Manage is to effectively control a system of actions in order to achieve a goal. To be in charge of an operation and to supervise people who are following planned procedures. To be responsible for productions and to be successful with the quality and the outputs of that particular business.

Time Management - Project Management - Process Management - Knowledge Management - Risk Management - Quality Management - Employee Management - Financial Management - City Management - Country Management - Property Management - Poor Management

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You cannot manage what you do not measure. And knowing how to count is almost useless if you don't count the things that matter. Whether you're managing a business or managing your life, management skills can be applied to almost any problem. So the question is, can you manage that?

Corporate Responsibility - To Serve - Responsibilities - Working Together - Collaborations - Best Practice - Safety - Quality Control - Maintenance - Scheduling - Priorities - Business Plan - Planning - Proposals - Production - Math - RiskSales - Downtime - Balance - Documentation - Problem Solving - Presentations - Charts - Graphs - Customer Service - Care - Service - Oaths - Employees - Incentivizing - Inspiration - Background Check - Power Structure - Corporate Titles - Freelancers - Organized - Engineering

Functioning is something that performs a task productively, or is able to perform a regular function as expected when applied. To serve a purpose, role, or function.

Doing BusinessBusiness is the activity of providing goods and services, or an organizational entity involved in the provision of goods and services to consumers. Businesses serve as a form of economic activity, and are prevalent in capitalist economies, where most of them are privately owned and provide goods and services allocated through a market to consumers and customers in exchange for other goods, services, money, or other forms of exchange that hold intrinsic economic value. Business is also known as an enterprise, or a company, or a firm. Businesses may also be social non-profit enterprises or state-owned public enterprises operated by governments with specific social and economic objectives. A business owned by multiple private individuals may form as an incorporated company or jointly organize as a partnership. The word "business" can refer to a particular organization or to an entire market sector or business sector. Compound forms such as "agribusiness" represent subsets of the concept's broader meaning, which encompasses all activity by suppliers of goods and services. Businesses aim to maximize sales to have their income exceed their expenditures, resulting in a profit, gain or surplus. Most businesses have a rightful concern to be responsible to customers collectively, and make decisions collectively.

Big Business involves large-scale corporate-controlled financial or business activities. As a term, it describes activities that run from "huge transactions" to the more general "doing big things". The concept first arose in a symbolic sense after 1880 in connection with the combination movement that began in American business at that time. United States corporations that fall into the category of "big business" as of 2015 include ExxonMobil, Wal-Mart, Google, Microsoft, Apple, General Electric, General Motors, Citigroup, Goldman Sachs and JPMorgan Chase. The largest German corporations as of 2012 included Daimler AG, Deutsche Telekom, Siemens and Deutsche Bank.  Among the largest companies in the United Kingdom as of 2012 are HSBC, Barclays, WPP plc and BP. The latter half of the 19th century saw more technological advances and corporate growth in additional sectors, such as petroleum, machinery, chemicals, and electrical equipment.

Company is an institution created to conduct business. A band of people associated temporarily in some activity.

Business Man is a person who manages or runs a business or works in business or in commerce, sometimes at an executive level and sometimes with a specified level of skill in financial matters. A businessperson can be an individual who has founded, owns, or holds shares in a private-sector company. A businessperson undertakes activities either commercial or industrial to generate cash flow, sales, and revenue by using a combination of human, financial, intellectual, and physical capital to fuel economic development and growth. A fake business man or a fraudulent business person is someone who lies about how much money they have or pretends to be successful in order to hide the truth or to cover up failures, crimes and insecurities. A business man can be a criminal when the type of business they do does more harm than good.

"Life is a business that does not cover the costs." Arthur Schopenhauer (wiki)

Operation is a planned activity involving many people performing various actions. A process or a series of acts especially of a practical or mechanical nature involved in a particular form of work. A process or a manner of functioning or operating and performing as expected when applied. The performance of some composite cognitive activity; an operation that affects mental contents.

Organization is an entity—such as a company, an institution, or an association—comprising one or more people and having a particular purpose. There are a variety of legal types of organizations, including corporations, governments, non-governmental organizations, political organizations, international organizations, armed forces, charities, not-for-profit corporations, partnerships, cooperatives, and educational institutions, etc. A hybrid organization is a body that operates in both the public sector and the private sector simultaneously, fulfilling public duties and developing commercial market activities.

Management Word CloudOrganization in management is the establishment of effective authority relationships among selected works, persons and work places in order for the group to work together efficiently, or the process of dividing work into sections and departments. The organizing of information could be noticed since human beings learned to write in the 4th millennium BC. Prior to that, history was passed down only through song and word. The following are the important characteristics of organization: Specialization and division of work. The entire philosophy of organization is centered on the concepts of specialization and division of work. The division of work is assigning responsibility for each organizational component to a specific individual or group thereof. It becomes specialization when the responsibility for a specific task lies with a designated expert in that field. The efforts of the operatives are coordinated to allow the process at hand to function correctly. Certain operatives occupy positions of management at various points in the process to ensure coordination. Orientation towards goals. Every organization has its own purposes and objectives. Organizing is the function employed to achieve the overall goals of the organization. Organization harmonizes the individual goals of the employees with overall objectives of the firm. Composition of individuals and groups. Individuals forms a group and the groups forms an organization. Thus, organization is the composition of individual and groups. Individuals are grouped into departments and their work is coordinated and directed towards organizational goals. Continuity. An organization is a group of people with a defined relationship in which they work together to achieve the goals of that organization. This relationship does not come to end after completing each task. Organization is a never ending process. Flexibility. The organizing process should be flexible so that any change can be incorporated easily. It ensures the ability to adapt and adjust the activities in response to the change taking place in the external environment. The programs, policies and strategies can be changed as and when required if the provision for flexibility is made in the organizing process. Helps to achieve organizational goal. Organization is employed to achieve the overall objectives of business firms. Organization focuses attention of individual’s objectives towards overall objectives. Optimum use of resources. To make optimum use of resources such as men, material, money, machine and method, it is necessary to design an organization properly. Work should be divided equally and qualified people should be given the right jobs to reduce the wastage of resources in an organization. To perform managerial function. Planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling cannot be implemented without proper organization. Facilitates growth and diversification. A good organization structure is essential for expanding a business activities. Organization structure determines the input resources needed for expansion of a business activity; similarly organization is essential for product diversification such as establishing a new product line. it also stimulates creativity in managers by organizing. Humane treatment of employees. Organization has to operate for the betterment of employees and must not encourage monotony of work due to higher degree of specialization. Now, organization has adapted the modern concept of systems approach based on human relations and it discards the traditional productivity and specialization approach. Organizing is the management function that follows after planning, it involves the assignment of tasks, the grouping of tasks into departments and the assignment of authority with adequate responsibility and allocation of resources across the organization to achieve common goals. Organizing involves the establishment of an intentional structure of roles through determination and enumeration of the activities required to achieve the goals of an enterprise. These roles include, the grouping of these activities, the assignment of such groups of activities to managers, the delegation of authority to carry them out, and the provision for coordination of authority and informal relationships. Structure. The framework in which the organization defines how tasks are divided, resources are deployed, and departments are coordinated. A set of formal tasks assigned to individuals and departments. Formal reporting relationships, including lines of authority, decision responsibility, number of hierarchical levels and span of managers control. The design of systems to ensure effective coordination of employees across departments. Work specialization or division of labor or job specialization, is the degree to which organizational tasks are sub-divided into individual jobs. The pros to work specialization are that it may increase the efficiency of workers by only having a certain amount of tasks to focus on and complete. Also while becoming more skilled in whichever task they are completing. As opposed to having a large amount of tasks to accomplish and not being able to thoroughly complete those tasks. When split up, it lightens the load on all of the workers, while also giving a chance for them to give their all to said task. However, with too much specialization, employees may feel isolated and bored. Many organizations enlarge jobs or rotate assigned tasks to provide greater challenges. Chain of command is used for the purposes of overall responsibility and accountability in achieving the stated goals and objectives through the use of orders and reports. This is shown graphical through vertical lines that represent order in one direction and reports of compliance in the other direction. Chain of command differs from lines of an organization because lines of an organization most often represent the communication and coordinating lines. These are shown on a graph as horizontal lines of organization. Chain of command (also referred to as 'scalar principle') states that a clear, unbroken chain of command should link every employee with someone at a higher level, all the way to the top of the organization. This helps to maintain authority, responsibility and accountability. Authority is a manager's formal and legitimate right to make decisions, issue orders, and allocate resources to achieve organizationally desired outcomes. A person with authority has the power to give orders, make decisions and enforce obedience. Responsibility means an employee's duty to perform assigned task or activities. A person with a responsibility is someone who is being held accountable or to blame for something. Accountability means that those with authority and responsibility must report and justify task outcomes to those above them in the chain of command. Someone with accountability has an obligation to accept responsibility for one's action, and is to blame for any mishaps. Line authority - managers have the formal power to direct and control immediate subordinates. The superior issues orders and is responsible for the result and the subordinate obeys and is responsible only for executing the order according to instructions. Functional authority - is where managers have formal power over a specific subset of activities. For instance, the Production Manager may have the line authority to decide whether and when a new machine is needed but the Controller demands that a Capital Expenditure Proposal is submitted first, showing that the investment will have a yield of at least x%; or, a legal department may have functional authority to interfere in any activity that could have legal consequences. This authority would not be functional but it would rather be staff authority if such interference is "advice" rather than "order". Staff authority - is granted to staff specialists in their areas of expertise. It is not a real authority in the sense that a staff manager does not order or instruct but simply advises, recommends, and counsels in the staff specialists' area of expertise and is responsible only for the quality of the advice (to be in line with the respective professional standards etc.) It is a communication relationship with management. It has an influence that derives indirectly from line authority at a higher level. Line and Staff Authority - is the combination of Line organization and Staff organization. Such organization follows both the principles of scalar chain of command and there is a provision for specialized activities to be performed by staff officers who act in an advisory capacity. Direct single relationship - A relationship that is easily and clearly recognizable between management and subordinates. Direct group relationships - A direct relationship between a supervisor and his subordinates jointly. Cross relationship - A mutual relationship between two subordinates. Factors influencing larger span of management. Work performed by subordinates is stable and routine. Subordinates perform similar work tasks. Subordinates are concentrated in a single location. Subordinates are highly trained and need little direction in performing tasks. Rules and procedures defining task activities are available. Support systems and personnel are available for the managers. Little time is required in non-supervisory activities such as coordination with other departments or planning. Managers' personal preferences and styles favor a large span. Tall versus flat structure. Tall - A management structure characterized by an overall narrow span of management and a relatively large number of hierarchical levels. Tight control. Reduced communication overhead. Flat - A management structure characterized by a wide span of control and relatively few hierarchical levels. Loose control. Facilitates delegation. Centralization, decentralization, and formalization. Decision making processes are chosen depending on what decision is being made. Centralization - The location of decision-making authority near top organizational levels. Decentralization - The location of decision-making authority near lower organizational levels. Formalization - The written documentation used to direct and control employees. Departmentalization is the basis on which individuals are grouped into departments and departments into total organizations. Approach options include: Functional - By common skills and work task. Divisional - Common product, program or geographical location. Matrix - Combination of Functional and Divisional. Team - To accomplish specific tasks. Network - Departments are independent providing functions for a central core breaker. Examples of departments in a corporate office may be: production, marketing, finance, human resource, research and development and more. These departments are sectioned off and organized/managed by the executive of that department. This gives the department more control and efficiency. Importance of organizing. Organizations are often troubled by how to organize, particularly when a new strategy is developed. Changing market conditions or new technology requires a change. Organizations seek efficiencies through improvements in organizing. It ensures that objectives are accomplished thoroughly. Increase efficiency by improving the flow of communication within an organization. Delegation is the transfer of authority and/or responsibility to others, often lower in position. Delegation can improve flexibility to meet customers’ needs and adapt to competitive environments. Possible reasons for delegation: 1. Efficiency - Amount of time to complete a task can be considerably reduce with multiple people working on it compared to one. 2. Specialization - Allows people with the most qualifications and knowledge to complete a specific and more complex task. 3. Training - Assigning a task to a trainee or new members so they can gain first hand knowledge and experience.

Management Styles

People in Meeting talking about Business Management refers to the individuals who set the strategy of the organization and coordinate the efforts of employees, volunteers or voluntary organizations to accomplish objectives by using available human, financial and other resources efficiently and effectively. Resourcing encompasses the deployment and manipulation of human resources, financial resources, technological resources, natural resources and other resources. Management is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a not-for-profit organization, or government body. Management includes the activities of setting the strategy of an organization and coordinating the efforts of its employees (or of volunteers) to accomplish its objectives through the application of available resources, such as financial, natural, technological, and human resources. The term "management" may also refer to those people who manage an organization—managers. Management involves identifying the mission, objective, procedures, rules and manipulation of the human capital of an enterprise to contribute to the success of the enterprise. functions: planning (forecasting), organizing, commanding, coordinating, controlling. Most organizations have three management levels: first-level, middle-level, and top-level managers. Management skills include: political: used to build a power base and to establish connections, conceptual: used to analyze complex situations, interpersonal: used to communicate, motivate, mentor and delegate, diagnostic: ability to visualize appropriate responses to a situation, leadership: ability to lead and to provide guidance to a specific group, cross-cultural leadership: ability to understand the effects of culture on leadership style, technical: expertise in one's particular functional area. behavioral: perception towards others. Principles of management: Division of work - In practice, employees are specialized in different areas and they have different skills. Different levels of expertise can be distinguished within the knowledge areas (from generalist to specialist). Personal and professional developments support this. According to Henri Fayol specialization promotes efficiency of the workforce and increases productivity. In addition, the specialization of the workforce increases their accuracy and speed. This management principle of the 14 principles of management is applicable to both technical and managerial activities. Authority and Responsibility - According to Henri Fayol, the accompanying power or authority gives the management the right to give orders to the subordinates. Discipline - This principle is about obedience. It is often a part of the core values of a mission and vision in the form of good conduct and respectful interactions. Unity of command - Every employee should receive orders from only one superior or behalf of the superior. Unity of direction - Each group of organisational activities that have the same objective should be directed by one manager using one plan for achievement of one common goal. Subordination of Individual Interest to General Interest - The interests of any one employee or group of employees should not take precedence over the interests of the organization as a whole. Remuneration - All Workers must be paid a fair wage for their services. The wages paid must be as per a certain standard of living to the employee at the same time it is within the paying capacity of the company. Centralization and Decentralization - This refers to the degree to which subordinates are involved in decision making. Scalar chain - The line of authority from top management to the lowest ranks represents the scalar chain. Communications should follow this chain. However if someone needs to communicate some other person in emergency he/she might use "Gang Plank". Fayol suggested the concept of ‘Gang Plank’ to avoid delays and allow direct communication between two subordinates at the same level. Order - this principle is concerned with systematic arrangement of men, machine, material etc. There should be a specific place for every employee in an organization. That is 'a place for everything (people) and everything has a place'. Equity - All the employees in the organization must be treated equally with respect to the justice and kindliness. Stability of tenure of personnel - High employee turnover is inefficient. Management should provide orderly personnel planning and ensure that replacements are available to fill vacancies. Initiative - Employees who are allowed to originate and carry out plans will exert high levels of effort. Esprit de corps - Promoting team spirit will build harmony and unity within the organization.

Knowledge Management - City Management - Development - Leadership Skills - Business - Business Intelligence

Core Competency is a concept in management theory that is defined as a harmonized combination of multiple resources and skills that distinguish a firm in the marketplace and therefore are the foundation of companies' competitiveness. Core competencies fulfill three criteria: Provides potential access to a wide variety of markets. Should make a significant contribution to the perceived customer benefits of the end product. Difficult to imitate by competitors. For example, a company's core competencies may include precision mechanics, fine optics, and micro-electronics. These help it build cameras, but may also be useful in making other products that require these competencies.

Run a Tight Ship means that everything on the ship, down to the smallest details, is orderly and controlled. This term can also be used to describe a properly managed organization or operation that is tightly controlled and having no lose ends that could cause problems or mistakes. The original expression was used to describe a ship with taught or tight ropes and well caulked seams, which means that the ship is properly maintained and in control and ready for sail, as well as being prepared for dangers of the sea.

Loose is something lacking a sense of restraint or responsibility. Not carefully arranged in a package. Not tight and not closely constrained, constricted or constricting. Not compact or dense in structure or arrangement. Not tense or taut. Not affixed. Full of small openings or gaps.

"Anything that's human is mentionable, and anything that is mentionable can be more manageable." - Fred Rogers.

Senior Management is a team of individuals at the highest level of management of an organization who have the day-to-day tasks of managing that organization.

Senior Management is generally individuals at the highest level of management of an organization who have the day-to-day tasks of managing that organization—sometimes a company or a corporation. Possible tasks include: ensuring the organization is effective and successful by taking on responsibility for the implementation of an appropriate strategy that the organization can adapt to, effectively managing the demands of stakeholders, giving clear definitions of what constitutes effectiveness and success, ensuring the implementation of the strategy and the targeting of resources towards success, reviewing if their actions are relevant to the organization's overall goals. Executive Management (operating officers)

Middle Management is the intermediate management of a hierarchical organization that is subordinate to the executive management and responsible for at least two lower levels of junior staff. Unlike the line management, middle management is considered to be a senior (or semi-executive) management position, with respective salary and a package of benefits. Middle managers' main duty is to implement company strategy in the most efficient way. Their duties include creating an effective working environment, administrating the work process, making sure it is compliant with organization's requirements, leading people and reporting to the highest level of management. Entry Level.

Concepts Management is the process of planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordinating and controlling the activities of business enterprises. It is also described as the technique of leadership, decision making and a mean of coordinating. Balance.

Intelligent Management is the process of managing and organizing the collection of intelligence from various sources. Real-Time Business intelligence is a concept describing the process of delivering business intelligence (BI) or information about business operations as they occur. Real time means near to zero latency and access to information whenever it is required.

Scientific Management analyzes and synthesizes workflows to improve economic efficiency, especially labor productivity.

Adaptive Management is a structured, iterative process of robust decision making in the face of uncertainty, with an aim to reducing uncertainty over time via system monitoring. In this way, decision making simultaneously meets one or more resource management objectives and, either passively or actively, accrues information needed to improve future management. Adaptive management is a tool which should be used not only to change a system, but also to learn about the system (Holling 1978). Because adaptive management is based on a learning process, it improves long-run management outcomes. The challenge in using the adaptive management approach lies in finding the correct balance between gaining knowledge to improve management in the future and achieving the best short-term outcome based on current knowledge.

Strategic Management involves the formulation and implementation of the major goals and initiatives taken by a company's top management on behalf of owners, based on consideration of resources and an assessment of the internal and external environments in which the organization competes. It involves specifying the organization's objectives, developing policies and plans designed to achieve these objectives, and then allocating resources to implement the plans.

Management Consulting is the practice of helping organizations to improve their performance. Organizations may draw upon the services of management consultants for a number of reasons, including gaining external (and presumably objective) advice and access to the consultants' specialized expertise. As a result of their exposure to, and relationships with numerous organizations, consulting firms are typically aware of industry "best practices." However, the specific nature of situations under consideration may limit the ability to transfer such practices from one organization to another. Consultancies may also provide organizational change management assistance, development of coaching skills, process analysis, technology implementation, strategy development, or operational improvement services. Management consultants often bring their own proprietary methodologies or frameworks to guide the identification of problems, and to serve as the basis for recommendations for more effective or efficient ways of performing work tasks.

Self-Manage (self directing, responsible, accountable, aware, and taking care of yourself)

Workers Self-Management is a form of organizational management based on self-directed work processes on the part of an organization's workforce. Self-management is a characteristic of many forms of socialism, with proposals for self-management having appeared many times throughout the history of the socialist movement, advocated variously by market socialists, communists, and anarchists. Worker Coops.

Line Management refers to the management of employees who are directly involved in the production or delivery of products, goods and/or services. As the interface between an organization and its front-line workforce, line management represents the lowest level of management within an organizational hierarchy (as distinct from top/executive/senior management and middle management). A line manager is an employee who directly manages other employees and operations while reporting to a higher-ranking manager. Related job titles are supervisor, section leader, foreperson and team leader. He or she is charged with meeting corporate objectives in a specific functional area or line of business. As an example, one type of line management at an automobile conglomerate might be the "light truck division", or even more specifically, the "light truck marketing line". Similarly, one type of line management at a financial services firm might be "retention marketing" or "state municipal bond funds". Line managers are responsible for implementing and enabling, through their staff, an organization's people policies and practices in alignment with business objectives and core values. Their main functions with respect to employees include: recruitment and selection, training, mentoring, coaching and staff development, performance management and appraisal, motivation, well-being, team building. Line managers' activities typically include: planning the aims, objectives and priorities of their work area and communicating this to staff as appropriate; deploying the resources within their control (e.g., staff time; funding) to achieve plans; complying with policy and legislation; providing structure, direction and purpose to their teams; scheduling regular meetings with staff members to discuss progress and any issues. Line management is also responsible for adopting (with the support of senior management) any type of organizational culture change. The line management function will often cross into other functions vital to the success of a business such as human resources, finance, and risk management. Indeed, at corporations, responsibility for risk management is vested with line management. Human resources obligations are also increasingly being assigned or "devolved" to line managers. Automation (engineering) - Autonomous.

"It's not so much a world without managers, it's a world with more clear instructions and more awareness of the future. We still need managers, but we also need more people who can manage themselves, which means better training and better educational services."

Micro-Management is a management style whereby a manager closely observes or controls the work of subordinates or employees and tries to tell everyone what to do, and also tries to be involved with every decision by overstepping middle management without consulting first and without implementing any positive feedback channels or any knowledge sharing strategies. There's nothing wrong with pointing out inefficiencies or waste, and there's nothing wrong with criticizing certain aspects of an operation that seem illogical or abusive, but there is no need to be an asshole about it.

Nitpicking - Hypocrite - Bully - Toxic Leadership - Control Freak - Obsessive Compulsive - Megalomania

Turnaround Management is a process dedicated to corporate renewal. It uses analysis and planning to save troubled companies and returns them to solvency, and to identify the reasons for failing performance in the market, and rectify them. Turnaround management involves management review, root failure causes analysis, and SWOT analysis to determine why the company is failing. Once gdg analysis is completed, a long term strategic plan and restructuring plan are created. These plans may or may not involve a bankruptcy filing. Once approved, turnaround professionals begin to implement the plan, continually reviewing its progress and make changes to the plan as needed to ensure the company returns to solvency.

Decentralization is the process of distributing or dispersing functions, powers, people or things away from a central location and away from being under control of a single authority so as to avoid corruption, system catastrophic failures or total collapse. Bitcoin.

Matrix Management is the practice of managing individuals with more than one reporting line (in a matrix organization structure), but it is also commonly used to describe managing cross functional, cross business group and other forms of working that cross the traditional vertical business units – often silos - of function and geography. Key advantages that organizations seek when introducing a matrix include: To break business information silos - to increase cooperation and communication across the traditional silos and unlock resources and talent that are currently inaccessible to the rest of the organization. To deliver work across the business more effectively – to serve global customers, manage supply chains that extend outside the organization, and run integrated business regions, functions and processes. To be able to respond more flexibly – to reflect the importance of both the global and the local, the business and the function in the structure, and to respond quickly to changes in markets and priorities. To develop broader people capabilities – a matrix helps develop individuals with broader perspectives and skills who can deliver value across the business and manage in a more complex and interconnected environment. Key disadvantages of matrix organizations include: Mid-level management having multiple supervisors can be confusing, in that competing agendas and emphases can pull employees in different directions, which can lower productivity. Mid-level management can become frustrated with what appears to be a lack of clarity with priorities. Mid-level management can become over-burdened with the diffusion of priorities. Supervisory management can find it more difficult to achieve results within their area of expertise with subordinate staff being pulled in different directions. Advantages and disadvantages in a project management situation. The advantages of a matrix for project management can include: Individuals can be chosen according to the needs of the project. The use of a project team that is dynamic and able to view problems in a different way as specialists have been brought together in a new environment. Project managers are directly responsible for completing the project within a specific deadline and budget. The disadvantages for project management can include: A conflict of loyalty between line managers and project managers over the allocation of resources. Projects can be difficult to monitor if teams have a lot of independence. Costs can be increased if more managers (i.e. project managers) are created through the use of project teams. Organizational efficiencies are very difficult to identify because benchmarking headcount against revenue (or output) is not possible due to the scattered nature of the supporting functions.

Collaboration - Working Together

Management System is the framework of policies, processes and procedures used by an organization to ensure that it can fulfill all the tasks required to achieve its objectives. PDF.

Content Management System - CMS

Management Science is the broad interdisciplinary study of problem solving and decision making in human organizations, with strong links to management, economics, business, engineering, management consulting, and other fields. It uses various scientific research-based principles, strategies, and analytical methods including mathematical modeling, statistics and numerical algorithms to improve an organization's ability to enact rational and accurate management decisions by arriving at optimal or near optimal solutions to complex decision problems. Management science helps businesses to achieve goals using various scientific methods. The field was initially an outgrowth of applied mathematics, where early challenges were problems relating to the optimization of systems which could be modeled linearly, i.e., determining the optima (maximum value of profit, assembly line performance, crop yield, bandwidth, etc. or minimum of loss, risk, costs, etc.) of some objective function. Today, management science encompasses any organizational activity for which a problem is structured in mathematical form to generate managerially relevant insights.

Management Science Journal is a peer-reviewed academic journal that covers research on all aspects of management related to strategy, entrepreneurship, innovation, information technology, and organizations as well as all functional areas of business, such as accounting, finance, marketing, and operations. It is published by the Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences and was established in 1954 by the Institute's precursor, The Institute of Management Sciences.

Management Basics (gov)

Subscription Business Model is a business model where a customer must pay a subscription price to have access to a product or service. The model was pioneered by magazines and newspapers, but is now used by many businesses and websites.

Recurring Billing Management
E-Commerce Management
Subscription Billing
Billing and Payments Software
Subscription Billing Solutions

Business Model is an abstract representation of an organization, be it conceptual, textual, and/or graphical, of all core interrelated architectural, co-operational, and financial arrangements designed and developed by an organization presently and in the future, as well as all core products and/or services the organization offers, or will offer, based on these arrangements that are needed to achieve its strategic goals and objective.

Business Practices are a set of guidelines, ethics, or ideas that represent the most efficient or prudent course of action in a given business situation. Business practices includes discovering and utilizing the optimal ways of operating to reach your business objectives. The process involves staying on top of the newest operating trends of successful businesses and comparing them to your ways of handling those same operations. Other good business practices include, engaging your employees. Studies have found that 68% of employees are disengaged in their work. Adopt flexible work policies. Lead by example or be the example. Develop an open management style. Reward achievement or publicly reward and recognize hard work. Focus on alignment. Communicate a clear mission and strategy. Hold regular check-in meetings. Be consistent. Focus on clarity, accuracy and thoroughness in communication. Set the goal of working as a team. Never go with 'one-size-fits-all. Remain as transparent as possible. Encourage all opinions and ideas.

Risk - Liabilities

Risk Chart Risk Management is the identification, assessment, and prioritization of risks by coordinated and economical application of resources to minimize, monitor, and control the probability and/or impact of unfortunate events or to maximize the realization of opportunities. Risk management’s objective is to assure uncertainty does not deflect the endeavor from the business goals.

Precautionary Principle states that if there is the possibility of harm from making a certain decision or taking a particular course of action, then governments, law makers and corporations have a social responsibility to protect the public from exposure to such harm, especially when scientific investigation has found a plausible risk. These protections should only be relaxed if further scientific findings emerge that provide sound evidence that no harm will result. For example, a government may decide to limit or restrict the widespread release of a medicine or new technology until it has been thoroughly tested. The principle acknowledges that while the progress of science and technology has often brought great benefit to humanity, it has also contributed to the creation of new threats and risks.

Duty of Care - Negligence - Statistics

Actuary is a person who compiles and analyzes statistics and uses them to calculate insurance risks and premiums. A business professional who deals with the measurement and management of Risk and uncertainty. 

Research - When the risks far outweigh the benefits.

Risk Assessment is the determination of quantitative or qualitative estimate of risk related to a well-defined situation and a recognized threat (also called hazard) Quantitative risk assessment requires calculations of two components of risk (R): the magnitude of the potential loss (L), and the probability (p) that the loss will occur. An acceptable risk is a risk that is understood and tolerated usually because the cost or difficulty of implementing an effective countermeasure for the associated vulnerability exceeds the expectation of loss. "Health risk assessment" includes variations, such as risk as the type and severity of response, with or without a probabilistic context. A risk assessment is a process to identify potential hazards and analyze what could happen if a hazard occurs. A business impact analysis (BIA) is the process for determining the potential impacts resulting from the interruption of time sensitive or critical business processes. Common risk assessment tools are risk matrix, decision tree, failure modes and effects analysis, and bowtie model. Other risk assessment techniques include what-if analysis, failure tree analysis, and hazard operability analysis.

Risk Perception is the subjective judgment that people make about the characteristics and severity of a risk. The phrase is most commonly used in reference to natural hazards and threats to the environment or health, such as nuclear power. Several theories have been proposed to explain why different people make different estimates of the dangerousness of risks.

Risk Taking - Gambling - Adventures

Risk-Benefit Ratio is the ratio of the risk of an action to its potential benefits. Risk–benefit analysis is analysis that seeks to quantify the risk and benefits and hence their ratio. Analyzing a risk can be heavily dependent on the human factor. A certain level of risk in our lives is accepted as necessary to achieve certain benefits. For example, driving an automobile is a risk most people take daily, also since it is mitigated by the controlling factor of their perception of their individual ability to manage the risk-creating situation. When individuals are exposed to involuntary risk (a risk over which they have no control), they make risk aversion their primary goal. Under these circumstances individuals require the probability of risk to be as much as one thousand times smaller than for the same situation under their perceived control (a notable example being the common bias in the perception of risk in flying vs. driving). Evaluations of future risk can be: Real future risk, as disclosed by the fully matured future circumstances when they develop. Statistical risk, as determined by currently available data, as measured actuarially for insurance premiums. Projected risk, as analytically based on system models structured from historical studies. Perceived risk, as intuitively seen by individuals. For research that involves more than minimal risk of harm to the subjects, the investigator must assure that the amount of benefit clearly outweighs the amount of risk. Only if there is a favorable risk–benefit ratio may a study be considered ethical.

Benefit Shortfall When the actual benefits of a venture are less than the projected or estimated benefits, the result is known as a benefit shortfall. If, for instance, a company is launching a new product or service and projected sales are 40 million dollars per year, whereas actual annual sales turn out to be only 30 million dollars, then the benefit shortfall is said to be 25 percent. Sometimes the terms "demand shortfall" or "revenue shortfall" are used instead of benefit shortfall. Public and private enterprises alike fall victim to benefit shortfalls. Prudent planning of new ventures will include the risk of benefit shortfalls in risk assessment and risk management. The discipline of benefits realization management seeks to identify any benefits shortfall as early as possible in a project or programmes delivery in order to allow corrective action to be taken, costs to be controlled and benefits realised.

Downside Risk is the financial risk associated with losses. That is, it is the risk of the actual return being below the expected return, or the uncertainty about the magnitude of that difference. Risk measures typically quantify the downside risk, whereas the standard deviation (an example of a deviation risk measure) measures both the upside and downside risk. Specifically, downside risk can be measured either with downside beta or by measuring lower semi-deviation. The statistic below-target semi-deviation or simply target semi-deviation (TSV) has become the industry standard. True Cost.

Hiding Hand Principle is a theory that offers a framework to examine how ignorance (particularly concerning future obstacles when person first decides to take on a project) intersects with rational choice to undertake a project; this intersection is seen to provoke creative success over the obstacles through the deduction that is too late to abandon the project.

Risk Aversion is the behavior of humans (especially consumers and investors), who, when exposed to uncertainty, attempt to lower that uncertainty. It is the hesitation of a person to agree to a situation with an unknown payoff rather than another situation with a more predictable payoff but possibly lower expected payoff. For example, a risk-averse investor might choose  to put their money into a bank account with a low but guaranteed interest rate, rather than into a stock that may have high expected returns, but also involves a chance of losing value. Risk averse (or risk avoiding) - if they would accept a certain payment (certainty equivalent) of less than $50 (for example, $40), rather than taking the gamble and possibly receiving nothing. Risk neutral - if they are indifferent between the bet and a certain $50 payment. Risk loving (or risk seeking) - if they would accept the bet even when the guaranteed payment is more than $50 (for example, $60).

Risk Neutral Preferences are preferences that are neither risk averse nor risk seeking. A risk neutral party's decisions are not affected by the degree of uncertainty in a set of outcomes, so a risk neutral party is indifferent between choices with equal expected payoffs even if one choice is riskier. For example, if offered either $50 or a 50% chance each of $100 and $0, a risk neutral person would have no preference. In contrast, a risk averse person would prefer the first offer, while a risk seeking person would prefer the second.

Ambiguity Aversion is a preference for known risks over unknown risks. An ambiguity-averse individual would rather choose an alternative where the probability distribution of the outcomes is known over one where the probabilities are unknown. This behavior was first introduced through the Ellsberg paradox (people prefer to bet on the outcome of an urn with 50 red and 50 blue balls rather than to bet on one with 100 total balls but for which the number of blue or red balls is unknown).

Ellsberg Paradox is a paradox in decision theory in which people's choices violate the postulates of subjective expected utility. It is generally taken to be evidence for ambiguity aversion.

Planning Fallacy is a phenomenon in which predictions about how much time will be needed to complete a future task display an optimism bias and underestimate the time needed. This phenomenon sometimes occurs regardless of the individual's knowledge that past tasks of a similar nature have taken longer to complete than generally planned. The bias only affects predictions about one's own tasks; when outside observers predict task completion times, they show a pessimistic bias, overestimating the time needed. The planning fallacy requires that predictions of current tasks' completion times are more optimistic than the beliefs about past completion times for similar projects and that predictions of the current tasks' completion times are more optimistic than the actual time needed to complete the tasks. In 2003, Lovallo and Kahneman proposed an expanded definition as the tendency to underestimate the time, costs, and risks of future actions and at the same time overestimate the benefits of the same actions. According to this definition, the planning fallacy results in not only time overruns, but also cost overruns and benefit shortfalls.

Optimism Bias describes a cognitive bias that causes someone to believe that they themselves are less likely to experience a negative event. It is also known as unrealistic optimism or comparative optimism.

When people are not held accountable and can operate above the law, that's when people die and the environment gets poisoned.

Business Continuity Planning is the process of creating systems of prevention and recovery to deal with potential threats to a company. Any event that could negatively impact operations is included in the plan, such as supply chain interruption, loss of or damage to critical infrastructure (major machinery or computing /network resource).

Business Simulation is simulation used for business training, education or analysis. It can be scenario-based or numeric-based.

Business Simulation Game accurate simulation of real-world events using algorithms,  as well as the close tying of players' actions to expected or plausible consequences and outcomes.

Risk Factoring - Cost - Measuring True Cost (value)

Regulatory Focus Theory refers to when a person pursues a goal in a way that maintains the person's own personal values and beliefs, or level of education and intelligence. Promotion-Focus is more concerned with higher level gains such as advancement and accomplishment. Prevention-Focus is based on safety and responsibilities, also known as non-losses.


Legal Liability means that you are responsible or answerable in law and legally obligated. Legal Liability is a legal-bound obligation. Something that politicians should have. Accountable.

Contingent Liability are liabilities that may be incurred by an entity depending on the outcome of an uncertain future event such as the outcome of a pending lawsuit. These liabilities are not recorded in a company's accounts and shown in the balance sheet when both probable and reasonably estimable as 'contingency' or 'worst case' financial outcome. A footnote to the balance sheet may describe the nature and extent of the contingent liabilities. The likelihood of loss is described as probable, reasonably possible, or remote. The ability to estimate a loss is described as known, reasonably estimable, or not reasonably estimable. It may or may not occur.

Negligence - Insurance - Risk

Public Liability is part of the law of tort which focuses on civil wrongs. An applicant (the injured party) usually sues the respondent (the owner or occupier) under common law based on Negligence and/or damages. Claims are usually successful when it can be shown that the owner/occupier was responsible for an injury, therefore they breached their duty of care. The duty of care is very complex, but in basic terms it is the standard by which one would expect to be treated whilst one is in the care of another. Once a breach of duty of care has been established, an action brought in a common law court would most likely be successful. Based on the injuries and the losses of the applicant the court would award a financial compensation package. Public Liability is not ignoring Duty of Care so to avoid negligence, damages, injuries or losses. But you also need to know more than the definition of responsibility, you must also fully understand life itself, the thing that you are responsible for. You can be responsible, but if you don't understand Life, or understand the cause and effects of your actions and inactions, then the only thing that you will be responsible for is destroying life and murdering people, and that is something you don't want on your resume.

Product Liability s the area of law in which manufacturers, distributors, suppliers, retailers, and others who make products available to the public are held responsible for the injuries those products cause. Although the word "product" has broad connotations, product liability as an area of law is traditionally limited to products in the form of tangible personal property.

Liability in financial accounting is defined as the future sacrifices of economic benefits that the entity is obliged to make to other entities as a result of past transactions or other past events, the settlement of which may result in the transfer or use of assets, provision of services or other yielding of economic benefits in the future. A liability is defined by the following characteristics: Any type of borrowing from persons or banks for improving a business or personal income that is payable during short or long time; A duty or responsibility to others that entails settlement by future transfer or use of assets, provision of services, or other transaction yielding an economic benefit, at a specified or determinable date, on occurrence of a specified event, or on demand; A duty or responsibility that obligates the entity to another, leaving it little or no discretion to avoid settlement; and, A transaction or event obligating the entity that has already occurred.

Current Liability are often understood as all liabilities of the business that are to be settled in cash within the fiscal year or the operating cycle of a given firm, whichever period is longer. Dept.

Long-Term Liabilities or non-current liabilities, are liabilities that are due beyond a year or the normal operation period of the company. The normal operation period is the amount of time it takes for a company to turn inventory into cash. On a classified balance sheet, liabilities are separated between current and long-term liabilities to help users assess the company's financial standing in short-term and long-term periods. Long-term liabilities give users more information about the long-term prosperity of the company,

Productivity - Engineering - Innovation

Network Management - Business Tools

Learning Organization - Community Learning

Flat Organization has an organizational structure with few or no levels of middle management between staff and executives. An organization's structure refers to the nature of the distribution of the units and positions within it, also to the nature of the relationships among those units and positions. Tall and flat organizations differ based on how many levels of management are present in the organization, and how much control managers are endowed with. Professional Organizers.

Employees - Workforce

Employees Employee contributes labor and expertise to an endeavor of an employer or of a person conducting a business or undertaking and is usually hired to perform specific duties which are packaged into a job. An employee is a person who is hired to provide services to a company on a regular basis in exchange for compensation.

Employment is a relationship between two parties, usually based on a contract where work is paid.

Incentives - Benefits - Professions - Education - Team Building - Collaborations

Labour Law mediates the relationship between workers, employing entities, trade unions and the government. Collective labour law relates to the tripartite relationship between employee, employer and union. Individual labour law concerns employees' rights at work and through the contract for work. Employment standards are social norms (in some cases also technical standards) for the minimum socially acceptable conditions under which employees or contractors are allowed to work. Government agencies (such as the former US Employment Standards Administration) enforce labour law (legislative, regulatory, or judicial).

Unions - Boycotts - Strikes - ActivismBreaks - Unemployment - Disabled - Injured - Work Place Safety - Burnout - Screening - Background Checks - Strikes.

Types of Employment

Permanent Employment is when an employee is paid directly by that employer. In addition to their wages, they often receive benefits like subsidized health care, paid vacations, holidays, sick time, or contributions to a retirement plan. Permanent employees are often eligible to switch job positions within their companies.

Full-time is employment in which a person works a minimum number of hours defined as such by his/her employer. (40 Hours)Full-time employment often comes with benefits that are not typically offered to part-time, temporary, or flexible workers, such as annual leave, sick leave, and health insurance.

Part-time is a form of employment that carries fewer hours per week than a full-time job. They work in shifts. The shifts are often rotational. Workers are considered to be part time if they commonly work fewer than 30 hours per week.

Temporary Work - Cooperatives - Outsourcing - Unemployment (rates) - Remote Worker.


Recruitment refers to the overall process of attracting, selecting and appointing suitable candidates for jobs (either permanent or temporary) within an organization. Service.

Recruiting Metrics are a standard set of measurements used to manage and improve the process of hiring candidates into an organization. Candidates can be existing employees within an organization, people entering the workforce for the first time or employees interested in job opportunities outside their current organization. Many recruitment metrics are used by organizations to gain valuable insights on potential candidates during the recruitment process: Identification of candidates, sometimes known as sourcing personnel. Attraction of candidates. Interviewing and assessment of candidates. Overall process improvement of the recruiting workflow and steps.

Employment Agency is an organization which matches employers to employees. In all developed countries, there is a publicly funded employment agency and multiple private businesses which act as employment agencies. Employment Agencies List (wiki).

Personnel Selection is the methodical process used to hire (or, less commonly, promote) individuals.

Sourcing is a talent acquisition discipline which is focused on the identification, assessment and engagement of skilled worker candidates through proactive recruiting techniques. Professionals specializing in sourcing are known primarily as Sourcers; but also Internet Recruiters, Recruiting Researchers or Talent Scouts.

Talent Acquisition Consultant specializes in determining an organization's hiring needs and finding qualified candidates to meet those needs. The focus of this position is not only sourcing new talent for an organization, but also retaining that talent.

Executive Search Executive search (informally called headhunting) is a specialized recruitment service which organizations pay to seek out and recruit highly qualified candidates for senior-level and executive jobs across the public and private sectors, as well as not-for-profit organizations (e.g., President, Vice-president, CEO and non-executive-directors (NEDs)). Headhunters may also seek out and recruit other highly specialized and/or skilled positions in organizations for which there is strong competition in the job market for the top talent, such as senior data analysts or computer programmers. The method usually involves commissioning a third-party organization, typically an executive search firm, but possibly a standalone consultant or consulting firm, to research the availability of suitable qualified candidates working for competitors or related businesses or organizations. Having identified a shortlist of qualified candidates who match the client's requirements, the executive search firm may act as an intermediary to contact the individual(s) and see if they might be interested in moving to a new employer. The executive search firm may also carry out initial screening of the candidate, negotiations on remuneration and benefits, and preparing the employment contract. In some markets there has been a move towards using executive search for lower positions driven by the fact that there are less candidates for some positions even on lower levels than executive. Executive Search Firms (wiki).

Employment Contract is a kind of contract used in labour law to attribute rights and responsibilities between parties to a bargain. The contract is between an "employee" and an "employer". It has arisen out of the old master-servant law, used before the 20th century. But generally, the contract of employment denotes a relationship of economic dependence and social subordination. Senior Recruiters provide staffing services to businesses. They seek out talent, interview candidates and assist in the hiring process. They may work for themselves or recruiting firms, or work directly for a company.

Background Checks

Most background checks include a persons criminal-history and if there are any felony and misdemeanor convictions, or any pending criminal cases, and any history of incarceration as an adult. Background checks can also provide a social security number, employment history, a failed drug test, education, credit history, and motor vehicle and license record checks or even a damaged driving record. You should ask for a copy.

Background Check is the process of looking up and compiling criminal records, commercial records, and financial records of an individual or an organization. A means of judging a job candidate's past mistakes, character, and fitness, and to identify potential hiring risks for safety and security reasons like when buying guns. Background checks are also used to thoroughly investigate potential government employees in order to be given a security clearance. However, these checks may sometimes be used for illegal purposes, such as unlawful discrimination or employment discrimination, identity theft, and violation of privacy.

Study shows background checks don't always check out. Bad data, human error can lead to unfair reports, or miss significant wrongdoing. New research shows that background checks for employment, housing and more can be highly problematic.

Questions are Relative - Asking Chabot's Questions - Relationship Questions -

Background Checks don’t always reveal the truth about people. They are sometimes flawed and unreliable. Background checks are not always accurate and they can have erroneous or questionable information. Background checks are not always complete and have missing information because not all applicable government agencies and companies have reported complete information on the individual in question. Background checks are not always look at or considered. Background checks are not always used correctly or interpreted correctly, unqualified people can easily make unfair judgments when looking at background checks. If you want to know someone you have to talk to them and spend time with them. You don't get to know a person by talking to strangers or third parties who share erroneous information about a person who they have never met in their entire life.

Observation Flaws - Screening - Investigation - Public Records - Reputation - Background Knowledge - Accredidation

MyLife, as of June 2019, the Federal Trade Commission and the Better Business Bureau said they’ve received nearly 30,000 complaints from consumers combined. Of those, 6,800 were received by the BBB in an 11-month span from 2018-2019. According to the BBB, it investigated MyLife’s business practices last May, “prompted by significant complaint activity involving consumers alleging that they requested the removal of personal information from, but are either refused or asked to pay to have the information removed.” Slander - Scams.

Application for Employment provides information regarding relevant skills, education, and experience, but not for personality or morality.

Drug Test is a technical analysis of a biological specimen to determine the presence or absence of specified parent drugs or their metabolites, using samples of urine, hair, blood, breath, sweat, or oral fluid such as saliva. Major applications of drug testing include detection of the presence of performance enhancing steroids in sport, employers and parole/probation officers screening for drugs prohibited by law (such as cocaine, methamphetamine, and heroin) and police officers testing for the presence and concentration of alcohol (ethanol) in the blood commonly referred to as BAC (blood alcohol content). BAC tests are typically administered via a breathalyzer while urinalysis is used for the vast majority of drug testing in sports and the workplace. Numerous other methods with varying degrees of accuracy, sensitivity (detection threshold/cutoff), and detection periods exist. A drug test may also refer to a test that provides quantitative chemical analysis of an illegal drug, typically intended to help with responsible drug use. The detection windows depend upon multiple factors: drug class, amount and frequency of use, metabolic rate, body mass, age, overall health, and urine pH. For ease of use, the detection times of metabolites have been incorporated into each parent drug. For example, heroin and cocaine can only be detected for a few hours after use, but their metabolites can be detected for several days in urine. The chart depicts the longer detection times of the metabolites. Oral fluid or saliva testing results for the most part mimic that of blood. The only exceptions are THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) and benzodiazepines. Oral fluid will likely detect THC from ingestion up to a maximum period of 6–12 hours. This continues to cause difficulty in oral fluid detection of THC and benzodiazepines. Breath air for the most part mimics blood tests as well. Due to the very low levels of substances in the breath air, liquid chromatography—mass spectrometry has to be used to analyze the sample according to a recent publication wherein 12 analytes were investigated.

Credit Scores

Credit Checks are not always Accurate. Everything is either black or white. There is no consideration of a person’s basic character or allowance for the fact that people can change their lives and their behaviors. A computer looks at data and assigns a number. Negatives stay on your credit report for seven years or longer. Murderers have been known to walk out of prison on appeal or probation in less time than it takes to clear one’s credit history.

Punishment - Profiling - Trust - Rating Systems - Testing - Debt

Credit Score represents the creditworthiness of the person to determine who qualifies for a loan, at what interest rate, and what credit limits. A credit score is primarily based on a credit report information typically sourced from credit bureaus.

No Credit History is when credit bureaus don't know enough about you to guess whether you'll pay back borrowed money. It's not the same as bad credit, which means you have a credit history with major blemishes. It's harder to move your score up to the good range when you start with bad credit.

Sesame Credit is an excuse that a organization can use to discriminate against people because of perceived past mistakes.

Social Credit System is a national reputation system being developed by the Chinese government.

Credit Risk is the risk of default on a debt that may arise from a borrower failing to make required payments.

Fair Credit Reporting Act regulates how consumer credit agencies report and disseminate personal information. The legislation enacted to promote the accuracy, fairness, and privacy of consumer information contained in the files of consumer reporting agencies. It was intended to protect consumers from the willful and/or negligent inclusion of inaccurate information in their credit reports. To that end, the FCRA regulates the collection, dissemination, and use of consumer information, including consumer credit information.

TransUnion is an American consumer credit reporting agency. TransUnion collects and aggregates information on over one billion individual consumers in over thirty countries including "200 million files profiling nearly every credit-active consumer in the United States". Its customers include over 65,000 businesses. Based in Chicago, Illinois, TransUnion's 2014 revenue was US$1.3 billion. It is the smallest of the three largest credit agencies, along with Experian and Equifax (known as the "Big Three").  TransUnion also markets credit reports and other credit and fraud-protection products directly to consumers. Like all credit reporting agencies, the company is required by U.S. law to provide consumers with one free credit report every year. Additionally a growing segment of Transunions business is its business offerings that use advanced big data, particularly it's deep AI-TLOxp product. Legal and regulatory issues. In 2003, Judy Thomas of Klamath Falls, Oregon, was awarded $5.3 million in a successful lawsuit against TransUnion. The award was made on the grounds that it took her six years to get TransUnion to remove incorrect information in her credit report. In 2006, after spending two years trying to correct erroneous credit information that resulted from being a victim of identity theft, a fraud victim named Sloan filed suit against all three of the US's largest credit agencies. TransUnion and Experian settled out of court for an undisclosed amount. In Sloan v. Equifax, a jury awarded Sloan $351,000. "She wrote letters. She called them. They saw the problem. They just didn't fix it," said her attorney, A. Hugo Blankingship III. TransUnion has also been criticized for concealing charges. Many users complained of not being aware of a $17.95/month charge for holding a TransUnion account. In March 2015, following a settlement with the New York Attorney-General, TransUnion, along with other credit reporting companies, Experian and Equifax, agreed to help consumers with errors and red flags on credit reports. Under the new settlement, credit-reporting firms are required to use trained employees to respond when a consumer flags a mistake on their file. These employees are responsible for communicating with the lender and resolving the dispute. In January 2017, TransUnion was fined $5.5 million and ordered to pay $17.6 million in restitution, along with Equifax, by the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB). The federal agency fined the companies "for deceiving consumers about the usefulness and actual cost of credit scores they sold to consumers". The CFPB also said the companies "lured consumers into costly recurring payments for credit-related products with false promises". Credit bureaus had the most complaints of all companies filed with the CFPB by consumers in 2018, with 34% of all complaints directed at Transunion, Equifax, and Experian that year. In June 2017, a California jury ruled against Transunion with a $60 million verdict in the largest Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA) verdict in history. The San Francisco federal court jury awarded $60 million in damages to consumers who were falsely reported on a government list of terrorists and other security threats. The plaintiffs' team of attorneys at Francis & Mailman, P.C. partnered with another California-based firm in the class action.

Bond Credit Rating represents the credit worthiness of corporate or government bonds. It is not the same as an individual's credit score. The ratings are published by credit rating agencies and used by investment professionals to assess the likelihood the debt will be repaid.

Underwriting means that your lender verifies your income, assets, debt and property details in order to issue final approval for your loan. An underwriter is a financial expert who takes a look at your finances and assesses how much risk a lender will take on if they decide to give you a loan.

The Big Three credit rating agencies are S&P Global Ratings (S&P), Moody's, and Fitch Group. S&P and Moody's are based in the US, while Fitch is dual-headquartered in New York City and London, and is controlled by Hearst. As of 2013 they hold a collective global market share of "roughly 95 percent" with Moody's and Standard & Poor's having approximately 40% each, and Fitch around 15%. The Big Short.

Mortgage Underwriting is the process a lender uses to determine if the risk of offering a mortgage loan to a particular borrower under certain parameters is acceptable. Most of the risks and terms that underwriters consider fall under the three C's of underwriting: credit, capacity and collateral. To help the underwriter assess the quality of the loan, banks and lenders create guidelines and even computer models that analyze the various aspects of the mortgage and provide recommendations regarding the risks involved. Because large securitizers such as the GSEs and other banks are large purchasers of loans from originators, and because many originators lack the balance sheets to hold onto loans for extended periods, automated underwriting guidelines are a crucial determinant of whether a mortgage will be made and at what price. However, it is always up to the underwriter to make the final decision on whether to approve or decline a loan.

Security Clearances (gov) - Need to Know - Disclaimers

Security Clearance is a status granted to individuals allowing them access to classified information (state or organizational secrets) or to restricted areas, after completion of a thorough background check. (4 Mill).

Employee Rules and Training

Employee Handbook is a book given to employees by an employer. Usually, the employee handbook contains information about company policies and procedures. The employee handbook can be used to bring together employment and job-related information which employees need to know. It typically has three types of content: Cultural: A welcome statement, the company's mission or purpose, company values, and more. General Information: holiday arrangements, company perks, policies not required by law, policy summaries, and more. Case-Specific: company policies, rules, disciplinary and grievance procedures, and other information modeled after employment laws or regulations.

Training and Development is organizational activity aimed at bettering the job performance of individuals and groups in organizational settings. Training and development can be described as "an educational process which involves the sharpening of skills, concepts, changing of attitude and gaining more knowledge to enhance the performance of employees". The field has gone by several names, including "Human Resource Development", "Human Capital Development" and "Learning and Development". Training and development encompasses three main activities: Training: This activity is both focused upon, and evaluated against, the job that an individual currently holds. Education: This activity focuses upon the jobs that an individual may potentially hold in the future, and is evaluated against those jobs. Development: This activity focuses upon the activities that the organization employing the individual, or that the individual is part of, may partake in the future, and is almost impossible to evaluate.

Initiations - Power - Toxic Workplace

Business Rule is a rule that defines or constrains some aspect of business and always resolves to either true or false. Business rules are intended to assert business structure or to control or influence the behavior of the business. Business rules describe the operations, definitions and constraints that apply to an organization. Business rules can apply to people, processes, corporate behavior and computing systems in an organization, and are put in place to help the organization achieve its goals.

Human Resource Management is the management of human resources. It is designed to maximize employee performance in service of an employer's strategic objectives. HR is primarily concerned with the management of people within organizations, focusing on policies and on systems. HR departments are responsible for overseeing employee benefits design, employee recruitment, training and development, performance appraisal, and rewarding (e.g., managing pay and benefit systems). HR also concerns itself with organizational change and industrial relations, that is, the balancing of organizational practices with requirements arising from collective bargaining and from governmental laws.

Human Resource Management System is a form of HR software that combines a number of systems and processes to ensure the easy management of a business’s employees and data. These systems could deal with everything from payroll to performance evaluation, covering the whole business. Human Resources Software is used by businesses to combine a number of necessary HR functions, such as storing employee data, managing payrolls, recruitment processes, benefits administration and keeping track of attendance records. It ensures everyday Human Resources processes are manageable and easy to access.

Human Resources are the people who make up the workforce of an organization, business sector, or economy. "Human capital" is sometimes used synonymously with "human resources", although human capital typically refers to a more narrow view (i.e., the knowledge the individuals embody and economic growth). Likewise, other terms sometimes used include "manpower", "talent", "labour", "personnel", or simply "people". A human-resources department (HR department) of an organization performs human resource management, overseeing various aspects of employment, such as compliance with labour law and employment standards, administration of employee benefits, and some aspects of recruitment and dismissal.

Background (credit history)

Industrial and Organizational Psychology is the science of human behavior relating to work and applies psychological theories and principles to organizations and individuals in their places of work.

Workplace Politics is the process and behavior in human interactions involving power and authority. It is also a tool to assess the operational capacity and to balance diverse views of interested parties. It is also known as office politics and organizational politics. It is the use of power and social networking within an organization to achieve changes that benefit the organization or individuals within it. Influence by individuals may serve personal interests without regard to their effect on the organization itself.

Employee Work Principles and Qualities - Work Ethic - Morals - Personal Development

Organizational Behavior is the study of human behavior in organizational settings, the interface between human behavior and the organization, and the organization itself. OB research can be categorized in at least three ways, including the study of (a) individuals in organizations (micro-level), (b) work groups (meso-level), and (c) how organizations behave (macro-level).

Workplace Psychology means creating an environment that is relatively enjoyable and productive. This also means creating a work schedule that does not lead to emotional and physical distress.

Organizational Culture encompasses values and behaviours that "contribute to the unique social and psychological environment of an organization." According to Needle (2004), organizational culture represents the collective values, beliefs and principles of organizational members and is a product of such factors as history, product, market, technology, strategy, type of employees, management style, and national culture; culture includes the organization's vision, values, norms, systems, symbols, language, assumptions, beliefs, and habits.

Sensitivity Training is a form of training with the goal of making people more aware of their own prejudices and more sensitive to others.

Hostile Work Environment exists when one's behavior within a workplace creates an environment that is difficult or uncomfortable for another person to work in. Toxic Leadership.

Positive Working Environment - Safety

Counterproductive Work Behavior is employee behavior that goes against the legitimate interests of an organization. These behaviors can harm organizations or people in organizations including employees and clients, customers, or patients. It has been proposed that a person-by-environment interaction can be utilized to explain a variety of counterproductive behaviors. For instance, an employee who is high on trait anger (tendency to experience anger) is more likely to respond to a stressful incident at work (being treated rudely by a supervisor) with CWB.

People Smart - Observation Errors

Praise - Motivation - Punishment - Discipline

Work-Life Policy undertakes research and works with employers to design, promote, and implement workplace policies that increase productivity and enhance personal/family well-being and general Work Life Balance. The CWLP is committed to promoting policies that enable individuals to realize their full potential across the divides of gender, race and class.

Professional Development is learning to earn or maintain professional credentials such as academic degrees to formal coursework, conferences and informal learning opportunities situated in practice. It has been described as intensive and collaborative, ideally incorporating an evaluative stage.

Glass Ceiling is a metaphor used to represent an invisible barrier that keeps a given demographic (typically applied to women) from rising beyond a certain level in a hierarchy.

Employee Performance - Measuring Employee Productivity

SARF - Status, Certainty, Autonomy, Relatedness, Fairness Key Performance Indicator is a type of performance measurement. KPIs evaluate the success of an organization or of a particular activity in which it engages. Often success is simply the repeated, periodic achievement of some levels of operational goal (e.g. zero defects, 10/10 customer satisfaction, etc.), and sometimes success is defined in terms of making progress toward strategic goals.

Productivity - Quality Control - Work Ethics - Performance Audit - Progress Report

Experience Curve Effects is the relationship between equations for experience and efficiency or between efficiency gains and investment in the effort.

Performance Appraisal is a method by which the job performance of an employee is documented and evaluated. Performance appraisals are a part of career development and consist of regular reviews of employee performance within organizations. (also referred to as a performance review, performance evaluation,(career) development discussion, or employee appraisal).

Performance is doing something successfully; using knowledge as distinguished from merely possessing knowledge. Accomplishments, Productivity, Skills Learned, Competence, Behavior and Relationships.

Performance Based Pay only matters when the work that you do has value and also benefits your community. If the work that you do does more harm than good, then performance pay is mostly just a Bribe. Incentives.

STAMP - Workplace Skills, Technology and Management Practices.

Skills Management is the practice of understanding, developing and deploying people and their skills. Well-implemented skills management should identify the skills that job roles require, the skills of individual employees, and any gap between the two.

Job Evaluation is a systematic way of determining the value/worth of a job in relation to other jobs in an organization. It tries to make a systematic comparison between jobs to assess their relative worth for the purpose of establishing a rational pay structure. Job evaluation needs to be differentiated from job analysis. Job analysis is a systematic way of gathering information about a job. Every job evaluation method requires at least some basic job analysis in order to provide factual information about the jobs concerned. Thus, job evaluation begins with job analysis and ends at that point where the worth of a job is ascertained for achieving pay equity between jobs and different roles.

Job Analysis is a family of procedures to identify the content of a job in terms of the activities it involves in addition to the attributes or requirements necessary to perform those activities. Job analysis provides information to organizations that helps them determine which employees are best fit for specific jobs. The process of job analysis involves the analyst gathering information about the duties of the incumbent, the nature and conditions of the work, and some basic qualifications.

Employee Recognition is the timely, informal or formal acknowledgement of a person's behavior, effort, or business result that supports the organization's goals and values, and exceeds his superior's normal expectations. Recognition has been held to be a constructive response and a judgment made about a person's contribution, reflecting not just work performance but also personal dedication and engagement on a regular or ad hoc basis, and expressed formally or informally, individually or collectively, privately or publicly, and monetarily or non-monetarily (Brun & Dugas, 2008).

Job Performance assesses whether a person performs a job well. Job performance, studied academically as part of industrial and organizational psychology, also forms a part of human resources management. Performance is an important criterion for organizational outcomes and success.

Performance Improvement is measuring the output of a particular business process or procedure, then modifying the process or procedure to increase the output, increase efficiency, or increase the effectiveness of the process or procedure. Performance improvement can be applied to either individual performance, such as an athlete, or organisational performance, such as a racing team or a commercial business.

Organization Development is the study and implementation of practices, systems, and techniques that affect organizational change. The goal of which is to modify an organization's performance and/or culture. Core values. Underlying Organization Development are humanistic values. Margulies and Raia (1972) articulated the humanistic values of OD as follows: providing opportunities for people to function as human beings rather than as resources in the productive process. Providing opportunities for each organization member, as well as for the organization itself, to develop to their full potential. seeking to increase the effectiveness of the organization in terms of all of its goals. attempting to create an environment in which it is possible to find exciting and challenging work. providing opportunities for people in organizations to influence the way in which they relate to work, the organization, and the environment. Treating each human being as a person with a complex set of needs, all of which are important to their work and their life. This is a separate concept from change efforts known as: Operation management, Training and Development, Technological innovations....etc.. Objectives: The objectives of OD are: To increase the level of inter-personal trust among employees, to increase employees' level of satisfaction and commitment, to confront problems instead of neglecting them, to effectively manage conflict, to increase cooperation and collaboration among employees, to increase organizational problem-solving, to put in place processes that will help improve the ongoing operation of an organization on a continuous basis, As objectives of organizational development are framed keeping in view specific situations, they vary from one situation to another. In other words, these programs[which?] are tailored to meet the requirements of a particular situation. But broadly speaking, all organizational development programs try to achieve the following objectives: making individuals in the organization aware of the vision of the organization. Organizational development helps in making employees align with the vision of the organization, encouraging employees to solve problems instead of avoiding them, strengthening inter-personal trust, cooperation, and communication for the successful achievement of organizational goals, encouraging every individual to participate in the process of planning, thus making them feel responsible for the implementation of the plan, creating a work atmosphere in which employees are encouraged to work and participate enthusiastically, replacing formal lines of authority with personal knowledge and skill, preparing members to align with changes and to break stereotypes, creating an environment of trust so that employees willingly accept change, According to organizational-development thinking, organization development provides managers with a vehicle for introducing change systematically by applying a broad selection of management techniques. This, in turn, leads to greater personal, group, and organizational effectiveness.

Laying off - Firing Employees

Turnover is the act of replacing an employee with a new employee. Partings between organizations and employees may consist of termination, retirement, death, interagency transfers, and resignations. An organization’s turnover is measured as a percentage rate, which is referred to as its turnover rate. Turnover rate or Turnaround is the percentage of employees in a workforce that leave during a certain period of time. Organizations and industries as a whole measure their turnover rate during a fiscal or calendar year. Fired - Let Go - Laid Off.

Employee Benefits

Employee Benefits include various types of non-wage compensation or perks provided to employees in addition to their normal wages or salaries. A benefit package covers the full scope of services like medical insurance or health insurance or health care, life insurance, disability insurance, retirement plans or retirement savings and planning, flexible spending accounts, paid time off, vacation days, sick days, personal days, paid company holidays, pension plans, stock ownership plans, dental insurance, eye insurance, life insurance, and more. Fringe benefits is an extra benefit supplementing an employee's salary, for example, a company car, subsidized meals, and bonuses. Professional career development benefits may include work and life balance, having purpose, being informed, and training. Health insurance is the most expensive benefit to provide, with an average cost of $6,435 per employee for individual coverage, or $18,142 for family coverage. Employees value flexible hours and work-life balance above salary and health insurance in a potential job. Comprehensive benefits package should include these components: Financial Wellness Programs, Flexible Work Arrangements, Health Insurance Benefits, Paid Time Off, Mental Health Benefits, Family-Friendly Employee Benefits, Professional Development Benefits, Student Loan Employee Benefits, Health insurance, Paid time off, Disability insurance, Life insurance, Retirement package, Legally mandated employee benefits and Potential additional benefits. The average total compensation is $37.73 per hour. For state and government workers, the average cost for employers paying employee benefits equals $19.82 per hour, in addition to their average salary and wage which was $32.62 per hour.

Reward Management is concerned with the formulation and implementation of strategies and policies that aim to reward people fairly, equitably and consistently in accordance with their value to the organization. Reward management consists of analysing and controlling employee remuneration, compensation and all of the other benefits for the employees. Reward management aims to create and efficiently operate a reward structure for an organisation. Reward structure usually consists of pay policy and practices, salary and payroll administration, total reward, minimum wage, executive pay and team reward. There are two kinds of rewards: Extrinsic rewards: concrete rewards that employee receive. Bonuses: Usually annually, Bonuses motivates the employee to put in all endeavours and efforts during the year to achieve more than a satisfactory appraisal that increases the chance of earning several salaries as lump sum. The scheme of bonuses varies within organizations; some organizations ensure fixed bonuses which eliminate the element of asymmetric information, conversely, other organizations deal with bonuses in terms of performance which is subjective and may develop some sort of bias which may discourage employees and create setback. Therefore, managers must be extra cautious and unbiased. Salary raise: Is achieved after hard work and effort of employees, attaining and acquiring new skills or academic certificates and as appreciation for employees duty (yearly increments) in an organization. This type of reward is beneficial for the reason that it motivates employees in developing their skills and competence which is also an investment for the organization due to increased productivity and performance. This type of reward offers long-term satisfaction to employees. Nevertheless, managers must also be fair and equal with employees serving the organization and eliminate the possibility of adverse selection where some employees can be treated superior or inferior to others. Gifts: Are considered short-term. Mainly presented as a token of appreciation for an achievement or obtaining an organizations desired goal. Any employee would appreciate a tangible matter that boosts their self-esteem for the reason of recognition and appreciation from the management. This type of reward basically provides a clear vision of the employee's correct path and motivates employee into stabilising or increasing their efforts to achieve higher returns and attainments. Monetary gifts, such as Gift cards are also more likely to be used for luxury purchases and can build an emotional bond with the organization. Promotion: Quite similar to the former type of reward. Promotions tend to effect the long-term satisfaction of employees. This can be done by elevating the employee to a higher stage and offering a title with increased accountability and responsibility due to employee efforts, behavior and period serving a specific organization. This type of reward is vital for the main reason of redundancy and routine. The employee is motivated in this type of reward to contribute all his efforts in order to gain managements trust and acquire their delegation and responsibility. The issue revolved around promotion is adverse selection and managers must be fair and reasonable in promoting their employees. Other kinds of tangible rewards. Intrinsic rewards: tend to give personal satisfaction to individual. Information / feedback: Also a significant type of reward that successful and effective managers never neglect. This type of rewards offers guidance to employees whether positive (remain on track) or negative (guidance to the correct path). This also creates a bond and adds value to the relationship of managers and employees. Recognition: Is recognizing an employee's performance by verbal appreciation. This type of reward may take the presence of being formal for example meeting or informal such as a "pat on the back" to boost employees self-esteem and happiness which will result in additional contributing efforts. Trust/empowerment: in any society or organization, trust is a vital aspect between living individuals in order to add value to any relationship. This form of reliance is essential in order to complete tasks successfully. Also, takes place in empowerment when managers delegate tasks to employees. This adds importance to an employee where his decisions and actions are reflected. Therefore, this reward may benefit organizations for the idea of two minds better than one. Intrinsic rewards makes the employee feel better in the organization, while Extrinsic rewards focus on the performance and activities of the employee in order to attain a certain outcome. The principal difficulty is to find a balance between employees' performance (extrinsic) and happiness (intrinsic). The reward also needs to be according to the employee's personality. For instance, a sports fan will be really happy to get some tickets for the next big match. However a mother who passes all her time with her children, may not use them and therefore they will be wasted. When rewarding one, the manager needs to choose if he wants to rewards an Individual, a Team or a whole Organization. One will choose the reward scope in harmony with the work that has been achieved.
Individual. Base pay, incentives, benefits. Rewards attendance, performance, competence. Team: team bonus, rewards group cooperation. Organization: profit-sharing, shares, gain-sharing. Incentives.

Maternity Leave refers to the period of time that a new mother takes off from work following the birth of her baby. Maternity leave is usually created from a variety of benefits that include sick leave, vacation, holiday time, personal days, short-term disability and unpaid family leave time.

The Family and Medical Leave Act provides certain employees with up to 12 weeks of unpaid, job-protected leave per year. It also requires that their group health benefits be maintained during the leave.

Parental Leave is an employee benefit available in almost all countries. The term "parental leave" may include maternity, paternity, and adoption leave; or may be used distinctively from "maternity leave" and "paternity leave" to describe separate family leave available to either parent to care for small children. In some countries and jurisdictions, "family leave" also includes leave provided to care for ill family members. Often, the minimum benefits and eligibility requirements are stipulated by law.

Company Organizing Structure

Organizational Chart is a diagram that shows the structure of an organization and the relationships and relative ranks of its parts and positions/jobs. The term is also used for similar diagrams, for example ones showing the different elements of a field of knowledge or a group of languages.

Organizational Structure defines how activities such as task allocation, coordination and supervision are directed toward the achievement of organizational aims. Organizations need to be efficient, flexible, innovative and caring in order to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage. Organizational structure can also be considered as the viewing glass or perspective through which individuals see their organization and its environment.

Enterprise Architecture is a well-defined practice for conducting enterprise analysis, design, planning, and implementation, using a holistic approach at all times, for the successful development and execution of strategy. Enterprise architecture applies architecture principles and practices to guide organizations through the business, information, process, and technology changes necessary to execute their strategies. These practices utilize the various aspects of an enterprise to identify, motivate, and achieve these changes.

Business Architecture is a discipline that "represents holistic, multidimensional business views of: capabilities, end to end value delivery, information, and organizational structure; and the relationships among these business views and strategies, products, policies, initiatives, and stakeholders." In application, business architecture provides a bridge between an enterprise business model and enterprise strategy on one side, and the business functionality of the enterprise on the other side. It often enables the Strategy to Execution methodology. People who develop and maintain business architecture are known as business architects.

Departmentalization - Hierarchy - Chain of Command - Corporate Structure

Functional Departmentalization - Grouping activities by functions performed. Activities can be grouped according to function (work being done) to pursue economies of scale by placing employees with shared skills and knowledge into departments for example human resources, IT, accounting, manufacturing, logistics, and engineering. Functional departmentalization can be used in all t organizations.

Product Departmentalization - Grouping activities by product line. Tasks can also be grouped according to a specific product or service, thus placing all activities related to the product or the service under one manager. Each major product area in the corporation is under the authority of a senior manager who is specialist in, and is responsible for, everything related to the product line. LA Gear is an example of company that uses product departmentalization. Its structure is based on its varied product lines which include women’s footwear etc.

Customer Departmentalization - Grouping activities on the basis of common customers or types of customers. Jobs may be grouped according to the type of customer served by the organization. The assumption is that customers in each department have a common set of problems and needs that can best be met by specialists. The sales activities in an office supply firm can be broken down into three departments that serve retail, wholesale and government accounts.

Geographic Departmentalization - Grouping activities on the basis of territory. If an organization's customers are geographically dispersed, it can group jobs based on geography. For example, the organization structure of Coca-Cola has reflected the company’s operation in two broad geographic areas – the North American sector and the international sector, which includes the Pacific Rim, the European Community, Northeast Europe, Africa and Latin America groups.

Process Departmentalization - Grouping activities on the basis of product or service or customer flow. Because each process requires different skills, process departmentalization allows homogenous activities to be categorized. For example, the applicants might need to go through several departments namely validation, licensing and treasury, before receiving the driver’s license.

Divisional Departmentalization - When the firm develops independent lines of business that operate as separate companies, all contributing to the corporation profitability, the design is call divisional departmentalization or (M-FORM).

Knowledge Management - KM

How can we create organizations and governments that are cooperative, productive, and creative?

Humanyze: Enhance teamwork and employee engagement, improve processes, and plan for growth. Making people happy in their crappy jobs takes paying them more money and giving them more benefits.

Executive Officers - Directors - Job Title Meanings

Chief Knowledge Officer is an organizational leader, responsible for ensuring that the organization maximizes the value it achieves through "knowledge". The CKO is responsible for managing intellectual capital and the custodian of Knowledge Management practices in an organization.

Competence - Professional - Qualities - Oaths - Power - Leader Titles

Knowledge Worker are workers whose main capital is knowledge, whose job is to "think for a living", like software engineers.

Knowledge Broker is an intermediary (an organization or a person), that aims to develop relationships and networks with, among, and between producers and users of knowledge by providing linkages, knowledge sources, and in some cases knowledge itself, (e.g. technical know-how, market insights, research evidence) to organizations in its network. Information Broker.

Chief Impact Officer or chief social impact officer cultivates and manages relationships toward accomplishing the organization's mission and toward common goals. The Chief Impact Officer leads the Community Impact Team to develop shared and measurable goals, creating, resourcing, scaling, and leveraging strategies and innovations for broad investment and impact. Chief Impact & Strategy Officer provides strategic leadership, management and guidance to the foundation's community leadership, strategic initiatives, and impact efforts through grant making, community engagement, programs, and donor engagement efforts. CISO is a senior leadership position that reports to the CEO. Chief foundation officer is a pivotal role in the fiscal and program success of their foundation's goals. They lead and ensure alignment, strategic focus, shared measurement, and accelerated impact across our areas of work and investment. Chief strategy officer is a C-level executive charged with helping to formulate, facilitate and communicate an organization's strategic initiatives and future goals. The role can go by many titles, including chief strategist or vice president of corporate strategy or strategic development.

Public Information Officer is the individual responsible for communicating with the public, media, and/or coordinating with other agencies, as necessary, with incident related information requirements. The PIO is responsible for developing and releasing information about the incident to the news media, incident personnel, and other appropriate agencies and organizations. Depending on the size or complexity of the incident, a lead PIO should be assigned for each incident and may have assistants, as necessary, including supporting PIOs representing other responding agencies or jurisdictions. PIO is to provide information to the media and public as required by law and according to the standards of their profession. Also, they must show influence and give accurate news.

Chief Officers: Chief Administrative Officer, Chief Analytics Officer. " Audit ", Brand, Business, Channel, Commercial, Communications, Compliance, Content, Creative, Data, Digital, Executive (CEO), Experience, Financial, Human resources, Information, Information security, Innovation, Investment, Knowledge, Learning, Legal, Marketing, Medical, Networking, Operating, Procurement, Chief Product Officer - Product Architect, Research, Restructuring, Revenue, Risk, Science, Strategy, Chief Technology Officer, Visionary, Web.

President is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. In many organizations, it is the legally recognized highest "titled" corporate officer, ranking above the various Vice Presidents (e.g. Senior Vice President and Executive Vice President). The president may also be the chairperson. The relationship between the president and the Chief Executive Officer varies, depending on the structure of the specific organization.

President is tasked with providing strong leadership for the company by working with the board and other executives to establish short and long-term goals, plans and strategies. They are responsible for presiding over the entire workforce and they will manage budgets and make sure resources are allocated properly. Duties at meetings: In addition to the administrative or executive duties in organizations, the president has the duties of presiding over meetings. Such duties at meetings include: Calling the meeting to order. Determining if a quorum is present. Announcing the items on the order of business or agenda as they come up. Recognition of members to have the floor. Enforcing the rules of the group. Putting all questions (motions) to a vote. Adjourning the meeting. If the president exceeds the given authority, engages in misconduct, or fails to perform the duties, the president may face disciplinary procedures. Such procedures may include censure, suspension, or removal from office. The rules of the particular organization would provide details on who can perform these disciplinary procedures and the extent that they can be done. Usually, whoever appointed or elected the president has the power to discipline this officer.

Accounting - Treasurer 

Chairman is the highest officer of an organized group such as a board, a committee, or a deliberative assembly. The person holding the office is typically elected or appointed by the members of the group. The chairman presides over meetings of the assembled group and conducts its business in an orderly fashion. When the group is not in session, the officer's duties often include acting as its head, its representative to the outside world and its spokesperson. In some organizations, this position is also called president (or other title), in others, where a board appoints a president (or other title), the two different terms are used for distinctly different positions.

Creative Director is a position often found within the graphic design, film, music, video game, fashion, advertising, media, or entertainment industries, but may be useful in other creative organizations such as web development and software development firms as well.

Executive Director is a Chief Executive Officer or CEO, who is the managing director of an organization, company, or corporation. The title is widely used in North American non-profit organizations, though many United States nonprofits have adopted the title president or CEO.

Non-Executive Director is a member of the board of directors of a company or organization who does not form part of the executive management team. They are not employees of the company or affiliated with it in any other way and are differentiated from inside directors, who are members of the board who also serve or previously served as executive managers of the company (most often as corporate officers). However they do have the same legal duties, responsibilities and potential liabilities as their executive counterparts.

Senior Management is generally a team of individuals at the highest level of Management of an organization who have the day-to-day tasks of managing that organization - sometimes a company or a corporation. They hold specific executive powers delegated to them with and by authority of a board of directors and/or the shareholders. Generally, higher levels of responsibility exist, such as a board of directors and those who own the company (shareholders) - but they focus on managing the senior or executive management instead of on the day-to-day activities of the business.

Manager operates through five basic functions: planning, organizing, coordinating, commanding, and controlling. Planning: Deciding what needs to happen in the future and generating plans for action (deciding in advance). Organizing (or staffing): Making sure the human and nonhuman resources are put into place. Coordinating: Creating a structure through which an organization's goals can be accomplished. Commanding (or leading): Determining what must be done in a situation and getting people to do it. Controlling: Checking progress against plans. Basic roles: Interpersonal: roles that involve coordination and interaction with employees. Informational: roles that involve handling, sharing, and analyzing information. Decision: roles that require decision-making. Skills: Management skills include: political: used to build a power base and to establish connections. Conceptual: used to analyze complex situations. Interpersonal: used to communicate, motivate, mentor and delegate. Diagnostic: ability to visualize appropriate responses to a situation, Leadership: ability to lead and to provide guidance to a specific group. Technical: expertise in one's particular functional area. Implementation of policies and strategies: All policies and strategies must be discussed with all managerial personnel and staff. Managers must understand where and how they can implement their policies and strategies. A plan of action must be devised for each department. Policies and strategies must be reviewed regularly. Contingency plans must be devised in case the environment changes. Top-level managers should carry out regular progress assessments. The business requires team spirit and a good environment. The missions, objectives, strengths and weaknesses of each department must be analyzed to determine their roles in achieving the business's mission. The forecasting method develops a reliable picture of the business's future environment. A planning unit must be created to ensure that all plans are consistent and that policies and strategies are aimed at achieving the same mission and objectives. Life Skills - Leadership.

Supervisor is an employee who has the power and authority to give instructions and/or orders to subordinates. Be held responsible for the work and actions of other employees. Supervisor is similar to foreman, foreperson, boss, overseer, cell coach, manager, facilitator, monitor, or area coordinator, is the job title of a low level management position that is primarily based on authority over a worker or charge of a workplace. A Supervisor can also be one of the most senior in the staff at the place of work, such as a Professor who oversees a PhD dissertation. Supervision, on the other hand, can be performed by people without this formal title, for example by parents. The term Supervisor itself can be used to refer to any personnel who have this task as part of their job description. An employee is a supervisor if he has the power and authority to do the following actions, give instructions and/or orders to subordinates, to be held responsible for the work and actions of other employees.

is to observe and direct people to complete a task, project, or activity.

Guide - Professional - Management

Parental Supervision is a parenting technique that involves looking after, or monitoring a child's activities. Young children are generally incapable of looking after themselves, and incompetent in making informed decisions for their own well-being. For this reason, they require supervision, or at least some guidance or advice by their parents or another adult in loco parentis.

Town Supervisor sit on the town board, where they preside over town board meetings and vote on all matters with no more legal weight than that of any other board member (no tie-breaking or veto powers). City Management.

Superintendent is a person who manages or superintends an organization or activity. A high-ranking official, especially the head of a large urban police department. Superintendent in education is an administrator or manager in charge of a number of public schools or a school district, a local government body overseeing public schools. All school principals in a respective school district report to the superintendent.

Chairperson or Chairman is the presiding officer of an organized group such as a board, committee, or deliberative assembly. The person holding the office, who is typically elected or appointed by members of the group, presides over meetings of the group, and conducts the group's business in an orderly fashion. In some organizations, the chairperson is also known as president (or other title). In others, where a board appoints a president (or other title), the two terms are used for distinctly different positions. Executive Officers.

Team Leader is someone who provides guidance, instruction, direction and leadership to a group of other individuals (the team) for the purpose of achieving a key result or group of aligned results. The team leader reports to a manager (overseeing several teams). The team leader monitors the quantitative and qualitative result that is to be achieved. The leader often works within the team, as a member, carrying out the same roles but with the additional 'leader' responsibilities - as opposed to higher level management who often have a separate job role altogether. In order for a team to function successfully, the team leader must also motivate the team to "use their knowledge and skills to achieve the shared goals." When a team leader motivates a team, group members can function in a goal oriented manner. A "team leader" is also someone who has the capability to drive performance within a group of people. Team leaders utilize their expertise, their peers, influence, and/or creativeness to formulate an effective team.

Talent Management refers to the anticipation of required human capital for an organization and the planning to meet those needs.

General Counsel is the chief lawyer of a legal department, usually in a company or a governmental department.

Supervisory Board often called board of directors, is a group of individuals chosen by the stockholders of a company to promote their interests through the governance of the company and to hire and supervise the executive directors and CEO.

Board of Directors is a recognized group of people who jointly oversee the activities of an organization, which can be either a for-profit business, nonprofit organization, or a government agency. The powers, duties, and responsibilities of a board of directors are determined by government regulations (including the jurisdiction's corporate law) and the organization's own constitution and bylaws. These authorities may specify the number of members of the board, how they are to be chosen, and how often they are to meet. In an organization with voting members, the board is accountable to, and may be subordinate to, the organization's full membership, which usually elect the members of the board. In a stock corporation, non-executive directors are elected by the shareholders, and the board has ultimate responsibility for the management of the corporation. In nations with codetermination (such as Germany and Sweden), the workers of a corporation elect a set fraction of the board's members. The board of directors appoints the chief executive officer of the corporation and sets out the overall strategic direction. In corporations with dispersed ownership, the identification and nomination of directors (that shareholders vote for or against) are often done by the board itself, leading to a high degree of self-perpetuation. In a non-stock corporation with no general voting membership, the board is the supreme governing body of the institution, and its members are sometimes chosen by the board itself. Director – a person appointed to serve on the board of an organization, such as an institution or business. Inside director – a director who, in addition to serving on the board, has a meaningful connection to the organization. Outside director – a director who, other than serving on the board, has no meaningful connections to the organization. Executive director – an inside director who is also an executive with the organization. The term is also used, in a completely different sense, to refer to a CEO. Non-executive director – an inside director who is not an executive with the organization. Shadow or de facto director – an individual who is not a named director but who nevertheless directs or controls the organization. Nominee director – an individual who is appointed by a shareholder, creditor or interest group (whether contractually or by resolution at a company meeting) and who has a continuing loyalty to the appointor/s or other interest in the appointing company. Individual directors often serve on more than one board. This practice results in an interlocking directorate, where a relatively small number of individuals have significant influence over many important entities. This situation can have important corporate, social, economic, and legal consequences, and has been the subject of significant research. Remedies for breach of duty - In most jurisdictions, the law provides for a variety of remedies in the event of a breach by the directors of their duties: injunction or declaration, damages or compensation, restoration of the company's property, rescission of the relevant contract, account of profits, summary dismissal.

Articles of Association - Board Members - Constitutional Documents - Proposal

Advisory Board is a body that provides non-binding strategic advice to the management of a corporation, organization, or foundation. The informal nature of an advisory board gives greater flexibility in structure and management compared to the board of directors. Roles and responsibilities of advisory board members: developing an understanding of the business, market and industry trends, provide “wise counsel” on issues raised by owners/directors or management, provide unbiased insights and ideas from a third point-of-view (not involved in the operation of the business), encourage and support the exploration of new business ideas, act as a resource for executives, provide social networking platform for directors and the company, encourage the development of a governance framework that enable sustainable growth of the company, monitor business performance, impose challenges to directors and management that could improve the business.

Corporate Governance is the collection of mechanisms, processes and relations used by various parties to control and to operate a corporation. Governance structures and principles identify the distribution of rights and responsibilities among different participants in the corporation (such as the board of directors, managers, shareholders, creditors, auditors, regulators, and other stakeholders) and include the rules and procedures for making decisions in corporate affairs. Corporate governance is necessary because of the possibility of conflicts of interests between stakeholders, primarily between shareholders and upper management or among shareholders. Corporate governance includes the processes through which corporations' objectives are set and pursued in the context of the social, regulatory and market environment. These include monitoring the actions, policies, practices, and decisions of corporations, their agents, and affected stakeholders. Corporate governance practices can be seen as attempts to align the interests of stakeholders. Interest in the corporate governance practices of modern corporations, particularly in relation to accountability, increased following the high-profile collapses of a number of large corporations in 2001–2002, many of which involved accounting fraud; and then again after the financial crisis in 2008.

Stakeholder Analysis analysis is the process of assessing a system and potential changes to it as they relate to relevant and interested parties or stakeholders. This information is used to assess how the interests of those stakeholders should be addressed in a project plan, policy, program, or other action. Stakeholder analysis is a key part of stakeholder management. A stakeholder analysis of an issue consists of weighing and balancing all of the competing demands on a firm by each of those who have a claim on it, in order to arrive at the firm's obligation in a particular case. A stakeholder analysis does not preclude the interests of the stakeholders overriding the interests of the other stakeholders affected, but it ensures that all affected will be considered. Stakeholder analysis is frequently used during the preparation phase of a project to assess the attitudes of the stakeholders regarding the potential changes. Stakeholder analysis can be done once or on a regular basis to track changes in stakeholder attitudes over time. Stakeholder analysis is used in conflict resolution, business administration, environmental health sciences decision making, Industrial ecology, and project management.

Executive Pay - Employees - Professions

Corporate Secretary is required by state corporation laws for every corporation. Individual corporate by-laws set forth the powers and duties of the Corporate Secretary. A key responsibility of the Corporate Secretary is to ensure that Board members have the proper advice and resources for discharging their fiduciary duties to shareholders under state law. A Corporate Secretary is responsible for ensuring that the records, or minutes of the Board's actions during a Board meeting, reflect the proper exercise of those fiduciary duties. While the duty of recording accurate and sufficient documentation to meet legal requirements (record management) is of primary importance, the Corporate Secretary is also a confidante and resource to the Board and senior management, providing advice and counsel on board responsibilities and logistics. In recent years the Corporate Secretary has emerged as a senior, strategic-level corporate officer who plays a leading role in the company's corporate governance. The roles and responsibilities of a Corporate Secretary include, but are not limited to the following: Manage all board and committee meeting logistics, attend and record minutes of all board and committee meetings; facilitate board communications; Advise the Board on its roles and responsibilities; Facilitate the orientation of new Directors and assist in Director training and development; Maintain key corporate documents and records; Responsible for corporate disclosure and compliance with state corporation laws, stock exchange listing standards and SEC reporting and compliance; Oversee Stockholder Relations including stock issuance and transfer operations; stockholder correspondence; prepare and distribute proxy statement; Manage process pertaining to the annual shareholder meeting; Subsidiary management and governance; Monitor corporate governance developments and assist the Board in tailoring governance practices to meet the Board's needs and investor expectations; Serve as a focal point for investor communication and engagement on corporate governance issues.

Secretariat is a permanent administrative office or department, especially a governmental one. An office responsible for the secretarial, clerical, and administrative affairs of a legislative body, executive council, or international organization. the staff of such an office. In the United Nations the Secretariat carries out the substantive and administrative work of the United Nations as directed by the General Assembly, the Security Council and the other organs. At its head is the Secretary-General, who provides overall administrative guidance.

Sales - Selling

Sell is to persuade someone of the merits of an idea. Sell is a verb. The word sale is a noun.

Selling is the exchange of goods for an agreed upon sum of money. To be sold at a certain price or in a certain way. Persuade somebody to accept something. Presentations.

Sale is the general activity of selling. An item being sold at a reduced price. An agreement or contract in which property is transferred from the seller or vendor to the buyer or vendee for a fixed price in money, or paid or agreed to be paid by the buyer.

Marketing - Middle Men - Sell Out - Lobbyist

Sales are the activities related to selling or the number of goods sold in a given targeted time period. The delivery of a service for a cost is also considered a sale. The seller, or the provider of the goods or services, completes a sale in response to an acquisition, appropriation, requisition, or a direct interaction with the buyer at the point of sale.

Make a Pitch is to make a bid to obtain a contract or other business.

Selling an Idea is to build support for an idea, which means getting other people to publicly except it and agree with it. This can create social pressure and momentum to implement the idea.

Request for Proposal - Funding

The Next Big Thing. It's sometimes necessary to have prior credibility when presenting an idea, because when deciding whether an idea makes sense, investors are sometimes initially more concerned with the person who has the idea, rather than the idea itself. Selling Tips: Adapt your story to the listener, establish a connection with prospects and build a rapport, make a good appearance, find common ground, create shared experiences, identify their needs, be empathic, present solutions and answer objections, mirror and match mannerisms and speech appropriately, remember the basics of good communication, make buying the idea less risky and create momentum.

Solution Selling is a sales process that is a problem-led rather than product-led. An approach to determine if and how a change in a product could bring specific improvements that are desired by the customer. The term "solution" implies that the proposed new product produces improved outcomes and successfully resolves the customer problem. Business-to-business sales or B2B organizations are more likely to use solution selling and similar sales methodologies. Establishing value and customer needs.

Sales Process Engineering is the engineering of better sales processes. It is intended to design better ways of selling, making salespeople's efforts more productive. It has been described as "the systematic application of scientific and mathematical principles to achieve the practical goals of a particular sales process.

Sales Agent is one who is authorized or appointed by a manufacturer to sell or distribute his products within a given territory but who is self-employed, takes title to the goods, and does not act as agent for a principal. A sales agent sells the product on an exclusive or non-exclusive appointment based on the terms of the negotiated contract. You don't need any formal qualifications to become a Sales Representative. Social selling is the process of developing relationships as part of the sales process. Customer Service.

Sales Management is a business discipline which is focused on the practical application of sales techniques and the management of a firm's sales operations.

Sales Operations is a set of business activities and processes that help a sales organization run effectively, efficiently and in support of business strategies and objectives. Sales operations may also be referred to as sales, sales support, business operations.

Personal Selling occurs when a sales representative meets with a potential client for the purpose of transacting a sale. Many sales representatives rely on a sequential sales process that typically includes nine steps. Some sales representatives develop scripts for all or part of the sales process. The sales process can be used in face-to-face encounters and in telemarketing.

Related Subjects and Categories - Information Literacy - Management Tools - Information Technology - Engineering - Human Search Engine - Internet Knowledge - Computer Knowledge - Education Laptops - Independent Learning - Online Education - E-Books - Artificial Intelligence - Knowledge - Science - Open Knowledge - Open Source Education - Knowledge Storage - Validity.

Proposals for Business

Request for Proposal is a document that solicits a proposal, often made through a bidding process, by an agency or company interested in procurement of a commodity, service, or valuable asset, to potential suppliers to submit business proposals. It is submitted early in the procurement cycle, either at the preliminary study, or procurement stage.

Master Plan - Presentations - Feasibility Study - Budgets - Project Management - Contract Law - Trust - Meritocracy

Proposal is a written offer from a seller to a prospective buyer. Business proposals are often a key step in the complex sales process—i.e., whenever a buyer considers more than price in a purchase. A proposal puts the buyer's requirements in a context that favors the seller's products and services, and educates the buyer about the capabilities of the seller in satisfying their needs.

Bidding is an competitive offer to set a price by an individual or business for a product or service or a demand that something be done. Bidding is used to determine the cost or value of something.

Bid-Rigging - Cost Overruns - Delays

Request for Quotation is a business process in which a company or public entity requests a quote from a supplier for the purchase of specific products or services. RfQ generally means the same thing as Call for bids (CfB) and Invitation for bid (IfB). An RfQ typically involves more than the price per item. Information like payment terms, quality level per item or contract length may be requested during the bidding process.

Procurement is the process of finding and agreeing to terms, the action of obtaining and acquiring goods, services, or works from an external source, often via a tendering or competitive bidding process. Procurement generally involves making buying decisions under conditions of scarcity. If sound data is available, it is good practice to make use of economic analysis methods such as cost-benefit analysis or cost-utility analysis. Procurement as an organizational process is intended to ensure that the buyer receives goods, services, or works at the best possible price when aspects such as quality, quantity, time, and location are compared. Corporations and public bodies often define processes intended to promote fair and open competition for their business while minimizing risks such as exposure to fraud and collusion. Almost all purchasing decisions include factors such as delivery and handling, marginal benefit, and price fluctuations.

Invitation to Tender is a formal, structured procedure for generating competing offers from different potential suppliers or contractors looking to obtain an award of business activity in works, supply, or service contracts, often from companies who have been previously assessed for suitability by means of a supplier questionnaire (SQ) or pre-qualification questionnaire (PQQ). ITT is also known as a call for bids or a request for tenders.

Reverse Auction is a type of auction in which the traditional roles of buyer and seller are reversed. Thus, there is one buyer and many potential sellers. In an ordinary auction (also known as a 'forward auction'), buyers compete to obtain goods or services by offering increasingly higher prices. In contrast, in a reverse auction, the sellers compete to obtain business from the buyer and prices will typically decrease as the sellers underbid each other. A reverse auction is similar to a unique bid auction because the basic principle remains the same; however, a unique bid auction follows the traditional auction format more closely as each bid is kept confidential and one clear winner is defined after the auction finishes. For business auctions, the term refers to a specific type of auction process (also called procurement auction, e-auction, sourcing event, e-sourcing or eRA, eRFP, e-RFO, e-procurement, B2B Auction). Open procurement processes, which are a form of reverse auction, have been commonly used in government procurement and in the private sector in many countries for many decades. For consumer auctions, the term is often used to refer to a sales processes that share some characteristics with auctions, but are not necessarily auctions in the traditional sense.

Project Management - Planning - Process

Project Management is the process of initiating, planning, executing, controlling and leading the work of a team to achieve all project goals within the given constraints. This information is usually described in project documentation, created at the beginning of the development process. The primary constraints are scope, time, budget, funding or deliverables. The secondary challenge is to optimize the allocation of necessary inputs and apply them to meet pre-defined objectives. A project is a temporary endeavor designed to produce a unique product, service or result with a defined beginning and end, undertaken to meet unique goals and objectives, typically to bring about beneficial change or added value.

Time Management - Scheduling - Priorities - Logistics - Proposals - Delays

Project Plan is a formal, approved document used to guide project execution and project control. The primary uses of the project plan are to document planning assumptions and decisions, facilitate communication among project stakeholders, and document approved scope, cost, and schedule baselines. A project plan may be summarized or detailed. Problem Solving Planning.

Project Planning is part of project management, which relates to the use of schedules such as Gantt charts to plan and subsequently report progress within the project environment. Initially, the project scope is defined and the appropriate methods for completing the project are determined. Following this step, the durations for the various tasks necessary to complete the work are listed and grouped into a work breakdown structure. Project planning is often used to organize different areas of a project, including project plans, work loads and the management of teams and individuals. The logical dependencies between tasks are defined using an activity network diagram that enables identification of the critical path. Project planning is inherently uncertain as it must be done before the project is actually started. Therefore the duration of the tasks is often estimated through a weighted average of optimistic, normal, and pessimistic cases. The critical chain method adds "buffers" in the planning to anticipate potential delays in project execution. Float or slack time in the schedule can be calculated using project management software. Then the necessary resources can be estimated and costs for each activity can be allocated to each resource, giving the total project cost. At this stage, the project schedule may be optimized to achieve the appropriate balance between resource usage and project duration to comply with the project objectives. Once established and agreed, the project schedule becomes what is known as the baseline schedule. Progress will be measured against the baseline schedule throughout the life of the project. Analyzing progress compared to the baseline schedule is known as earned value management. Project planning can be done manually or by the use of project management software.

12 Steps to Project Planning: Define Scope. Identify Support. Find Available Resources. Check Timeline. List Big Steps. Breakdown Further. Develop Draft Plan. Create Baseline Plan. Refine Plan. Monitor Progress. Document Everything. Keep Everyone Looped In. Meetings.

First: Make sure you start off by asking all the right questions so that you have all the necessary information that will help guide you through your Research and Planning of the project. Goals.
Second: Analyze all the information carefully. Information Literacy.
Third: Assemble your team and make sure that everyone is aware of their responsibilities and
that everyone shares their information correctly and efficiently. Collaboration Tools - Communication.
Forth: Learn as much as you can from the project. Types of Learning.

Workflow consists of an orchestrated and repeatable pattern of business activity enabled by the systematic organization of resources into processes that transform materials, provide services, or process information. It can be depicted as a sequence of operations, the work of a person or group, the work of an organization of staff, or one or more simple or complex mechanisms. From a more abstract or higher-level perspective, workflow may be considered a view or representation of real work. The flow being described may refer to a document, service, or product that is being transferred from one step to another. Workflows may be viewed as one fundamental building block to be combined with other parts of an organization's structure such as information technology, teams, projects and hierarchies.

Workflow Management System provides an infrastructure for the set-up, performance and monitoring of a defined sequence of tasks, arranged as a workflow application. Cost Overruns.

Task Management is the process of managing a task through its life cycle. It involves planning, testing, tracking, and reporting. Task management can help either individual achieve goals, or groups of individuals collaborate and share knowledge for the accomplishment of collective goals. Tasks are also differentiated by complexity, from low to high. Effective task management requires managing all aspects of a task, including its status, priority, time, human and financial resources assignments, recurrence, dependency, notifications and so on. These can be lumped together broadly into the basic activities of task management. Managing multiple individuals or team tasks may be assisted by specialized software, for example workflow or project management software. Task management may form part of project management and process management and can serve as the foundation for efficient workflow in an organization. Project managers adhering to task-oriented management have a detailed and up-to-date project schedule, and are usually good at directing team members and moving the project forward. The status of tasks can be described by the following states: Ready, Assigned, Terminated, Expired, Forwarded, Started, Finished, Verified, Paused, Failed. Time Management.

Program Management is the process of managing several related projects, often with the intention of improving an organization's performance. In practice and in its aims it is often closely related to systems engineering, industrial engineering, change management, and business transformation.

Product Management is an organizational lifecycle function within a company dealing with the planning, forecasting, and production, or marketing of a product or products at all stages of the product lifecycle. Similarly, product lifecycle management or PLM integrates people, data, processes and business systems. It provides product information for companies and their extended supply chain enterprise.

Project Manager is a professional in the field of project management. Project managers have the responsibility of the planning, procurement and execution of a project, in any domain of engineering.

Project Management Body of Knowledge is a set of standard terminology and guidelines or a body of knowledge for project management.

Project Resources: People, Teams, Cost, Budget and TimePredictions.

Project Initiation: Goals, Objectives and Questions.

Configuration Management is a systems engineering process for establishing and maintaining consistency of a product's performance, functional, and physical attributes with its requirements, design, and operational information throughout its life. Baseline

Project Information: Research, Risks, Laws, Design Ideas.

Pareto Principle 80 20 Rule states that, for many events, roughly 80% of the effects come from 20% of the causes.

Project Planning: Tasks, Scheduling, Timeframes and Scope. Desired Outcomes, Possible Outcomes, Possible Setbacks and Problems, Possible Delays, Time Restrictions, Priorities, Calculations, Estimations, Options, Flexibility.

Project Scope or Product Scope involves getting information required to start a project, and the features the product would have that would meet its stakeholders requirements. Project Scope: "The work that needs to be accomplished to deliver a product, service, or result with the specified features and functions." Product Scope: "The features and functions that characterize a product, service, or result."

Project Monitoring: Tracking and Quality Control.

Project Closeout and Evaluation

Postmortem Documentation is a process, usually performed at the conclusion of a project, to determine and analyze elements of the project that were successful or unsuccessful. The Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) refers to the process as lessons learned. Project post-mortems are intended to inform process improvements which mitigate future risks and to promote iterative best practices. Post-mortems are often considered a key component of, and ongoing precursor to, effective risk management.

Project Management Software (wiki) - Comparison of Project Management Software (wiki)

Basecamp - Trello - Slack - Scrum - Odoo All-in-one Management Software

Pagico is one app to manage all your tasks, files & notes. Mac, Windows, Ubuntu, iOS & Android.

Collaboration Tools - Outsourcing - Goal Managing - Time Management - Brainstorming - Meetings.

Construction Process

The construction Process typically starts with design, aesthetics, planning, environmental protection, preparedness, readying, organizing, setup work, groundwork, pre-work, legwork, staging, rehearsal, precaution, safety, alertness, and gearing up. Then start with site layout and staking, prepare the site and free the site of obstructions that may hinder the construction process. Then excavation, foundation, flooring or floor slabs, framing, walls, windows and doors, roof structure, brick masonry, roofing, and finishing.

Engineering - Building

Managing Materials on a job site is critical, and it's an ongoing process. You want all of your materials to show up at the right time, and in the right amounts. You need to inventory materials and store them properly. Check the site plan and make sure it includes proper storage that is needed to be protect materials and tools from the elements.

Creating a Full Construction Schedule and having an organization system. Ordering materials for a construction job so they arrive on time and in the right order. Having materials and tools that are needed on the job site, and having materials and tools delivered at the appropriate time, will help you to stay on schedule. know what tools are on the job site and when you need to use them so you can easily pick up the tools you need at any given moment. It's also a good idea to plan for any material delays or tool problems. Logistics.

Purchase Order or PO is a document that outlines the price and quantity of goods or services necessary to complete a project contract as agreed upon by two parties — the buyer and the seller. placing an order with its vendors or suppliers. The document indicates the details on the items that are to be purchased, such as the types of goods, quantity, and price.

Inventory Management System can keep track of your inventory on the job site using mobile apps or software, RFID tags, or bar codes.

Construction Inventory Management Tool & Material Tracking - Kojo is an all-in-one system for contractors to handle all of their material and inventory needs. Monday is a single platform for managing all your work. Automate tasks and streamline processes with an easy-to-use platform

Staging is the process of selecting, designing, adapting to, or modifying the performance space for a play or film. This includes the use or absence of stagecraft elements as well as the structure of the stage and its components.

Project Progress Reports

Progress Report is a report in which you are updating information about a project. A progress report is a document that explains in detail how much progress you have made towards the completion of your ongoing project. A written progress report is to inform a supervisor, associate, or client about the progress you have made on a project over a specific period of time. Progress reports make it possible for management and clients to stay informed about a project in order to change or adjust assignments, schedules, and budgets. The importance of progress reports lies beyond keeping track and managing your different projects happening simultaneously. Progress reports also provide valuable insights on how your team can finish projects more effectively and effectively. Proposals.

Progress Tracker or tracking progress refers to a real-time visual representation of the status of a project. Your managers and team members should instantly know the status of different tasks and where most attention is needed.

Status is the relative position of how things stand or the standing of things. The state of things at a particular time. Briefed.

Work in Progress is an unfinished project that is still being added to or developed. It is work in any of the stages through which it passes in being made into a finished product out of raw material. Work in progress is a term referring to assets that require a sufficient amount of time for completion of the manufacturing process, such as shipbuilding or construction projects. Work in progress in accounting is the total value of the materials and labor for unfinished projects.

Milestone in project management are tools used in project management to mark specific points along a project timeline. These points may signal anchors such as a project start and end date, a need for external review or input and budget checks, among others. In many instances, milestones do not impact project duration. Instead, they focus on major progress points that must be reached to achieve success. Child Development Milestones.

Float is the amount of time that a task in a project network can be delayed without causing a delay to: Subsequent tasks ("free float"). Project completion date ("total float"). Total float is associated with the path. If a project network chart/diagram has 4 non-critical paths then that project would have 4 total float values. The total float of a path is the combined free float values of all activities in a path. The total float represents the schedule flexibility and can also be measured by subtracting early start dates from late start dates of path completion. Float is core to critical path method, with the total floats of noncritical activities key to computing the critical path drag of an activity, i.e., the amount of time it is adding to the project's duration.

Program Evaluation and Review Technique is a statistical tool, used in project management, which was designed to analyze and represent the tasks involved in completing a given project.

Project Commissioning is the process of assuring that all systems and components of a building or industrial plant are designed, installed, tested, operated, and maintained according to the operational requirements of the owner or final client. A commissioning process may be applied not only to new projects but also to existing units and systems subject to expansion, renovation or revamping.

Delays - Contractors

Project Delays: Learn how to manage project delays effectively and overcome them by understanding the reasons why project delays occur in the first place. A project delay is typically an issue that can take companies over budget, cause them to miss deadlines, and sometimes derail projects. Its impact on costs and timings can be significant, so project managers must pay special attention to its occurrence. Keep your team informed of every delay, change of plans, and altered client expectations. By using task management in projects, every member of the team should be able to see when tasks are due and what major deadlines are approaching. Most clients will forgive a late project once, but twice is pushing the relationship and after the third time, you may not be invited back.

Trust - Expectations - Risks - Procurement Controls - Delaying Tactics - Procrastination

Informing the Customer of a Project Delay: I'm writing to inform you that [Project Name] is behind schedule. I apologize for the delay. Due to [reason for the project delay], this project has been delayed by [length of the delay]. In order to address these unforeseen circumstances, I have [action taken to move project forward].

You can complain about a lot of things that went wrong, and you can blame people for the problems they caused, but this may only make things worse. It's best to learn from the mistakes and keep moving forward. Take advantage of all the learning moments that you're exposed to. Be patient and tolerant of peoples struggles, but don't ignore criminal intent or fraud.

Cost Overruns - Logistics - Progress Report - Building Codes

Construction Delays are situations where project events occur at a later time than expected due to causes related to the client, consultant, and contractor etc. In residential and light construction, construction delays are often the result of miscommunication between contractors, subcontractors, and property owners. These types of misunderstandings and unrealistic expectations are usually avoided through the use of detailed critical path schedules, which specify the work, and timetable to be used, but most importantly, the logical sequence of events which must occur for a project to be completed. Delays in construction projects are frequently expensive, since there is usually a construction loan involved which charges interest, management staff dedicated to the project whose costs are time dependent, and ongoing inflation in wage and material prices. However, in more complex projects, problems will arise that are not foreseen in the original contract, and so other legal construction forms are subsequently used, such as change orders, lien waivers, and addenda. In construction projects, as well in other projects where a schedule is being used to plan work, delays happen all the time. It is what is being delayed that determines if a project, or some other deadline such as a milestone, will be completed late. Before analyzing construction delays, a clear understanding of the general types of delays is necessary. There are four basic ways to categorize delays: Critical or Non-Critical, Excusable or Non-Excusable, Concurrent or Non-Concurrent, Compensable or Non-Compensable, Before determining the impact of a delay on the project, one must determine whether the delay is critical or non-critical. Additionally, all delays are either excusable or non-excusable. Both excusable and non-excusable delays can be defined as either concurrent or non-concurrent. Delays can be further broken down into compensable or non-compensable delays. Moreover, the construction supply chain plays a major role in the construction market competition. Construction supply chain management assists enterprises by helping to improve competitiveness, increase profits and have more control over the different factors and variables within the project. A. Cox and P. Ireland contributed the myriad of construction supply chain which illustrated the main flows within the construction supply chain. In his research, Ghaith Al-Werikat analysed delays in relation to the myriad of construction supply chain. In particular, material flow, equipment flow, information flow, labour flow and client's information flow, offering a quantification of the impact of supply chain delays on construction projects performance. On the other hand, Economic historian Robert E. Wright argues that construction delays are caused by bid gaming, change order artistry, asymmetric information, and post contractual market power. Until those fundamental issues are confronted and resolved, many custom construction projects will continue to come in over budget, past due, or below contract specifications.

Contractor Warnings and Tips: Finding the right contractor can be a challenge. Choose a contractor with credentials and do a little investigating into the company's business practices. How do you respond to a contractor's quote? You can politely decline a quote from a contractor by texting, emailing, or calling—whatever makes you feel most comfortable. Try a two-sentence note such as, "Thanks for your quote and taking the time to look at our project. We decided to go with a different bid." Yes, it can be that short and easy. While many contractors may require upfront payments for purchasing materials, such as insulation and drywall if the contractor begins with an insulation upgrade, most contractors shouldn’t demand you pay a large portion before the project is completed. If the contractor requests a large sum of money before work has begun, you should ask specifically what types of work or materials those payments are covering. Once they have 50% and they haven’t started anything, you have to be careful. Contractors sometimes have other motives, other than purchasing materials, when they ask for large amounts of money in advance. When a contractor says “change order,” they’re talking about amending the contract. This will happen any time a homeowner decides they want something different during the construction process. The previous agreement between the contractor and homeowner needs to be changed. Typical markup on materials will be between 7.5 and 10%. However, some contractors will mark up materials as much as 20 percent, according to the Corporate Finance Institute. Contractors not only tend to get paid well at source, earning up to 50 percent more than employees in similar positions. Contractors are often considered to be unreliable because of the reputation earned from inexperienced or unprofessional craftsmen. When management sucks up all the profits for themselves without sharing it with the employees who do most of the work, quality will suffer at the customers expense. You need to check that any contractor you engage has the ability to fulfill their contract with you. You can look at their past job history and performance, their income, the size of their business, and whether they've filed for bankruptcy. Know if your contractor is licensed. Not all states require contractors to have a license, which means that many contractors can work without a degree or oversight. Contractors will also subcontract work to other contractors, so it's a good idea to know the subcontractors too. Sometimes companies will use low wage laborers instead of skilled craftsman and licensed professionals, so it's a good idea to know this as well. Confirm that there is a one-year warranty. This is an industry standard for anything a contractor installs in your home. Your contract with the contractor should have a termination provision. You should document all the breaches in writing to the contractor, declare the contractor to be in default under the contract with reference to specific sections of the contract if possible, and state that you are exercising your right to terminate the contract. Ideally you would want to give notice of the default and demand that the contractor cure the default by a specified date before officially terminating. The contract may require this. You should notify the insurance adjuster. There is a good chance that it will cost more to engage a new contractor to finish the job, and you will want to know your insurer's position on the potential for additional costs. It's also recommended that you carefully document all the work completed by the current contractor before a new contractor starts work with detailed photographs and perhaps expert analysis. There is likely to be a dispute regarding the value of the work already performed and any defects in the work. You may also have a claim against the contractor if the cost to complete the work is higher than the amount of the contract with the original contractor. Communication problems exist in all levels of society, and not just in business. Contributing factors include: misinterpretations, biases, assumptions, beliefs, prejudice and lack of knowledge. If a contractor goes sour or turns out to be bad, you can file a complaint with your state contractor licensing board and file complaints with the Better Business Bureau. The licensing board will send a letter to the contractor stating that a complaint has been filed and asking the contractor to work out the problem with the homeowner. The Surety & Fidelity Association of America or SFAA reviewed 86 claims cases and identified unrealistic growth, performance, character, accounting and management as the top five factors related to contractor failure. Guild Quality is an independent survey company that sends questionnaires to be filled out by clients after a job is completed. The National Association of the Remodeling Industry or NARI has a code of ethics for its members. Complaint reasons can be, constantly miss deadlines, they start work and then disappear. Projects tend to always cost more and take longer than agreed upon is because some general contractors want to make maximum money from you. Contractors can hold homeowners hostage due to more lucrative deals. Contractors can make broken promises, and lie on numerous occasions, especially when completion dates have come and gone. There are a few basic principles and practices that you can apply to help a contractors staff stay motivated and perform at peak levels. Practice an orientation process. Set clear expectations. Provide feedback – quick, specific and consistent. Invest in the relationship. Provide a fair pay. General Contractors.

Corruption - Fraud - Scams - Theft - Middlemen

Americans spent an estimated $317 billion in 2017 on home improvement and repairs, according to Harvard University's Joint Center for Housing Studies.

Business Plan - Growth Planning

Business Plan is a formal written document containing business goals, the methods on how these goals can be attained, and the time frame within which these goals need to be achieved. It also describes the nature of the business, background information on the organization, the organization's financial projections, and the strategies it intends to implement to achieve the stated targets. In its entirety, this document serves as a road map that provides direction to the business. Written business plans are often required to obtain a bank loan or other kind of financing. Contract Law.

Growth Planning is a strategic business activity that enables business owners to plan and track organic growth in their revenue. It allows businesses to allocate their limited resources toward a centered effort to adapt to changes in the industry driven by digital disruption and differentiate from competitors. The strategies and tactics included in a Growth Plan focus on the key driver of revenue generation - the customer. Development

Operational Planning is the process of planning strategic goals and objectives to tactical goals and objectives. It describes milestones, conditions for success and explains how, or what portion of, a strategic plan will be put into operation during a given operational period, in the case of commercial application, a fiscal year or another given budgetary term. An operational plan is the basis for and justification of an annual operating budget request. Therefore, a five-year strategic plan would typically require five operational plans funded by five operating budgets. Operational plans should establish the activities and budgets for each part of the organization for the next 1–3 years. They link the strategic plan with the activities the organization will deliver and the resources required to deliver them. An operational plan draws directly from agency and program strategic plans to describe agency and program missions and goals, program objectives, and program activities. Like a strategic plan, an operational plan addresses four questions: Where are we now? Where do we want to be? How do we get there? How do we measure our progress? The operations plan is both the first and the last step in preparing an operating budget request. As the first step, the operations plan provides a plan for resource allocation; as the last step, the OP may be modified to reflect policy decisions or financial changes made during the budget development process. Operational plans should be prepared by the people who will be involved in implementation. There is often a need for significant cross-departmental dialogue as plans created by one part of the organization inevitably have implications for other parts. Operational plans should contain: Clear objectives of them. Activities to be delivered. Quality standards. Desired outcomes. Staffing and resource requirements. Implementation timetables. A process for monitoring progress.

Integrated Business Planning is a process for translating desired business outcomes into financial and operational resource requirements, with the overarching objective of maximizing profit and / or cash flow, while minimizing risk. The business outcomes, on which IBP processes focus, can be expressed in terms of the achievement of the following types of targets: Revenue & demand. Service levels. Inventory levels. Profits & margins. Cash flow.

Business Process Automation is the technology-enabled automation of complex business processes. It can streamline a business for simplicity, achieve digital transformation, increase service quality, improve service delivery or contain costs. It consists of integrating applications, restructuring labor resources and using software applications throughout the organization. Robotic process automation is an emerging field within BPA and uses artificial intelligence.

Product Quality - Continuity

SMART criteria is a mnemonic acronym, giving criteria to guide in the setting of objectives, for example in project management, employee-performance management and personal development. The letters S and M usually mean specific and measurable. The other letters have meant different things to different authors, as described below. Additional letters have been added by some authors.

Operations Research is a discipline that deals with the application of advanced analytical methods to help make better decisions. Further, the term 'operational analysis' is used in the British (and some British Commonwealth) military, as an intrinsic part of capability development, management and assurance. In particular, operational analysis forms part of the Combined Operational Effectiveness and Investment Appraisals (COEIA), which support British defence capability acquisition decision-making.

Project Governance is the management framework within which project decisions are made. Project governance is a critical element of any project since while the accountabilities and responsibilities associated with an organization’s business as usual activities are laid down in their organizational governance arrangements, seldom does an equivalent framework exist to govern the development of its capital investments (projects).

Production Leveling is a technique for reducing the Mura or unevenness, which in turn reduces muda or waste. It was vital to the development of production efficiency in the Toyota Production System and lean manufacturing. The goal is to produce intermediate goods at a constant rate so that further processing may also be carried out at a constant and predictable rate.

Model Audit is the colloquial term for the tasks performed when conducting due diligence on a financial model, in order to eliminate spreadsheet error. Model audits are sometimes referred to as model reviews, primarily to avoid confusion with financial audit.

Configuration Management is a systems engineering process for establishing and maintaining consistency of a product's performance, functional, and physical attributes with its requirements, design, and operational information throughout its life. Processes.

Performance-Based Budgeting is the practice of developing budgets based on the relationship between program funding levels and expected results from that program. The performance-based budgeting process is a tool that program administrators can use to manage more cost-efficient and effective budgeting outlays.

Check List

Overhead refers to an ongoing expense of operating a business; it is also known as an operating expense. Overheads are the expenditure which cannot be conveniently traced to or identified with any particular cost unit. Therefore, overheads cannot be immediately associated with the products or services being offered, thus do not directly generate profits.

Interim report is often compiled to analyze how the project is proceeding, before its final completion. Interim analysis is important in medical trials, to ensure that the patients are not exposed to unnecessary danger during the trial.

Process Management

Process Management is the ensemble of activities of planning and monitoring the performance of a business process. The term usually refers to the management of business processes and manufacturing processes.

Business Process is a collection of related, structured activities or tasks that produce a specific service or product (serve a particular goal) for a particular customer or customers. It may often be visualized as a flowchart of a sequence of activities with interleaving decision points or as a process matrix of a sequence of activities with relevance rules based on data in the process.

Project Management Process is the discipline of initiating, planning, executing, controlling, and closing the work of a team to achieve specific goals and meet specific success criteria. A project is a temporary endeavor designed to produce a unique product, service or result with a defined beginning and end (usually time-constrained, and often constrained by funding or deliverables) undertaken to meet unique goals and objectives, typically to bring about beneficial change or added value.

Operations Management is an area of management concerned with designing and controlling the process of production and redesigning business operations in the production of goods or services. It involves the responsibility of ensuring that business operations are efficient in terms of using as few resources as needed and effective in terms of meeting customer requirements. It is concerned with managing the process that converts inputs (in the forms of raw materials, labor, and energy) into outputs (in the form of goods and/or services).

Stress Management - Cost Overruns

Business Process Management is a field in operations management that focuses on improving corporate performance by managing and optimizing a company's business processes. It can therefore be described as a "process optimization process". It is argued that BPM enables organizations to be more efficient, more effective and more capable of change than a functionally focused, traditional hierarchical management approach.

Process Documentation (PDF) - How to Document a Process (wikihow)

Processes (science)

Process Performance Index is an estimate of the process capability of a process during its initial set-up, before it has been brought into a state of statistical control.

Develop - Charts - PM

The Project Management Process focuses on taking the facts and happenings of a particular Problem or Project and disseminating this information to all relevant parties. These methods of information dissemination can come in means including regularly scheduled Conferences and or Meetings, regularly scheduled Conference Calls in which some or all members of the project team participate, informal written Communications such as periodic updates via email and of other short form, less formal means of communications, as well as formal reports that may or may not have been requisite to the completion of the project. Information distribution is essential to assuring that everyone is fully aware of the progress throughout the project as it helps to assure no surprises arise at the time that deliverables are expected to be final.

Process Mining is a family of techniques in the field of process management that support the analysis of business processes based on event logs. During process mining, specialized data mining algorithms are applied to event log data in order to identify trends, patterns and details contained in event logs recorded by an information system. Process mining aims to improve process efficiency and understanding of processes. Process mining is also known as Automated Business Process Discovery (ABPD). However, in academic literature the term Automated Business Process Discovery is used in a narrower sense to refer specifically to techniques that take as input an event log and produce as output a business process model. The term Process Mining is used in a broader setting to refer not only to techniques for discovering process models, but also techniques for business process conformance and performance analysis based on event logs.

Batch Process (goals) - Processes (science)

Batch Production is a technique used in manufacturing, in which the object in question is created stage by stage over a series of workstations, and different batches of products are made. Together with job production (one-off production) and mass production (flow production or continuous production) it is one of the three main production methods.

Process Capability is a unique combination of tools, materials, methods, and people engaged in producing a measurable output; for example a manufacturing line for machine parts. All processes have inherent statistical variability which can be evaluated by statistical methods.

Project Portfolio Management is the centralized management of the processes, methods, and technologies used by project managers and project management offices (PMOs) to analyze and collectively manage current or proposed projects based on numerous key characteristics. The objectives of PPM are to determine the optimal resource mix for delivery and to schedule activities to best achieve an organization’s operational and financial goals, while honouring constraints imposed by customers, strategic objectives, or external real-world factors.

Quality Control - Development

Methodology is the systematic, theoretical analysis of the methods applied to a field of study. It comprises the theoretical analysis of the body of methods and principles associated with a branch of knowledge. Typically, it encompasses concepts such as paradigm, theoretical model, phases and quantitative or qualitative techniques. A methodology does not set out to provide solutions - it is, therefore, not the same as a method. Instead, a methodology offers the theoretical underpinning for understanding which method, set of methods, or best practices can be applied to specific case, for example, to calculate a specific result. It has been defined also as follows: "the analysis of the principles of methods, rules, and postulates employed by a discipline"; "the systematic study of methods that are, can be, or have been applied within a discipline"; "the study or description of methods".

Project Management Methodology - PMM

Core Competency a harmonized combination of multiple resources and skills that distinguish a firm in the marketplace". Core competencies fulfill three criteria: Provides potential access to a wide variety of markets. Should make a significant contribution to the perceived customer benefits of the end product. Difficult to imitate by competitors.

Documentation - Record Keeping

Three Ring Binder for Records and Ducuments Documentation is a set of documents provided on paper, or online, or on digital or analog media, such as audio tape or CDs. Examples are user guides, white papers, on-line help, quick-reference guides. It is becoming less common to see paper (hard-copy) documentation. Documentation is distributed via websites, software products, and other on-line applications.

Knowledge Preservation - Knowledge Management - History - Knowledge Base - Facts - Reports

Document is a written, drawn, presented or recorded representation of thoughts.

Record is any document or other type of medium providing permanent evidence of or information about past events. A compilation of the known facts regarding something or someone. To be aware of something. Record in law is a document that can serve as legal evidence of a transaction. Minutes.

Records Management is the professional practice of managing the records of an organization throughout their life cycle, from the time they are created to their eventual disposal. This includes identifying, classifying, storing, securing, retrieving, tracking and destroying or permanently preserving records.

Paper Trail is a series of documents providing written evidence of a sequence of events or the activities of a person or organization. Paper Trail are records left by a person or organization in the course of activities. Audit Trail is a computerized record or log of the financial transactions of an organization or system. Data Trail are recoverable traces of data left behind by any activity; the general case, independent of medium, of which a paper trail is (in its literal sense) a medium-specific case.

Note-taking is the practice of recording information from different sources and platforms. By taking notes, the writer records the essence of the information, freeing their mind from having to recall everything. Notes are commonly drawn from a transient source, such as an oral discussion at a meeting, or a lecture. Notes of a meeting are usually called minutes, in which case the notes may be the only record of the event.

Document Management System is a system used to track, manage and store documents and reduce paper (based on computer programs in the case of the management of digital documents). Most are capable of keeping a record of the various versions created and modified by different users (history tracking). The term has some overlap with the concepts of content management systems. It is often viewed as a component of enterprise content management (ECM) systems and related to digital asset management, document imaging, workflow systems and records management systems.

Documentation Writing Standards - Precise Language without Personal Opinions.

Business Record is a document (hard copy or digital) that records a business dealing. Business records include meeting minutes, memoranda, employment contracts, and accounting source documents.

Spreadsheet is an interactive computer application for organization, analysis and storage of data in tabular form. Spreadsheets are developed as computerized simulations of paper accounting worksheets. The program operates on data entered in cells of a table. Each cell may contain either numeric or text data, or the results of formulas that automatically calculate and display a value based on the contents of other cells. A spreadsheet may also refer to one such electronic document.

Electronic Document s any electronic media content (other than computer programs or system files) that are intended to be used in either an electronic form or as printed output. Originally, any computer data were considered as something internal — the final data output was always on paper.

Public Records are documents or pieces of information that are not considered confidential and generally pertain to the conduct of government. Freedom of Information Act.

Vital Record are records of life events kept under governmental authority, including birth certificates, marriage licenses, and death certificates. In some jurisdictions, vital records may also include records of civil unions or domestic partnerships. In the United States, vital records are typically maintained at both the county and state levels. In the United Kingdom and numerous other countries vital records are recorded in the civil registry.

National Vital Statistics System is the oldest and most successful example of inter-governmental data sharing in Public Health and the shared relationships, standards, and procedures form the mechanism by which NCHS collects and disseminates the Nation’s official vital statistics.

Vital Statistics in government records is accumulated data gathered on live births, deaths, fetal deaths, marriages and divorces. The most common way of collecting information on these events is through civil registration, an administrative system used by governments to record vital events which occur in their populations. Efforts to improve the quality of vital statistics will therefore be closely related to the development of civil registration systems in countries.

Civil Registration is the system by which a government records the vital events (births, marriages, and deaths) of its citizens and residents. The resulting repository or database has different names in different countries and even in different US states. It can be called a civil registry, civil register (but this is also an official term for an individual file of a vital event), vital records, and other terms, and the office responsible for receiving the registrations can be called a bureau of vital statistics, registry of vital records and statistics, registrar, registry, register, registry office (officially register office), or population registry. The primary purpose of civil registration is to create a legal document that can be used to establish and protect the rights of individuals. A secondary purpose is to create a data source for the compilation of vital statistics. In most countries, there is a legal requirement to notify the relevant authority of certain life events, such as births, marriages and death.

Document Retrieval is defined as the matching of some stated user query against a set of free-text records. These records could be any type of mainly unstructured text, such as newspaper articles, real estate records or paragraphs in a manual. User queries can range from multi-sentence full descriptions of an information need to a few words.

Documentation Science is the study of the recording and retrieval of information. Documentation science gradually developed into the broader field of information science.

Document Classification is a problem in library science, information science and computer science. The task is to assign a document to one or more classes or categories. This may be done "manually" (or "intellectually") or algorithmically. The intellectual classification of documents has mostly been the province of library science, while the algorithmic classification of documents is mainly in information science and computer science. The problems are overlapping, however, and there is therefore interdisciplinary research on document classification. The documents to be classified may be texts, images, music, etc. Each kind of document possesses its special classification problems. When not otherwise specified, text classification is implied. Documents may be classified according to their subjects or according to other attributes (such as document type, author, printing year etc.). In the rest of this article only subject classification is considered. There are two main philosophies of subject classification of documents: the content-based approach and the request-based approach.

Smart Tags have an identifier that automates data storage based on keywords it finds. Smart tags label data within documents or images when it identifies relevant words or numbers. Meta-data.

Presidential Records Act is mandating the preservation of all presidential records. The PRA allows for public access to Presidential records through the Freedom of Information Act or FOIA beginning five years after the end of the Administration, but allows the President to invoke as many as six specific restrictions to public access for up to twelve years. The PRA also establishes procedures for Congress, courts, and subsequent administrations to obtain special access to records that remain closed to the public, following a 30‑day notice period to the former and current Presidents.

National Archives and Records Administration is an independent agency of the United States government charged with preserving and documenting government and historical records and with increasing public access to those documents, which comprise the National Archives. NARA is officially responsible for maintaining and publishing the legally authentic and authoritative copies of acts of Congress, presidential proclamations and executive orders, and federal regulations. The NARA also transmits votes of the Electoral College to Congress.

Archivist of the United States is the chief official overseeing the operation of the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA).

Legal Instrument is a legal term of art that is used for any formally executed written document that can be formally attributed to its author, records and formally expresses a legally enforceable act, process, or contractual duty, obligation, or right, and therefore evidences that act, process, or agreement. Examples include a certificate, deed, bond, contract, will, legislative act, notarial act, court writ or process, or any law passed by a competent legislative body in municipal (domestic) or international law. Many legal instruments were written under seal by affixing a wax or paper seal to the document in evidence of its legal execution and authenticity (which often removes the need for consideration in contract law); however, today many jurisdictions have done away with the requirement of documents being under seal in order to give them legal effect. Legal Value is the usefulness of a document or record as a legal proof of authority or business transaction, enforceable rights or obligations, or as the basis for a legal action.

Legal Documents Types (wiki)

Legal Documents - Legal Forms - Legal Contracts - Free Legal Forms

Law Knowledge (laws, rules, regulations) - Data Management (knowledge management)

Knowledge Preservation (storage) - Procedures

Work Order is an order received by an organization from a customer or client, or an order created internally within the organization. A work order may be for products or services.

Business Plans

Intelligence Assessment is the development of forecasts of behavior or recommended courses of action to the leadership of an organization, based on a wide range of available information sources both overt and covert. Assessments are developed in response to requirements declared by the leadership in order to inform decision making. Assessment may be carried out on behalf of a state, military or commercial organization with a range of available sources of information available to each. An intelligence assessment reviews both available information and previous assessments for relevance and currency. Where additional information is required, some collection may be directed by the analyst. Intelligence studies is the academic field concerned with intelligence assessment, especially relating to international relations and military science.

Related Subjects - Statistics - Research - Math - Scalability - Best Practice - Control Theory - Logistics - Supply Chain Management - Brainstorming - Collaborate - Charts - Graphs - Engineering - Problem Solving - Conceptual Model - Prototype - Copyrights - Ideas - Computers - Information Technology - Interface - Environmental Impact - Value - Search Engine.

Quality Control - Mistake Prevention

Quality Control Diagram Quality Assurance is a way of preventing mistakes or defects in manufactured products and avoiding problems when delivering solutions or services to customers.

Safety Engineering - Emergencies - First Aid - Standards - Reliability Engineering

Quality Management ensures that an organization, product or service is consistent and is up to high standards. It has four main components: quality planning, quality assurance, quality control and quality improvement. Quality management is focused not only on product and service quality, but also on the means to achieve it. Quality management, therefore, uses quality assurance and control of processes as well as products to achieve more consistent quality and safety.

Quality is a degree of excellence or worth.

Total Quality Management consists of organization-wide efforts to install and make permanent a climate in which an organization continuously improves its ability to deliver high-quality products and services to customers.

Quality Control a process by which entities review the quality of all factors involved in production.

Center of Excellence is a team, a shared facility or an entity that provides leadership, best practices, research, support and/or training for a focus area.

Good Manufacturing Practice

Inspection is careful examination or scrutiny. An organized examination or formal evaluation exercise. In engineering activities inspection involves the measurements, tests, and gauges applied to certain characteristics in regard to an object or activity. The results are usually compared to specified requirements and standards for determining whether the item or activity is in line with these targets, often with a Standard Inspection Procedure in place to ensure consistent checking, which is a process by which a number of variables may be checked for compliance against a set of rules. Inspections are usually non-destructive. Inspections may be a visual inspection or involve sensing technologies such as ultrasonic testing, accomplished with a direct physical presence or remotely such as a remote visual inspection, and manually or automatically such as an automated optical inspection. Non-contact optical measurement and Photogrammetry have become common NDT methods for inspection of manufactured components and design optimization.

Product Certification is the process of certifying that a certain product has passed performance tests and quality assurance tests, and meets qualification criteria stipulated in contracts, regulations, or specifications (typically called "certification schemes" in the product certification industry).

Reliability Engineering is a sub-discipline of systems engineering that emphasizes dependability in the lifecycle management of a product. Dependability, or reliability, describes the ability of a system or component to function under stated conditions for a specified period of time. Reliability is closely related to availability, which is typically described as the ability of a component or system to function at a specified moment or interval of time.

Prevention Through Design is the concept of applying methods to minimize occupational hazards early in the design process, with an emphasis on optimizing employee health and safety throughout the life cycle of materials and processes. It is a concept and movement that encourages construction or product designers to "design out" health and safety risks during design development. The concept supports the view that along with quality, programme and cost; safety is determined during the design stage. It increases the cost-effectiveness of enhancements to occupational safety and health. This method for reducing workplace safety risks lessens workers' reliance on personal protective equipment, which is the least effective of the hierarchy of hazard control. Haddon Matrix (wiki)

Flexible Ultrasound Patch could make it easier to Inspect damage in Odd-Shaped Structures.

Best Practice (preventive maintenance) - Reliability & Maintainability R&M.

Standards Organization is an organization whose primary activities are developing, coordinating, promulgating, revising, amending, reissuing, interpreting, or otherwise producing technical standards that are intended to address the needs of a group of affected adopters.

Kaizen (改善) is the Japanese word for "Continuous Improvement " or "Change for Better".

PDCA stands for plandocheckact, or plan–do–check–adjust. PDCA is an iterative four-step management method used in business for the control and continual improvement of processes and products. Process Control.
PLAN: Establish the objectives and processes necessary to deliver results in accordance with the expected output (the target or goals). By establishing output expectations, the completeness and accuracy of the specification is also a part of the targeted improvement. When possible start on a small scale to test possible effects.
DO: Implement the plan, execute the process, make the product. Collect data for charting and analysis in the following "CHECK" and "ACT" steps.
CHECK: Study the actual results (measured and collected in "DO" above) and compare against the expected results (targets or goals from the "PLAN") to ascertain any differences. Look for deviation in implementation from the plan and also look for the appropriateness and completeness of the plan to enable the execution, i.e., "Do". Charting data can make this much easier to see trends over several PDCA cycles and in order to convert the collected data into information. Information is what you need for the next step "ACT".
ACT: If the CHECK shows that the PLAN that was implemented in DO is an improvement to the prior standard (baseline), then that becomes the new standard (baseline) for how the organization should ACT going forward (new standards are enACTed). If the CHECK shows that the PLAN that was implemented in DO is not an improvement, then the existing standard (baseline) will remain in place. In either case, if the CHECK showed something different than expected (whether better or worse), then there is some more learning to be done... and that will suggest potential future PDCA cycles. Note that some who teach PDCA assert that the ACT involves making adjustments or corrective actions... but generally it would be counter to PDCA thinking to propose and decide upon alternative changes without using a proper PLAN phase, or to make them the new standard (baseline) without going through DO and CHECK steps.

Industrial Control System is a general term that encompasses several types of control systems and associated instrumentation used for industrial process control. Such systems can range from a few modular panel-mounted controllers to large interconnected and interactive distributed control systems with many thousands of field connections. All systems receive data received from remote sensors measuring process variables (PVs), compare these with desired set points (SPs) and derive command functions which are used to control a process though the final control elements (FCEs), such as control valves. The larger systems are usually implemented by Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems, or distributed control systems (DCS), and programmable logic controllers (PLCs), though SCADA and PLC systems are scalable down to small systems with few control loops. Such systems are extensively used in industries such as chemical processing, pulp and paper manufacture, power generation, oil and gas processing and telecommunications.

Upgrade is the process of replacing a product with a newer version of the same product. In computing and consumer electronics an upgrade is generally a replacement of hardware, software or firmware with a newer or better version, in order to bring the system up to date or to improve its characteristics.

Redundancy is the duplication of critical components or functions of a system with the intention of increasing reliability of the system, usually in the form of a backup or fail-safe, or to improve actual system performance, such as in the case of GNSS receivers, or multi-threaded computer processing. In many safety-critical systems, such as fly-by-wire and hydraulic systems in aircraft, some parts of the control system may be triplicated, which is formally termed triple modular redundancy (TMR). An error in one component may then be out-voted by the other two. In a triply redundant system, the system has three sub components, all three of which must fail before the system fails. Since each one rarely fails, and the sub components are expected to fail independently, the probability of all three failing is calculated to be extraordinarily small; often outweighed by other risk factors, such as human error. Redundancy may also be known by the terms "majority voting systems" or "voting logic". Suspension bridge's numerous cables are a form of redundancy. Redundancy sometimes produces less, instead of greater reliability – it creates a more complex system which is prone to various issues, it may lead to human neglect of duty, and may lead to higher production demands which by overstressing the system may make it less safe.

Software Testing

Benchmarking is comparing one's business processes and performance metrics to industry bests and best practices from other companies. Dimensions typically measured are quality, time and cost. In the process of best practice benchmarking, management identifies the best firms in their industry, or in another industry where similar processes exist, and compares the results and processes of those studied (the "targets") to one's own results and processes. In this way, they learn how well the targets perform and, more importantly, the business processes that explain why these firms are successful. According to National Council on Measurement in Education, benchmark assessments are short assessments used by teachers at various times throughout the school year to monitor student progress in some area of the school curriculum. These also are known as interim assessments. Benchmarking is used to measure performance using a specific indicator (cost per unit of measure, productivity per unit of measure, cycle time of x per unit of measure or defects per unit of measure) resulting in a metric of performance that is then compared to others. Also referred to as "best practice benchmarking" or "process benchmarking", this process is used in management which particularly shows VEMR strategic management, in which organizations evaluate various aspects of their processes in relation to best practice companies' processes, usually within a peer group defined for the purposes of comparison. This then allows organizations to develop plans on how to make improvements or adapt specific best practices, usually with the aim of increasing some aspect of performance. Benchmarking may be a one-off event, but is often treated as a continuous process in which organizations continually seek to improve their practices. BM.

Customer Service

Recall is a request to return a product after the discovery of safety issues or product defects that might endanger the consumer or put the maker/seller at risk of legal action. Consumer Protection.

By-Product is a secondary product derived from a manufacturing process or chemical reaction. It is not the primary product or service being produced. In the context of production, a by-product is the 'output from a joint production process that is minor in quantity and/or net realizable value (NRV) when compared to the main products'. Because they are deemed to have no influence on reported financial results, by-products do not receive allocations of joint costs. By-products also by convention are not inventoried, but the NRV from by-products is typically recognized as 'other income' or as a reduction of joint production processing costs when the by-product is produced. A by-product can be useful and marketable or it can be considered waste.


Computerized Maintenance Management System is a software package that maintains a computer database of information about an organization's maintenance operations. This information is intended to help maintenance workers do their jobs more effectively (for example, determining which machines require maintenance and which storerooms contain the spare parts they need) and to help management make informed decisions (for example, calculating the cost of machine breakdown repair versus preventive maintenance for each machine, possibly leading to better allocation of resources). CMMS data may also be used to verify regulatory compliance.

Verification and Validation - Standards

Capability Maturity Model is a development model created after study of data collected from organizations that contracted with the U.S. Department of Defense, who funded the research. The term "maturity" relates to the degree of formality and optimization of processes, from ad hoc practices, to formally defined steps, to managed result metrics, to active optimization of the processes. The model's aim is to improve existing software development processes, but it can also be applied to other processes.

Implementation Maturity Model Assessment is an instrument to help an organization in assessing and determining the degree of maturity of its implementation processes. This model consists of two important components, namely the: five maturity levels, adopted from capability maturity model (CMM) of the Software Engineering Institute (SEI). By assessing the maturity of different aspects of implementation processes, it becomes clear what their strengths and weaknesses are, and also where improvements are needed. Implementation maturity matrix, which is an adjusted version of the test maturity matrix found in the test process improvement (TPI) model developed by Sogeti. The IMM matrix allows an organization to gain insight into the current situation of its implementation processes, and how it should pursue the desirable situation (i.e. a higher maturity level).Enterprise Architecture Assessment Framework (wiki)

People Capability Maturity Model is a maturity framework that focuses on continuously improving the management and development of the human assets of an organization. It describes an evolutionary improvement path from ad hoc, inconsistently performed practices, to a mature, disciplined, and continuously improving development of the knowledge, skills, and motivation of the workforce that enhances strategic business performance. Related to fields such as human resources, knowledge management, and organizational development, the People CMM guides organizations in improving their processes for managing and developing their workforces. The People CMM helps organizations characterize the maturity of their workforce practices, establish a program of continuous workforce development, set priorities for improvement actions, integrate workforce development with process improvement, and establish a culture of excellence.

OPM3 is a globally recognized best-practice standard for assessing and developing capabilities in executing strategy through projects via Portfolio Management, Program Management, and Project Management.

Design (engineering)

Nonconformity in quality management, a nonconformity (also known as a defect) is a deviation from a specification, a standard, or an expectation. Nonconformities are classified as either critical, major, or minor. In software engineering, ISO/IEC 9126 distinguishes between a defect and a nonconformity; a defect is the nonfulfilment of intended usage requirements, whereas a nonconformity is the nonfulfilment of a requirement. A similar distinction is made between validation and verification. Minor nonconformity – Any nonconformity which does not adversely affect the performance, durability, interchangeability, reliability, maintainability, effective use or operation, weight or appearance (where a factor), health or safety of a product. Multiple minor nonconformities when considered collectively may raise the category to a major or critical nonconformity. Major nonconformity – Any nonconformity other than critical, which may result in failure or materially reduce the usability of the product for the intended purpose (i.e. effective use or operation, weight or appearance (where a factor), health or safety) and which can not be completely eliminated by rework or reduced to a minor nonconformity by an approved repair. Critical nonconformity – Any nonconformity which may result in hazardous or unsafe conditions for individuals using, maintaining or depending upon the product or prevent performance of a vital agency mission.

Failure Reporting, Analysis and Corrective Action System is a system, sometimes carried out using software, that provides a process for reporting, classifying, analyzing failures, and planning corrective actions in response to those failures. It is typically used in an industrial environment to collect data, record and analyse system failures. A FRACAS system may attempt to manage multiple failure reports and produces a history of failure and corrective actions. FRACAS records the problems related to a product or process and their associated root causes and failure analyses to assist in identifying and implementing corrective actions. The FRACAS method was developed by the US Govt. and first introduced for use by the US Navy and all department of defense agencies in 1985. The FRACAS process is a closed loop with the following steps: Failure Reporting (FR). The failures and the faults related to a system, an equipment, a software or a process are formally reported through a standard form (Defect Report, Failure Report). Analysis (A). Perform analysis in order to identify the root cause of failure. Corrective Actions (CA). Identify, implement and verify corrective actions to prevent further recurrence of the failure.

Corrective and Preventive Action are improvements to an organization's processes taken to eliminate causes of non-conformities or other undesirable situations. It is usually a set of actions that laws or regulations require an organization to take in manufacturing, documentation, procedures, or systems to rectify and eliminate recurring nonperformance. Nonperformance is identified after systematic evaluation and analysis of the root cause of the non-conformance. Non-conformance may be a market complaint or customer complaint or a failure of a machinery or a quality management system, or misinterpretation of written instructions to carryout a work. The corrective and preventive action is designed by a team that includes quality assurance personnel and personnel involved in the actual observation point of nonconformance. It must be systematically implemented and observed for its ability to eliminate further recurrence of such non-conformation. (also called corrective action / preventive action, or simply corrective action).

American Productivity Quality Center - Mind My Business App

Plan - Do - Check - Act Food Process - Ratings

Project Management - Employee Management

Audit (spending) - Monitor (accountability)

Feedback (social learning)

Smart Innovation - Development Process

Scenarios - Prepared (catastrophes)

Bugs Duds - Bugs Bunny Missile Tester (youtube) - Looney Tunes Forward March Hare.

The End of Ownership (youtube)

Capacity Management is a process used to manage information technology (IT). Its primary goal is to ensure that IT resources are right-sized to meet current and future business requirements in a cost-effective manner. One common interpretation of capacity management is described in the ITIL framework. ITIL version 3 views capacity management as comprising three sub-processes: business capacity management, service capacity management, and component capacity management (known as resource capacity management in ITIL version 2).

Safety - Safe Working Conditions

Occupational Safety and Health is a multidisciplinary field concerned with the safety, health, and welfare of people at work. These terms of course also refer to the goals of this field, so their use in the sense of this article was originally an abbreviation of occupational safety and health program/department etc. OSHA The goals of occupational safety and health programs include to foster a safe and healthy work environment. OSH may also protect co-workers, family members, employers, customers, and many others who might be affected by the workplace environment. In the United States, the term occupational health and safety is referred to as occupational health and occupational and non-occupational safety and includes safety for activities outside of work. OSHA Let Employers Decide Whether to Report Health Care Worker Deaths. Many Didn’t.

Environmental Toxins - Body Burden - How People Die - Injury Statistics - Emergencies

Safety Standards are standards designed to ensure the safety of products, activities or processes, etc.

System Safety - Safety Engineering - Negligence - Risk

Occupational Hazard is a hazard experienced in the workplace. Occupational hazards can encompass many types of hazards, including chemical hazards, biological hazards (biohazards), psychosocial hazards, and physical hazards.

Safety Advocate Responsibilities: Be an advocate for safe working conditions and influence all team members to commit to a safe working environment. Promote safe working conditions on job sites and encourage employees to identify unsafe conditions or actions. Control hazardous working conditions with hands on approach to supervisory team on job site. Assist in personal injury investigations. Perform regular jobsite safety inspections to ensure compliance with national, state, company and client requirements. Conduct new hire safety orientation training as well as exit interviews. Develop jobsite and project specific Health and Safety Plans. Maintain and update recordkeeping programs such as OSHA 300. Identify and evaluate potential unsafe working conditions and take corrective action to prevent injuries and accidents. Establish positive working relationships and interact with site and client safety personnel. Create and review Site-Specific Safety Plans, Job Hazard Analyses, and Safety Action Plans. Investigate accidents, determine root cause, and implement preventive measures. Conduct audits and site inspections of job sites. Train employees in all relevant aspects of OSHA Standards and Company Safety Policies. Maintain safety training documentation.

Hazard Pay means additional pay for performing hazardous duty or work involving physical hardship. Work duty that causes extreme physical discomfort and distress which is not adequately alleviated by protective devices is deemed to impose a physical hardship. The Fair Labor Standards Act does not address the subject of hazard pay, except to require that it be included as part of a federal employee's regular rate of pay in computing the employee's overtime pay. Employee Motivation Incentives.

Sick Goodyear workers have been exposed to levels of chemicals that the United States government says are perfectly safe. What they mean is that it's only safe for the corporations who don't have to pay for the damages or the injuries. Paralyzed by industry lawsuits from decades ago, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration has all but given up on trying to set a truly protective threshold for ortho-toluidine and thousands of other chemicals. The agency has only updated standards for three chemicals in the past 25 years; each took more than a decade to complete. David Michaels, OSHA's director throughout the Obama administration, told ProPublica that legal challenges had so tied his hands that he decided to put a disclaimer on the agency's website saying the government's limits were essentially useless: "OSHA recognizes that many of its permissible exposure limits (PELs) are outdated and inadequate for ensuring protection of worker health." This remarkable admission of defeat remains on the official site of the U.S. agency devoted to protecting worker health. "To me, it was obvious," Michaels said. "You can't lie and say you're offering protection when you're not. It seemed much more effective to say, 'Don't follow our standards." The agency has also allowed chemical manufacturers to create their own safety data sheets, which are supposed to provide workers with the exposure limits and other critical information. OSHA does not require the sheets to be accurate or routinely fact-check them. As a result, many fail to mention the risk of cancer and other serious health hazards. In a statement, Doug Parker, the assistant secretary of labor for occupational safety and health, acknowledged the agency's impotence. "The requirements of the rulemaking process, including limitations placed by prior judicial decisions, have limited our ability to have more up to date standards," he said. "Chemical exposure, including to o-toluidine, is a major health hazard for workers, and we have to do more to protect their health."

Foxes Guarding the Hen House - Inside JobDrug Companies allowed to do their own safety checks.

Boeing: Last Week Tonight with John Oliver (HBO) (youtube) - Choosing Profits over Safety.

Injury Prevention is an effort to prevent or reduce the severity of bodily injuries caused by external mechanisms, such as accidents, before they occur. Injury prevention is a component of safety and public health, and its goal is to improve the health of the population by preventing injuries and hence improving quality of life.

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists goals is to advance worker protection by providing timely, objective, scientific information to occupational and environmental health professionals. (ACGIH)

Environmental Health Officer also known as Public Health Inspectors or Environmental Health Practitioners, are responsible for carrying out measures for protecting public health, including administering and enforcing legislation related to environmental health and providing support to minimize health and safety hazards. They are involved in a variety of activities, for example inspecting food facilities, investigating public health nuisances, and implementing disease control. Environmental health officers are focused on prevention, consultation, investigation, and education of the community regarding health risks and maintaining a safe environment. EHOs bring to the position an understanding of microbiology, risk assessment, environmental science and technology, food science, as well as the skills and knowledge related to the tracking and control of communicable disease. They must also have strong investigative skills and a thorough understanding of the application of legislation related to public health and the environment. Working in partnership with Government Ministries (such as Health, Agriculture and Environment), local municipalities, businesses, community groups, other agencies and individual members of the community, the EHO plays a major role in protecting public health. Some past/historic titles include inspector of nuisances, sanitarian, and sanitary inspector. Other titles that currently exist include environmental health specialist/practitioner/professional, public health officer, health officer, health inspector, and health official. The legal title used will depend on the definitions found in local legislation/jurisdiction. Environmental health professionals are usually employed by local government or state health authorities to advise on and enforce public health standards. However, many are employed in the private sector and in the military.

Workplace Safety Tips - First Aid - Disability (injuries)

Keeping People Healthy and Safe (Info-Graph) 

The Honest Pre-flight Safety Demonstration Video That Airlines Are Afraid to Show You (youtube)

National Safety Council - Consumer Safety - Nuisance

Security (police/fire) - Quality Control - Disease Control

Safety is the condition of being protected from harm or other non-desirable outcomes. Safety can also refer to the control of recognized hazards in order to achieve an acceptable level of Risk.

Personal Protective Equipment is protective clothing, helmets, goggles, or other garments or equipment designed to protect the wearer's body from injury or infection. The hazards addressed by protective equipment include physical, electrical, heat, chemicals, biohazards, and airborne particulate matter. Protective equipment may be worn for job-related occupational safety and health purposes, as well as for sports and other recreational activities. "Protective clothing" is applied to traditional categories of clothing, and "protective gear" applies to items such as pads, guards, shields, or masks, and others. The purpose of personal protective equipment is to reduce employee exposure to hazards when engineering controls and administrative controls are not feasible or effective to reduce these risks to acceptable levels. PPE is needed when there are hazards present. PPE has the serious limitation that it does not eliminate the hazard at the source and may result in employees being exposed to the hazard if the equipment fails. Any item of PPE imposes a barrier between the wearer/user and the working environment. This can create additional strains on the wearer; impair their ability to carry out their work and create significant levels of discomfort. Any of these can discourage wearers from using PPE correctly, therefore placing them at risk of injury, ill-health or, under extreme circumstances, death. Good ergonomic design can help to minimise these barriers and can therefore help to ensure safe and healthy working conditions through the correct use of PPE. Practices of occupational safety and health can use hazard controls and interventions to mitigate workplace hazards, which pose a threat to the safety and quality of life of workers. The hierarchy of hazard controls provides a policy framework which ranks the types of hazard controls in terms of absolute risk reduction. At the top of the hierarchy are elimination and substitution, which remove the hazard entirely or replace the hazard with a safer alternative. If elimination or substitution measures cannot apply, engineering controls and administrative controls, which seek to design safer mechanisms and coach safer human behavior, are implemented. Personal protective equipment ranks last on the hierarchy of controls, as the workers are regularly exposed to the hazard, with a barrier of protection. The hierarchy of controls is important in acknowledging that, while personal protective equipment has tremendous utility, it is not the desired mechanism of control in terms of worker safety.

Chemical Protective Clothing is clothing worn to shield those who work with chemicals from the effects of chemical hazards that can cause injuries on the job. It provides a last line of defense for chemical safety; it does not replace more proactive measures like engineering controls.

Glove is a garment covering the whole hand. Gloves usually have separate sheaths or openings for each finger and the thumb.

Hazmat Suit is a piece of personal protective equipment that consists of an impermeable whole-body garment worn as protection against hazardous materials. Such suits are often combined with self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) to ensure a supply of breathable air. Hazmat suits are used by firefighters, emergency medical technicians, paramedics, researchers, personnel responding to toxic spills, specialists cleaning up contaminated facilities, and workers in toxic environments.

Positive Pressure Personnel Suit is an air-tight positive pressure suit to prevent contamination to the wearer even if the suit becomes damaged. The suit provides a positively pressurized microenvironment with respect to the surrounding laboratory space. An umbilical-fed external air supply that protect the user in 2 ways: the suit itself creates a complete physical barrier between the laboratorian and the surrounding laboratory space, while the positive pressure within the suit minimizes the risk of exposure to contaminated air in the event of a material breach. Positive pressure suits are highly specialized, totally encapsulating, industrial protection garments worn only within special biocontainment or maximum containment (BSL-4) laboratory facilities. These facilities research dangerous pathogens which are highly infectious and may have no treatments or vaccines available. These facilities also feature other special equipment and procedures such as airlock entry, quick-drench disinfectant showers, special waste disposal systems, and shower exits.

Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus is a device worn by rescue workers, firefighters, and others to provide breathable air in an immediately dangerous to life or health atmosphere (IDLH). When not used underwater, they are sometimes called industrial breathing sets. The term self-contained means that the breathing  set is not dependent on a remote supply (e.g., through a long hose). If designed for use under water, it is called SCUBA (self-contained underwater breathing apparatus). An SCBA typically has three main components: a high-pressure tank (e.g., 2,216 to 5,500 psi (15,280 to 37,920 kPa), about 150 to 374 atmospheres), a pressure regulator, and an inhalation connection (mouthpiece, mouth mask or face mask), connected together and mounted to a carrying frame. A self-contained breathing apparatus may fall into one of two categories: open-circuit or closed-circuit.

Respirator is a device designed to protect the wearer from inhaling hazardous atmospheres, including particulate matter such as dusts and airborne microorganisms, as well as hazardous fumes, vapours and gases. There are two main categories: the air-purifying respirator in which respirable air is obtained by filtering a contaminated atmosphere, and the air-supplied respirator in which an alternate supply of breathable air is delivered. Within each category, different techniques are employed to reduce or eliminate noxious airborne contaminants. Air-purifying respirators range from relatively inexpensive single-use, disposable face masks sometimes referred to as a dust mask to more robust reusable models with replaceable cartridges often called a gas mask.

Gas Mask is a mask used to protect the wearer from inhaling airborne pollutants and toxic gases. The mask forms a sealed cover over the nose and mouth, but may also cover the eyes and other vulnerable soft tissues of the face. Most gas masks are also respirators, though the word gas mask is often used to refer to military equipment (e.g. field protective mask). The gas mask only protects the user from digesting, inhaling and contact through the eyes (many agents affect through eye contact). Most combined gas mask filters will last around 8 hours in a nuclear biological chemical (NBC) situation. Chemical specific filters can last up to 20 hours in an NBC situation. Choking or Not Breathing.

Dust Mask is a flexible pad held over the nose and mouth by elastic or rubber straps to protect against dusts encountered during construction or cleaning activities, such as dusts from drywall, brick, wood, fiberglass, silica (from ceramic or glass production), or sweeping. A dust mask can also be worn to protect against allergens.

Paint Mask is a flexible pad held over the nose and mouth by elastic or rubber straps to protect against paint mists or vapors.

Whistleblower reveals half-billion in uncollected fines owed to the OSHA agency from companies with workplace safety violations. A Labor Department employee uncovered almost a half-billion dollars in federal government waste. As a result of his complaint to the Office of Special Counsel, a new audit has found that the government didn’t collect almost $473 million owed to 28 federal offices, including the House, through June 27. The Treasury Department claimed they did not collect the money because of a computer software error that used a business address instead of a primary address, which caused demand letters not to be sent because of the missing or incorrect address information. Most of the companies fined had ties to the republican party. The Securities and Exchange Commission announced a $17 million award to a whistleblower on Tuesday, among $1.3 billion to 278 individuals since 2012. In this case, the whistleblower wants to remain anonymous even though he no longer works for the agency. He is pleased his report to OSC led to action against a half-billion-dollar problem.

Develop - Improve - Advance

Business Process Improvement Continual Improvement is an ongoing effort to improve products, services, or processes.

Business Process Improvement
is a strategic planning methodology aimed at identifying the operations or employee skills that could be improved to encourage smoother procedures, more efficient workflow and overall business growth.

Kaizen are activities that continuously improve all functions and involve all employees from the CEO to the assembly line workers.

Production - Performance - Quality Control

Performance Indicator evaluates the success of an organization or of a particular activity in which it engages. Making progress toward strategic goals and understanding what is important.

Performance Metric determines an organization's behavior, performance and the health of a project, measuring criteria such as safety, time, cost, resources, scope, quality, and actions.

Performance Improvement is measuring the output of a particular business process or procedure, then modifying the process or procedure to increase the output, increase efficiency, or increase the effectiveness of the process or procedure.

Performance Monitoring

Organizational Diagnostics is a process that involves the three steps of publicly entering a human system, collecting valid data about experiences, and feeding back to the system toward promoting corporate performance.

Business Process Discovery is a set of techniques that automatically construct a representation of an organization’s current business processes and its major process variations.

Meta-Analysis is a statistical analysis that combines the results of multiple scientific studies.

Context Analysis is a method to analyze the environment in which a business operates.

Startup Company is an entrepreneurial venture which is typically a newly emerged, fast-growing business that aims to meet a marketplace need by developing or offering an innovative product, process or service. A startup is usually a company such as a small business, a partnership or an organization designed to rapidly develop scalable business model

Lessons Learned - Accenture

Development Process - Innovation

Scrum is an iterative and incremental agile software development framework for managing product development.

Research and Development is work directed toward the innovation, introduction, and improvement of products and processes, or the development of new products and procedures.

Business Agility is the "ability of a business system to rapidly respond to change by adapting its initial stable configuration". Business agility can be maintained by maintaining and adapting goods and services to meet customer demands, adjusting to the changes in a business environment and taking advantage of human resources.

Preventive Action is a change implemented to address a weakness in a management system that is not yet responsible for causing nonconforming product or service.


Baseline Configuration Management is an agreed description of the attributes of a product, at a point in time, which serves as a basis for defining change. A "change" is a movement from this baseline state to a next state. The identification of significant changes from the baseline state is the central purpose of baseline identification.

Capability Management is a high-level integrative management function, with particular application in the context of defense. Aims to balance economy in meeting current operational requirements, with the sustainable use of current capabilities, and the development of future capabilities, to meet the sometimes competing strategic and current operational objectives of an enterprise. Accordingly, effective capability management: Assists organizations to better understand, and effectively integrate the total enterprise ability or capacity to achieve strategic and current operational objectives; and Develops and provides solutions that focus on the management of the interlinking functions and activities in the enterprise's strategic and current operational contexts

Project Management
Knowledge Management - KM
Modern Management Theories and Practices (PDF)
Management Help Library

Change Management transitioning individuals, teams, and organizations using methods intended to re-direct the use of resources, business process, budget allocations, or other modes of operation that significantly reshape a company or organization.

Management Consulting is the practice of helping organizations to improve their performance, operating primarily through the analysis of existing organizational problems and the development of plans for improvement. Organizations may draw upon the services of management consultants for a number of reasons, including gaining external (and presumably objective) advice and access to the consultants' specialized expertise.

Management Styles

Business Architecture is defined as "a blueprint of the enterprise that provides a common understanding of the organization and is used to align strategic objectives and tactical demands.

Enterprise Architecture Framework provides principles and practices for creating and using the architecture description of a system. It structures architects' thinking by dividing the architecture description into domains, layers or views, and offers models - typically matrices and diagrams - for documenting each view. This allows for making systemic design decisions on all the components of the system and making long-term decisions around new design, requirements, sustainability and support.

Business Intelligence is a set of techniques and tools for the acquisition and transformation of raw data into meaningful and useful information for business analysis purposes.

Business Intelligence Software is a type of application software designed to retrieve, analyze, transform and report data for business intelligence.

Business Intelligence 2.0 is a process that allows for the querying of real-time corporate data by employees, but approaches the data with a more web/browser based solution.

Business Valuation is a process and a set of procedures used to estimate the economic value of an owner’s interest in a business.

Business Process Automation is the strategy a business uses to automate processes in order to contain costs. It consists of integrating applications, restructuring labor resources and using software applications throughout the organization.

Related Subjects - Enterprise Q&A System - Value Chain - Productivity - Quality Control - Brainstorming - Meetings - Motivation - Needs Assessment - Employee Development.

Six Sigma is a set of techniques and tools for process improvement. Lean Six-Sigma Certification. Progress Report (wiki-how).

Customer Service

Customer Service Women on Phone with Headset Customer Relationship Management is an approach to managing a company's interaction with current and potential customers. It uses data analysis about customers' history with a company and to improve business relationships with customers, specifically focusing on customer retention and ultimately driving sales growth. One important aspect of the CRM approach is the systems of CRM that compile data from a range of different communication channels, including a company's website, telephone, email, live chat, marketing materials, and more recently, social media. Through the CRM approach and the systems used to facilitate it, businesses learn more about their target audiences and how to best cater to their needs. However, adopting the CRM approach may also occasionally lead to favoritism within an audience of consumers, resulting in dissatisfaction among customers and defeating the purpose of CRM.

Customer Service is the provision of service to customers before, during and after a purchase.

Customer Satisfaction is a measure of how products and services supplied by a company meet or surpass customer expectation. Customer satisfaction is defined as "the number of customers, or percentage of total customers, whose reported experience with a firm, its products, or its services (ratings) exceeds specified satisfaction goals.

Customer Relations is an approach to managing a company's interaction with current and potential future customers. It tries to analyze data about customers' history with a company and to improve business relationships with customers, specifically focusing on customer retention and ultimately driving sales growth.

Reputation Management refers to the influencing and controlling of an individual's or group's reputation. Originally a public relations term, the growth of the internet and social media, along with reputation management companies, have made search results a core part of an individual's or group's reputation. Online reputation management, sometimes abbreviated as ORM, focuses on the management of product and service search website results. Ethical grey areas include mug shot removal sites, astroturfing review sites, censoring negative complaints, and using search engine optimization tactics to influence results.

Know your Customer is the process of a business identifying and verifying the identity of its clients.

Customer Relationship Management is a process in which a business or other organization administers its interactions with customers, typically using data analysis to study large amounts of information.

Relationship Marketing is a form of marketing developed from direct response marketing campaigns that emphasizes customer retention and satisfaction rather than sales transactions.

Enterprise Feedback Management is a system of processes and software that enables organizations to centrally manage deployment of surveys while dispersing authoring and analysis throughout an organization. EFM systems typically provide different roles and permission levels for different types of users, such as novice survey authors, professional survey authors, survey reporters and translators. EFM can help an organization establish a dialogue with employees, partners, and customers regarding key issues and concerns and potentially make customer-specific real time interventions. EFM consists of data collection, analysis and reporting. Modern EFM systems can track feedback from a variety of sources including customers, market research, social media, employees, vendors, partners and audits in a privatized or public manner.

Issue Tracking System is a computer software package that manages and maintains lists of issues, as needed by an organization. Issue tracking systems are commonly used in an organization's customer support call center to create, update, and resolve reported customer issues, or even issues reported by that organization's other employees. A support ticket should include vital information for the account involved and the issue encountered. An issue tracking system often also contains a knowledge base containing information on each customer, resolutions to common problems, and other such data. An issue tracking system is similar to a "bug tracker", and often, a software company will sell both, and some bugtrackers are capable of being used as an issue tracking system, and vice versa. Consistent use of an issue or bug tracking system is considered one of the "hallmarks of a good software team.

Answering Rank (PDF)

Skills-Based Routing is a call-assignment strategy used in call centers to assign incoming calls to the most suitable agent, instead of simply choosing the next available agent. It is an enhancement to the Automatic Call Distributor (ACD) systems found in most call centers. The need for skills-based routing has arisen, as call centers have become larger and dealt with a wider variety of call types. Q&A.

Failure Demand in service organizations as 'demand caused by a failure to do something or do something right for the customer'. the distinction between 'failure demand' and 'value demand', which is what the service exists to provide. Failure demand represents a common type of waste found in service organizations.

Best Practice - Knowledge Management - KM

After Action Review is a structured review or de-brief process for analyzing what happened, why it happened, and how it can be done better by the participants and those responsible for the project or event.

Customer Self Service Knowledge-Infused Processes - Remedy Action Request System

Lessons Learned Information Sharing - PDF

Aptean enterprise software solutions.


Business Support System are the components that a telecommunications service provider (or telco) uses to run its business operations towards customers.

Revenue Management is the application of disciplined analytics that predict consumer behavior at the micro-market level and optimize product availability and price to maximize revenue growth. The primary aim of Revenue Management is selling the right product to the right customer at the right time for the right price and with the right pack. The essence of this discipline is in understanding customers' perception of product value and accurately aligning product prices, placement and availability with each customer segment.

Social Services (public service).

Pareto Principle: 80% of a company's profits come from 20% of its customers.

Poor Customer Service is always related to bad training. Some corporations even train their representatives to commit fraud and to lie to customers, all in an attempt to increase profits, like when insurance companies deny valid claims. So the reason why your customer service is an as*hole is because they were trained to be an as*hole. This is done on purpose to discourage people and it make extremely hard for people to correct over charges and correct bad services. It's all a numbers game to these corporate scumbags. Even if some people sue them, the amount of money they steal from customers will still make them profit. And the customer service representatives becomes a scapegoat. (of course there are some really good people in customer service, it's just that there is not as many good people as there should be).


Women doing Presentation with Charts and Graphs Presentation is the process of presenting a topic to an audience. It is typically a demonstration, lecture, or speech meant to inform, persuade, or build good will. The term can also be used for a formal or ritualized introduction or offering, as with the presentation of a debutante.

Mind Maps - Visualizing Data - Visual Language - Visualization - Documents

Give a Presentation (wiki-how) - How to give a Killer Presentation - Sales

Presentation Guide (PDF) - Presenting (PDF)

Charts - Graphs - Display Boards

Display Board is a board-shaped material that is rigid and strong enough to stand on its own, and generally used paper or other materials affixed to it. Display board may also be referred to as poster board.

Science Display - Misleading Graphs

Poster Board or posterboard is a type of display board used for displaying posters and other flat printed matter. It comes in large sheets in a variety of colors and is significantly larger than A2. In the US, the standard size for poster board is 22" x 28" x .05". It can be particularly light and flimsy, as it is primarily expected to support sheets of paper, photos, glitter, lettering and other small, light items that are glued onto it. It can be recycled and used again as something else. Poster board can be found in many art supply and office supply stores. Drug stores and convenience stores carry it as well. A variety of additional supplies can be used with poster board to enhance its presentation. Poster board is often used for making event posters, science projects and other school activities.

Tri Fold Display boards are single sheet corrugated boards divided into three panels by score marks. Typically, the two outside panels are half the width of the center panel. Generally placed on a table, they are more stable and able to stand while still giving a theater-like view. Header boards can be added to the top display board and an easel stand can be attached to the back.

Quad Chart is a form of technical documentation used to briefly describe an invention or other innovation through writing, illustration and/or photographs. Such documents are described as "quad" charts because they are divided into four quadrants laid out on a landscape perspective. They are typically one-page only; their succinctness facilitates rapid decision-making. Though shorter, quad charts often serve in a similar capacity to white papers and the two documents are often requested alongside one another.

Meetings (tips and guidelines)

Presentation Software are computer software packages used to give presentations, usually in the form of a slide show. Presentation Program is a software package used to display information in the form of a slide show. It has three major functions: an editor that allows text to be inserted and formatted, a method for inserting and manipulating graphic images, a slide-show system to display the content.

Slide Show is a presentation of a series of still images on a projection screen or electronic display device, typically in a prearranged sequence. The changes may be automatic and at regular intervals or they may be manually controlled by a presenter or the viewer. Slide shows originally consisted of a series of individual photographic slides projected onto a screen with a slide projector. When referring to the video or computer-based visual equivalent, in which the slides are not individual physical objects, the term is often written as one word, slideshow.

Microsoft PowerPoint - Share Power Point Presentations - Slide Share - Prezi - Slide Dog - Cacoo - Projeqt your presentations.

Airtame transmits from laptop to big screen TV.

Collaboration Tools - Communication (types) - Interfaces - Appearance - Creativity

Erdős–Rényi Model is either of two closely related models for generating random graphs.

Graphical Techniques of Quality is a designation given to a fixed set of graphical techniques identified as being most helpful in troubleshooting issues related to quality. They are called basic because they are suitable for people with little formal training in statistics and because they can be used to solve the vast majority of quality-related issues. The seven tools are: Cause-and-effect diagram (also known as the "fishbone" or Ishikawa diagram). Check sheet. Control chart. Histogram. Pareto chart. Scatter diagram. Stratification (alternately, flow chart or run chart).

Flow Chart is a type of diagram that represents an algorithm, workflow or process, showing the steps as boxes of various kinds, and their order by connecting them with arrows. This diagrammatic representation illustrates a solution model to a given problem. Flowcharts are used in analyzing, designing, documenting or managing a process or program in various fields.

Poster Session is the presentation of research information by an individual or representatives of research teams at a congress or conference with an academic or professional focus.

Scatter Diagram is a type of plot or mathematical diagram using Cartesian coordinates to display values for typically two variables for a set of data. If the points are color-coded, one additional variable can be displayed. The data is displayed as a collection of points, each having the value of one variable determining the position on the horizontal axis and the value of the other variable determining the position on the vertical axis.

Graph is a means of representing data.

Graph Theory is the study of graphs, which are mathematical structures used to model pairwise relations between objects. A graph in this context is made up of vertices, nodes, or points which are connected by edges, arcs, or lines. A graph may be undirected, meaning that there is no distinction between the two vertices associated with each edge, or its edges may be directed from one vertex to another.

Charts is a graphical representation of data, in which "the data is represented by symbols, such as bars in a bar chart, lines in a line chart, or slices in a pie chart". A chart can represent tabular numeric data, functions or some kinds of qualitative structure and provides different info.

Scatter Plot is a type of plot or mathematical diagram using Cartesian coordinates to display values for typically two variables for a set of data. If the points are color-coded, one additional variable can be displayed. The data is displayed as a collection of points, each having the value of one variable determining the position on the horizontal axis and the value of the other variable determining the position on the vertical axis.

Funnel Plot is a graph designed to check for the existence of publication bias; funnel plots are commonly used in systematic reviews and meta-analyses. In the absence of publication bias, it assumes that studies with high precision will be plotted near the average, and studies with low precision will be spread evenly on both sides of the average, creating a roughly funnel-shaped distribution. Deviation from this shape can indicate publication bias.

Image Plot Maker - Wave Metrics - Desmos

Histogram is a graphical representation of the distribution of numerical data. It is an estimate of the probability distribution of a continuous variable (quantitative variable).

Gantt Chart is a type of bar chart that illustrates a project schedule.

Run Chart is a graph that displays observed data in a time sequence. Often, the data displayed represent some aspect of the output or performance of a manufacturing or other business process. It is therefore a form of line chart, which is a type of chart which displays information as a series of data points called 'markers' connected by straight line segments.

Pareto Chart is a type of chart that contains both bars and a line graph, where individual values are represented in descending order by bars, and the cumulative total is represented by the line.

Productive - Production

production processProductive is an action that yields, gives, supplies or produces positive results, or produces large amounts of goods, crops or other commodities of value.

Production is a process of combining various material inputs and immaterial inputs, such as plans and know-how, in order to make something for output or consumption. It is the act of creating output or a good or service which has value and contributes to the utility of individuals. It is the creation of value or wealth by producing goods and services. Production can also mean a presentation for the stage or screen or radio or television, or primary production such as photosynthesis.

Production Function relates physical output of a production process to physical inputs or factors of production. Project Management.

Productivity is an average measure of the efficiency of production. It can be expressed as the ratio of outputs to inputs used in the production process, i.e. output per unit of input. When all outputs and inputs are included in the productivity measure it is called total productivity. Productivity is increased by lowering the amount of labor, capital, energy or materials that go into producing economic goods. PDF.

Counterproductive is preventing the achievement or the effectiveness or the efficiency of an intended goal or purpose. Defeating one's own purpose because of flawed reasoning, corruption, theft or lying.

Produce is to create or manufacture a man-made product. To cause something to happen, to occur or to exist. To bring forth or yield. To undergo a change of physical features and attributes. To bring or release onto the market. Produce in farming is cultivate by growing, often involving improvements by means of agricultural techniques. Produce can also mean fresh fruit and vegetables grown for the market.

Machines - Operation - Sustainable - Project Management

Perform is to carry out an action or a function. To get something done. Form Follows Function.

Performance is a recognized accomplishment and the act of doing something successfully. Using knowledge as distinguished from merely possessing it. The process or manner of functioning or operating. Performance is a measurement of how well something is functioning or operating. Instructions.

Maximum Power Principle is a system designed to maximize power intake, energy transformation, and those uses that reinforce production and efficiency.

Doing is to be engaged in a task and to carry out or perform an action in order to get something done. To be sufficient and functional in order to create or design something that is adequate, either in quality or quantity. Getting Stuff Done.

Work is an activity directed toward making something or doing something for a specific function or purpose. To arrive at a certain condition through repeated motions that helps shape, form, or improve a material. The total output. To cause something to operate or function, and have influence and exert influence or an effect or outcome. Proceed towards a goal or proceed along a path or through an activity. To use or manipulate something to one's advantage. To find the solution to a problem or question and understand the meaning of something. To apply the mind to learning and understanding a subject. To exert oneself by doing mental work or physical work for a purpose or out of necessity. A product produced or accomplished through the effort or activity or agency of a person or thing. Work in physics is a manifestation of energy or the transfer of energy from one physical system to another expressed as the product of a force and the distance through which it moves a body in the direction of that force.

Hard Work isn't measured by the hours you spend working, it's measured by how effective and how efficient those hours were. Working 12 hours a day does not mean that you're working hard. Work Smarter. Success - Time Management.

Task is any piece of work that is undertaken or attempted. A specific piece of work required to be done. Job.

Industry (factories) -Industrial Engineering - Working Together - Gross Domestic Product

Mode of Production are productive forces, which include human labor power and means of production (e.g. tools, equipment, buildings, technologies, knowledge, materials, and improved land).

Productivity Improving Technologies is a ratio of output to input in the production of goods and services. Productivity is increased by lowering the amount of labor, capital, energy or materials that go into producing economic goods. Increases in productivity are largely responsible for the increase in per capita living standards.

Optimization is the most favorable conditions or greatest degree or amount possible under given circumstances.

Resource Optimization is the set of processes and methods to match the available resources (human, machinery, financial) with the needs of the organization in order to achieve established goals.

Quota is a prescribed number or a fixed share of something that a person or group is entitled to receive or is bound to contribute. A fixed minimum or maximum number of a particular group of people allowed to do something. A proportional share assigned to each participant.

Effective is capable of producing an intended result or beneficial effect that accomplishes a particular purpose or goal. An action that works well to solve a problem. Something good that does the job without using temporary fixes. Logic.

Efficient is doing something in the least amount of time using the least amount of effort or energy. Efficient is maximizing output while minimizing input by doing something effectively without wasting time, effort or resources. Efficient is functioning effectively and able to accomplish a purpose without wasting time, or being slow or taking too much time to do a task, and without sacrificing quality.

Efficiency is the ratio of the output to the input of any system that has a measurable ability to avoid wasting materials, energy, efforts, money, and time in doing something or in producing a desired result. Efficiency is the ability to do things well, successfully, and without waste. The skillfulness in avoiding wasted time and effort. Efficiency in mathematical or scientific terms in mathematical or scientific terms is a measure of the extent to which input is well used for an intended task or function (output). It often specifically comprises the capability of a specific application of effort to produce a specific outcome with a minimum amount or quantity of waste, expense, or unnecessary effort. Efficiency refers to very different inputs and outputs in different fields and industries. Energy Efficiency.

Aggregate Energy Efficiency is the ratio of useful to potential physical work that can be extracted from materials.

Economic Efficiency implies an economic state in which every resource is optimally allocated to serve each individual or entity in the best way while minimizing waste and inefficiency. Simplicity.

Lean Manufacturing is a production method aimed primarily at reducing times within the production system as well as response times from suppliers and to customers.

Getting More Out of Less. Finding efficiencies, reducing waste, increasing quality, and increasing productivity. If the flow of important information is dependent on the chain of command, then important information could be vulnerable to censorship and manipulation. When you allow co-workers to share information with others in an organization without having to go through a chain of command, then you will have a more communication. When people are not aware of what other departments are doing, and if information is not being shared between them in productive way, then opportunities for progress will be lost or over looked.

Design for Manufacturability is the general engineering practice of designing products in such a way that they are easy to manufacture.

Sufficient is having a quantity that can fulfill a need or requirement but without being abundant. Sustainable.

Optimization Problem is the problem of finding the best solution from all feasible solutions. Optimization problems can be divided into two categories depending on whether the variables are continuous or discrete. An optimization problem with discrete variables is known as a discrete optimization. In a discrete optimization problem, we are looking for an object such as an integer, permutation or graph from a finite (or possibly countably infinite) set. Problems with continuous variables include constrained problems and multimodal problems.

Optimal is the most desirable possible outcome.

Process Optimization is the discipline of adjusting a process so as to optimize some specified set of parameters without violating some constraint. The most common goals are minimizing cost and maximizing throughput and/or efficiency. This is one of the major quantitative tools in industrial decision making. When optimizing a process, the goal is to maximize one or more of the process specifications, while keeping all others within their constraints. This can be done by using a process mining tool, discovering the critical activities and bottlenecks, and acting only on them.

Production Rate is the ratio of the number of goods produced and the time spent producing them. Production rates can measure the efficiency of production processes, whether those processes involve manufacturing, software development or food service. Production rates can rise or fall based on many variables.

Low Rate Initial Production is commonly the first step in transitioning from highly customized, hand-built prototypes to the final mass-produced end product. A production test-phase is where you develop the assembly line models that would eventually be used in mass production.

Development (process)

Good Manufacturing Practice is a system for ensuring that products are consistently produced and controlled according to quality standards. It is designed to minimize the risks involved in any pharmaceutical production that cannot be eliminated through testing the final product. Good manufacturing practices are the practices required in order to conform to the guidelines recommended by agencies that control the authorization and licensing of the manufacture and sale of food and beverages, cosmetics, pharmaceutical products, dietary supplements, and medical devices. These guidelines provide minimum requirements that a manufacturer must meet to assure that their products are consistently high in quality, from batch to batch, for their intended use. The rules that govern each industry may differ significantly; however, the main purpose of GMP is always to prevent harm from occurring to the end user. Additional tenets include ensuring the end product is free from contamination, that it is consistent in its manufacture, that its manufacture has been well documented, that personnel are well trained, and the product has been checked for quality more than just at the end phase. GMP is typically ensured through the effective use of a quality management system (QMS). Good manufacturing practices, along with good agricultural practices, good laboratory practices and good clinical practices, are overseen by regulatory agencies in the India, United Kingdom, United States, Canada, Europe, China, and other countries.

Quality Control (process control)

Mass Production is the production of large amounts of standardized products, including and especially on assembly lines, such as household appliances and automobiles. Together with job production and batch production, it is one of the three main production methods. ("flow production" or "continuous production"). Mass production's advantages include simplification of the production process, efficiency in the production process and consistency in the finished products. Mass production frequently outpaces the slow, labor-intensive processes of pre-industrial craftsmen and artisans.

Continuous Production is a flow production method used to manufacture, produce, or process materials without interruption. Continuous production is called a continuous process or a continuous flow process because the materials, either dry bulk or fluids that are being processed are continuously in motion, undergoing chemical reactions or subject to mechanical or heat treatment. Continuous processing is contrasted with batch production.

We need large scale mass production, but more importantly, we also need Small Scale Local Production. This will help during emergencies and catastrophes, and it's also more Sustainable and healthier for people and the planet.

Means of Production are physical and non-financial inputs used in the production of economic value. These include raw materials, facilities, machinery and tools used in the production of goods and services. In the terminology of classical economics, the means of production are the "factors of production" minus financial and human capital. The social means of production are capital goods and assets that require organized collective labor effort, as opposed to individual effort, to operate on. The ownership and organization of the social means of production is a key factor in categorizing and defining different types of economic systems. The means of production includes two broad categories of objects: instruments of labor (tools, factories, infrastructure, etc.) and subjects of labor (natural resources and raw materials). People operate on the subjects of labor using the instruments of labor to create a product; or stated another way, labor acting on the means of production creates a good. In an agrarian society the principal means of production is the soil and the shovel. In an industrial society the means of production become social means of production and include factories and mines. In a knowledge economy, computers and networks are means of production. In a broad sense, the "means of production" also includes the "means of distribution" such as stores, the internet and railroads (Infrastructural capital).

Control Chart are a statistical process control tool used to determine if a manufacturing or business process is in a state of control.

Capacity Planning is the process of determining the production capacity needed by an organization to meet changing demands for its products. In the context of capacity planning, design capacity is the maximum amount of work that an organization is capable of completing in a given period. Effective capacity is the maximum amount of work that an organization is capable of completing in a given period due to constraints such as quality problems, delays, material handling, etc.

Capacity Utilization is the extent to which an enterprise or a nation actually uses its installed productive capacity, which is is the maximum possible output of an economy.

Scalability is a characteristic of a system, model or function that describes its capability to cope and perform under an increased or expanding workload. A system that scales well will be able to maintain or even increase its level of performance or efficiency when tested by larger operational demands. Scalability s the capability of a system, network, or process to handle a growing amount of work, or its potential to be enlarged to accommodate that growth.

Economies of Scale are the cost advantages that enterprises obtain due to size, output, or scale of operation, with cost per unit of output generally decreasing with increasing scale as fixed costs are spread out over more units of output. Often operational efficiency is also greater with increasing scale, leading to lower variable cost as well.

Job Production involves producing custom work, such as a one-off product for a specific customer or a small batch of work in quantities usually less than those of mass-market products.

Batch Production is a technique used in manufacturing, in which the object in question is created stage by stage over a series of workstations, and different batches of products are made. Multitasking.

Assemble is to create something by putting components or members together. Building Blocks.

Assembly Line is a manufacturing process in which parts are added as the semi-finished assembly moves from workstation to workstation where the parts are added in sequence until the final assembly is produced. By mechanically moving the parts to the assembly work and moving the semi-finished assembly from work station to work station, a finished product can be assembled faster and with less labor than by having workers carry parts to a stationary piece for assembly. (also called a progressive assembly with interchangeable parts). On December 1, 1913, Henry Ford installs the first moving assembly line for the mass production of an entire automobile. His innovation reduced the time it took to build a car from more than 12 hours to two hours and 30 minutes.

Assembly is combining parts that fit together to form a working unit that performs a particular function or service.

Subassembly is an assembly that is assembled with others to form a larger assembly. A unit assembled separately but designed to be incorporated with other units into a larger manufactured product. Factory Built House.

Factory is a manufacturing plant or industrial site, usually consisting of buildings and machinery, or more commonly a complex having several buildings, where workers manufacture goods or operate machines processing one product into another. Factories arose with the introduction of machinery during the Industrial Revolution when the capital and space requirements became too great for cottage industry or workshops. Early factories that contained small amounts of machinery, such as one or two spinning mules, and fewer than a dozen workers have been called "glorified workshops". Most modern factories have large warehouses or warehouse-like facilities that contain heavy equipment used for assembly line production. Large factories tend to be located with access to multiple modes of transportation, with some having rail, highway and water loading and unloading facilities. Workers need to feel that they are connected to the business and feel that their work matters and that their efforts means something, and workers also need to know that they are valued as a person. Workers are people and not machines. Employee Owned Businesses.

Shipping - Transport - Distribution - Supplies

Microfactory refers to a small dimension factory able to produce small dimension products. The term was proposed by the Mechanical Engineer Laboratory (MEL) of Japan in 1990. The microfactory main advantages are to save great amount of resources like space, energy, materials and time. Due to their reduced dimensions, microfactories should be highly automated. They might contain automatic machine tools, assembly systems, quality inspection systems, material feed systems, waste elimination systems, a system to evaluate tool deterioration and a system to replace tools. At least one proposed microfactory is being designed to make many of its own parts, i.e., is a partially self-replicating machine. A microfactory can also refer to a factory designed to produce flexible small batch production that can produce a wide variety of products as opposed to a single monolithic mass production type approach. Typically the manufacturing processes of microfactories take advantage of digital fabrication technology such as 3D printing and CNC machines in order to accomplish this. For example, Local Motors has microfactories in Phoenix, Ariz. and Knoxville, Tenn. The company builds its signature products, like the Rally Fighter prerunner sports car right in its microfactories. Arrival.

Microfabrication is the process of fabricating miniature structures of micrometre scales and smaller. Historically, the earliest microfabrication processes were used for integrated circuit fabrication, also known as "semiconductor manufacturing" or "semiconductor device fabrication". In the last two decades microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), microsystems (European usage), micromachines (Japanese terminology) and their subfields, microfluidics/lab-on-a-chip, optical MEMS (also called MOEMS), RF MEMS, PowerMEMS, BioMEMS and their extension into nanoscale (for example NEMS, for nano electro mechanical systems) have re-used, adapted or extended microfabrication methods. Flat-panel displays and solar cells are also using similar techniques. Miniaturization of various devices presents challenges in many areas of science and engineering: physics, chemistry, materials science, computer science, ultra-precision engineering, fabrication processes, and equipment design. It is also giving rise to various kinds of interdisciplinary research. The major concepts and principles of microfabrication are microlithography, doping, thin films, etching, bonding, and polishing.

Manufacturing is the organized action of making of goods and services for sale. It is the value added production of merchandise for use or sale using labour and machines, tools, chemical and biological processing, or formulation.

Manufacturing Engineering is a branch of professional engineering that shares many common concepts and ideas with other fields of engineering such as mechanical, chemical, electrical, and industrial engineering. Manufacturing engineering requires the ability to plan the practices of manufacturing; to research and to develop tools, processes, machines and equipment; and to integrate the facilities and systems for producing quality products with the optimum expenditure of capital. The manufacturing or production engineer's primary focus is to turn raw material into an updated or new product in the most effective, efficient & economic way possible.

Distributed Manufacturing is a form of decentralized manufacturing practiced by enterprises using a network of geographically dispersed manufacturing facilities that are coordinated using information technology. It can also refer to local manufacture via the historic cottage industry model, or manufacturing that takes place in the homes of consumers.

Industry is the production of goods or related services within an economy. The organized action of making of goods and services for sale. The people or companies engaged in a particular kind of commercial enterprise. Persevering determination to perform a task. Industrial Revolution (wiki)

Industrial Engineering is the optimization of complex processes, systems or organizations by developing, improving and implementing integrated systems of people, money, knowledge, information and equipment. Industrial engineers work to eliminate waste of time, money, materials, man-hours, machine time, energy and other resources that do not generate value. They figure out how to do things better, they engineer processes and systems that improve quality and productivity. Industrial engineers use specialized knowledge and skills in the mathematical, physical and social sciences, together with the principles and methods of engineering analysis and design, to specify, predict, and evaluate the results obtained from systems and processes. From these results, they are able to create new systems, processes or situations for the useful coordination of labour, materials and machines and also improve the quality and productivity of systems, physical or social. Depending on the sub-specialties involved, industrial engineering may also overlap with, operations research, systems engineering, manufacturing engineering, production engineering, supply chain engineering, management science, management engineering, financial engineering, ergonomics or human factors engineering, safety engineering, logistics engineering or others, depending on the viewpoint or motives of the user.

Industrialize is to develop industries in a country or region on a wide scale.

Industrialisation is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society into an industrial society, involving the extensive re-organisation of an economy for the purpose of manufacturing.

Industrial Society is a society driven by the use of technology to enable mass production, supporting a large population with a high capacity for division of labour.

Automation Technology (machines - software)

Automotive Engineering is a branch of vehicle engineering, incorporating elements of mechanical, electrical, electronic, software, and safety engineering as applied to the design, manufacture and operation of motorcycles, automobiles, and trucks and their respective engineering subsystems. It also includes modification of vehicles. Manufacturing domain deals with the creation and assembling the whole parts of automobiles is also included in it. The automotive engineering field is research -intensive and involves direct application of mathematical models and formulas. The study of automotive engineering is to design, develop, fabricate, and test vehicles or vehicle components from the concept stage to production stage. Production, development, and manufacturing are the three major functions in this field.

Aerospace Engineering - Naval Architecture

Toyota Production System is an integrated socio-technical system, developed by Toyota, that comprises its management philosophy and practices. The TPS organizes manufacturing and logistics for the automobile manufacturer, including interaction with suppliers and customers. The system is a major precursor of the more generic "lean manufacturing". Taiichi Ohno and Eiji Toyoda, Japanese industrial engineers, developed the system between 1948 and 1975. Originally called "just-in-time production", it builds on the approach created by the founder of Toyota, Sakichi Toyoda, his son Kiichiro Toyoda, and the engineer Taiichi Ohno. The principles underlying the TPS are embodied in The Toyota Way or Toyotism.

Computer-Integrated Manufacturing is the manufacturing approach of using computers to control the entire production process. This integration allows individual processes to exchange information with each other and initiate actions. Although manufacturing can be faster and less error-prone by the integration of computers, the main advantage is the ability to create Automated Manufacturing Processes. Typically CIM relies on closed-loop control processes, based on real-time input from sensors. It is also known as flexible design and manufacturing. Planning.

Man-Hour is the amount of work performed by the average worker in one hour. It is used in written "estimates" for estimation of the total amount of uninterrupted labour required to perform a task.

Calculate Man Hours Lost Productivity (ehow)

Activity-Based Costing is a costing methodology that identifies activities in an organization and assigns the cost of each activity with resources to all products and services according to the actual consumption by each. This model assigns more indirect costs (overhead) into direct costs compared to conventional costing.

Investing - Return on Investment - Rate of Return

Demand Flow Technology is a strategy for defining and deploying business processes in a flow, driven in response to customer demand. DFT is based on a set of applied mathematical tools that are used to connect processes in a flow and link it to daily changes in demand. DFT represents a scientific approach to flow manufacturing for discrete production. It is built on principles of demand pull where customer demand is the central signal to guide factory and office activity in the daily operation. DFT is intended to provide an alternative to schedule-push manufacturing which primarily uses a sales plan and forecast to determine a production schedule.

Transaction Cost

Vertical Integration is an arrangement in which the supply chain of a company is integrated and owned by that company. Usually each member of the supply chain produces a different product or market-specific service, and the products combine to satisfy a common need. It is contrasted with horizontal integration, wherein a company produces several items that are related to one another. Vertical integration has also described management styles that bring large portions of the supply chain not only under a common ownership but also into one corporation (as in the 1920s when the Ford River Rouge Complex began making much of its own steel rather than buying it from suppliers). Vertical integration and expansion is desired because it secures supplies needed by the firm to produce its product and the market needed to sell the product. Vertical integration and expansion can become undesirable when its actions become anti-competitive and impede free competition in an open marketplace. Vertical integration is one method of avoiding the hold-up problem. A monopoly produced through vertical integration is called a vertical monopoly.

Industrial Vertical is an aggregate that captures companies that provide industrial and commercial supplies and services. Describes a group of companies that focus on a shared niche or specialized market spanning multiple industries. Companies in a vertical market provide targeted insight and specialized services. (vertical-centric manufacturer).

Horizontal markets are the opposite of vertical markets in that they sell their goods and services across multiple industries.

5 S in methodology is a workplace organization method that describes how to organize a work space for efficiency and effectiveness by identifying and storing the items used, maintaining the area and items, and sustaining the new order. The decision-making process usually comes from a dialogue about standardization, which builds understanding among employees of how they should do the work. In some quarters, 5S has become 6S, the sixth element being safety. Five Japanese words: seiri, seiton, seiso, seiketsu, and shitsuke. There are five 5S phases: They can be translated from the Japanese as "sort", "set in order", "shine", "standardize", and "sustain". Other translations are possible. Sort (Seiri) Make work easier by eliminating obstacles. Reduce chances of being disturbed with unnecessary items. Prevent accumulation of unnecessary items. Evaluate necessary items with regard to cost or other factors. Remove all parts or tools that are not in use. Segregate unwanted material from the workplace. Define Red-Tag area to place unnecessary items that cannot immediately be disposed of. Dispose of these items when possible. Need fully skilled supervisor for checking on a regular basis. Waste removal. Make clear all working floor except using material. Set In Order (Seiton) Arrange all necessary items so that they can be easily selected for use. Prevent loss and waste of time by arranging work station in such a way that all tooling / equipment is in close proximity. Make it easy to find and pick up necessary items. Ensure first-in-first-out FIFO basis. Make workflow smooth and easy. All of the above work should be done on a regular basis. Maintain safety. Place components according to their uses, with the frequently used components being nearest to the work place. Shine (Seiso) Clean your workplace on daily basis completely or set cleaning frequency. Use cleaning as inspection. Prevent machinery and equipment deterioration. Keep workplace safe and easy to work. Keep workplace clean and pleasing to work in. When in place, anyone not familiar to the environment must be able to detect any problems within 50 feet. Standardize (Seiketsu) Standardize the best practices in the work area. Maintain high standards in workplace organization at all times. Everything in its right place. Every process has a standard. Sustain (Shitsuke) Not harmful to anyone. Also translates as "do without being told". Perform regular audits. Training and discipline. Training is goal-oriented process. Its resulting feedback is necessary monthly. Self discipline to maintain proper order.

Maintenance - Care

Maintenance Guy Maintain is to keep safe and protect from harm, decay, loss, or destruction. Involves casualty maintenance by performing routine actions which keep the device or system in working order. Supply with necessities and support. Activity involved in maintaining something in good working order. The act of sustaining life by food or providing a means of subsistence. Means of maintenance of a family or group. Maintain for use and service. Maintain by writing regular records. Home Repair - Care - Procedures.

Maintenance involves functional checks, servicing, repairing or replacing of necessary devices, equipment, machinery, building infrastructure, and supporting utilities in industrial, business, governmental, and residential installations. Over time, this has come to include multiple wordings that describe various cost-effective practices to keep equipment operational; these activities take place either before or after a failure. Right to Repair.

Preventive Maintenance is the care and servicing by personnel for the purpose of maintaining equipment and facilities in satisfactory operating condition by providing for systematic inspection, detection, and correction of incipient failures either before they occur or before they develop into major defects. Maintenance, including tests, measurements, adjustments, and parts replacement, performed specifically to prevent faults from occurring. Preventive Maintenance is a routine for periodically inspecting" with the goal of noticing small problems and fixing them before major ones develop. Ideally, nothing breaks down. Procedures.

Predictive Maintenance techniques are designed to help determine the condition of in-service equipment in order to estimate when maintenance should be performed. This approach promises cost savings over routine or time-based preventive maintenance, because tasks are performed only when warranted. Thus, it is regarded as condition-based maintenance carried out as suggested by estimations of the degradation state of an item. The main promise of predictive maintenance is to allow convenient scheduling of corrective maintenance, and to prevent unexpected equipment failures. The key is the right information, equipment lifetime, increased plant safety, fewer accidents with negative impact on environment, and optimized spare parts handling. Predictive maintenance differs from preventive maintenance because it relies on the actual condition of equipment, rather than average or expected life statistics, to predict when maintenance will be required. Some of the main components that are necessary for implementing predictive maintenance are data collection and preprocessing, early fault detection, fault detection, time to failure prediction, maintenance scheduling and resource optimization. Predictive maintenance has also been considered to be one of the driving forces for improving productivity and one of the ways to achieve "just-in-time" in manufacturing. Planning - Planed Obsolescence.

Planned Maintenance is any variety of scheduled maintenance to an object or item of equipment. Specifically, planned maintenance is a scheduled service visit carried out by a competent and suitable agent, to ensure that an item of equipment is operating correctly and to therefore avoid any unscheduled breakdown and downtime. Time-Based Maintenance or Scheduled Maintenance is maintenance performed on equipment based on a calendar schedule. This means that time is the maintenance trigger for this type of maintenance. TBM maintenance is planned maintenance, as it must be scheduled in advance.

Intelligent Maintenance System is a system that utilizes collected data from machinery in order to predict and prevent potential failures in them. The occurrence of failures in the machinery can be costly and even catastrophic. In order to avoid them, there needs to be a system which analyzes the behaviour of the machine and provides alarms and instructions for preventive maintenance. Analyzing the behaviour of the machines has become possible by means of advanced sensors, data collection systems, data storage/transfer capabilities and data analysis tools. Such as those developed for prognostics. The aggregation of data collection, storage, transformation, analysis and decision making for smart maintenance is called an intelligent maintenance system. fiix software.

Reactive Maintenance is any maintenance done to fix equipment after it breaks down unexpectedly.

Corrective Maintenance is any task that corrects a problem with an asset and returns it to proper working order. Corrective maintenance tasks can be both planned and unplanned. There are three situations when corrective maintenance occurs: When an issue is detected through condition monitoring. When a routine inspection uncovers a potential fault. When a piece of equipment breaks down. Corrective Maintenance is a maintenance task performed to identify, isolate, and rectify a fault so that the failed equipment, machine, or system can be restored to an operational condition within the tolerances or limits established for in-service operations. Corrective maintenance can improve asset health and performance in situations when planned maintenance occurs. When preventive maintenance tasks identify potential faults. When condition-based monitoring finds machine anomalies that signal potential failure. When non-critical assets can be allowed to run to failure and are inexpensive and easy to repair or replace. When asset failure doesn’t affect safety. When a system has redundancies that allow it to operate properly even if a part fails. In order to get the most benefit from corrective maintenance, organizations must provide training to maintenance employees about what to look for when they are carrying out preventive maintenance duties. Planning for corrective maintenance—by making sure that needed parts and equipment are always available, for example—can also ensure that corrective maintenance happens before disaster strikes. By maximizing planned corrective maintenance, organizations can reduce unplanned corrective maintenance and the costly downtime that comes with it.

Planned Corrective Maintenance is planned when a run-to-failure maintenance strategy is used. This is when an asset is allowed to run until it breaks down and is then repaired or replaced. This type of corrective maintenance only works with non-critical assets that are easily and cheaply repaired or replaced, or with systems that have redundancies. Corrective maintenance is planned when it’s performed as part of preventive maintenance or condition-based monitoring. Both preventive and condition-based maintenance attempt to find problems before they cause equipment failure. If a problem is found, maintenance can be planned and scheduled.

Unplanned Corrective Maintenance is when a preventive maintenance schedule is in place, but a breakdown occurs between scheduled maintenance actions. Maintenance can be may be performed immediately or at a later date, depending on the availability of tools, parts, and personnel. Corrective maintenance can also be unplanned when an asset shows signs of potential failure or reaches failure unexpectedly. In this scenario, there are no planned maintenance actions to catch the failure before it happens or to address it after it happens.

Maintenance, Repair, and Operations involves fixing any sort of mechanical, plumbing, or electrical device should it become out of order or broken, known as repair, unscheduled, casualty or corrective maintenance. In the aircraft maintenance market sector, maintenance, repair and overhaul or MRO services also include inspection, rebuilding, alteration and the supply of spare parts, accessories and raw materials, adhesives, sealants, coatings and consumables for aircraft manufacturing and MRO. In all sectors, effective MRO involves performing routine actions which keep devices, equipment, machinery, building infrastructure and supporting utilities in working order, known as scheduled maintenance and prevent trouble from arising preventive maintenance. Repair and Maintenance or R&M.

"Do what you can today to make tomorrow better."

Run to Failure is sometimes considered a negligent and dangerous maintenance strategy where maintenance is only performed when equipment has failed. Unlike unplanned & reactive maintenance, proper run-to-failure maintenance is a deliberate and considered to be a strategy that is designed to minimize total maintenance costs, but in the long run, could cost a lot more. Both run-to-failure maintenance and breakdown maintenance are forms of corrective maintenance that occur after a piece of equipment has malfunctioned. Corrective maintenance is the opposite of preventive maintenance. Negligent - Procrastination - Passing the Buck.

If It Ain't Broke, Don't Fix It means to leave something alone and avoid attempting to correct it, fix it, or improve it, especially when it is perceived to be already sufficient. The fear implies that the attempted improvement can be risky and might backfire. Never change a running system means to not change something while it is working.

Leave Well Enough Alone
is to leave something alone and to avoid trying to correct it, fix it, or improve something that is already adequate. Leave Well Enough Alone means to allow something to stay the same, because trying to fix it might make things worse. But being passive can backfire. When something backfires it means that a plan or action may have the opposite effect to what was intended. If it isn't broke, don't fix it, but if you don't fix it, it will break. Don't use illogical excuses for avoiding needed maintenance. Plan your fixes well and prepare yourself for the unexpected.

The primary goal of maintenance is to avoid or mitigate the consequences of failure of equipment. This may be by preventing the failure before it actually occurs which Planned Maintenance and Condition Based Maintenance help to achieve. It is designed to preserve and restore equipment reliability by replacing worn components before they actually fail. Preventive maintenance activities include partial or complete overhauls at specified periods, oil changes, lubrication, minor adjustments, and so on. In addition, workers can record equipment deterioration so they know to replace or repair worn parts before they cause system failure. The ideal preventive maintenance program would prevent all equipment failure before it occurs.

Continuity is the unbroken and consistent existence or operation of something over a period of time. The maintenance of continuous action and self-consistent detail in the various scenes of a movie or broadcast. Sustainable.

Business Continuity encompasses planning and preparation to ensure that an organization can continue to operate in case of serious incidents or disasters and is able to recover to an operational state within a reasonably short period. As such, business continuity includes three key elements and they are Resilience: critical business functions and the supporting infrastructure must be designed in such a way that they are materially unaffected by relevant disruptions, for example through the use of redundancy and spare capacity; Recovery: arrangements have to be made to recover or restore critical and less critical business functions that fail for some reason. Contingency: the organization establishes a generalized capability and readiness to cope effectively with whatever major incidents and disasters occur, including those that were not, and perhaps could not have been, foreseen. Contingency preparations constitute a last-resort response if resilience and recovery arrangements should prove inadequate in practice. Risk

Business Continuity Management is the process of creating systems of prevention and recovery to deal with potential threats to a company. Any event that could negatively impact operations is included in the plan, such as supply chain interruption, loss of or damage to critical infrastructure (major machinery or computing /network resource). As such, BCP is a subset of risk management. In the US, government entities refer to the process as continuity of operations planning (COOP).

Business Continuity Planning is the process of creating systems of prevention and recovery to deal with potential threats to a company. In addition to prevention, the goal is to enable ongoing operations before and during execution of disaster recovery. An organization's resistance to failure is the ability to withstand changes in its environment and still function. Often called resilience, it is a capability that enables organizations to either endure environmental changes without having to permanently adapt, or the organization is forced to adapt a new way of working that better suits the new environmental conditions.

Continuity of Government is defined procedures that allow a government to continue its essential operations in case of a catastrophic event.

Cleaning House

Custodian is a person who has responsibility for something or looks after something. One who is in charge of buildings or grounds or animals. A person who is legally responsible for the person or property of another. To take care of someone who may not be able to manage their own affairs alone or by themselves, because of other responsibilities or because of limitations. A custodian may also be a caretaker, guardian, porter, cleaner, or keeper. Law Conservator.

Steward is someone who manages property or other affairs for someone else. One who is in charge of buildings or grounds or animals.

Janitor is a person who cleans and maintains buildings such as hospitals, schools, and residential accommodation. Janitors' primary responsibility is as a cleaner. In some cases, they will also carry out maintenance and security duties. Cleaning is one of the most commonly outsourced services.

Housekeeping refers to the work of cleaning and running a house or maintaining a household. To take care of all business related to a household and the management of household affairs and the management of duties and the chores involved in the running of a household, which may include cleaning, cooking, home maintenance, shopping, and bill payment. These tasks may be performed by members of the household, or by other persons hired for the purpose. This is a more broad role than a cleaner, who is focused only on the cleaning aspect. The term is also used to refer to the money allocated for such use. By extension, it may also refer to an office or organization, as well as the maintenance of computer storage systems or operations such as record-keeping or maintenance in an organization or a computer that make work possible but do not directly constitute its performance. Mother - Guardian.

Housekeeper is an individual responsible for the supervision of a house's cleaning staff. The housekeeper may also perform the cleaning duties themself. A maid, or housemaid or maidservant, is a female domestic worker. Maid is a domestic worker is a person who works within the scope of a residence. Footman or footboy is a male domestic worker employed mainly to wait at table or attend a coach or carriage.

Chore is a specific piece of work or routine task that is necessary to be done in order to live comfortably. A chore is a responsibility within a household, whether you live by yourself or with other people, like family and friends. Some children find chores to be unpleasant, but only until they realize how important some chores are, like Hygiene.

Children's Initiative in Contributions to Family Work in Indigenous-Heritage and Cosmopolitan Communities in Mexico.

Responsibilities are less boring when shared. Work Together.

American heterosexual couples found that women handle the majority of the domestic workload, including doing the laundry, cleaning and cooking.
How to share chores. List every chore and errand. Create a shortlist of essential duties. Each member of the household should understand the full extent of responsibilities. Set clear expectations of how and when a task should be done. Share the load on burdensome tasks.

Sustainable - Positive Feed Back Loop - Life-Cycle Assessment

Cure is to make Healthy again. Processing in order to Preserve. Improve Usability. Relieve pain.

is the act of correcting an Error or a Fault or an Evil. Set straight or Right. Provide relief for. Remedy Law.

Best Practice is a method or technique that has been generally accepted as superior to any alternatives because it produces results that are superior to those achieved by other means or because it has become a standard way of doing things, e.g., a standard way of complying with legal or ethical requirements. Best Practices - Standards - Ethics.

Quality Management ensures that an organization, product or service is consistent. It has four main components: quality planning, quality assurance, quality control and quality improvement. Quality management is focused not only on product and service quality, but also on the means to achieve it. Quality management, therefore, uses quality assurance and control of processes as well as products to achieve more consistent quality. Quality Control.

Best Management Practice for Water Pollution describes a type of water pollution control or auxiliary pollution controls in the fields of industrial wastewater control and municipal sewage control, while in stormwater management (both urban and rural) and wetland management, BMPs may refer to a principal control or treatment technique as well.

Shabby is something in poor condition through long or hard use or lack of care. Not Too Shabby
means that something is good.

Autoregulation is a process within many biological systems, resulting from an internal adaptive mechanism that works to adjust (or mitigate) that system's response to stimuli. While most systems of the body show some degree of autoregulation, it is most clearly observed in the kidney, the heart, and the brain. Perfusion of these organs is essential for life, and through autoregulation the body can divert blood (and thus, oxygen) where it is most needed.

Application Performance Management is the monitoring and management of performance and availability of software applications. APM strives to detect and diagnose complex application performance problems to maintain an expected level of service.

Damage Control is the emergency control of situations that may cause the sinking of a watercraft, or a company, or a country. Also refers to measures that need to be taken to offset or minimize damage.

Planned Maintenance System in Shipping is a paper/software-based system which allows ship owners or operators to carry out maintenance in intervals according to manufacturers and class/Classification society requirements.

Knowledge Management

Revitalization is an organized, conscious effort by members of a society to construct a more satisfying culture.

Reserve Study capital budget planning tool which identifies the current status of the reserve fund and a stable and equitable funding plan to offset ongoing Deterioration, Wear and Erosion.

Property Management

Facility Management is a form of asset management concerned with the successful maintenance, operation, and monitoring of buildings or properties. It encompasses multiple disciplines to ensure functionality of the built environment by integrating people, systems, place, process, and technology. Fiduciary - Duty of Care - Constitution.

Property Management is the operation, control, and oversight of real estate as used in its most broad terms. Management indicates a need to be cared for, monitored and accountability given for its useful life and condition. This is much akin to the role of management in any business. Spending - Misappropriation of Funds - Fraud - Accountability - Audit.

Asset Management refers to systematic approach to the governance and realization of value from the things that a group or entity is responsible for, over their whole life cycles. It may apply both to tangible assets (physical objects such as buildings or equipment) and to intangible assets (such as human capital, intellectual property, goodwill and/or financial assets). Asset management is a systematic process of developing, operating, maintaining, upgrading, and disposing of assets in the most cost-effective manner (including all costs, risks and performance attributes). The term is commonly used in the financial sector to describe people and companies who manage investments on behalf of others. Those include, for example, investment managers that manage the assets of a pension fund. It is also increasingly used in both the business world and public infrastructure sectors to ensure a coordinated approach to the optimization of costs, risks, service/performance and sustainability. The International Standard, ISO 55000, provides an introduction and requirements specification for a management system for asset management. Project Management - Request for Proposal.

Homeowner Association is a private association formed by a real estate developer for the purpose of marketing, managing, and selling homes and lots in a residential subdivision. Housing (home maintenance). Common Interest Ownership Act.

By-Law is a rule that does not supersede state laws or federal laws.

Neighborhood Association is a group of residents or property owners who advocate for or organize activities within a neighborhood. An association may have elected leaders and voluntary dues. Board Members.

Waste in law describes a cause of action that can be brought in court to address a change in condition of real property brought about by a current tenant or person, or a condo home association, or a property management company or a city or state, that damages or destroys the value of that property. A lawsuit for waste can be brought against a life tenant or lessee of a leasehold estate, either by a current landlord or by the owner of a vested future interest. The holder of an executory interest, however, has no standing to enforce an action for waste, since his future interest is not vested. There are several different kinds of waste under the law.

Negligence - Planned Obsolescence - Poor Efficiency - Counterproductive - Mismanage - Cost Overruns

Poor management or mismanagement is the same thing as stealing and fraud, which is punishable by law and law suits.

What Owners Can Do If HOA Common Areas Are Not Maintained. A homeowner might initiate a lawsuit against the HOA or an individual board member for breach of fiduciary duty, breach of covenant, or negligence, or a combination of these. A homeowner has the right to sue the HOA for breach of its fiduciary duties. If the HOA fails to act in a reasonably safe and prudent manner, a homeowner might have a claim for negligence. To fulfill these duties, the HOA must exercise ordinary care, in a reasonable and good faith manner, in the performance of its duties. Board member must also act in the best interest of the community, not for individual gain or self-interest.

Fiduciary Duty is an obligation to act in the best interest of another party. For instance, a corporation's board member has a fiduciary duty to the shareholders, a trustee has a fiduciary duty to the trust's beneficiaries, and an attorney has a fiduciary duty to a client. Monetary Fiduciary Duty is the duty that requires a person to make decisions in good faith and in a reasonably prudent manner. Financial Fiduciary Duty is not to lie about your wealth to your spouse when getting married.  Definition of Fiduciary Duties (law).

The average home insurance claim costs around $10,000 and the insurance payout number for water damage in 2017 in the US was $13 billion. That's one in fifty homeowners and marks a significant increase in claims since 2005. 10,000 people suffer everyday from some type of water damage.

Capital Expenditure is the money an organization or corporate entity spends to buy, maintain, or improve its fixed assets, such as buildings, vehicles, equipment, or land. It is considered a capital expenditure when the asset is newly purchased or when money is used towards extending the useful life of an existing asset, such as repairing the roof. Capital expenditures contrast with operating expenses or opex, which are ongoing expenses that are inherent to the operation of the asset. Opex includes items like electricity or cleaning. The difference between opex and capex may not be immediately obvious for some expenses; for instance, repaving the parking lot may be thought of inherent to the operation of a shopping mall. The dividing line for items like these is that the expense is considered capex if the financial benefit of the expenditure extends beyond the current fiscal year. Capital expenditures are the funds used to acquire or upgrade a company's fixed assets, such as expenditures towards property, plant, or equipment (PP&E). In the case when a capital expenditure constitutes a major financial decision for a company, the expenditure must be formalized at an annual shareholders meeting or a special meeting of the Board of Directors. In accounting, a capital expenditure is added to an asset account, thus increasing the asset's basis (the cost or value of an asset adjusted for tax purposes). Capex is commonly found on the cash flow statement under "Investment in Plant, Property, and Equipment" or something similar in the Investing subsection. For tax purposes, capex is a cost that cannot be deducted in the year in which it is paid or incurred and must be capitalized. The general rule is that if the acquired property's useful life is longer than the taxable year, then the cost must be capitalized. The capital expenditure costs are then amortized or depreciated over the life of the asset in question. Further to the above, capex creates or adds basis to the asset or property, which once adjusted, will determine tax liability in the event of sale or transfer. In the US, Internal Revenue Code §§263 and 263A deal extensively with capitalization requirements and exceptions. Included in capital expenditures are amounts spent on: Acquiring fixed, and in some cases, intangible assets. Repairing an existing asset so as to improve its useful life. Upgrading an existing asset if it results in a superior fixture. preparing an asset to be used in business. Restoring property or adapting it to a new or different use. Starting or acquiring a new business. An ongoing question for the accounting of any company is whether certain costs incurred should be capitalized or expensed. Costs which are expensed in a particular month simply appear on the financial statement as a cost incurred that month. Costs that are capitalized, however, are amortized or depreciated over multiple years. Capitalized expenditures show up on the balance sheet. Most ordinary business costs are either expensable or capitalizable, but some costs could be treated either way, according to the preference of the company. Capitalized interest if applicable is also spread out over the life of the asset. The counterpart of capital expenditure is operating expense or operational cost (opex).

Some people just don't care. They just pass the expense onto someone else. It's not that they're selfish and horrible. It's just they don't know any better, and they're not even aware that they don't know any better. So people are not bad people, they are just ignorant people. Not to say they're stupid or unintelligent, It's just that they have not learned enough about themselves and the world around them. And some people pretend to care about other people. They pretend to care about the world. People don't know enough about themselves and the world to know how to care. People lack the knowledge, information and skills that are needed to fully understand themselves and the world around them. People only care when they have to care or when they're forced to care. And they only reveal their indifference when they're around certain people, when they're around everyone else, they act nice and put on a show. Most of the time they have to pay people to care about them, because no one cares about a person who doesn't care about other people, or even care about themselves. You can't expect other people to respect you when you have no respect for yourself and no respect for other people. In order to care about other people, you have to learn how to care about other people, which means that you have to know people and know who needs care, and know what kind of care a person may need, and why they need care and when they need care. caring is just a word if you never educate yourself or never put the word into action. Caring needs to go beyond just treating a disease, caring is about working on solutions on how to cure a disease. Caring is knowing the root cause of a problem, and not just about knowing how to treat the symptoms.

Indifferent is someone who shows no care or concern in attitude or action, and unwilling or refusing to pay heed. Not mattering one way or the other and showing lack of interest and importance.


Care is activity involved in maintaining something in good working order. Attention and management implying Responsibility for safety. The work of providing treatment for or attending to someone or something. Feel concern or interest. Judiciousness in avoiding harm or danger. Provide care for. Be in charge of, act on, or dispose of. Be concerned with. Keep informed.

Duty of Care is a legal obligation, which is imposed on an individual requiring adherence to a standard of reasonable care while performing any acts that could foreseeably harm others. Fiduciary.

Quality Control - Accountable - Sharing is Caring.

Standard of Care is the only degree of prudence and caution required of an individual who is under a duty of care. The requirements of the standard are closely dependent on circumstances. Whether the standard of care has been breached is determined by the trier of fact, and is usually phrased in terms of the reasonable person. Whether the individual "proceed[ed] with such reasonable caution as a prudent man would have exercised under such circumstances". Constitution.

Painstakingly is doing something with great care and thoroughness. To put a lot work and effort into a task that it can become sometimes painful or uncomfortable.

Integrity Management how to apply the highest ethical standards to every aspect of business, having a strong interest, as well as a responsibility, to act with integrity at all times.

Management Due Diligence evaluating each individual's effectiveness and leadership skills while assessing team dynamics and highlighting risks.

Benefit Corporation - Evidence Based Practice

Morals - Social Contracts

Need is something that is required, useful, just, or proper. Anything that is Necessary but lacking. The psychological feature that arouses an organism to action toward a desired goal; the reason for the action; that which gives purpose and direction to behavior. A Need is something that is necessary for an organism to live a healthy life. Needs are distinguished from wants in that, in the case of a need, a deficiency causes a clear adverse outcome: a dysfunction or death. Needs can be objective and physical, such as the need for food, or psychological and subjective, such as the need for self-esteem. There are also needs of a social or societal nature. Needs and wants are a matter of interest in, and form a common substrate for, the fields of philosophy, biology, psychology, social science, and politics. Human Needs - Needs Assessment.

Use is to put into service; make work or employ for a particular purpose or for its inherent or natural purpose.
"Use your head and learn how to use a computer"

Preserve is to keep or maintain in unaltered condition; cause to remain or last . To keep up and reserve for personal or special use. Quality Control.

Diligent is characterized by care and perseverance in carrying out tasks. To quietly and steadily persevering, especially in detail or exactness.

Thorough is to be careful and accurate and to perform some action comprehensively and completely using effort and hard work.

Support is something providing immaterial assistance to a person or cause or interest. Supporting structure that holds up or provides a foundation. The act of bearing the weight of or strengthening. Public Service.

Improve is to make something more valuable or stronger; Become or made better in quality.

Enhance is to make something better or more effective. Increase. Self-Directed Learning.

Advance is to Contribute to the progress or growth of. Obtain advantages. Develop in a positive way.. Develop further. A change for the better; progress in development. The act of moving forward (as toward a goal). Innovation.

Progress is the gradual improvement or growth or development. The act of moving forward, as toward a goal. Develop in a positive way. Form or accumulate steadily.

is to reach a high point in historical significance or importance.

Concern is something that interests you because it is important or affects you. A feeling of sympathy for someone or something. Be relevant to. Be on the mind of. Ethical.

Responsibility - Obligation - Duty

Responsibilities List of things to do Responsibility is an action that you need to take that will accomplish something important. A need that you are being trusted with to perform in order to fulfill a duty that is important.

Responsible is being worthy of trust and being held accountable for your actions.

Social Responsibility is when an organization or individual, has an obligation to act for the benefit of society at large. Social responsibility is a duty every individual has to perform so as to maintain a balance between the economy and the ecosystems.

Moral Responsibility is an individual's ability to make moral judgments based on evidence of right and wrong and to be held accountable for these actions. Family Rules.

Obligated is the state of being obligated to do or pay something. A written promise to repay a debt. Example: The debt we owe the environment and to future generations from who we borrow from, in the form of life sustaining resources.

Obligation is a course of action that someone is required to take, whether legal or moral. There are also obligations in other normative contexts, such as obligations of etiquette, social obligations, and possibly in terms of politics, where obligations are requirements which must be fulfilled. These are generally legal obligations, which can incur a penalty for non-fulfilment, although certain people are obliged to carry out certain actions for other reasons as well, whether as a tradition or for social reasons.

Law of Obligations is a legal bond (vinculum iuris) by which one or more parties (obligants) are bound to act or refrain from acting.

Deontology is the study of the nature of duty and obligation. Morals.

Responsibility is the understanding that life needs periodic maintenance in order for a person, or persons, to live comfortably and peacefully without having things continually degrade or get worse and become harmful or dangerous. Responsibilities are positive actions that help sustain a healthy and good quality life, while maintaining independence, and reducing dependencies that increases vulnerabilities and Risk. Responsibilities are the things that you need to do in order to enjoy the things that you want to do. Responsibilities are when people count on you to perform certain functions or services, so that others can focus on other responsibilities that you also depend on. Working Together is a form of trustworthiness and the trait of being answerable to yourself and to other people who depend on your services. It's being responsible for one's conduct.

Duty is the work that you are obliged to perform for moral or legal reasons. Duty is a commitment or expectation to perform some action in general or when certain circumstances arise. Duties can be the result of being a human, or as a result of one's character, or as a result of one's own moral expectations for oneself, or as a result of one's particular place in life, one's family, one's country, or one's job. The specific duties imposed by law or culture vary considerably, depending on jurisdiction, religion, and social norms.

Civic Duty are the responsibilities of a citizen.

Ethics - Medical Ethics - Standards - Civics

Commitment is the act of binding yourself to a course of action. The trait of sincere and steadfast fixity of purpose. An engagement by contract involving financial obligation. A message that makes a pledge.

Bound by an oath. Bound by contract. Bind by an obligation.

Culpability is being responsible for a fault or wrong. To take blame. To admit a fault.

Whistle Blowers (if you see something then say something).

Good Samaritan Law is intended to reduce bystanders' hesitation when assisting people who have been injured or who are in danger. By protecting a person who's trying to help people from being prosecuted because their actions accidentally made things worse when trying to help someone, will make people more willing to help someone in need. We don't want people to do nothing when people are suffering or dying, but we also don't want people to accidentally make things worse when helping people in need.

Duty to Rescue in which a party can be held liable for failing to come to the rescue of another party in peril.

Duty of Care is a legal obligation which is imposed on an individual requiring adherence to a standard of reasonable care while performing any acts that could foreseeably harm others.

Contract Law - Waste - Negligence

Standard of Care is the only degree of prudence and caution required of an individual who is under a duty of care. The requirements of the standard are closely dependent on circumstances. Whether the standard of care has been breached is determined by the trier of fact, and is usually phrased in terms of the reasonable person.

Due Diligence is an investigation of a business or person to insure they act with a certain standard of care and also satisfy legal obligations as well as disclose all costs, benefits, negative side effects and risks.

Integrity Management is an emerging sector of consultancy that advises individuals and corporations on how to apply the highest ethical standards to every aspect of their business. Integrity within a corporate set up is a holistic approach that makes prudent and ethical decisions not only relating to finance but other areas as well, which include operations, marketing, human resources as well as manufacturing by adhering to the highest standards of product quality, open and clear communication and transparency in all operations as well as relationships. At the core of integrity management is the belief that companies have a strong interest, as well as a responsibility, to act with integrity at all times.

Management Due Diligence is the process of appraising a company's senior management—evaluating each individual's effectiveness.

"When we recognize that our actions are inextricably tied to the greater good, even unpleasant chores become acts of mindfulness."

Debt of Honor is a promise and an obligation to do what is right.

You are Your Brothers Keeper means that you're responsible for someone, and responsible for all the things that are dangerous and life threatening to the person that you're responsible for.

Legal Liability - Public Liability - Negligence

Legal Responsibility is when a person's actions cause an event to happen.

Professional Responsibility encompasses the duties to act in a professional manner, obey the law, avoid conflicts of interest, and put the interests of people ahead of your own interests that are not as important.

Responsibility Assumption is the doctrine that an individual has substantial or total responsibility for the events and circumstances that befall them in their personal life, to a considerably greater degree than is normally thought. Strong adherents of responsibility assumption consider that whatever situation they find themselves in, their own past desires and choices must have led to that outcome.

Diffusion of Responsibility (transference, passing the buck)

We want Love, but we don't want the responsibilities that come with having a relationship. We want to travel, but we don't want to be responsible for its impacts. We want a lot of things, but we don't want to deal with all the responsibilities, or have the responsibility of having to maintain something so that it lasts a long time. But being a thoughtless and selfish scumbag is no way to go through life, because it never ends well, as we can clearly see, or hopefully see. You can't solve a problem when you don't believe that a problem exists, and there lies our first problem, which is people not having enough knowledge and information so they are fully aware of themselves and the world around them. It's almost impossible to make good choices and good decisions when you don't know what they are, or have the ability and opportunity to do so.

Corporate Social Responsibility - B-Corp - Activism

Function are the actions and activities assigned to or required or expected of a person or group. A relation such that one thing is dependent on another. Serve a purpose or role. Perform duties attached to a particular office or place or function.

90% of our Jobs need to be aligned with human responsibilities that insure our survival, and human rights and freedoms.

Teaching Responsibilities

Proactive is controlling a situation by causing something to happen rather than waiting to respond to it after it happens.

To Be of Service - To Serve

Serve is to serve a purpose, role, or function. A relation such that one thing is dependent on another. Work that you are obliged to perform for moral or legal reasons. The actions and activities assigned to or required or expected of a person or group. Normal or customary activity of a person in a particular social setting. A personal relation in which one is obligated for a service or favor. Owing gratitude or recognition to another for help or favors etc. The social force that binds you to the courses of action demanded by that force. A set sequence of steps, part of larger computer program. A form of trustworthiness. 

Public Service - Shared Services - Military Service - Jobs that make a Difference - Customer Service - Caring - Constitution - Leadership

Who do you Serve? Who do you represent? Who are you a service to? Are you serving your own self interest? Are you a service to others who don't have a voice? Are you serving a higher power or a higher authority, or are you serving criminals, and do you fully understand the motives of this higher power or authority? Are you serving the greater good and doing what is right for everyone? Are you a service to what is known to be good and known to be fair and logical? Or do you blindly serve like a puppet?

Services is the performance of duties or provision of space and equipment helpful to others. Work done by one person or group that benefits another. An act of help or assistance. A company or agency that performs a public service. A means of serving. Make fit for use. Something that aids or promotes well-being. Contribute to the progress or growth of. Development of the mind. Act of improving by expanding or enlarging or refining.

Assist is to give help or assistance; be of service The activity of contributing to the fulfillment of a need or furtherance of an effort or purpose. Loyalty.

Value Measuring - Quality Control - Waste Law

Provider is someone who provides the means for subsistence. Someone whose business is to supply a particular service or commodity.

Business Ethics is conduct that is relevant to the conduct of individuals and entire organizations.

Service Level Agreement aspects of the service – quality, availability, responsibilities – are agreed between the service provider and the service user. Contracts.

Creating Value - Purpose-Oriented

Service Quality is understanding and improving operational processes; identifying problems quickly and systematically; establishing valid and reliable service performance measures and measuring customer satisfaction and other performance outcomes.

Development - Ideas

Service in economics is an economic activity where an immaterial exchange of value occurs. When a service such as labor is performed the buyer does not take exclusive ownership of that which is purchased, unless agreed upon by buyer and seller. The benefits of such a service, if priced, are held to be self-evident in the buyer's willingness to pay for it. Public Services are those, that society (nation state, fiscal union, regional) as a whole pays for, through taxes and other means. Using resources, skill, ingenuity, and experience, service providers effect benefit to service consumers. Thereby, service providers participate in an economy without the restrictions of carrying inventory (stock) or the need to concern themselves with bulky raw materials. Furthermore, their investment in expertise does require consistent service marketing and upgrading in the face of competition.

Purpose is an anticipated outcome that is intended or that guides your planned actions. The quality of being determined to do or achieve something; firmness of purpose. What something is used for. The goal intended to be attained (and which is believed to be attainable) Visualize expected results. Specific actions to take. Guidelines.

is something appropriate to a purpose; practical.

Needs Assessment is a systematic process for determining and addressing needs, or "gaps" between current conditions and desired conditions or "wants". The discrepancy between the current condition and wanted condition must be measured to appropriately identify the need. The need can be a desire to improve current performance or to correct a deficiency.

Need is something that is necessary for an organism to live a healthy life. Needs are distinguished from wants in that, in the case of a need, a deficiency causes a clear adverse outcome: a dysfunction or death.

Professional is a person who has acquired specialized skills and knowledge through advanced learning and education so that they are proficient in their craft and produce high quality work in their area of expertise. Someone who is qualified to teach others about their area of Knowledge. 

Professional - Accreditation - Expert

Intelligent (words that describe intelligence)

Work Ethics - Philosophy

Input is the cost to the world by measuring the value of the resources used in its service or product. Payment.

is how the service or product benefits people, and how it benefits the world. Work.

Cause and Effect - Code

Meliorism holds that humans can, through their interference with processes that would otherwise be natural, produce an outcome which is an improvement over the aforementioned natural one.

Oaths - Promises that Help Guide Us

Hand Raised for Oath Oath is a statement of fact or a promise with wording relating to something considered sacred as a sign of actual reality.

Pledge is to promise sincerely and officially as a guarantee and as a binding commitment.

Allegiance - Responsibility - Mission - Honesty - Mantra

"I Solemnly Swear that I will tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help me God." - I solemnly and sincerely declare and affirm that the evidence I shall give will be the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth under pains and penalties of perjury.

Sworn Testimony is evidence given by a witness who has made a commitment to tell the truth. If the witness is later found to have lied whilst bound by the commitment, they can often be charged with the crime of perjury. The types of commitment can include oaths, affirmations and promises which are explained in more detail below. The exact wording of the commitments vary from country to country.

Codes of Conduct - Marriage Vows - Liars above the Law

Under Oath. Oaths are made by a witness to a court of law before giving testimony and usually by a newly appointed government officer to the people of a state before taking office. However, in both of those cases, an affirmation can usually be replaced with a written statement, only if the author swears the statement is true. This statement is called an affidavit. The oath given to support an affidavit is frequently administered by a notary, who will certify the giving of the oath by affixing her or his seal to the document. Willfully delivering a false oath (or affirmation) is the crime of perjury. There are some places where there is a confusion between the "oath" and other statements or promises. For example, the current Olympic Oath is really a pledge, not properly an oath, since there is only a promise but there is no appeal to a sacred witness. Oaths may also be confused with vows, but vows are really just a special kind of an oath.

Religious Vows are the public vows made by the members of religious communities pertaining to their conduct, practices, and views.

Juror's Oath is used to swear in jurors at the beginning of jury selection or trial. "Do you and each of you solemnly swear that you will well and truly try and a true deliverance make between the United States and ______, the defendant at the bar, and a true verdict render according to the evidence, so help you God?" You, as jurors, are the judges of the facts. But in determining what actually happened–that is, in reaching your decision as to the facts–it is your sworn duty to follow all of the rules of law as I explain them to you. You have no right to disregard or give special attention to any one instruction, or to question the wisdom or correctness of any rule I may state to you. You must not substitute or follow your own notion or opinion as to what the law is or ought to be. It is your duty to apply the law as I explain it to you, regardless of the consequences. However, you should not read into these instructions, or anything else I may have said or done, any suggestion as to what your verdict should be. That is entirely up to you. It is also your duty to base your verdict solely upon the evidence, without prejudice or sympathy. That was the promise you made and the oath you took.

"We mutually pledge to each other our lives, our fortunes and our sacred honor” - From the final sentence of the Declaration of Independence.

Oath of Office is an oath or affirmation a person takes before undertaking the duties of an office, usually a position in government or within a religious body, although such oaths are sometimes required of officers of other organizations.

I, ___ ___, do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support and defend the Constitution of the United States against all enemies, foreign and domestic; that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the same; that I take this obligation freely, without any mental reservation or purpose of evasion; and that I will well and faithfully discharge the duties of the office on which I am about to enter. So help me God.

"I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States."

Army Oaths - I, _____, do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support and defend the Constitution of the United States against all enemies, foreign and domestic. Oath Keepers - Soldiers Creed.

Cadet Honor Code "A cadet will not lie, cheat, steal, or tolerate those who do."

Hippocratic Oath is to uphold specific ethical standards. Historically, this oath is taken by physicians. It is one of the most widely known of Greek medical texts.

MBA Oath commit towards the creation of value "responsibly and ethically". To make a difference in the lives of the individual students who take the oath, to challenge other classmates to work towards a higher professional standard, whether they sign the oath or not, and to create a public conversation in the press about professionalizing and improving management.

Dereliction of Duty is someone who has willfully refused to perform his duties (or follow a given order) or has incapacitated himself in such a way that he cannot perform his duties.

Police Officers Decision Making and Discretion (PDF)

Code of Ethics (PDF) - Morals - Medical Ethics - Duty of Care

United States Uniformed Services Oath of Office

I will Remember - Human Promise Manifesto

Don't Lie (too many scumbags take an oath but never follow it)

Lawyers Oaths of Admission - I do affirm: I will support the Constitution of the United States and the Constitution of the State of Alaska; I will adhere to the Rules of Professional Conduct in my dealings with clients, judicial officers, attorneys, and all other persons; I will maintain the respect due to courts of justice and judicial officers; I will not counsel or maintain any proceedings that I believe are taken in bad faith or any defense that I do not believe is honestly debatable under the law of the land; I will be truthful and honorable in the causes entrusted to me, and will never seek to mislead the judge or jury by an artifice or false statement of fact or law; I will maintain the confidences and preserve inviolate the secrets of my client, and will not accept compensation in connection with my client's business except from my client or with my client's knowledge or approval; I will be candid, fair, and courteous before the court and with other attorneys, and will advance no fact prejudicial to the honor or reputation of a party or witness, unless I am required to do so in order to obtain justice for my client; I will uphold the honor and maintain the dignity of the profession, and will strive to improve both the law and the administration of justice.

Therefore I promise: I will act with utmost integrity and pursue my work in an ethical manner. I will safeguard the interests of my co-workers, customers and the society in which we operate. I will manage my enterprise and life in good faith, guarding against decisions and behavior that advance my own narrow ambitions but harm the enterprise and the societies it serves. I will understand and uphold, both in letter and in spirit, the laws and contracts governing my own conduct and that of my enterprise. I will take responsibility for my actions, and I will represent the performance and risks of my enterprise accurately and honestly. I will develop both myself and other managers under my supervision so that the profession continues to grow and contribute to the well-being of society. I will strive to create sustainable economic, social, and environmental prosperity worldwide. I will be accountable to my peers and they will be accountable to me for living by this oath. This oath I make freely, and upon my honor.

Hippocratic Oath for Managers

!. I undertake, throughout my academic career, regardless of any position I hold, to base all Judgments of others on an objective analysis of the available facts. When called upon to do so, I shall cite the exact information upon which my judgments are based.

2. My judgments of others shall, wherever possible, be made publicly. When anonymity is essential, I shall provide arguments worthy of public scrutiny.

3. I shall endeavor always to distinguish between my judgments on academic grounds and any personal interests. I shall always declare the latter, even if they require my withdrawal from a particular decision.

4. I shall at all times avoid in word and deed any form, of discrimination against others in race, religion, ethnic background, sex, marital status, age, political affiliation, nationality, and physical condition. I shall encourage my students and colleagues to do likewise in my presence.

5. All requests for judgment of the work of others will be treated by me as a matter for the utmost priority. If, for any reason beyond my control, I am unable to give them urgent attention I shall request to be relieved of my responsibility.

6. I recognize as an academic a basic obligation to use my intellect and training by teaching or writing for the illumination of the community, following the truth fearlessly wherever it may lead, regardless of vested interests. I accept the intellectual requirements of my students as a prior claim on my time, taking precedence over all other activities. I undertake the continual re-evaluation of my teaching techniques to ensure that students obtain the best education available.

As a Manager, my purpose is to serve the greater good by bringing people and resources together to create value that no single individual can create alone. Therefore I will seek a course that enhances the value my enterprise can create for society over the long term. I recognize my decisions can have far-reaching consequences that affect the well-being of individuals inside and outside my enterprise, today and in the future. As I reconcile the interests of different constituencies, I will face choices that are not easy for me and others.

Hippocratic Oath for Medical Ethics

Business Philosophy The famous Hippocratic Oath is the earliest and most impressive document in medical ethics. One translation is: I swear by Apollo the physician, by Æsculapius, by Hygeia, Panacea, all the gods and goddesses, that, according to my best ability and judgment, I will keep this oath and stipulation; to reckon him who taught me this art equally dear to me as my parents; to share my substance with him and relieve his necessities if required; to regard his offspring as on the same footing as my own brothers, and to teach them this art if they shall wish to learn it, without fee or scipulation, and that by precept, oral teaching and every other mode of instruction, I will impart a knowledge of the art to my own sons and to those of my teachers, and to disciples bound by a stipulation and oath, according to the law of medicine, but to no others. I will follow that method of treatment, which, according to my ability and judgment, I consider for the benefit of my patients, and abstain from whatever is deleterious and mischievous. I will give no deadly medicine to anyone if asked, nor suggest any such counsel; With purity and with holiness I will pass my life and practice my art. I will not cut a person who is suffering with a stone, but will leave this to be done by practitioners of this work. Into whatever houses I enter I will go into them for the benefit of the sick and will abstain from every voluntary act of mischief and corruption, and, further, from the seduction of females or males, bond or free. Whatever in connection with my professional practice, or not in connection with it, I may see or hear in the lives of men which ought not to be spoken abroad, I will not divulge, as reckoning that all such should be kept secret. While I continue to keep this oath inviolate, may it be granted to me to enjoy life and the practice of my art, respected always by, all men, but should I trespass and violate this oath, may the reverse be my lot.

A modern version is the Declaration of Geneva (1948): I solemnly pledge myself to consecrate my life to the service of humanity. I will give to my teachers the respect and gratitude which is their due; I will practice my profession with conscience and dignity; the health of my patient will be my first consideration; I will respect the secrets which are confided in me; I will maintain by all in means in my power the honor and the noble traditions of the medical profession; my colleagues will be my brothers; I will not permit considerations of religion, nationality, race, party politics, or social standing to intervene between my duty and my patient; I will maintain the utmost respect for human life, from the time of conception; even under threat, I will not use my medical knowledge contrary to the Laws of Humanity. I make these promises solemnly, freely, and upon my honor.”

"Most of our decisions are generally based upon the measurement of future benefits that come from making that decision, a decision that hopefully makes us better then what we presently are."

"If you think that being stupid is part of your business, then you are either in the wrong business or the wrong person for business."

Most bosses are the same, they bark a lot but they never say anything. Ignorance on how to use language effectively has caused most of our problems. And as soon as we learn and understand the incredible potential of language, the sooner we will start solving all our problems. Communicating effectively, efficiently, and with respect, can be something every person could learn in school, online, or using a smartphone.

“Keep your friends for friendship, but work with the skilled and competent”

Life Quotes

Manhood - "A man's usefulness depends upon his living up to his ideals insofar as he can. It is hard to fail, but it is worse never to have tried to succeed." ~ Theodore Roosevelt.

"The first question to ask is, Does the business your in make a positive difference in peoples lives who are not related to the business in any way, directly or indirectly? If not, then your business is wasting time, people and resources. So you either find a new business or create a new one.

Money is not a Measurement of Worth, so what are you really doing?"

There is no such thing as Negative Feedback, the feedback is either good, bad, right or wrong. And it also needs the reasons why that explains its perceived negativity. Just to call something negative does not explain why it is considered negative. That's the same for positive psychology. You simply can not call something positive without explaining why it's thought to be positive. It's like an ignorant politician who talks but never says anything informative or insightful. Empty words create empty heads. You either use your time to learn something or you learn nothing at all. End the cycle of ignorance.  

Positive Feedback - Causal Loop Diagram

"You don't want a business to grow, you just want your business to increase its potential and increase its service to the community. Growing is not for profit, for money is not a measurement of reality. Growing is for when the need increases then your business increases, if the need decreases then your business decreases. And when a better alterative comes up you have to make adjustments, or change the business altogether."

Limits to Growth - Making a Difference

Organizing Principle - Viable System Model

Most businesses are mainly local distribution centers for needed products or services. Consisting of important things that people need access to, or can have things delivered in a reasonable time at a reasonable cost. So things should be close enough to supply the need without wasting to much time and resources.

Time Management - Priorities

12 Hour Clock Face Priorities - Responsibilities - Importance - Choices - Short Term Goals - Long Term Goals

Time Management is the act or process of planning and exercising conscious control over the amount of time spent on specific activities, especially to increase effectiveness, efficiency or productivity

Scheduling - Goals - Measuring - Balance - Saving Time - Flex Time - Time is of the Essence - Time Perception - Time Blindness

Priority the action that arranges items or activities in order of importance.

First is before anything else. Ranking above all others or the most important. The first or highest in an ordering or series. The time at which something is supposed to begin. Preceding all others in time or space or degree. Indicating the beginning unit in a series.

Secondary is something being of second rank or importance or of value. Something that is not direct or immediate and not of major importance. Not at the top of the responsibilities list. Not your first choice, but still has value.

Allocation of Time is to make something available to do at a specified time so that you can accomplish a task, according to a plan and purpose. Distributing - Sharing - Professionalism.

Allocate is to distribute portions of time, resources, responsibilities and effort in a logical and even way according to a plan or purpose. Allocating your thoughts

Delegate - Task Management - PM

Taking the Time is to make an effort to do something or to spend enough time on something to do it properly or sufficiently.

Expedite is to speed up the progress of a project or a task. To process something fast and efficiently. Facilitate - Quick Decisions - Focus.

Organization Skills is having the ability to effectively plan things and prioritize tasks and achieve goals in an efficient and productive manner. Organization skills are those related to good time management practices and deciding how to use your time effectively, as well as creating structure and order and boosting productivity.

There's a Time and Place or Everything. Choosing - Decisions - Cycles - Baseline (state)

Timing is the choice, judgment, or control of when something should be done. A particular point or period of time when something happens.

Timing in Music refers to the ability to "keep time" accurately and to synchronize to an ensemble, as well as to expressive timing—subtle adjustment of note or beat duration, or of tempo, for aesthetic effect. Research in music cognition has shown that time as a subjective structuring of events in music differs from the concept of time in physics. Listeners to music do not perceive rhythm on a continuous scale, but recognize rhythmic categories that function as a reference relative to which the deviations in timing can be appreciated. In fact temporal patterns in music combine two different time scales—rhythmic durations such as half and quarter notes on the one hand, and on the other, the continuous timing variations that characterize an expressive musical performance.

Downtime is a duration of time in which a machine, computer or system is unavailable and not working or is temporally out of action or out of order. This means that certain work cannot be performed. The unavailability is the proportion of a time-span that a system is unavailable or offline, which indicates a disconnected state. Online indicates a state of connectivity. Break.

Availability is the degree to which a system, subsystem or equipment is in a specified operable and committable state at the start of a mission, when the mission is called for at an unknown, i.e. a random, time. Simply put, availability is the proportion of time a system is in a functioning condition. The ratio of the total time a functional unit is capable of being used during a given interval to the length of the interval.

Time Constraint refers to the limitations on the start and end times of a project. While a time constraint is defined as a limitation imposed on you by someone else, a time restraint is defined as an inability to reach a goal because of your own shortage of time. Time Constraint in law are placed on certain actions and filings in the interest of speedy justice, and additionally to prevent the evasion of the ends of justice by waiting until a matter is moot. The penalty for violating a legislative or court-imposed time constraint may be anything from a small fine to judicial determination of an entire case against one's interests.

Poor time management causes poor sleep for college students.

You only have certain amount of energy to give in one day. So your energy must be divided up among all your important priorities that you need to take care of. You can only do so much.

You don’t have enough Time? What is the time right now? What is the amount of time that is needed at the present moment to complete a task? How much time is left? Amount of time today? Amount of time tomorrow? Amount of time in the future?

Procrastination - Wasting Time

Procrastination is the lack of focus, purpose, planning, prioritizing and time perception. Procrastination is not just a matter of willpower or laziness, procrastination can occur due to difficulties in valuing outcomes or associating outcomes with tasks. Procrastination (PDF).

I Don't Feel Like It - I don't have enough time - Boredom - Time Blindness - Delayed Gratification - Delaying Tactics - Construction Delays - Frivolous Lawsuits

He who Hesitates is Lost. If you can't make up your mind, that means you lack the necessary knowledge and information needed to make a decision. And if you can't make a decision, that means your not going anywhere. So search for the necessary knowledge and information needed to make a decision. Then you can make a decision. Yes or No? Stop or Go? There is no "I don't know what to do", there's only "I don't know what to do Yet" because I'm still searching for the necessary knowledge and information needed to make an accurate decision. (This is not saying that you need to always make quick decisions, or blindly jump into things without thinking first. Because you need to be aware and be smart).

If you Snooze you Lose, meaning if you don't put the needed effort into accomplishing a goal, you will fail to succeed. A warning to people who aren't paying attention, wait too long, or are indecisive that they will eventually pass up the opportunity to gain or do something they need, want, or aspire. You only have so many waking hours.

Good things come to those who wait, but not to those who procrastinate." Good things may come faster to those who hustle and work hard, but what is the cost? Waiting for the right moment or being patient through difficult times can eventually lead to more favorable results or opportunities. But taking your time or working fast is relative. It all depends on what you're doing and what your goal is. Slow and steady wins the race, unless time is a factor, then in that case, fast and steady wins the race.

Better Late than Never, but never late is better” - "Never put off till tomorrow what you can do today."

Early Bird Gets the Worm. Whoever arrives first has the best chance of success because some opportunities are only available to the first lucky few. (not the same as the Fear of Missing Out).

Early bird gets the worm, but the second mouse gets the cheese means that being first is not always beneficial, because the first mouse can end up in a mouse trap or be eaten by a cat, leaving the cheese to the second mouse who was not in a hurry to eat.

Opportunity is the possibility of a benefit due to a favorable combination of circumstances.

"The odds are in your favor, but only if you can accurately calculate the data".

Window of Opportunity a favorable opportunity for doing something that must be seized immediately if it is not to be missed. is a period of time during which some action can be taken that will achieve a desired outcome. Once this period is over, or the "window has closed", the specified outcome is no longer possible. (also called a margin of opportunity or critical window).

A man who procrastinates in his choosing will inevitably have his choice made for him by circumstance.” - Hunter S. Thompson (wiki).

Schedule - Goals - It's Now or Never - Collapse

A mental process that leads to putting off an unpleasant task. Putting off a burdensome task may seem like a universal trait, but new research suggests that people whose negative attitudes tend to dictate their behavior in a range of situations are more likely to delay tackling the task at hand.

Optimism can help ward off procrastination. Believing that the future will not be more stressful than the present could help procrastinators achieve more. People with an optimistic outlook on the future are less likely to be severe procrastinators. Previous research has shown that a feature of procrastination is disregard for the future or difficulty linking present actions with future outcomes. We believe that students will achieve better outcomes and experience greater well-being when they can comprehend their procrastination tendencies scientifically, and actively work on improving them, rather than blaming themselves.

"If you have the time not to learn, then you have the time to learn. if you can say no, then you could say yes."

Wasting Time is doing things that will not help you or benefit you. And since life is the time that you have, it's better to spend your time doing things that will help you and benefit you. If time is all you have, then managing time becomes one of the most important skills to have in your life.

Buying Some Time means to find a way to postpone or delay an event for which you are not ready for or prepared for. When you need more time you can sometimes find a way to postpone something in order to give you more time. Buying time is not stopping time. Time Limit (deadline)

Do You Work Slow or do you just like Taking Your Time? If you have the time to think something through, then you should use that time effectively and efficiently. But how do you know when you're wasting time? How do you know if you can be more efficient and more productive? And how would you know if you're using time efficiently? Do you have Procedure? Do you have a clear plan? Are you focused enough to follow your own procedures?

To avoid procrastinating you need to learn some important skills like focus, awareness, self-discipline, maintaining good health and energy, having routines and having a good memory. You need to keep reminding yourself on the task at hand and discipline yourself to stay focused. There are many tools to help manage time. Procrastination is the avoidance of doing a task which needs to be accomplished. But putting off things is not bad, it only becomes bad when the thing that you put off doing causes more stress. Most people can't explain why they procrastinate, it's not because they're lazy, it's mostly from not learning how to be life smart. You can't do everything, but you can manage time more effectively to do more things, and too have more time. No such thing as Boredom.

Deferment is putting something off to a later time; Postponement.

Postpone is to arrange something to take place at a later time than that first scheduled.

Postponement is an act of putting off to a future time. Time during which some action is awaited.

Delay is to cause something to be slowed down or delayed. Act later than planned, scheduled, or required. Stop or halt. Slow the growth or development of. The act of delaying; inactivity resulting in something being put off until a later time.

Moratorium is a legally authorized postponement before some obligation must be discharged. Suspension of an ongoing activity.

Good things come to those who wait.

"It's a waste of time to to look back on your life and recall all those things that you did that were a waste of time. The most important thing is that you learned something from those experiences, and that you have a better understanding about how not to waste time, and a better understanding of how to manage time effectively. Now stop wasting time. Make some time."

You can say "I don't feel like it", but that doesn't explain anything, or does it answer the 5 lacking facts above. Don't make excuses, just make logical decisions.

On the Shortness of Life is a moral essay written by Seneca the Younger, a Roman Stoic philosopher, sometime around the year 49 AD, to his father-in-law Paulinus. The philosopher brings up many Stoic principles on the nature of time, namely that people waste much of it in meaningless pursuits. According to the essay, nature gives people enough time to do what is really important and the individual must allot it properly. In general, time is best used by living in the present moment in pursuit of the intentional, purposeful life. Seneca counters the complaint that life is too short with the view that life is long enough if well-managed.

Response Time

Race Against Time or to Beat the Clock is a situation in which someone must do something fast or finish something very quickly because they only have a limited amount of time to do it. To act quickly to accomplish something in a short amount of time. If something takes too long to accomplish, it may be too late to be effective.

Responsiveness as a concept of computer science refers to the specific ability of a system or functional unit to complete assigned tasks within a given time. Delayed Responsiveness.

Processing Speed - Quick Decisions

Emergency Services Response Time is the amount of time that it takes for emergency responders to arrive at the scene of an incident after the emergency response system was activated. Due to the nature of emergencies, fast response times are often a crucial component of the emergency service system.

Response Time in technology is the time a system or functional unit takes to react to a given input.

Mental Chronometry is the use of response time in perceptual-motor tasks to infer the content, duration, and temporal sequencing of cognitive operations. Mental chronometry is one of the core paradigms of experimental and cognitive psychology, and has found application in various disciplines including cognitive psychophysiology, cognitive neuroscience, and behavioral neuroscience to elucidate mechanisms underlying cognitive processing. Mental chronometry is studied using measurements of reaction time (RT), which is the elapsed time between the presentation of a sensory stimulus and the subsequent behavioral response. In psychometric psychology it is considered to be an index of processing speed. That is, it indicates how fast the individual can execute the mental operations needed by the task at hand. In turn, speed of processing is considered an index of processing efficiency. The behavioral response is typically a button press but can also be an eye movement, a vocal response, or some other observable behavior. RT is constrained not only by the speed of signal transmission in white matter, but also by the properties of synaptic and neural processing in cortical gray matter. Its utility as a dependent variable for drawing conclusions about information processing is constrained by the experimental design, measurement technology, and mathematical theorizing of the enterprise. Reflex.

Expedite is to speed up the progress of some activity so as to happen sooner or be accomplished more quickly.

ASAP stands for As Soon As Possible

Time-Utility Function are needed for real-time computing when a deadline occurs. DNA.

Round-Trip Delay Time is the length of time it takes for a signal to be sent plus the length of time it takes for an acknowledgement of that signal to be received. This time delay includes the propagation times for the paths between the two communication endpoints. The time lag between an electronic input and the output signal depends upon the value of passive components used.

Inspection Time refers to the exposure duration required for a human subject to reliably identify a simple stimulus.

Early to Bed, Early to Rise, Makes a Person Healthy, Wealthy and Wise. A person who sleeps early and wakes up early could have a more successful life.

Organizing Time - Routines - Checklists

Habit Breaking - Programming

Managing Time: Schedule and to-do list, Balancing Time, Time spent on each responsibility and goal. Timeframe of when goals and responsibilities should be accomplished. Be reasonable, over demanding of yourself causes unnecessary Stress

Pickle Jar Theory: The empty jar is your day before you plan to do anything with it, and the rocks are the most important tasks that you need to complete. Rocks are the important things that require immediate, significant attention, and produce a huge benefit when they are accomplished. Pebbles produce a benefit, but they are not as important as the tasks represented by the larger rocks. Grains of Sand signify small, time-consuming tasks that are relatively easy to do but are of little importance, filling in the leftover space. Things like text messages, constant email checking, and idle chit-chat all take time, but generate little benefit. Water fills in what little space remains, and represents the tasks and idle moments that fill all the remaining space.

Projects should be broken down into smaller, manageable pieces.

Pareto’s Principle: The 80/20 RuleFocus on the Tasks with the Greatest Benefit. People can work smarter by concentrating on the important things from which they derive the most benefit. Activities that reap the greatest benefit, represented by the rocks in the pickle jar, are the 20% of the activities that should consume 80% of your time in the 80/20 rule. 20 Minutes.

Parkinson’s Law is the time required to complete a particular task will expand according to the amount of time it is allotted. Giving yourself less time to do something will lead to faster completion. Parkinson's Law is the adage that "work expands so as to fill the time available for its completion". It is sometimes applied to the growth of bureaucracy in an organization. This law is likely derived from ideal gas law, whereby a gas expands to fit the volume allotted. Parkinson also proposed a rule about the efficiency of administrative councils. He defined a "coefficient of inefficiency" with the number of members as the main determining variable. This is a semi-humorous attempt to define the size at which a committee or other decision-making body becomes completely inefficient.

Two-Minute Rule: If it will take less than two minutes to complete, then it should be done right away while you are processing the inbox. Handling these small, quick tasks gets them out of the way and prevents them from getting in the way of more important things. 20 Minute Rule -I don't have enough time.

E-Mails - Emptying your Inbox - Do it Right the First Time.

Delegate the Action: Some tasks can be delegated to other people for completion. Actions that are delegated make their way to a list composed of items waiting for something in in order for them to be completed. For example, if you have delegated the writing of a report to another employee who needs additional information in order to complete it, the item goes on your waiting list.

is to refer to another person for decision or judgment.

Delegate is to allocate a task to a person.

Allocate is to distribute according to a plan or set apart for a special purpose.

Home Work - Facilitate - Mediate - OS

Defer the Action: Tasks that cannot be completed within two minutes go to your calendar or to a tickler file while you finish emptying your inbox. This allows them to be tracked in a reliable manner. If the item is one that you will be getting to in the near future, then it can go on an action items list.

Review and Planning - Stop and Think. Setting time aside each day to review what you have accomplished and what remains to be done is one of the most important time management skills that you can implement into your routine. Review time allows you to reflect on how well your time management system is working for you. You can then develop and implement changes to make the system work better for you.

Avoid Distractions. Studies have shown that interruptions from phone calls, friends or coworkers stopping by to talk, or even the buzzing of your cell phone alerting you of a call are enough of a distraction to affect your ability to perform tasks. Distracted students were affected enough on tests they took as part of one study to drop from a passing grade to a failing one.

Organize. A workspace free of clutter offers fewer distractions. It also makes it easier to get access to the items you need to do your work.

Planning Fallacy is a phenomenon in which predictions about how much time will be needed to complete a future task display an optimism bias and underestimate the time needed. This phenomenon occurs regardless of the individual's knowledge that past tasks of a similar nature have taken longer to complete than generally planned. The bias only affects predictions about one's own tasks; when outside observers predict task completion times, they show a pessimistic bias, overestimating the time needed. The planning fallacy requires that predictions of current tasks' completion times are more optimistic than the beliefs about past completion times for similar projects and that predictions of the current tasks' completion times are more optimistic than the actual time needed to complete the tasks. In 2003, Lovallo and Kahneman proposed an expanded definition as the tendency to underestimate the time, costs, and risks of future actions and at the same time overestimate the benefits of the same actions. According to this definition, the planning fallacy results in not only time overruns, but also cost overruns and benefit shortfalls.

"He who rushes ahead doesn't go far." Tao Te Ching (wiki)

"I would not say that it's a race against time, it's more about trying to stay ahead of ignorance and stupidity."

Odds and Ends are a mixture of different things, especially leftover remnants or miscellaneous bits of various things of different types, usually small and not important, or of little value.


Day Planner Hour Schedule Schedule consists of a list of times at which possible tasks, events, or actions are intended to take place, or of a sequence of events in the chronological order in which such things are intended to take place. Interval.

Sequence of Events (different stages)

Schedule in the workplace is a list of employees, and associated information e.g. location, working times, responsibilities for a given time period e.g. week, month or sports season.

Schedule in project management is a listing of a project's milestones, activities, and deliverables, usually with intended start and finish dates. Those items are often estimated by other information included in the project schedule of resource allocation, budget, task duration, and linkages of dependencies and scheduled events.

Schedule in computer science describe execution of transactions running in the system. Often it is a list of operations (actions) ordered by time, performed by a set of transactions that are executed together in the system.

Scheduling Computing is the method by which work specified by some means is assigned to resources that complete the work.

Appointment is a meeting arranged in advance. Appointment also means the act of putting a person into a non-elective position.

Why an upcoming Appointment makes us Less Productive (MIT)

Visualizing Information (mind maps)

12 Month Year Calendar (can Print on 11 x 8.5 Paper)

Priority Check List (can Print on 11 x 8.5 Paper)

Outline Summary is a list arranged to show hierarchical relationships and is a type of tree structure. It is used to present the main points or topics of a given subject, often used as a rough draft or summary of the content of a document. Outline List (wiki).

Task List or Things to Do List is a list of tasks to be completed, such as responsibilities or steps toward completing a project. It is an inventory tool which serves as an alternative or supplement to memory. Task lists are used in self-management, business management, project management, and software development. It may involve more than one list. When one of the items on a task list is accomplished, the task is checked or crossed off. The traditional method is to write these on a piece of paper with a pen or pencil, usually on a note pad or clip-board. Task lists can also have the form of paper or software checklists. Map out everything that is important, by making a task list. Create "an oasis of time" for one to control. Say "No". Set priorities. Don't drop everything. Don't think a critical task will get done in one's spare time. Numerous digital equivalents are now available, including personal information management (PIM) applications and most PDAs. There are also several web-based task list applications, many of which are free. Check List.

Time Blocking is a time management technique where you schedule how you'll spend your time during every minute of every day. Each task you need to complete gets time scheduled on your calendar, so you can make sure you have the bandwidth for every to-do list item.

1 Minute Rule - 20 Minute Rule - 80/20 Rule - 30 for 30

You Don't want Daily Reminders to be Intrusive, Annoying or Distracting. What good is a list of things to do if you never look at your list of things to do? How often do you need to be reminded? When should you be reminded? In what way should you be reminded? A reminder should be soft but noticeable. Just like when your thoughts change and you start thinking about something different. The transition is not noticeable, especially when you're not aware. So you need something to make you aware without distracting you. Awareness shouldn't be distracting. If the information is relevant and needed, then you should just receive the information signal without it being disrupting. Things change. And you want the freedom to be spontaneous. But you need regular updates and a briefing about your status. Things change. And if you are not aware of the changes, then you will not be prepared to adapt and make changes. This means that your reminders must also adapt and make changes. Scheduled Reminders will need to be flexible. And reminders will need to be changed when new priorities arise.

Lead Time is the time between the initiation and completion of a production process, or lead time is the latency between the initiation and completion of a process. For example, the lead time between the placement of an order and delivery of new cars by a given manufacturer might be between 2 weeks and 6 months, depending on various particularities. One business dictionary defines "manufacturing lead time" as the total time required to manufacture an item, including order preparation time, queue time, setup time, run time, move time, inspection time, and put-away time. For make-to-order products, it is the time between release of an order and the production and shipment that fulfill that order. For make-to-stock products, it is the time taken from the release of an order to production and receipt into finished goods or inventory.

Time to Completion is a calculated amount of time required for any particular task to be completed.

Deadline is the latest time or date by which something should be completed.


Time Limit or deadline is a narrow field of time, or a particular point in time, by which an objective or task must be accomplished. Once that time has passed, the item may be considered overdue. Urgency. Procrastinate.

Time Frame is a period of time or a specified time period during which something occurs or is expected to occur or is planned to take place.

Timeline is a way of displaying a list of events in chronological order, sometimes described as a project artifact. It is typically a graphic design showing a long bar labeled with dates alongside itself and usually events labeled on points where they would have happened.

Timespan is the period of time between two events or during which an event continues.

Grace Period is a period immediately after the deadline for an obligation during which a late fee, or other action that would have been taken as a result of failing to meet the deadline, is waived provided that the obligation is satisfied during the grace period. Grace periods can range from a number of minutes to a number of days or longer, and can apply in situations including arrival at a job, paying a bill, or meeting a government or legal requirement. In law, a grace period is a time period during which a particular rule exceptionally does not apply, or only partially applies. For the grace period in patent law, see novelty (patent).

Interval is a definite length of time marked off by two instants.

Timestamp is a sequence of characters or encoded information identifying when a certain event occurred, usually giving date and time of day, sometimes accurate to a small fraction of a second.

Glance Clock. See what you need, when you need it. A smart clock that automagically shows you the right information at the right moment.

Chronology arranging events in their order of occurrence in time. History.

Software Framework (wiki)

Duration in project management is the number of calendar periods it takes from the time the execution of element starts to the moment it is completed.

Project Management - I don't have enough time

Synchronization is the coordination of events to operate a system in unison.

Assignment Matrix describes the participation by various roles in completing tasks or deliverables for a project or business process. It is especially useful in clarifying roles and responsibilities in cross-functional/departmental projects and processes.

Chronemics is the study of the role of time in communication. It is one of several subcategories of the study of nonverbal communication. Other prominent subcategories include haptics (touch), kinesics (body movement), vocalics (paralanguage), and proxemics (the use of space). generally defined as the study of human tempo as it related to human communication. A persons use of time, the way in which one perceives and values time, structures time, and reacts to time frames.
Chronemics (PDF)

Monochronic Time System means that things are done one at a time and time is segmented into precise, small units. Under this system, time is scheduled, arranged and managed.

Polychronic Time System is a system where several things can be done at once, and wider view of time is exhibited and time is perceived in large fluid sections. Examples of polychronic behaviors include: typing while answering telephones or taking notes while sitting participating in meetings. Polychronicity is in contrast to those who prefer monochronicity (doing one thing at a time)

Talk Time: There is a direct correlation between the power of an individual in an organization and conversation. This includes both length of conversation, turn-taking and who initiates and ends a conversation. Extensive research indicates that those with more power in an organization will speak more often and for a greater length of time.

Work Time: The time of high status individuals is perceived as valuable, and they control their own time. On the other hand, a subordinate with less power has their time controlled by a higher status individual and are in less control of their time – making them likely to report their time to a higher authority. Such practices are more associated with those in non-supervisory roles or in blue collar rather than white collar professions. Instead, as power and status in an organization increases, the flexibility of the work schedule also increases.

Workflow consists of an orchestrated and repeatable pattern of business activity enabled by the systematic organization of resources into processes that transform materials, provide services, or process information. It can be depicted as a sequence of operations, declared as work of a person or group, an organization of staff, or one or more simple or complex mechanisms.

Shift Work designed to make use of, or provide service across, all 24 hours of the clock each day of the week, often abbreviated as 24/7. The practice typically sees the day divided into shifts, set periods of time during which different groups of workers perform their duties. The term "shift work" includes both long-term night shifts and work schedules in which employees change or rotate shifts.

Time Management Tools and Apps
To Doist - Asana
Remember the Milk
Microsoft To Do Tasks
Cultured Code
Mondaya - Notion - Tick Tick
Google Tasks
Top 15 Time Management Apps and Tools
Time Management Apps To Work Smarter in 2023
Comparison of Time Tracking Software (wiki)
Dartmouth - Managing Time Skills
Time and Task Planner (Time Management Software)
Day Planner Software
Time and Date Tools
Project Organizer - Project Management
Task Management Guide
How to Complete a Project on Time (wiki how)
Getting Things Done (wiki)

Desktop Calendar - Personal Planner
Ever Note
I Done This
Toodledo Task Organizer
My Life Organized (software)
Printable To Do Lists
D.I.Y. Planner Templates

Apps to Make you More Productive
Productivity Apps
Strike App
Pagico one app to manage all your tasks, files & notes.
Management Tools

Calendars - Meeting Schedules - Event Planner - Apps for Smartphones
Google Apps
Acalendar Softonic
Goal Apps
Business Calendar
Calendars by Year

Defining responsibilities, goals, ideas, dreams, ambitions and projects. Understanding the importance of what you are trying to accomplish and how to protect yourself from distractions and doubts. Balancing Learning, Working and Living.

Mission Statement is a statement which is used as a way of communicating the purpose of a person or organization, which can be updated when an organization or person evolves and learns more.

Goal Setting

Framework outlines a broad overview or skeleton of interlinked items which supports a particular approach to a specific objective, and serves as a guide that can be modified as required by adding or deleting items. Structure.

Balance - Work-Life Balancing

Life in Balance Yin Yang SymbolBalance is a state of equilibrium. A harmonious arrangement or relation of parts or elements within a whole or as in a design. Balance is the equality of distribution. A condition in which different elements are equal or in the correct proportions. A state of having the same quantity, value, or measure as another, which is a stable situation in which forces cancel one another. 

Balancing Act is an action or activity that requires a delicate balance between different situations or requirements. A balancing act is an attempt to handle two or more things or obligations at one time so as to satisfy competing requirements and priorities. A balancing act is dealing with two or more people, groups, or situations that are in opposition to each other and have conflicting or competing items or interests.

Work - Life - Relationships - Holistic - Technology Addiction - Moderation - Sustainable - Mutual Reliance - Symbiosis - Dualism - Reciprocation - Peace - Fairness - Diversity - Variety - Negative Positive - Polar - Working while Traveling - Path of Least Effort

Rest - Time to Think - Live, Learn, Love and Progress - Simplicity - Frugal - Stages - Priorities - Not too Fast and Not too Slow - Greed - Competition

Downshift is change from a financially rewarding but stressful career or lifestyle for a less pressured and less highly paid but more fulfilling one.

Counterbalance is a weight that balances another weight. Oppose and mitigate the effects of by contrary actions. A compensating equivalent. Equality of distribution.

Seesaw is a board balanced on a fulcrum. A long plank balanced in the middle on a fixed support, on each end of which children sit and swing up and down by pushing the ground alternately with their feet. To change rapidly and repeatedly from one position, situation, or condition to another and back again. To move unsteadily, with a rocking motion. Waves.

Equality is a state of being essentially equal or equivalent, and equally balanced.

is having the same quantity, value, or measure as another.

is the quality of agreeing. Being suitable and appropriate, like harmony, compatibility in opinion and action. 

Intermediate is lying between two extremes in time, space or state. Around the middle of a scale of evaluation. Act between parties with a view to reconciling differences.

Unbalanced is being or thrown out of equilibrium. Unstable. Lopsided. Vulnerable to distractions or manipulation. Lack of focus and awareness. Force and energy is one-sided. Poorly balanced or matched in quantity or value or measure. Favoring one person or side over another. Biased - Divided.

Imbalance is having a lack of balance or being in a state of disequilibrium. A lack of symmetry. The dosage is not correct.

Middle Way is avoiding dangerous extremes of austerities and sensual indulgence, and choosing to be more reasonable and having a more balanced approach. Middle Path is the middle way of moderation, between the extremes of sensual indulgence and self-mortification. Middle Road is being moderate by avoiding extremes. Two extremes ought not to be practiced by one who has gone forth from the household life. There is addiction to indulgence of sense-pleasures, which is low, coarse, the way of ordinary people, unworthy, and unprofitable; and there is addiction to self-mortification, which is painful, unworthy, and unprofitable. Avoiding both these extremes, the Tathagata (the Perfect One) has realized the Middle Path; it gives vision, gives knowledge, and leads to calm, to insight, to enlightenment and to Nibbana. And what is that Middle Path realized by the Tathagata. It is the Noble Eightfold path, and nothing else, namely: right understanding, right thought, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness and right concentration.

Sun and Mooon Duality Balance in metaphysics is used to mean a point between two opposite forces that is desirable over purely one state or the other, such as a balance between the metaphysical Law and Chaos — law by itself being overly controlling, chaos being overly unmanageable, balance being the point that minimizes the negatives of both.

Golden Mean in philosophy is the desirable middle between two extremes, one of excess and the other of deficiency. For example, in the Aristotelian view, courage is a virtue, but if taken to excess would manifest as recklessness, and, in deficiency, cowardice. Golden Rule (reciprocation).

Yin and Yang describes how seemingly opposite or contrary forces may actually be complementary, interconnected, and interdependent in the natural world, and how they may give rise to each other as they interrelate to one another. Many tangible dualities (such as light and dark, fire and water, expanding and contracting) are thought of as physical manifestations of the duality symbolized by yin and yang.

Symmetry - Quantum Flux

Principle of Polarity embodies the idea that everything is dual, everything has two poles, and everything has its opposite. Negative and Positive - Laws of Nature.

There is no right without wrong, no good without bad, no up without down, no light without dark, no consciousness without unconsciousness. You can't have nothing unless you have something. How would you know what right is if you didn't know what wrong is?

Countervailing is to compensate for or counterbalance or oppose and mitigate the effects of by contrary actions.

Duality is the quality or condition of being dual or consisting of or involving two parts or components usually in pairs. Having more than one decidedly dissimilar aspects or qualities. An instance of opposition or contrast between two concepts or two aspects of something; a dualism.

Goldilocks Principle in which a little girl named Goldilocks tastes three different bowls of porridge, and she finds that she prefers porridge which is neither too hot nor too cold, but has just the right temperature. Since the children's story is well known across cultures, the concept of "just the right amount" is easily understood and is easily applied to a wide range of disciplines, including developmental psychology, biology, astronomy, economics and engineering. Over Eating.

Focusing energy and resources is important, just don't put all your eggs into one basket.

Work Life Balance is the proper prioritizing and balancing of education, work, career, health, pleasure, leisure, family, spiritual development, meditation and relaxation. And every once in a while you have to mix things up and modify things, if not, you could burnout very quickly and make mistakes and hurt yourself, or even become less productive, less aware and less happy. Work-Life Balance is the lack of opposition between work and other life roles. It is the state of equilibrium in which demands of personal life, professional life, and family life are equal. Work–life balance consists of, but it is not limited to, flexible work arrangements that allow employees to carry out other life programs and practices. Work–life balance is a term commonly used to describe the balance that a working individual needs between time allocated for work and other aspects of life. Areas of life other than work–life can include personal interests, family and social or leisure activities. Technological advances have made it possible for work tasks to be accomplished faster due to the use of smartphones, email, video-chat, and other technological software. These technology advances facilitate individuals to work without having a typical '9 to 5' work day.

Work–Family Conflict occurs when an individual experiences incompatible demands between work and family roles, causing participation in both roles to become more difficult. This imbalance creates conflict at the work-life interface. Work-to-family conflict occurs when experiences and commitments at work interfere with family life, such as extensive, irregular, or inflexible work hours, work overload and other forms of job stress, interpersonal conflict at work, extensive travel, career transitions, or an unsupportive supervisor or organization. Family-to-work conflict occurs when experiences and commitments in the family interfere with work life, such as the presence of young children, primary responsibility for children, elder care responsibilities.

Single-Parenting - Quality Time

Double Burden is the workload of people who work to earn money, but who are also responsible for significant amounts of unpaid domestic labor. This phenomenon is also known as the Second Shift as in Arlie Hochschild's book of the same name. In couples where both partners have paid jobs, women often spend significantly more time than men on household chores and caring work, such as childrearing or caring for sick family members. This outcome is determined in large part by traditional gender roles that have been accepted by society over time. Labor market constraints also play a role in determining who does the bulk of unpaid work. Efforts have been made to document the effects of this double burden on couples placed in such situations. Many studies have traced the effects of the gendered division of labor, and in most cases there was a notable difference between the time men and women contribute to unpaid labor. (also called double day, second shift, and double duty)

Reproductive Labor or work is often associated with care giving and domestic housework roles including cleaning, cooking, child care, and the unpaid domestic labor force.

Take Your Work Home With You is when you're constantly thinking about work even when you're at home and away from work. Or it's when you leave work to go home, but you still have work to do, so you do the extra work at home. You're still working even when you go home. You're just working some place else or in a different place. Homework.

"When your work life gets mixed in with your personal life, you have no life, everything is work. Imagine having to be on the ball all the time or be on all the time and you could never turn off, that would suck, you would have no time to live. And in the end, you were just a machine. Consumed. Like eating a flower before it blooms. Never knowing, just doing."

We count the minutes until we get out of school, we count the minutes until we get out of work, we count the minutes until we get home, we count the days until we go on vacation or on holiday. But we never count the things that matter. We hurry through life like time is limitless for our immortal body. And then we become surprised when the time is gone or when the time has run out. Time goes fast when we want time to go slow, and time goes slow when we want time to go fast. When we become obsessed with time, we fail to live in the moment. We should experience the moment and not the amount of time that we spend in the moment. Time is a great measuring tool that requires our respect and our awareness. But we should not be obsessed with time because having an obsession with time is not necessary. We have many things to think about. We need balance in our thoughts and not just balance in our lives. Let us count the days that we spend time together with friends and family, but let us never forget to make the days count. It's not the time itself that means something, its how you spend your time. The quality of time is more important than the quantity of time. Though we will always want more time, we know that we can't always get what we want. So be here now, later may be too late. Now is now.

Occupational Burnout is a syndrome resulting from chronic work-related stress, with symptoms characterized by "feelings of energy depletion or exhaustion; increased mental distance from one’s job, or feelings of negativism or cynicism related to one's job; and reduced professional efficacy." While burnout may influence health and can be a reason for people contacting health services, it is not itself classified by the WHO as a medical condition.

Compassion Fatigue - Mayo Clinic Stress Management - Trauma - Battle Fatigue

Burned Out means feeling empty and mentally exhausted, devoid of motivation, and beyond caring. People experiencing burnout often don't see any hope of positive change in their situations. If excessive stress feels like you're drowning in responsibilities, burnout is a sense of being all dried up. Burnout is a state of emotional, physical, and mental exhaustion caused by excessive and prolonged stress. It occurs when you feel overwhelmed, emotionally drained, and unable to meet constant demands. Feeling burned out? The contributors could be more related to depression than you think.

Tracking burnout, balancing privacy. Personal sensing data could help monitor and alleviate stress among resident physicians, although privacy concerns over who sees the information and for what purposes must be addressed, according to collaborative research.

Quite Quitting - Strikes - Mental Health - Safety

Burnout: Identifying people at risk. Preventing burnout is important for employers and employees. Early intervention is key -- as long as you can detect the problem. Using a Burnout Assessment Tool you might detect signs that you are on the verge of burning out, such as feeling mentally exhausted at work. You struggle to feel enthusiastic about your job. You have trouble concentrating when working. You sometimes overreact at work without meaning to.

"He who clings to his work, will create nothing that endures." Tao Te Ching (wiki)

Being good at your job is rewarding. But you also have to be good at life and also be good at relationships. You need to understand reality to live in reality. 

All Work and No Play makes Jack a Dull Boy means that if you work too many hours without taking time off, eventually you'll burnout and have very little energy to enjoy yourself, essentially having no life, except for your work. Dull and lifeless.

All Play and No Work makes Jack a Mere Toy means that if you spend most of your time playing without doing any meaningful work, you'll eventually become more of a cheap showy ornament or an empty shell of a person, and become less of a person of value and potential.

Workaholic is a person who works compulsively. Sometimes sacrificing ones own life, sleep, health and relationships. Not the same as Working Hard.

All work and no play will really make a dull life. Prioritizing career goals over fun and freedom doesn't make your life better, researchers have found. The study across three countries discovered people who prioritized achievement over enjoyment were less happy on the next day.

Work Until I Die - S.G. Goodman (toutube)

Karoshi is a Japanese term relating to occupation-related sudden death, or death from overwork or overwork death. The most common medical causes of karoshi deaths are heart attacks and strokes due to stress and malnourishment or fasting. Mental stress from the workplace can also cause workers to commit suicide in a phenomenon known as karōjisatsu. over 770 wage labourers die of overwork annually in Sweden, a country with robust labour regulations. The death toll is however expected to increase in the future.

Mental Health costs the U.S. $48 billion per year. Jobs in the U.S. are more likely to hurt workers' mental health than to benefit it, and that comes at great cost to the economy, according to a new poll. Globally, an estimated 12 billion working days are lost every year to depression and anxiety at a cost of US$ 1 trillion per year in lost productivity.

Productivity Anxiety is feeling like you can never do enough or be enough no matter how many hours you work. Stress from not doing more, stress from not doing enough.

FOND stands Fear of Not Doing. Pandēmus is the Fear of Not Doing Enough, or feeling that we are never doing enough.

Fear of Missing Out - Perfectionism - Imposter Syndrome

Kakorrhaphiophobia is the abnormal fear of failure or defeat.

Fear of Failure or atychiphobia, involves the belief that you are not good enough or will not be good enough.

Atelophobia is setting unrealistic goals with a low tolerance for mistakes, which often results in avoidance of specific situations and reinforcement of the fear of not being good enough. Includes constant self-judgment and negative self-evaluation.

Time Anxiety is the terrible feeling that you never have enough time and aren't doing enough with the time you do have.

There are so many different things that I can do. I can always be working on something or always be doing something. There's literally 100's of things that I can be doing. And when you can do a lot of things, you almost feel obligated to do them. I know I can do this, but, should I do this. I can't do everything. But when you know that you can do so many things, it can be over whelming and sometimes stressful. But I have to understand balance and I have to have realistic expectations. I can't take on the whole world and I can't do everything. I have to choose my battles wisely. And all good work requires good rest. Not only is having a good nights sleep extremely important, having relaxing moments during the day is also important. Time to ponder, time to wonder, time to wander. Your goals and your priorities must include yourself. You can't do it all, but you can definitely do something for yourself and also be able to do something for the world. The time you have, is all the time you have. It's not the quantity of your experiences, it's the quality of your experiences that matters the most. Relax, you're not a slacker and you're not lazy. So do what you gotta do. But don't over do it, because you can easily lose yourself. And when you're lost, you might forget where you're going. It's hard to stay focused and motivated when you lose sight of your goals. You need tp take care of yourself first, then take care of business. You can do this.

Certain milestones in our plans, like graduating, getting a desired job, starting our own business or starting a new relationship, can fall apart. There's a lot of pressure to achieve certain things, especially at school, university or in work. Sometimes you might put too much pressure on yourself without realizing it. Being too hard on yourself can cause you to feel mental and physical stress. People sometimes put pressure on themselves because they feel like they have to do well in a certain area of their life or they feel like they have to do well so that people around them will be proud of them. And some people feel that they're being neglected or ignored or dismissed. People can experience negative self-talk or destructive internal narrative, and say harmful things to themselves.

The Devil Wears Prada means that you should not sacrifice your life and well-being and selfhood for a job. Behind that message is the same backbeat that's always been. Those who can't handle it will fall by the wayside, and we'll pretend we consider them justified instead of weak.

Money-Rich, Time-Poor describes groups of people who have a high disposable income through well-paid employment, but have relatively little leisure time as a result. Many people accept time poverty as a necessary condition of employment; others have sought to solve the problem through downshifting or through adoption of flexible working arrangements. The problem affects both salaried workers who work long hours even though they might be well compensated as well as hourly low-wage workers who work long hours to earn more money.

I always have my work on my mind, and my mind is always at work. So my mind is always working, and I'm always working.

There are a few ways that you can use to minimize the impact that work stress has on your relationship with your significant other, family, and friends. Confine your work to particular times and locations. Develop good mobile device habits. Establish a good support network. Have an end-of-work habit. Create a third space.

Work-Life Interface is the intersection of work and personal life. There are many aspects of one's personal life that can intersect with work including family, leisure, and health. Work–life interface is bidirectional; for instance, work can interfere with private life, and private life can interfere with work. This interface can be adverse in nature (e.g., work-life conflict) or can be beneficial (e.g., work-life enrichment) in nature. Recent research has shown that the work–life interface is becoming increasingly boundaryless, especially for technology-enabled workers.

Strategies for a Balanced Life - Tips to Create a Balanced Life

Get a Life is a saying that means that you are devoting way too much time to trivial matters and not taking the time to relax or enjoy life. It may also be directed at someone who is perceived as being boring or single-minded, and that they should acquire some other more practical interests or hobbies, so as to get your own life and mind your own business.

Business Meeting with Hope PC Laptop Computer Work Smarter not Harder. Working hard and working long hours is not necessarily bad. It's when time and resources is wasted on actions that have little value, so they do more harm then good. So you might just be working hard at destroying yourself and others.

When should you delegate, allocate or mediate?

"You have to balance your time between finding temporary solutions and solving the root of the problem. You have to be looking for the cure as well as treating the problem. This way the problem does not continue to cause afflictions, forever."

Unplug - Mindfulness - Stress - Take a Break - Needs - Purpose

Mobile sculpture is a type of Kinetic Sculpture constructed to take advantage of the principle of equilibrium. It consists of a number of rods, from which weighted objects or further rods hang. The objects hanging from the rods balance each other, so that the rods remain more or less horizontal. Each rod hangs from only one string, which gives it freedom to rotate about the string. An ensemble of these balanced parts hang freely in space, by design without coming into contact with each other.

What Not To Do List: Remember not to let others control how you feel. Remember not to let anything that's not needed control your actions. Remember not to overreact. Remember not to give lame excuses. Remember not to think negative of yourself.

Approaching Problems: Low priority problem, high priority problem, new problem, old problem, risks, threats and options. 

Decision Making - Brainstorming - Mind Tools - Mind Maps -Presentations - Planning - Organizing - Problem Solving - Multitasking - Focus - Study Tips.

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