peer network of nodes. Peers make a portion of their resources, such as processing power, disk storage or network bandwidth, directly available to other network participants, without the need for central coordination by servers or stable hosts. Peers are both suppliers and consumers of resources, in contrast to the traditional client-server model in which the consumption and supply of resources is divided. Emerging collaborative P2P systems are going beyond the era of peers doing similar things while sharing resources, and are looking for diverse peers that can bring in unique resources and capabilities to a virtual community thereby empowering it to engage in greater tasks beyond those that can be accomplished by individual peers, yet that are beneficial to all the peers.

Coincidence of wants is the situation where the supplier of good A wants good B and the supplier of good B wants good A.

Barter Quest - Collaborate

Commodity is a marketable item produced to satisfy wants or needs. Often the item is fungible. Economic commodities comprise goods and services.

Contribution Margin is the selling price per unit minus the variable cost per unit. “Contribution” represents the portion of sales revenue that is not consumed by variable costs and so contributes to the coverage of fixed costs. This concept is one of the key building blocks of break-even analysis.

Resource-Based Economy - RBE

Business Alliance for Local Living Economies.

Local Exchange Trading System is a locally initiated, democratically organised, not-for-profit community enterprise that provides a community information service and records transactions of members exchanging goods and services by using locally created currency. LETS allow people to negotiate the value of their own hours or services.

Precious Metals - Rare Earth

Precious Metal is a rare, naturally occurring metallic chemical element of high economic value. Chemically, the precious metals tend to be less reactive than most elements.

Noble Metal are metals that are resistant to corrosion and oxidation in moist air.

Rare Earth Elements are one of a set of seventeen chemical elements in the periodic table, specifically the fifteen lanthanides, as well as scandium and yttrium. Scandium and yttrium are considered rare earth elements because they tend to occur in the same ore deposits as the lanthanides and exhibit similar chemical properties. Rare earth elements are cerium (Ce), dysprosium (Dy), erbium (Er), europium (Eu), gadolinium (Gd), holmium (Ho), lanthanum (La), lutetium (Lu), neodymium (Nd), praseodymium (Pr), promethium (Pm), samarium (Sm), scandium (Sc), terbium (Tb), thulium (Tm), ytterbium (Yb) and yttrium (Y). Rare earths aren't that rare. They're elements that can be found all over the world. The difficult part is extracting them or digging them out of the ground. Then you have to separate them out becuase they're usually combined with other elements or materials. Breaking these compounds down, and refining them to get the raw elements, is an expensive and messy business.

Geology - Rocks - Minerals

Mountain Pass Rare Earth Mine is an open-pit mine of rare-earth elements on the south flank of the Clark Mountain Range, just north of the unincorporated community of Mountain Pass, California, United States. The mine once supplied most of the world's rare-earth elements. Owned by MP Materials, it is the only rare earth mining and processing facility in the United States.

China accounts for over 95 percent of the world's production of rare earths. Therefore, having control of these elements puts China at a powerful position. It is estimated the world has 99 million tonnes of rare earth reserve deposits. China's reserves are estimated to be 36 million tonnes or roughly 30 percent of the world's total reserves. Rare earths are a group of elements on the periodic table with similar properties. Rare earth metals are used to manufacture everything from electric or hybrid vehicles, wind turbines, consumer electronics and other clean energy technologies. The elements are also important to national governments because they are used in the defense industry. Twenty percent of rare earth demands are for use as permanent magnets. Permanent magnets can be used for a variety of applications including serving as essential components of weapons systems and high performance aircraft. Rare earths are found in various minerals such as monazite and bastnasite. They are dispersed in low concentrations and are costly to extract from ore. Major reserves in the world exist in China, California, India, Brazil, Australia, South Africa, and Malaysia.

Rare Earth Elements & Thorium Legislative Efforts - Jim Kennedy @ TEAC7 (youtube)

Researchers Publish Study on Rare-Earth Garnets.

Gold Gold is a bright, slightly reddish yellow, dense, soft, malleable, and ductile metal. Chemically, gold is a transition metal and a group 11 element. It is one of the least reactive chemical elements and is solid under standard conditions. Gold often occurs in free elemental (native) form, as nuggets or grains, in rocks, in veins, and in alluvial deposits. It occurs in a solid solution series with the native element silver (as electrum) and also naturally alloyed with copper and palladium. Less commonly, it occurs in minerals as gold compounds, often with tellurium (gold tellurides). Atomic number 79, resists attack by individual acids, Gold does not react with oxygen at any temperature. A total of 183,600 tonnes of gold is in existence above ground, as of 2014. The most malleable of all metals. Good infrared detector.

Silver Atomic number 47, exhibits the highest electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and reflectivity of any metal.

Copper - Bronze - Aluminum - Metal Working - Geology

Bullion is gold, silver, or other precious metals in the form of bars, ingots, or specialized coins that is said to maintain its worth better than conventional currencies and is therefore kept as a form of emergency currency by both governments and private citizens alike.

Abundance of Elements in Earth's Crust (wiki)

Thorium Atomic number 90, is a weakly radioactive element that decays very slowly and occurs naturally in large quantities as a primordial element. Has the longest half-life of all the significantly radioactive elements. It's an Unlimited Energy Source with an almost unlimited supply.

Digital Dollars

Digital Currency is an Internet-based medium of exchange distinct from physical medium of exchange such as banknotes
and coins that exhibits properties similar to physical currencies, but allows for instantaneous transactions and borderless transfer-of-ownership. Both virtual currencies and cryptocurrencies are types of digital currencies, but the converse is incorrect. Like traditional money these currencies may be used to buy physical goods and services but could also be restricted to certain communities such as for example for use inside an on-line game or social network. Digital Currency is a type of currency available only in digital form, not in physical (such as banknotes and coins). It exhibits properties similar to physical currencies, but allows for instantaneous transactions and borderless transfer-of-ownership. Examples include virtual currencies and cryptocurrencies or even central bank issued "digital base money". Like traditional money, these currencies may be used to buy physical goods and services, but may also be restricted to certain communities such as for use inside an online game or social network. Digital currency is a money balance recorded electronically on a stored-value card or other device. Another form of electronic money is network money, allowing the transfer of value on computer networks, particularly the Internet. Electronic money is also a claim on a private bank or other financial institution such as bank deposits. Digital money can either be centralized, where there is a central point of control over the money supply, or decentralized, where the control over the money supply can come from various sources. Privacy - Anonymity.

Cryptocurrency is a medium of exchange using cryptography to secure the transactions and to control the creation of additional units of the currency. Cryptocurrencies are a subset of alternative currencies, or specifically of digital currencies.

Electronic Money or e-money, is the money balance recorded electronically on a stored-value card. These cards have microprocessors embedded which can be loaded with a monetary value. Another form of electronic money is network money, software that allows the transfer of value on computer networks, particularly the internet. Electronic money is a floating claim on a private bank or other financial institution that is not linked to any particular account. Examples of electronic money are bank deposits, electronic funds transfer, direct deposit, payment processors, and digital currencies.

Internet Escrow works by placing money in the control of an independent and licensed third party in order to protect both buyer and seller in a transaction. Escrow generally refers to money held by a third-party on behalf of transacting parties.

Cashless Society World Numbers (image)

Why We Need A Moneyless Society David Harvey (youtube)

Millions of crimes have been committed using the United States Dollar, and no one is blaming the dollar.

Multilateral Exchange is a transaction, or forum for transactions, which involve more than two parties. For example, Alice gives Bob an apple in exchange for an orange, that is a bilateral exchange. A multilateral exchange would involve a third party, for example: Alice gives an apple to Bob who gives an orange to Charles, who gives a pear to Alice.

Credit Clearing is when a small group of banks need to make many payments to each other, of adding up the payments and cancelling them out before settling the remainder.

Mobil Payments - Money for Info

Every person with a smartphone can be a contributor of information, information that would benefit their community and the city were they live in. But people need to be compensated for the information they provide and they also need to fully understand how their information is being used and why. People should not just be contributors of information, but also fully understand the impacts that they have on their life and the world around them. This knowledge will give every person alive the shared responsibility of power that will give everyone almost total control of life on planet earth. Every person alive will understand the value of their life and also know how important they are as an individual. It's extremely important that people share data, because it's a vital process of life. But when corporations can exploit peoples information, then this is a problem that we need to solve. Everyone needs to be comfortable with sharing information. People should also know how criminals can abuse information so people are more aware and can also learn how to stop this criminal activity from causing more harm or damage then it has already done. Just Knowing the risks of abuse is not enough, people have to know how to keep themselves safe and know how to defend themselves when needed. So people will have to know how to identify criminal activity when they see it. But don't worry, all the good things in life will still look the same, but many things that are wrong and bad will need to be improved and changed simultaneously. A smooth transition is essential, but don't count on it.

If any of your personal information or input helps to create a data point in a larger dataset, and if that information helps to determine the best decision that would help improve something or help to solve a particular problem, then you should be rewarded for your information because your information is valuable because it helps us to better understand what people need and what people are concerned about. And we need to incentivize people, not just to keep people sharing, but also to remind people that they are doing something valuable for their community and for their world.

Mobile Payment also referred to as mobile money, mobile money transfer, and mobile wallet, is generally refer to payment services operated under financial regulation and performed from or via a mobile device.. Instead of paying with cash, cheque, or credit cards, a consumer can use a mobile to pay for a wide range of services and digital or hard goods. Although the concept of using non-coin-based currency systems has a long history, it is only recently that the technology to support such systems has become widely available. Mobile payment is being adopted all over the world in different ways.

Contactless Payment systems are credit cards and debit cards, key fobs, smart cards, or other devices, including smartphones and other mobile devices, that use radio-frequency identification (RFID) or near field communication (NFC, e.g. ATAR pay, Samsung Pay, Apple Pay, Android Pay, Fitbit Pay, or any bank mobile application that support Contactless) for making secure payments. The embedded chip and antenna enable consumers to wave their card, fob, or handheld device over a reader at the point of sale terminal. Contactless payments are made in close physical proximity, unlike mobile payments which use broad-area Cellular or WiFi Networks and do not involve close physical proximity.

The Human Data Marketplace represents an estimated $150B to $200B annually. Our inherent human data is being bought and sold without our consent, authorization, consideration, or compensation.

Estonian Government administration is almost completely digital to reduce bureaucracy, increase transparency and boost economic growth. Estonia has created one platform that supports electronic authentication and digital signatures to enable paperless communications across both the private and public sectors. There are still a few things that you can't do electronically in Estonia: marry, divorce or transfer property — and that's only because the government has decided it was important to turn up in person for some big life events. It also has a backup plan to restore digital services in the event of a disaster, or an invasion or severe cyber-attacks. Servers in Estonian embassies in other countries would give the government a chance to boot up elsewhere if needed.

Solid or social linked data, is a proposed set of conventions and tools for building decentralized Web applications based on linked data principles. Solid is modular and extensible. It relies as much as possible on existing W3C standards and protocols. True data ownership as well as improved privacy. Social Network MeWe.

Assembly Bill No. 375 Privacy: Personal Information: Businesses. An act to add Title 1.81.5 (commencing with Section 1798.100) to Part 4 of Division 3 of the Civil Code, relating to privacy. The California Constitution grants a right of privacy. Existing law provides for the confidentiality of personal information in various contexts and requires a business or person that suffers a breach of security of computerized data that includes personal information, as defined, to disclose that breach, as specified.

How are you going to force people to work crappy low paying jobs? Governments and corporations do it by exploiting even poorer people. But instead, we should allow wasteful jobs to fade out that society does not need, and also at the same time, we should subsidize the jobs that society does need and can't live without. Eventually everyone will work and no one will get hurt. Prisoners with jobs.

Everyone has the right to know the cause and effect of all their actions from start to finish throughout the whole supply chain, including all the inputs and outputs. Everyone has the right to know the cause and effect of all the actions their company is involved in from start to finish? True Cost.

Yes everyone needs free time to explore their interests and to do the things they enjoy doing. And everyone also needs quality time to spend with loved ones. But you shouldn't have time to just waste, and you shouldn't have time to abuse other people or to abuse the environment. That is not what time is for.

Work Requirements for Medicaid - Conditional, just like life is, as long as the work is relevant and important.

What you do after work is just as important as what you do for work. The value of your life is just as important as what the value of your work. What is the true cost and the entire cost of your life? What is the true cost of the work and service that you provide? You need to count the things that matter.

What if you could turn plastic trash into cash?: David Katz (video and text)

It's not a world without money or a cashless society, it's about having more choices to be more effective and more efficient. There are vulnerabilities, risks and benefits with both physical money and digital money. If one method does not work, then you need an alternative. Credit, bartering and trading will always be essential tools and skills to have, which means that knowledge and information will always be the most important currency that a human can have.

Bitcoin - Decentralized Currency

Bitcoin was introduced on October 31, 2008 to a cryptography mailing list. The system is peer-to-peer and transactions take place between users directly, without an intermediary. These transactions are verified by network nodes and recorded in a public distributed ledger called the blockchain, which uses bitcoin as its unit of account. Since the system works without a central repository or single administrator, the U.S. Treasury categorizes bitcoin as a decentralized virtual currency. Bitcoin is often called the first cryptocurrency, although prior systems existed and it is more correctly described as the first decentralized digital currency. Bitcoin is the largest of its kind in terms of total market value. Bitcoin has no central base, so it can't be hacked, everyone has their own copy of the leger. Public Ownership.

Decentralized, Peer to Peer, Digital Currency using Cryptography, small Transaction Fees, and Personal information is Private

Decentralization is the process of distributing or dispersing functions, powers, people or things away from a central location and away from being under control of a single authority so as to avoid corruption, system catastrophic failures or total collapse.

Decentralized Computing is the allocation of resources, both hardware and software, to each individual workstation, or office location. In contrast, centralized computing exists when the majority of functions are carried out, or obtained from a remote centralized location. A decentralized system can use the potential of these systems to maximize efficiency. They also make the system as a whole less vulnerable, like when decreasing diversity. Decentralized Money.

Self Manage - Micro-Smart-Grids - Matrix Management

Distributed Computing is a model in which components located on networked computers communicate and coordinate their actions by passing messages. The components interact with each other in order to achieve a common goal.

Decentralized Autonomous Organization is an organization that is run through rules encoded as computer programs called smart contracts.

Smart Contract is a computer protocol intended to facilitate, verify, or enforce the negotiation or performance of a contract. Smart contracts allow to perform credible transactions without third parties. These transactions are trackable and irreversible.

Random Numbers makes it hard for thieves. Researchers can generate perfectly random numbers by using the quantum properties of light. Whenever we need to communicate in secret, a cryptographic key is needed. For this key to work, it must consist of numbers chosen at random without any structure.

The Bitcoin Story (2015) (video on hulu, 35 min.) 

The Rise and Rise of Bitcoin (video on hulu, 6/01/2015 | 02:07) -

What is Bitcoin? - Coin Base - Bitgo

Ledger is the principal book or computer file for recording and totaling economic transactions measured in terms of a monetary unit of account by account type, with debits and credits in separate columns and a beginning monetary balance and ending monetary balance for each account.

Rating System - Brand-Controlled Currency.

Block Chain is a transaction database shared by all nodes participating in a system based on the Bitcoin protocol. A full copy of a currency's block chain contains every transaction ever executed in the currency. With this information, one can find out how much value belonged to each address at any point in history. Blockchain is a basically a digital lockbox that stores any kind of transaction in a secure 'block' that's shared across independent computers. It's the technology behind the cryptocurrency Bitcoin, but it is quickly transitioning to other uses, like digital home deeds, municipal bonds.

Blockchain Research Institute in Toronto

Blockchain-Based Voting App

Block Chain Database is a distributed database that maintains a continuously-growing list of records called blocks. Each block contains a timestamp and a link to a previous block. The data in a block cannot be altered retrospectively.

How the Blockchain will radically transform the economy: Bettina Warburg (video and interactive text)

College Crypto-Currency Network

Public Key Certificate is an electronic document used to prove the ownership of a public key.The certificate includes information about the key, information about the identity of its owner (called the subject), and the digital signature of an entity that has verified the certificate's contents (called the issuer). If the signature is valid, and the software examining the certificate trusts the issuer, then it can use that key to communicate securely with the certificate's subject. In email encryption, code signing, and e-signature systems, a certificate's subject is typically a person or organization. However, in Transport Layer Security (TLS) a certificate's subject is typically a computer or other device, though TLS certificates may identify organizations or individuals in addition to their core role in identifying devices. TLS, sometimes called by its older name Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), is notable for being a part of HTTPS, a protocol for securely browsing the web. In a typical public-key infrastructure (PKI) scheme, the certificate issuer is a certificate authority (CA), usually a company that charges customers to issue certificates for them. By contrast, in a web of trust scheme, individuals sign each other's keys directly, in a format that performs a similar function to a public key certificate. The most common format for public key certificates is defined by X.509. Because X.509 is very general, the format is further constrained by profiles defined for certain use cases, such as Public Key Infrastructure (X.509) as defined in RFC 5280. Digital Certificate is an electronic "password" that allows a person, organizaion to exchange data securely over the Internet using the public key infrastructure (PKI). Digital Certificate is also known as a public key certificate or identity certificate

Key Authentication is used to solve the problem of authenticating the keys of the person (say "person B") to whom some other person ("person A") is talking to or trying to talk to. In other words, it is the process of assuring that the key of "person A" held by "person B" does in fact belong to "person A" and vice versa.

Digital Signature is a mathematical scheme for verifying the authenticity of digital messages or documents. A valid digital signature, where the prerequisites are satisfied, gives a recipient very strong reason to believe that the message was created by a known sender (authentication), and that the message was not altered in transit (integrity). Digital signatures are a standard element of most cryptographic protocol suites, and are commonly used for software distribution, financial transactions, contract management software, and in other cases where it is important to detect forgery or tampering.

Certificate Authority is an entity that issues digital certificates. A digital certificate certifies the ownership of a public key by the named subject of the certificate. This allows others (relying parties) to rely upon signatures or on assertions made about the private key that corresponds to the certified public key. A CA acts as a trusted third party—trusted both by the subject (owner) of the certificate and by the party relying upon the certificate.

Trusted Third Party is an entity which facilitates interactions between two parties who both trust the third party; the Third Party reviews all critical transaction communications between the parties, based on the ease of creating fraudulent digital content. In TTP models, the relying parties use this trust to secure their own interactions. TTPs are common in any number of commercial transactions and in cryptographic digital transactions as well as cryptographic protocols, for example, a certificate authority (CA) would issue a digital identity certificate to one of the two parties in the next example. The CA then becomes the Trusted-Third-Party to that certificates issuance. Likewise transactions that need a third party recordation would also need a third-party repository service of some kind or another. 'Trusted' means that a system needs to be trusted to act in your interests, but it has the option (either at will or involuntarily) to act against your interests. 'Trusted' also means that there is no way to verify if that system is operating in your interests, hence the need to trust it. Corollary: if a system can be verified to operate in your interests, it would not need your trust. And if it can be shown to operate against your interests one would not use it.

Accounting Information System is a system of collecting, storing and processing financial and accounting data that are used by decision makers. An accounting information system is generally a computer-based method for tracking accounting activity in conjunction with information technology resources.

Proof of Work is a piece of data which is difficult (costly, time-consuming) to produce but easy for others to verify and which satisfies certain requirements. Producing a proof of work can be a random process with low probability so that a lot of trial and error is required on average before a valid proof of work is generated. Bitcoin uses the Hashcash proof of work system. One application of this idea is using Hashcash as a method to preventing email spam, requiring a proof of work on the email's contents (including the To address), on every email. Legitimate emails will be able to do the work to generate the proof easily (not much work is required for a single email), but mass spam emailers will have difficulty generating the required proofs (which would require huge computational resources). Hashcash proofs of work are used in Bitcoin for block generation. In order for a block to be accepted by network participants, miners must complete a proof of work which covers all of the data in the block. The difficulty of this work is adjusted so as to limit the rate at which new blocks can be generated by the network to one every 10 minutes. Due to the very low probability of successful generation, this makes it unpredictable which worker computer in the network will be able to generate the next block.For a block to be valid it must hash to a value less than the current target; this means that each block indicates that work has been done generating it. Each block contains the hash of the preceding block, thus each block has a chain of blocks that together contain a large amount of work. Changing a block (which can only be done by making a new block containing the same predecessor) requires regenerating all successors and redoing the work they contain. This protects the block chain from tampering.

Proof-of-Work System is an economic measure to deter denial of service attacks and other service abuses such as spam on a network by requiring some work from the service requester, usually meaning processing time by a computer.

Proof-of-Stake is a type of algorithm by which a cryptocurrency blockchain network aims to achieve distributed consensus. In PoS-based cryptocurrencies the creator of the next block is chosen via various combinations of random selection and wealth or age (i.e., the stake). In contrast, the algorithm of proof-of-work-based cryptocurrencies such as bitcoin uses mining; that is, the solving of computationally intensive puzzles to validate transactions and create new blocks. (PoS).

Sharding is a solution to the scalability, latency and transaction throughput issues. Sharding is a concept that's widely used in databases, to make them more efficient. In case of the blockchain, each node will have only a part of the data on the blockchain, and not the entire information, when sharding is implemented.

Lightning Network is a "Layer 2" payment protocol that operates on top of a blockchain-based cryptocurrency (like Bitcoin). It enables fast transactions between participating nodes and has been touted as a solution to the Bitcoin scalability problem.

Tether is a controversial cryptocurrency with tokens issued by Tether Limited. It formerly claimed that each token was backed by one United States dollar, but on 14 March 2019 changed the backing to include loans to affiliate companies. The Bitfinex exchange was accused by the New York Attorney General of using Tether's funds to cover up $850 million in funds missing since mid-2018. Tether was called a stablecoin because it was originally designed to always be worth $1.00, maintaining $1.00 in reserves for each tether issued. Nevertheless, Tether Limited states that owners of tethers have no contractual right, other legal claims, or guarantee that tethers will be redeemed or exchanged for dollars. On 30 April 2019 Tether Limited's lawyer claimed that each tether was backed by only $0.74 in cash and cash equivalents. Tether Limited and the tether cryptocurrency are controversial because of the company's failure to provide a promised audit showing adequate reserves backing tether, its alleged role in manipulating the price of bitcoin,[ the unclear relationship with the Bitfinex exchange, and the company's apparent lack of a long-term banking relationship. Author David Gerard was quoted by the Wall Street Journal saying that tether "is sort of the central bank of crypto trading ... [yet] they don't conduct themselves like you'd expect a responsible, sensible financial institution to do." Tether's price decreased to lows of $0.90 on 15 October 2018 on speculation that investors are losing faith in the token. On 20 November 2018, Bloomberg reported that U.S. federal prosecutors are investigating whether tether was used to manipulate the price of bitcoin. In 2019, Tether surpassed Bitcoin in trading volume with the highest daily and monthly trading volume of any cryptocurrency on the market.

Ethereum is a public blockchain-based distributed computing platform, featuring smart contract functionality. It provides a decentralized virtual machine, the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM), that can execute peer-to-peer contracts using a cryptocurrency called ether. Ethereum.

Energy-Efficient Security Mechanisms for Digital Currency

Internet Privacy

It's disturbing that politicians and banking criminals want to regulate Bitcoin. They don't want people to have freedom which is a direct violation of the US constitution. They use ignorant excuses like people buying drugs and money laundering, which are the crimes that banks and politicians commit daily. And they also claim they want to protect the consumer, which is a lie. They're using the justice system as a weapon against Americans. These ignorant scumbags who want to regulate peoples freedom of choice have no shame and they are a serious threat to every human on the planet, even all life. This sounds harsh, but it's not that harsh when you're the victim. But even then, you may still not fully understand this type of corruption even when you suffer from it, or profit from it.

The problem with Bitcoin is that people are getting wealthy in the same way that Banks do, by skimming money out of the system without actually adding any value to the system. We have to know what work was preformed? We have to know if society benefited from your work? We have to know what valued service you are performing? We have to know why you demand a much higher salary then other people? People who's work may be more valuable then your work, and also less destructive. If you use people, time, money, energy and resources that would benefit thousands of people, just to only benefit yourself, than there is something wrong, and this something needs to be explained. Fluctuations in a system should only be in response to peoples needs, and to the needs of the environment. If we use a currency that has a fluctuating value, and it we use a currency that can have it's value accumulated in uncontrolled areas, then we are doing the same thing as the banks. But the good news is that the Bitcoin software has the ability to correct these problems of fluctuating value and hoarding. But just having technology does not solve the entire problem. We have to educate the public and make sure that everyone is fully informed on how to use technology effectively and efficiently, and also know how to use knowledge and information effectively and efficiently. We're almost there. All corruption is derived from ignorance, so when we reduce the ignorance, we will also reduce corruption, waste and abuse.

What if the Wolf of Wall Street were about Crypto? (youtube)

Bitcoin is a great idea, but it only solves a small piece of a much larger problem. And this problem is a problem that we can solve, we just have to learn how to solve it. We have technology, now we need intelligence.

New Algorithm for Crypto-Currency Equihash mathematical algorithm is a core component for the new cryptocurrency.

Zcash is a cryptocurrency aimed at using cryptography to provide enhanced privacy for its users compared to other cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin. Like Bitcoin, Zcash has a fixed total supply of 21 million units.

The Money Fix (youtube)

Living without Money - Kind Mankind

Low Impact Living - Money Saving Ideas - Community Knowledge Sharing

Great Ideas - Innovation - Food Waste - Water - Opportunity Cost

The End of Ownership (VPRO Backlight, 47:52)

"When society collapses there's nothing that could stop us from taking care of each other, or from printing our own money."

Fiat Money (money knowledge)

The bottom line is our exchanges and hour banks still have to be sustainable. Supporting the same ignorant practices, or businesses, using a new method of exchange will not get us anywhere. We have to support businesses that make a positive difference in the world and have a direct positive impact on the local community. We must support services that are sustainable and not wasteful or polluting. We must not trade convenience for life. We can still have our luxuries, but we just have to be more aware and respectable, which would take a little extra effort, innovation and an Improvement in Education.

If all the bit-coins were only used by people who practiced sustainability, then every time someone used this currency they would be directly supporting environmentally sound living.

Guaranteed Annual Income - Basic Income - Potential

Basic Income can help grow the economy in a good way because it will help increase peoples incomes and increase spending, which means that it will create more jobs and create more small businesses, and thus, more people will be working. And there will also be less crimes because people will not be so desperate. And since people are spending more money, that means states will be collecting more tax revenue which means that states will have more money for services and more money for infrastructure, which creates more jobs. Of course this is not as simple as it sounds. You just can't give people money without educating people about how to spend money effectively. You just can't give people money without educating people about the responsibility and the vulnerabilities that comes from the power of having money. Most people will do what is right, especially when they fully understand what the right thing to do is. You just can't give people money without accountability or without any planning. You would not give someone a drivers license without them proving they know how to drive a car safely and skillfully. We see what happens when we give corrupt governments money, and we see what happens when corrupt corporations do more harm than good in the name of money. This is why it's extremely important that everyone is well informed, and also fully understands the responsibilities that each person has to their community, and understands the responsibilities that they have to themselves. Money should be used as a potential energy. But money is a type of power, and everyone knows that power can corrupt people really easy. So we need to protect each other from this extremely destructive vulnerability. And one of the best tools that we have is knowledge and education. Our technology can help us to communicate needed information to almost every person on the planet. But people will need more than just knowledge, information and technology. People will also need instructions and directions on how to use our technologies effectively and efficiently. We all have a common purpose. And our common purpose is to make sure that everyone is cared for and that everyone has what they need in order to live a productive and peaceful life. When we work together, we are at our strongest. But for now, we are not all working together, which means that we are extremely weak and vulnerable, which means that our problems will continue to get worse. So we are at a crossroads now. We have an opportunity to end the mistakes that are killing millions of people and killing our planet. So free money should be a wakeup call. A chance to do what is right. This can be our shinning moment in the sun. So here we go. Are you ready? Let's get ready.

Financial Aid Types - Pay to Learn - Temp Workers

There's no bank on the planet that gives people money who don't have a plan or have a goal, or some kind of collateral, whether abstract or concrete, unless the bank can profit from the loan like they do with wars. You can't measure the return on investment if you don't have any idea what you're investing in. Even though there are some banks and people who do fund things that they don't fully understand, it doesn't mean that we should always be this ignorant about this fact. Ignorance is not a precedent or a reason.

Collateral is a borrower's pledge of specific property to a lender, to secure repayment of a loan. The collateral serves as a lender's protection against a borrower's default and so can be used to offset the loan if the borrower fails to pay the principal and interest satisfactorily under the terms of the lending agreement.

Credit is the trust which allows one party to provide money or resources to another party wherein the second party does not reimburse the first party immediately (thereby generating a debt), but promises either to repay or return those resources (or other materials of equal value) at a later date. In other words, credit is a method of making reciprocity formal, legally enforceable, and extensible to a large group of unrelated people. The resources provided may be financial (e.g. granting a loan), or they may consist of goods or services (e.g. consumer credit). Credit encompasses any form of deferred payment. Credit is extended by a creditor, also known as a lender, to a debtor, also known as a borrower. Credit Risk.

Marketing Collateral is considered the collection of media used to support the sales of a product or service. Common examples include: Sales brochures and other printed product information. Visual aids used in sales presentations. Web content. Sales scripts. Demonstration scripts. Product data sheets. Product white papers. Promotional pictures.

Basic Income is a new kind of public service program in which all citizens or permanent residents of a country receive a regular, livable and unconditional sum of money, from the government. From that follows, among other things, that there is no state requirement to work or to look for work in such a society. The payment is also, in such a pure basic income, totally independent of any other income. An unconditional income that is sufficient to meet a person's basic needs (at or above the poverty line), is called full basic income, while if it is less than that amount, it is called partial. Basic income can be implemented nationally, regionally or locally. Some welfare systems are related to basic income but have certain conditions.

Finland's  Universal Basic Income Worked in 2018 (youtube)

South Korea’s Universal Basic Income Experiment to Boost the Economy | WSJ (youtube)

Guaranteed Minimum Income is a system of social welfare provision that guarantees that all citizens or families have an income sufficient to live on, provided they meet certain conditions. Eligibility is typically determined by citizenship, a means test, and either availability for the labor market or a willingness to perform community services. The primary goal of a guaranteed minimum income is to reduce poverty. If citizenship is the only requirement, the system turns into a universal basic income.  "Guarantee Income would be great for parents who have to work 2 or three jobs just to support their family. Parents need to spend more quality time with their children. And everyone also needs access to knowledge and information that would allow them to increase their knowledge about themselves and the world around them. A family that learns together stays together." ( also known as Universal Benefit, Citizens Dividend, Sate Bonus, Negative Income Tax).

California Program Giving $500 No-Strings-Attached Stipends Pays Off, Study Finds. A high-profile universal basic income experiment in Stockton, Calif., which gave randomly selected residents $500 per month for two years with no strings attached, measurably improved participants' job prospects, financial stability and overall well-being, according to a newly released study of the program's first year.

Compton Pledge is a landmark guaranteed income initiative that will distribute recurring cash relief to low-income residents for 2 years, marking the largest city-based guaranteed income pilot in the U.S.. Eight hundred residents receive between $300 and $600 a month to supplement their income. Giving poor families a financial cushion can have a demonstrable impact on their physical and psychological health and give some financial breathing room. A $500 per-month stipend showed statistically significant improvements in their mental health. Some are using the funds to pay it forward. Payments could improve access to education, housing and nutrition; reduce the racial wealth gap; and stimulate economic activity—which in turn can lift up a whole community. After a year and a half of the pandemic, three rounds of stimulus checks and a newly expanded child tax credit, proponents of cash-based programs feel the tide turning. Republicans fear that people will not want to work and will also make them dependent on government handouts, like the big corporations who are receiving subsidies and bailouts, which only adds to the abuse and destruction of America. Despite 26 states voluntarily ending supplemental unemployment insurance early, there was little difference in their employment numbers and workforce participation rate in July.

Swiss Referendums, 2016 popular initiative for a basic income (wiki)

The Peckham Experiment was an experiment designed to determine whether people as a whole would, given the opportunity, take a vested interest in their own health and fitness and expend effort to maintain it. The experiment took place between 1926 and 1950, initially generated by rising public concern over the health of the working class and an increasing interest in preventative social medicine.

Mincome was an experimental Canadian guaranteed annual income project that was held in Manitoba, during the 1970's. The purpose of this experiment was to assess the social impact of a guaranteed, unconditional annual income, including whether a program of this nature would cause disincentives to work for the recipients and how great such a disincentive would be.

Of course ignorant scumbags apposed financial aid. except when they're getting bailouts and subsidy's. Because how will the rich control and manipulate the poor when the poor can take care of themselves. So it makes perfect sense that we would also have a guarantee of a free high quality college education for everyone. Because everyone knows that you just can't have a bunch of idiots with money, the wealthy have definitely proven that to be a sad fact many times over throughout human history.

Give Directly allows you to Send money directly to people living in extreme poverty.

The Short-term Impact of Unconditional Cash Transfers to the Poor:  Experimental Evidence from Kenya. Paying youth to stay out of trouble. Comprehensive Homicide Initiative. General equilibrium effects of cash transfers: experimental evidence from Kenya. Just handing out cash can improve peoples overall well-being and can boost peoples lives. Kids get more schooling, food and other essentials. The family's nutrition and health improves. Though the cash aid program in the Philippines did drive up the cost of certain perishable food items.

No Strings Attached

No Strings Attached is when an offer or an opportunity carries no special conditions or restrictions. A no strings attached offer is an arrangement and an agreement of doing something without asking for anything in return. A gift with no special conditions, restrictions, expectations, limits, or obligations. A no questions asked agreement. Unconditional Love.

But there's nothing in life that has no strings attached to it. Everything in life is cause and effect and everything is connected. Unconditional is an incomplete sentence and not the whole picture. It doesn't explain all the scenarios and all the effects. There are no guarantees, but you still have to play the odds. People need common sense guidelines and instructions on safe operation. People need freedom, but not free to be negligent, abusive or disrespectful. A no strings attached agreement is to encourage failure, so that wealthy scumbags can prove that people can't handle money, which is already proven with our dumbed down education system that has failure built into it.

Spend Wisely Together. But we first have to learn how to communicate this information to everyone that helps people to make wise and practical decisions collectively, the kind of decisions that will benefit everyone and also help make improvements that can be measured and understood by everyone. This way everyone will know that they are a member of society and that they can see first hand how their decisions make a difference in their life and in the world around them. Conscious Living.

When you give money or pay money to people, you have to know if the people are using the money wisely to maximize their output. Does the money or services people receive lower operating costs of peoples lives and increase the quality of living? Is there a feedback loop that measures the complete cycle of production, consumption and return on investment? You don't want to feed people who waste food. You don't want to give people electricity if they waste energy. Operating cost is not the money, it is the Hours spent, Labor used, Waste generated, Machines used, Resources used, and the Return of investment. Are people more productive? Does the service make improvements? Define the inputs and the outputs, and the cause and effects.

We can't make it difficult for people to receive assistance. People shouldn't have to jump through hoops just to get some help. You can't force people to reveal personal information, especially if the people who are extracting the information from you, will use that information to profile you or sell your personal information to other people. All the person should need is their face. If the person in need does not have a valid ID, then the person must have their photo taken and be entered into a secure database. If they give more information, they should be paid for that information. And if everyone has a smartphone, and are taught how to use it effectively, then we can help people where almost anywhere they are. But we still need people to be accountable and responsible for themselves and the communities where they live. When you give people assistance, you must also give each person a pamphlet that explains how to maximize their buying power and tips on how to optimize their spending so that the benefits from assistance can be effective and efficient as possible. This way progress becomes the incentive. We should not be worried about fraud being committed by individuals, because the most damaging fraud is at the corporate level and the government level. Most people are honest and good. But the criminals who control the news media outlets what you to believe that humans are raving maniacs, which is a lie. The raving maniacs are behind the curtain.

Giving People Free Money will only work when people are fully educated, and when people can also provide some type of benefit, service or job in return for the money. You just can't give people money with no strings attached or with no instructions on how to use the money effectively and efficiently. To make money unconditional would be a liability, negligent and problematic, just as it is now. Giving people just money will only benefit people if people know how to use the money wisely. People with money can easily accelerate our decay and abuse if they make bad choices with their money, as they do now, especially the people who are exploiting capitalism. But everyone should be funded as long as they are providing a necessary service that is beneficial to them and to other people. Pay people to go to school and learn skills for jobs that we know we will need. Like scientists who can provide many different services for monitoring the world so citizens can be alerted of possible dangers. All volunteers or workers should be paid as long as they are providing a sustainable solution to a problem. Every service provided should have an exit plan so that we can show people how they can gradually become independent and self-sustaining. We don't want to encourage dependencies, we want to encourage independencies, so that people can live happier lives with more freedom and more stability. Plus, we don't want a basic income to allow the wealthy and powerful to continue to steal more, waste more, abuse more and poison the environment more. Basic income should not be hush money, it should only be about common sense. We also need to provide basic needs, as well as, make living affordable. This way the basic income will not make its way back into the hands of criminals, like it does now with social security, food stamps and health insurance. We live in a Trickle Up Economy where the rich get richer and the poorer get poorer.

Aichi Biodiversity Targets - Ecological Fiscal Transfers.

What if we Paid Countries to Protect Biodiversity? Human life depends on our ecological life support. Yet, we are constantly destroying biodiversity and therefore the resilience of ecosystems and human civilization

The responsibility of Money is not just about managing your own personal budget. Everyone needs to know who prints and makes the money and know the actual names of the people in charge? Everyone needs to know who manages the amount of money that's needed to be in circulation? Everyone needs to know how many people are committing crimes because of money? Everyone needs to know how money is being spent in their town, and in their country? Everyone is responsible for the whole system of money. You must know the names of the people who are in charge of these responsibilities. People will only be accountable when they are held accountable, because people do not always do the right thing on their own. Everyone needs to know how many people are hoarding money because money is a shared resource. And every human has the right to have the assurance that money gives. No human should ever be without money or be abused because they have no money. This is why people need to be informed and educated. People will never be able to make improvements or stop the corruption if they never learn how to do it. Learning is everyone's first and most important responsibility. Ignorance is no longer affordable.

Cash Payments Prompt Tropical Forest users to Harvest Less. Study shows people cut 48 percent fewer trees when paid to conserve.

Reciprocation - Incentives - Job Training

Reparation is replenishment of a previously inflicted loss by the criminal to the victim. Monetary Restitution is a common form of reparation.

The Hardest Working Person on Earth is a Working Mother or a mother who has a full time job and at the same time is also raising children or taking care of her kids. The value of her work that she does for a company is not as important as the work that she does for her children. In order to invest in your children's future, and also benefit from your children's potential and value, you have to work smart at home an also work smart away from home. Being a mother is the most important job on the planet. You can't make sacrifices when it comes to being a mother, or a father. And every employer in the world must understand that a women's priority is her children, and that every other job or responsibility comes second to her children. Everything that we do in life has an impact on the world. So it makes sense to produce positive impacts on the world instead of causing negative impacts on the world. Everyone has to do their part. And societies and governments are fully responsible for protecting and supporting people who are doing positive things. We have to stop rewarding criminal behavior and start rewarding good behavior.

Basic Income Pros and Cons

Every problem or every scenario that people think that will happen because of basic income, are the same things that are already happening. Problems with money are already rampant throughout the world. You can list all the risks that are involved with giving people money, but all you would be doing is listing the current problems that we are already suffering from, problems that are not being addressed. You can't give money to people or projects and expect nothing in return, especially when someone hasn't done anything to deserve it or earn it. Peoples morals would be corrupted and people will become lazy, dependent and vulnerable. But that's what's happening with almost every wealthy person. So you can ask wealthy people the same question. What do rich people do in return for their wealth? You just can't give money to people. That's why people are required to have a drivers license, so they can prove that they can operate a vehicle safely, effectively and efficiently. And money is a vehicle. People need to understand restrictions, which are just like instructions. You don't want to tell people that they can spend the money anyway they want, for the same reason why you wouldn't say to someone to drive their car anywhere they want, which is why we made roads. You don't want people spending money on things that harms themselves or harms other people or harms the environment. There are good ways and bad ways to spend money and people need to have this knowledge and information in order to make good choices. What will be the incentive to work when people are given money? Answer: Knowledge and information. People need to know what is good and bad, right and wrong. Education needs to improve. Input, output, cause, effect, and productivity need to be understood. If you didn't pay for something or work hard for something then you will not respect it and it will not last long, which is what millions of people do today. Even when people work hard for something, this does not say that they will respect it more. You have to learn how to respect things. Again, Education needs to improve. People will not improve themselves or better themselves when things are given to them? Again, Education needs to improve. People need to learn how to improve themselves and better themselves. Where will the money come from? Over 40 million people are already on food stamps, millions are on social security, Medicare, receiving pensions and disability checks, bonuses and getting bailouts. And most money is electronic and not printed. Inflation is mostly caused by ignorance and corruption, and not just from printing more money. Tax is not theft when everyone understands and knows where the tax money is going and how the money is being used, like services and infrastructure, and so on.

Earn is the reward in return for a valuable service given, or from the efforts or actions that resulted in measurable benefits.

When people don't need to join the military because they're poor or have no other choices, how are you going to get people to fight wars? Governments and corporations do it by oppressing people so they have very little choice, that's why most minorities join military services. So how do you get people to join military services? By making it a needed service, and not by using people as a weapon for corporations and banks.

So you see, improving education and making education more available is the only way to solve these problems.

Making people dependent is dangerous. The goal should always be Self-Reliant Independence and the ability to work together in harmony.

Soon you will not be able to buy anything you want just because you have the money to do so. You will have to earn things. Everyone will be rated on the type of work they do and how much that work benefits society. They will also be rated by their energy use, whether they used energy effectively and efficiently. Power companies are already doing this. People will also be rated by how much waste they produce, and that they don't waste resources by using them responsibly. So this will eventually stop people from using money as an excuse for being inhumane or criminal towards life and other people, like it does today. Now you will have to earn your way.

People pretend and assume to know what something means before all the details have been presented and finalized. People use ignorant labels like social engineering, communism and socialism, when they have no idea what they are talking about. People talk about how bad some idea is before they even understand it. So their reasoning is mostly just questions that they have. But some people believe that the questions they have, questions that they don't know the answer to, are the reasons why they should say no. No is not a question, and you can't answer your own question when you have never asked a question to begin with. This is why everyone should always have a right to speak, because even the dumbest comments could reveal some kind of risk, which is the reason we have to have warning labels on things, because people are sometimes unaware or undereducated.

Money has not enslaved people, ignorance has enslaved people.

We want to make the system easy, but we don't want to disconnect people from reality either. Basic income is not just about giving people money. This is about implementing a new system that will be more effective and more efficient, and be fair and logical. It will be a big transition.

Financial Aid Types - Free Money is Nothing New

Social Security provides monetary assistance to people with an inadequate income or no income. Also known as retirement, old-age assistance, social welfare or a Disability Program that pays people money. In 2015, Social Security expenditures totaled $750.5 billion for OASDI and $146.6 billion for DI. Socialism.

Pension is a fund from which payments are drawn to support the person's retirement from work in the form of periodic payments. To help pay peoples living expenses so they can Rest and Relax and still be productive and provide some type of service in their community instead of being a total burden on society, just like some big corporations are. Pension is a fund into which a sum of money is added during an employee's employment years, and from which payments are drawn to support the person's retirement from work in the form of periodic payments. Pensions Crisis or pensions timebomb is the predicted difficulty in paying for corporate or government employment retirement pensions in various countries, due to a difference between pension obligations and the resources set aside to fund them. The basic difficulty of the pension problem is that institutions must be sustained over far longer than the political planning horizon.

Superannuation in Australia is a savings system for workplace pensions in retirement. It involves money earned by an employee being placed into an investment fund to be made legally available to fund members upon retirement.

401(k) is an employer-sponsored retirement plan, defined-contribution, and personal pension or savings account. Periodic employee contributions come directly out of their paychecks, and may be matched by the employer. Wall Street Crooks.

Perpetuity is an annuity or a series of payments made at equal intervals that has no end, or a stream of cash payments that continues forever. There are few actual perpetuities in existence.

Subsidy is a form of financial aid, support or government incentive extended to an economic sector (or institution, business, or individual) generally with the aim of promoting economic and social policy.

Food Stamps - Basic Income - Housing - Bailouts - Lending - Predatory Lending - Tax Breaks

Stimulus in economics refers to attempts to use monetary or fiscal policy to stimulate the economy. Stimulus can also refer to monetary policies like lowering interest rates and quantitative easing. Fiscal stimulus refers to increasing government consumption or transfers or lowering taxes. Effectively this means increasing the rate of growth of public debt. Monetary stimulus refers to lowering interest rates, quantitative easing, or other ways of increasing the amount of money or credit. Intelligence is not a place or a destination. Intelligence is an incredible journey through the mind that never stops being amazing. There are levels of intelligence, but the levels are forever changing and adapting.

Support is the activity of providing for or maintaining by supplying with money or necessities. Give moral or psychological support, aid, or courage to. Provide material help or money to cover living expenses. The financial means whereby one lives. Supporting structure that holds up or provides a foundation. The act of bearing the weight of or strengthening. Financial resources provided to make some project possible. Aiding the cause, policy or interests of. Something providing immaterial assistance to a person, cause or interest. Public Service.

Child Support is an ongoing, periodic payment made by a parent for the financial benefit of a child (or parent, caregiver, guardian, or state) following the end of a marriage or other relationship. Child maintenance is paid directly or indirectly by an obligor to an obligee for the care and support of children of a relationship that has been terminated, or in some cases never existed. Often the obligor is a non-custodial parent. The obligee is typically a custodial parent, a caregiver, a guardian, or the state.

Alimony is financial support that a person is ordered by a court to give to their spouse during separation or following divorce. A legal obligation on a person to provide financial support to their spouse before or after marital separation or divorce. The obligation arises from the divorce law or family law of each country. In most jurisdictions, it is distinct from child support, where, after divorce, one parent is required to contribute to the support of their children by paying money to the child's other parent or guardian.

Provision is the activity of supplying or providing something. A store or supply of something that is set aside for the future or for an emergency.

Credit is money that is available for someone to borrow, sometimes based on the persons credit history, assets, collateral or sometimes based on a credit rating. An estimate, based on previous dealings, of a person's or an organization's ability to fulfill their financial commitments. An accounting entry acknowledging income or capital items. Arrangement for deferred payment for goods and services. Credit is also acknowledgement and praise or respect for doing something, producing something and having a certain quality and skill. Recognition by a college or university that a course of studies has been successfully completed; typically measured in semester hours. An entry on a list of persons who contributed to a film or written work. Credit is the trust which allows one party to provide money or resources to another party wherein the second party does not reimburse the first party immediately (thereby generating a debt), but promises either to repay or return those resources (or other materials of equal value) at a later date. In other words, credit is a method of making reciprocity formal, legally enforceable, and extensible to a large group of unrelated people. The resources provided may be financial (e.g. granting a loan), or they may consist of goods or services (e.g. consumer credit). Credit encompasses any form of deferred payment. Credit is extended by a creditor, also known as a lender, to a debtor, also known as a borrower. Life Accounting.

Salary Advance refers to employees receiving a portion of their pay before their next scheduled payday. Salary advance is a short-term loan. Advance salary is salary paid in advance. Advance received against salary will be repaid in installments. Advance in Pay or a payroll advance is a short-term loan an employer may offer employees based on wages they've already earned, usually ahead of the scheduled payday. The employees then repay the advance out of their next paycheck or in installments over several paychecks.

Investment is to distribute money in the expectation of some benefit in the future. Return on Investment measures the gain or loss generated on an investment relative to the amount of money invested. ROI is a ratio between the net profit and cost of investment resulting from an investment of some resources.

Incentives - Investing - Funding - Assistance

Social Safety Net is a collection of services provided by the state or other institutions such as friendly societies, which is a mutual organization or benefit society composed of a body of people who join together for a common financial or social purpose. A social safety net includes welfare, unemployment benefit, universal healthcare, right to healthcare, free education, right to housing, legal aid, victims' rights, mutual funds, superfund for pensioners and veterans, workers compensation, severance package, consumer protection, social credit, private electricity, homeless shelters, and sometimes subsidized services such as public transport, which prevent individuals from falling into poverty beyond a certain level. A practical example of how the safety net works would be a single mother with several children, unable to work. By receiving money from the government to support her children, along with universal health care and free education, she can give her children a better chance at becoming successful members of society, rather than be caught up in the hopelessness of extreme poverty. Social Networks.

Retirement is ending one's position or occupation from a particular business. Retirement does not always mean that a person stops working. They may just do something else and be semi-retire by reducing work hours. Retirement Plans (wiki).

Does retirement encourage sloth? Do bonuses encourage greed?

Reimbursement is the act of compensating someone for an out-of-pocket expense by giving them an amount of money equal to what was spent. Tax Evasion.

Compensation is to make amends, reparations or adjust for loss or injury. To give something such as money as payment or reparation for a loss or injury or service.

Reparation is compensation given for an insult or injury. To make up for and compensate someone for a wrongdoing or from causing offence. Something done or paid in expiation or atoning for a wrong.

Redemption Movement is a belief that a secret fund is created for everyone at birth, and that a procedure exists to "redeem" or reclaim this fund to pay bills.

Per Diem or daily allowance is a specific amount of money an organization gives an individual, often an employee, per day to cover living expenses when traveling for work.

Allowance is an amount of money given or allotted usually at regular intervals for a specific purpose. The amount of something that is permitted, especially within a set of regulations or for a specified purpose. Study Links Parental Support and Career Success of Children.

Pocket Money is a small sum of money given to a child, by a parent or guardian.

Chump Change
is a small or insignificant amount of money.

Two-thirds of young adults get financial support from their parents.

Bar Mitzvah is a Jewish coming of age ritual for boys and a Bat mitzvah is a Jewish coming of age ritual for girls. Commemorative monetary gifts in multiples of 18 are considered to be particularly auspicious and have become common for the bar and bat mitzvah.

Stipend is a fixed payment, generally small and occurring at regular intervals. A modest allowance. A scholarship granted to a student. Stipend is a regular fixed sum of money paid for services or to defray expenses, such as for scholarship, internship, or apprenticeship. It is often distinct from an income or a salary because it does not necessarily represent payment for work performed; instead it represents a payment that enables somebody to be exempt partly or wholly from waged or salaried employment in order to undertake a role that is normally unpaid (e.g. a magistrate in the United Kingdom) or voluntary, or which cannot be measured in terms of a task (e.g. members of the clergy). Stipends are usually lower than what would be expected as a permanent salary for similar work. This is because the stipend is complemented by other benefits such as accreditation, instruction, food, and/or accommodation. Some graduate schools make stipend payments to help students have the time and funds to earn their academic degree (i.e. master's and doctoral degrees). Universities usually refer to money paid to graduate students as a stipend, rather than wages, to reflect complementary benefits. Stipend is a form of salary, such as for an internship or apprenticeship. It is often distinct from a wage or a salary because it does not necessarily represent payment for work performed; instead it represents a payment that enables somebody to be exempt partly or wholly from waged or salaried employment in order to undertake a role that is normally unpaid (e.g. a magistrate in the United Kingdom) or voluntary, or which cannot be measured in terms of a task (e.g. members of the clergy).

Remuneration is money that is paid regularly for doing work. The act of paying for goods, services or to recompense for losses.

Scholarship is financial aid for a student to further their education.

Bursary is a scholarship to attend a college or university. Bursary is a monetary award made by any educational institution or funding authority to individuals or groups. It is usually awarded to enable a student to attend school, university or college when they might not be able to, otherwise. Some awards are aimed at encouraging specific groups or individuals into study.

Student Financial Aid - Student Loans - Debt

Endowment is money or other financial assets that are donated to universities or colleges and are meant to be invested to grow the principal and provide additional income for future investing and expenditures. Dark Money.

Donation is a voluntary gift made to some worthwhile cause in the form of money, services or ideas. An act of giving in common with others for a common purpose, especially to a charity.

Seed Money - Funding - Grants - Lending - Loans - Debt

Inheritance is money and or property that given to a person.

Patronage is the support, encouragement, privilege, or financial aid that an organization or individual bestows to another.

Social Medicine seeks to implement social care through understanding how social and economic conditions impact health, disease and the practice of medicine, and fostering conditions in which this understanding can lead to a healthier society, which would save society billions of dollars.

Insurance - Preventive Care

Appropriation is a sum of money or total of assets devoted to a special purpose. Money set aside by formal action for a specific use.

Remittance is a transfer of money by a foreign worker to an individual in his or her home country. Money sent home by migrants competes with international aid as one of the largest financial inflows to developing countries. Workers' remittances are a significant part of international capital flows, especially with regard to labour-exporting countries. In 2014, $436 billion went to developing countries, setting a new record. Overall global remittances totaled $582 billion in 2015. Some countries, such as India and China, receive tens of billions of US dollars in remittances each year from their expatriates. In 2014, India received an estimated $70 billion and China an estimated $64 billion. Financial Aid.

Employee Benefits include various types of non-wage compensation provided to employees in addition to their normal wages or salaries. Examples of these benefits include: housing, group insurance (health, dental, life etc.); disability income protection; retirement benefits; daycare; tuition reimbursement; sick leave; vacation (paid and unpaid); social security; profit sharing; employer student loan contributions; conveyancing; domestic help (servants); and other specialized benefits.

Gift Economy is a mode of exchange where valuables are not traded or sold, but rather given without an explicit agreement for immediate or future rewards. This contrasts with a barter economy or a market economy, where goods and services are primarily exchanged for value received. Social norms and custom govern gift exchange. Gifts are not given in an explicit exchange of goods or services for money or some other commodity. Giving without explaining or educating, or giving without understanding cause and effects, is wrong, bad and dangerous.

Government Pension Fund of Norway comprises two entirely separate sovereign wealth funds owned by the government of Norway.In May 2018 it was worth about $195,000 per Norwegian citizen. Value-Added Tax.

Modern Monetary Theory describes currency as a public monopoly for the government and unemployment as evidence that a currency monopolist is overly restricting the supply of the financial assets needed to pay taxes and satisfy savings desires. MMT is seen as an evolution of chartalism and is sometimes referred to as neo-chartalism.

Chartalism is a theory of money that argues that money originated with states' attempts to direct economic activity rather than as a spontaneous solution to the problems with barter or as a means with which to tokenize debt, and that fiat currency has value in exchange because of sovereign power to levy taxes on economic activity payable in the currency they issue.

Tokenization is the act of breaking up a sequence of strings into pieces such as words, keywords, phrases, symbols and other elements called tokens. Tokenization in data security is the process of substituting a sensitive data element with a non-sensitive equivalent, referred to as a token, that has no extrinsic or exploitable meaning or value.

State Monopoly is a form of coercive monopoly in which a government agency or government corporation is the sole provider of a particular good or service and competition is prohibited by law. It is a monopoly created by the government. It is usually distinguished from a government-granted monopoly, where the government grants a monopoly to a private individual or company. History of Money.


Bailout is financial help to a corporation or country which otherwise would be on the brin k of failure or bankruptcy. Bail-in

Why do some people get bonuses while other people lose their job and livelihood?

Corporate Welfare - Subsidies - Tax Evasion - The Big Short - Predatory Lending - Kickbacks - Debt

Economic Stimulus Act of 2008 provided several kinds of economic stimuli intended to boost the United States economy. (But low life scumbag criminals pocketed the money and burned the tax payers).

Government gives the illusion that they are boosting the economy with a stimulus package or a bailout, which creates another financial bubble, where their friends get rich while the American public suffers the consequences. It's shocking to think that American citizens are letting this corruption happen time and time again, but in reality, how can Americans be shocked when they are completely in the dark and ignorant, which is also by design, dumb down the public so that they are unaware of the crimes that surround them. Even the rating systems are rigged and corrupted. Loans.

Quantitative Easing is a monetary policy whereby a central bank buys predetermined amounts of government bonds or other financial assets in order to add money directly into the economy. An unconventional form of monetary policy, it is usually used when inflation is very low or negative, and standard expansionary monetary policy has become ineffective. A central bank implements quantitative easing by buying specified amounts of financial assets from commercial banks and other financial institutions, thus raising the prices of those financial assets and lowering their yield, while simultaneously increasing the money supply. This differs from the more usual policy of buying or selling short-term government bonds to keep interbank interest rates at a specified target value. Expansionary monetary policy to stimulate the economy typically involves the central bank buying short-term government bonds to lower short-term market interest rates. However, when short-term interest rates approach or reach zero, this method can no longer work (a situation known as a liquidity trap). In such circumstances, monetary authorities may then use quantitative easing to further stimulate the economy, by buying specified quantities of financial assets without reference to interest rates, and by buying riskier or longer maturity assets (other than short-term government bonds), thereby lowering interest rates further out on the yield curve. Quantitative easing can help bring the economy out of recession and help ensure that inflation does not fall below the central bank's inflation target. Risks include the policy being more effective than intended in acting against deflation (leading to higher inflation in the longer term), or not being effective enough if banks remain reluctant to lend and potential borrowers are unwilling to borrow. According to the International Monetary Fund, the US Federal Reserve System, and various other economists, quantitative easing undertaken following the global financial crisis of 2007–08 has mitigated some of the economic problems since the crisis.

Get Paid to Learn - Learn and Earn

When you're Learning you're Earning - Get Paid to Train and Gain - Win for Life.

Students should get paid to learn or receive money as they learn. The more you learn, the more you earn. Right answers earn you money, and wrong answers earn you nothing. Education has value. If students learn the things that matter, then students will have a better understanding of themselves and the world around them.

Learn to Speak a letter, score 1 point each.
Learn to Write a letter, score 2 points each.
Learn to Speak vowel sounds, score 3 points each.
Learn to Add letters together to form a word, score 5 points each.
Learn how to Read words, score 10 points each. (15 points for important words).
Learn the Meaning of a word, score 20 points each. (25 points for important words).
Learn how to Use a word in a sentence, score 30 points.
Learn how to Read complete sentences, score 40 points each.
Learn how to Comprehend a written message, score 50 points each.
Learn how to Use language to express an idea, score 100 points each.

Immediate Rewards Boosts Motivation - Incentives - Credit

Earn as you learn is adaptation. The monetary gain is just a symbol or a reward for adaptation. Anything that increases your life potential and strength is an investment in your intelligence.

Get Paid as you Train for a New Job - Basic Income

PAY TO LEARN will also have a game style platform using learn to read software. Pay to Learn education will use a point scoring system, points will equal currency, as well as, the intelligence level that the student has reached.

Monetary Value of points will vary depending on the country you live in. Points value will vary from a penny to a dollar depending on the exchange rate of your preferred currency needed, and the inflation or the cost of living where you live, and special needs. Money can be sent to phone or to a debit card. Cash or products can also be delivered by drone or by courier.

Testing will be automated and live person assisted.

As you learn to read you will also be reading to learn. So when a person finishes the learn to read courses, they will be intelligent and highly skilled.

Learn to Read Teaching Software will include all major subjects: math, science, geography, law, communication, phycology, local history, world history, social intelligence, and so on. There will also be several levels from beginner to expert.

Choose Your Own Hours and learn when you want, learn as fast as you want, learn as long as you want, learn as much as you want, and learn almost anything you want and learn almost anywhere you want.

Money is not the true reward for learning, the actual reward is the value of knowledge. When someone learns how valuable something is, they should be compensated for taking the time and the effort to learn something valuable. The true value that comes from learning is learning why certain things are valuable. The money paid for understanding value is not the true compensation, the true compensation is how effectively you use knowledge and information to solve problems and to achieve goals. The money received from learning is just one of the many rewards that represent the value of learning and becoming more knowledge about yourself and the world around you. This is a smart investment.

When you teach someone the value of learning early in life, this will guarantee that a person will continue to educate themselves throughout their life and eventually come to understand the value of knowledge. And once a person experiences the power of knowledge, it will be natural for them to seek out more energy that comes from having more knowledge. Everything that lives needs energy to live. And Knowledge has an infinite number of energy levels. And knowledge can also be stored as potential energy, so we can carry this power with us where ever we go, and also use this energy when ever it's needed. Learning the right things at the right times in your life will help you be prepared for learning new things that you will need to live, and also help you be prepared for learning new things that you will need to prosper throughout your entire lifetime. Being Paid for Your Personal Information.

Employers and Universities will be notified when a student completes the learn to read courses. So employers can then send graduates job offers and Universities can send graduates acceptance letters. And the student will stay anonymous until the student contacts them and reply's to the job offer or higher learning offer. So Employers and Universities will not know the students gender or race. The only things they will know is that the graduate is intelligent and highly skilled. If a student finishes the courses by the age of 10, they will not be employable because of child labor laws. However, the younger students who finish before their 18th birthday can still continue to a learn from more advance courses. And when they are 16 or 18, they can then make themselves known to Employers that they are ready for work and to be of service. Internship Job Training.

The time it takes to complete the courses will depend on the student and their current situation. 5 years is the estimated time it will take to finish all the courses. But there will also be advanced expert levels that may take more time to finish.

As you advance through the courses you will receive free technology tools like a virtual reality head set and smartphone technology Tools. Gaming console or gamepad and joystick will be multipurpose, not just to manipulate actions within a video game, but to manipulate actions between multiple layers of software tools and programs, like remote controlling surgical equipment or controlling robots and drones during rescue operations, and when doing environmental monitoring or hazard control.

In order to reduce the amount of ignorance that people have, you have to increase the amount of knowledge people have. So you need a method for people to self verify the level of knowledge they have. A person should have a tool that tests their knowledge and measures their abilities and skills. A person should be able to visualize their level of intelligence and have a working scale that helps them to understand how much they know, and how much more they still need to know and learn.

We either pay people to be educated or we pay for peoples ignorance, which costs a whole lot more. This will be kind of similar to the Military. But instead of paying people to learn how to kill, we will be paying people to learn how to live intelligently. And if the military incorporated this education into their training, they would eventually have the most powerful army in the world. An army of intelligent people who are trained to protect life, instead of being trained to destroy life. Not to say that we will not a have a military, because we still need one. It's just that military personal will also be intelligent, and not just strong. We want intelligent people to be trained on how to use weapons, especially the weapon between their ears.

This company pays kids to do their math homework: Mohamad Jebara (video and text)

Two motivational artificial beings are better than one for enhancing learning. Researchers find that praise delivered by robots and virtual agents improves offline learning. Researchers have found that offline consolidation of a motor task was enhanced by praise delivered by robots, whether they were presented on a screen or were physically present. Further, simultaneous praise from two agents had a stronger effect than praise from just one, regardless of whether the agents were physically present or virtual. Such effects could be helpful for facilitating education and for general enhancement of human-robot interactions.

Just enough information will motivate young children to learn, drive curiosity. Preschoolers need to know just enough, but not all, about something to motivate them to learn more.
Preschool children are sensitive to the gap between how much they know and how much there is to learn, according to a new study.

The most curious babies become the most curious toddlers. Infants' responses to surprising events are linked to later cognitive ability. A longitudinal study of infant curiosity found that months-old babies most captivated by magic tricks became the most curious toddlers, suggesting a pre-verbal baby's level of interest in surprising aspects of the world remains constant over time and could predict their future cognitive ability.

Financial Advice - Financial Literacy - Money Management

Money Management is the process of expense tracking, investing, budgeting, banking and evaluating taxes of ones money which is also called investment management. Money management is a strategic technique to make money yield the highest interest-output value for any amount spent. 1. avoid any expense that appeals to vanity or snobbery. 2. always go for the most cost-effective alternative (establishing small quality-variance benchmarks, if any). 3. favor expenditures on interest bearing items over all others. 4. establish the expected benefits of every desired expenditure using the canon of plus/minus/nil to standard of living value system.

Financial Planning - Auditing - Assets - Accounting - Budget - Savings - Frugal - Business Management

Financial Literacy needs to include reality, and not just teach conformist behavior. Financial Literacy is mostly for people who have a high income or have a steady income. Financial Literacy does not explain needs or wants in reality. A cited paper published in the journal Management Science found that almost everyone who took a financial literacy class forgot what they learned within 20 months.

Financial Literacy is knowing how to create a budget. How to manage your money and manage debt. How to track personal spending and understand contracts, such as student loans, mortgages and credit cards. How to understand financial risk, and improve savings and investment strategies. How to save on taxes, and how to plan for retirement. How much money should you put into savings every month? What are the 5 factors that add up to make your credit score? What's the most income you should use on monthly credit card payments? What's the maximum debt-to-income ratio you should have to maintain financial stability?

How can you expect young people to be responsible with their money when so many adults who work with corporations steal millions of dollars, and politicians who waste millions of dollars, and war profiteers who steal billions of dollars. Responsibility needs to start from the top. If the scumbags at the top don't care, how do you expect the children to care who are being victimized by theft and greed.

High School Curriculum and Financial Outcomes: The Impact of Mandated Personal Finance and Mathematics Courses.

Consumer Financial Protection Bureau is a U.S. government agency dedicated to making sure you are treated fairly by banks, lenders and other financial institutions. 3.9 million+ consumer complaints received responses. $17.5 billion in financial relief as a result of CFPB actions. 200 million people eligible for financial relief. The CFPB is working to save households billions of dollars a year by reducing exploitative junk fees charged by banks and financial companies.

Operation Hope mission is to advance economic opportunity by providing the tools that people need to reach their goals. We help individuals of all ages by offering financial education, one-on-one coaching, courses on credit score improvement, as well as pathways toward homeownership and starting a business. Innovative program continues to create new Black-owned businesses by providing tools and resources in historically underserved communities in Atlanta. For far too many Americans, true financial freedom has been impossible.


Budget is a summary of intended expenditures along with proposals for how to pay for them. A sum of money allocated or set aside for a particular purpose. A financial plan for a defined period, often one year. It may also include planned sales volumes and revenues, resource quantities, costs and expenses, assets, liabilities and cash flows. Companies, governments, families and other organizations use it to express strategic plans of activities or events in measurable terms. It may include a budget surplus, providing money for use at a future time, or a deficit in which expenses exceed income. Sales budget – an estimate of future sales, often broken down into both units. It is used to create company and sales goals. Production budget - an estimate of the number of units that must be manufactured to meet the sales goals. The production budget also estimates the various costs involved with manufacturing those units, including labour and material. Created by product oriented companies. Capital budget - used to determine whether an organization's long-term investments such as new machinery, replacement machinery, new plants, new products, and research development projects are worth pursuing. Cash flow/cash budget – a prediction of future cash receipts and expenditures for a particular time period. It usually covers a period in the short-term future. The cash flow budget helps the business to determine when income will be sufficient to cover expenses and when the company will need to seek outside financing. Conditional budgeting is a budgeting approach designed for companies with fluctuating income, high fixed costs, or income depending on sunk costs, as well as NPOs and NGOs. Marketing budget – an estimate of the funds needed for promotion, advertising, and public relations in order to market the product or service. Project budget – a prediction of the costs associated with a particular company project. These costs include labour, materials, and other related expenses. The project budget is often broken down into specific tasks, with task budgets assigned to each. A cost estimate is used to establish a project budget. Revenue budget – consists of revenue receipts of government and the expenditure met from these revenues. Tax revenues are made up of taxes and other duties that the government levies. Expenditure budget – includes spending data items. Flexibility budget - it is established for fixed cost and variable rate is determined per activity measure for variable cost. Appropriation budget - a maximum amount is established for certain expenditure based on management judgment. Performance budget - it is mostly used by organization and ministries involved in the development activities. This process of budget takes into account the end results. Zero based budget - A budget type where every item added to the budget needs approval and no items are carried forward from the prior years budget. This type of budget has a clear advantage when the limited resources are to be allocated carefully and objectively. Zero based budgeting takes more time to create as all pieces of the budget need to be reviewed by management. Personal budget - A budget type focusing on expenses for self or for home, usually involves an income to budget.

Government Budget - Audits - Accounting - Cost Overruns - Within your Means - Consumerism

Master Plans - Milestones - Conservation - Savings

Personal Budget is a finance plan that allocates future personal income towards expenses, savings and debt repayment. Past spending and personal debt are considered when creating a personal budget. There are several methods and tools available for creating, using and adjusting a personal budget. For example, jobs are an income source, while bills and rent payments are expenses.

Retrenchment is the reduction of expenditures in order to become financially stable.

Balanced Budget is a budget in which revenues are equal to expenditures or money paid out or an amount spent.

Budgets are not just about money. Life has a budget. Sustainability is a fact of life. Within your Means.

Budgets (government spending) - Expenses - Cost - Taxes

Deficit Spending is the amount by which spending exceeds revenue over a particular period of time, also called simply deficit, or budget deficit; the opposite of budget surplus. The term may be applied to the budget of a government, private company, or individual. Government deficit spending is a central point of controversy in economics, as discussed below.

Death by a Thousand Cuts is a slow and lingering death. A form of torture and execution used in China from roughly 900 CE up until the practice ended around the early 1900s. It was also used in Vietnam and Korea. In this form of execution, a knife was used to methodically remove portions of the body over an extended period of time, eventually resulting in a slow death.

Income Deficit is the difference between a single person or family's  income and its poverty threshold or poverty line, when the former is exceeded by the latter.

Disposable Income is income remaining after deduction of taxes and other mandatory charges, available to be spent or saved as one wishes.

Financial Planning

Financial Plan is a comprehensive evaluation of an individual's current pay and future financial state by using current known variables to predict future income, asset values and withdrawal plans. This often includes a budget which organizes an individual's finances and sometimes includes a series of steps or specific goals for spending and saving in the future. This plan allocates future income to various types of expenses, such as rent or utilities, and also reserves some income for short-term and long-term savings. A financial plan is sometimes referred to as an investment plan, but in personal finance a financial plan can focus on other specific areas such as risk management, estates, college, or retirement. Milestones - Master Plans.

Financial Planning - Financial Planning Program

Personal Finance is the financial management which an individual or a family unit performs to budget, save, and spend monetary resources over time, taking into account various financial risks and future life events. When planning personal finances, the individual would consider the suitability to his or her needs of a range of banking products (checking, savings accounts, credit cards and consumer loans) or investment private equity, (stock market, bonds, mutual funds) and insurance (life insurance, health insurance, disability insurance) products or participation and monitoring of and- or employer-sponsored retirement plans, social security benefits, and income tax management.

Have attorney to establish appropriate trust vehicles, charitable lead trust, and investment portfolio with your goals and objectives. Make sure a Certified Financial Planner has these credentials. (Designations and licenses, Education, Experience, Fees and compensation, Services and work philosophy).

Certified Financial Planner - Money Management 

Finance Directors or directors of finance or directors of financial planning, are tasked with overseeing all financial activities, reporting on revenue, training accounting staff, budgeting, disbursing funds to departments, managing risk, implementing policies, and improving financial processes. Finance Directors focus on the day-to-day and manage accounts of the organization, as well as short-term goals. On the other hand, CFOs or chief financial officers focus on long-term, strategic goals of the business.

Board of Finance reviews local government budgets in towns or school districts that have the town meeting form of government. The role is to act as a balance against the Board of Selectmen or School Board, which usually set the budget and present it to the public at town meeting. Typically the Board of Finance is seen as being more cost-conscious than the governing body - that is, it prefers smaller budgets. In many towns, the budget is split between general government, administered by the Board of Selectmen and the school district administered by the Board of Education. The school district include one town or several towns, which join into a "regional" (Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire) or "unified" (Vermont) school district. School districts in New England do not have separate taxation powers, and must receive their revenues from member towns. Typically, after the Board of Selectmen or School Board settle their respective budgets, they are submitted to the Board of Finance for review. The Board of Finance may return the budget to the respective bodies with requests for changes, or may refer it to the town meeting for approval. In some cases, the Board of Finance may establish the budget itself, leaving the Selectmen or School Board to comment. Outside the budget process, the Board of Finance may perform financial oversight duties on behalf of the town. Board of Finance can have other names such as Budget Committee, Finance Committee, Ways and Means Committee, Appropriations Committee, Advisory Committee, or Warrant Committee.

Fresh Books Small Business Accounting Software That Makes Billing Painless.

My Money Management - Financial Education

Financial Literacy is the ability to understand how money works in the world: how someone manages to earn or make it, how that person manages it, how he/she invests it (turn it into more) and how that person donates it to help others. More specifically, it refers to the set of skills and knowledge that allows an individual to make informed and effective decisions with all of their financial resources.

Financial Statement - Financial Audits

Smart about Money - Investopedia - Jumpstart - Theorie de la Speculation (PDF)

True and Fair Campaign - Free Annual Credit Report - Rank and Filed

Annual Report is a comprehensive report on a company's activities throughout the preceding year. Annual reports are intended to give shareholders and other interested people information about the company's activities and financial performance. They may be considered as grey literature. Most jurisdictions require companies to prepare and disclose annual reports, and many require the annual report to be filed at the company's registry. Companies listed on a stock exchange are also required to report at more frequent intervals (depending upon the rules of the stock exchange involved). Oversight.

Economics - Inflation - Poverty - Social Impacts - Value vs. Cost - Debt

Margin in finance is collateral that the holder of a financial instrument has to deposit with a counterparty to cover some or all of the credit risk the holder poses for the counterparty. This risk can arise if the holder has done any of the following: Borrowed cash from the counterparty to buy financial instruments, Borrowed financial instruments to sell them short, or Entered into a derivative contract.

Collateral in finance is a borrower's pledge of specific property to a lender, to secure repayment of a loan. The collateral serves as a lender's protection against a borrower's default—that is, it can be used to offset the loan if the borrower fails to pay the principal and interest satisfactorily under the terms of the lending agreement.

Asset is any resource owned by the business. Anything tangible or intangible that can be owned or controlled to produce value and that is held by a company to produce positive economic value is an asset. Simply stated, assets represent value of ownership that can be converted into cash (although cash itself is also considered an asset). The balance sheet of a firm records the monetary value of the assets owned by that firm. It covers money and other valuables belonging to an individual or to a business. One can classify assets into two major asset classes: tangible assets and intangible assets. Tangible assets contain various subclasses, including current assets and fixed assets. Current assets include inventory, while fixed assets include such items as buildings and equipment. Intangible assets are nonphysical resources and rights that have a value to the firm because they give the firm some kind of advantage in the marketplace. Examples of intangible assets include goodwill, copyrights, trademarks, patents and computer programs, and financial assets, including such items as accounts receivable, bonds and stocks. Asset Classes (wiki).

Tangible Property anything which can be touched, and includes both real property and personal property (or moveable property), and stands in distinction to intangible property.

Intangible Asset is an asset that lacks physical substance; in contrast to physical assets, such as machinery and buildings, and financial assets such as government securities. An intangible asset is usually very hard to evaluate. Examples are patents, copyright, franchises, goodwill, trademarks, and trade names. The general interpretation also includes software and other intangible computer based assets; these are all examples of intangible assets. Intangible assets generally—though not necessarily—suffer from typical market failures of non-rivalry and non-excludability.

Asset Swap refers to an exchange of tangible for intangible assets, in accountancy, or, in finance, to the exchange of the flow of payments from a given security (the asset) for a different set of cash flows.

Performance Attribution is a set of techniques that performance analysts use to explain why a portfolio's performance differed from the benchmark. This difference between the portfolio return and the benchmark return is known as the active return. The active return is the component of a portfolio's performance that arises from the fact that the portfolio is actively managed.

Benchmarking is comparing one's business processes and performance metrics to industry bests and best practices from other companies. Dimensions typically measured are quality, time and cost. In the process of best practice benchmarking, management identifies the best firms in their industry, or in another industry where similar processes exist, and compares the results and processes of those studied (the "targets") to one's own results and processes. In this way, they learn how well the targets perform and, more importantly, the business processes that explain why these firms are successful. Be very careful of who you are comparing yourself to, making comparisons to things that are not relevant or things that have not been accurately measured, could make your comparisons inaccurate and misleading.

Performance Metric measures an organization's behavior, activities, and performance. performance against customer requirements and value. assess the health of the project and consist of the measuring of seven criteria: safety, time, cost, resources, scope, quality, and actions.

Financial Analysis refers to an assessment of the viability, stability, and profitability of a business, sub-business or project. It is performed by professionals who prepare reports using ratios that make use of information taken from financial statements and other reports. These reports are usually presented to top management as one of their bases in making business decisions. Financial analysis may determine if a business will: Continue or discontinue its main operation or part of its business; Make or purchase certain materials in the manufacture of its product; Acquire or rent/lease certain machineries and equipment in the production of its goods; Issue stocks or negotiate for a bank loan to increase its working capital; Make decisions regarding investing or lending capital; Make other decisions that allow management to make an informed selection on various alternatives in the conduct of its business. Financial analysts often assess the following elements of a firm: 1. Profitability - its ability to earn income and sustain growth in both the short- and long-term. A company's degree of profitability is usually based on the income statement, which reports on the company's results of operations; 2. Solvency - its ability to pay its obligation to creditors and other third parties in the long-term; 3. Liquidity - its ability to maintain positive cash flow, while satisfying immediate obligations; Both 2 and 3 are based on the company's balance sheet, which indicates the financial condition of a business as of a given point in time. 4. Stability - the firm's ability to remain in business in the long run, without having to sustain significant losses in the conduct of its business. Assessing a company's stability requires the use of both the income statement and the balance sheet, as well as other financial and non-financial indicators. etc. Financial analysts often compare financial ratios (of solvency, profitability, growth, etc.): Past Performance - Across historical time periods for the same firm (the last 5 years for example). Future Performance - Using historical figures and certain mathematical and statistical techniques, including present and future values, This extrapolation method is the main source of errors in financial analysis as past statistics can be poor predictors of future prospects. Comparative Performance - Comparison between similar firms. These ratios are calculated by dividing a (group of) account balance(s), taken from the balance sheet and/or the income statement, by another, for example: Net income / equity = return on equity (ROE). Net income / total assets = return on assets (ROA). Stock price / earnings per share = P/E ratio. Comparing financial ratios is merely one way of conducting financial analysis. Financial ratios face several theoretical challenges: They say little about the firm's prospects in an absolute sense. Their insights about relative performance require a reference point from other time periods or similar firms. One ratio holds little meaning. As indicators, ratios can be logically interpreted in at least two ways. One can partially overcome this problem by combining several related ratios to paint a more comprehensive picture of the firm's performance. Seasonal factors may prevent year-end values from being representative. A ratio's values may be distorted as account balances change from the beginning to the end of an accounting period. Use average values for such accounts whenever possible. Financial ratios are no more objective than the accounting methods employed. Changes in accounting policies or choices can yield drastically different ratio values. Fundamental analysis. Financial analysts can also use percentage analysis which involves reducing a series of figures as a percentage of some base amount. For example, a group of items can be expressed as a percentage of net income. When proportionate changes in the same figure over a given time period expressed as a percentage is known as horizontal analysis. Vertical or common-size analysis reduces all items on a statement to a “common size” as a percentage of some base value which assists in comparability with other companies of different sizes. As a result, all Income Statement items are divided by Sales, and all Balance Sheet items are divided by Total Assets. Another method is comparative analysis. This provides a better way to determine trends. Comparative analysis presents the same information for two or more time periods and is presented side-by-side to allow for easy analysis. Financial Audit.

Business Valuation is a process and a set of procedures used to estimate the economic value of an owner's interest in a business. Valuation is used by financial market participants to determine the price they are willing to pay or receive to effect a sale of a business. In addition to estimating the selling price of a business, the same valuation tools are often used by business appraisers to resolve disputes related to estate and gift taxation, divorce litigation, allocate business purchase price among business assets, establish a formula for estimating the value of partners' ownership interest for buy-sell agreements, and many other business and legal purposes such as in shareholders deadlock, divorce litigation and estate contest. In some cases, the court would appoint a forensic accountant as the joint expert doing the business valuation.

Securities Fraud is a deceptive practice in the stock or commodities markets that induces investors to make purchase or sale decisions on the basis of false information, frequently resulting in losses, in violation of securities laws. Fraud.

Net Present Value is the summation of the present (now) value of a series of present and future cash flows. Because NPV accounts for the time value of money NPV provides a method for evaluating and comparing products with cash flows spread over many years, as in loans, investments, payouts from insurance contracts plus many other applications.

Time Value of Money is the greater benefit of receiving money now rather than an identical sum later. It is founded on time preference. The time value of money explains why interest is paid or earned: Interest, whether it is on a bank deposit or debt, compensates the depositor or lender for the time value of money. It also underlies investment. Investors are willing to forgo spending their money now only if they expect a favorable return on their investment in the future, such that the increased value to be available later is sufficiently high to offset the preference to have money now.

Rate of Return return is a profit on an investment. It comprises any change in value of the investment, and/or cash flows which the investor receives from the investment, such as interest payments or dividends. It may be measured either in absolute terms (e.g., dollars) or as a percentage of the amount invested. The latter is also called the holding period return. A loss instead of a profit is described as a negative return, assuming the amount invested is greater than zero. Rate of return is a profit on an investment over a period of time, expressed as a proportion of the original investment. The time period is typically a year, in which case the rate of return is referred to as annual return. To compare returns over time periods of different lengths on an equal basis, it is useful to convert each return into an annualised return. This conversion process is called annualisation, described below. Return on investment (ROI) is return per dollar invested. It is a measure of investment performance, as opposed to size (c.f. return on equity, return on assets, return on capital employed).

Return on Investment is a ratio between the net profit and cost of investment resulting from an investment of some resources. A high ROI means the investment's gains favorably to its cost. As a performance measure, ROI is used to evaluate the efficiency of an investment or to compare the efficiencies of several different investments. In purely economic terms, it is one way of relating profits to capital invested. Return on investment is a performance measure used by businesses to identify the efficiency of an investment or number of different investments.

Investment Management is the professional asset management of various securities (shares, bonds, and other securities) and other assets (e.g., real estate) in order to meet specified investment goals for the benefit of the investors. Investors may be institutions (insurance companies, pension funds, corporations, charities, educational establishments etc.) or private investors (both directly via investment contracts and more commonly via collective investment schemes e.g. mutual funds or exchange-traded funds).

Wealth Management is an investment-advisory discipline which incorporates financial planning, investment portfolio management and a number of aggregated financial services offered by a complex mix of asset managers, custodial banks, retail banks, financial planners and others.

Accounting Liquidity is a measure of the ability of a debtor to pay their debts as and when they fall due. It is usually expressed as a ratio or a percentage of current liabilities. Liquidity is the ability to pay short-term obligations.

Quick Ratio measures the ability of a company to use its near cash or quick assets to extinguish or retire its current liabilities immediately. It is defined as the ratio between quickly available or liquid assets and c