Learning Methods - Teaching Methods

Learning is storing information and knowledge in your memory so that it can used in the future to perform a particular action effectively, or, that can be used in a thought process in order to understand something accurately. Learning is a process of acquiring valuable knowledge and information that can be used to become more aware and more intelligent. Learning must be beneficial, practical, purposeful, accumulative, and done in the correct stages if you want learning to be effective and efficient.

Previous SubjectNext Subject

Learning is a deliberate action with a purpose to extract information for processing and storage, and then confirm the accuracy of that information through experience, use and testing. Learning is the cognitive process of acquiring skill or knowledge. Learning is the process of acquiring new knowledge or modifying existing knowledge. Learning is the process of modifying behaviors and preferences and obtaining a better understanding of values. Learning is the process of improving skills. Learning is getting to know something better, or to become more aware of something. Learning is an experience that you remember so that you can make good decisions based on that memory of that experience. Live and learn is not a guarantee.

Obtain is to come into possession of something valid, applicable, or true. To acquire, receive or get something through mental or physical states or experiences.

Ascertain is to find out and discover something by making an inquiry or by other efforts. To learn or determine something with certainty after a calculation, investigation, experiment, survey, or study. To establish something or to make clear the validity of something, as by an example or explanation.

Cognitive Learning is an immersive and active process that engages your senses in a constructive and long-lasting way. It teaches you to maximize your brain's potential and makes it easier to connect new information with existing ideas, deepening the memory and retention capacity. Levels are remembering, understanding, applying, analyzing, evaluating, and creating.

There are many different ways a person can learn something. You learn in some ways better than other ways and some learning methods work better than others. The bottom line is, you can learn anything you want, which means the possibilities are endless. There is no greater source of human power than the power of learning. The worlds combined knowledge is waiting for you, so don't hesitate, for he who hesitates is lost. Everyone suffers from their own ignorance. And the only cure for ignorance is knowledge. A Learning Revolution is upon us.

Student is a learner who is studying on their own or learning on their own or enrolled in a school or an educational institution. TIL is short for Today I Learned.

Reading to Learn - Active Learning - Personalized Learning - Self Directed Learning - Social Learning - Experience Learning - Reinforcement Learning - Presentation - Seeing the Whole Picture - Thinking - Rote Learning - Game Learning - Machine Learning - Adult Education - Home Schooling

Learning is not without risk, because you can learn the wrong things, and that happens a lot, just look around. Most people don't even know they've learned the wrong things.

Learning Theory describes how students receive, process, and retain knowledge during learning. Cognitive, emotional, and environmental influences, as well as prior experience, all play a part in how understanding, or a world view, is acquired or changed and knowledge and skills retained. Learning Theories - Methodology.

There are many benefits that comes from learning. But learning takes commitment. Learning to understand more about yourself and learning to understand more about the world around you, will require a commitment to learning and a promise to yourself that you will continue to learn and continue to seek more knowledge. If your main goal in learning is to become more knowledgeable about yourself and become more knowledgeable about the world around you, then you will simultaneously become more knowledgeable about the world that is inside you. Your thoughts will become richer, old memories will become more meaningful, and new thoughts will become more amazing, all because you now have more to work from. Having a larger vocabulary and having more knowledge gives rise to more ideas. Learning begets learning, knowledge begets knowledge and skills begets more skills. Learning is everything that you are now and everything that you will be in the future. Learning gives you better thoughts, better ideas, better solutions, better understanding, better skills and better awareness, and that's just the beginning. Learning everything in this website will give you the foundation that you need to build on. From there, anything seems possible.

When we are young children, we automatically learn certain things. Humans have an inherited ability to remember certain things, especially letters, words and symbols. A memory system is built into our brains. We don't have to tell our brains to save words or to save symbols, our brain does it automatically, but not always, because learning is not always automatic, and learning is sometimes difficult when we have to deliberately learn something complex or learn something new. But we have the most important skill needed to learn, which is language. Language is our super power. And with any type of power, there is a responsibility. There is a right way to do things and a wrong way to do things. Sometimes there are no instructions or explanations that would help to guide a person through a particular learning experience. Sometimes you're on your own and you have to learn something on your own. This is where you can use language to create a procedure for learning effectively and efficiently. And once you understand that you can learn almost anything or learn most everything, you then have to decide what are the most important things that you should learn? And know when to learn things, and in what order. When you learn in stages, you create levels, and you build upon each level, with each level giving you more knowledge and more abilities. No has ever made it to the top level, just yet, mostly because we haven't defined what a top level intelligence would look like. We still have to get beyond the first level, we have to define every level we become aware of and understand.

Little thing to remember, never stop learning. But you also need to know what the most important things are that you should be learning. You need to know exactly what knowledge is, and know why knowledge is important. You need to know exactly what information is, and know why accurate information is so extremely important. If you want to be intelligent, you have to learn what intelligence is. The goal of every educational activity should be to become more intelligent. This requires purpose, planning and managing. You have to know what you are trying to know. You have to understand what you are trying to understand. You just can't go to school or go to college and expect to become educated, especially when you don't fully understand what being educated is.

Don't take learning for granted. Everything that you have in life, and everything that you are, comes from learning, and remembering what you have learned. The value that comes from educating yourself is immense. Learning is an investment in yourself. And when you educate yourself to a high degree, you will find the answers to problems a lot easier, and you will also understand things a lot easier. When it comes to learning, you have to be an active participant in the process of learning. No one can learn for you. Like when going to a doctor, if you're not personally involved with understanding your health, you will not benefit from the knowledge and information that you acquire that would help you to maintain a healthy mind and strong body. Learning is the single most important responsibility that you have in life. Everything comes from learning. The reason why you are alive is because people learned things before you were born. Living and learning are connected, and not learning is not living. If you want to stay connected to reality, you need to keep learning. And after you become highly educated, you will naturally want to share your wealth of knowledge with as many people as possible. This way future generations will also benefit from knowledge and information in the same way that you did, or maybe even better. Learning is method of storing information in your brain. So it makes perfect sense that you would want to store the most valuable information and knowledge that the world has to offer. And it also makes perfect sense that you would want to learn how to use knowledge and information effectively and efficiently as possible. Understand your Attention Span - Figure it Out.

Learning something new or learning new things is not without risk or without errors. A person may not learn anything valuable if they learn something at the wrong time or in learn something in the wrong way. Effective learning needs previous knowledge and information that helps a person to understand new knowledge and understand new information. Effective learning also needs instructions on how to use new knowledge and information effectively and efficiently. But even when you have everything that you need to learn, you can still sometimes misunderstand something. This is why it is extremely important that a person fully understands what learning is and what learning is not. Learning is a focused ability that needs to be maintained and updated continually in order to be effective and efficient. Learning is not without risk or without errors. Learning is not just about processing information and accurately storing information, learning is a full investigation in how to effectively and efficiently utilize future potential energy that is derived from learning something valuable. Learning is like having the worlds greatest battery, a battery that is always increasing the amount of energy that it can hold and always increasing the amount of energy and power that it can produce. But that is only if you do it correctly.

People know how to learn, for the most part. It's just that a lot of people are not accurately choosing the right things they should be learning. People don't have a learning plan. People don't have a learning schedule. People don't have learning goals. People don't have effective ways of measuring what they have learned so far, or effective ways of measuring what they still need to learn. If people had the necessary tools and technology, and also had access to the worlds most valuable knowledge and information, along with clear instructions on how to use tools, technology and knowledge effectively and efficiently, then every person on earth would have the ability to solve almost any problem in the world and continually make things better for each other and for the planet. "When people only hear what they want to hear, learning becomes dysfunctional and dangerous, and the illusion of learning becomes destructive". If you don't want to learn, then no one can help you. If you are determined to learn, then no one can stop you, unless you're a victim of censorship, like millions of people are.

You have to be ready to learn - You have to want to learn

You have to be in the right mindset. You have to have a purpose when learning something. You have to be asking questions. What am I trying to understand? What do I want to walk away with? What valuable information am I trying to acquire? When you learn with purpose you are more engaged in learning and you will also remember more of what you have learned. If you're reading with no learning purpose in mind, then you will learn very little. This is why one of the most important things that you need to know when it comes to learning is that you have to have particular goals in mind, and you also have to document and organize the things that you learn that are important to your goals, like learning to understand yourself more accurately, and learning how to understand other people more accurately, and understanding how the earth sustains life, and how everything that you do, and don't do, has an effect on yourself, on the world, and on other people. Always update and edit your research. Use a diary, a journal, a notebook or any other technology that can help you store and save your knowledge and research. Writing things down has many benefits. Count the Words.

You must also fully understand the learning process and understand the things that disturb or impede learning and the things that motivate learning. You need to understand the mental factors that affect learning and motivation, the physical factors that affect learning, things like pain, fatigue, anxiety or fear. You must also understand the environmental factors that affect learning, and the emotional and social factors that affect learning, and the methodology of instructions that affect learning and motivation. This is why knowing how to teach yourself is so extremely important. If you know how to effectively and efficiently teach yourself, then you can never blame the teacher for not wanting to learn. But in order for you to become the best teacher, you must learn how to be the best teacher. And when you become a great teacher, then you will always love going to class, because your teacher is the best. Personalized Learning.

Things that can Impede Learning or Discourage Learning: Anxiety, Confidence, Skill, Neglect, Misconceptions, Information Bubbles, Propaganda, Ego, Fear, Stress, Nutrition, Sleep, Time and Resources.

Learning Readiness refers to how likely a person is to seek out knowledge and participate in the learning process. The person is aware of a problem or is ready to act in solving it.

Apply Yourself and manually activate the learning process towards a specific goal.

Apply is to put in the effort that is required to achieve a goal. To work hard at something and take the responsibility of learning seriously in order to master a subject and clearly understand it. To put an action into service and work for a particular purpose and be pertinent, relevant or applicable. Apply can also mean to ask for something. What will be your biggest take-away?

If you can't understand something, that means you're missing something, and that something is knowledge and information. If you want to understand things, you have to learn things. Your ability to understand things in life comes from the amount of knowledge and information that you have acquired through self-education, as well as having many observational experiences that you objectively analyzed for their value. When you learn to understand things more and more each day, the more you will understand things more and more each day. Personalized Learning.

If you're not engaged with learning or interested in learning something, then you're not learning effectively. Learning is not automatic. And you can't pretend to understand something unless you enjoy lying to yourself. Learning needs a goal. Our brains are designed to learn. But our brains require deliberate control of the information input, because if you're not aware of what you're learning, or fully understand what you're learning, then knowledge becomes vague and your awareness is more subconscious than conscious. Learning requires documentation and not just memory, especially knowing that human memory occasionally has flaws. Knowledge can be lost and knowledge can become worthless if you never write your knowledge down for future generations to benefit from in the same way that you benefitted from the knowledge of previous generations. Engaged Learning requires research, investigation and documentation. Learning that is not based on research, investigation and documentation, is not effective learning. So now that you read this, what have you learned?

You learn best when you fully understand how valuable learning is. The flow state is the best state of mind to be in when learning. And you have to be searching and wanting to learn something if you truly want to learn something valuable. The only way to stumble upon something is when you're looking for something else or doing something else. If you don't look, you don't find, and if you stop noticing things, then you stop learning things. You have to be looking and you have to be learning, even when you're doing nothing or just relaxing or even when your not looking intentionally or learning something intentionally, you still have to be ready and be aware of learning moments, even if it is a delayed reaction. You might not notice something right away or have the time to notice something when it's happening, but you will still have that opportunity later when you replay that experience in our mind and take the time to ask questions. So you can still have an opportunity to learn something even when you're doing nothing, and this is mostly because you understand what learning is. Learning is a big part of your life, and the value and the benefits that comes from learning, are limitless. The most effective way to know things is to be searching for things and be wanting to learn things. You don't learn anything by accident or randomly. The only way to learn something randomly, or to stumble upon something valuable, is to have already learned that learning can happen anywhere and at anytime. But if you have not yet learned how valuable and beneficial learning is, you will not learn things even when those opportunities to learn are right in front of you. You can't see what you have never learned to see. Learning never stops because there will always be questions that need answers. But if you stop seeking answers, you will stop learning. And you don't know which questions to ask, then getting the right answers is almost impossible. Learning is natural when you're young, but when you get older and more mature, learning becomes a skill that needs practice, and learning also needs to adapt and progress so as to be more effective and be more efficient. Learning is the greatest source of power that every human is born with. But learning needs to be fostered and maintained. The lack of knowledge creates vulnerabilities and can also cause mistakes happen more often. That makes learning one of the most important responsibilities in your life. Not to take learning seriously is to never have lived, especially if you never learn what living is or learned what life is.

You need to make learning fun and make learning enjoyable so that you stay motivated. Reward yourself as you make progress. Always have a plan, a goal and a purpose when learning. Have a method and a system that is effective and efficient. But you don't want to over do it, so you need to pace yourself and you have to find a rhythm, and also be flexible. Spaced repetition learning is a good memory boosting technique and a good way to keep track of your progress and memory.

One simple brain hack might boost learning and improve mental health. Curiosity supercharges people's memory for paintings they saw while pretending to be an art thief. Shifting from a high-pressure mindset to a curious one improves people's memory, finds new research. Study participants pre-meditating a robbery in a virtual art museum remembered more paintings than those executing the heist in-the-moment.

It's not just knowing the best way to learn something new, but also knowing the best state of mind to be in. The Optimal Learning State is being rested, not starving and being ready to learn in a good environment. (Breathe - Listen) Being in the flow is the mental state of operation in which a person performing an activity is fully immersed in a feeling of energized focus, full involvement, and enjoyment in the process of the activity. In essence, Flow is characterized by complete absorption in what one does. Being in the Zone is being focused on what you are doing, so much so, that you are unaware of all the distractions happening around you. How the information is presented can also affect learning. Managing Time and knowing the best times to learn can also help.

Thinking - Layers - Time Loop

If you're not in the right mind to learn, or you feel that something is unnecessary to learn, then learning becomes ineffective. And if the information and knowledge presented to you is fragmented, out of sequence or incoherent, that also makes learning ineffective. The bottom line is, "You can learn anything you put your mind to, but not everything that you put your mind to can be learned. There is always a preferred sequence when learning something new, and there is always a preferred method of learning something new. Did you ever wonder why you did not learn something? You know you can learn because you have a memory, so what happened? Maybe the message was not delivered effectively, or not understood effectively, or a little both? Do you need to be inspired to learn or just understand the importance of learning and the process of learning?

Take Away is a key fact, point, or idea that should be remembered from a lesson, presentation, discussion or a meeting. Something important that should be learned. Takeaway is a conclusion to be made based on presented facts or information. A main point or key message to be learned or understood from something experienced or observed. Key Takeaway refers to any learning point or even teaching moment from a real-life experience. It can also come from reading or observation, or attending a seminar or conference, or even from a small talk encounter. "The Key take away here is that Learning is extremely important."

Avail to use something to one's advantage in order to be of use to or useful as a means of serving.

Everything is about Learning. If you want to be intelligent, you have to learn how to be intelligent. If you want to be good at a particular sport, you have to learn how to be good at a particular sport. If you want to be happy, you have to learn what happiness is. If you want to be good, you have to learn what being good is. If you want love, you have to learn what love is and what love is not. And just remembering is not enough. Memories of your knowledge and information needs to have instructions on how to use that knowledge and information effectively and efficiently. Your DNA has information and the instructions. So you see, the process of learning and applying knowledge is necessary for life. But even though learning is natural, you must take learning seriously and use learning effectively and efficiently, if not, then you will be vulnerable to many dangers, you will struggle, and you will keep making the same mistakes over and over again unknowingly. Learning is necessary for living a good life. So please don't take learning for granted. Everything hinges on this one thing. Learning might not seem important to you, but learning is important to everything else in the world. Learning is the most important responsibility for all life, without learning, there would be no life because life would not be able to adapt. "Life does not tell you what to do, you have to learn what to do." You have to deliberately educate yourself and do self directing research that investigates in a systematic way all the things that you still don't know, so that you learn the right things at the right times and keep progressing. When people stop learning, then the idle mind becomes the devils workshop. What happens when you don't learn enough? Every day that you do not move forward is another day that you will be left behind. If you're not moving forward then you're falling behind. Even when you're close, you can still be far behind.

First, you have to collect and accumulate knowledge and information. Then you have to process knowledge and information, because understanding what you're learning is important. Then you have to organize knowledge and information, and not just physically organize it, but also organize knowledge and information in your mind, this way you can effectively use knowledge and information and also remember knowledge and information using associations. And last but not least, you have to understand what you're building and always have clear goals to remind yourself of why you are on this path that you have chosen. If you lose sight of your goals or forget that you have a purpose in life, then you can easily get discouraged and become vulnerable to depression. So always remember that you're not just building intelligence and acquiring valuable skills, you are on an incredible journey of discovery. So don't worry about the mistakes that you made or worry about the mistakes that other people made, keep learning, keep progressing and keep moving forward. The world is going to test you from time to time, so you will need some quick answers to certain questions when tragedy strikes. And some of those questions are..What are my priorities? Who do I help first? What can I learn from this? How do I solve this problem and keep this problem from happening again in the future? And will I need to adapt?

Start Knowing and Stop Dohing - Knowing is Growing. Doh is an expressing of frustration at the realization that you did something foolish and things have turned out badly or not as planned. The expression was made famous by Homer J. Simpson. The Simpsons: Many D'ohs of Homer (youtube).

Learning is the best brain exercise and the best cognitive brain training program that helps you to stay mentally fit and keeps your brain staying sharp. This makes learning at BK101 the best mental fitness program that you can do.

5 Hour Rule is to invest around an hour a day in deliberate learning. That's 5 hours of the 168 hours that you have in one week. You have to learn certain things in order to understand certain things. (Always continue your studies).

Not learning is like always living in the past. You never live in the present or do you think about the future and think about new ways on how to make the future better. You have to keep updating what you know and keep learning. Learning is one of the reasons why life even exists. If the cells in your body could not learn and update their DNA, no life would exist. When your cells DNA is not updated, then a virus could infect the cell and then damage the cell, or even kill the cell, all because the DNA did not have the necessary information, or the information that the DNA had was wrong, which made the cell vulnerable to the virus. And what you learn could have an affect on what your cells learn. So can can easily say that Learning is in your Blood. But inheritance does not always protect you from ignorance, especially your own ignorance. Learn from your past but don't live in the past. Live in the present and think about the future, because that's how reality works, life is a continuum. So you need to continually learn and go with the flow of life. It will be a much smoother ride that way.

Reflective Practice is the ability to reflect on one's actions so as to engage in a process of continuous learning.

Reversal Learning requires a subject to flexibly adjust their behavior when the reward-related contingencies that they have previously learned are reversed. For some time, a widely-voiced idea was that reversal leaning paradigms primarily measured inhibitory control of responding. Unschooling.

One of the most beautiful things that comes from learning is that you don't have to do something bad, dangerous or risky in order to understand how bad, dangerous or risky something is. This saves people from making mistakes they don't have to make, which also saves time. Even if you feel the need to verify something for yourself, you still have to acknowledge the risk and dangers that are explained by the information passed on from other people, people who have previous experience with a particular action you are thinking about doing. Learning is a Time Loop.

I'm willing to learn, even though I will learn things that will break my heart and disappoint me, but I'm still willing to learn, and that is something I can never give up. Because learning is the path to salvation, and there is no other path, because not learning is standing still and not learning is giving up. And the reason why everyone is alive is because humans before us did not give up and they kept on going and they continued to learn. That is what a human is, and that is what life is. If it were not, then we would not be here. Nothing would be here. Adult Learning - Mindset.

Docile is someone willing to be taught, led, supervised or directed. Someone who is ready and willing to be taught. Someone who is teachable, gentle and easily handled or managed. Not Passive or Indoctrination.

People pretend to know and they also feel like they know enough. But it's only when they start learning is when they finally realize how little they know, which is normal. Nothing more damaging to the Human Mind than the illusion of learning. Not learning how important learning is can cause serious damage to the brain by implanting mental disorders and cognitive dysfunctions. There for, not teaching the importance of learning should be criminal act. It's negligent child abuse. Schools need to teach "Learning". Students need to learn how to ask questions, they need to know how to understand things. The importance of learning must be fully understood. Please Learn, you have Nothing to Lose and Everything to Gain.

Information is taken in, then the information is processed, and then it's stored, all this is done without a procedure. But what if you had a procedure? Then certain information would be taken in, and then it would be carefully processed and compared to already stored information. Then the information would be carefully stored in the right places so that it can be easily recalled. This would all be possible because you now have more knowledge and more information to analyze all new information coming in, and you also have a procedure. Brain Plasticity.

Knowing how to Read is a persons greatest strength and an extremely important skill to have. Once you can decipher written languages, and then accurately process the information that's imbedded within the written language, and, if you can have access to the worlds most valuable knowledge and information, then your potential is endless, and you can accomplish almost anything that you want and reach any goal you desire. The value of your life will be enormous. If you can't read and decipher language, then learning, development and progress will be obstructed. Don't waste your potential, reading and learning are responsibilities that should never be taken for granted. Question Everything. Children Love to Learn. So it's our job to make sure that The Love of Learning is never impeded or diminished in any way shape or form.

Your memory is your greatest strength, but your memory can also be your greatest weakness. Learning is not just about remembering, learning is more about understanding and formulating information and knowledge correctly so that it is used effectively and efficiently, just Remembering is not enough.

Know what to Learn and When to Learn

Teaching Resources - Curriculum Designing

Learning Specialist - Presentation - Music

Educational Psychology is the branch of psychology concerned with the scientific study of human learning. The study of learning processes, from both cognitive and behavioral perspectives, allows researchers to understand individual differences in intelligence, cognitive development, affect, motivation, self-regulation, and self-concept, as well as their role in learning. The field of educational psychology relies heavily on quantitative methods, including testing and measurement, to enhance educational activities related to instructional design, classroom management, and assessment, which serve to facilitate learning processes in various educational settings across the lifespan. Cognitive Load (overload).

Philosophy of Education examines the definition, goals and meaning of education. Institutions.

Educational Philosophies can refer either to the application of philosophy to the problem of education, examining the definition, goals and meaning of education, or to any particular vision of or approach to education.

Teaching Method comprises the principles and methods used by teachers to enable student learning. These strategies are determined partly on subject matter to be taught and partly by the nature of the learner. For a particular teaching method to be appropriate and efficient it has to be in relation with the characteristic of the learner and the type of learning it is supposed to bring about. Suggestions are there to design and selection of teaching methods must take into account not only the nature of the subject matter but also how students learn. In today's school the trend is that it encourages a lot of creativity. It is a known fact that human advancement comes through reasoning. This reasoning and original thought enhances creativity. The approaches for teaching can be broadly classified into teacher centered and student centered. In a teacher-centered approach to learning, teachers are the main authority figure in this model. Students are viewed as "empty vessels" whose primary role is to passively receive information (via lectures and direct instruction) with an end goal of testing and assessment. It is the primary role of teachers to pass knowledge and information onto their students. In this model, teaching and assessment are viewed as two separate entities. Student learning is measured through objectively scored tests and assessments. In Student-Centered Approach to Learning, while teachers are the authority figure in this model, teachers and students play an equally active role in the learning process. The teacher's primary role is to coach and facilitate student learning and overall comprehension of material. Student learning is measured through both formal and informal forms of assessment, including group projects, student portfolios, and class participation. Teaching and assessments are connected; student learning is continuously measured during teacher instruction. Commonly used teaching methods may include class participation, demonstration, recitation, memorization, or combinations of these.

Passive Learning (indoctrination) - Self-Directed Learning - Active Learning

Learning Sciences works to further scientific understanding of learning as well as to engage in the design and implementation of learning innovations, and the improvement of instructional methodologies. Research in the learning science traditionally focuses on cognitive-psychological, social-psychological, and cultural-psychological foundations of human learning, as well as on the design of learning environments.

Implicit Learning - Rote Learning 

Learning with understanding is facilitated when new and existing knowledge is structured around the major concepts and principles of the discipline. Learners use what they already know to construct new understandings. Learning is facilitated through the use of metacognitive strategies that identify, monitor, and regulate cognitive processes. Learners have different strategies, approaches, patterns of abilities, and learning styles that are a function of the interaction between their heredity and their prior experiences. Learners’ motivation to learn and sense of self affects what is learned, how much is learned, and how much effort will be put into the learning process. The practices and activities in which people engage while learning shape what is learned. Learning is enhanced through socially supported interactions.

Didactic Method is a teaching method that follows a consistent scientific approach or educational style to engage the student's mind.

Educational Neuroscience is an emerging scientific field that brings together researchers in cognitive neuroscience, developmental cognitive neuroscience, educational psychology, educational technology, education theory and other related disciplines to explore the interactions between biological processes and education. Researchers in educational neuroscience investigate the neural mechanisms of reading, numerical cognition, attention and their attendant difficulties including dyslexia, dyscalculia and ADHD as they relate to education. Researchers in this area may link basic findings in cognitive neuroscience with educational technology to help in curriculum implementation for mathematics education and reading education. The aim of educational neuroscience is to generate basic and applied research that will provide a new transdisciplinary account of learning and teaching, which is capable of informing education. A major goal of educational neuroscience is to bridge the gap between the two fields through a direct dialogue between researchers and educators, avoiding the "middlemen of the brain-based learning industry". These middlemen have a vested commercial interest in the selling of "neuromyths" and their supposed remedies.

Theories about Learning

Learning is your Path to Power, but only if you learn which knowledge, information and skills gives you the power.

1: You need to define what learning is use this ability in the most effective and most efficient way possible. 2: You need to define the knowledge and information that would increase your understanding of yourself and the world around you. 3: You need to accurately measure what you are learning, so that you keep moving forward and continue to increase your potential.

Intelligence Testing - Personalized Learning

You have been given a superpower called Learning, but just like all powers, there are inherent responsibilities and vulnerabilities, so please use your power wisely.

Multiple Intelligences - Competence - Thinking - Brain Plasticity

Learn to Learn - Self Directed Learning - Learning is a skill that you have to understand if you want learning to be effective.

There are many tools to help humans to transfer Information and knowledge into the brain.

A broader definition of learning could help stimulate interdisciplinary research. By embracing a broader definition of learning that includes any behavioral adaption developed in response to regular features of an environment, researchers could better collaborate across the fields of psychology, computer science, sociology, and genetics, according to a new Perspectives on Psychological Science article. Different systems use different mechanisms for storing information, learning changes and adapts as a system responds to its environment.

Organizing Knowledge Cognitively is a system of grouping and categorizing our brain to use, sort and store information. System changes and adapts as the amount of knowledge about a particular subject changes and grows.

Learning Curve is intended to mean that the activity is difficult to learn for some people. A learning curve with a steep start actually represents rapid progress.

Personalized Learning - Tailored Education

Personalized Learning is to tailor education to meet the different needs of students. Every person a little different. Everyone processes information a little differently depending on the level of knowledge they have, their upbringing, their skill level, the quality of education they received, their biases, their perspective, their beliefs, their fears, their mindset, their mood, their memory, as well as, the personal experiences they had. No two people have the exact same cognition, not even twins. The current system of education ignores individuality by having grade structures based on age. The brains of school children develop at different rates and in different ways, just as their bodies do. Testing also needs to be personilized.

Brain Wave Matching - Processing Speed - Speed Reading - Lessons - Hope PC - Multi-Disciplinary - Presentation - E-learning

Personalized learning is more than just knowing all the different ways that a person can learn knowledge and skills, it's more about knowing what you need to learn and when you need to learn it. Every student needs to understand their education goals and understand why certain knowledge and information is extremely valuable and important. If a person does not understand the incentive of learning, then they will not have the motivation to learn and they will not perceive the need to retain certain knowledge and information, because they will not fully understand how to use it and why it's so important to have. And this happens to almost every student on the planet. This is the foundation of learning. You need to accurately see your future and how your home will be built and how it will look in the future. And your heart and mind is your home. Do you want a beautiful home? Do you want an intelligent home? Do you want a sturdy home? Your home will be what ever you want your home to be as long as you put in the work and the investment that's needed to build your home. Students can only have a future if they are given the necessary knowledge and information that's needed in order to reach that future. Personalized learning is also about having the freedom to learn in your own time and learning at your own pace. Having the ability to choose the best time to learn new knowledge and having the ability to adjust the speed at which you learn new knowledge, will benefit you in many ways. When schools restrict your freedom to choose what learning time and speed is best for you, then learning will not be as effective as it can be. And when schools restrict your freedom to choose what you need to learn, then that too will also cause learning to be ineffective.

Personalized Learning is more like a personalized journey. Your learning how to learn and learning how you like to travel physically and mentally. Whether you travel by vehicle, car, plane, boat, bicycle or foot, a person will like to learn in a way that is the most enjoyable to them, and also be the most effective and the most efficient way to learn. This way every person will always have time to enjoy life. In order to have a good life you need to learn how to acquire a good life. Learning is about building up time and energy that's needed for living. If a student is not happy about what they're learning, then they need to know why. Is it the right time to learn this? What is the incentive and motivation to learn this? Every student must be a self directing learning machine that can solve problems and make changes on their own, and also manage themselves effectively and efficiently. If a student does not understand the responsibility of learning, then they will not understand a lot of things and they will never reach their full potential. This is why every student must see and understand their education as a whole, and not just the parts. To live with purpose you have to learn with purpose. Know your purpose.

Eclectic is selecting the best way of doing something using various styles or ideas that are composed of different elements drawn from various sources.

Differentiated Instruction is teaching that involves providing all students within their diverse classroom community of learners a range of different avenues for understanding new information (often in the same classroom) in terms of: acquiring content; processing, constructing, or making sense of ideas; and developing teaching materials and assessment measures so that all students within a classroom can learn effectively, regardless of differences in ability. Students vary in culture, socioeconomic status, language, gender, motivation, ability/disability, personal interests and more, and teachers must be aware of these varieties as they plan curriculum. By considering varied learning needs, teachers can develop personalized instruction so that all children in the classroom can learn effectively. Differentiated classrooms have also been described as ones that respond to student variety in readiness levels, interests and learning profiles. It is a classroom that includes all students and can be successful. To do this, a teacher sets different expectations for task completion for students based upon their individual needs. By instructing through multiple learning pathways, more "dendritic pathways of access" are created. This can be achieved by using several senses (i.e. sight, sound, smell) or by creating cross-curricular connections. When more regions of the brain store data about a subject, there is more interconnection and cross-referencing of data from multiple storage areas in response to a single cue, meaning one has learned rather than memorized. PDF.

Personalize Learning - Personalized Learning - Personalized Medicine

Computerized Adaptive Testing is a form of computer-based test that adapts to the examinee's ability level. For this reason, it has also been called tailored testing. In other words, it is a form of computer-administered test in which the next item or set of items selected to be administered depends on the correctness of the test taker's responses to the most recent items administered.

Knewton personalized learning.

Eclectic Approach is a method of language education that combines various approaches and methodologies to teach language depending on the aims of the lesson and the abilities of the learners. Different teaching methods are borrowed and adapted to suit the requirement of the learners. It breaks the monotony of the class. In addition, It is a conceptual approach that does not merely include one paradigm or a set of assumptions. Instead, eclecticism adheres to or is constituted from several theories, styles, and ideas in order to gain a thorough insight about the subject, and draws upon different theories in different cases. ‘Eclecticism’ is common in many fields of study such as psychology, martial arts, philosophy, teaching, religion and drama.

Special Education - Entry Exams

Student-Centered Learning aims to develop learner autonomy and independence by putting responsibility for the learning path in the hands of students.

Independent Learning - Self-Directed Learning

High Performing Students - Gifted

Self-Regulated Learning refers to learning that is guided by metacognition (thinking about one's thinking), strategic action (planning, monitoring, and evaluating personal progress against a standard), and motivation to learn. "Self-regulated" describes a process of taking control of and evaluating one's own learning and behavior.

Confidence-Based Learning measures the correctness of a learner's knowledge and confidence in that knowledge. It is designed to increase retention and minimize the effects of guessing, which can skew the results of traditional single-score assessments. It distinguishes between what individuals think and actually know. The measurement allows creating a customized learning plan for each learner. The process, similar to quality improvement processes such as Six Sigma, continues until the learner achieves total mastery – defined as validly achieving confidence and correctness for 100% of the content twice in a row. Mastery leads to putting the knowledge into practice.

Blended Learning is a formal education program in which a student learns at least in part through delivery of content and instruction via digital and online media with some element of student control over time, place, path, or pace. Simultaneous.

Instructional Scaffolding is a learning process designed to promote a deeper level of learning. Scaffolding is the support given during the learning process which is tailored to the needs of the student with the intention of helping the student achieve his/her learning goals. Instructional scaffolding is the provision of sufficient support to promote learning when concepts and skills are being first introduced to students. There are three essential features of scaffolding that facilitate learning. The first feature has to do with the interaction between the learner and the expert. This interaction should be collaborative for it to be effective. The second, learning should take place in the learner's zone of proximal development. To do that the expert needs to be aware of the learner's current level of knowledge and then work to a certain extent beyond that level. The third feature of scaffolding is that the scaffold, the support and guidance provided by the expert, is gradually removed as the learner becomes more proficient. These supports are gradually removed as students develop autonomous learning strategies, thus promoting their own cognitive, affective and psychomotor learning skills and knowledge. Teachers help the students master a task or a concept by providing support. The support can take many forms such as outlines, recommended documents, storyboards, or key questions. The support and guidance provided to the learner is compared to the scaffolds in building construction where the scaffolds provide both "adjustable and temporal" support to the building under construction. The support and guidance provided to learners facilitate internalization of the knowledge needed to complete the task. This support is weaned gradually until the learner is independent. For scaffolding to be effective teachers need to pay attention to the following: The selection of the learning task: The task should ensure that learners use the developing skills that need to be mastered. The task should also be engaging and interesting to keep learners involved. The anticipation of errors: After choosing the task, the teacher needs to anticipate errors the learners are likely to commit when working on the task. Anticipation of errors enables the scaffolder to properly guide the learners away from ineffective directions. The application of scaffolds during the learning task: Scaffolds could be organized in "simple skill acquisition or they may be dynamic and generative". The consideration of emotive or affective factors: Scaffolding is not limited to a cognitive skill but it also relates to emotive and affect factors. During the task the scaffolder (expert) might need to manage and control for frustration and loss of interest that could be experienced by the learner. Encouragement is also an important scaffolding strategy.

Betty's Brain is a software environment to help promote students' understanding of metacognitive skills and to reinforce river ecosystem knowledge as part of a science curriculum. It is a qualitative constraint system, using node-link diagrams to represent models for teaching complex scientific and engineering domains in high school. The system specifically focuses on reinforcing so called self-regulatory skills that promote both self monitoring and self assessment as one might expect of an independent learner.

Individualized Education Plan is a program developed to ensure that a child with an identified disability who is attending an elementary or secondary educational institution receives specialized instruction and related services.

Individualized Education Program or IEP is a legal document under United States law that is developed for each public school child in the U.S. who needs special education. It is created through a team of the child's parent(s) and district personnel who are knowledgeable about the child's needs. IEPs must be reviewed every year to keep track of the child's educational progress. An IEP outlines the special education experience for all eligible students with a disability. An eligible student is any child in the U.S between the ages of 3-21 attending a public school and has been evaluated as having a need in the form of a specific learning disability, autism, emotional disturbance, other health impairments, intellectual disability, orthopedic impairment, multiple disabilities, hearing impairments, deafness, visual impairment, deaf-blindness, developmental delay, speech/language impairment, or traumatic brain injury. The IEP describes present levels of performance, strengths, and needs, and creates measurable goals based on this data. It provides accommodations, modifications, related services, and specialized academic instruction to ensure that every eligible child receives a "Free Appropriate Public Education" (FAPE) in the "Least Restrictive Environment" (LRE). The IEP is intended to help children reach educational goals more easily than they otherwise would. The four component goals are: conditions, learner, behavior, and criteria. In all cases, the IEP must be tailored to the individual student's needs as identified by the IEP evaluation process, and must help teachers and related service providers (such as paraprofessional educators) understand the student's disability and how the disability affects the learning process. The IEP describes how the student learns, how the student best demonstrates that learning, and what teachers and service providers will do to help the student learn more effectively. Developing an IEP requires the team to evaluate the student in all areas of suspected disability, consider the student's ability to access the general education curriculum, consider how the disability affects the student's learning, and choose a federal placement for the student. As long as a student qualifies for special education, the IEP is mandated to be regularly maintained and updated up to the point of high school graduation or prior to the 21st or 22nd birthday. If a student in special education attends university upon graduation, they are no longer "children with disabilities" under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 and are instead protected under Section 504. They can apply for and receive Section 504 accommodations, but the process is very different. Placements in public schools often occur in "general education" classrooms. Other types of placements include RSP (within a resource room), Special Day Class, Self Contained Class, Co-Teacher and specialized classes, or sub-specialties taught by a special education teacher. Students can also be removed from an IEP if it is determined the student is no longer eligible upon reevaluation. An IEP is meant to ensure that students receive an appropriate placement not only in special education classrooms or special schools. It is designed to give the student a chance to participate in regular school culture and academics as much as is possible for that individual student. In this way, the student is able to have specialized assistance only when such assistance is absolutely necessary, and otherwise maintains the freedom to interact with and participate in activities to the same extent of their non-disabled/general education peers.

Transformative Learning is the expansion of consciousness through the transformation of basic worldview and specific capacities of the self. Transformative learning is facilitated through consciously directed processes such as appreciatively accessing and receiving the symbolic contents of the unconscious and critically analyzing underlying premises. Transformative Learning, as a theory, says that the process of "perspective transformation" has three dimensions: psychological (changes in understanding of the self), convictional (revision of belief systems), and behavioral (changes in lifestyle).

Learning Transitions are growths and developments an individual makes in their learning progress, especially when planning for one's future. Transitional Learning transforms learning and learners through increasing and incremental depths of involvement and responsibility. Learners develop experience, confidence, skills in problem-solving, collaborative learning, teamwork, decision-making, organization and self-responsibility.

Transfer of Learning can be defined as the ability of a learner to successfully apply the behavior, knowledge, and skills acquired in a learning event to the job, with a resulting improvement in job performance. Learning transfer occurs when people apply information, strategies, and skills they have learned to a new situation or context.

Critical Pedagogy is the freedom from oppression through an awakening of the critical consciousness. Issues of social justice and democracy are not distinct from acts of teaching and learning. Critical consciousness encourages individuals to effect change in their world through social critique and political action in order to self-actualize. Pedagogy of the Oppressed of critical pedagogy, proposes a pedagogy with a new relationship between teacher, student, as well as, society and the relationship between the colonizer and the colonized.

Critical Theory is any approach to humanities and social philosophy that focuses on society and culture to attempt to reveal, critique, and challenge power structures. With roots in sociology and literary criticism, it argues that social problems stem more from social structures and cultural assumptions rather than from individuals. Some hold it to be an ideology, others argue that ideology is the principal obstacle to human liberation. Critical theory finds applications in various fields of study, including psychoanalysis, sociology, history, communication theory, philosophy and feminist theory.

Active Learning - Engaged - Involved

Active Learning is a teaching method and a form of learning in which teaching strives to directly involve students in the learning process more directly than in other methods. Knowledge Construction is a process by which learners actively build their understanding of a topic or concept through exploration, reflection, and interaction. It involves constructing meaning from the information and experiences gained through learning activities and projects. Constructivism is the theory that says learners construct knowledge rather than just passively take in information. As people experience the world and reflect upon those experiences, they build their own representations and incorporate new information into their pre-existing knowledge or schemas. Some of the principles of active learning are: Purposive: the relevance of the task to the students' concerns. Reflective: students' reflection on the meaning of what is learned. Negotiated: negotiation of goals and methods of learning between students and teachers. Critical: students appreciate different ways and means of learning the content. Complex: students compare learning tasks with complexities existing in real life and making reflective analysis. Situation-driven: the need of the situation is considered in order to establish learning tasks. Engaged: real life tasks are reflected in the activities conducted for learning. Active learning requires appropriate learning environments through the implementation of correct strategy. Characteristics of learning environment are: Aligned with constructivist strategies and evolved from traditional philosophies. Promoting research based learning through investigation and contains authentic scholarly content. Encouraging leadership skills of the students through self-development activities. Creating atmosphere suitable for collaborative learning for building knowledgeable learning communities. Cultivating a dynamic environment through interdisciplinary learning and generating high-profile activities for a better learning experience. Integration of prior knowledge with new knowledge to incur a rich structure of knowledge among the students. Task-based performance enhancement by giving the students a realistic practical sense of the subject matter learnt in the classroom. Active learning typically draws on combinations of several principles. For example, a well-run debate will draw on virtually all, with the exceptions of dual coding, interleaving, and spaced practice. In contrast, passively listening to a lecture rarely draws on any. Examples of "active learning" activities include: A class discussion may be held in person or in an online environment. Discussions can be conducted with any class size, although it is typically more effective in smaller group settings. This environment allows for instructor guidance of the learning experience. Discussion requires the learners to think critically on the subject matter and use logic to evaluate their and others' positions. As learners are expected to discuss material constructively and intelligently, a discussion is a good follow-up activity given the unit has been sufficiently covered already. Some of the benefits of using discussion as a method of learning are that it helps students explore a diversity of perspectives, it increases intellectual agility, it shows respect for students’ voices and experiences, it develops habits of collaborative learning, it helps students develop skills of synthesis and integration (Brookfield 2005). In addition, by having the teacher actively engage with the students, it allows for them to come to class better prepared and aware of what is taking place in the classroom. A think-pair-share activity is when learners take a minute to ponder the previous lesson, later to discuss it with one or more of their peers, finally to share it with the class as part of a formal discussion. It is during this formal discussion that the instructor should clarify misconceptions. However students need a background in the subject matter to converse in a meaningful way. Therefore, a "think-pair-share" exercise is useful in situations where learners can identify and relate what they already know to others. So preparation is key. Prepare learners with sound instruction before expecting them to discuss it on their own. If properly implemented, it saves instructor time, keeps students prepared, helps students to get more involved in class discussion and participation and provide cumulative assessment of student progress. The "think-pair-share" method is useful for teachers to hear from all students even those who are quiet in class. This teaching method functions as a great way for all the students in the class to get involved and learn to work together and feel comfortable sharing ideas. It can also help teachers or instructors to observe students and see if they understand the material being discussed. This is not a good strategy to use in large classes because of time and logistical constraints (Bonwell and Eison, 1991). Think-pair-share is helpful for the instructor as it enables organizing content and tracking students on where they are relative to the topic being discussed in class, saves time so that he/she can move to other topics, helps to make the class more interactive, provides opportunities for students to interact with each other (Radhakrishna, Ewing, and Chikthimmah, 2012). A learning cell is an effective way for a pair of students to study and learn together. The learning cell was developed by Marcel Goldschmid of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (Goldschmid, 1971). A learning cell is a process of learning where two students alternate asking and answering questions on commonly read materials. To prepare for the assignment, the students read the assignment and write down questions that they have about the reading. At the next class meeting, the teacher randomly puts students in pairs. The process begins by designating one student from each group to begin by asking one of their questions to the other. Once the two students discuss the question, the other student ask a question and they alternate accordingly. During this time, the teacher goes from group to group giving feedback and answering questions. This system is also called a student dyad. A short written exercise that is often used is the "one-minute paper." This is a good way to review materials and provide feedback. However a "one-minute paper" does not take one minute and for students to concisely summarize it is suggested that they have at least 10 minutes to work on this exercise. A collaborative learning group is a successful way to learn different material for different classes. It is where you assign students in groups of 3-6 people and they are given an assignment or task to work on together. This assignment could be either to answer a question to present to the entire class or a project. Make sure that the students in the group choose a leader and a note-taker to keep them on track with the process. This is a good example of active learning because it causes the students to review the work that is being required at an earlier time to participate. (McKinney, Kathleen. (2010). Active Learning. Normal, IL. Center for Teaching, Learning & Technology.) To create participation and draw on the wisdom of all the learners the classroom arrangement needs to be flexible seating to allow for the creation of small groups. (Bens, 2005). A student debate is an active way for students to learn because they allow students the chance to take a position and gather information to support their view and explain it to others. These debates not only give the student a chance to participate in a fun activity but it also lets them gain some experience with giving a verbal presentation. (McKinney, Kathleen. (2010). Active Learning. Normal, IL. Center for Teaching, Learning & Technology.) A reaction to a video is also an example of active learning because most students love to watch movies. The video helps the student to understand what they are learning at the time in an alternative presentation mode. Make sure that the video relates to the topic that they are studying at the moment. Try to include a few questions before you start the video so they pay more attention and notice where to focus at during the video. After the video is complete divide the students either into groups or pairs so that they may discuss what they learned and write a review or reaction to the movie. (McKinney, Kathleen. (2010). Active Learning. Normal, IL. Center for Teaching, Learning & Technology.) A small group discussion is also an example of active learning because it allows students to express themselves in the classroom. It is more likely for students to participate in small group discussions than in a normal classroom lecture because they are in a more comfortable setting amongst their peers, and from a sheer numbers perspective, by dividing the students up more students get opportunities to speak out. There are so many different ways a teacher can implement small group discussion in to the class, such as making a game out of it, a competition, or an assignment. Statistics show that small group discussions is more beneficial to students than large group discussions when it comes to participation, expressing thoughts, understanding issues, applying issues, and overall status of knowledge. Just-in-time teaching promotes active learning by using pre-class questions to create common ground among students and teachers before the class period begins. These warmup exercises are generally open ended questions designed to encourage students to prepare for class and to elicit student's thoughts on learning goals. A class game is also considered an energetic way to learn because it not only helps the students to review the course material before a big exam but it helps them to enjoy learning about a topic. Different games such as Jeopardy! and crossword puzzles always seem to get the students' minds going. (McKinney, Kathleen. (2010). Active Learning. Normal, IL. Center for Teaching, Learning & Technology.) Learning by teaching is also an example of active learning because students actively research a topic and prepare the information so that they can teach it to the class. This helps students learn their own topic even better and sometimes students learn and communicate better with their peers than their teachers. Gallery Walk is also an example of active learning where students in groups move around the classroom or workshop actively engaging in discussions and contributing to other groups and finally constructing knowledge on a topic and sharing it.
Active Learning Research Sources:
Maxim I: Think it Through.
1. Evoking deep processing: extending thinking beyond “face value” of information (Craig et al., 2006; Craik & Lockhart, 1972).
2. Using desirable difficulty: ensuring that the activity is neither too easy nor too hard (Bjork, 1988, 1999; VanLehn et al., 2007).
3. Eliciting the generation effect: requiring recall of relevant information (Butler & Roediger, 2007; Roediger & Karpicke, 2006).
4. Engaging in deliberate practice: promoting practice focused on learning from errors (Brown, Roediger, & McDaniel, 2014; Ericsson, Krampe, & Tesch-Romer, 1993).
5. Using interleaving: intermixing different problem types.
6. Inducing dual coding: presenting information both verbally and visually (Kosslyn, 1994; Mayer, 2001; Moreno & Valdez, 2005).
7. Evoking emotion: generating feelings to enhance recall (Erk et al., 2003; Levine & Pizarro, 2004; McGaugh, 2003, 2004).
Maxim II: Make and Use Associations.
8. Promoting chunking: collecting information into organized units (Brown, Roediger, & McDaniel, 2014; Mayer & Moreno, 2003).
9. Building on prior associations: connecting new information to previously stored information (Bransford, Brown, & Cocking, 2000; Glenberg & Robertson, 1999; Mayer, 2001).
10. Presenting foundational material first: providing basic information as a structural “spine” onto which new information can be attached (Bransford, Brown, & Cocking, 2000; Wandersee, Mintzes, & Novak, 1994)
11. Exploiting appropriate examples: offering examples of the same idea in multiple contexts (Hakel & Halpern, 2005)
12. Relying on principles, not rote: explicitly characterizing the dimensions, factors or mechanisms that underlie a phenomenon (Kozma & Russell, 1997; Bransford, Brown, & Cocking, 2000)
13. Creating associative chaining: sequencing chunks of information into stories (Bower & Clark, 1969; Graeser, Olde, & Klettke, 2002)
14. Using spaced practice: spreading learning out over time (Brown, Roediger, & McDaniel, 2014; Cepeda et al., 2006, 2008; Cull, 2000)
15. Establishing different contexts: associating material with a variety of settings (Hakel & Halpern, 2005; Van Merrienboer et al., 2006)
16. Avoiding interference: incorporating distinctive retrieval cues to avoid confusion (Adams, 1967; Anderson & Neely, 1996). Lessons.

Action Learning is an approach to problem solving. It involves taking action and reflecting upon the results. This helps improve the problem-solving process as well as simplify the solutions developed by the team. Since action learning has proven to be very effective in developing a number of individual leadership and team problem-solving skills, it has become a component in corporate and organizational leadership development programs. This strategy is different from the "one size fits all" curriculum that is characteristic of many training and development programs. Confucius once said, "I hear and I forget; I see and I remember; I do and I understand," and action learning is a cycle of doing and reflecting. Journalism - Cultural Studies.

Reflective Practice is the ability to reflect on one's actions so as to engage in a process of continuous learning.

Inquiry-Based Learning is a form of active learning that starts by posing questions, problems or scenarios. It contrasts with traditional education, which generally relies on the teacher presenting facts and their own knowledge about the subject. Inquiry-based learning is often assisted by a facilitator rather than a lecturer. Inquirers will identify and research issues and questions to develop knowledge or solutions. Inquiry-based learning includes problem-based learning, and is generally used in small scale investigations and projects, as well as research. The inquiry-based instruction is principally very closely related to the development and practice of thinking and problem solving skills.

Positive Education is an approach to education that draws on positive psychology's emphasis of individual strengths and personal motivation to promote learning. Unlike traditional school approaches in which teachers attempt to tailor their material to a mythical "average" student, and move the class altogether using the material through one teaching and testing style, positive schooling teachers use techniques that focus on the well-being of individual students. Teachers use methods such as developing tailored goals for each student to engaged learning and working with them to develop the plans and motivation to reach their goals. Rather than pushing students to achieve at a set grade level, seen through the emphasis of standardized testing, this approach attempts to customize learning goals to individual students' levels. Instead of setting students to compete against one another, learning is viewed as a cooperative process where teachers learn to respect their students and each student's input is valued.

Progressive Education is the emphasis on learning by doing – hands-on projects, expeditionary learning, experiential learning. Integrated curriculum focused on thematic units. Integration of entrepreneurship into education. Strong emphasis on problem solving and critical thinking. Group work and development of social skills. Understanding and action as the goals of learning as opposed to rote knowledge. Collaborative and cooperative learning projects. Education for social responsibility and democracy Highly personalized learning accounting for each individual's personal goals. Integration of community service and service learning projects into the daily curriculum. Selection of subject content by looking forward to ask what skills will be needed in future society. De-emphasis on textbooks in favor of varied learning resources. Emphasis on lifelong learning and social skills Assessment by evaluation of child's projects and productions.

21st Century Skills - Outdoor Education - Green Schools - Naturalist Intelligence

Laboratory School or demonstration school is an elementary or secondary school operated in association with a university, college, or other teacher education institution and used for the training of future teachers, educational experimentation, educational research, and professional development.

Response to Intervention is an approach to academic and behavioral intervention used in the United States to provide early, systematic, and appropriately intensive assistance to children who are at risk for or already underperforming as compared to appropriate grade- or age-level standards. RTI seeks to prevent academic and behavioral failure through universal screening, early intervention, frequent progress monitoring, and increasingly intensive research-based instruction or interventions for children who continue to have difficulty. RTI is a multileveled approach for aiding students that is adjusted and modified as needed. Response to intervention (PDF).

Self Directed Learning - Learning Procedure

Learning is more effective when active. Engaging students through interactive activities, discussions, feedback and AI-enhanced technologies resulted in improved academic performance compared to traditional lectures, lessons or readings, faculty concluded after collecting research into active learning. The research also found that effective active learning methods use not only hands-on and minds-on approaches, but also hearts-on, providing increased emotional and social support.

Personalized Learning - Problem Based Learning - Experience Learning - Reading

Scientists say active early learning shapes the adult brain. An enhanced learning environment during the first five years of life shapes the brain in ways that are apparent four decades later.

Design-Based Learning is an inquiry-based form of learning, or pedagogy, that is based on integration of design thinking and the design process into the classroom at the K-12 and post-secondary levels. The design process is an iterative process that has a variety of sequential steps: Investigate context. Identify needs. Develop criteria. Generate alternatives. Select alternative. Prototype/test. Produce. Evaluate. A similar approach is the ADDIE Model of instructional design, a framework of generic processes used by instructional designers and training developers. It represents a descriptive guideline with five distinct phases: Analysis. Design. Development. Implementation. Evaluation.

Social Learning - Group Learning - Collaborative

Cone of Learning - Learning Pyamid Collaborative Learning is a situation in which two or more people learn or attempt to learn something together.

Co-Learning is an interactive collaborative learning process which includes the construction of real communities of practice by means of a dynamic and participatory involvement of their elements that are predisposed to the collective construction of knowledge.

Imitate - Active Learning - Learning Spaces - Social Learning - Experience Learning

Collaborative Information Seeking is a field of research that involves studying situations, motivations, and methods for people working in collaborative groups for information seeking projects, as well as building systems for supporting such activities. Such projects often involve information searching or information retrieval, information gathering, and information sharing. Beyond that, CIS can extend to collaborative information synthesis and collaborative sense-making

Collaborative Problem Solving - Collaborative Classroom - Collaborative Internet

Co-Construction is a distinctive approach where the emphasis is on collaborative or partnership working. The approach includes some more interactional processes such as cooperation and coordination.

Collective Learning - Crowd Learning (essay)

Social Learning Theory is a cognitive process that takes place in a social context and can occur purely through observation or direct instruction, even in the absence of motor reproduction or direct reinforcement. Social Learning.

Cooperative Education is a structured method of combining classroom-based education with practical work experience. A cooperative education experience, commonly known as a "co-op", provides academic credit for structured job experience, and is taking on new importance in helping young people to make the school-to-work transition. It falls under the umbrella of work-integrated learning (alongside internships, service learning and clinical placements) but is distinct, as it alternates a school term with a work term in a structured manner, involves a partnership between the academic institution and the employer, and generally is both paid and intended to advance the education of the student.

Internship is a period of work experience offered by an organization for a limited period of time.

Apprenticeship involves the student working for an employer where he or she is taught and supervised by an experienced employee of the chosen organization.

Job Shadowing is a short term opportunity that introduces the student to a particular job or career by pairing the student with an employee of the workplace.

On the Job Training - Career Path Testing - Professionals - Holistic

Field Trip or excursion is a journey by a group of people to a place away from their normal environment.

Organizational Learning is the process of creating, retaining, and transferring knowledge within an organization. An organization improves over time as it gains experience. From this experience, it is able to create knowledge. This knowledge is broad, covering any topic that could better an organization. Examples may include ways to increase production efficiency or to develop beneficial investor relations. Knowledge is created at four different units: individual, group, organizational, and inter organizational.

Practice-Based Professional Learning is understood in contrast to classroom- or theory-based learning. It is kindred to terms such as work-based learning.

Work-Based Learning is an educational strategy that provides students with real-life work experiences where they can apply academic and technical skills and develop their employability.

Project-Based Learning is a student-centered pedagogy that involves a dynamic classroom approach in which it is believed that students acquire a deeper knowledge through active exploration of real-world challenges and problems. Students learn about a subject by working for an extended period of time to investigate and respond to a complex question, challenge, or problem. It is a style of active learning and inquiry-based learning. PBL contrasts with paper-based, rote memorization, or teacher-led instruction that presents established facts or portrays a smooth path to knowledge by instead posing questions, problems, or scenarios.

Networked Learning is a process of developing and maintaining connections with people and information, and communicating in such a way so as to support one another's learning. The central term in this definition is connections. It takes a relational stance in which learning takes place both in relation to others and in relation to learning resources. Mentor Mob.

Peer Learning is an educational practice in which students interact with other students to attain educational goals." In this context, it can be compared to the practices that go by the name cooperative learning. Peers can inspire more people to learn than teachers do. On the Job Training.

Peer Mentoring is a form of mentorship that usually takes place between a person who has lived through a specific experience (peer mentor) and a person who is new to that experience (the peer mentee). Professional Guide.

Peer Feedback where feedback is given by one student to another to provide students more opportunities to learn from each other. Two or more students work together to check each other's work and give comments to the peer partner. Comments from peers are called as peer feedback. Peer feedback can be in the form of corrections, opinions, suggestions, ideas to each other. Thus, peer feedback is a two-way process in which one cooperates with the other.

Peer Counseling is a helping process that involves one-on-one interaction or interaction between members of a group, who have several things in common. In an academic setting, it usually refers to students helping their fellow students. Academic difficulties, exam stress. Adjustment issues with teachers, other students Peer Counselor assists clients in the development of strengths-based recovery goals and provides information on ways to maintain personal wellness and recovery. The Peer Counselor works collaboratively with other members of the care team to provide these services.

Peer Support occurs when people provide knowledge, experience, emotional, social or practical help to each other. It commonly refers to an initiative consisting of trained supporters (although it can be provided by peers without training), and can take a number of forms such as peer mentoring, reflective listening (reflecting content and/or feelings), or counseling. Peer support is also used to refer to initiatives where colleagues, members of self-help organizations and others meet, in person or online, as equals to give each other connection and support on a reciprocal basis. Peer Support is distinct from other forms of social support in that the source of support is a peer, a person who is similar in fundamental ways to the recipient of the support; their relationship is one of equality. A peer is in a position to offer support by virtue of relevant experience: he or she has "been there, done that" and can relate to others who are now in a similar situation. Trained peer support workers such as peer support specialists and peer counselors receive special training and are required to obtain Continuing Education Units, like clinical staff. Some other trained peer support workers may also be law-enforcement personnel and firefighters as well as emergency medical responders The social peer support also offers an online system of distributed expertise, interactivity, social distance and control, which may promote disclosure of personal problems.

Peer Support Specialist is a person with "lived experience" who has been trained to support those who struggle with mental health, psychological trauma, or substance use. Their personal experience of these challenges provide peer support specialists with expertise that professional training cannot replicate. Some roles filled by peer support specialists include assisting their peers in articulating their goals for recovery, learning and practicing new skills, helping them monitor their progress, supporting them in their treatment, modeling effective coping techniques and self-help strategies based on the specialist's own recovery experience, supporting them in advocating for themselves to obtain effective services, and developing and implementing recovery plans.

Peer Education is an approach to health promotion, in which community members are supported to promote health-enhancing change among their peers. Peer education is the teaching or sharing of health information, values and behavior in educating others who may share similar social backgrounds or life experiences. Rather than health professionals educating members of the public, the idea behind peer education is that ordinary lay people are in the best position to encourage healthy behavior to each other.

Peer Tutor is anyone who is of a similar status as the person being tutored. In an undergraduate institution this would usually be other undergraduates, as distinct from the graduate students who may be teaching the writing classes; in a K-12 school this is usually a student from the same grade or higher. There are some basic rules to establishing your peer tutoring program, the key to success is a clear objective. Thorough planning and evidence gathering activities will contribute to substantiation of the decisions you will make.

Observational Learning is learning that occurs through observing the behavior of others. It is a form of social learning which takes various forms, based on various processes. In humans, this form of learning seems to not need reinforcement to occur, but instead, requires a social model such as a parent, sibling, friend, or teacher with surroundings. Particularly in childhood, a model is someone of authority or higher status in an environment. In animals, observational learning is often based on classical conditioning, in which an instinctive behavior is elicited by observing the behavior of another (e.g. mobbing in birds), but other processes may be involved as well. Learning Society - Watching People.

Learning by Observation reduces Cognitive Bias. Research suggests that observing others' decision-making can teach people to make better decisions themselves. The research tested the effectiveness of a new debiasing training strategy and reports first evidence that watching others make decisions can improve our own decision making, either by learning from their mistakes or learning from their successes.

Reciprocal Teaching is an instructional activity that takes the form of a dialogue between teachers and students regarding segments of text for the purpose of constructing the meaning of text. Reciprocal teaching is a reading technique which is thought to promote students' reading comprehension. A reciprocal approach provides students with four specific reading strategies that are actively and consciously used to support comprehension: Questioning, Clarifying, Summarizing, and Predicting. Palincsar (1986) believes the purpose of reciprocal teaching is to facilitate a group effort between teacher and students as well as among students in the task of bringing meaning to the text. Reciprocal teaching is best represented as a dialogue between teachers and students in which participants take turns assuming the role of teacher. Reciprocal teaching is most effective in the context of small-group collaborative investigation, which is maintained by the teacher or reading tutor. Reading Rockets.

Learning by Teaching is a method of teaching in which students are made to learn material and prepare lessons to teach it to the other students. There is a strong emphasis on acquisition of life skills along with the subject matter. After preparation by the teacher, students become responsible for their own learning and teaching. The new material is divided into small units and student groups of not more than three people are formed. Students are then encouraged to experiment to find ways to teach the material to the others. Along with ensuring that students learn the material, another goal of the method, is to teach students life skills like respect for other people, planning, problem solving, taking chances in public, and communication skills. The teacher remains actively involved, stepping in to further explain or provide support if the teaching-students falter or the learning-students do not seem to understand the material. The method is distinct from tutoring in that LdL is done in class, supported by the teacher, and distinct from student teaching, which is a part of teacher education.

Peer Assessment is a process whereby students or their peers grade assignments or tests based on a teacher’s benchmarks. The practice is employed to save teachers time and improve students' understanding of course materials as well as improve their metacognitive skills. Rubrics are often used in conjunction with Self- and Peer-Assessment.

Peer Education is an approach to Health Promotion, in which Community Members are supported to promote health-enhancing change among their peers. Peer education is the teaching or sharing of health information, values and behavior in educating others who may share similar social backgrounds or life experiences. Rather than Health Professionals educating members of the public, the idea behind peer education is that ordinary lay people are in the best position to encourage healthy behaviour to each other.

Inclusion Education refers to a model wherein special needs students spend most or all of their time with non-special (general education) needs students. Inclusive education means different and diverse students learning side by side in the same classroom. They enjoy field trips and after-school activities together. They participate in student government together. And they attend the same sports meets and plays.

Community Learning Methods - Tutoring - Unschooling

Personal Learning Network is an informal learning network that consists of the people a learner interacts with and derives knowledge from in a personal learning environment. In a PLN, a person makes a connection with another person with the specific intent that some type of learning will occur because of that connection.

Networked Learning is a process of developing and maintaining connections with people and information, and communicating in such a way so as to support one another's learning. The central term in this definition is connections. It takes a relational stance in which learning takes place both in relation to others and in relation to learning resources.

Open Study - Social Studying - Organizational Learning - Study Skills

Service Learning is an educational approach that combines learning objectives with community service in order to provide a pragmatic, progressive learning experience while meeting societal needs.

Deeper Learning is a set of student educational outcomes including acquisition of robust core academic content, higher-order thinking skills, and learning dispositions. Deeper learning is based on the premise that the nature of work, civic, and everyday life is changing and therefore increasingly requires that formal education provides young people with mastery of skills like analytic reasoning, complex problem solving, and teamwork. Purpose.

Experience Learning - Problem Based Learning

Experience is knowledge a person gets by doing something themselves or by watching someone else do something. Experience is learning through actions. Experiences are investigations into your abilities and a method used to increase your understanding of yourself and the world around you.

Demonstration Teaching - Real Life Examples - Outdoor Learning - On the Job Training - Virtual Reality - Holodeck - Vocational Training - Degrees

Experiential Learning is the process of learning through experience, and is more specifically defined as "learning through reflection on doing".

Experiential Education is a philosophy of education that describes the process that occurs between a teacher and student that infuses direct experience with the learning environment and content. Active Learning - Collaborative Learning.

People don't always Experience the Same Thing in the Same Way. Everyone processes information a little differently in their own way. Processing differences depends on a persons particular education background, their culture, their experiences, their beliefs, and all the things that they have learned so far in their life.

Real-World Application is connecting instruction to real-world applications that gives meaning to learning, makes it practical, and can help to develop connections with the greater community. Incorporating real-world examples becomes more authentic to students because they will be able to connect the learning to the bigger picture rather than just the classroom. Students construct meaning and produce knowledge, students use disciplined inquiry to construct meaning, and students aim their work toward production of discourse, products, and performances that have value or meaning beyond success in school.

Authentic Learning builds on the concept of “learning by doing” to increase a student’s engagement. To succeed, this method needs to have meaning or value to the student, embody in-depth learning.

Reflective Practice is the ability to reflect on an action so as to engage in a process of continuous learning. According to one definition it involves "paying critical attention to the practical values and theories which inform everyday actions, by examining practice reflectively and reflexively. This leads to developmental insight". A key rationale for reflective practice is that experience alone does not necessarily lead to learning; deliberate reflection on experience is essential.

Constructivist Learning is an active process in which learners are active sense makers who seek to build coherent and organized knowledge. Students co-construct their learning, with the teacher serving as a guide or facilitator (oftentimes using technology as a facilitating tool). The teacher doesn’t function in a purely didactic manner. Constructivism helps students develop problem-solving skills, critical thinking and creative skills and apply them in meaningful ways. Inquiry-based instruction, a type of constructivist learning, has students identify real world problems and then pose and find answers to their own questions.

Constructionism is when learners construct mental models to understand the world around them. Constructionism advocates student-centered, discovery learning where students use information they already know to acquire more knowledge. Students learn through participation in project-based learning where they make connections between different ideas and areas of knowledge facilitated by the teacher through coaching rather than using lectures or step-by-step guidance. Further, constructionism holds that learning can happen most effectively when people are active in making tangible objects in the real world. In this sense, constructionism is connected with experiential learning and builds on Jean Piaget's epistemological theory of constructivism. Constructionist learning involves students drawing their own conclusions through creative experimentation and the making of social objects. Instead of having students memorize geography facts, a teacher could give students blank maps that show unlabeled rivers, lakes, and mountains, and then ask the students to decipher where major cities might be located without the help of books or maps. This would require students to locate these areas without using prepared resources, but their prior knowledge and reasoning ability instead. Problem-Based Learning is a constructionist method which allows students to learn about a subject by exposing them to multiple problems and asking them to construct their understanding of the subject through these problems. This kind of learning can be very effective in mathematics classes because students try to solve the problems in many different ways, stimulating their minds. The following five strategies make problem-based learning more effective: The learning activities should be related to a larger task. The larger task is important because it allows students to see that the activities can be applied to many aspects of life and, as a result, students are more likely to find the activities they are doing useful. The learner needs to be supported to feel that they are beginning to have ownership of the overall problem. An authentic task should be designed for the learner. This means that the task and the learner's cognitive ability have to match the problems to make learning valuable. Reflection on the content being learned should occur so that learners can think through the process of what they have learned. Allow and encourage the learners to test ideas against different views in different contexts.

Problem Based Learning is a student-centered pedagogy in which students learn about a subject through the experience of solving an open-ended problem. Students learn both thinking strategies and domain knowledge. Action Learning (real life examples). Learner-driven self-identified goals and outcomes. Students do independent, self-directed study before returning to larger group. Learning is done in small groups of 8–10 people, with a tutor to facilitate discussion. Trigger materials such as paper-based clinical scenarios, lab data, photographs, articles or videos or patients (real or simulated) can be used. The Maastricht 7-jump process helps to guide the PBL tutorial process. Based on principles of adult learning theory. All members of the group have a role to play. Allows for knowledge acquisition through combined work and intellect. Enhances teamwork and communication, problem-solving and encourages independent responsibility for shared learning - all essential skills for future practice. Anyone can do it as long it is right depending on the given causes and scenario. Learning from Mistakes.

Project Based Learning is a student-centered pedagogy that involves a dynamic classroom approach in which students acquire a deeper knowledge through active exploration of real-world challenges and problems. Students learn about a subject by working for an extended period of time to investigate and respond to a complex question, challenge, or problem. It is a style of active learning and inquiry-based learning. PBL contrasts with paper-based, rote memorization, or teacher-led instruction that simply presents established facts or portrays a smooth path to knowledge by instead posing questions, problems or scenarios.

Discovery Learning is a technique of inquiry-based learning and is considered a constructivist based approach to education. It is also referred to as problem-based learning, experiential learning and 21st century learning. Lessons.

Phenomenon-Based Learning is a multidisciplinary, constructivist form of learning or pedagogy where students study a topic or concept in a holistic approach instead of in a subject-based approach.

Outcome-Based Education bases each part of an educational system around goals (outcomes). By the end of the educational experience, each student should have achieved the goal. There is no single specified style of teaching or assessment in OBE; instead, classes, opportunities, and assessments should all help students achieve the specified outcomes. The role of the faculty adapts into instructor, trainer, facilitator, and/or mentor based on the outcomes targeted. Outcomes Driven Model.

Outdoor Education usually refers to organized learning that takes place in the outdoors or outside.

Exploration is the act of searching for the purpose of discovery of information or resources. - Adventure Schools.

Experience Sampling Method is when a person stops at certain times and make notes of their experience in real time. The point is for them to record temporal things like feelings while in the moment (right then, not later; right there, not elsewhere).

Nonformal Learning includes various structured learning situations which do not either have the level of curriculum, syllabus, accreditation and certification associated with 'formal learning', but have more structure than that associated with 'informal learning', which typically take place naturally and spontaneously as part of other activities. These form the three styles of learning recognised and supported by the OECD. Examples of non-formal learning include swimming sessions for toddlers, community-based sports programs, and programs developed by organisations such as the Boy Scouts, the Girl Guides, community or non-credit adult education courses, sports or fitness programs, professional conference style seminars, and continuing professional development. The learner's objectives may be to increase skills and knowledge, as well as to experience the emotional rewards associated with increased love for a subject or increased passion for learning.

Reinforcement Learning differs from standard supervised learning in that correct input/output pairs are never presented, nor sub-optimal actions explicitly corrected. Further, there is a focus on on-line performance, which involves finding a balance between exploration (of uncharted territory) and exploitation (of current knowledge).

Reinforcement - Praise - Gratification Rewards

Classical Conditioning - Operant Conditioning

Transfer of Learning is the dependency of human conduct, learning, or performance on prior experience. Educational transfer of learning involves one's own transferring of knowledge and skills from one problem solving situation to the next.

"I remember the experiences in my life more then the thoughts and ideas that I had. I remember the class experiences that I had more then I remember the tests that I took. You see, experience is a stronger memory. We need to combine tests with experience."

Experiential Knowledge is knowledge gained through experience, as opposed to a priori (before experience) knowledge: it can also be contrasted both with propositional (textbook) knowledge, and with practical knowledge.

Experiential Education describes the process that occurs between a teacher and student that infuses direct experience with the learning environment and content.

Experience Curve Effects expresses the relationship between equations for experience and efficiency or between efficiency gains and investment in the effort.

Experience is the knowledge or mastery of an event or subject gained through involvement in or exposure to it.

Kids want to know things and learn about things and they also want to experience things. And kids want to experience things that other people experienced, they want to be that person. A person may be envious or are jealous of them so they want experience more than the other person did so they will not feel inadequate or left out. People like to prove that they are special too. Some people want others to envy them and to be jealous of their success. But this is illogical behavior and an unhealthy form of competition that degrades society and degrades relationships. Don't have experiences for the wrong reasons.

Experience Point is a unit of measurement used in many tabletop role-playing games (RPGs) and role-playing video games to quantify a player character's progression through the game. Experience points are generally awarded for the completion of quests, overcoming obstacles and opponents, and for successful role-playing.

Empiricism is a theory which believes that all knowledge comes from experience. (Reading is the experience that can accumulate the most knowledge).

Errorless Learning states that errors are not necessary for learning to occur. Errors are not a function of learning or vice versa nor are they blamed on the learner. Errors are a function of poor analysis of behavior, a poorly designed shaping program, moving too fast from step to step in the program, and the lack of the prerequisite behavior necessary for success in the program." Errorless learning can also be understood at a synaptic level, using the principle of Hebbian learning, which says Neurons that fire together wire together.

Visual Learning is a style in which a learner utilizes graphs, charts, maps and diagrams.
Mind Maps.

Visual Thinking is the phenomenon of thinking through visual processing. Described as seeing words as a series of pictures.

Visual Processing is the sequence of steps that information takes as it flows from visual sensors to cognitive processing.

Spatial Intelligence

Learning Cycle is a concept of how people learn from experience. A learning cycle will have a number of stages or phases, the last of which can be followed by the first. In 1933, John Dewey described five phases or aspects of reflective thought: In between, as states of thinking, are (1) suggestions, in which the mind leaps forward to a possible solution; (2) an intellectualization of the difficulty or perplexity that has been felt (directly experienced) into a problem to be solved, a question for which the answer must be sought; (3) the use of one suggestion after another as a leading idea, or hypothesis, to initiate and guide observation and other operations in the collection of factual material; (4) the mental elaboration of the idea or supposition as an idea or supposition (reasoning, in the sense in which reasoning is a part, not the whole of inference); and (5) testing the hypothesis by overt or imaginative action. John Dewey, How We Think, 1933. In the 1940s, Kurt Lewin developed action research and described a cycle of: Planning, Action, Fact finding, about the result of the action. In the early 1970s, David A. Kolb and Ronald E. Fry developed the experiential learning model (ELM), composed of four elements: Concrete experience, Observation of and reflection on that experience, Formation of abstract concepts based upon the reflection, Testing the new concepts, Testing the new concepts gives concrete experience which can be observed and reflected upon, allowing the cycle to continue. Peter Honey and Alan Mumford developed Kolb and Fry's ideas into slightly different learning cycle. The stages are: Doing something, having an experience, Reflecting on the experience, Concluding from the experience, developing a theory, Planning the next steps, to apply or test the theory. While the cycle can be entered at any of the four stages, a cycle must be completed to give learning that will change behaviour. The cycle can be performed multiple times to build up layers of learning. The 5E learning cycle was developed by Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, specifically for use in teaching science. The learning cycle has four phases: Engage, in which a student's interest is captured and the topic is established. Explore, in which the student is allowed to construct knowledge in the topic through facilitated questioning and observation. Explain, in which students are asked to explain what they have discovered, and the instructor leads a discussion of the topic to refine the students' understanding. Extend, in which students are asked to apply what they have learned in different but similar situations, and the instructor guides the students toward the next discussion topic. The fifth E stands for Evaluate; in which the instructor observes each student's knowledge and understanding, and leads students to assess whether what they have learned is true. Evaluation should take place throughout the cycle, not within its own set phase. In the 1990s, Alistair Smith developed the Accelerated Learning Cycle, also for use in teaching. The phases are: Create the supportive learning environment - safe but stimulating. Connect the learning - useful knowledge we already have. Give the big picture. Describe the learning outcomes we want to achieve. Input - new information to enable the activity. Activity. Demonstrate the findings of the activity. Review for recall and retention. Unlike other learning cycles, step 8 is normally followed by step 2, rather than step 1. In the 2000s, Fred Korthagen and Angelo Vasalos (and others) developed the ALACT model, specifically for use in personal development. The five phases of the ALACT cycle are: Action, Looking back on the action, Aspects of essential awareness, Creating alternative methods of action, Trial. As with Kolb and Fry, trial is an action that can be looked back on. Korthagen and Vasalos listed coaching interventions for each phase and described "levels of reflection" inspired by Gregory Bateson's hierarchy of logical types. In 2010, they connected their model of reflective learning to the practice of mindfulness and to Otto Scharmer's Theory U, which, in contrast to a learning cycle, emphasizes reflecting on a desired future rather than on past experience. In between, as states of thinking, are (1) suggestions, in which the mind leaps forward to a possible solution; (2) an intellectualization of the difficulty or perplexity that has been felt (directly experienced) into a problem to be solved, a question for which the answer must be sought; (3) the use of one suggestion after another as a leading idea, or hypothesis, to initiate and guide observation and other operations in the collection of factual material; (4) the mental elaboration of the idea or supposition as an idea or supposition (reasoning, in the sense in which reasoning is a part, not the whole of inference); and (5) testing the hypothesis by overt or imaginative action. Doing something, having an experience. Reflecting on the experience. Concluding from the experience, developing a theory. Planning the next steps, to apply or test the theory. Engage, in which a student's interest is captured and the topic is established. Explore, in which the student is allowed to construct knowledge in the topic through facilitated questioning and observation. Explain, in which students are asked to explain what they have discovered, and the instructor leads a discussion of the topic to refine the students' understanding. Extend, in which students are asked to apply what they have learned in different but similar situations, and the instructor guides the students toward the next discussion topic. Create the supportive learning environment - safe but stimulating. Connect the learning - useful knowledge we already have. Give the big picture. Describe the learning outcomes we want to achieve. Input - new information to enable the activity. Activity. Demonstrate the findings of the activity. Review for recall and retention. Action. Looking back on the action. Aspects of essential awareness. Creating alternative methods of action. Trial.

Double-Loop Learning entails the modification of goals or decision-making rules in the light of experience. The first loop uses the goals or decision-making rules, the second loop enables their modification, hence "double-loop". Double-loop learning recognizes that the way a problem is defined and solved can be a source of the problem. This type of learning can be useful in organizational learning since it can drive creativity and innovation, going beyond adapting to change to anticipating or being ahead of change. Double-loop learning is contrasted with "single-loop learning": the repeated attempt at the same problem, with no variation of method and without ever questioning the goal. Double-loop learning is used when it is necessary to change the mental model on which a decision depends. Unlike single loops, this model includes a shift in understanding, from simple and static to broader and more dynamic, such as taking into account the changes in the surroundings and the need for expression changes in mental models. It is required if the problem or mismatch that starts the organizational learning process cannot be addressed by small adjustments because it involves the organization's governing variables. Organizational learning in such cases occurs when the diagnosis and intervention produce changes in the underlying policies, assumptions, and goals. According to Argyris, many organizations resist double-loop learning due to a number of variables such as resistance to change, fear of failure, and overemphasis on control.

Validated Learning is a unit of progress process and describes learnings generated by trying out an initial idea and then measuring it against potential customers to validate the effect. Each test of an idea is a single iteration in a larger process of many iterations whereby something is learnt and then applied to succeeding tests. Typical steps in validated learning: Specify a goal, Specify a metric that represents the goal, Act to achieve the goal, Analyze the metric – did you get closer to the goal? Improve and try again.

Reflective Practice is the ability to reflect on one's actions so as to engage in a process of continuous learning. According to one definition it involves "paying critical attention to the practical values and theories which inform everyday actions, by examining practice reflectively and reflexively. This leads to developmental insight". A key rationale for reflective practice is that experience alone does not necessarily lead to learning; deliberate reflection on experience is essential. Gibbs presents the stages of a full structured debriefing as follows: (Initial experience), Description. "What happened? Don't make judgments yet or try to draw conclusions; simply describe." Feelings. "What were your reactions and feelings? Again don't move on to analyzing these yet." Evaluation. "What was good or bad about the experience? Make value judgments." Analysis. "What sense can you make of the situation? Bring in ideas from outside the experience to help you." "What was really going on?" "Were different people's experiences similar or different in important ways?" Conclusions (general). "What can be concluded, in a general sense, from these experiences and the analyses you have undertaken?" Conclusions (specific). "What can be concluded about your own specific, unique, personal situation or way of working?" Personal action plans. "What are you going to do differently in this type of situation next time?" "What steps are you going to take on the basis of what you have learnt?" Gibbs' suggestions are often cited as "Gibbs' reflective cycle" or "Gibbs' model of reflection", and simplified into the following six distinct stages to assist in structuring reflection on learning experiences: Description, Feelings, Evaluation, Analysis, Conclusions, Action plan. Benefits to reflective practice include: Increased learning from an experience or situation. Promotion of deep learning. Identification of personal and professional strengths and areas for improvement. Identification of educational needs. Acquisition of new knowledge and skills. Further understanding of own beliefs, attitudes and values. Encouragement of self-motivation and self-directed learning. Could act as a source of feedback. Possible improvements of personal and clinical confidence. Limitations to reflective practice include: Not all practitioners may understand the reflective process. May feel uncomfortable challenging and evaluating own practice. Could be time-consuming. May have confusion as to which situations/experiences to reflect upon. May not be adequate to resolve clinical problems. David Somerville and June Keeling suggested eight simple ways that professionals can practice more reflectively: Seek feedback: Ask "Can you give me some feedback on what I did?" Ask yourself "What have I learnt today?" and ask others "What have you learnt today?" Value personal strengths: Identify positive accomplishments and areas for growth. View experiences objectively: Imagine the situation is on stage and you are in the audience. Empathize: Say out loud what you imagine the other person is experiencing. Keep a journal: Record your thoughts, feelings and future plans; look for emerging patterns. Plan for the future: Plan changes in behavior based on the patterns you identified. Create your own future: Combine the virtues of the dreamer, the realist, and the critic.

Perceptual Learning is the process of learning improved skills of perception. These improvements range from simple sensory discriminations (e.g., distinguishing two musical tones from one another) to complex categorizations of spatial and temporal patterns relevant to real-world expertise (e.g., reading, seeing relations among chess pieces, knowing whether or not an X-ray image shows a tumor). Sensory modalities may include visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory, and taste. Perceptual learning forms important foundations of complex cognitive processes (i.e., language) and interacts with other kinds of learning to produce perceptual expertise. Underlying perceptual learning are changes in the neural circuitry. The ability for perceptual learning is retained throughout life.

Auditory Learning is a learning style in which a person learns through listening. An auditory learner depends on hearing and speaking as a main way of learning. Auditory learners must be able to hear what is being said in order to understand and may have difficulty with instructions that are drawn but if the writing is in a logical order it can be easier to understand . They also use their listening and repeating skills to sort through the information that is sent to them.

Whole Body Learning - Behavior Modification - Breathing

Dual Education System combines apprenticeships in a company and vocational education at a vocational school in one course.

Cooperative Education is a structured method of combining classroom-based education with practical work experience. A cooperative education experience, commonly known as a "co-op", provides academic credit for structured job experience.

Cooperative Learning is an educational approach which aims to organize classroom activities into academic and social learning experiences.

Situated Learning is the relationship between learning and the social situation in which it occurs.

Emergent Curriculum planning curriculum that focuses on being responsive to children's interests to create meaningful learning experiences. It can be practiced at any grade level.

Vocal Learning is the ability to modify acoustic and syntactic sounds, acquire new sounds via imitation, and produce vocalizations. "Vocalizations" in this case refers only to sounds generated by the vocal organ (mammalian larynx or avian syrinx) as opposed to by the lips, teeth, and tongue, which require substantially less motor control. A rare trait, vocal learning is a critical substrate for spoken language and has only been detected in eight animal groups despite the wide array of vocalizing species; these include humans, bats, cetaceans, pinnipeds (seals and sea lions), elephants, and three distantly related bird groups including songbirds, parrots, and hummingbirds. Vocal learning is distinct from auditory learning, or the ability to form memories of sounds heard, a relatively common trait which is present in all vertebrates tested. For example, dogs can be trained to understand the word "sit" even though the human word is not in its innate auditory repertoire (auditory learning). However, the dog cannot imitate and produce the word "sit" itself as vocal learners can.

Contextual Learning occurs only when students process new information or knowledge in such a way that it makes sense to them in their own frames of reference (their own inner worlds of memory, experience, and response). The mind naturally seeks meaning in context by searching for relationships that make sense and appear useful.

Brain circuit helps us learn by watching others. Scientists pinpoint neural interactions that are necessary for observational learning.

Simultaneous Subject Teaching
Learning Techniques Integrative Learning
Sequence Learning
On the Job Training

Passion Based Learning: Standards-based education stifles engagement and passion in students. We must switch from a control narrative in the classroom to a passion narrative. Passion-based learning is about finding a “hero,” learning what makes him/her successful, and acquiring the practices and the norms of established practitioners in that field. The Schoolwide Enrichment Model identifies student strengths, nurtures skills, and creates authentic opportunities for students to utilize these skills not just as students, but as practicing professionals providing experiences and opportunities to work and learn with others in the fields in which they are interested.

Informal learning referred to as learning by experience or just as experience.

Peripatetic School is walking while you learn.

Place-Based Education employing students and school staff in solving community problems. The community as one of the primary resources for learning.

Learning Outside the Classroom - Personalized Learning

Total Physical Response is a language teaching method based on the coordination of language and physical movement. In TPR, instructors give commands to students in the target language, and students respond with whole-body actions.

Professional Development is learning to earn or maintain professional credentials such as academic degrees to formal coursework, conferences and informal learning opportunities situated in practice.

Vocational Learning (careers)

Associative Learning (Simultaneous)

Vicarious Observational Learning is learning that occurs through observing the behavior of others, which needs to be selective in order to be accurate. You need to be Careful what you Learn. Imitating Others.

Flip Teaching is an instructional strategy and a type of blended learning that reverses the traditional learning environment by delivering instructional content, often online, outside of the classroom. It moves activities, including those that may have traditionally been considered homework, into the classroom. In a flipped classroom, students watch online lectures, collaborate in online discussions, or carry out research at home and engage in concepts in the classroom with the guidance of a mentor. Vimeo.

Reverse Instruction is the idea of having students consume learning content (i.e. ‘the lecture’) outside of the classroom, usually as homework, thereby freeing up valuable face-to-face classroom time to reinforce materials and work on assigned work (work that may have been homework in the traditional classroom). This approach is also referred to as “flipping the classroom”.

Learning by Teaching allows pupils and students to prepare and to teach lessons, or parts of lessons. Choosing their own methods and didactic approaches in teaching classmates that subject.

Show and Tell is a common expression about showing an audience something and telling them about it. It is used to teach young children the skills of public speaking.

Social Constructionism (influences) - People Smart

Social Emotional Learning is the process through which children and adults acquire and effectively apply the knowledge, attitudes, and skills necessary to understand and manage emotions, set and achieve positive goals, feel and show empathy for others, establish and maintain positive relationships, and make responsible decisions.

Language and Thought (thinking)

Breakthrough in Decoding Brain Function. New research advances understanding of the function of the brain’s anterior cingulate cortex and its tie to human learning.

Applied Behavior Analysis is analyzing the principles of learning theory and systematically applying this technology to change behavior of social significance.

Learning Styles refers to a range of differences in individuals' learning abilities.

Learning Styles - 7 Styles of Learning (image photo)

An Explanation of Learning Styles

Q-Learning is a model-free Reinforcement Learning Technique. It works by learning an action-value function that ultimately gives the expected utility of taking a given action in a given state and following the optimal policy thereafter.

Kinesthetic Learning (tactile) - Body Intelligence - Breathing

Movement in Learning is a teaching method based on the concept that humans learn better through movement.

Psychomotor Learning is the relationship between cognitive functions and physical movement. Psychomotor learning is demonstrated by physical skills such as movement, coordination, manipulation, dexterity, grace, strength, speed; actions which demonstrate the fine motor skills such as use of precision instruments or tools.

E-Learning - Enhanced Learning using Technology

Learning Pyramid Computer Supported Collaborative Learning takes place via social interaction using a computer or through the Internet.

Self Directed Learning - Teaching Machine - Interface - Holodeck - Personalized Learning

Adaptive Learning is an educational method which uses computers as interactive teaching devices, and to orchestrate the allocation of human and mediated resources according to the unique needs of each learner.

Interactive Learning is a pedagogical approach that incorporates social networking and urban computing into course design and delivery. Interactive Learning has evolved out of the hyper-growth in the use of digital technology and virtual communication, particularly by students.

Interactive is capable of acting on or influencing each other.

Social Learning - Experience Learning - Visual Learning

Augmented Learning is an on-demand learning technique where the environment adapts to the learner. By providing remediation on-demand, learners can gain greater understanding of a topic while stimulating discovery and learning.

Asynchronous Learning is a student-centered teaching method that uses online learning resources to facilitate information sharing outside the constraints of time and place among a network of people.

Inquiry Based Learning starts by posing questions, problems or scenarios—rather than simply presenting established facts or portraying a smooth path to knowledge.

Inquiry-Based Learning - Redbird Learning - Virtual Learning

Programmed Instruction is learning material in a kind of textbook or teaching machine or computer. The medium presents the material in a logical and tested sequence. The text is in small steps or larger chunks. After each step, learners are given a question to test their comprehension. Then immediately the correct answer is shown. This means the learner at all stages makes responses, and is given immediate knowledge of results

Secret to more efficient learning. Order counts when studying just about any subject. Children and students of all ages learn better when seeing an object before hearing its description. Object-Label Learning is when a student sees an object first and then is provided with the label. Label-Object Learning is the reverse order in which a student sees a label first.

Video Instructions - Video Conference - Lessons - Tutor

Virtual Learning Environment is a Web-based platform for the digital aspects of courses of study, usually within educational institutions. VLEs typically: allow participants to be organized into cohorts, groups and roles; present resources, activities and interactions within a course structure; provide for the different stages of assessment; report on participation; and have some level of integration with other institutional systems. For those who edit them VLEs may have a de facto role as authoring and design environments. VLEs have been adopted by almost all higher education institutions in the anglosphere.

Learning Environment can refer to an educational approach, cultural context, or physical setting in which teaching and learning occur. The term is commonly used as a more definitive alternative to "classroom", but it typically refers to the context of educational philosophy or knowledge experienced by the student and may also encompass a variety of learning cultures—its presiding ethos and characteristics, how individuals interact, governing structures, and philosophy. In a societal sense, learning environment may refer to the culture of the population it serves and of their location. Learning environments are highly diverse in use, learning styles, organization, and educational institution. The culture and context of a place or organization includes such factors as a way of thinking, behaving, or working, also known as organizational culture. For a learning environment such as an educational institution, it also includes such factors as operational characteristics of the instructors, instructional group, or institution; the philosophy or knowledge experienced by the student and may also encompass a variety of learning cultures—its presiding ethos and characteristics, how individuals interact, governing structures, and philosophy in learning styles and pedagogies used; and the societal culture of where the learning is occurring. Experience.

Online Learning - Digital Teaching Platform (PDF)

E-Learning is the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using, and managing appropriate technological processes and resources.

E-learning describes the cognitive science principles of effective multimedia learning using electronic educational technology. The underlying theoretical premise, cognitive load theory, describes the amount of mental effort that is related to performing a task as falling into one of three categories: germane, intrinsic, and extraneous. Germane cognitive load: the mental effort required to process the task's information, make sense of it, and access and/or store it in long-term memory (for example, seeing a math problem, identifying the values and operations involved, and understanding that your task is to solve the math problem). Intrinsic cognitive load: the mental effort required to perform the task itself (for example, actually solving the math problem). Extraneous cognitive load: the mental effort imposed by the way that the task is delivered, which may or may not be efficient (for example, finding the math problem you are supposed to solve on a page that also contains advertisements for books about math). Reducing extraneous load by eliminating visual and auditory effects and elements that are not central to the lesson, such as seductive details (the coherence principle). Reducing germane load by delivering verbal information through audio presentation (narration) while delivering relevant visual information through static images or animations (the modality principle). Controlling intrinsic load by breaking the lesson into smaller segments and giving learners control over the pace at which they move forward through the lesson material (the segmenting principle). Empirically established principles. Multimedia principle: Deeper learning is observed when words and relevant graphics are both presented than when words are presented alone (also called the multimedia effect). Simply put, the three most common elements in multimedia presentations are relevant graphics, audio narration, and explanatory text. Combining any two of these three elements works better than using just one or all three. Modality principle: Deeper learning occurs when graphics are explained by audio narration instead of onscreen text. Exceptions have been observed when learners are familiar with the content, are not native speakers of the narration language, or when only printed words appear on the screen. Generally speaking, audio narration leads to better learning than the same words presented as text on the screen. This is especially true for walking someone through graphics on the screen, and when the material to be learned is complex or the terminology being used is already understood by the student (otherwise see "pre-training"). One exception to this is when the learner will be using the information as a reference and will need to look back to it again and again. Coherence principle: Avoid including graphics, music, narration, and other content that does not support the learning. This helps focus the learner on the content they need to learn, and minimizes cognitive load imposed on memory by irrelevant and possibly distracting content. The less learners know about the lesson content, the easier it is for them to get distracted by anything shown that is not directly relevant to the lesson. For learners with greater prior knowledge, however, some motivational imagery may increase their interest and learning effectiveness. Contiguity principle: Keep related pieces of information together. Deeper learning occurs when relevant text (for example, a label) is placed close to graphics, when spoken words and graphics are presented at the same time, and when feedback is presented next to the answer given by the learner. Segmenting principle: Deeper learning occurs when content is broken into small chunks. Break down long lessons into several shorter lessons. Break down long text passages into multiple shorter ones. Signaling principle: The use of visual, auditory, or temporal cues to draw attention to critical elements of the lesson. Common techniques include arrows, circles, highlighting or bolding text, and pausing or vocal emphasis in narration. Ending lesson segments after the critical information has been given may also serve as a signalling cue. Learner control principle: Deeper learning occurs when learners can control the rate at which they move forward through segmented content. Learners tend to do best when the narration stops after a short, meaningful segment of content is given and the learner has to click a "continue" button in order to start the next segment. Some research suggests not overwhelming the learner with too many control options, however. Giving just pause and play buttons may work better than giving pause, play, fast forward, reverse buttons. Also, high prior-knowledge learners may learn better when the lesson moves forward automatically, but they have a pause button that allows them to stop when they choose to do so. Personalization principle: Deeper learning in multimedia lessons occur when learners experience a stronger social presence, as when a conversational script or learning agents are used. The effect is best seen when the tone of voice is casual, informal, and in a 1st person ("I" or "we") or 2nd person ("you") voice. For example, of the following two sentences, the second version conveys more of a casual, informal, conversational tone: A. The learner should have the sense that someone is talking directly to them when they hear the narration. B. Your learner should feel like someone is talking directly to them when they hear your narration. Also, research suggests that using a polite tone of voice ("You may want to try multiplying both sides of the equation by 10.") leads to deeper learning for low prior knowledge learners than does a less polite, more directive tone of voice ("Multiply both sides of the equation by 10."), but may impair deeper learning in high prior knowledge learners. Finally, adding pedagogical agents (computer characters) can help if used to reinforce important content. For example, have the character narrate the lesson, point out critical features in on-screen graphics, or visually demonstrate concepts to the learner. Pre-training principle: Deeper learning occurs when lessons present key concepts or vocabulary prior to presenting the processes or procedures related to those concepts. According to Mayer, Mathias, and Wetzel, "Before presenting a multimedia explanation, make sure learners visually recognize each major component, can name each component and can describe the major state changes of each component. In short, make sure learners build component models before presenting a cause-and-effect explanation of how a system works." However, others have noted that including pre-training content appears to be more important for low prior knowledge learners than for high prior knowledge learners. Redundancy principle: Deeper learning occurs when lesson graphics are explained by audio narration alone rather than audio narration and on-screen text. This effect is stronger when the lesson is fast-paced and the words are familiar to the learners. Exceptions to this principle include: screens with no visuals, learners who are not native speakers of the course language, and placement of only a few key words on the screen (i.e., labelling critical elements of the graphic image). Expertise effect: Instructional methods, such as those described above, that are helpful to domain novices or low prior knowledge learners may have no effect or may even depress learning in high prior knowledge learners. Such principles may not apply outside of laboratory conditions. For example, Muller found that adding approximately 50% additional extraneous but interesting material did not result in any significant difference in learner performance. There is ongoing debate concerning the mechanisms underlying these beneficial principles, and on what boundary conditions may apply. Social-constructivist – this pedagogy is particularly well afforded by the use of discussion forums, blogs, wiki and online collaborative activities. It is a collaborative approach that opens educational content creation to a wider group including the students themselves. The One Laptop Per Child Foundation attempted to use a constructivist approach in its project. Laurillard's conversational model is also particularly relevant to eLearning, and Gilly Salmon's Five-Stage Model is a pedagogical approach to the use of discussion boards. Cognitive perspective focuses on the cognitive processes involved in learning as well as how the brain works. Emotional perspective focuses on the emotional aspects of learning, like motivation, engagement, fun, etc. Behavioural perspective focuses on the skills and behavioural outcomes of the learning process. Role-playing and application to on-the-job settings. Contextual perspective focuses on the environmental and social aspects which can stimulate learning. Interaction with other people, collaborative discovery and the importance of peer support as well as pressure. Mode neutral Convergence or promotion of ‘transmodal’ learning where online and classroom learners can coexist within one learning environment thus encouraging interconnectivity and the harnessing of collective intelligence. For many theorists, it’s the interaction between student and teacher and student and student in the online environment that enhances learning (Mayes and de Freitas 2004). Pask’s theory that learning occurs through conversations about a subject which in turn helps to make knowledge explicit has an obvious application to learning within a VLE.

E-learning Maturity Model is a model to assess the capability of electronic educational technology or e-learning processes.

Educational Technology is the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using, and managing appropriate technological processes and resources. Educational technology is the use of both physical hardware, software, and educational theoretic to facilitate learning and improve performance by creating, using, and managing appropriate technological processes and resources. This field, which is also called EdTech or EduTech, has been described as a persisting initiative that seeks to bring learners, teacher, and technical means together in an effective way. In addition to experiential knowledge drawn from educational practice, educational technology is based on theoretical knowledge that emerge out of various disciplines such as communication, education, psychology, sociology, artificial intelligence, and computer science, among others. It encompasses several domains including learning theory, computer-based training, online learning, and m-learning, where mobile technologies are used.

Technology Integration is the use of technology tools in general content areas in education in order to allow students to apply computer and technology skills to learning and problem-solving. Generally speaking, the curriculum drives the use of technology and not vice versa. Technology integration is defined as the use of technology to enhance and support the educational environment. Technology integration in the classroom can also support classroom instruction by creating opportunities for students to complete assignments on the computer rather than with normal pencil and paper. In a larger sense, technology integration can also refer to the use of an integration platform and APIs in the management of a school, to integrate disparate SaaS (Software As A Service) applications, databases, and programs used by an educational institution so that their data can be shared in real-time across all systems on campus, thus supporting students' education by improving data quality and access for faculty and staff.

Self-Regulated Learning refers to several concepts that play major roles in learning, and which have significant relevance in e-learning. is one of the domains of self-regulation, and is aligned most closely with educational aims. Broadly speaking, it refers to learning that is guided by metacognition (thinking about one's thinking), strategic action (planning, monitoring, and evaluating personal progress against a standard), and motivation to learn. "Self-regulated" describes a process of taking control of and evaluating one's own learning and behavior. A self-regulated learner "monitors, directs, and regulates actions toward goals of information acquisition, expanding expertise, and self-improvement”. In particular, self-regulated learners are cognizant of their academic strengths and weaknesses, and they have a repertoire of strategies they appropriately apply to tackle the day-to-day challenges of academic tasks. These learners hold incremental beliefs about intelligence (as opposed to entity, or fixed views of intelligence) and attribute their successes or failures to factors (e.g., effort expended on a task, effective use of strategies) within their control. Finally, students who are self-regulated learners believe that opportunities to take on challenging tasks, practice their learning, develop a deep understanding of subject matter, and exert effort will give rise to academic success (Perry et al., 2006). In part, these characteristics may help to explain why self-regulated learners usually exhibit a high sense of self-efficacy. In the educational psychology literature, researchers have linked these characteristics to success in and beyond school. Self regulated learners are successful because they control their learning environment. They exert this control by directing and regulating their own actions toward their learning goals. Self regulated learning should be used in three different phases of learning. The first phase is during the initial learning, the second phase is when troubleshooting a problem encountered during learning and the third phase is when they are trying to teach others. Self-regulation from the social cognitive perspective looks at the triadic interaction among the person (e.g., beliefs about success), his or her behavior (e.g., engaging in a task), and the environment (e.g., feedback from a teacher). Zimmerman et al. specified three important characteristics of self-regulated learning: self-observation (monitoring one's activities); seen as the most important of these processes. self-judgment (self-evaluation of one's performance) and self-reactions (reactions to performance outcomes). To the extent that one accurately reflects about one's progress towards a learning goal, and appropriately adjusts the actions to be performed in order to maximize performance and foreseeable outcome; effectively, at this point one'self has become self-regulated. During a student's school career the primary goal of teachers is to produce self-regulated learners by using such theories as Information Processing Model (IPM). By storing the information into long-term memory (or a live document like a Runbook) the learner can retrieve it upon demand and apply to tasks, becoming a self-regulated learner. Zimmerman suggested that self-regulated learning process better with three stages. Forethought, learners' preparing work before performance on their studying; Volitional control, which is also called "performance control", occurs in the learning process. It involves learners attention and willpower; Self-reflection, happens in the final stage when learners review their performance toward final goals. At the same time, focusing on their learning strategies during the process is also efficient for their final outcomes. To increase positive attitudes and academic performance, expert learners should be created. Expert learners develop self-regulated learning strategies. One of these strategies is the ability to develop and ask questions and use these questions to expand on their own prior knowledge. This technique allows the learners to test the true understanding of their knowledge and make correction about content areas that have a misunderstanding. When learners engage in questioning, it forces them to be more actively engaged in their learning. It also allows them to self analyze and determine their level of comprehension. This active engagement allows the learner to organize concepts into existing schemas. Through the use of questions, learners can accommodate and then assimilate their new knowledge with existing schema. This process allows the learner to solve novel problems and when the existing schema does not work on the novel problem the learner must reevaluate and assess their level of understanding. Examples of self-regulated learning strategies in practice: Self-Assessment: fosters planning, assess what skills the learner has and what skills are needed. Allows students to internalize standards of learning so they can regulate their own learning (Laskey & Hetzel, 2010). Wrapper Activity: activity based on pre-existing learning or assessment task. This can be done as a homework assignment. Consist of self-assessment questions to complete before completing homework and then after completion of homework. This will allow the learner to draw their own conclusions about the learning process. Think Aloud: This involves the teacher describing their thought process in solving a problem. Questioning: Following new material, student develop questions about the material. Reciprocal Teaching: the learner teaches new material to fellow learners.

Unsupervised Learning (artificial intelligence) - Machine Learning - Digital Learning.

Learning Pathway is the chosen route taken by a learner through a range of e-learning activities, which allows them to build knowledge progressively. With learning pathways, the control of choice moves away from the tutor to the learner. For any particular topic, such a pathway would provide both a theory of instruction and a guideline for teachers and curriculum developers. A learning pathway is a designated route through online classes, courses, and other educational programs that is designed to help someone achieve a learning goal, for example, prepare for a specific career or update skills. Interactive courseware aids learners to access information and tools by which they can construct personalized transitions between the information to be accessed and their own cognitive structures. The process of navigation enables learners to experience the content of interactive courseware. Learning pathways also reveal the learning trails while learners traverse any interactive environment. Since learners have unique knowledge structures based upon their experiences and abilities, the ways that they choose to access, interact, and interrelate messages in interactive courseware also vary. Studies on pathways help us to explore and explain human behaviors during learning processes". Learning Path as the ideal sequence of learning activities that drives employees to reach proficiency in their job in the shortest possible time. In the Learning Paths methodology a Learning Path is created for the entire job done by an employee. By looking at learning as a complete process rather than a single event, a Learning Path enables employers and employees to find new ways to drive out time, waste and variability in training which leads to improved results and reduced costs.

Practice Learning - Repetition - Rote

Learning Activities Practice Learning is the act of rehearsing a behavior over and over, or engaging in an activity again and again, for the purpose of improving or mastering it, as in the phrase "practice makes perfect". Sports teams practice to prepare for actual games. Focused Learning.

Power Law of Practice states that the logarithm of the reaction time for a particular task decreases linearly with the logarithm of the number of practice trials taken. It is an example of the learning curve effect on performance.

10,000 Hours - Training - Coaching - Skill

Rehearsal is a form of practicing, to ensure that all details of the subsequent performance are adequately prepared and coordinated. Routines - Cycles.

Habituation is a form of learning in which an organism decreases or ceases to respond to a stimulus after repeated presentations. Essentially, the organism learns to stop responding to a stimulus which is no longer biologically relevant.

Spaced Repetition is a learning technique that incorporates increasing intervals of time between subsequent review of previously learned material in order to exploit the psychological spacing effect.

Repetition is an event that repeats. The repeated use of the same word or word pattern. The act of doing or performing something over and over again.

Memory Techniques - Learn without Memorizing

Rote Learning is a memorization technique based on repetition. The idea is that one will be able to quickly recall the meaning of the material the more one repeats it. Better alternatives to just rote learning include meaningful learning, associative learning, and active learning. Without redundancy.

“Too often we give children answers to remember rather than problems to solve.” - Roger Lewin

Distributed Practice where practice is broken up into a number of short sessions - over a longer period of time.

Varied Practice refers to the use of a training schedule that includes frequent changes of task so that the performer is constantly confronting novel representations of the to-be-learned information.

Problem Solving - Creative Thinking - Intelligence

Inculcating is to teach and impress by frequent repetitions or admonitions or cautionary advice about something imminent.

Memorizing is a good thing. But memorizing becomes bad when our memory is used to memorize propaganda or lies that manipulate the truth or deviate from reality. This is why so many kids grow up to be ignorant adults.

Just because people can remember facts and details about a person, place or an event for a test, that does not mean that they understand what that something means as a whole. Just remembering facts and details is almost useless if you can't explain what those facts and details mean. It's like having words without definitions. You're not processing anything valuable, you're just recalling information without any purpose, without any intent and without any understanding. Another good reason why education needs to improve and start providing more knowledge and information that every person in the world needs. When you dumb down schools, colleges and universities, then people end not even knowing what dumbing down means.

Repetition as a rhetorical device is the simple repeating of a word, within a short space of words (including in a poem), with no particular placement of the words to secure emphasis. It is a multilinguistic written or spoken device, frequently used in English and several other languages, and so rarely termed a figure of speech.

Summer Slide is a decline in reading ability and other academic skills that can occur over the summer months. Summer Learning Loss is the loss of academic skills and knowledge over the course of summer holidays. (This happens because schools don't understand teaching and learning, if kids can forget what they learn, then they're not learning. Summer schools and homework are indicators that schools are failing).

Flashcard is a set of cards bearing information, as words or numbers, on either or both sides, used in classroom drills or in private study. One writes a question on a card and an answer overleaf. Flashcards can bear vocabulary, historical dates, formulas or any subject matter that can be learned via a question-and-answer format. Flashcards are widely used as a learning drill to aid memorization by way of spaced repetition.

Redundancy refers to information that is expressed more than once.

Word Cloud for Learning Aptitude (skills) - Aptitude (instruct) - Competence

Hierarchy Learning models for representing purported structural and/or functional relationships between data, information, knowledge, and wisdom. "Typically information is defined in terms of data, knowledge in terms of information, and wisdom in terms of knowledge".

Internet - E-Learning

Online Learning vs. Classroom Learning

Concept Learning are the mental categories that help us classify objects, events, or ideas, building on the understanding that each object, event, or idea has a set of common relevant features. Thus, concept learning is a strategy which requires a learner to compare and contrast groups or categories that contain concept-relevant features with groups or categories that do not contain concept-relevant features.

Indigenous Education - Culture

Holistic Education is when each person finds identity, meaning, and purpose in life through connections to the community, to the natural world, and to humanitarian values such as compassion and peace. Holistic education aims to call forth from people an intrinsic reverence for life and a passionate love of learning.

Implicit Learning - Explicit Learning

Implicit Learning is the learning of complex information as a chance consequence, without awareness of what has been learned. Learning how to ride a bicycle or how to swim, are cited as demonstrations of the nature of implicit learning and its mechanism. It has been claimed that implicit learning differs from explicit learning by the absence of consciously accessible knowledge. Evidence supports a clear distinction between implicit and explicit learning; for instance, research on amnesia often shows intact implicit learning but impaired explicit learning. Another difference is that brain areas involved in working memory and attention are often more active during explicit than implicit learning. Explicit Knowledge - Implicit Knowledge.

Explicit is something precisely and clearly communicated or readily observable and leaving nothing to implication. In accordance with fact or the primary meaning of a term. Not Vague and Not Assumed or Implied.

Subliminal Messaging is sensory stimuli Below an individual's threshold for conscious perception. A recent review of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies shows that subliminal stimuli activate specific regions of the brain despite participants being unaware. Visual stimuli may be quickly flashed before an individual can process them, or flashed and then masked, thereby interrupting the processing. Audio stimuli may be played below audible volumes or masked by other stimuli. Brain Washing - Passive Learning.

Brain waves reflect different types of learning. For the first time, researchers have identified neural signatures of explicit and implicit learning.

Implicit Memory is one of the two main types of long-term human memory. It is acquired and used unconsciously, and can affect thoughts and behaviours. One of its most common forms is procedural memory, which helps people performing certain tasks without conscious awareness of these previous experiences. Implicit memory's counterpart is known as explicit memory or declarative memory, which refers to the conscious, intentional recollection of factual information, previous experiences and concepts. Evidence for implicit memory arises in priming, a process whereby subjects are measured by how they have improved their performance on tasks for which they have been subconsciously prepared. Implicit memory also leads to the illusion-of-truth effect, which suggests that subjects are more likely to rate as true those statements that they have already heard, regardless of their truthfulness. In daily life, people rely on implicit memory every day in the form of procedural memory, the type of memory that allows people to remember how to tie their shoes or ride a bicycle without consciously thinking about these activities. Research into implicit memory indicates that it operates through a different mental process from explicit memory.

Neurological Mechanisms - Hypnosis

Purposes of Learning

Music as a Teaching Tool - Music

Teaching and Learning are the same subject. You can't teach unless you learn and you can't learn unless you teach, even if you are teaching yourself. Teaching and learning are part of the same process that's needed to transfer information. And you need to be conscious of the process of transferring information, you need to ask these 5 questions, What am I learning? (define the information?) Why am I learning this? (the importance and value of this information?) Where am I learning this? (options and choices?) When am I learning this? (options and choices?) How am I learning this? (options and choices?) W-W-W-W-H.

These Retention Rates are not Normal, you can remember a 100% of what you have read, hear and see, you just have to learn how. You don't want to limit the ways that you can learn.

In Japan, teachers had always depended on jugyokenkyu, which translates literally as “Lesson Study,” a set of practices that Japanese teachers use to hone their craft. A teacher first plans lessons, then teaches in front of an audience of students and other teachers along with at least one university observer. Then the observers talk with the teacher about what has just taken place. Each public lesson poses a hypothesis, a new idea about how to help children learn. And each discussion offers a chance to determine whether it worked. Without jugyokenkyu, it was no wonder the American teachers’ work fell short of the model set by their best thinkers. Without jugyokenyku, Takahashi never would have learned to teach at all. Neither, certainly, would the rest of Japan’s teachers. - NY Times.

The goal is to create personalized programs of instruction and custom lesson plans that are based on the students skill level and learning style.

People with Synesthesia tend to perform better on memory tasks, particularly involving color, abstract patterns or words and this can also be transferred to creative disciplines such as music. - Science Daily.

Hattie Ranking Influences Effect Sizes Achievement Rangliste. (Image Chart) - An overview of the Hattie effect size list that contains 138 influences and effect sizes across all areas related to student achievement.

"Anyone who can learn can eventually become a teacher, but not every teacher will continue to learn, Why?"

Time Loop - Learning

Groundhog Day Time Loop Film with Bill Murray is a great example of the power of learning. We are not living the exact same day over and over again, but we are living day by day in succession, and living day by day requires learning. Everyone has second chances in life, it's called tomorrow, which begins today. You have a memory, so feed it effectively and use it effectively.

Time Travel - Memory Failures - Cycles

Time Loop Stories are nothing new:
1892 — "Christmas Every Day" by William Dean Howells*, adapted for film in 1996
1904 — "The Defence of Duffer's Drift" by Ernest Dunlop Swinton*
1941 — "Doubled and Redoubled" by Malcolm Jameson
1950 — "Friday, the Nineteenth" by Elisabeth Sanxay Holding
1973 — "12:01 PM" by Richard A. Lupoff
1981 — "One Fine Day" by Leon Arden
1990 — "12:01 PM," short film adaptation directed by Jonathan Heap
1992 — "Cause and Effect," episode of "Star Trek: The Next Generation"
1993 — "Groundhog Day," story by Danny Rubin and directed by Harold Ramis
1993 — "12:01," TV movie adaptation directed by Jack Sholder
1998 — "Run, Lola, Run" directed by Tom Tykwer*
1998 — "Same Time Last Week," episode of "The Angry Beavers"
1999 — "Deja vu All Over Again," episode of "Charmed"
1999 — "Monday," episode of "The X-Files"
2000 — "Window of Opportunity," episode of "Stargate SG-1"
2004 — "All You Need Is Kill" by Hiroshi Sakurazaka
2006 — "Day Break," ABC television drama
2010 — "Before I Fall" by Lauren Oliver, adapted for film in 2017
2011 — "Source Code," directed by Duncan Jones*
2014 — "Edge of Tomorrow" a.k.a. "Live. Die. Repeat.," directed by Doug Liman
2016 — "ARQ," directed by Tony Elliott
2017 — "Hot Mess Time Machine," episode of "The Mindy Project"
2017 — "Happy Death Day," directed by Christopher B. Landon
2017 — "Naked," directed by Michael Tiddes, Netflix remake of "Naken" (2000)
2017 — "A Day," directed by Cho Sun-ho
2017 — "Magic To Make The Sanest Man Go Mad," episode of "Star Trek: Discovery"

Time Loop is a plot device in which periods of time are repeated and re-experienced by the characters, and there is often some hope of breaking out of the cycle of repetition. Time loop is sometimes used to refer to a causal loop; although they appear similar, causal loops are unchanging and self-originating, whereas time loops are constantly resetting: when a certain condition is met, such as a death of a character or a clock reaches a certain time, the loop starts again, with one or more characters retaining the memories from the previous loop. Stories with time loops commonly center on the character learning from each successive loop through time.

Time-Lapse (photography) - Time Narrative

Time Loop can be seen as a type of metaphor for ignorance. If you never learn anything new, everyday will seem like the same day, because you're living life through the same eyes and through the same knowledge. You're just spinning round and round and never progressing . You're not advancing, only slowly decaying.

Theories about Learning

Learning Styles Education Theory seeks to know, understand and prescribe educational policy and practice.

Learning Theories are instructional design principles and how they relate to teaching and learning.

Learning Theories - Learning Theories (youtube)

Science of Learning (PDF) - Science of Learning - Learning Processes and Learning Theory's

Scientific Methods for Learning

Learning Theory in education are the conceptual frameworks describing how information is absorbed, processed, and retained during learning. Cognitive, emotional, and environmental influences, as well as prior experience, all play a part in how understanding, or a world view, is acquired or changed and knowledge and skills retained.

Learning Specialists - Tutors

Educational Neuroscience is an emerging scientific field that brings together researchers in cognitive neuroscience, developmental cognitive neuroscience, educational psychology, educational technology, education theory and other related disciplines to explore the interactions between biological processes and education. Researchers in educational neuroscience investigate the neural mechanisms of reading, numerical cognition, attention and their attendant difficulties including dyslexia, dyscalculia and ADHD as they relate to education. Researchers in this area may link basic findings in cognitive neuroscience with educational technology to help in curriculum implementation for mathematics education and reading education. The aim of educational neuroscience is to generate basic and applied research that will provide a new transdisciplinary account of learning and teaching, which is capable of informing education. A major goal of educational neuroscience is to bridge the gap between the two fields through a direct dialogue between researchers and educators, avoiding the "middlemen of the brain-based learning industry". These middlemen have a vested commercial interest in the selling of "neuromyths" and their supposed remedies.

Bloom's Taxonomy is a set of three hierarchical models used to classify educational learning objectives into levels of complexity and specificity. The three lists cover the learning objectives in cognitive, affective and sensory domains.

Epistemology studies the nature of knowledge, the rationality of belief, and justification.

Precision Teaching is a precise and systematic method of evaluating instructional tactics and curricula.

Authentic Instruction - Classroom Management

Whole Brain Learning Education Reform Teaching Styles
Learning Disabilities
How to Study Tips
Audio Books
Unlearning - Relearning
Extended Learning
Lesson Study

Linear vs. Non-linear

Cognitive Science

Memory Vulnerabilities

Sleep-Learning is an attempt to convey information to a sleeping person, typically by playing a sound recording to them while they sleep. Research on this has been inconclusive. Some early studies tended to discredit the technique's effectiveness, while others have found that the brain indeed reacts to stimuli and processes them while we are asleep.

Analogies - Psychometrics 

Synesthesia is when the stimulation of one sensory or cognitive pathway leads to automatic, involuntary experiences in a second sensory or cognitive pathway.

Learning Object is "a collection of content items, practice items, and assessment items that are combined based on a single learning objective.

Imperative Programming - Logic - Wisdom - Enlightenment

Theory of Mind is the ability to attribute mental states—beliefs, intents, desires, pretending, knowledge, etc.—to oneself and others and to understand that others have beliefs, desires, intentions, and perspectives that are different from one's own.

Reflective Practice

Hybrid Education Models - Innovative Learning Designs 

Constructivist Theory is a philosophical viewpoint about the nature of knowledge. Specifically, it represents an epistemological stance.

Modeling Instruction 

Procedural Knowledge also known as imperative knowledge, is the knowledge exercised in the performance of some task. See below for the specific meaning of this term in cognitive psychology and intellectual property law.

Lateral Thinking

Learning Strategies - Learning Management System

Learning Styles (youtube) - Learning Techniques (PDF)

Alternative Education encompasses many different pedagogical approaches differing from that of the mainstream pedagogy employed in a culture. Such alternative learning environments may be found within state, charter, and independent schools as well as home-based learning environments. Many, but not all educational alternatives emphasize small class sizes, close relationships between students and teachers and a sense of community.

Advanced Placement offers college-level curricula and examinations to high school students.

International Baccalaureate offers four educational programmes for children aged 3–19. The learner profile concisely describes the aspirations of a global community that shares the values underlying the IB’s educational philosophy. The IB learner profile describes the attributes and outcomes of education for international-mindedness.
Unhelpful Thinking Styles
Teach Learning Styles
Whole Brain Teaching
Teachable Agents
Teachable Agents
Instructional Objectives (PDF)
A Robot Which Children Can Teach to Write - The CoWriter Project (youtube)
Computer-Human Interaction in Learning and Instruction (CHILI)
Differentiated Instruction (PDF)
Differentiated Instruction

Enrichment Activities
Teaching Research
Games and Toys for Learning
Brain Based Learning
Learning Approaches
Hypothetical Thinking
Discovery Learning

Subjectivity - Objectivity - Reasoning - Cognitive Science - Cognitive Bias - Praising - Punishing

Automatic Summarization

Constructivist Teaching Methods is based on constructivist learning theory. Constructivist teaching is based on the belief that learning occurs as learners are actively involved in a process of meaning and knowledge construction as opposed to passively receiving information. Learners are the makers of meaning and knowledge.

Theory and Research-based Principles of Learning

Null Substantive Presentation The following list presents the basic principles that underlie effective learning. These principles are distilled from research from a variety of disciplines.

Theory and Research-based Principles of Learning
Learning Impediments (PDF)
Limiting a key chemical messenger Adenosine in the brain helps extend efficient auditory learning much later in life.

Students’ prior knowledge can help or hinder learning. Bias

Students come into courses with knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes gained in other courses and through daily life. As students bring this knowledge to bear in our classrooms, it influences how they filter and interpret what they are learning. If students’ prior knowledge is robust and accurate and activated at the appropriate time, it provides a strong foundation for building new knowledge. However, when knowledge is inert, insufficient for the task, activated inappropriately, or inaccurate, it can interfere with or impede new learning.

Stages of Learning

How students organize knowledge influences how they learn and apply what they know.

Students naturally make connections between pieces of knowledge. When those connections form knowledge structures that are accurately and meaningfully organized, students are better able to retrieve and apply their knowledge effectively and efficiently. In contrast, when knowledge is connected in inaccurate or random ways, students can fail to retrieve or apply it appropriately.

Students’ motivation determines, directs, and sustains what they do to learn.

As students enter college and gain greater autonomy over what, when, and how they study and learn, motivation plays a critical role in guiding the direction, intensity, persistence, and quality of the learning behaviors in which they engage. When students find positive value in a learning goal or activity, expect to successfully achieve a desired learning outcome, and perceive support from their environment, they are likely to be strongly motivated to learn.

To develop mastery, students must acquire component skills, practice integrating them, and know when to apply what they have learned.

Students must develop not only the component skills and knowledge necessary to perform complex tasks, they must also practice combining and integrating them to develop greater fluency and automaticity. Finally, students must learn when and how to apply the skills and knowledge they learn. As instructors, it is important that we develop conscious awareness of these elements of mastery so as to help our students learn more effectively.

Goal-directed practice coupled with targeted feedback enhances the quality of students’ learning.

Learning and performance are best fostered when students engage in practice that focuses on a specific goal or criterion, targets an appropriate level of challenge, and is of sufficient quantity and frequency to meet the performance criteria. Practice must be coupled with feedback that explicitly communicates about some aspect(s) of students’ performance relative to specific target criteria, provides information to help students progress in meeting those criteria, and is given at a time and frequency that allows it to be useful.

Students’ current level of development interacts with the social, emotional, and intellectual climate of the course to impact learning.

Students are not only intellectual but also social and emotional beings, and they are still developing the full range of intellectual, social, and emotional skills. While we cannot control the developmental process, we can shape the intellectual, social, emotional, and physical aspects of classroom climate in developmentally appropriate ways. In fact, many studies have shown that the climate we create has implications for our students. A negative climate may impede learning and performance, but a positive climate can energize students’ learning.

To become self-directed learners, students must learn to monitor and adjust their approaches to learning.

Learners may engage in a variety of metacognitive processes to monitor and control their learning—assessing the task at hand, evaluating their own strengths and weaknesses, planning their approach, applying and monitoring various strategies, and reflecting on the degree to which their current approach is working. Unfortunately, students tend not to engage in these processes naturally. When students develop the skills to engage these processes, they gain intellectual habits that not only improve their performance but also their effectiveness as learners.

Anderson, J. R., Conrad, F. G., Corbett, A. T. (1989).
Skill acquisition and the LISP tutor. Cognitive Science, 13(4), 467-505.
Bandura, A. (1989). Self-regulation of motivation and action through internal standards and goal systems. In L. A. Pervin (Ed.), Goal concepts in personality and social psychology (pp. 19-85). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Carver, C.S. & Scheier, M.F. (1998). On the self-regulation of behavior. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Clement, J.J. (1982). Students’ preconceptions in introductory mechanics. American Journal of Physics, 50, 66-71.
DiSessa, A. (1982). Unlearning Aristotelian physics: A study of knowledge-based learning. Cognitive Science, 6, 37-75.
Dweck, C.S. (2002). Beliefs that make smart people dumb. In R.J. Sternberg (Ed.), Why smart people can be so stupid (pp. 24-41). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Ford, M.E. (1992). Motivating humans: Goals, emotions and personal agency beliefs. Newbury Park, CA:
Sage Publications, Inc.
Healy, A. F., & Sinclair, G. P. (1996). The long-term retention of training and instruction (pp. 525-564).
n E. L. Bjork, & R. A. Bjork (Eds.) Memory. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Hidi, S. & Renninger K.A. (2004). Interest, a motivational variable that combines affective and cognitive functioning.
In D. Y. Dai & R. J. Sternberg
(Eds.), Motivation, emotion, and cognition: Integrative perspectives on intellectual functioning and development
(pp. 89-115). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Holyoak, K. J. (1984). Analogical thinking and human intelligence. In R.
J. Sternberg (Ed.), Advances in the Psychology of Human Intelligence, Vol. 2 (pp. 199-230). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Kuh, G.D., Kinzie, J., Schuh, J.H., Whitt, E.J. & Associates. (2005).
Student Success in College: Creating Conditions That Matter. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Matlin, M. W. (1989). Cognition. NY, NY: Harcourt, Brace, Janovich.
National Research Council (2001). Knowing What Students Know: The Science and Design of Educational Assessment. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
National Research Council (2000). How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School. Washington, DC:
National Academy Press.
Nelson, T. A. (1992). Metacognition. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Pascarella, E.T. & Terenzini, P. (2005). How College Affects Students. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.
Schommer, M. (1994). An emerging conceptualization of epistemological
beliefs and their role in learning. In R. Barner & P. Alexander (Eds.), Beliefs about text and instruction with text
(pp. 25-40). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Singley, M. K., & Anderson, J. R. (1989). The Transfer of Cognitive Skill. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Steele, C.M. & Aronson, J. (1995). Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African Americans.
Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology, 69 (5), 797-811.
Walton, G. M., & Cohen, G. L. (2007). A question of belonging: race, social fit, and achievement.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92 (1), 82-96.
Wiggins, G. (1998). Educative Assessment: Designing Assessments to Inform and Improve Student Performance, Jossey-Bass: San Francisco.

Teaching Adults - Adult Education

Teach the children so that it will not be necessary to teach the adults "It's easier to educate a child correctly the first time than it is to re-educate an adult."

"It's easier to build strong children than to repair broken men." - Frederick Douglass.

Do it Right the First Time...it's a lot easier, it's more effective, and it also saves a lot of time, no need to repair.

"It never ceases to surprise me at the infinite capacity of the human mind to resist the introduction of useful knowledge'" - Thomas Raynesford Lounsbury.

It is almost as difficult to make a man unlearn his errors as his knowledge. Mal-information is more hopeless than non-information; for error is always more busy than ignorance. Ignorance is a blank sheet, on which we may write; but error is a scribbled one, on which we must first erase. Ignorance is contented to stand still with her back to the truth; but error is more presumptuous, and proceeds in the same direction. Ignorance has no light, but error follows a false one. The consequence is, that error, when she retraces her footsteps, has further to go, before she can arrive at the truth, than ignorance. Charles  Caleb Colton (wiki).

Children learn more quickly than adults. If you've ever had the feeling that your elementary school kids were 'smarter' than you -- or at least capable of picking up new information and skills faster -- a new study suggests you're absolutely right. The new study also offers a reason: kids and adults exhibit differences in a brain messenger known as GABA, which stabilizes newly learned material. The discovery predicts that training on new items rapidly increases the concentration of GABA in children and allows the learning to be rapidly stabilized. Further experiments also supported this.

Children use the same brain network as adults for tough problems. Study shows this important network emerges early in childhood. Children as young as 4 years old show evidence of a network in the brain found in adults that tackles difficult cognitive problems, a new study found. The multiple demand network helps people focus their attention, juggle several things in memory at the same time, and solve difficult problems like those involving math.

Adult Education is a practice in which adults engage in systematic and sustained self-educating activities in order to gain new forms of knowledge, skills, attitudes, or values. It can mean any form of learning adults engage in beyond traditional schooling, encompassing basic literacy to personal fulfillment as a lifelong learner, and to ensure the fulfillment of an individual. Most adult education is voluntary, therefore, the participants are generally self-motivated, unless required to participate by an employer. Another purpose of adult education is to provide a second chance for those who are poor in society or who have lost access to education for other reasons in order to achieve social justice and equal access to education. Adult education can have many benefits ranging from better health and personal well-being to greater social inclusion. It can also support the function of democratic systems and provide greater opportunities for finding new or better employment. Adult education has been shown to have a positive impact on the economy. Adult education provides opportunities for personal growth, goal fulfillment & socialization. Classes that focus on hobbies and very specific recreational activities were by far the most popular. Deterrents are characteristics that explain why adults respond in negative manners to participate in education and learning. Deterrents faced by adults are multifaceted, including both external and internal factors. However, cost and time have been remained as the most frequently reported deterrents. Previous research findings suggest that as adults get older, they are less likely to participate in Adult Education. Family and job commitments are other most commonly cited deterrents. For the unemployed, it is obvious that cost can hinder their participation in education. And those lacking education and skills must be paid low salaries. they could not participate in educational activities due to lack of time. Adults tended to say that they were busy with their daily routines. Additional research shows that adult learners are more motivated in the classroom when they can clearly identify the application of their education to their professional or personal experiences. When instructors recognize their students’ characteristics, they can develop lessons that address both the strengths and the needs of each student. Adults that are motivated, have confidence, and positive self-esteem are more likely to develop into lifelong learners. Some situational barriers include the lack of time balancing career and family demands, the higher cost of education, and transportation. Dispositional barriers include lack of confidence, embarrassment, and a fear of failure. Institutional barriers include challenges that the college provides in relation to admission, admission requirements, and financial aid requirements from the education facility. Other institutional barriers include the lack of evening and weekend hours from administrative offices such as financial aid, bursar, or academic advising. The lack of evening and weekend hours impedes these students from receiving the necessary information for their retention and academic success. Distance learning or online learning can also address some problems with adult education that cause these barriers. Adults have many responsibilities that they must balance against the demands of learning. Because of these responsibilities, adults have barriers and challenges against participating in learning and continuing their education. The barriers can be classified into three groups including institutional, situational, and dispositional. The practice of adult education is referred to as andragogy to distinguish it from the traditional school-based education for children - pedagogy. Unlike children, adults are sometimes seen as more self-directed rather than relying on others for help. It is perceived that most adults are mature and therefore have knowledge and have gained life experiences which provide them a foundation of learning. An adult's readiness to learn is linked to their need to have the information. Their orientation to learn is problem-centered rather than subject-centered. Their motivation to learn is internal. Most adults frequently apply their knowledge in a practical fashion to learn effectively. But they must have a reasonable expectation that the knowledge they gain will help them further their goals. The principles of andragogy flow directly from an understanding of the characteristics of adults as learners and can be recognized when we understand the characteristics of adults, and see the way those characteristics influence how adults learn best. Teachers who follow the principles of andragogy when choosing materials for training and when designing program delivery, find that their learners progress more quickly, and are more successful in reaching their goals. Another purpose of adult education is in the form of college or university. In these institutions, the aim is typically related to personal growth and development as well as occupation and career preparedness. A common problem in adult education in the US is the lack of professional development opportunities for adult educators. Most adult educators come from other professions and are not well trained to deal with adult learning issues. Most of the positions available in this field are only part-time without any benefits or stability since they are usually funded by government grants that might last for only a couple of years. Educating adults differs from educating children in several ways given that adults have accumulated knowledge and work experience which can add to the learning experience. The primary purpose of adult education is to provide a second chance for those who are poor in society or who have lost access to education for other reasons in order to achieve social justice and equal access to education. Adult educators have long maintained commitments to racial justice and other forms of social justice struggle. which included extensive work at Freedom Schools during the Civil Rights Movement. Contemporary commitments to racial justice in Adult Education include initiatives in the workplace and beyond.

Andragogy refers to methods and principles used in adult education. Learner is self-directed and moves towards independence. Learner is responsible for the learning. Self-evaluation is seen. Six assumptions related to the motivation of adult learning: Need to know: Adults need to know the reason for learning something. Foundation: Experience (including error) provides the basis for learning activities. Self-concept: Adults need to be responsible for their decisions on education; involvement in the planning and evaluation of their instruction. Readiness: Adults are most interested in learning subjects having immediate relevance to their work and/or personal lives. Orientation: Adult learning is problem-centered rather than content-oriented. Motivation: Adults respond better to internal versus external motivators. Adult learning is based upon comprehension, organization and synthesis of knowledge rather than rote memory. There are seven Principles of Adult Learning: Adults must want to learn – They learn effectively only when they are free to direct their own learning and have a strong inner and excited motivation to develop a new skill or acquire a particular type of knowledge, this sustains learning. Adults will learn only what they feel they need to learn – Adults are practical in their approach to learning; they want to know, "How is this going to help me right now? – Is it relevant (Content, Connection and Application) and does it meet my targeted goals." Adults learn by doing – Adolescents learn by doing, but adults learn through active practice and participation. This helps in integrating component skills into a coherent whole. Adult learning focuses on problem solving – Adolescents tend to learn skills sequentially. Adults tend to start with a problem and then work to find a solution. A meaningful engagement, such as posing and answering realistic questions and problems is necessary for deeper learning. This leads to more elaborate, longer lasting, and stronger representations of the knowledge (Craik & Lockhart, 1972). Experience affects adult learning – Adults have more experience than adolescents. This can be an asset and a liability, if prior knowledge is inaccurate, incomplete, or naive, it can interfere with or distort the integration of incoming information (Clement, 1982; National Research Council, 2000). Adults learn best in an informal situation – Adolescents have to follow a curriculum. Often, adults learn by taking responsibility by the value and need of content they have to understand and the particular goals it will achieve. Being in an inviting, collaborative and networking environment as an active participant in the learning process makes it efficient. Adults want guidance and consideration as equal partners in the process – Adults want information that will help them improve their situation. They do not want to be told what to do and they evaluate what helps and what doesn't. They want to choose options based on their individual needs and the meaningful impact a learning engagement could provide. Socialization is more important among adults. Andragogy proposes the following six main assumptions about adults as learners: 1) As a person matures, his or her self-concept moves from that of a dependent personality toward one of a self-directing human being; 2) An adult has rich experiences that accumulated through family responsibilities, work-related activities, and prior education; 3) The readiness of an adult to learn is closely connected to the developmental tasks of his or her social role; 4) As a person matures, he or she refers to immediacy application of knowledge rather than the future application of knowledge which used to have occurred in his or her childhood; 5) An adult is motivated to involve in any form of learning based on his or her internal drives rather than external ones; 6) Adults need to know why they need to learn something. Further, Knowles suggests that these characteristics should be taken into consideration when designing programs for adults as well as facilitating their learning process. Also, Knowles proposes a model of self-directed learning. In Knowles's view, self-directed learning is a process. Individuals will actively diagnose their learning needs, propose learning goals, select and implement appropriate learning strategies, and evaluate learning results. This learning model makes them think that they are the masters of learning, thus encouraging the confidence of adult learners to learn actively.

Adult Education needs to be improved. It's difficult to educate someone starting in the middle. You have to educate someone from the beginning. Where does this story begin? A teacher must investigate and see the student as a patient that is in their care. To help someone, you have to know them and know their history. You have to have a plan and a procedure to follow, one that is flexible and easy to personalize. You you need accurate methods to measure progress. And you have to have milestones and goals. These requirements are absolutely necessary if you want to succeed and prosper.

Chautauqua was an adult education and social movement in the United States, highly popular in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Chautauqua assemblies expanded and spread throughout rural America until the mid-1920s. The Chautauqua brought entertainment and culture for the whole community, with speakers, teachers, musicians, showmen, preachers, and specialists of the day. Former U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt was quoted as saying that Chautauqua is "the most American thing in America." (shə-TAW-kwə).

The main reason why people do not want to learn is because they don't fully understand what learning is or how extremely important learning is. Every person wants to be more informed and more educated and more aware. But most people don't know what knowledge they need to learn or where to find it. And there's no instructions or guides that would help them to learn valuable knowledge and information in the most effective and efficient way possible. If you were given a laptop computer that had most of the valuable knowledge and information available in the world, along with a AI teaching assistant that becomes your own personal assistant who helps you through all the learning stages of human intelligence, then everyone could learn on there own time where ever they are on the planet. A complete education with preschool, high school and college courses. And if you paid people to learn, then you can solve several problems at once. There are a lot of different reasons why people don't think it's necessary to learn. It could be physical problems or it could be cognitive issues or the lack of skills and knowledge that could impede a persons ability to learn or want to learn and disrupt a persons motivation to keep learning. We need to make learning easy and self motivating. People may not understand how important learning is. People may not understand the need to learn, they may under-value learning because of misconceptions. But every human has responsibilities, and learning is one of the most important responsibilities that every human has. Becoming more knowledgeable should be everyone's favorite pastime. If you don't enjoy learning, then you probably don't enjoy living

Everyone alive today has the ability to learn anything they want, and understand things. But if you don't have access, or if you don't pursue knowledge and information, you will never truly understand life, or will you ever know how much you're missing.

Adulting is the practice of behaving in a way characteristic of a responsible adult. A person who is always learning.

The reasons why most people don't want to learn is because most people don't fully understand what learning is, and also, they have never learned anything valuable, like understanding the power that some knowledge gives you, power that you can carry with you your entire life. Please don't stop learning, it's the most important ability that you have, don't waste it.

People can sometimes feel that learning is perceived as a chore. Things like fatigue, hunger, environmental stresses can diminish the need to learn. This is a learning disability that everyone should be aware of. If people understood what learning is, and also know what is needed to learn, then learning would be natural, effective and efficient without spending too much effort or time. If you can set times for eating and sleeping, then you could set times for learning, even though you can have flexibility. And you have to have learning goals that are in order, with each new subject learned is progressing you forward.

Older adults may achieve same cognition as undergrads. Learning multiple tasks led to cognition improvements in older adults. Improvements got better as more time passed. A set of recent studies demonstrates for the first time that learning multiple new tasks carries benefits for cognition long after the learning has been completed. One year after they learned new skills, the older research subjects tested higher for certain cognitive tasks than prior to the learning. Consistently, the scores for cognitive functions increased on average by at least two to three times, sometimes more.

It's not just that people are ignorant, it's the knowledge that people do have that keeps them from learning and becoming more knowledgeable. If a person can not understand what they hear, read or feel, then you will have a very difficult time educating them. This is why 90% of all humans are ignorant to some degree in 2018. That's because they learned very little when young and then they were fooled into believing that what they knew was enough to understand themselves and the world around them. A lie that is the cause of almost every problem on the planet throughout our history and present time.

Everyone has a Learning Disability. It's not that people can't learn or have problems learning, it's just that they don't want to learn or feel the need to learn or feel the need to ask questions, and that is a learning disability because people are not learning anything new so they are not becoming more knowledgeable about themselves and the world around them. So people will never fully understand themselves or understand the world around them. People with learning disabilities always need extra help, but the public gets very little help from the schools, from the universities, from the media, from the corporations, from public services and even from Hollywood. Not one institution is helping the public with their learning disabilities. We have to stop living in denial. When people are not learning, then problems will continue to happen and get worse, just as they are now all over the world. If we incentivize people to learn, and if people learn how to improve their lives and the world around them, then we would solve every problem in the world.

You can Lead a Human to Knowledge but you can't make him think "You can lead a horse to water, but you can't make it drink. You can present someone with an opportunity, but you cannot force him or her to take advantage of it. You can’t teach someone who doesn’t want to learn or grow personally."

Education Quotes - Ignorance 

Helping Adults Learn (PDF) - Teaching Adults is Challenging (PDF)

Andragogy is the theory and practice of education of adults.


Education Specialist - Classroom Management - Learning Principles and Impediments - Social Learning

Learning is Fun and Easy, but you have to make learning fun and easy because learning is not fun and easy for everyone all the time. Learning needs to be deliberate, and the process of learning must be understood. Learning is an innate ability that is natural for everyone. But just because learning is an instinct that you were born with, learning does not come with instructions and procedures that would help you fully utilize the power of learning. You can make a horrible mistake, but if you don't realize the mistake because of your lack of knowledge, then you will not learn anything valuable and you will miss a chance to progress. And learning is all about progress. Learning is about increasing the quality of life and increasing the quality of living. The power of learning is similar to the power of money. If you always have enough money, but if you spend the money on things that do more harm than good, then having money is a bad thing and you will not benefit from having enough money the way you should. Learning is a power, but if you learn the wrong things or don't learn enough, then the power of learning may do you more harm than good. Learning needs to be deliberate, and the process of learning must be understood. You don't have to remind yourself to breathe, but do do have to remind yourself to breathe deliberately. You don't have to remind yourself to learn, but you do have to remind yourself to learn deliberately. It's like having all the money in the world, you can use the money wisely, effectively and efficiently to bring wealth and prosperity to everyone, or you can be selfish, negligent and wasteful with the money and watch millions of people die, like they do every year. Learning needs to be deliberate, and if you are not learning what's important and valuable or learn the right things at the right time, then learning may do you more harm than good.

"Some things are easy to learn, and some things are hard to learn, but they are never impossible to learn."

"There is always incentives and rewards when it comes to learning, but only if you are aware of them."

They say that Adults cannot be made to learn. But that is exactly what they do to children in schools, and you wonder why adults don't want to learn. They also say that Adults will only learn when they are internally motivated to do so, which is false. Motivation is not needed to learn. And incentives need to be accurately measured and calculated so they fully explain the inputs and outputs as well as the cause and effects at each step. Money is not a reason, things need to be fully explained. Remember, we are "Learning".

Four Basic Requirements for Learning

First, a person needs clearly understood reasons why the knowledge is necessary and valuable. Second, people need the time to acquire new knowledge and information. Third, people need easy access to valuable knowledge and information. Forth, people need a way to accurately measure their performance and have the necessary tools to test themselves. Fifth, people need to see that all their time and effort pays off, and that their lives will continually improve. This way other people will also be encouraged to take part in this learning journey. (Perquisites that can help: Understands learning. Knows several learning techniques. Knows how to accurately identify valuable knowledge and information. Knows how to manage Life and Time. Has read BK101.)

People have difficulty learning and progressing because they are to busy processing old information over and over again. And they are also not aware of the importance of acquiring new information, or do people have the skills to access valuable knowledge and information. This learning disability is the direct result of our dysfunctional education systems and the media. For humans, processing information and thinking is good and natural, but not learning new information is really bad and extremely unnatural. And it's not just bad for you, it's bad for everyone. If you keep pretending to know things, you will never progress or overcome your ignorance, the same ignorance that you have no idea even exists because you have been neglecting the responsibility of learning.

Capacity is the power to learn or retain knowledge; in law, the ability to understand the facts and significance of your behavior. Capability to perform or produce. The maximum production possible. The amount that can be contained. (computer science) the amount of information (in bytes) that can be stored on a disk drive, or in this case, The Human Brain and its Memory.
Adults will only learn what they feel they need to learn. But it's a bad idea to rely on your feelings when it comes to learning.

End of History illusion is a psychological illusion in which individuals of all ages believe that they have experienced significant personal growth and changes in tastes up to the present moment, but will not substantially grow or mature in the future. Despite recognizing that their perceptions have evolved, individuals predict that their perceptions will remain roughly the same in the future. The illusion is based on the fact that at any given developmental stage, an individual can observe a relatively low level of maturity in previous stages. The phenomenon affects teenagers, middle-aged individuals, and seniors. In general, people tend to see significant changes in hindsight, but fail to predict that these changes will continue. For example, a 20-year-old's impression of how great a change they will undergo in the next ten years will not be as extreme as a 30-year-old's recollection of the changes they underwent between the ages of 20 and 30. The same phenomenon is true for people of any age. The reason for the illusion has not been studied, although researchers speculate that a resistance or fear of change may be causal.

Adults learn by doing. Active participation is especially important to adult learners in comparison to children. But we should be teaching children the same way since we all ready know this.

Adult learning is problem-based and these problems must be realistic. Adult learners like finding solutions to problems. Adult learning is affected by the experience each adult brings.

Adults learn best informally or without formal rules. Adults learn what they feel they need to know whereas children learn from a curriculum, which is stupid, children should have the right to learn what they need to know and want to know, within reason of course. Children want guidance. Adults want information that will help them improve their situation or that of their children. Now you're getting it. You're still a child.

People don't seek knowledge and skills they don't use, or rarely use. If you rarely use a particular knowledge and or skill, then people will have no incentive to learn something new. But if you guaranteed a job to that person, and fully explain the estimated income and the benefits from that job, then people will have the incentive to learn new knowledge and the incentive to learn new skills.

Pay people to go to school and give them on the Job Training, just like the Military does. Except this war is a war against ignorance.

What knowledge and skills do you use everyday? Can you read? Can you operate a telephone? Can you operate a computer? Can you write? Can you communicate? What increased benefits would you get if you improved these skills?

World View is the fundamental cognitive orientation of an individual or society encompassing the entirety of the individual or society's knowledge and point of view. A world view can include natural philosophy; fundamental, existential, and normative postulates; or themes, values, emotions, and ethics.

Your world view depends on how much relevant knowledge and information that you have and understand, knowledge that is accurate and up to date. You are what you know, and if what you know is distorted and incomplete, then your world view will become distorted and incomplete. And the only way to overcome this ignorance is to continually educate yourself so that the knowledge and information you acquire gives you a more accurate and complete understanding of yourself and the world around you, which is one of the main goals of BK101.

To many people make the mistake in believing that they know the answers to certain questions, which usually stops a person from learning more, thus people will never have any conformation or proof that their answers are accurate, which is dangerous because it leaves a person vulnerable to mistakes and also vulnerable to being manipulated.

Don't Stop Learning

Characteristics of Adult Learners. Adult learners have characteristics that set them apart from 'traditional' school or college learners. All adults come to courses with a variety and range of experiences, both in terms of their working life and educational backgrounds. This impacts on how and why they participate in learning. While each student has individual learning needs, there are some characteristics that are common to adult learners: Adults have accumulated life experiences. Adults come to courses with experiences and knowledge in diverse areas. They tend to favor practical learning activities that enable them to draw on their prior skills and knowledge. Adults are realistic and have insights about what is likely to work and what is not. They are readily able to relate new facts to past experiences and enjoy having their talents and knowledge explored in a teaching situation. Adults have established opinions, values and beliefs which have been built up over time and arrived at following experience of families, relationships, work, community, politics, etc. These views cannot be dismissed and must be respected. 

Interference Theory is theory regarding human memory. Interference occurs in learning when there is an interaction between the new material and transfer effects of past learned behavior, memories or thoughts that have a negative influence in comprehending the new material. Bringing to memory old knowledge has the effect of impairing both the speed of learning and memory performance. There are two main kinds of interference: Proactive interference is when past memories inhibit an individual’s full potential to retain new memories. And Retroactive interference occurs when newly learned information interferes with and impedes the recall of previously learned information. This is because most people never learned what learning is, so most people don't have the knowledge or skills to learn things, so they will never continue to learn, and gradually become more and more intelligent each day. This is why schools fail. They don't teach students what learning is, or do they teach what valuable knowledge is.

You learn how to swim so that you don't have to worry about drowning. You learn how to ride a bike so that you have the freedom to travel anytime that you want. You learn how learn so that you can understand more about yourself and the world around you, so you never have to worry about your ignorance keeping you from having a life that you choose, or stopping you from pursuing your dreams. Freedom, Power, Control, Potential and Endless Possibilities.

Adults are intrinsically motivated. But just being born with motivation will not help you until you learn things that are valuable and important. When you're hungry you are motivated to eat, but it f you eat unhealthy food, then you will suffer and die early.

Learners increase their effort when motivated by a need, an interest, or a desire to learn. They are also motivated by the relevance of the material to be addressed and learn better when material is related to their own needs and interests. For learners to be fully engaged in learning their attention must be fully focused on the material presented.

Individual differences. Adults learn at various rates and in different ways according to their intellectual ability, educational level, personality and cognitive learning styles. Teaching strategies must anticipate and accommodate differing comprehension rates of learners.

Adults learn best in a democratic, participatory and collaborative environment . Adults need to be actively involved in determining how and what they will learn, and they need active, not passive, learning experiences.

Adult students are mature people and prefer to be treated as such. Being 'lectured at' causes resentment and frustration. Adults are goal oriented / relevancy oriented. Adults need to know why they are learning something. Adults have needs that are concrete and immediate. They can be impatient with long discussions on theory and like to see theory applied to practical problems. They are task or problem-centered rather than subject-centered. Adults tend to be more interested in theory when it is linked to practical application.

Adults are autonomous and self-directed. They are self-reliant learners and prefer to work at their own pace. Individuals learn best when they are ready to learn and when they have identified their own learning needs. Where a student is directed by someone else to attend a course, e.g. by an employer, then that individual may not be ready to learn or may not see the value in participating on that course. This can lead to a mismatch of goals between all parties - student, employer and trainer. Adults are practical and problem-solvers. Adults are more impatient in the pursuit of learning objectives. They are less tolerant of work that does not have immediate and direct application to their objectives. Problem based learning exercises are welcomed as they build on prior experience and provide opportunity for practical application of materials/theories covered. Adults are sometimes tired when they attend classes. Many students are juggling classes with work, family, etc. They, therefore, appreciate varied teaching methods that add interest and a sense of liveliness to the class.

Adults may have logistical considerations, including. Family and caring responsibilities including childcare and/or eldercare, Careers, Social commitments, Time, Money, Schedules, Transportation, Lack of knowledge and skills.

Ageing concerns. Adults frequently worry about being the oldest person in a class and are concerned about the impact this may have on their ability to participate with younger students. Creating an environment where all participants feel they have a valuable contribution can work to allay such concerns.

Learning Analytics is the measurement, collection, analysis and reporting of data about learners and their contexts, for purposes of understanding and optimizing learning and the environments in which it occurs. A related field is educational data mining.

Adults may have insufficient confidence. Students come to class with varying levels of confidence. Some may have had poor prior experiences of education leading to feelings of inadequacy and fear of study and failure. This can manifest itself in many ways, as indicated in the next section.

Feral - Not Educated - Deprived - A World Without Words

Feral Child is a human child who has lived isolated from human contact from a very young age where they have little or no experience of human care, behavior, or, crucially, of human language. Some feral children have been confined by people or by their own parents, and in some cases this child abandonment was due to the parents’ rejection of a child's severe intellectual or physical impairment. Feral children may have experienced severe abuse or trauma before being abandoned or running away. Estrange.

10 Disturbing Cases Of Feral Children (youtube)

Even when we knew very little about learning, we were still able to reach the minds of some of the most unique people who were denied language and knowledge. They have taught us so much about how we learn, and we still have a lot more to learn.

Undereducated - Information Bubble - Language Disorders

Victor of Aveyron was a French feral child who was found at the age of around twelve. (c. 1788 – 1828).

The Wild Child tells the story of a child who spends the first eleven or twelve years of his life with little or no human contact.

Genie Feral Child is the pseudonym for a feral child who was a victim of severe abuse, neglect, and social isolation. Her circumstances are prominently recorded in the annals of linguistics and abnormal child psychology. (born 1957).

A Man Without Words is a book and case study of a 27-year-old deaf man whom Schaller teaches to sign for the first time, challenging the Critical Period Hypothesis that humans cannot learn language after a certain age.

Language Deprivation is associated with the lack of linguistic stimuli that are necessary for the language acquisition processes in an individual, usually in a very impoverished environment. Experiments involving language deprivation are very scarce due to the ethical controversy associated with it. Sign Language.

Helen Keller was an American author, political activist, and lecturer. She was the first deaf-blind person to earn a bachelor of arts degree. The story of how Keller's teacher, Anne Sullivan, broke through the isolation imposed by a near complete lack of language, allowing the girl to blossom as she learned to communicate, has become widely known through the dramatic depictions of the play and film The Miracle Worker. Her birthplace in West Tuscumbia, Alabama, is now a museum and sponsors an annual "Helen Keller Day". Her birthday on June 27 is commemorated as Helen Keller Day in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania and was authorized at the federal level by presidential proclamation by President Jimmy Carter in 1980, the 100th anniversary of her birth. A prolific author, Keller was well-traveled and outspoken in her convictions. A member of the Socialist Party of America and the Industrial Workers of the World, she campaigned for women's suffrage, labor rights, socialism, antimilitarism, and other similar causes. She was inducted into the Alabama Women's Hall of Fame in 1971 and was one of twelve inaugural inductees to the Alabama Writers Hall of Fame on June 8, 2015. Helen proved to the world that deaf people could all learn to communicate and that they could survive in the hearing world. She also taught that deaf people are capable of doing things that hearing people can do. She is one of the most famous deaf people in history and she is an idol to many deaf people in the world. (June 27, 1880 – June 1, 1968).

Martin Pistorius: How my mind came back to life — and no one knew (video)

Solitary Confinement - Introvert (isolation)

Severe childhood deprivation has longstanding impacts on brain size in adulthood. Researchers have shown that the brains of young adult Romanian adoptees who were institutionalized as children are around 8.6% smaller than the brains of English adoptees who have not suffered this form of deprivation.

Experiences (humans need more then just experiences)

Brain Plasticity - Thinking

In the 1994 Movie Stargate they showed how corrupt leaders can enslave people and control people by making reading and writing against the law. America did something similar, they controlled what schools were teaching students so that students never had enough knowledge to understand that they are still slaves and that they are still being controlled and manipulated. And people have no idea that this is happening because they lack the knowledge and information to see it. Ignorance is blinding.

Sha'uri, please come back to earth. I would travel the universe and live on almost any planet to have your love, but earth is pretty nice.

Tabula Rasa refers to the epistemological idea that individuals are born without built-in mental content and that therefore all knowledge comes from experience or perception. I believe that people are born with a certain amount of information, just not enough. Thus they can never overcome being abandoned or left alone.

Innatism is a philosophical and epistemological doctrine that holds that the mind is born with ideas / knowledge, and that therefore the mind is not a "blank slate" at birth. The mind may not be a blank slate, but there is still not enough knowledge and information that would allow you to learn enough on your own.

Don't Ever Underestimate the Power of Learning

Everything can be learned, which means that everything can be improved. The power to learn is our greatest gift. Learning is something that we are born with. We learned to walk, and we learned to talk, and we did this without anyone having to explain to us how learning works, because we are born to learn. But even though learning is a natural ability, and a natural skill in itself, in order to maximize the enormous amount of benefits that come from learning, you have to learn the right things at the right time, and in the right way. Learning is a powerful tool when its used effectively and efficiently. But if learning is neglected or abused by learning the wrong things at the wrong time, and in the wrong ways, then the benefits, and the power and the potential of learning, is minimized. And this is when people struggle and make mistakes, which causes all the problems that we see today, and all the problems that we have observed throughout human history. When we finally understand our gift to learn, we will then see improvements all over the planet, continually for as long as we live. And we can easily confirm this fact by observing all the advancements that we have made in the last 100 years, all because we used our gift to learn. If you keep learning a little each day, then you will become a little smarter each day, and you will become a little more aware each day, and become a little more happier each day, and you will have a little more control each day, you will have a little more freedom each day, a little more power each day, you will have a little more potential each day, and eventually, you will have endless possibilities from which to choose from, for the rest of your life.

Learning Methods - Presentation.

You could say that Learning is a Gift from God, or you could even say that learning is a gift from life itself, because Life itself wanted to survive, as it has from the beginning. So maybe life figured it out that if we can quickly learn to adapt to changes, we will have a much better chance avoiding extinction. Because 99% of all life has gone extinct since the beginning of our planet. And after each extinction life has always bounce back a little stronger, and a little smarter. And here we are today. Let us not forsake our gift to learn, we have it for a reason.

Learn How to Learn

There's a lot that you need to know about learning. Learning does not always come natural. Most of the time you have to choose to learn and initiate the process of learning. And if you don't understand the process of learning, you will not learn effectively. Learning is more than just remembering. Though at times learning may seem effortless, it does not mean that you have learned effectively or correctly. So just knowing that you can learn, and then trying to prove it with good grades, says absolutely nothing about your understanding of learning, or how effective you are as a learner. We have to create a test that would be a measurement of learning, and not just your ability to remember facts. So not only will you understand How to Learn, you will also know Why you Learn, When you Learn, and Where you Learn.

Logically Ordered Steps - Feed the Mind.

Everyone has the Ability to Learn. The Power to Learn is within Everyone. Everyone has the Power to Learn. You're very capable of learning anything that you want. Anything that you put your mind to, you can learn. That means that you have the ability to solve every problem in your life and have the ability to solve every problem that this world is currently suffering from. So never underestimate the importance of knowledge. Intelligence not only gives you more options and more opportunities, it will also give you an endless supply of happiness. And remember that learning only begins with school, the real important learning happens outside school where you can explore and learn whatever you want, whenever you want and learn as much as you want. And you'll want to learn as much as you can, because knowledge is power and potential all rolled up into one.

Cognition - Principles of Learning

"Learning is like climbing a mountain, the higher you climb the more you can see, and the more you can see the more you can learn, and the more you can learn about what is beyond the horizon, the more visible things will become."

Hacking Knowledge: 77 Ways to Learn Faster, Deeper, and Better

It's like when talking to someone who speaks a different language than you, you don't understand a word they say. That's because you don't have the necessary knowledge, information and experience with that particular language in order to understand it. But anyone can learn to understand a new language, because the brain has the ability to learn new languages, and learn anything. Anything that can be communicated through language can be learned. That is why knowing how to read effectively is so extremely important. 

Learning works best when you can request information and knowledge as you need it. But what if you don't know what information and knowledge is needed? That is why having a teacher, mentor or tutor can be so valuable.

It's great when you learn something new for the first time, specially when you learn something that you know is valuable or beneficial, that's a great feeling. Now imagine learning something valuable everyday. Imagine always having something to look forward to everyday. Something that will make your day. Something that will give you a better understanding of yourself and the world around you. Imagine becoming a little smarter each day, a little more wiser each day, a little more intelligent each day, and become more aware, with more abilities, and more possibilities. Imagine being able to solve every problem on the planet. Imagine having more freedom and more control over your life. Imagine a world full of endless possibilities. Imagine that you are starting your learning journey today.

Visit this website once a day, or visit this website once a week and copy and paste a weeks worth of reading, or link to a few films to watch.

Convert Webpage to Read Offline - Get Pocket to read webpages offline later. If using Firefox Browser, Right Click on the page that you want to read later, and then click on Save Page As, and then download folder to smartphone to read later.

Please remember that there is a sequence to learning, a chronological order. Something's you have to learn first before you can understand new knowledge and new information. Sometimes you will find yourself going back to read something again because you now have more information and knowledge to understand it more. This is normal. But you always have to remember that learning the right things at the right time is extremely important. Like first understanding what learning is and knowing how to be an effective learner. And then learning how to read. And then learning how to comprehend what you are reading. And then reading the most valuable knowledge and information that you can find. And then learning what things you need to learn first and what things you need to learn second, and so on. Learning should never be a chore or a burden. Just like eating healthy food everyday, you need to consume healthy knowledge everyday. Having a healthy mind and a healthy body gives you incredible potential. And you will also be intelligent as you can possibly be. Imagine the possibilities.

"If you can learn anything you want, then you can be anything you want, learn to be."

"Learning is so easy a caveman can do it."

"Learning can be as easy as learning a new word"

"When learning, you don't always feel the benefits when it's happening. Sometimes there is a delayed reaction. Because we have to process information."

"Everyone can learn, but not everyone learns in the same way, or at the same speed, or at the same time, or do they learn the same things as you."

"Too many people take learning for granted, and too many people don't even understand how important learning is, that is the failure of our education system. Our ability to learn is one of the most important aspects of human life."

“if reading itself is a skill, it must be possible to break this down into different level of component skills categories.”

Sub-Skills Approach (PDF) - Component Skills (PDF)

"Everything can be explained, maybe not in the same amount of time that was used for other people, or in the same way as other people, but everything that is explained can be explained. So if you don't understand it now, don't worry, because you will eventually understand it because that is a fact of learning, but only if you keep learning."

"Not wanting to learn is a learning disability, but luckily it's one of the easiest learning disabilities to correct."

"Learning should never be a chore. It should always be about learning to be more valuable and learning to be more productive in your life. The rewards are endless."

"Most people love to have experiences, but not many people enjoy the experience of learning, why?..they're both extremely important."

"Sometimes people don't know what questions to ask, and other times, people believe they know the answers, so they don't bother asking questions."

"Learning benefits you in similar ways that eating healthy benefits you. When you eat good food you are rewarded with energy and good health. When you learn something new that improves your abilities and your understanding, you are rewarded with a more potential and a more improved life. And learning accumulates, so it will continue to be rewarding, just like always eating healthy."

Though there are many different ways that a person can learn, the important thing is, to be able to learn in multiple ways. So no matter how the information is presented, you will still have the ability to analyze the information correctly, so that you can maximize the benefits and increase your potential.

The fact is You can learn anything you want. As long as you are given the time and the necessary information in the correct sequence, you can learn anything. So whether you're learning in a classroom, online, or anywhere, the place where you learn is not so important, what's important is before you start learning 'anything' is knowing How will the information be Presented? Will the information be in the correct sequence based upon your current level of knowledge and understanding? Can you correctly analyze if the information presented needs to be reorganized to match your current level of knowledge and understanding?

Can you correctly identify what related information is needed that would help you better understand the information presented so that you can use this information effectively and efficiently? And, do you have access to related information that you will need that is not presented in this particular course, book or lecture? If you have struggled with learning in your past it's because you have not understood the questions above. And when you have understood the questions above there are still a few more questions you need to answer because Knowing How to Learn is just one thing. You have to know what to learn? When to learn it? Where to learn it? And you have to know, Why you need to learn it? And after that you should also know the answers to these other important questions too...

Is the information relevant to your current needs? Do you know what your current needs are? 

Education Questions to Ask? Does obtaining this new skill set match your current goals and experience? Is the information relevant to the current needs of your family and your community? Is the information relevant to the current needs of your planet in terms os risk assessment.? What problems are you planning to solve with this information that you will gain from this particular course, book or lecture? If you were the teacher how would you present this information differently, and why would you present this information differently in the context of a good example of a real life scenario?

Purposes of Education - Education Reform Ideas

So now you are ready to learn? And are you also ready to improve yourself and improve the world around you?

"Learning can be as easy as breathing, you don't need to think about it, you just do it. Breathing keeps you alive, and so does continually learning."

"Learning on your own is not easy, but going to a University or an expensive school is not a guarantee that you will learn the right things at the right time, or even learn anything useful for your needs. A good teacher helps, that's if you can find one. But learning to teach yourself is really the only sure way that you will be successful on all your learning journeys."

Learning should not be a chore or be boring. The only time that learning is boring is when you're in school. Outside of school learning is awesome because you're learning things that you want to learn, and you're learning things when you want to learn them. 80% of the most valuable knowledge and information is outside schools, this is why continually learning is absolutely necessary. But you're not going to learn much outside school unless you know how to find the most valuable information and knowledge. So you have to be active everyday in your search for knowledge. When you wake up you should be saying "what new and interesting things will I learn today?" But remember, knowledge and information is not looking for you, or will it magically appear, so you have to be actively explore all the right sources of information you can find. So no more worrying about passing a test that proves very little, because Life is the test of your knowledge, and when life is a struggle, or when life becomes to good to be true, then that means that more learning is necessary. Don't associate learning with being in school because you learn very little in school, and also, schools give learning a bad name because they make learning seem boring, which it isn't. You should associate learning as an opportunity to acquire a new skill that gives you more abilities. Learning is a gift that keeps on giving long after you have learned something new, because you can recall it from your memory. Learning is supposed to be fun, if it isn't, then you're probably not doing it right, or you're not learning something important, or you have other things that are more important to learn first.

Learning is supposed to be exhilarating and fun, if learning is not fun for you, then you most likely have a disability or you are a victim of some kind of abused from either bad schools or bad parenting or a little of both.

"If the brain becomes more connected and integrated after learning, and as a result, the person also becomes a more effective learner, then what should a person be learning? What knowledge and information would the brain best utilize as it becomes more connected and more integrated?"

"People usually want to learn things that are important to them, but that's only when people accurately understand what's important to them. It's not just knowing how to learn, it's knowing what to learn and when to learn it. When learning is fragmented it becomes more difficult to learn, and this is one of the reasons why too many people get discourage from learning because it becomes to much of a chore for them. This is what our current education is doing, and this is why we need to improve education."

Your mind is something that you can fully control, but you have to learn how to control your mind, and that takes time and knowledge. The language is the same, but some of the words will have different meanings because they are internally translated into the correct chemical responses or electrical signals in the brain, signals that will be used to activate the correct response or activate the correct action that is needed.

Holistic Learners

Holistic learners work through material most thoroughly and efficiently in "fits and starts." They may often feel overwhelmed with confusion for a while, but understanding will often suddenly click. When the material does suddenly click in understanding, the holistic learner will usually not only see the big picture, but in a more clear and creative perspective that other learners may not. Often, holistic learners will take more time to understand information than their peers. This can often be so discouraging, that a holistic learner may be more tempted to give up on a particular subject. However, when holistic learners do finally understand the material given, more extensively. Holistic learners are usually extremely creative.

Authoritarian vs Authoritative Teaching Polya and Lakatos
Effective Learning and Teaching

The Objective of Education Is Learning, Not Teaching
Teacher's In-Depth Content Knowledge
Lee Shulman

Teaching Knowledge Test (PDF)
Polya (PDF) 
The Research Council on Mathematics Learning (PDF)

Suggestions: Remember you are not slow or stupid; rather, you just think differently than other students. Maintain confidence! If you stick to it, you will get it, and most likely retain the information and be able to practically apply the subject matter the rest of your life. Read all the subheadings, summaries, and glossary or bold-face terms before reading the chapter. Pay special attention to the chapter outline or overview. Set aside an entire evening for one subject and plunge into that subject. Once you have finished with that subject, move on to the next subject. Do not try to study one chapter of one subject, and then one chapter of another. Try taking subjects that are hard for you in summer school when you are juggling fewer courses. Relate the subject matter to the other subjects, concepts, or ideas of which you are understand or in which you are confident. Personalize and apply the subject matter to your world.

Presentation - Presenting

The way information and knowledge is presented to a person is one of the most important elements of the teaching process. Showing relevant and related information can help a person to visualize and simplify the information being presented. This can also help process the information more effectively and easier. Introducing information in simple to understand steps can make information less overwhelming and less complex. Sometimes visualization needs to be personalized using things that you already understand, which can help you to understand other things that you don't fully understand just yet. Certain knowledge described in a certain way may not match your understanding. So you have to arrange the information in a way that helps you to understand it better. So when information is presented to you, you might have to rearrange that particular knowledge in order to help you personally understand it better. You also need to be in the right frame of mind or mind set. If your not motivated or ready to learn, then learning may not be effective.

How you approach a task is very important. The setup, the organizing, the visualizing, the planning, and then starting.

Learning Readiness - Mind Set - Optimal Learning State - Confidence - Competence - Focus - Mindfulness - Charts and Graphs - Graphics - Display Board - Mind Maps - Associations - Interfaces - Mediums - Performance - Talking Effectively

Conceptual Framework is an analytical tool with several variations and contexts. It can be applied in different categories of work where an overall picture is needed. It is used to make conceptual distinctions and organize ideas. Strong conceptual frameworks capture something real and do this in a way that is easy to remember and apply. Conceptual frameworks are abstract representations, connected to the research project's goal that direct the collection and analysis of data (on the plane of observation – the ground). Conceptual Model (wiki)

Power of the Pictogram. Sometimes, how the information is presented is as important as the information itself. Graphics, icons, and pictograms are increasingly popular methods of presenting information to consumers in direct, memorable, and easily understandable ways. Researcher finds that sorted graphics make consumers feel optimistic.

Chunking in writing is a method of presenting information which splits concepts into small pieces or "chunks" of information to make reading and understanding faster and easier. Chunking is especially useful for material presented on the web because readers tend to scan for specific information on a web page rather than read the page sequentially. Chunked content usually contains: bulleted lists, short subheadings, short sentences with one or two ideas per sentence, short paragraphs, even one-sentence paragraphs, easily scannable text, with bolding of key phrases, inline graphics to guide the eyes or illustrate points which would normally require more words. Advantages of chunking: Chunking helps technical communicators or marketers convey information more efficiently. Chunking helps readers find what they are looking for quickly. Chunking allows material to be presented consistently from page to page, so users can apply previous knowledge of page layout and navigation and focus on the content rather than the presentation. The bite, snack and meal is a popular phrase for a specific means of chunking content.

Page Layout is the arrangement of visual elements on a page, generally involves organizational principles of composition to achieve specific communication objectives. Deciding on the overall arrangement of text and images, and possibly on the size or shape of the medium. It requires intelligence, sentience, and creativity, and is informed by culture, psychology, and what the document authors and editors wish to communicate and emphasize.

Document Writing Standards

Framing Effect is an example of cognitive bias, in which people react to a particular choice in different ways depending on how it is presented.

Format is the organization of information according to preset specifications. Determine the arrangement of information for display.

Home Organized Personalized Education, it's a great way to learn. You may hear the terms Learning Menus, Customizing Content and Curriculum Mapping, but remember the most important factors are, is the information and knowledge relevant to your learning needs and priorities?

Personal Learning Environments is creating, using, and managing appropriate technological processes and resources to enhance learning. Learning Environment is a physical setting in which teaching and learning occur.

Student Approaches to Learning is a theory that students will take a different approach to how they study, depending upon the perceived objectives of the course they are studying.

Sometimes you need to change your learning methods and thinking styles in order to understand a particular knowledge. It's up to you to find out which learning method, or methods, works best.

When you want to learn a subject that seems really difficult to understand, or hard to understand, so much so that it seems intimidating, you will most likely need some sort of an entry point. You need a simple introduction to the subject, and a simple explanation about why the subject has value. You need to approach the subject with an open mind. No biases, no fears, no expectations. One trick is to pretend the subject is a person that you are really interested in knowing. You like this person, so you want to know more about them. This is your subject. An investigation in knowing. You don't have to go fast, or feel the need to understand the subject the first time that you are exposed to it. But if you were exposed to the subject before, just remember that this time it's different. Because now you have purpose, and a desire and motivation. You know there is value in this knowledge. But you have to learn the subject and understand the subject before you can fully ultilize its value. Learning is a step by step process that takes time. Think of learning a subject as a way of building future potential energy. Knowledge has power and you are the battery that will holds its energy, a stored energy that can be used when needed. But power has great responsibility. Learn to control the power first before you acquire this power.

Algorithmic Efficiency are the properties of an algorithm which relate to the amount of computational resources used by the algorithm. An algorithm must be analysed to determine its resource usage. Algorithmic efficiency can be thought of as analogous to engineering productivity for a repeating or continuous process.

Program Optimization is the process of modifying a software system to make some aspect of it work more efficiently or use fewer resources. In general, a computer program may be optimized so that it executes more rapidly, or is capable of operating with less memory storage or other resources, or draw less power.

"If something feels over whelming and you can't understand something enough, don't worry, that's normal. It's just your minds way of saying "Hey we need more information", in order to understand this correctly. So that feeling you get from not knowing is not to alarm you, it's just a way of making you aware so you can ask questions like "How important is this new void of information?", and, what would be the first step towards understanding this new information?"

The Power of Learning.

"if you teach something that can be interpreted in the wrong way, then that is ineffective teaching. Many things can be interpreted in the wrong way, so defining the interpretation, and also defining the misinterpretations, will make knowledge and information a higher chance of being understood more accurately."

Breathing Exercises for Learning Improvement

Take Several deep breaths almost every hour that you're awake, especially when you're not physically active enough, and especially when you are learning. This will help increase oxygen levels in your blood and in your brain. It will also help to relax your body and clear the mind. It will also help increase your brain waves, or cycles per second, into the beta state. Learning in alpha state can also enhance the performance of students. Changing the state of mind to operate Beta, Alpha and Theta can also enhance learning, cognition and creativity, while at the same time staying in a relaxed state. Theta rhythm is observed in the hippocampus.

First relax for a few moments, then take a deep breath at a count of 4, hold that breath for 4 seconds, then exhale that breath for a count of 4 seconds, and then repeat these deep breaths 4 more times. 

There are other breathing exercises that may work better for you, so you will have to do some research.

Breathe Project is a simple breathing technique to alleviate stress and anxiety.

Brain Food - Brain Games

Breathing through the nose aids Memory Storage. When breathing through the nose between the time of learning and recognition, they remembered the smells better. Receptors in the olfactory bulb detect not only smells but also variations in the airflow itself. In the different phases of inhalation and exhalation, different parts of the brain are activated. But how the synchronisation of breathing and brain activity happens and how it affects the brain and therefore our behaviour is unknown.

Now that you have done your deep breathing exercise, it's time to quite your thoughts. Now focus and keep your attention on breathing normally through the nose. Calmly and comfortably breath in and out. Your brain will naturally release Endorphins, Benzodiazepines and other Neuropeptides that bring you into a tranquil and alert state of mind. (7 cps).

Music for Enhancing Learning and Focus

Music can stimulate learning. The music should be playing in the background so that the music is not too loud that it becomes distracting. Listening to music with 50 to 80 beats per minute has a calming effect on the mind that is conducive to logical thought, allowing the brain to learn and remember new facts. Studies have shown that classical music targets the part of the brain that stimulates spatial-temporal reasoning, which is useful in solving math problems. But remember learning takes focus and skill. I like my learning area to be quiet, even though that's impossible. I can tune out most background noise unless something unusual happens that distracts my attention. So if your music does not distract you, then that is the type of music you should listen to when reading or studying. But remember, remembering is not a guarantee, memory is a skill that you have to use deliberately in order to have an effective memory. And when reading, writing or learning, you have to be able to tune out background sounds in order to stay focused, just as long as you are not ignoring alarms.

Lyric-Free Music can be less distracting.

Happy Songs - Music Therapy - Meditation Music

Mozart Effect are a set of research results indicating that listening to Mozart's music may induce a short-term improvement on the performance of certain kinds of mental tasks known as "spatial-temporal reasoning".

For some the best sound for productivity is silence. Or take a break every few hours and listen to music for 15 minutes.

Psychoacoustics is the scientific study of sound perception. More specifically, it is the branch of science studying the psychological and physiological responses associated with sound (including speech and music). It can be further categorized as a branch of psychophysics. Psychoacoustics received its name from a field within psychology—i.e., recognition science—which deals with all kinds of human perceptions. It is an interdisciplinary field of many areas, including psychology, acoustics, electronic engineering, physics, biology, physiology, and computer science. Hearing.

You will have to experiment with different types of music to see which ones inspire learning without distracting you.

Lo-Fi Hip Hop Beats Are So Effective For Focus - How Focus Music Hacks Your Brain - Cheddar Explains (youtube)

Study Music: Brain Music for Studying, Brain Power Focus Music, Concentration Music for Learning (youtube)

SAMUEL BARBER - Adagio for Strings, Op. 11 (youtube)

Chet Baker ~ Every Time We Say Goodbye (youtube)

Study Music Alpha Waves: Relaxing Studying Music, Brain Power, Focus Concentration Music, 161  (youtube)

Study Music for Concentration, Instrumental Music, Classical Music, Work Music, Relax, E103 (youtube)

Classical Study Music | Mozart with Alpha Study Aid Embedded - Alpha BiNaural Beats (youtube)

Space Sound Odyssey | Deep White Noise For Focus, Power Naps or Sleep (youtube)

Philip Glass - Glassworks (complete)


Jurassic Park Theme 1000 percent Slower (sound cloud)

Justin Beiber - U Smile (800% Slower) [HQ] (youtube)

Bach - Cello Suite No. 1 in G Major BWV1007 - Mov. 1-3/6 (youtube)

Roger & Brian Eno – Spring Frost (youtube)

Brian Eno - New Space Music (Visualizer) (youtube)

Nils Frahm - Says (Live on KEXP) (youtube)

Nils Frahm - Fundamental Values (Live) (youtube)

Brown Noise 8 Hours, for Relaxation, Sleep, Studying and Tinnitus (youtube) - Brown noise  is named for Brownian motion, a term for when something is constantly undergoing small, random fluctuations. It is similar to white noise in its atmospheric quality, but where white noise falls all over the place in terms of frequency, brown noise lives at low frequencies. Brown noise is thought to be soothing because of its similarity in frequency to the sounds of thunder, rain and waterfalls. The sound can slow racing thoughts and help you focus, and like white noise, it could help you sleep.

Can Random Noise unlock our learning potential? Though many of us may seek a quiet place in which to study, 'noise' may play a key role in helping some people improve their learning potential.

Music as a Learning and Teaching Tool - Meditation Sounds

Affirmation: I am now ready to learn, I am relaxed, focused and I have a heightened sense of curiosity.

Inspiration - Visualization

Practicing right before you go to sleep, and learning one hour before you go to sleep

Memory Consolidation - Memory

Activation of the ventral tegmental area and mesolimbic networks is essential to motivation, performance, and learning.

Neurofeedback Training measures brain waves to produce a signal that can be used as feedback to teach self-regulation of brain function.

Real Life Examples

Words are powerful, as long as you learn them in the right order at the right time. Just like computer code it has to be in the right order and at the right time.

I like Structure but I also like knowing the details and the Complexities of different learning methods.

Teaching Resources - Online Schools - Passing the Baton - Information Literacy - Brain

You have to be patient with peoples lack of knowledge and understanding. But your patience should not be passive because you still need to communicate effectively and at least try to educate that person or persons. You don't want to miss an opportunity to teach someone even if that person is not receptive to learning. This is when the teacher needs to get creative in their teaching methods, There is always a way in. Like a 4 number combination lock, you have to try the right combination of teaching methods in order to unlock the brains ability to understand the information that you are trying to communicate. There is always a way in, the brain was built this way, I guess it was the only way to insure its survival. The genius of its design still amazes me today.

"We all have brains, but not everyone has enough knowledge in order to use the brain correctly so that would it fully utilize the brains incredible potential." - Keep Learning My Friends.

"Remember that schools and colleges are mostly just basic job skills. The real education is outside school. 80% of the worlds most important information and knowledge is beyond the classroom walls."

Thinking - Thoughts

Thinking is the process of using your mind to consider something carefully. The activity of processing information. Endowed with the capacity to reason and to judge or regard something. To look upon. To expect, believe, or suppose. To use or exercise the mind or one's power of reason in order to make inferences, decisions, or arrive at a solution or judgments. To recall knowledge from memory and have a recollection. To imagine or visualize. To Focus one's attention on a certain state. To have in mind as a purpose. To decide by pondering, reasoning, or reflecting. To dispose the mind in a certain way. To have or formulate in the mind. To be capable of conscious thought. To bring into a given condition by mental preoccupation.

Executive Functions - Cognition - Cortex - Mindful - Seeing the Whole PictureLayers - Mindset

Thinking about Something is to have something on one's mind, and to think about it actively. To take something into consideration or to have in view.

Ideas - Abstract Thought - Dreaming - Day Dreaming - Thinking to Yourself - One Thought Leads to Another - Over Thinking

Freedom of Thought - Free Thinking - Time to Think - Solitude - Work Life Balance

Thought can refer to the ideas or arrangements of ideas that result from thinking, the act of producing thoughts, or the process of producing thoughts. You are what you think.

Thoughts is the main thing that you are thinking about and the content of cognition. The process of using your mind to consider something carefully. The organized beliefs of a period, group or individual. A personal belief or a judgment that is not founded on proof or certainty. An opinion.

Thought Process is a type of cognitive activity that uses mental capacity to complete and understand certain functions of the human experience. These operations may allow you to solve problems, make decisions or create and evaluate new ideas.

Thought is the mental process in which beings form psychological associations and models of the world. Thinking is manipulating information, as when we form concepts, engage in problem solving, reason and make decisions. Thought, the act of thinking, produces thoughts. A thought may be an idea, an image, a sound or even an emotional feeling that arises from the brain.

Outline of Thought (pdf) - List of Thought Processes (PDF)

Thought Patterns is a habit of thinking in a particular way, using particular assumptions.

Psychological Processes: Sensation, Perception, Attention, Learning, and Memory.

Thoughtful is exhibiting careful thought and having intellectual depth. Acting with good sense. Taking heed and giving close and thoughtful attention. Being considerate of the feelings or well-being of others.

Pensive is to be engaged in reflecting deep thoughts or serious thoughts. To be deeply or seriously thoughtful. Showing pensive sadness.

Language and Thought states that we think in the language we speak. Can you think without using words or language?

Language of Thought Hypothesis states that thinking takes place in a language of thought. Cognition and cognitive processes are only remotely plausible when expressed as a system of representations that is tokened by a linguistic or semantic structure and operated upon by means of a combinatorial syntax. Linguistic tokens used in mental language describe elementary concepts which are operated upon by logical rules establishing causal connections to allow for complex thought. Syntax as well as semantics have a causal effect on the properties of this system of mental representations. These mental representations are not present in the brain in the same way as symbols are present on paper; rather, the LOT is supposed to exist at the cognitive level, the level of thoughts and concepts. The LOTH has wide-ranging significance for a number of domains in cognitive science. It relies on a version of functionalist materialism, which holds that mental representations are actualized and modified by the individual holding the propositional attitude, and it challenges eliminative materialism and connectionism. It implies a strongly rationalist model of cognition in which many of the fundamentals of cognition are innate. This describes the nature of thought as possessing "language-like" or compositional structure (sometimes known as mentalese). On this view, simple concepts combine in systematic ways (akin to the rules of grammar in language) to build thoughts. In its most basic form, the theory states that thought, like language, has syntax. Language of Thought Hypothesis describes the nature of thought as possessing "language-like" or compositional structure (sometimes known as mentalese). On this view, simple concepts combine in systematic ways (akin to the rules of grammar in language) to build thoughts. In its most basic form, the theory states that thought, like language, has syntax, which is a systematic orderly arrangement, or the grammatical arrangement of words in sentences.

Psychological is something mental or emotional as opposed to physical in nature.

Conventional Thinking is opinions that are perceived to be ordinary or normal.

Contemplation is a long and thoughtful observation. Profoundly or deeply thinking about something. In a religious sense, contemplation is usually a type of prayer or meditation.

Contemplate is to think intently about something or think deeply about a subject or question over a period of time. Observe deep in thought. To look at something thoughtfully. To consider something as a possibility. (mulling it over, thinking it over, studying, pondering).

Contemplative is expressing or involving prolonged thought.

Contemplative Practices are practical, radical, and transformative. It's developing capacities for deep concentration and quieting the mind in the midst of the action and distraction that fills everyday life. This state of calm centeredness is an aid to exploration of meaning, purpose and values.

Reflective to think deeply or to be seriously thoughtful. Devoted to matters of the mind. Reflect is to think deeply or carefully about something. Reflection.

Backstory - Retrospect - Growth Mindset - Active Learning

Reflective Thinking is considering why what you did something or why you plan to do something. It's writing down your thoughts to help you better understand something and to explore your emotions, feelings, reactions, experiences and knowledge. Reflective thinking is a series of logical rational steps based on the scientific method of defining, analyzing, and solving a problem.

Entertain an Idea means to have something in mind or under consideration.

Let that sink in for a moment is to take some time to think about something carefully and to process it until you can fully understand it. To allow information to penetrate and absorb into your mind so that you can know it, feel it and have it become understood.

Consider is to think about something carefully or to analyze something carefully in order to determine the weight or the importance of something. To study something to find a solution. To judge or regard. To look upon something or look at something attentively and perceive or think about it in a particular way. Focus on something as an example. Consideration.

Think it Through is to consider all the possible effects or implications of something. To think about all the different parts or the effects of something for a period of time, especially in an effort to understand something better or to make a better decision. Consider alternative points of view. Challenge your preferences. Be skeptical of your memories. Study your mistakes. Think things through or think it out. Planning - Be careful what you wish for.

Get a Little Ahead of Yourself is to do something too early or too soon before you're ready or prepared. To start something before you have done all the steps that are required.

Rethink is to think again about a choice previously made, or to think again about about something in order to make changes to it or to change one's mind, or, to confirm the accuracy of ones thoughts.

Navigating our Thoughts: Fundamental Principles of Thinking. When we navigate our environment, two important cell types are active in our brain. Place cells in the hippocampus and grid cells in the neighboring entorhinal cortex form a circuit that allows orientation and navigation. The team of scientists suggests that our inner navigation system does much more. They propose that this system is also key to 'thinking', explaining why our knowledge seems to be organized in a spatial fashion.

It's great that we can think things that we don't have to say or act out. What we're thinking is private, but just because its' private, it doesn't mean that our thoughts are good or right. Sometimes we have to say what we think. But saying what we think is not always a good idea. We should be careful what we think, and we should be even more careful what we say. We think things we should not speak, and we speak things that we should not think. We say things we should not say, because we think things we should not think. You can tell me what you think, but that doesn't explain what you say. Thinking and saying are two different things. You might not be thinking about what you're saying, and you can say what you're not thinking. So tell me what you're thinking? Can you tell me what thinking is? What information are you processing? And why are you processing that information? And what information filters do you use?

How the Brain Prepares to Think. Our brains have billions of nerve cells or neurons, and each neuron has thousands of connections to other neurons. The calibrated interactions of these neurons are what thoughts are made of, whether the explicit kind – a distant memory surfacing – or the taken-for-granted kind — our peripheral awareness of our surroundings as we move through the world. When a cell gets excited by electrical signals, very fast synaptic vesicle fusion occurs. The neurotransmitters come out of the cell and bind to receptors on the synaptic side. That’s the signal, and this process is very fast. How exactly these signals can occur really fast, less than 60 microseconds or millionths of a second.

Driving rural highways that have very little traffic is like experiencing a spiritual journey. You're moving through space and time while immersed in thoughts. It's an unusual feeling. Motion seems to energize the mind. But eventually, you have to stop driving, and you have to walk around because sitting too long is not good for the body, and your body is extremely important because it carries your brain and all your memories. The body also gives you the ability to move around, and motion feels good, as long as the body is not hurting.

Computational Thinking is the thought processes involved in formulating a problem and expressing its solution(s) in such a way that a computer—human or machine—can effectively carry out. Computational Thinking is an iterative process based on three stages (captured by the figure to the right): Problem formulation (abstraction); Solution expression (automation); Solution execution and evaluation (analyses).

Metacognition is cognition about cognition, "thinking about thinking", or "knowing about knowing" and higher order thinking skills. It comes from the root word "meta", meaning beyond. It can take many forms; it includes knowledge about when and how to use particular strategies for learning or for problem solving. There are generally two components of metacognition: knowledge about cognition, and regulation of cognition. Metamemory is defined as knowing about memory and mnemonic strategies, is an especially important form of metacognition. Academic research on metacognitive processing across cultures is in the early stages, but there are indications that further work may provide better outcomes in cross-cultural learning between teachers and students. Some evolutionary psychologists hypothesize that metacognition is used as a survival tool, which would make metacognition the same across cultures. Writings on metacognition can be traced back at least as far as On the Soul and the Parva Naturalia of the Greek philosopher Aristotle. Metacognologists are aware of their own strengths and weaknesses, the nature of the task at hand, and available "tools" or skills. A broader repertoire of "tools" also assists in goal attainment. When "tools" are general, generic, and context independent, they are more likely to be useful in different types of learning situations. Another distinction in metacognition is executive management and strategic knowledge. Executive management processes involve planning, monitoring, evaluating and revising one's own thinking processes and products. Strategic knowledge involves knowing what (factual or declarative knowledge), knowing when and why (conditional or contextual knowledge) and knowing how (procedural or methodological knowledge). Both executive management and strategic knowledge metacognition are needed to self-regulate one's own thinking and learning.

Metamemory or Socratic awareness, a type of metacognition, is both the introspective knowledge of one's own memory capabilities (and strategies that can aid memory) and the processes involved in memory self-monitoring. This self-awareness of memory has important implications for how people learn and use memories. When studying, for example, students make judgments of whether they have successfully learned the assigned material and use these decisions, known as "judgments of learning", to allocate study time.

Meta-Emotion is an organized and structured set of emotions and cognitions about the emotions, both one's own emotions and the emotions of others. Meta-emotion refers to the idea that whenever we elicit a certain emotion, we also deal with subsequent emotions regarding how we experienced the primary emotion. While some psychologists have examined the influence of meta-emotions on how individuals interpret and deal with their own and others' emotions, much of the literature regarding meta-emotion has focused on how parental meta-emotion affects the social-emotional development of their children.

Metacognitive abilities like reading the emotions and attitudes of others may be more influenced by environment than genetics. Twin studies have proven invaluable for teasing out the effects of both genetics and the environment on human biology. Researchers studied pairs of twins to look at how the interplay of genetics and environment affect cognitive processing -- the way that people think. They found that some cognitive abilities appear to be regulated more by environmental factors than by genetics.

Mentalization is the ability to understand the mental state of oneself or others, that underlies overt behavior. Mentalization can be seen as a form of imaginative mental activity that lets us perceive and interpret human behavior in terms of intentional mental states (e.g., needs, desires, feelings, beliefs, goals, purposes, and reasons).

Train of Thought refers to the interconnection in the sequence of ideas expressed during a connected discourse or thought, as well as the sequence itself, especially in discussion how this sequence leads from one idea to another.

Thought Experiment is to explore the potential consequences of the principle in question: "A thought experiment is a device with which one performs an intentional, structured process of intellectual deliberation in order to speculate, within a specifiable problem domain, about potential consequents (or antecedents) for a designated antecedent (or consequent).

Ruminate - Information Overload - Brain Processing

You need time to think, but you also need to think about the time that's needed to think. Thinking needs a purpose and a goal. Thinking needs to be managed and focused, if not, then you will most likely be daydreaming about random things. If you're not thinking and planning to do something, you will most likely never do something, especially something of value.

Law of Thought are fundamental axiomatic rules upon which rational discourse itself is often considered to be based. The formulation and clarification of such rules have a long tradition in the history of philosophy and logic. Generally they are taken as laws that guide and underlie everyone's thinking, thoughts, expressions, discussions, etc. However, such classical ideas are often questioned or rejected in more recent developments, such as intuitionistic logic, dialetheism and fuzzy logic.

Black Box is a device, system or object of inputs and outputs, in which a person has no knowledge of its internal workings. Almost anything might be referred to as a black box, such as a transistor, an algorithm, or the human brain.

Divergent Thinking - Convergent Thinking

Divergent is tending to move apart in different directions from another or from a standard. To have no limits as a mathematical series. To extend in a different direction. To be at variance with or to be out of line with.

Seeing the Bigger Picture - Holistic Thinking - Open Minded - Freedom - Mind Wandering - Filtering - Creativity

Divergent Thinking is a thought process or method used to generate creative ideas by exploring many possible solutions. It is often used in conjunction with its cognitive colleague, convergent thinking, which follows a particular set of logical steps to arrive at one solution, which in some cases is a ‘correct’ solution. By contrast, divergent thinking typically occurs in a spontaneous, free-flowing, 'non-linear' manner, such that many ideas are generated in an emergent cognitive fashion. Many possible solutions are explored in a short amount of time, and unexpected connections are drawn. After the process of divergent thinking has been completed, ideas and information are organized and structured using convergent thinking.

Convergent Thinking follows a particular set of logical steps to arrive at one solution, which in some cases is a ‘correct’ solution. Generally means the ability to give the "correct" answer to standard questions that do not require significant creativity.

Systems Thinking - Focusing

Convergent is tending to come together from different directions. Direct one's attention on something. Bring into focus or alignment; to converge or cause to converge; of ideas or emotions. Become focused or come into focus.

Lineal Thinking - Lateral Thinking

Lineal is to arranged in a line. Intend something to move towards a certain goal. Give directions to; point somebody into a certain direction. Direct the course. Straightforward in means or manner or behavior or language or action. Similar in nature or effect or relation to another quantity without deviation. Series.

Non-Linear is something that does not progress or develop smoothly from one stage to the next in a logical way. Instead, it makes sudden changes, or seems to develop in different directions at the same time.

Lateral Thinking is solving problems through an indirect and creative approach, using reasoning that is not immediately obvious and involving ideas that may not be obtainable by using only traditional step-by-step logic. Lateral is situated at or extending to the side.

Linear Learners - Neuro-Linguistic Programming - Machine Intelligence - Machine Learning

Linear System is a mathematical model of a system based on the use of a linear operator. Linear systems typically exhibit features and properties that are much simpler than the nonlinear case. As a mathematical abstraction or idealization, linear systems find important applications in automatic control theory, signal processing, and telecommunications. For example, the propagation medium for wireless communication systems can often be modeled by linear systems. Quantum Computing.

Holistic Learners

Consideration is the process of giving careful thought to something. Information that should be kept in mind when making a Decision.

Parallel Thinking is a further development of the well known lateral thinking processes, focusing even more on explorations—looking for what can be rather than for what is.

Parallel Processing - Parallel Wiring

Modes of thinking: abstract, analytic, conceptual, concrete, convergent, creative, critical, deductive, divergent, strategic, synthetic, tactical, and also computational and procedural. How you approach a problem and how you see it. Having step-by-step set of directions are important, but sometimes you need a different approach. One heuristic way for solving a complex problem is to break the problem into smaller, more manageable problems, where you can utilize brainstorming and collaboration.

“I think, therefore I'll think.” Ayn Rand

"We rarely give much thought to certain things, even though our brains never stop thinking. Why?"

Intelligence - Knowledge - Problem Solving - Thinking Styles - Inspiration

Thinking Outside the Box is a metaphor that means to think differently, unconventionally, or from a new perspective. This phrase often refers to novel or creative thinking.

Linear Learners

Linear learners learn most thoroughly and efficiently, when material is presented to them in a logical, ordered progression. They will often attack problem solving with a series of ordered steps. They often will understand in part before understanding the whole. They prefer to start off with the simplest concept or part of a problem, and work through to the more difficult parts until the whole solution is found. Many teachers and instructors follow a linear progression. Suggestions: If your instructor moves from one topic to another, make sure you rewrite your notes, and fill in the gaps in your notes. This may require borrowing another student's notes, or actually visiting the professor outside of the classroom. If the instructor skips around and does not follow a logical or chronological progression, you may want to rewrite the subject matter according to a logical progression that makes sense to you. Always outline the subject matter.

Linear vs. Non-linear Learning (PDF)

Right Brain Parallel - Left Brain Serial - Lineal Thinking (divergent)

Linearization refers to finding the linear approximation to a function at a given point. In the study of dynamical systems, linearization is a method for assessing the local stability of an equilibrium point of a system of nonlinear differential equations or discrete dynamical systems.

Seeing the Whole Picture - Seeing Beneath the Surface

Layers of the SunGet the Big Picture means to see all the things that are related to a problem so that an accurate decision can be made. There are layers, levels, dimensions and different points of view that are beyond the surface, things that need to be considered when making a decision. Having all the evidence and all the facts is important when you need to fully understand the overall meaning of a situation, or to understand the real implications of a situation. You need to be conscious of the whole picture and see things as a whole, because things are more than just the sum of their parts.

You Get the Picture means that you understand the entire perspective of a situation, sometimes using divergent thinking and mind maps, or by doing more research.

Seeing the Whole Picture is seeing all related factors or parallel factors, and the potential consequences of those factors in the future. It's understanding the logical relation of things as a whole.

Gestalt emphasizes the processing of entire patterns and configurations, and not merely the individual components.

Connecting the Dots - Interdependent - Systemic - Neural Networks - Thinking Levels - Investigation - Root Cause - Pyramid of Complexity - Puzzles - Visualization - Reading Between the Lines - Two Sides to a Story - Multi-Disciplinary - Construct - Mind Maps - Mind Set

Being able to see all the different layers of information that exist in our world can give us a much better understanding of ourselves and the world around us. But most people just see the surface of things, and most people just see life as being one dimensional or superficial. This type of low level thinking and shallow view is fine if you're multitasking or just relaxing. But if you really want to fully understand yourself and the world around you, you need to learn more about all the different things that are happening inside you, and learn more about all the different things that are happening around you in the environment and in other social structures. Not being aware of all the vulnerabilities in life is extremely risky and dangerous. And not being aware of your full potential will reduce your odds of having a good life. Every problem that we see in the world is directly related to people not having enough knowledge and information. We understand all the negative side effects that comes from having a poor education, and we can clearly see all the benefits that comes from having a good education, but we still can't see below the surface of things in order to live life to its full potential. Let the truth be told.

There's more than what meets the eye. It's not just your field of view, it's more about your depth of knowledge. You can't fully see what you don't know and you can't clearly understand what you have never learned. If you don't know something, then you can't understand it or be conscious of it, thus things can be invisible to you. You need X-Ray Eyes.

Holistic is the view that the whole is more than just the sum of its parts. There is a functional relation between the parts and the whole. The whole is made up of parts, and parts can have parts, with each part having an individual function, and the system as a whole can have a different function than its individual parts. And the different ways to combine individual parts can effect or influence the function of the whole system.

Whole is all of something, including all its component elements or parts without exception. Being one complete unit or constituting the full amount of something or the full extent of something. Things or people acting together as a single undiversified whole.

Holistic Thinking is the ability to see the big picture and see the interconnections between different aspects of a problem or a situation. Holistic Thinkers consider the context as a whole, focusing on the relationships between objects. A holistic perspective is seeing ourselves as a whole. It's taking a step back to understand the situation as a whole, and understanding of the relationship between all of the parts of a whole, which can help you make better decisions, avoid oversimplifying or overcomplicating issues, and generate creative solutions. When we make decisions holistically, it increases quality of life for all involved. Analytic Thinkers focus on individual objects, assigning them to categories based on their attributes.

Holistic Medicine - Holistic Education

Holism is the interdisciplinary idea that systems possess properties as wholes, apart from the properties of their component parts.

Emergence is the process of coming into being, or becoming important or prominent, or the process of coming into view or becoming exposed after being concealed. In philosophy, systems theory, science, and art, emergence occurs when a complex entity has properties or behaviors that its parts do not have on their own, and emerge only when they interact in a wider whole. Emergence plays a central role in theories of integrative levels and of complex systems.

Systems Thinking is a way of making sense of the complexity of the world by looking at it in terms of wholes and relationships rather than by splitting it down into its parts. It has been used as a way of exploring and developing effective action in complex contexts, enabling systems change. Systems thinking draws on and contributes to systems theory and the system sciences.

"To see what is in front of one's nose needs a constant struggle."

"Only those who can see the invisible, can do the impossible."

If you don't see the whole picture, then what do you see? Just a part of something that you don't fully understand. If you can't see your potential, then how will you reach your potential?

You Don't Know the Half of It means that there is more to the story that has been told. Not all knowledge and information has been presented and understood. There are more details that would help you to fully understand a situation. Seeing the whole picture is only possible when you know that there are other pieces missing. If you don't know the questions to ask, you will not find the answers. When you hear people say, "If I knew that before, I would have acted differently," it means that they just realized they were missing valuable information. So before jumping to conclusions, just take a good look first to see where you're going, because you might not like the destination that you're heading for.

Spectrum is a large range of related objects, values, qualities, ideas or activities. An ordered array of the components of an emission or wave. Full Spectrum is having all visible wavelengths present in proportions covering an entire range or set. A prism shows different colors in white light that you normally don't see.

Grand Scheme is the totality of the situation approached objectively. The big picture. All things considered and known.

The Grand Scheme of Things
is the complete picture of something. The organization of things in general; the way the world is. It means that when you put things in perspective, taking everything into account, sometimes what has previously been considered significant isn't quite significant. Describes how important one thing is when compared to everything else in a situation or how one thing relates to the other things in a situation.

Landmark study shows that transcendent thinking may grow teens' brains over time. Scientists find that adolescents who grapple with the bigger meaning of social situations experience greater brain growth, which predicts stronger identity development and life satisfaction years later. The executive control network is involved in managing focused and goal-directed thinking, while the default mode network is active during all kinds of thinking that transcends the "here and now," such as when recalling personal experiences, imagining the future, feeling enduring emotions such as compassion, gratitude and admiration for virtue, daydreaming or thinking creatively. Transcendence comes from the Latin prefix trans-, meaning "beyond," and the word scandare, meaning "to climb." When you achieve transcendence, you have gone beyond ordinary limitations.

There's a lot of basic knowledge on this website, but there's also a lot highly valuable advanced knowledge, which can only be understood when you can organize the information and knowledge in a particular way, a way that allows you to see the deeper meanings and see the bigger picture. This is when you experience enlightenment on the grandest scale.

Look Beneath the Surface is to focus on the deeper aspects of something, and not just the traits that are most easily identified. Look beneath the surface of the text and analyze the writers stylistic choices.

Just Scratching the Surface is when you know that there's a lot more below the surface of something that you cannot see, and that you need to learn more and dig deeper in order to understand the situation more accurately, and thus find a solution or an answer. Root Cause.

Peeling Back the Layers of the Onion means to go beyond the outside appearances when judging something or someone. People have a great many facets to their personalities that will not always be readily seen. To observe these traits requires that you observe more than just what is on the surface.

Break it Down means to divide something into parts or groups in order to understand a problem a little better.

Russian Dolls or Matryoshka Dolls are a set of wooden dolls of decreasing size placed one inside another. The idea is that each doll is smaller than the last, so they nestle inside each other, and when they are all fitted together you see only one doll, the biggest doll. Similar to seeing the puppet but not the puppet master. Matryoshka dolls are a traditional representation of the mother carrying a child within her and can be seen as a representation of a chain of mothers carrying on the family legacy through the child in their womb. Furthermore, matryoshka dolls are used to illustrate the unity of body, soul, mind, heart, and spirit. Matryoshkas are also used metaphorically, as a design paradigm, known as the "matryoshka principle" or "nested doll principle". It denotes a recognizable relationship of "object-within-similar-object" that appears in the design of many other natural and crafted objects. Examples of this use include the matrioshka brain, the Matroska media-container format, and the Russian Doll model of multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The onion metaphor is similar. If the outer layer is peeled off an onion, a similar onion exists within. This structure is employed by designers in applications such as the layering of clothes or the design of tables, where a smaller table nests within a larger table, and a smaller one within that. The metaphor of the matryoshka doll (or its onion equivalent) is also used in the description of shell companies and similar corporate structures that are used in the context of tax-evasion schemes in low-tax jurisdictions (for example, offshore tax havens). It has also been used to describe satellites and suspected weapons in space. The name matryoshka, literally "little matron", is a diminutive form of the Russian female first name "Matryona" or "Matryosha". Matryoshka dolls are also known as babushka dolls, stacking dolls, nesting dolls, Russian tea dolls. Russian dolls are similar to how measuring cups, spoons and different size pots can be stacked together.

Multifaceted is something that has many facets, or many aspects, sides, faces or nuances. A complicated issue that have lots of contributing factors. Facet is one side of something that has many sides. A particular aspect or feature of something.

Mosaic is an arrangement of things forming a composite image, which is a picture that is made from the combination of multiple images merged into a single surface. A mosaic in art consists of a design made of small pieces of colored stone or glass. With a Jigsaw Puzzle you have to put all the pieces together in order to see the whole picture.

Tiles - Fractals

Composite is a conceptual whole made up of complicated and related parts. Consisting of separate interconnected parts. Composite Material is a material made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties that, when combined, produce a material with characteristics different from the individual components.

Profound is something showing intellectual penetration or emotional depth. Something that is far-reaching and thoroughgoing in effect, especially on the nature of something. Something of the greatest intensity or something complete. Something coming from deep within one or something situated at or extending to great depth. Something too deep to have been sounded or plumbed.

Depth is the intellectual ability to penetrate deeply into ideas. Degree of psychological or intellectual profundity. The extent downward, backward or inward. The attribute or quality of being deep, strong, extreme or intense. The deepest and most remote part. depth can also mean a measurement of the distance from the top or surface to the bottom of something.

Deep is extending far down from the top or surface. very intense or extreme.

Standing too Close to an Elephant is when you miss the entire picture of the situation because your focus is to narrow, you can't actually see the elephant, all you see is it's skin and the enormity of the elephant close up overwhelms the entire picture. So You need to stand back in order to see the whole picture.

You Can't See the Forest for the Trees is an expression used when someone is too involved with certain details of a problem that they can't see the situation as a whole. It means that if you look at things one at a time, you might not realize that a branch of separate "trees" go together to make a "forest". When you are too close to a situation you need to step back and get a little perspective. When you do you will notice there was a whole forest you couldn't see before because you were too close, and focusing on the trees. Simply that you have focused on the many details and have failed to see the overall view, impression or key point.

Not seeing the trees for the wood maybe from suppression by higher brain regions. Researchers have shown how it is possible that objects stand out less when they are surrounded by similar objects. This surroundings-suppressing effect is caused by feedback from higher visual brain areas. The results of this research are important for a better understanding of the way in which the brain transforms incoming light into a cohesive image.

Stepping Back can give us the ability to gain a greater and higher perspective. For example, if we’re irritated and angered by something or someone, and we step back from that experience, we can explore how the experience was created, what triggered it, what went on inside of us that generated our response, how it fits or doesn’t fit with our larger purposes and values, how useful or ecological the experience is, and what we could do to alter our response. The mental-emotional step back gives us new perspective, understanding, insight, and choice.

"Sometimes I have no idea what I'm looking for until I see it."

Right Under Your Nose is something that happens right in front of you but you fail to see it or notice it because you lack the knowledge to see it, or you believe that something is normal so you don't question it. You have to know what to look for and where to look. Secrecy - Magic.

Hiding in Plain Sight is something that is visible but is unnoticeable because of certain factors that masks it or disguises it, or it blends in with the background so that it's easily overlooked.

At First Glance is when you see something for the first time briefly or consider something briefly, but you don't fully process it.

Macro Level Perspective is basically looking at the bigger picture, or things as a whole, or an abstract level that is large in scale or scope. To stand back and take in the entirety of experience, rather than examining smaller details up close. Looking at society as a whole instead on individual actions, a large scale, affecting entire communities, states or even countries. A study of globalization that examines the interrelationships between nations. Observations.

Meso is parts of society, groups and organizations. Meso-level analysis indicates a population size that falls between the micro and macro levels, such as a community or an organization. Mesosociology is the study of intermediate (meso) social forces and stratification such as income, age, gender, race, ethnicity, organizations and geographically circumscribed communities. Mesosociology lies between analysis of large-scale macro forces such as the economy or human societies (which is a domain of macrosociology), and everyday human social interactions on a small scale (a domain of microsociology). Connectedness.

Micro-Level Perspective focuses on small details and daily interactions. It's the perspective you gain when you closely home in on an individual problem and try to establish the elements of your business practices that contribute to that problem. Macro-level sociology looks at large-scale social processes, such as social stability and change. Micro-level sociology looks at small-scale interactions between individuals, such as conversation or group dynamics.

Drill Down is a capability that takes the user from a more general view of the data to a more specific one.

Higher-Order Thinking is when a person takes new information and information stored in memory and interrelates and/or rearranges and extends this information to achieve a purpose or find possible answers in perplexing situations. This challenges the student to interpret, analyze, or manipulate information through multiple levels in order for them to gain a better understanding of the content. Real-World Learning - Replacing Bad Thoughts.

Half Truth is like seeing only half of the picture, or hearing only half of a sentence, or reading only half of a book. Black Box.

"Look Beneath to See Things for What They Truly Are." - Marcus Aurelius - Meditations (wiki).

Matrix - Dimensions - Building Blocks of Life - 3D Chess

What you know changes how you see things. Researchers have gained important insight into how the human brain processes an object in the visual system and where in the brain this processing takes place. The study shows people perceive objects differently depending on their prior knowledge and experience with that object.

Everyone needs a full spectrum of knowledge and information in order to fully understand themselves and the world around them. Being good at only one or two things will leave you vulnerable to mistakes and give you a false sense of security. Your foundation of knowledge needs to be strong and level, if not, your house of knowledge will be on shaky ground and could eventually collapse and come crumbling down, as it has for millions of people throughout human history, and everyday in the 21st century. It's time to lift the veil and see everything that we have been missing.

Construal Level Theory is a theory in social psychology that describes the relation between psychological distance and the extent to which people's thinking (e.g., about objects and events) is abstract or concrete. The general idea is that the more distant an object is from the individual, the more abstract it will be thought of, while the closer the object is, the more concretely it will be thought of. In CLT, psychological distance is defined on several dimensions—temporal, spatial, social and hypothetical distance being considered most important, though there is some debate among social psychologists about further dimensions like informational, experiential or affective distance. According to construal level theory people perceive events that vary in several types of psychological distance: temporal distance (time), spatial distances (physical space), social distances (interpersonal distances, such as distance between two different groups or two dissimilar people), hypothetical distances (imagining that an event is likely or unlikely), Psychological distance affects the extent to which we think about an event, person, or idea as high or low level, and this will influence how concrete or abstract those thoughts are: High level construal is when people think abstractly. When thinking on this level, people are looking at the bigger picture; not focusing on details. At the high level, people focus on central features that capture the overall gist of the situation or object. Low level construal is when people think more concretely and is associated with psychological proximity. When people are engaged in low-level construal, they are focusing on the present in great detail. At the low level, people focus on the peripheral, secondary features that are less essential to the overall gist of the situation or object. Whether near mode or far mode, it's all relative.

Data Fusion is the process of integrating multiple data sources to produce more consistent, accurate, and useful information than that provided by any individual data source. Data fusion processes are often categorized as low, intermediate, or high, depending on the processing stage at which fusion takes place. Low-level data fusion combines several sources of raw data to produce new raw data. The expectation is that fused data is more informative and synthetic than the original inputs. For example, sensor fusion is also known as (multi-sensor) data fusion and is a subset of information fusion. The concept of data fusion has origins in the evolved capacity of humans and animals to incorporate information from multiple senses to improve their ability to survive. For example, a combination of sight, touch, smell, and taste may indicate whether a substance is edible.

Sensor Fusion is the process of combining sensor data or data derived from disparate sources such that the resulting information has less uncertainty than would be possible when these sources were used individually. For instance, one could potentially obtain a more accurate location estimate of an indoor object by combining multiple data sources such as video cameras and WiFi localization signals. The term uncertainty reduction in this case can mean more accurate, more complete, or more dependable, or refer to the result of an emerging view, such as stereoscopic vision (calculation of depth information by combining two-dimensional images from two cameras at slightly different viewpoints).

Image Fusion is the process of gathering all the important information from multiple images, and their inclusion into fewer images, usually a single one. This single image is more informative and accurate than any single source image, and it consists of all the necessary information. The purpose of image fusion is not only to reduce the amount of data but also to construct images that are more appropriate and understandable for the human and machine perception.

Information Integration is the merging of information from heterogeneous sources with differing conceptual, contextual and typographical representations. It is used in data mining and consolidation of data from unstructured or semi-structured resources. Typically, information integration refers to textual representations of knowledge but is sometimes applied to rich-media content. Information fusion, which is a related term, involves the combination of information into a new set of information towards reducing redundancy and uncertainty. Examples of technologies available to integrate information include deduplication, and string metrics which allow the detection of similar text in different data sources by fuzzy matching. A host of methods for these research areas are available such as those presented in the International Society of Information Fusion. Other methods rely on causal estimates of the outcomes based on a model of the source.

Life shouldn't be a black box. You should know how your mind works, you should know how your body works, you should know how relationships work, you should know how society works, you should know how your government works, and you should know where the corruption is and know who the people are who are responsible for committing crimes, and know who the people are who are responsible for stopping crimes.

Thinking in Levels - Seeing all the Layers

Life is made up of Layers. The more layers that you can see, and the more layers that you can understand, the better your decisions and actions will be. In order to see the bigger picture or see the full spectrum, you need to learn and gain knowledge that will give you the skills and the ability to see the entire picture, and thus, have a better understanding of yourself and the world around you. You have to see beneath the surface. You need to extrapolate all the layers of information and see all the layers of information beyond or beneath the surface information. Don't just see the surface, and don't limit things to a single definition or to a single concept.

Underlying Reasons refers to the things that are below or beneath what we can see or understand, things that are hidden but important, things that shape the meaning or the effect of something else, without being explicit itself.

Cause and Effect - Level of Analysis - Neural Networks - Dimensions - Seeing the Whole Picture - Two Sides to a Story - Levels of Consciousness

Abstraction in computer science is a technique for arranging complexity of computer systems. It works by establishing a level of complexity on which a person interacts with the system, suppressing the more complex details below the current level. The programmer works with an idealized interface (usually well defined) and can add additional levels of functionality that would otherwise be too complex to handle.

Hierarchy is a series of ordered groupings of people or things within a system. The organization of people at different levels of responsibilities and authorityNeed to Know Basis.

Cortex - Limbic - Reptilian - Executive - Comprehension Levels

Abstraction Layer is a way of hiding the implementation details of a particular set of functionality, allowing the separation of concerns to facilitate interoperability and platform independence. Examples of software models that use layers of abstraction include the OSI model for network protocols, OpenGL and other graphics libraries.

Principle of Abstraction is the amount of complexity by which a system is viewed or programmed. The higher the level, the less detail. The lower the level, the more detail. The highest level of abstraction is the entire system. The next level would be a handful of components, and so on, while the lowest level could be millions of objects.

Your conscience should have primary top-level thinking that keeps the mind from straying too far from your main objectives and from becoming unaware of it self or your surroundings.

Stack Data Structure is an abstract data type that serves as a collection of elements, with two principal operations: push, which adds an element to the collection, and pop, which removes the most recently added element that was not yet removed.

Call Stack is a stack data structure that stores information about the active subroutines of a computer program.

Information goes Deep Layer is a sheet, quantity, or thickness of material, typically one of several, covering a surface or body. Single thickness of usually some homogeneous substance. A relatively thin sheet like expanse or region lying over or under another. An abstract place usually conceived as having depth. Thin structure composed of a single thickness of cells.

Matrix - Multi-Dimensional Universe in Brain Networks - Dimensions

Layers in digital image editing are used to separate different elements of an image. A layer can be compared to a transparency on which imaging effects or images are applied and placed over or under an image. Today they are an integral feature of image editors.

Layer in object-oriented design is a group of classes that have the same set of link-time module dependencies to other modules. In other words, a layer is a group of reusable components that are reusable in similar circumstances. In programming languages, the layer distinction is often expressed as "import" dependencies between software modules.

There are levels of communication and levels of understanding. (Quick thinking but not quick to Judge).

Cognitive Architecture is a comprehensive computer model structure of the human mind.

Conceptual Framework is an analytical tool with several variations and contexts. It is used to make conceptual distinctions and organize ideas. Strong conceptual frameworks capture something real and do this in a way that is easy to remember and apply.

Hierarchy - Executive Functions - Thinking Levels - Human Operating System

Level is a position on a scale of intensity or amount or Quality. A relative position or Degree of Value in a graded group. A specific identifiable position in a continuum or series or especially in a process. Height above ground. A flat surface at right angles to a plumb line. An abstract place usually conceived as having depth. A structure consisting of a room or set of rooms at a single position along a vertical scale. Make level, even or straight. Having a surface without slope, tilt in which no part is higher or lower than another. Not showing abrupt variations. Being on a precise horizontal plane. Direct into a position for use.

Scientists demonstrate that the brain operates on many dimensions, not just the 3 dimensions that we are accustomed to. Scientists have uncovered a universe of multi-dimensional geometrical structures and spaces within the networks of the brain.

High and Low Level are terms used to classify, describe and point to specific goals of a systematic operation, though its uses also vary depending on the context. high-level is used to describe operations that are more abstract in nature, where overall goals and systemic features are typically more concerned with the wider, macro system as a whole. Alternatively, a low-level description is one that describes more specific individual components of a systematic operation, focusing on the details of rudimentary micro functions rather than macro, complex processes. Low-level classification is typically more concerned with individual components within the system and how they operate.

Algebraic Topology is a branch of mathematics that uses tools from abstract algebra to study topological spaces. The basic goal is to find algebraic invariants that classify topological spaces up to homeomorphism, though usually most classify up to homotopy equivalence. Although algebraic topology primarily uses algebra to study topological problems, using topology to solve algebraic problems is sometimes also possible. Algebraic topology, for example, allows for a convenient proof that any subgroup of a free group is again a free group. Algebraic topology is like a telescope and microscope at the same time. It can zoom into networks to find hidden structure.

Stratum is a layer of rock or soil with internally consistent characteristics. Hierarchy.

Tier is one of two or more layers one atop another. A Relative Position or Degree of value in a Graded Group.

Thermocline is a layer within a body of water where the temperature changes rapidly with depth.

Intercalation in chemistry is the reversible inclusion or insertion of a molecule (or ion) into materials with layered structures. Examples are found in graphite and transition metal dichalcogenides.

A conscious conscience. This is not the same thing as being on a different level then someone else or being level headed. This also does not imply that always being conscious is always obtainable.

Awareness is having an understanding of many things. But the true beauty of Awareness is that it is an endless sea of discoveries

Everyone is on different levels. Even though you may feel that your on the top level, there are always levels above you that are undiscovered. Computers have all these layers of information, or code. And you can interact with different levels while working on a single plane. Desktop Windows is one example, or when using imaging software where you can work on many layers of information all at once.

On the Same Level is when people think similarly and get along and have the same long term goals and moral values in life that you have. Equal.

Not On the Same Level is when people are not educated in the same way and one person may have more education and skills than another person. Not Equal.

Over Your Head means that something is beyond your ability to understand.

Computer Vision - Networks - Nerve Cells are Arranged in Layers

How many files do you have open? Is it random or organized? Do things on your desktop last longer than they should?

"I always liked thinking. I love to spend hours just thinking. And one of the things I learned about thinking is that the more I learned the more enjoyable my thoughts became, and also the more productive my thoughts became. Learning is extremely important to thinking."

Linear Cause-Effect-Response Framework  -  Serial Arrangements of Sensory Cortical Areas - Functional Aspects - Logical Flow of Thought  -  Connection Patterns.

Top-Down and Bottom-Up Design are both strategies of information processing and knowledge ordering, used in a variety of fields including software, humanistic and scientific theories, and management and organization. In practice, they can be seen as a style of thinking, teaching, or leadership. Development.

Divergent Thinking - Lateral Thinking - Problem Solving 

Perineurium in the peripheral nervous system, the myelin sheath of each axon in a nerve is wrapped in a delicate protective sheath known as the endoneurium. Within the nerve, axons targeting the same anatomical location bundled together into groups known as fascicles, each surrounded by another protective sheath known as the perineurium. Several fascicles may be in turn bundled together with a blood supply and fatty tissue within yet another sheath, the epineurium. This grouping structure is analogous to the muscular organization system of epimysium, perimysium and endomysium. Perineurium.

Conscious Competence Model - Conscious Competence Ladder - Four Stages of Competence - Levels of Consciousness

Assessing Higher Order Thinking Skills - The Measurement of Perceptual Load and Reserve Capacity.

Modularity of Mind is the notion that a mind may, at least in part, be composed of innate neural structures or modules which have distinct established evolutionarily developed functions.

Modular brains help organisms learn new skills without forgetting old skills.

Levels of Understanding: Intellectual understanding, mental realization.

Observation is the active acquisition of information from a primary source. In living beings, observation employs the senses. In science, observation can also involve the recording of data via the use of instruments. The term may also refer to any data collected during the scientific activity. Observations can be qualitative, that is, only the absence or presence of a property is noted, or quantitative if a numerical value is attached to the observed phenomenon by counting or measuring.

Nested Quotation is a quotation that is encapsulated inside another quotation, forming a hierarchy with multiple levels. When focusing on a certain quotation, one must interpret it within its scope. Nested quotation can be used in literature (as in nested narration), speech, and computer science (as in "meta"-statements that refer to other statements as strings). Nested quotation can be very confusing until evaluated carefully and until each quotation level is put into perspective.

Scope is an area in which something acts or operates or has power or control. The state of the environment in which a situation exists.

Visible Light Communication is a data communications variant which uses visible light between 400 and 800 THz (780–375 nm). VLC is a subset of optical wireless communications technologies.

Levels of Processing Effect describes memory recall of stimuli as a function of the depth of mental processing. Deeper levels of analysis produce more elaborate, longer lasting, and stronger memory traces than shallow levels of analysis. Depth of processing falls on a shallow to deep continuum. Shallow processing (e.g., processing based on phonemic and orthographic components) leads to a fragile memory trace that is susceptible to rapid decay. Conversely, deep processing (e.g., semantic processing) results in a more durable memory trace.

Pyramid is a structure whose outer surfaces are triangular and converge to a single point at the top, making the shape roughly a pyramid in the geometric sense. The base of a pyramid can be trilateral, quadrilateral, or any polygon shape, meaning that a pyramid has at least three outer triangular surfaces (at least four faces including the base). The square pyramid, with square base and four triangular outer surfaces, is a common version.

Thinking (thought)

DIKW Pyramid is for representing purported structural and/or functional relationships between data, information, knowledge, and wisdom. "Typically information is defined in terms of data, knowledge in terms of information, and wisdom in terms of knowledge".

Framework in software is an abstraction in which software providing generic functionality can be selectively changed by additional user-written code, thus providing application-specific software. A software framework is a universal, reusable software environment that provides particular functionality as part of a larger software platform to facilitate development of software applications, products and solutions. Software frameworks may include support programs, compilers, code libraries, tool sets, and application programming interfaces (APIs) that bring together all the different components to enable development of a project or system.

Levels in video gaming is the total space available to the player during the course of completing a discrete objective.

Three-Dimensional Chess or 3‑D chess is any chess variant that replaces the two-dimensional board with a three-dimensional array of cells between which the pieces can move. In practice, this is usually achieved by boards representing different layers being laid out next to each other either orthogonally, diagonally, or vertexally), but not directly upward or downward. 5D Chess with Multiverse Time Travel allows pieces to travel through time and between timelines in a similar way to how they move through ranks and files. As the game progresses, the game becomes increasingly complex through a series of alternate timelines that the player can take advantage of. 4D game is when the fourth dimension is not time! It is an actual fourth dimension of space, List of Four-Dimensional Games (wiki) - Visualizing a Network.

Application Layer is an abstraction layer that specifies the shared protocols and interface methods used by hosts in a communications network. The application layer abstraction is used in both of the standard models of computer networking: the Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) and the Open Systems Interconnection model (OSI model).

OSI Model is a conceptual model that characterizes and standardizes the communication functions of a telecommunication or computing system without regard to their underlying internal structure and technology. Its goal is the interoperability of diverse communication systems with standard protocols. The model partitions a communication system into abstraction layers. The original version of the model defined seven layers. Physical, Data Link, Network, Transport, Session, Presentation, and Application.

Data Link Layer is the second layer of the seven-layer OSI model of computer networking. This layer is the protocol layer that transfers data between adjacent network nodes in a wide area network (WAN) or between nodes on the same local area network (LAN) segment. The data link layer provides the functional and procedural means to transfer data between network entities and might provide the means to detect and possibly correct errors that may occur in the physical layer.

Link Layer is the lowest layer in the Internet Protocol Suite, commonly known as TCP/IP, the networking architecture of the Internet. It is described in RFC 1122 and RFC 1123. The link layer is the group of methods and communications protocols that only operate on the link that a host is physically connected to. The link is the physical and logical network component used to interconnect hosts or nodes in the network and a link protocol is a suite of methods and standards that operate only between adjacent network nodes of a local area network segment or a wide area network connection.

Physical Layer In the seven-layer OSI model of computer networking, the physical layer or layer 1 is the first and lowest layer. This layer may be implemented by a PHY chip. The physical layer consists of the electronic circuit transmission technologies of a network. It is a fundamental layer underlying the higher level functions in a network. Due to the plethora of available hardware technologies with widely varying characteristics, this is perhaps the most complex layer in the OSI architecture. The physical layer defines the means of transmitting raw bits rather than logical data packets over a physical data link connecting network nodes. The bitstream may be grouped into code words or symbols and converted to a physical signal that is transmitted over a transmission medium. The physical layer provides an electrical, mechanical, and procedural interface to the transmission medium. The shapes and properties of the electrical connectors, the frequencies to broadcast on, the line code to use and similar low-level parameters, are specified here. Within the semantics of the OSI model, the physical layer translates logical communications requests from the data link layer into hardware-specific operations to cause transmission or reception of electronic signals.

Functional Software Architecture is an architectural model that identifies enterprise functions, interactions and corresponding IT needs. These functions can be used as reference by different domain experts to develop IT-systems as part of a co-operative information-driven enterprise. In this way both software engineers and enterprise architects are able to create an information-driven, integrated organizational environment.

Language of Thought Hypothesis describes the nature of thought as possessing "language-like" or compositional structure (sometimes known as mentalese). On this view, simple concepts combine in systematic ways (akin to the rules of grammar in language) to build thoughts. In its most basic form, the theory states that thought, like language, has syntax.

Human Operating System

Thinking ManComputational Thinking is the thought processes involved in formulating a problem and expressing its solution(s) in such a way that a computer—human or machine—can effectively carry out. 1: Problem Formulation (abstraction). 2: Solution Expression (automation). 3: Solution Execution and Evaluation (analyses).

Problem Solving - Causality 

How does the brain flexibly process complex information? Human decision-making depends on the flexible processing of complex information, but how the brain may adapt processing to momentary task demands has remained unclear. Researchers have now outlined several crucial neural processes revealing that our brain networks may rapidly and flexibly shift from a rhythmic to a 'noisy' state when the need to process information increases. When participants were more uncertain about the relevant feature in the upcoming choice, participants' EEG signals shifted from a rhythmic mode (present when participants could focus on a single feature) to a more arrhythmic, "noisy" mode. "Brain rhythms may be particularly useful when we need to select relevant over irrelevant inputs, while increased neural 'noise' could make our brains more receptive to multiple sources of information. Our results suggest that the ability to shift back and forth between these rhythmic and 'noisy' states may enable flexible information processing in the human brain. Additionally, the authors found that the extent to which participants shifted from a rhythmic to a noisy mode in their EEG signals was dominantly coupled with increased fMRI activity in the thalamus, a deep brain structure largely inaccessible by EEG. The thalamus is often thought of primarily as an interface for sensory and motor signals, while its potential role in flexibility has remained elusive. The findings of the study may thus have broad implications for our current understanding of the brain structures required for us to adapt to an ever-changing world.

Grammatical Tense is a category that expresses time reference.

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

Knowledge - Knowledge Management

The Restless Mind (PDF)

7 Distinct Layers of the Mind:
Manas = Instinctual body
Manas = Instinctual breath
Manas = Instinctual mind
Buddhi = Discriminative intellect
Smriti = memory
Ahamkara = ego
Purusha = self

Higher-Order Thinking is a concept of education reform based on learning taxonomies (such as Bloom's taxonomy). The idea is that some types of learning require more cognitive processing than others, but also have more generalized benefits. In Bloom's taxonomy, for example, skills involving analysis, evaluation and synthesis (creation of new knowledge) are thought to be of a higher order than the learning of facts and concepts which requires different learning and teaching methods. Higher-order thinking involves the learning of complex judgmental skills such as critical thinking and problem solving. Higher-order thinking is more difficult to learn or teach but also more valuable because such skills are more likely to be usable in novel situations (i.e., situations other than those in which the skill was learned).

Bloom's Taxonomy is a set of three hierarchical models used to classify educational learning objectives into levels of complexity and specificity. The three lists cover the learning objectives in cognitive, affective and sensory domains. The cognitive domain list has been the primary focus of most traditional education and is frequently used to structure curriculum learning objectives, assessments and activities. Knowledge involves recognizing or remembering facts, terms, basic concepts, or answers without necessarily understanding what they mean. Its characteristics may include: Knowledge of specifics—terminology, specific facts. Knowledge of ways and means of dealing with specifics—conventions, trends and sequences, classifications and categories, criteria, methodology. Knowledge of the universals and abstractions in a field—principles and generalizations, theories and structures. Comprehension involves demonstrating an understanding of facts and ideas by organizing, comparing, translating, interpreting, giving descriptions, and stating the main ideas. Application involves using acquired knowledge—solving problems in new situations by applying acquired knowledge, facts, techniques and rules. Learners should be able to use prior knowledge to solve problems, identify connections and relationships and how they apply in new situations. Analysis involves examining and breaking information into component parts, determining how the parts relate to one another, identifying motives or causes, making inferences, and finding evidence to support generalizations. Its characteristics include: Analysis of elements. Analysis of relationships. Analysis of organization. Synthesis involves building a structure or pattern from diverse elements; it also refers to the act of putting parts together to form a whole. Its characteristics include: Production of a unique communication. Production of a plan, or proposed set of operations. Derivation of a set of abstract relations. Evaluation involves presenting and defending opinions by making judgments about information, the validity of ideas, or quality of work based on a set of criteria. Its characteristics include: Judgments in terms of internal evidence. Judgments in terms of external criteria. The taxonomy is set out as follows: 1.00 Knowledge. 1.10 Knowledge of specifics. 1.11 Knowledge of terminology. 1.12 Knowledge of specific facts. 1.20 Knowledge of ways and means of dealing with specifics. 1.21 Knowledge of conventions. 1.22 Knowledge of trends and sequences. 1.23 Knowledge of classifications and categories. 1.24 Knowledge of criteria. 1.25 Knowledge of methodology. 1.30 Knowledge of the universals and abstractions in a field. 1.31 Knowledge of principles and generalizations. 1.32 Knowledge of theories and structures.

Hierarchy - Series of Ordered Groupings

Visual Hierarchy refers to the arrangement or presentation of elements in a way that implies importance. Visual hierarchy influences the order in which the human eye perceives what it sees. This order is created by the visual contrast between forms in a field of perception. Objects with highest contrast to their surroundings are recognized first by the human mind. The term visual hierarchy is used most frequently in the discourse of the visual arts fields, notably so within the field of graphic design.

Hierarchical Organization (power structure) - Levels of Thinking - #osi

Hierarchy is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in which the items are represented as being "above," "below," or "at the same level as" one another.

Cognitive Hierarchy Theory is a behavioral model originating in behavioral economics and game theory that attempts to describe human thought processes in strategic games. CHT aims to improve upon the accuracy of predictions made by standard analytic methods (including backwards induction and iterated elimination of dominated strategies), which can deviate considerably from actual experimental outcomes.

Neural top down control of physiology concerns the direct regulation by the brain of physiological functions (in addition to smooth muscle and glandular ones) This regulation occurs through the sympathetic and parasympathetic system (the autonomic nervous system), and their direct innervation of body organs and tissues that starts in the brainstem. There is also a noninnervation hormonal control through the hypothalamus and pituitary (HPA). These lower brain areas are under control of cerebral cortex ones. Such cortical regulation differs between its left and right sides. Pavlovian conditioning shows that brain control over basic cell level physiological function can be learnt.

Top-down modulation of attention by emotion

Hierarchical Model is a data model in which the data is organized into a tree-like structure. The data is stored as records which are connected to one another through Links. A record is a collection of fields, with each field containing only one value.

DIKW Pyramid for representing purported structural and/or functional relationships between data, information, knowledge, and wisdom. "Typically information is defined in terms of data, knowledge in terms of information, and wisdom in terms of knowledge" (wisdom hierarchy, knowledge hierarchy, information hierarchy).

Hierarchical Temporal Memory Interaction of Pyramidal Neurons in the Neocortex. Pyramidal is something that resembles a pyramid. A top down structure where your most important priorities reside. Your Conscience that over looks your decisions. So you have to make sure that you are not a toxic leader.

Real-time Control System is a reference model architecture, suitable for many software-intensive, real-time control problem domains. RCS is a reference model architecture that defines the types of functions that are required in a real-time intelligent control system, and how these functions are related to each other.

Minto Principle is the powerful and compelling process for producing everyday business documents – to-the-point memos, clear reports, successful proposals, or dynamic presentations.

Systems Thinking

Introspection is the examination of one's own conscious thoughts and feelings. In psychology the process of introspection relies exclusively on observation of one's mental state, while in a spiritual context it may refer to the examination of one's soul. Introspection is closely related to human self-reflection and is contrasted with external observation.

Processing Fluency is the ease with which information is processed. Perceptual fluency is the ease of processing stimuli based on manipulations to perceptual quality. Retrieval fluency is the ease with which information can be retrieved from memory.

Process Management is the ensemble of activities of planning and monitoring the performance of a business process. The term usually refers to the management of business processes and manufacturing processes. Business process management (BPM) and business process reengineering are interrelated, but not identical.

Levels of Processing Effect (PDF)

Attention Management refers to models and tools for supporting the management of attention at the individual or at the collective level (cf. attention economy), and at the short-term (quasi real time) or at a longer term (over periods of weeks or months).

Executive Controls

Executive Functions are a set of cognitive processes – including attentional control, inhibitory control, working memory, and cognitive flexibility, as well as reasoning, problem solving, and planning – that are necessary for the cognitive control of behavior, and selecting and successfully monitoring behaviors that facilitate the attainment of chosen goals. Executive functions gradually develop and change across the lifespan of an individual and can be improved at any time over the course of a person's life. Similarly, these cognitive processes can be adversely affected by a variety of events which affect an individual.

Human Operating System - Awareness - Mind over Body - Reptilian Brain - Cortex - Will Power

Executive is a person responsible for the administration of a business. Having the function of carrying out plans or orders. Someone who manages a government agency or department, or a brain.

You are the person responsible for the programming your brain. The brain is the hardware, and you are responsible for the software. The brain gives you the tools to process information, but it's your responsibility to learn how to effectively use the tools you have and maintain the tools you have in good working order. The dumb down schools and the corporate controlled media is not responsible for you brain, you are. You don't want corrupt ignorant strangers controlling your thoughts. Because that's when horrible things happen, such as abuse, violence, killing, theft, damage and destruction. This is the direct result of what happens when people have no control over their software, or their brain. You have to program your brain using knowledge in the form of human language, and you have to to know how to operate the software, which is the language your brain uses. 

Schema describes a pattern of thought or behavior that organizes categories of information and the relationships among them. It can also be described as a mental structure of preconceived ideas, a framework representing some aspect of the world, or a system of organizing and perceiving new information. Schemata influence attention and the absorption of new knowledge: people are more likely to notice things that fit into their schema, while re-interpreting contradictions to the schema as exceptions or distorting them to fit. Schemata have a tendency to remain unchanged, even in the face of contradictory information. Schemata can help in understanding the world and the rapidly changing environment. People can organize new perceptions into schemata quickly as most situations do not require complex thought when using schema, since automatic thought is all that is required.

Cognitive Architecture - Hierarchy - Thinking Levels

Higher-Order Thinking is when a person takes new information and information stored in memory and interrelates and/or rearranges and extends this information to achieve a purpose or find possible answers in perplexing situations. This challenges the student to interpret, analyze, or manipulate information through multiple levels in order for them to gain a better understanding of the content.

Real-World Learning - Replacing Bad Thoughts.

Synchronizing specific brain oscillations enhances executive function. Two brain regions -- the medial frontal and lateral prefrontal cortices -- control most executive function. Researchers used high-definition transcranial alternating current stimulation (HD-tACS) to synchronize oscillations between them, improving brain processing. De-synchronizing did the opposite.

High order cognitive areas of the brain. The frontal, temporal and parietal lobes contain the majority of the tertiary association cortex, which are key substrates for higher cognition including executive function, language, memory and attention. Frontal lobe is responsible for initiating and coordinating motor movements; higher cognitive skills, such as problem solving, thinking, planning, and organizing; and for many aspects of personality and emotional makeup. The parietal lobe is involved with sensory processes, attention, and language. The cerebrum, the largest part of the human brain, is associated with higher order functioning, including the control of voluntary behavior. Higher-order integrative cortical areas, called association areas, intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs. Higher cortical functions include language, vision, recognizing objects in space.

Seven Main Networks of the Brain are the Default Mode Network. The Internal Mind. The Salience Network. The Moderator. The Limbic System. The Regulator. The Dorsal Attention Network. The Aperture. The Central Executive Network. The External Mind. The Visual System. The Observer.

Outside factors may help children develop internal control. The ability to control your own behavior, known as executive function, might not exist all in your head. A new theory proposes it develops with many influences from outside the mind. It draws on dynamic systems theory which has been used to describe complex organizing phenomena like cloud formation. Now, researchers are applying it to executive function, which affects everything from children's readiness for school to social relationships with long-term outcomes for adulthood.

Executive Dysfunction is a behavioral symptom that disrupts a person's ability to manage their own thoughts, emotions and actions. It's most common with certain mental health conditions, especially addictions, behavioral disorders, brain development disorders and mood disorders.

Related Subjects - Beyond the Senses - Creative Thinking - Comprehension - Context - Reasoning - Decision Making - Intelligence (definitions) - Simultaneous Subject Learning - Intrapersonal Intelligence (people smart) - Tiny Machines - Very Low Frequency.

Everybody's Gotta Learn Sometime (Beck - The Korgis Cover) (youtube)
Change your heart, look around you
Change your heart, it will astound you
I need your lovin' like the sunshine,
Everybody's got to learn sometime
Everybody's got to learn sometime
Everybody's got to learn sometime.
Change your heart, look around you
Change your heart, will astound you
I need your lovin' like the sunshine,
Everybody's got to learn sometime
Everybody's got to learn sometime
Everybody's got to learn sometime
I need your lovin' like the sunshine
Everybody's got to learn sometime
Everybody's got to learn sometime.

Previous Subject Up Top Page Next Subject

The Thinker Man