by the use of
with an agreement
Language are the cognitive processes
involved in producing and
linguistic communication. Language is a
used to name things in a
particular discipline. Language
. Language is
the communication by
Learning a New Language
- Vocal Learning
is the single greatest human
of all time.
language, humans would have died off and gone extinct thousands of
years ago. Though language is still in early development
we know more about the power of language
than any other time in human history. Language not only helps us to
language also gives us the ability to
the ability to interpret information
Language gave humans the ability to communicate by assigning meaning to
symbols and then agreeing on the
of each symbol as a society. Creating language was an
amazing advancement. We have accomplished so many things using language.
But language has weaknesses and
When we don't agree on the meaning
, we can not
effectively or efficiently.
Language has many simplistic elements
such as letters and words. But the meaning of words can have
an enormous amount of information
meanings depends on the background
of the person and the level of intelligence that the person
has in order to understand the deeper meaning of a particular word, or
just a symbol of a
word. We can not pretend that things are simple when they are not. Being
simple minded is not bad, it's only bad when we ignore the fact that
things can be more complex and not that simple. Reading levels of students and citizens needs to be taken seriously.
If we can not comprehend
read, then how are we going to comprehend the thoughts we have. This is
extremely important. If you don't have the knowledge to understand, then
the ability to understand becomes ineffective and inefficient. This
breakdown in communication causes a lot of damage. We can not ignore the
value of knowledge. We are facing critical junctures that will require our
full understanding. The problems we face we be challenging, but our
problems will be even more challenging if we can't fully understand the
dangers. We need to stop the language that is used as a weapon of control. When
the media controls the narrative
language can be used a method to control the mind
, instead of language
being used as a tool to free the mind
. When language is not being taught effectively, or used effectively, this
creates language disorders
which makes this is a type of
that can have
. We can not
that things are
simple when they are not. Being simple minded is not bad, it's only bad
when we ignore the fact that things can be more complex and not that
Language is the software
and the brain is the
. Language is the
and a software program
that controls your
. Language is the human operating
that shapes our reality
Lera Boroditsky: How Language Shapes Thought
(video) - Language and Thought Connections
- You are what you think
- You are what you know,
or what you think you know
- Language and words
shapes our thoughts
is the study of narrative
and narrative structure
ways that these affect our
The Power of Language Influences Thought and
. The words we use to describe things—to ourselves and
others—affects how we and they think and act. It’s good to remind
ourselves that this powerful influence happens in all kinds of situations,
and most certainly with language related to teaching and learning.
Areas of the Brain
The Power of Words
Be aware of your thoughts
- Positive Thinking
- Be aware
your body effects your
- One thought leads to
- Thoughts effect Water
Mind Over Matter
you would have no thoughts
(words most used) - The Word
- How Computers use Voltages as a
size of your vocabulary
can only be
effective when you use words effectively in meaningful ways.
You can't use
what you don't have
, and you don't have what you don't use effectively.
seeks to understand the way language represents
Major topics in philosophy of language include: the nature of
holds that the structure of a language affects its speakers'
or Whorfianism is a principle
that is often defined to include two versions. The
strong version says that language determines thought
, and that linguistic
categories limit and determine cognitive categories, whereas the weak
version says that linguistic
categories and usage only influence
The Use of Language Influences our Learning Processes
, affecting our
ability to collect different kinds of data, make connections between them,
and infer a desirable mode of behavior from them.
Lack of Language Dangers
Almost 99 percent of people on the planet have only
at an intermediate level, which is just above a beginner.
Very few people are using language effectively to its full potential.
Words are needed to think about numbers
. The results suggest that in
order to think about exact numbers
, people need to
have a word for that number. The ability to reason about numbers is bound
by the highest number a person can count to.
Our brains 'time-stamp' sounds to process the words we hear
research shows why we hear 'lemon' and not 'melon'. Our brains 'time-stamp
the order of incoming sounds, allowing us to correctly process the words
that we hear, shows a new study by a team of psychology and linguistics
researchers. Its findings offer new insights into the intricacies of
neurological function. To understand speech, your brain needs to
accurately interpret both the speech sounds' identity and the order that
they were uttered to correctly recognize the words being said. Different
sounds are responded to with different neural populations. And, each sound
is time-stamped with how much time has gone by since it entered the ear.
This allows the listener to know both the order and the identity of the
sounds that someone is saying to correctly figure out what words the
person is saying.
is the ability
of an individual to use language
level of accuracy
transfers meaning in production and
. Native-level fluency is estimated to require a lexicon
between 20,000 and 40,000 words
basic conversational fluency might require as few as 3,000 words.
Developing proficiency in any language begins with word learning
By the time they are 12 months old,
children learn their
and by the time they are 36 months old, they may know well
over 900 words with their utterances intelligible to the people who
interact with them the most. Developing language proficiency improves an
individual’s capacity to communicate
Over time through interaction and through exposure to new forms of
language in use, an individual should learn new words, sentence
structures, and meanings, thereby increasing their command of using
accurate forms of the target language.
, and effectively.
means the smoothness or flow with which
, words and phrases are joined together when
Communicating in a Foreign Language takes Emotion out of Decision-Making
and affects the way we think.
Cognitive abilities help each other during development:
words, better reasoning skills allow individuals to improve their
vocabulary more quickly, and better vocabularies are associated with
faster improvement in reasoning ability.
Moments by Everynone
Abuses of Language
Inadequate Language Harms
studies the connections between the
speakers have about language and the larger social and
they are a part of, illustrating how these beliefs are informed by
and rooted in such systems. By doing so, language
implicit as well as explicit assumptions
people have about a language or
language in general to their social experience and political as well as
economic interests. The concept is used primarily within the fields of
anthropology, sociolinguistics, and cross-cultural studies to
characterize any set of beliefs or feelings about languages as used in
their social worlds
(hypnosis) - NLP
is the branch of
that studies language and its relationship to other
. It is the study of dialogue
relationships between units of speech communication as manifestations and
enactments of co-existence. Psycholinguistics
The Theory of Communicative Action
is a two-volume 1981 book by
, about the social sciences in a theory of language. The theory of
communicative action is a critical project which reconstructs a concept of
reason which is not grounded in instrumental or objectivistic terms, but
rather in an emancipatory communicative act. This reconstruction proposes
"human action and understanding can be fruitfully analysed as having a
linguistic structure", and each utterance relies upon the anticipation of
freedom from unnecessary domination. These linguistic structures of
communication can be used to establish a normative understanding of
society. This conception of society is used "to make possible a
conceptualization of the social-life context that is tailored to the
paradoxes of modernity.
Functional Theories of Grammar
are those approaches to the study of
language that see functionality
language and its elements to be the key to understanding linguistic
processes and structures. Functional theories of language propose that
since language is fundamentally a tool, it is reasonable to assume that
its structures are best analyzed and understood with reference to the
functions they carry out. Functional
theories of grammar
differ from structural linguistics or formalist
language theories, in that the latter approaches seek to define the
different elements of language and describe the way they relate to each
other only as systems of formal rules or operations, whereas the former
additionally takes into account the context where linguistic elements are
used and studies the way they are instrumentally useful or functional in
the given environment. This means that functional theories of grammar tend
to pay attention to the way language is actually used in communicative
context. The formal relations between linguistic elements are assumed to
Languages have an intriguing paradox
. Languages with lots of speakers,
such as English and Mandarin, have large vocabularies with relatively
simple grammar. Yet the opposite is also true: Languages with fewer
speakers have fewer words but complex grammars.
Language is Learned in Brain Circuits that Predate Humans
How the brain processes language
. Humans accomplish a phenomenal
amount of tasks by combining pieces
We perceive objects by combining edges
, categorize scenes by
interpret events by combining actions, and understand sentences by
combining words. But researchers don't yet have a clear understanding of
how the brain forms and maintains the
of the whole -- such as a sentence -- from its parts.
Researchers have now shed new light on the brain
that support the emergent meaning of combined words.
Researchers use a computer model to explain how children integrate
information during word learning
. Children learn a huge number of
words in the early preschool years. A two-year-old might be able to say
just a handful of words, while a five-year-old is quite likely to know
many thousands. In the real world, children learn words in complex social
settings in which more than just one type of information is available.
They have to use their knowledge of words while interacting with a
speaker. Word learning always requires integrating multiple, different
Sounds and words are processed separately and simultaneously in the brain
After years of research, neuroscientists have discovered a new pathway in
the human brain that processes the sounds of language. The findings
suggest that auditory and speech processing occur in parallel,
contradicting a long-held theory that the brain processed acoustic
information then transformed it into linguistic information. Sounds of
language, upon reaching the ears, are converted into electrical signals by
the cochlea and sent to a brain region called the auditory cortex on the
temporal lobe. For decades, scientists have thought that speech processing
in the auditory cortex followed a serial pathway, similar to an assembly
line in a factory. It was thought that first, the primary auditory cortex
processes the simple acoustic information, such as frequencies of sounds.
Then, an adjacent region, called the superior temporal gyrus (STG),
extracts features more important to speech, like consonants and vowels,
transforming sounds into meaningful words.
The tool of language
the ability to transfer information
and knowledge to ourselves and to others
. It was the first form
of wireless communication. But it took thousands of years for
humans to master language and to improve language in order to make
communication more effectively and more efficiently. And now
with the invention of computers and the
, and the
, more people are using language to transfer information
and knowledge then any other time in human history. But
even though we use language to communicate and transfer
information and knowledge every single day, 98% of people don't
understand what knowledge and information is. And this lack of
understanding is the single greatest source for most of our
problems. If people fully understood what they were transmitting
to themselves and to others, they would be a lot more careful,
and more aware of what they think
, and also be careful about
. People would then have more control, more power, more
intelligence, more freedom, more potential, and more
possibilities. Our full understanding of knowledge and
information is the next big human transformation.
language, there would most likely be no human race, or life as we know it. A
is like having a
for life. But language is
like a black box
, because most people have no
idea how language works. Language will help move
you forward, and the lack of language will hold you back. Learn how to
tell your own story
, instead of
letting others tell your story
Without a language to describe our experience, we can't
communicate what we know.
learn from your senses and experiences
, but only so much,
80% of knowledge and intelligence is delivered using language.
are very important
to have. If you do not become
in these skills you will find it very difficult
with other people, as well as, find it very difficult to
communicate with yourself
. For one of the most important things you will
learn about language is that it is also used to communicate inward as well
as outward. So learning to read, write and communicate at a high level of
proficiency is extremely important. These Skills open the doors of
opportunity in all directions, doors that will normally not be visible
unless you are a very good reader, writer and communicator.
Add Language to the Math, reading mix
. Measuring the impact of
one skill on another
, in addition to
measuring growth in the same skill, provides more of a "whole child"
If you didn't have the words to describe something, then how would you understand it?
Language gives you the ability
to process information
, and not just send and receive information.
Processing information is the most important aspect, if the receiver
cannot process incoming information effectively, then sending information
becomes problematic or incoherent.
If people would learn how to
understand knowledge and information in the correct way, and if people
would learn to understand how language is used to transmit information,
receive information and process information, then we would solve every
problem in the world and every person would live beautiful and productive
lives. When people learn, people have more power. And that is a fact of
life. Understanding more about yourself and the world around you should
always be exciting and exhilarating, if you are not experiencing this
amazement when learning, then you're not learning things in the right way
or learning the right things at the right time. If your school is boring,
then there is
something wrong with your school
. If learning feels like it's a chore,
then there is something wrong about what you are learning and how you are
learning it. Learning should always be exhilarating and
learning should always be its own
. Make it happen.
Only about 2,400 of the world's roughly
7,200 Languages and Dialects
in 2021, there are now
roughly 6,500 languages that are spoken in the world today.
is a language whose phonology
been consciously devised for human or human-like communication,
instead of having developed Naturally
. It is also referred to as an
or invented language. There are many possible reasons to create
a constructed language, such as: to ease human
international auxiliary language and code), to give fiction or an
associated constructed setting an added layer of realism, for
experimentation in the fields of linguistics,
machine learning, for artistic creation, and for language games.
is a postulated and unattested
once-spoken ancestral language
from which a number of attested
languages are believed to have descended
by evolution, forming a language family. Proto-languages are usually
unattested, or in some cases only partially
and established as genuine. They are reconstructed by way of
the comparative method. In the tree model of historical linguistics
a protolanguage is a hypothetical or reconstructed, and unattested, from which a number
of attested, or documented, known languages are believed to have descended
by evolution, or slow modification of the proto-language into languages
that form a language family. In the strict sense, a proto-language is the
latest common ancestor of a language family, immediately before the start
of the family's divergence into the attested daughter languages. It is
therefore equivalent with the ancestral language or parental language of a language family.
is a technique for studying the development of
languages by performing a feature-by-feature comparison of two or more
languages with common descent from a shared ancestor and then
extrapolating backwards to infer the properties of that ancestor.
is a method of reconstructing an earlier state
in a language's history using only language-internal evidence of the
language in question.
List of Languages by total number of Speakers
List of Languages by number of Native Speakers
Unknown Language Jedek discovered in Southeast Asia.
Languages Used on the Internet
is the study of language in oral and
written historical sources
; it is the
intersection of textual criticism, literary criticism, history, and
linguistics (with especially strong ties to etymology). Philology is also
defined as the study of literary texts as well as oral and written
records, the establishment of their authenticity and their original form,
and the determination of their meaning. A person who pursues this kind of
study is known as a philologist. Philologist
is someone who studies the history of languages, especially by looking
closely at literature. Linguistics is the study of language, and a
philologist is a type of linguist.
is the study of the history of the form of
and, by extension, the origin and
evolution of their semantic meaning across time. It is a subfield of
, and draws upon
comparative semantics, morphology, semiotics, and phonetics.
Origins of human language pathway in the brain at least 25 million years
. The human language pathway in the brain has been identified by
scientists as being at least 25 million years old --
20 million years older than previously thought
belonging to the
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and
ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin was originally spoken in
in the Italian Peninsula. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it
became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently
throughout the Roman Empire.
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian,
Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin and French have
contributed many words to the English Language
. Latin and
roots are used in theology, biology, and medicine. Latin
is estimated to have around 202,158 words in its vocabulary. Latin Wikipedia
History of the Latin Script
is the most widely used alphabetic
in the world. It is the standard script of the
and is often referred to simply as "the
" in English. It is a true alphabet which originated in the
7th century BC in Italy and has changed continually over the last 2500
years. It has roots in the Semitic alphabet and its offshoot alphabets,
the Phoenician, Greek, and Etruscan. The phonetic values of some letters
changed, some letters were lost and gained, and several writing styles
("hands") developed. Two such styles, the minuscule and majuscule hands,
were combined into one script with alternate forms for the lower and upper
case letters. Due to classicism, modern uppercase letters differ only
slightly from their classical counterparts. There are few regional variants.
refers to a
variety of a language that is a characteristic of a particular group of
the language's speakers. A language that is socially subordinated to a
regional or national standard language, often historically cognate or
genetically related to the standard language, but not actually derived
from the standard language.Pronunciations
(hand signals) -
Specific Language Impairment
is diagnosed when a child's language does not develop normally
difficulties cannot be accounted for by generally slow development,
physical abnormality of the speech apparatus, autism spectrum disorder,
acquired brain injury
. Twin studies have shown that it is
strongly genetic. Usually, language impairment is resulted from mutation in genes.
is an inability to comprehend and formulate language
because of damage to specific brain regions
. This damage is typically
caused by a cerebral vascular accident (stroke), or head trauma, however
these are not the only possible causes. To be diagnosed with aphasia, a
person's speech or language must be significantly impaired in one (or
several) of the four communication modalities following acquired brain
injury or have significant decline over a short time period (progressive
aphasia). The four communication modalities are auditory comprehension,
verbal expression, reading and writing, and functional communication.
refers to a hypothesized structure in the human brain
(anatomical module) or cognitive system
(functional module) that some
psycholinguists such as Steven Pinker claim contains
Speech Language Pathology
is a field of expertise practiced by a clinician known as a
(SLP), also called speech and language
therapist, or speech therapist, who specializes in the evaluation and
treatment of communication disorders, cognition, voice disorders, and
is advanced technology to accelerate language
development of children 0-5
Over 800 languages are spoken in
Papua New Guinea
, a country of about six million people.
Indo-European Language Family Tree
for Language, Interaction, and Culture
MIT Language Universal ties all Languages together
Endangered Languages – The Alliance for Linguistic Diversity
The Rapidly Changing Language of American English
Interview with William Labov, Professor of Linguistics at University of
Pennsylvania and author of Dialect. David discusses the various and
changing dialects and accents spoken in American English, and the
political and economic factors in those 15 dialects.
did our ancestors develop the very first language
may refer to a hypothetical or historical
language spoken and understood by all or most of the world's population
In some contexts, it refers to a means of communication said to be
understood by all living things, beings, and objects alike. It may be the
idea of an international auxiliary language for communication between
groups speaking different primary languages. In other conceptions, it may
be the primary language of all speakers, or the only existing language.
Some religious and mythological traditions state that there was once a
single universal language among all people, or shared by humans and
supernatural beings. Rosetta
(universal) - Learning to Speak
Phrase Structure Rules
are a type of rewrite rule used to
describe a given language's syntax, and are closely associated with the
early stages of transformational grammar, being first proposed by Noam
Chomsky in 1957.
is the idea that all human languages follow a simple
logical principle, according to which a limited set of digits—irreducible
atomic sound elements—are combined to produce an infinite range of
potentially meaningful expressions.
Tongues Institute for Endangered Languages
documentation, maintenance, preservation, and revitalization of
endangered languages worldwide through linguist-aided,
community-driven multi-media language documentation projects.
in Different Tongues: Languages and the Way We Think
- Language Interpretation
Why is the
so simple? Why
is one of the units of
, or gesture in the case
of sign languages, that distinguishes one word from another in a
particular language. Two words that differ in
through a contrast of a single
phoneme form, is called a
, which are pairs of
or phrases in a particular
language that differ in only one phonological element
, such as a phoneme, toneme or chroneme, and have distinct meanings. They are used to
demonstrate that two phones constitute two separate phonemes in the
Why is learning the
better for Brain development?
is the condition of being able to speak only
a single language, as opposed to multilingualism. In a different context,
"unilingualism" may refer to a language policy which enforces an official
or national language over others.
is the name given to the study and improvement
of the arts of language.
Interagency Language Roundtable Scale
is a set of descriptions of
abilities to communicate in a language.
Interagency Language Roundtable
is an unfunded organization comprising various agencies of the United
States Federal Government with the purpose of coordinating and sharing
information on foreign language activities at the federal level.
is the Language of the Three Fires Confederacy.
is a language that arises through the
usually two source languages
, normally in situations of thorough
bilingualism (Meakins, 2013), so that it is not possible to classify the
resulting language as belonging to either of the language families that
were its sources.
are a type of synthetic languages,
distinguished from agglutinative languages by their tendency to use a
in combination with affixes to denote multiple
grammatical, syntactic, or semantic changes.
is a blend of Spanish and English lexical items and grammar.
Spanglish can be considered a variety of Spanish with heavy use of English
or vice versa. It can be more related either to Spanish or to English,
depending on the circumstances. Since Spanglish arises independently in
each region, it reflects the locally spoken varieties of English and
Spanish. In general different varieties of Spanglish are not necessarily
mutually intelligible. In Mexican and Chicano Spanish the common term for
"Spanglish" is "Pocho". Spanglish is a name sometimes given to various
contact dialects, pidgins, or creole languages that result from
interaction between Spanish and English used by people who speak both
languages or parts of both languages, mainly spoken in the United States.
is language used in a
or nonliteral sense.
is the use of two or more languages, either by an individual speaker or by
a community of speakers. It is believed that multilingual speakers
outnumber monolingual speakers in the world's population.
occurs when a speaker alternates between two or more
, or language varieties, in the context of a single
conversation. Multilinguals, speakers of more than one language, sometimes
use elements of multiple languages when conversing with each other. Thus,
code-switching is the use of more than one linguistic variety in a manner
consistent with the syntax and phonology of each variety. Code-switching
is distinct from other language contact phenomena, such as borrowing,
pidgins and creoles, loan translation (calques), and language transfer
(language interference). Borrowing affects the lexicon, the words that
make up a language, while code-switching takes place in individual
utterances. Speakers form and establish a pidgin language when two or more
speakers who do not speak a common language form an intermediate, third
language. On the other hand, speakers practice code-switching when they
are each fluent in both languages. Code
mixing is a thematically related term, but the usage of the terms
code-switching and code-mixing varies. Some scholars use either term to
denote the same practice, while others apply code-mixing to denote the
formal linguistic properties of language-contact phenomena and
code-switching to denote the actual, spoken usages by multilingual
persons. The term also describes literary styles that include elements
from more than one language, sometimes used to refer to relatively stable
informal mixtures of two languages, or switching among dialects,
, which is a variety of a language used for a particular
purpose or in a particular social setting.
Bilingualism comes naturally to our brains
. Processing multiple
languages taps same mechanisms as listening to only one. The brain uses a
shared mechanism for combining words from a single language and for
combining words from two different languages, a team of neuroscientists
has discovered. Its findings indicate that language switching is natural
for those who are bilingual
because the brain has
a mechanism that does not detect that the language has switched, allowing
for a seamless transition in comprehending more than one language at once.
is the phenomenon in conversational linguistics of
the process of the subject adopting the reference terms of their
interlocutor. In practice, it acts as a mechanism of the cooperative
principle in which both parties to the conversation employ lexical
entrainment as a progressive system to develop "conceptual pacts" (a
working temporary conversational terminology) to
ensure maximum clarity of reference
in the communication between
the parties; this process is necessary to overcome the ambiguity inherent
in the multitude of synonyms that exist in language. Lexical entrainment
arises by two cooperative mechanisms: Embedded corrections – a reference
to the object implied by the context of the sentence, but with no explicit
reference to the change in terminology. Exposed corrections – an explicit
reference to the change in terminology, possibly including a request to
assign the referent a common term (e.g., "by 'girl', do you mean 'Jane'?").
is any language that has evolved naturally
in humans through use and repetition without conscious planning or
premeditation. Natural languages can take different forms, such as speech,
signing, or writing. They are distinguished from constructed and formal
languages such as those used to program computers or to study logic.
is a set of strings of symbols together with a set of rules that
are specific to it. The alphabet
of a formal language is the set of
symbols, letters, or tokens from which the strings of the language may be
formed; frequently it is required to be finite. The strings formed from
this alphabet are called words, and the words that belong to a particular
formal language are sometimes called well-formed words or well-formed
formulas. A formal language is often defined by means of a formal grammar
such as a regular grammar
or context-free grammar, also called its
may be defined either as a language variety used by
a population for public purposes or as a variety that has undergone
is appropriate everyday language or everyday
speech of a native language or native dialect (usually
colloquial or informal) of a specific population, especially as
distinguished from a literary, national or standard variety of the
language, or a lingua franca (vehicular language) used in the region or
state inhabited by that population. Some linguists
use "vernacular" and
"nonstandard dialect" as synonyms.
is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the
critical period. In some countries, the term native language or mother
tongue refers to the language of one's ethnic group rather than one's
first language. Children brought up speaking more
than one language
can have more than one native language, and be
or multilingual. By contrast, a
is any language
that one speaks other than one's first language.
is the language which a
person has grown up speaking from early childhood.
the ability to express oneself fluently and grammatically in
is a manner of speaking that is
natural to native speakers of a language. The usage or vocabulary that is
characteristic of a specific group of people. The style of a particular
artist, school or movement. An expression whose meanings cannot be
inferred from the meanings of the words that make it up.
is a grammatical and semantic principle expressed in
language based on how sentient or alive the referent of a noun is. Widely
expressed, animacy is one of the most elementary principles in languages
around the globe and is a distinction acquired as early as six months of
are a branch of the Afroasiatic language
family originating in the Middle East. Semitic languages are spoken by
more than 330 million people across much of Western Asia, North Africa and
the Horn of Africa, as well as in often large expatriate communities in
North America and Europe, with smaller communities in the Caucasus and
is a set of conventions for writing a language.
It includes norms of spelling, hyphenation, capitalization, word breaks,
emphasis, and punctuation.
is a set of English-speaking nations with a
similar cultural roots, based upon populations originating from the
nations of the British Isles (England, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland,
and Ireland), which today maintain close political and military
is either a distinct Algonquian language closely
related to the Ojibwe language or a particularly divergent Ojibwe dialect.
It is spoken, alongside French and to some extent English, by the
Algonquin First Nations of Quebec and Ontario. As of 2006, there were
2,680 Algonquin speakers, less than 10% of whom were monolingual.
Algonquin is the language for which the entire Algonquian language
subgroup is named. The similarity among the names often causes
considerable confusion. Like many Native American languages, it is
strongly verb-based, with most meaning being incorporated into verbs
instead of using separate words for prepositions, tense, etc.
is a type of language with a very low
morpheme per word ratio and no inflectional morphology whatsoever. In the
extreme case, each word contains a single morpheme. Currently the most
widely used isolating language is Mandarin Chinese.
is a language with a high
morpheme-per-word ratio, as opposed to a low morpheme-per-word ratio in
what is described as an analytic language. This linguistic classification
is largely independent of morpheme-usage classifications (such as fusional,
agglutinative, etc.), although there is a common tendency for
agglutinative languages to exhibit synthetic properties.
are highly synthetic languages, i.e.
languages in which words are composed of many morphemes (word parts that
have independent meaning but may or may not be able to stand alone).
Polysynthetic languages typically have long "sentence-words".
are languages of a typically very
limited size which emerge either in computer simulations between
, robot interactions or controlled psychological
experiments with humans. They are different from both constructed
languages and formal languages
in that they have not been consciously
devised by an individual or group but are the result of (distributed) conventionalisation processes, much like
. Opposed to the
idea of a central designer, the field of artificial language evolution in
which artificial languages are studied can be regarded as a sub-part of
the more general cultural evolution studies.
is an idiosyncratic language invented and spoken by only
one person or very few people. Most often, idioglossia refers to the
"private languages" of young children, especially twins, the latter being
more specifically known as cryptophasia, and commonly referred to as twin
talk or twin speech. Children who are exposed to multiple languages from
birth are also inclined to create idioglossias, but these languages
usually disappear at a relatively early age, giving way to use of one or
more of the languages introduced.
are a language family of several
hundred related languages and dialects. There are about 445 living
Indo-European languages, according to the estimate by Ethnologue, with
over two-thirds (313) of them belonging to the Indo-Iranian branch. The
most widely spoken Indo-European languages by native speakers are Spanish,
English, Hindustani (Hindi and Urdu), Portuguese, Bengali, Russian,
Persian and Punjabi, each with over 100 million speakers. Today, 46% of
the human population speaks an Indo-European language natively, by far the
highest of any language family.
Global Language System
is the "ingenious pattern of
connections between language groups", surprisingly strong and efficient
network that ties together - directly or indirectly - the six billion
inhabitants of the earth." The global language system draws upon the world
system theory to account for the relationships between the world's
languages and divides them into a hierarchy consisting of four levels,
namely the peripheral, central, supercentral and hypercentral languages.
s a grammatically simplified means of communication
that develops between two or more groups that do not have a language in
common: typically, a mixture of simplified languages or a simplified
primary language with other languages' elements included. It is most
commonly employed in situations such as trade, or where both groups speak
languages different from the language of the country in which they reside
(but where there is no common language between the groups). Fundamentally,
a pidgin is a simplified means of linguistic communication, as it is
constructed impromptu, or by convention, between individuals or groups of
people. A pidgin is not the native language of any speech community, but
is instead learned as a second language. A pidgin may be built from words,
sounds, or body language from multiple other languages and cultures. They
allow people who have no common language to communicate with each other.
Pidgins usually have low prestige with respect to other languages. Not all
simplified or "broken" forms of a language are pidgins. Each pidgin has
its own norms of usage which must be learned for proficiency in the
pidgin. A pidgin differs from a creole, which is the first language of a
speech community of native speakers, and thus has a fully developed
vocabulary and grammar. Most linguists believe that a creole develops
through a process of nativization of a pidgin when children of acquired
pidgin-speakers learn it and use it as their native language.
List of English-Based Pidgins
International Auxiliary Language
is a language meant for communication
between people from different nations who do not share a common first
language. An auxiliary language is primarily a second language.
is a constructed international auxiliary language.
It is the most widely spoken constructed language in the world.
List of Constructed Languages
is a language of the Northwest Caucasian family which, like the
other Northwest Caucasian languages, is very rich in consonants. Abkhaz
has a large consonantal inventory that contrasts 58 consonants in the
literary Abzhywa dialect, coupled with just two phonemic vowels (Chirikba
2003:18–20).Abkhaz has three major dialects, Abzhywa, Bzyp and Sadz, which
differ mainly in phonology.
is a human language invented in 2001. It was an
attempt to understand the meaning of life in 120 words.
is a constructed language, first published as
draft on the web in 2001 and then as a complete book and e-book Toki Pona:
The Language of Good in 2014. It was designed by translator and linguist
Sonja Lang (formerly Sonja Elen Kisa) of Toronto.
is a way of classifying the languages
of the world (see linguistic typology) that groups languages according to
their common morphological structures. The field organizes languages on
the basis of how those languages form words by combining morphemes.
Analytic languages contain very little inflection, instead relying on
features like word order and auxiliary words to convey meaning. Synthetic
languages, ones that are not analytic, are divided into two categories:
agglutinative and fusional languages. Agglutinative languages rely
primarily on discrete particles (prefixes, suffixes, and infixes) for
inflection, while fusional languages "fuse" inflectional categories
together, often allowing one word ending to contain several categories,
such that the original root can be difficult to extract. A further
subcategory of agglutinative languages are polysynthetic languages, which
take agglutination to a higher level by constructing entire sentences,
including nouns, as one word.
is the study of
, how they are formed,
and their relationship to other words in the same language. It analyzes
the structure of words and parts of words, such as stems, root words,
prefixes, and suffixes. Morphology also looks at parts of speech,
intonation and stress, and the ways context can change a word's
pronunciation and meaning. Morphology differs from morphological typology,
which is the classification of languages based on their use of words and
lexicology, which is the study of words and how they make up a language's
is the smallest grammatical unit in a language
. A morpheme is
not identical to a word, and the principal difference between the two is
that a morpheme may or may not stand alone, whereas a word, by definition,
is freestanding. The linguistics field of study dedicated to morphemes is
called morphology. When a morpheme stands by itself, it is considered as a
root because it has a meaning of its own (e.g. the morpheme cat) and when
it depends on another morpheme to express an idea, it is an affix because
it has a grammatical function (e.g. the –s in cats to indicate that it is
plural). Every word comprises one or more morphemes.
is the part of linguistics
This may include their nature and function as symbols, their meaning,
the relationship of their meaning to epistemology in general, and the
rules of their composition from smaller elements (morphemes such as the
English -ed marker for past or un- for negation; and phonemes as basic
sound units). Lexicology also involves relations between words, which may
involve semantics (for example, love vs. affection), derivation (for
example, fathom vs. unfathomably), use and sociolinguistic distinctions
(for example, flesh vs. meat), and any other issues involved in analyzing
the whole lexicon of a language.
is the vocabulary
of a person, language, or branch of knowledge (such as
nautical or medical). In linguistics, a lexicon is a language's inventory
of lexemes. The word "lexicon" derives from the Greek λεξικόν (lexicon),
neuter of λεξικός (lexikos) meaning "of or for
is a word that occurs only
once within a context
, either in the written record of an entire
language, in the works of an author, or in a single text. Hapax legomena
in ancient texts are usually difficult to decipher, since it is easier to
infer meaning from multiple contexts than from just one.
English Language - History
gives precision and flexibility. New words bring new
ideas. It's like the English language was made for the human brain.
There is around one million words in the English
, including thousands of obsolete words. English is by far
the most powerful language. It is the dominant language of three G7
nations (USA, UK and Canada), and British legacy has given it a global
footprint. It is the world's lingua franca. Mandarin, which ranks second,
is only half as potent. English speakers don’t know that the way their
language works is just one of endless ways it could have come out. It’s
easy to think that what one’s native language puts words to, and how,
reflects the fundamentals of reality.
As the English language
evolved over the last 600 years, it absorbed words and used words from
, Greek, Hebrew, French, Dutch, Spanish,
, and more. And now other languages in the world are using
English words more often, so most languages now share each others words.
Over 60 percent of all English words have Greek or Latin roots. In the
vocabulary of the sciences and technology
figure rises to over 90 percent.
Latin words: "Semper paratus"
(always ready) - "Semper fidelis" (always faithful) - "Qui transtulit
sustinet" ("He who transplanted still sustains").
The English Language did not give rise to intelligence
because humans had the ability to be intelligent way before the English language was even
developed. Our ancestors used other languages to become intelligent. What the English language did for humanity was to give
The Power of Language
to more people. The English
language is so versatile that you can communicate on so many different
levels. English also makes it easy to transmit thoughts and emotions. The English language
also helped people advance and learn faster because the language advanced
and evolved as people learned more about how to use language effectively
and efficiently. But the power of language
is almost useless if people
never learn how to use the power of language effectively and efficiently.
Language is Key to Human Intelligence
English is the
largest language by number of native speakers
, after Mandarin and
Spanish. Approximately 330 to 360 million people around the world speak
English as their first language
that include second language speakers vary greatly, from 470 million to
more than 1 billion
, and there are more
than 50 English speaking countries. Because English is so widely spoken,
it has often been referred to as a "world
". While it is not an official language in most countries, it
is currently the language most often taught as a foreign language. The
United States has the most native speakers at 258 million.
List of Countries by English-Speaking Population
List of Territorial entities where English is an Official Language
51.6% of people
On the Internet
speak English, 6.6% speak Russian and 2.0%
speak Chinese. The
number of internet users
in 2015 was 3.2 billion people, which means
that 1.5 billion people speak the English Language?
There are six
large countries with a majority of native English speakers that are
sometimes grouped under the term
. There are 62 million native English speakers in the
United Kingdom, 32 million in Canada, 20 million in Australia, and 3.8
million in New Zealand. Other countries also use English as their
primary and official languages. Besides the major varieties of
English, such as American English, British English, Indian English,
Canadian English, Australian English, Irish English, New Zealand English
and their sub-varieties, countries such as South Africa, the
Philippines, Jamaica and Nigeria also have millions of native speakers
of dialect continua ranging from English-based creole languages to
The Adventure Of
- 2003 BBC Documentary - Episode 1 - BBC Documentary (youtube)
- Presented by Melvyn Bragg (8 episodes about 50 minutes each).
Alfred the Great
King of Wessex from 871 to 899.
is a collection of annals in
chronicling the history of the Anglo-Saxons. The original
manuscript of the Chronicle was created late in the 9th century, probably
in Wessex, during the reign of Alfred the Great. Multiple copies were made
of that one original and then distributed to monasteries across England,
where they were independently updated. In one case, the Chronicle was
still being actively updated in 1154.
Great Vowel Shift
was a major change in the
English language that took place in England between 1350 and 1600. Through
the Great Vowel Shift, all Middle English long vowels changed their
pronunciation. English spelling was becoming standardized in the 15th and
16th centuries, and the Great Vowel Shift is responsible for many of the
peculiarities of English spelling
starts to be used in Law
where Latin was the norm for years.
wrote the English translation of the Bible from Latin.
1479 Common written language spelling standards
wrote the English translation of the Bible from Hebrew and
Greek. Translation created new English words.
1540 Bible for All.
1611 Kings Bible.
Books of Kings
had thousands of quotes in the
First English Dictionary
, which had only 21,000 Words.
Third New International Dictionary and The Oxford English
Dictionary included some 470,000 entries.
2018 there is currently
around one million words
in the English
language, including thousands of obsolete words. But the true power of the
English language is not the size of it's
, but it's the quality of the words in the English that can
express more meaning and communicate more definitively than any other
known language. But sadly, the power of the English language is still
underutilized. So we have the power, we are just not using it effectively.
The oldest known
were Akkadian Empire cuneiform tablets with bilingual
Sumerian–Akkadian wordlists, discovered in Ebla (modern Syria) and dated
roughly 2300 BCE. A Chinese dictionary, the c. 3rd century BCE Erya, was
the earliest surviving monolingual dictionary; Arabic dictionaries were
compiled between the 8th and 14th centuries CE.
in 1620 marked the beginning of America.
mark the beginning of Intelligence.
America helped define and expand the English Language
(October 16, 1758 – May 28, 1843) was an American lexicographer, textbook
pioneer, English-language spelling reformer, political writer, editor, and
prolific author. He has been called the "Father of American Scholarship
and Education". In 783 his
blue-backed speller books
taught five generations of American children
how to spell and read, secularizing their education. According to Ellis
(1979), he gave Americans "a secular catechism to the nation-state."
Webster's name has become synonymous with "dictionary" in the United
States, especially the modern Merriam-Webster dictionary that was first
published in 1828 as An American Dictionary of the English Language.
Webster was born in the Western Division of Hartford (which became West
Americans expanded the English Language
making it even better as people migrated westward. Adding new descriptive
words from native American Indians and from Spanish people from the south.
I love the English Language
English as a Second Language
is a Latin alphabet consisting of 26 letters, each
having an uppercase and a lowercase form, and the same letters constitute
ISO basic Latin alphabet
. The exact shape of printed letters varies
depending on the typeface (and font), and the shape of handwritten letters
can differ significantly from the standard printed form (and between
individuals), especially when written in cursive style. English is the
only major modern European language requiring no diacritics for native
words (although a diaeresis is used by some publishers in words such as "coöperation"
or "naïve"). Written English does, however, have a number of digraphs. The
alphabet was derived from an original series of sixteen characters, that
emerged as a way to record spoken words. The English language itself was
first written in the Anglo-Saxon futhorc runic alphabet, in use from the
5th century. This alphabet was brought to what is now England, along with
the proto-form of the language itself, by Anglo-Saxon settlers. Very few
examples of this form of written Old English have survived, mostly as
short inscriptions or fragments.
any of various nonstandard forms of English
spoken by black people, especially as an urban dialect in the US.
believe that learning to speak English gives a person greater potential to
be smarter or more intelligent because the English language has many more
words than other languages, and also, the English language makes it easier
to think, listen, speak and explain complex concepts. The English language
seems to be perfect for the way that the brain is designed to use language
effectively and efficiently. Though the English language is the only
language I know, this can only be an opinion.
is a system of
elements. Speech as a means of communication cannot strictly be separated
from the whole of human communicative activity which includes the visual
and the term 'language' in relation to vision is an extension of its use
to describe the perception, comprehension and production of
is the ability to interpret
, negotiate, and make
information presented in the form of an image
, extending the meaning of
literacy, which commonly signifies interpretation of a written or printed
text. Visual literacy is based on the idea that pictures can be “read” and
that meaning can be through a process of reading
Hearing Impaired Tools
Linguistic Intelligence - Language Smart
is the scientific study
of language, and involves an analysis
of language form, language meaning,
and language in context.
sensitivity to spoken
, the ability to
, and the capacity to use language to
is a person who speaks
. A specialist in linguistics.
is the work of objectively analyzing
and describing how language is
actually used or how it was used in the past by a group of people in a
is an interdisciplinary field concerned with
the computational modelling
of natural language, as well as the study of
appropriate computational approaches to linguistic questions. In general,
computational linguistics draws upon linguistics, computer science,
, math, logic, philosophy, cognitive science,
cognitive psychology, psycholinguistics, anthropology and neuroscience,
among others.Behavioural Linguistics
is the science-based use of language to
. It's rooted in
psychology, sociolinguistics, and principles of marketing. language is a
powerful way to change behavior.
is the study of the interrelation between linguistic
factors and psychological aspects
discipline is mainly concerned with the mechanisms by which language is
processed and represented in the mind and brain; that is, the
psychological and neurobiological factors that enable humans to acquire,
use, comprehend, and produce language. Psycholinguistics is concerned with
the cognitive faculties and processes that are necessary to produce the
grammatical constructions of language. It is also concerned with the
perception of these constructions by a listener. Initial forays into
psycholinguistics were in the philosophical and educational fields, due
mainly to their location in departments other than applied sciences (e.g.,
cohesive data on how the human brain functioned). Modern research makes
use of biology, neuroscience, cognitive science, linguistics, and
information science to study how the mind-brain processes language, and
less so the known processes of social sciences, human development,
communication theories, and infant development, among others. There are
several subdisciplines with non-invasive techniques for studying the
neurological workings of the brain. For example: neurolinguistics has
become a field in its own right; and developmental psycholinguistics, as a
branch of psycholinguistics, concerns itself with a child's ability to
is the study of the neural mechanisms
in the human
brain that control the comprehension
, production, and acquisition of
language. As an interdisciplinary field, neurolinguistics draws methods
and theories from fields such as neuroscience, linguistics, cognitive
science, communication disorders and neuropsychology. Researchers are
drawn to the field from a variety of backgrounds, bringing along a variety
of experimental techniques as well as widely varying theoretical
perspectives. Much work in neurolinguistics is informed by models in
psycholinguistics and theoretical linguistics, and is focused on
investigating how the brain can implement the processes that theoretical
and psycholinguistics propose are necessary in producing and comprehending
language. Neurolinguists study the physiological mechanisms by which the
brain processes information related to language, and evaluate linguistic
and psycholinguistic theories, using aphasiology, brain imaging,
electrophysiology, and computer modeling.
is an interdisciplinary branch of linguistics,
combining knowledge and research from cognitive psychology
neuropsychology and linguistics. Models and theoretical accounts of
cognitive linguistics are considered as psychologically real, and research
in cognitive linguistics aims to help understand cognition in general and
is seen as a road into the human mind. There has been scientific and
terminological controversy around the label 'cognitive linguistics'; there
is no consensus on what specifically is meant with the term.
is a branch of computational linguistics,
which is concerned with the use of computers
in the study of lexicon. It
has been more narrowly described by some scholars (Amsler, 1980) as the
use of computers in the study of machine-readable dictionaries. It is
distinguished from computational lexicography, which more properly would
be the use of computers in the construction of dictionaries, though some
researchers have used computational lexicography as synonymous.
study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is a
combination of literary criticism, history, and linguistics. Philology is
more commonly defined as the study of literary texts as well as oral and
establishment of their authenticity and their original form, and the
determination of their meaning. A person who pursues this kind of study is
known as a philologist. In older usage, especially British, philology is
more general, covering comparative and historical linguistics.
Database for studying individual differences in language skills
do people differ in their ability to use language? As part of a larger
study into this question, researchers tested 122 adult native speakers of
Dutch on various language and cognitive measures, including tests of
vocabulary size, grammar, understanding and producing sentences, working
memory and processing speed. Other researchers are encouraged to use this
database to further investigate individual differences in language skills.
Although most people learn to speak their mother tongue fluently, native
speakers differ in their ability to use language. Adult language users not
only differ in the number of words they know, they also differ in how
quickly they produce and understand words and sentences. How do
individuals differ across language tasks? Are individual differences in
language ability related to general cognitive abilities?
are the human and civil
concerning the individual and
collective right to choose the language
or languages for
communication in a private or public atmosphere. Other parameters for
analyzing linguistic rights include the degree of territoriality, amount
of positivity, orientation in terms of assimilation or maintenance, and
overtness. Linguistic rights include, among others, the right to one's own
language in legal, administrative and judicial acts, language education,
and media in a language understood and freely chosen by those concerned.
Linguistic rights in international law are usually dealt in the broader
framework of cultural and educational rights.
Scholars link diet, dentition, and linguistics
. Anthropologists used a
novel data analysis of thousands of languages, in addition to studying a
unique subset of celebrities, to reveal how a soft food diet -- contrasted
with the diet of hunter-gatherers -- is restructuring
and changing how people
or autonym is an established, non-native name for a
geographical place, group of people, individual person, language or
dialect, meaning that it is used only outside that particular place,
group, or linguistic community. Exonyms exist not only for historico-geographical
reasons, but also in consideration of difficulties when pronouncing
foreign words. For instance, Deutschland is the endonym for the country
that is also known by the exonym Germany in English, Alemania in Spanish
and Allemagne in French.
refers to an individual's awareness
of the phonological structure
, of words. Phonological
awareness is an important and reliable predictor of later reading ability
and has, therefore, been the focus of much research.
Tone - Use of Pitch
in language is when different tones
will change the meaning of the words
, even if the
of the word is the same
could be different
depending on which syllable
in linguistics is the use of pitch
in language to distinguish
lexical or grammatical meaning
languages use pitch to express emotional and other paralinguistic
information and to convey emphasis, contrast, and other such features in
what is called intonation, but not all languages use tones to distinguish
words or their inflections, analogously to consonants
I don't like
the tone of your voice
. It's not just what you say, but how you say it,
or the way you say it. Metaphors
is a quiet or hushed tone of
voice or a low or subdued utterance or accompanying sound. A muted tone of
sound or color. A quality (as of emotion) underlying the surface of an
utterance or action. An underlying quality or feeling.
in linguistics or accent
or prominence given to
a certain syllable in a word, or to a certain word in a phrase or
sentence. This emphasis is typically caused by such properties as
of the vowel, and
changes in pitch
High Rising Terminal
is a feature of some variants of English where
declarative sentence clauses end with a rising-pitch intonation
, until the
end of the sentence where a falling-pitch is applied. Empirically, one
report proposes that HRT in American English and
is marked by a high tone (high pitch or high
fundamental frequency) beginning on the final accented syllable near the
end of the statement (the terminal), and continuing to increase in
frequency (up to 40%) to the end of the intonational phrase. New research
suggests that the actual rise can occur one or more syllables after the
last accented syllable of the phrase, and its range is much more variable
than previously thought. (also known as upspeak, uptalk, rising
inflection, moronic interrogative, or high rising intonation or HRI).
in linguistics is variation of
pitch that is not used
to distinguish words; instead it is used for a range of functions such
as indicating the attitudes and emotions of the speaker, signaling the
difference between statements and questions, and between different types
of questions, focusing attention on important elements of the spoken
message and also helping to regulate conversational interaction.
contrasts with tone, in which pitch variation does distinguish words. So
when your voice rises at the end of a question, that is technically called
intonation. Inflection has two meanings: it can sometimes mean intonation,
modulation of the voice; change in pitch or tone of voice.
is a change in the form of a
word (usually by adding a suffix
indicate a change in its grammatical function. The patterns of stress and
intonation in a language. A manner of speaking in which the loudness or
pitch or tone
of the voice is modified. Deviation from
a straight or normal course.
is the modification of a word to express different
such as tense,
case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood. The inflection of
verbs is also called conjugation, and one can refer to the inflection of
nouns, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, determiners, participles,
prepositions, postpositions, numerals, articles etc., as declension. An
inflection expresses one or more grammatical categories with a prefix,
suffix or infix, or another internal modification such as a vowel change.
For example, the Latin verb ducam, meaning "I will lead", includes the
suffix -am, expressing person (first), number (singular), and tense-mood
(future indicative or present subjunctive). The use of this suffix is an
inflection. In contrast, in the English clause "I will lead", the word
lead is not inflected for any of person, number, or tense; it is simply
the bare form of a verb. The inflected form of a word often contains both
one or more free morphemes
(a unit of meaning
which can stand by itself as a word), and one or more bound morphemes (a
unit of meaning which cannot stand alone as a word). For example, the
English word cars is a noun that is inflected for number, specifically to
express the plural; the content morpheme car is unbound because it could
stand alone as a word, while the suffix -s is bound because it cannot
stand alone as a word. These two morphemes together form the inflected
word cars. Words that are never subject to inflection are said to be
invariant; for example, the English verb must is an invariant item: it
never takes a suffix or changes form to signify a different grammatical
category. Its categories can be determined only from its context.
Requiring the forms or inflections of more than one word in a sentence to
be compatible with each other according to the rules of the language is
known as concord or agreement. For example, in "the choir sings", "choir"
is a singular noun, so "sing" is constrained in the present tense to use
the third person singular suffix "s". Languages that have some degree of
inflection are synthetic languages. These can be highly inflected (such as
Latin, Greek, Spanish, Biblical Hebrew, and Sanskrit), or weakly inflected
(such as English). Languages that are so inflected that a sentence can
consist of a single highly inflected word (such as many American Indian
languages) are called polysynthetic languages. Languages in which each
inflection conveys only a single grammatical category, such as Finnish,
are known as agglutinative languages, while languages in which a single
inflection can convey multiple grammatical roles (such as both nominative
case and plural, as in Latin and German) are called fusional. Languages
such as Mandarin Chinese that never use inflections are called analytic or
is to give the
different forms of a verb in an inflected language as they vary according
to voice, mood, tense, number, and person.
is the creation of derived forms of a
from its principal parts by
inflection (alteration of form according to rules of grammar). Conjugation
may be affected by person, number, gender, tense, aspect, mood, voice,
case, and other grammatical categories
such as possession, definiteness, politeness, causativity, clusivity,
interrogativity, transitivity, valency, polarity, telicity, volition,
mirativity, evidentiality, animacy, associativity, pluractionality,
reciprocity, agreement, polypersonal agreement, incorporation, noun class,
noun classifiers, and verb classifiers in some languages. Agglutinative
and polysynthetic languages tend to have the most complex conjugations
albeit some fusional languages such as Archi can also have extremely
complex conjugation. Typically the principal parts are the root and/or
several modifications of it (stems). All the different forms of the same
verb constitute a lexeme, and the canonical form of the verb that is
conventionally used to represent that lexeme (as seen in dictionary
entries) is called a lemma. The term conjugation is applied only to the
inflection of verbs, and not of other parts of speech (inflection of nouns
and adjectives is known as declension). Also it is often restricted to
denoting the formation of finite forms of a verb – these may be referred
to as conjugated forms, as opposed to non-finite forms, such as the
infinitive or gerund, which tend not to be marked for most of the
grammatical categories. Correlative Conjunction come in pairs some are:
both...and either...or ex: She'd rather play the drums than sing.
Conjugation is also the traditional name for a group of verbs that share a
similar conjugation pattern in a particular language (a verb class). For
example, Latin is said to have four conjugations of verbs. This means that
any regular Latin verb can be conjugated in any person, number, tense,
mood, and voice by knowing which of the four conjugation groups it belongs
to, and its principal parts. A verb that does not follow all of the
standard conjugation patterns of the language is said to be an irregular
verb. The system of all conjugated variants of a particular verb or class
of verbs is called a verb paradigm; this may be presented in the form of a
is a linguistic process related to inflectional
languages. All members of the Indo-European language family belong to this
kind of language and are subject to some degree of deflexional change. The
process is typified by the degeneration of the inflectional structure of a
language. This phenomenon has been especially strong in Western European
languages, such as English, French, and others.
Variation in linguistics
is a characteristic of language: there is more
than one way of saying the same thing. Speakers may vary pronunciation
(accent), word choice (lexicon), or morphology and syntax (sometimes
called "grammar"). But while the diversity of variation is great, there
seem to be boundaries on variation – speakers do not generally make
drastic alterations in sentence word order or use novel sounds that are
completely foreign to the language being spoken. Language variation
does not equate with language ungrammaticality, but speakers are still
(often unconsciously) sensitive to what is and is not possible in their
native tongue. Language variation is a core concept in sociolinguistics.
Sociolinguists investigate whether this linguistic variation can be
attributed to differences in the social characteristics of the speakers
using the language, but also investigate whether elements of the
surrounding linguistic context promote or inhibit the usage of certain
in the degree to which they overtly and obligatorily
mark semantic distinctions; this difference is termed as one of
over specification. Second, a particular aspect of one grammar may differ
from that aspect in another's in terms of the number of rules (in
phonology and syntax) or foundational elements (in terms of phonemic
inventory) required to generate surface forms. Third, grammars differ in
the degree to which they are festooned with irregularity and suppletion.
Inflection and complexity, and whether one grammar can be more complex
than another are discussed.
visual style of writing
letters and words can influence the meaning
Like font style
, letter sizes,
colors and punctuation marks
is an individuals' ability to understand both spoken and written language,
as well as their ability to speak and write themselves. In a practical
sense, linguistic intelligence is the extent to which an individual can
use language, both written and verbal, to achieve goals. In addition to
this, high linguistic intelligence has been linked to improved problem
solving, as well as to increased abstract reasoning. In many cases, only
the verbal aspects are taken into consideration. This is usually referred
to as verbal intelligence or verbal fluency, and is commonly a reflection
of an individual's overall linguistic intelligence. Part of Howard
is the interdisciplinary study of
how language influences social life. It is a branch of anthropology that
originated from the endeavor to document endangered languages, and has
grown over the past century to encompass most aspects of language
structure and use. Linguistic anthropology explores how language shapes
communication, forms social identity and group membership, organizes
large-scale cultural beliefs and ideologies, and develops a common
cultural representation of natural and social worlds.
set of conventions for writing a language. It includes norms of spelling,
hyphenation, capitalization, word breaks, emphasis, and punctuation.
is the descriptive study of the effect of any and all aspects of society,
including cultural norms, expectations, and context, on the way language
is used, and the effects of language use on society. Sociolinguistics
differs from sociology of language in that the focus of sociology of
language is the effect of language on the society, while sociolinguistics
focuses on the society's effect on language. Sociolinguistics overlaps to
a considerable degree with pragmatics. It is historically closely related
to linguistic anthropology and the distinction between the two fields has
even been questioned.
Style in sociolinguistics
is a set of linguistic variants with specific
social meanings. In this context, social meanings can include group
membership, personal attributes, or beliefs. Linguistic variation is at
the heart of the concept of linguistic style—without variation there is no
basis for distinguishing social meanings. Variation can occur
syntactically, lexically, and phonologically. Many approaches to
interpreting and defining style incorporate the concepts of indexicality,
indexical order, stance-taking, and linguistic ideology. Note that a style
is not a fixed attribute of a speaker. Rather, a speaker may use different
styles depending on context. Additionally, speakers often incorporate
elements of multiple styles into their speech, either consciously or
subconsciously, thereby creating a new style.
refers to the school of thought within
linguistics that interprets language in terms of the concepts, sometimes
universal, sometimes specific to a particular tongue, which underlie its
is an interdisciplinary field
concerned with the statistical or rule-based modeling of natural language
from a computational perspective.
is the practice of elevating one
variety or manner of language use over another. It may imply that some
forms are incorrect, improper, or illogical, or lack communicative effect,
or are of low aesthetic value.
(sounds that words make)
is the study of various aspects of
linguistic communication between people who cannot make themselves
understood by means of their different first languages. It is concerned
with investigating how ethnic and auxiliary languages (lingua franca) work
in such situations and with the possibilities of optimizing
interlinguistic communication, for instance by use of international
auxiliary languages, such as Esperanto or Interlingua. These are languages
that are created by an intentional intellectual effort, usually with the
aim of facilitating interlinguistic communication, but there are also
interlanguages that have arisen spontaneously. These are called pidgin
Department of Linguistics
is an approach to linguistics originating from
the work of Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure and is part of the
overall approach of structuralism.
is the process by which some kind of surface representation is derived
from its underlying representation; that is, the way in which some
abstract object of linguistic analysis comes to be produced in actual
language. Phonemes are often said to be realized by speech sounds. The
different sounds that can realize a particular phoneme are called its
is what makes a text semantically
. It is especially dealt with
in text linguistics. Coherence is achieved through syntactical features
such as the use of deictic, anaphoric and cataphoric elements or a logical
tense structure, as well as presuppositions and implications connected to
general world knowledge. The purely linguistic elements that make a text
coherent are subsumed under the term cohesion.
is the process of standardizing and developing a norm for a language.
is the study of ancient and historical
handwriting (that is to say, of the forms and processes of writing, not
the textual content of documents). Included in the discipline is the
practice of deciphering, reading, and dating historical manuscripts, and
the cultural context of writing, including the methods with which writing
and books were produced, and the history of scriptoria. The discipline is
important for understanding, authenticating, and dating ancient texts.
However, it cannot in general be used to pinpoint dates with high
in linguistics is a unit in phonology that determines syllable
weight, which in some languages determines stress or timing.
on or off, zero or one)
as a Language
(numbers, symbols) -
can be characterized as the number and variety of elements,
and the elaborateness of their interrelational structure. This general
characterisation can be broken down into sub-areas: Syntagmatic
complexity: number of parts, such as word length in terms of phonemes,
syllables etc.. Paradigmatic complexity: variety of parts, such as phoneme
inventory size, number of distinctions in a grammatical category, e.g.
aspect. Organizational complexity: e.g. ways of arranging components,
phonotactic restrictions, variety of word orders. Hierarchic complexity:
e.g. recursion, lexical–semantic hierarchies.
5 techniques to speak any
Language: Sid Efromovich at
One way to effectively learn a language is using the language in
interaction with others. Use language for a purpose and learn to use the
language in context. Speech
How to Teach a Language
is a method of teaching a second language
in which the learners’ second language
(L2) is the medium of classroom
instruction. Through this method, learners study school subjects, such as
math, science, and social studies, in their L2. The main purpose of this
method is to foster bilingualism, in other words, to develop learners'
communicative competence or language proficiency in their L2 in addition
to their first or Native Language
(L1). Additional goals are the cognitive
advantages to bilingualism.
the use of
as a vehicle for second or foreign language
Learners are exposed to a considerable amount of language through
stimulating content. Learners explore interesting content and are engaged
in appropriate language-dependent activities. Languages are not learned
through direct instruction, but rather acquired "naturally" or
automatically. CBI supports contextualized learning; learners are taught
useful language that is embedded within relevant discourse contexts rather
than as isolated language fragments. Hence students make greater
connections with the language and what they already know. Complex
information is delivered through real life context
for the students to
grasp well and leads to intrinsic motivation. In CBI information is
reiterated by strategically delivering information at right time and
situation compelling the greater flexibility and adaptability in the
curriculum can be deployed as per the student's interest.
is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive and
, as well as to produce and use words and sentences to
. Language acquisition is one of the quintessential human
traits, because non-humans do not communicate by using language. Language
acquisition usually refers to first-language acquisition
, which studies
infants' acquisition of their Native Language
. This is distinguished from
second-language acquisition, which deals with the acquisition (in both
children and adults) of additional languages. The capacity to successfully
use language requires one to acquire a range of tools including phonology,
morphology, syntax, semantics, and an extensive vocabulary. Language can
be vocalized as in speech, or manual as in sign. Human language capacity
is represented in the brain. Even though human language capacity is
finite, one can say and understand an infinite number of sentences, which
is based on a syntactic principle called recursion. Evidence suggests that
every individual has three recursive mechanisms that allow sentences to go
indeterminately. These three mechanisms are: relativization,
complementation and coordination. Furthermore, there are actually two main
guiding principles in first-language acquisition, that is, speech
perception always precedes speech production
and the gradually evolving
system by which a child learns a language is built up one step at a time,
beginning with the distinction between individual phonemes.
Language Learning Strategies
are the processes and actions that are
consciously deployed by language learners to help them learn or use a
language more effectively. Metacognitive
, which involved thinking about (or knowledge of) the
learning process, planning for learning, monitoring learning while it is
taking place, or self-evaluation of learning after the task had been
completed. Cognitive strategies
involved mental manipulation or transformation of materials or tasks,
intended to enhance comprehension, acquisition, or retention.
consisted of using social interactions to assist in the
, learning or
retention of information. As well as the mental control over personal
affect that interfered with learning. Cognitive
between new and already known information. This would
include strategies that include the learner using reasoning or analysis of
the grammar to find understanding. Mnemonic
between new and
already known information through use of formula, phrase, verse or the
cognition through the co-ordination of the planning, organization and
evaluation of the learning process; Compensatory
to make up for missing
information in reading and writing;
Affective—regulation of emotions,
motivation and attitude toward learning; Social
interaction with other learners to improve language learning and cultural
understanding. The purpose of this strategy is to help the students
understand and cooperate with those that speak the language they are
Embodied Bilingual Language
is the idea that people mentally simulate
their actions, perceptions, and emotions when speaking and understanding a
second language (L2) as with their first language (L1). It is closely
related to embodied cognition
and embodied language processing, both of which only refer to native
language thinking and speaking. An example of embodied bilingual language
would be situation in which a L1 English speaker learning Spanish as a
second language hears the word rápido ("fast") in Spanish while taking
notes and then proceeds to take notes more quickly.
Tim Ferriss about
how he Learns Languages
(youtube) - Techniques on Learning other
Languages Fast and Easy.Tone
Medium of Instruction
is a language used in teaching. It may
or may not be the official language of the country or territory.
first language of students is different from the official language
, it may
be used as the medium of instruction for part or all of schooling.
Bilingual or multilingual education may involve the use of more than one
language of instruction. UNESCO considers that "providing education in a
child's mother tongue is indeed a critical issue".
refers to speakers or writers applying knowledge
from one language to another language.
refers to the knowledge of more than one language in
one person's mind.
is the systematic study of a pair of languages
with a view to identifying their structural differences and similarities.
Spanish Speakers Take Longer To Learn English
Kindergarten English Learners and Time to Proficiency
Communicate with a Non Native English Speaker
Modern Language Aptitude Test
is designed to predict a
student’s likelihood of success and
a foreign language.
Defense Language Aptitude Battery
is a test used by the United States Department of Defense to
test an individual's potential for learning a foreign language and thus
determining who may pursue training as a military linguist. It consists of
126 multiple-choice questions and the test is scored out of a possible 164
points. The test is composed of five audio sections and one visual
section. As of 2009, the test is completely web-based. The test does not
attempt to gauge a person's fluency in a given language, but rather to
determine their ability to learn a language. The test will give the
service member examples of what a selection of words or what a portion of
a word means, then asks the test taker to create a specific word from the
A new study reveals children's language development is a learnt skill
is intricately linked to their ability to recognize patterns in their
Brain mechanism involved in language learning
Exposure to accents helps children learn words
. University of Freiburg
study on vocabulary acquisition uses novel game-based design • Study
results: Children of primary school age can benefit from long-term
experience with multiple accents when learning words in unfamiliar accents
from other children • Bilingualism, on the other hand, did not lead to
corresponding effects in vocabulary learning.
Learning to Speak
is the process of dividing written text into
meaningful units, such as words, sentences, or topics. The term applies
both to mental processes used by humans when reading text, and to
artificial processes implemented in computers, which are the subject of
natural language processing. The problem is non-trivial, because while
some written languages have explicit word boundary markers, such as the
word spaces of written English and the distinctive initial, medial and
final letter shapes of Arabic, such signals are sometimes ambiguous and
not present in all written languages.Linguistics
is one of the three aspects of prosody, along with stress
and intonation. Languages can be categorized according to whether they are
syllable-timed, mora-timed, or stress-timed.
Statistical Learning in Language Acquisition
is the ability for humans
and other animals to extract statistical regularities from the world
around them to learn about the environment. Although statistical learning
is now thought to be a generalized learning mechanism, the phenomenon was
first identified in human infant language acquisition.
Learning a New Language -
Software for Self Teaching
Language Learning Library
Tinyworld: Connecting the world via Language Sharing
of over 130 different languages.
Private Language Lessons
Paul Pimsleur U Talk
Over 130 languages to start speaking.
understand, and enjoy your foreign language.
is a stage in child development and a state in
language acquisition during which an infant appears to be experimenting
with uttering articulate sounds, but does not yet produce any recognizable
words. Babbling begins shortly after birth and progresses through several
stages as the infant's repertoire of sounds expands and vocalizations
become more speech-like. Infants typically begin to produce recognizable
words when they are around 12 months of age, though babbling may continue
for some time afterward. Babbling can be seen as a precursor to language
development or simply as vocal experimentation. The physical structures
involved in babbling are still being developed in the first year of a
child's life. This continued physical development is responsible for some
of the changes in abilities and variations of sound babies can produce.
Abnormal developments such as certain medical conditions, developmental
delays, and hearing impairments may interfere with a child's ability to
babble normally. Though there is still disagreement about the uniqueness
of language to humans, babbling is not unique to the human species.
Speak for Yourself AAC iPad app using Babble
(youtube) - The "Babble"
feature allows users to explore vocabulary by opening every word in the
application by touching one button. Just as a baby, practicing to speak,
"babbles" by exploring his mouth's motor movements and hearing the sounds
produced, the user can explore the words available in Speak for Yourself
with alternative motor movements (e.g. using his hand). The user can be
returned to their customized setting by touching the same button to turn
Children learn quantifiers in the same order no matter what their language
, The existence of universal patterns in the language acquisition
process that do not always coincide with the linguistic universals,
according to which the world's languages are classified.
Children and Language
is a set of procedures used by behavior
analysts. These procedures are used to mirror the natural areas of
language use for children. Behavior analysts language training procedures
run along a continuum from highly restrictive such as discrete trial
training to very nonrestrictive conversationally-based strategies. Natural
language falls in the middle of these procedures.
Language Learning Principle
- Memory Training
is the study and improvement of the arts of language. The primary
divisions in language arts are literature and language, where language in
this case refers to both linguistics, and specific languages. The five
strands of the language arts are reading, writing, speaking, listening,
and viewing (visual literacy).
is a concept in second-language
acquisition where learners cannot learn the grammatical features of a
language unless they notice them. Noticing
alone does not mean that
learners automatically acquire language; rather, the hypothesis states
that noticing is the essential starting point for acquisition. There is
debate over whether learners must consciously notice something, or whether
the noticing can be subconscious to some degree.
Natural Language Processing
is a field of computer science,
concerned with the
interactions between computers and human (natural
) languages and, in
particular, concerned with programming computers to fruitfully process
large natural language corpora. Challenges in Natural Language Processing
frequently involve natural language understanding, natural language
generation (frequently from formal, machine-readable logical forms),
connecting language and machine perception, managing human-computer dialog
systems, or some combination thereof.
Natural Language Toolkit
is a suite of libraries and programs for symbolic and
statistical natural language processing (NLP) for English written in the
Python programming language
Language learning system that pays attention more efficiently than ever
. A hardware and software system called SpAtten streamlines
state-of-the-art natural language processing. The advance could reduce the
computing power, energy, and time required for text analysis and
Chinese Made Easy
Russian Language Info-Graph
See Touch Learn
is a free Language Development App
Visual Instruction Tool.
Can knowing the corresponding letters and symbols of another
help you learn a new language?
. (vocabulary, accent, grammar, pronunciation, slang).
Bilingual - Speaking Two Languages
is a person who can
speak two languages fluently.
is the use of two or more languages, either by an individual speaker or by
a community of speakers. It is believed that multilingual speakers
outnumber monolingual speakers in the world's population. More than half
of all Europeans claim to speak at least one other language in addition to
their mother tongue.
is the ability to master, or the state
of having mastered, multiple languages.
is a person who is fluent in numerous
languages. Code Switching
someone who is both a gifted and massive language accumulator. They
possess a particular neurology that's well-suited for learning languages
very quickly and being able to use them.
Giuseppe Caspar Mezzofanti
was an Italian cardinal and famed
. Individuals who consider themselves polyglots generally
speak, read, or otherwise use five or more languages. In some cases, the
number can be as high as several dozen.
Benefits of Being Bilingual
Reveals How Language Develops in Bilingual Children
. When bilingual
children learn any two languages from birth each language proceeds on its
own independent course, at a rate that reflects the quality of the
children’s exposure to each language. Spanish skills become vulnerable as
children’s English skills develop, but English is not vulnerable to being
taken over by Spanish. In their longitudinal data, the researchers found
evidence that as the children developed stronger skills in English, their
rates of Spanish growth declined. Spanish skills did not cause English
growth to slow, so it’s not a matter of necessary trade-offs between two
languages. One well established fact about monolingual development is that
the size of children’s vocabularies and the grammatical complexity of
their speech are strongly related.
several languages lower your vocabulary?
Going beyond English is critical for conservation
. Research in
languages other than English is critically important for biodiversity
conservation and is shockingly under-utilized internationally, according
to an international research team.
refers to the knowledge of more than one language in
one person's mind. From the multicompetence perspective, the different
languages a person speaks are seen as one connected system, rather than
each language being a separate system. People who speak a second language
are seen as unique multilingual individuals, rather than people who have merely attached another language to their repertoire. People learning
a second language rarely reach the same level of competence as native
speakers. When people learn a second language, the way they speak their
first language changes in subtle ways. L2 users think more flexibly than
monolinguals, are more aware of language in general, and have better
attitudes towards other cultures. For example, English children who had
Italian lessons for one hour a week had higher word awareness in English
than children who had no language lessons.
Is your ability to communicate effectively hindered when not
speaking your native language?
refers to the ability to
objectify language as a process as well as an artifact. The concept of
metalinguistic awareness is helpful to explaining the execution and
transfer of linguistic knowledge across languages (e.g. code switching as
well as translation among bilinguals). Metalinguistics can be classified
as the ability to consciously reflect on the nature of language, by using
the following skills: An awareness that language has a potential greater
than that of simple symbols (it goes beyond the meaning). An awareness
that words are separable from their referents (meaning resides in the
mind, not in the name, i.e. Sonia is Sonia, and I will be the same person
even if somebody calls me another name). An awareness that language has a
structure that can be manipulated (realizing that language is malleable:
you can change and write things in many different ways (for example, if
something is written in a grammatically incorrect way, you can change
Children and Language
Second Language Acquisition
is the process by which people
learn a second language. Second-language acquisition is also the
scientific discipline devoted to studying that process. The field of
second-language acquisition is a subdiscipline of applied linguistics, but
also receives research attention from a variety of other disciplines, such
as psychology and education.
Test of English as a Foreign Language
Secondary Level English Proficiency Test
English Language History
English as a Second or Foreign Language
is the use of
by speakers with different native
languages. Instruction for English-language learners may be known as
English as a second language (ESL
as a foreign language (EFL
), English as an
additional language (EA
L), or English for
speakers of other languages (ESOL
Language Learners (ELL
), English Learners (EL
English as a foreign language (EFL
) is used
for non-native English speakers learning English in a country where
English is not commonly spoken. The term ESL has been seen by some to
indicate that English would be of secondary importance, but only if their
first language or native language is used effectively and efficiently.
Learning the English language in order to use the
to preserve other languages and other cultures is
seen as an incentive to learn the English language.
Second Languages that are popular in each Country
Programming Language as a Second Language
There are over a billion people who are currently learning a
Skill-Based Theories of Second Language Acquisition
theories of second-language acquisition based on models of skill
acquisition in cognitive psychology. These theories conceive of
second-language acquisition as being learned in the same way as any other
skill, such as learning to drive a car or play the piano. That is, they
see practice as the key ingredient of language acquisition. The most
well-known of these theories is based on John Anderson's adaptive control
of thought model.
is a hypothesis concerning second
language acquisition that stated that a minimum threshold in language
proficiency must be passed before a second-language speaker can reap any
benefits from language. It also states that, in order to gain proficiency
in a second language, the learner must also have passed a certain and age
appropriate level of competence in his or her first language. Set forth in
a study by Cummins (1976).
is the process of losing a
, or first, language. This process is generally caused by
both isolation from speakers of the first language ("L1") and the
acquisition and use of a second language ("L2"), which interferes with the
correct production and comprehension of the first. Such interference from
a second language is likely experienced to some extent by all bilinguals,
but is most evident among speakers for whom a language other than their
first has started to play an important, if not dominant, role in everyday
life; these speakers are more likely to experience language attrition. It
is common among immigrants that travel to countries where languages
foreign to them are used.
"People with a significant amount of
can also have the ability to learn aspects of language more
- Left Side of Brain
Educational Testing Service
man wakes from coma speaking fluent Mandarin but had completely
Foreign Accent Syndrome
is a rare medical condition in
which patients develop speech patterns that are perceived as a foreign
accent that is different from their native accent, without having acquired
it in the perceived accent's place of origin.
It's nice to be able to
communicate in more then one language, but what's more important
is that you are an effective communicator. So just don't learn a
new language for conversation, learn a new language to increase
your effectiveness to communicate. Just don't teach a new
language, teach effective ways to communicate.
Medium of Instruction
is a language
used in teaching. It may or may not be the official language of the
country or territory. If the first language of students is different from
the official language, it may be used as the medium of instruction for
part or all of schooling. Bilingual or multilingual education may involve
the use of more than one language of instruction. UNESCO considers that
"providing education in a child's mother tongue is indeed a critical
. The more you have, the more you can do.
The Power of Words
is a branch of
concerned with the systematic organization of
. It has traditionally focused largely on the study of the
systems of phonemes in particular languages (and therefore used to be also
called phonemics, or phonematics), but it may also cover any linguistic
analysis either at a level beneath the word (including syllable, onset and
, articulatory features, mora, etc.) or at all levels of
language where sound is considered to be structured for conveying
. Phonology also includes the study of equivalent
organizational systems in sign
Translate - Interpret
is to read
or phrase in a particular language
and then repeat and say that word or phrase again in a different language
so that someone else can understand what the word or phrase
language into a second language with words that are
equivalent in effect
A written communication
in a second
language having the same meaning
written communication in a first language. To
something from one form or
into another. Translation is not
always from one language to another, it could be the same language
communicated by rewording a message
in less technical terminology
that most people could
is an oral translation
another. To restate words from one language into another language to make
sense of a language for someone who does not understand a particular
is the designation
to various concepts,
, or objects
under consideration. An assignment of meaning to the symbols of a formal
Body to Mind Signals
is oral translation of speech or
from a language
The facilitation of dialogue
between parties using different languages.
is the rendering of text
another one word at a time
Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis
is an approach to
psychological qualitative research
with an idiographic focus, which means that it aims to offer insights into
how a given person, in a given context,
of a given phenomenon. Usually, these phenomena relate to
personal significance, such as a major life event, or the development of
an important relationship. IPA is one of several approaches to
qualitative, phenomenological psychology. It is distinct from other
approaches, in part, because of its combination of psychological,
interpretative, and idiographic components.
holds that reality is
constructed, and a composite of multiple perspectives. Through this lens,
research is inherently shaped by the researcher, who brings their own
subjective view of observed phenomena based on their personal experience.
is when some languages don't have the words that
describe what the other language is trying to communicate. So
understanding from one language to another can be difficult and
Open to Interpretation
is a message that
has an intended meaning that is not
and that people may have different
about it or have a
hard time accurately understanding it, or understand it in the wrong way.
Interpretation of the Law
When you have
with more than one
definitions with more than one word, it's hard sometimes to be
understood in the way that you intended. Even people who speak the
same language, sometimes need a
translation. So this is not just a
problem, this is also a
Leave Nothing to the Imagination
deliberately show or describe all of the parts or details of something so
that someone does not have to guess or imagine what the message is.Everything depends on how you
because things are
is a particular way that a person understands
an event or
or remembers something
. People sometimes
, hear things differently
read things differently
is because everyone has individual experiences and different
and understanding. Each person
learns different things
, and each person does not have the same
knowledge and information
, so things could easily get lost in
are a type of
interpretation where certain things can have different meanings.
is the action of
interpreting something wrongly or incorrectly, usually causing confusion
or misunderstanding. Misinterpret is to interpret falsely.
is to interpret something in
the wrong way.
is to interpret
something in the wrong way or incorrectly, especially a person's words or
is to interpret a
word or action
. To make sense of something or to assign a
to something. Context
- You're not
saying it right. Ambiguity
You can be misinterpreted even
when you say too much
or when you
say too little
. The key is not to
expect to be interpreted correctly, and to
keep the conversation going
so that eventually, an understanding can be achieved.
is the property of text or speech for which
no equivalent can be found
into another language. A text that is considered to be untranslatable is
considered a lacuna, or lexical gap. The term arises when describing the
difficulty of achieving the so-called perfect translation.
is a potential word, word sense, morpheme, or other form that
does not exist in some language
that it would be permissible by the grammatical rules of that language.
For example, a word pronounced /peɪ̯k/ is theoretically possible in
English, as it would obey English word-formation rules, but does not
currently exist. Its absence is therefore an accidental gap, in the
ontologic sense of the word accidental (that is, circumstantial rather
than essential). Accidental gaps differ from systematic gaps, those words
or other forms which do not exist in a language due to the boundaries set
by phonological, morphological, and other rules of that specific language.
In English, a word pronounced /pfnk/ does not and cannot exist because it
has no vowels and therefore does not obey the word-formation rules of
English. This is a systematic, rather than accidental, gap. Various types
of accidental gaps exist. Phonological gaps are either words allowed by
the phonological system of a language which do not actually exist, or
sound contrasts missing from one paradigm of the phonological system
itself. Morphological gaps are nonexistent words or word senses
potentially allowed by the morphological system. A semantic gap refers to
the nonexistence of a word or word sense to describe a difference in
meaning seen in other sets of words within the language. Accidental gap is
also known as a gap, paradigm gap, accidental lexical gap, lexical gap,
lacuna, or hole in the pattern.
Procedures for Effective Translation
Translation sometimes needs more than just
one single translation.
Sometimes you have to speak the word and then speak or write the intended definition
of that word so that the message is understood accurately.
must be included in the message
as well as body language
and forms of
communication. Some translations can be complex, so a simple answer
translation may not be effective. First
I say something,
then it's translated. Then
the person receiving the translation needs
to confirm that what is being translated is understood correctly.
Then it may need to be translated back again in the
words that this particular language uses to explain what is
. Then you might have to use different words to be
translated. And this process continues until a full understanding is
is when you translate a piece of Latin into
English. Then, without the Latin, you would translate their English
translation back into Latin. The final translation of Latin was supposed
to match the original Latin as closely as possible. Google Translate can't
deal with double translation.Reinterpret
is to interpret something in a new or different way.
is a communication technique used to
. When the sender
gives a message, the receiver repeats this back. The sender then confirms
the message; thereby common is using the word “yes”. When the receiver
incorrectly repeats the message back, the sender will say “negative” (or
something similar) and then repeat the correct message. If the sender, the
person giving the message, does not get a reply back, he must repeat it
until the receiver starts closing the loop. To get the attention of the
receiver, the sender can use the receiver's name or functional position,
touch his or her shoulder, etc. Interpreter
is a person who
a thought or expression in a source language into an expression with a
comparable meaning in a target language either simultaneously in "real
time" or consecutively when the speaker pauses after completing one or two
objective is to convey every semantic element
as well as tone and register and every intention and feeling of the
message that the source-language speaker is directing to target-language
recipients (except in summary interpretation, used sometimes in
conferences). Simultaneous Interpretation
is when the interpreter has to translate what was said within the time
allowed by the speaker's pace without changing the natural flow of the
speech. In simultaneous interpreting, the interpreter has to interpret
what the speaker says at the same time as the speaker is giving the
happens when an interpreter translates the
message from the source language
Unlike in consecutive interpreting, this way the natural flow of the
speaker is not disturbed and allows for a fairly smooth output for the
listeners. Translation and interpretation refers to two different
activities. Translators render the meaning of written text into a
different language, in written form. Whereas interpreters work with the
spoken language. Because there are no long pauses for the interpreter to
stop and think through the speech during simultaneous interpretation, this
type of interpretation allows for a smooth experience for the listeners as
they don’t need to wait to understand the message. Therefore, simultaneous
interpretation is best-suited for large-scale events and conferences where
the delay in the delivery of the speech could ruin the experience of the
event. On the downside, simultaneous interpretation can be stressful for
the interpreters because they have to do their best in a very limited time
and they usually don’t know the text until they hear it (just the topic).
Also, simultaneous interpreters have to do their best to keep the tone and
the choice of words of the speaker, which adds even more stress.
Simultaneous Interpretation Technology
electronic/electric equipment, the information is transferred into the
target language the moment interpreters understand a “unit” of meaning.
The speakers and the interpreters talk into microphones, and the
interpreters and the listeners use earphones. Whispered interpreting or
chuchotage This is simultaneous interpreting without equipment. It works
just like simultaneous interpretation with equipment but in this case, no
microphones or headphones are used. Simultaneous interpreters sit next to
the people who do not understand the source language and whisper the
translation in their ears. Traditional conference interpreting equipment
(hardware) helps to make sure that all listeners can understand
interpretation well. How does simultaneous interpretation with traditional
hardware look: The speaker talks into a microphone. His or her speech is
broadcast to the interpreter who sits in a sound-proof interpreter booth
and listens through headphones. As the interpreter listens to the speech,
he or she translates it in real-time into a microphone. The interpretation
is transmitted wirelessly to the headphones of the event attendees.
a text, sometimes oral, from which information or ideas are derived. In
translation, a source text is the original text that is to be translated
into another language. Sentences that are simple and direct increase
understanding. Clear, concise, well-constructed sentences
translation quality. Use Standard English word order whenever possible.
This generally means a subject, verb, and object with associated
modifiers. Ensure correct grammatical structure
Readers must infer the relationship between the words. Synonyms get in the
way of clarity. Avoid humor. Use relative pronouns like “that” and
“which.” Use the active voice rather than the passive. English text is
often shorter than other languages, which means sufficient space is needed
for expansion up to 35%. Make sure you are familiar with the file format.
is a database that stores "segments", which can be
sentences, paragraphs or sentence-like units (headings, titles or elements
in a list) that have previously been translated, in order to aid human
translators. The translation memory stores the source text and its
corresponding translation in language pairs called “translation units”.
Individual words are handled by terminology bases and are not within the
domain of TM. Software programs that use translation memories are
sometimes known as translation memory managers (TMM) or translation memory
systems (TM systems, not to be confused with a
Translation management system
(TMS), which is another type of software
focused on managing process of translation). Translation memories are
typically used in conjunction with a dedicated
computer assisted translation
(CAT) tool, word processing program,
terminology management systems, multilingual dictionary, or even raw
machine translation output. Research indicates that many companies
producing multilingual documentation are using translation memory systems.
In a survey of language professionals in 2006, 82.5% out of 874 replies
confirmed the use of a TM. Usage of TM correlated with text type
characterized by technical terms and simple sentence structure (technical,
to a lesser degree marketing and financial), computing skills, and
repetitiveness of content.
is a sub-field of computational linguistics that
investigates the use of software to translate text or speech from one
language to another.
in language states that there is more than one way of saying
the same thing. Different Meanings
is a text placed alongside its translation or
translations. Parallel text alignment is the identification of the
corresponding sentences in both halves of the parallel text. The Loeb
Classical Library and the Clay Sanskrit Library are two examples of
dual-language series of texts. Reference Bibles
may contain the original
languages and a translation, or several translations by themselves, for
ease of comparison and study; Origen's Hexapla (Greek for "sixfold")
placed six versions of the Old Testament side by side. A famous example is
the Rosetta Stone, whose discovery allowed the Ancient Egyptian language
to begin being deciphered. Large collections of parallel texts are called
parallel corpora (see text corpus). Alignments of parallel corpora at
sentence level are prerequisite for many areas of linguistic research.
During translation, sentences can be split, merged, deleted, inserted or
reordered by the translator. This makes alignment a non-trivial task.
is a language systematically used to make
communication possible between groups of people who do not share a native
language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is
distinct from both of the speakers' native languages. Bridge language is
also known as lingua franca, common language, trade language, auxiliary
language, vehicular language, or link language. Math
is a constructed language designed to be
understandable by any possible intelligent
extraterrestrial life form
, for use in interstellar radio
transmissions. Freudenthal considered that such a language should be
easily understood by beings not acquainted with any Earthling syntax or
language. Lincos was designed to be capable of encapsulating "the whole
bulk of our knowledge".
is a language whose phonology, grammar, and
vocabulary, instead of having developed naturally, are consciously devised
for some purpose. A constructed language may also be referred to as an
artificial, planned or invented language.
is a deliberate effort to influence the function,
structure or acquisition of languages or language varieties within a
speech community, or the activity of preparing a normative orthography,
grammar, and dictionary for the guidance of writers and speakers in a
non-homogeneous speech community. Eleven language planning goals have been
recognized (Nahir 2003): Language purification
– prescription of usage norms in order to preserve the "linguistic purity"
of language, protect language from foreign influences, and guard against
perceived language deviation from within. Language
– the attempt to restore to common use a language which has
few or no surviving native speakers. Language
– deliberate change in specific aspects of language or
extralinguistic elements, such as grammar and orthography, in order to
facilitate use. Language standardization
the attempt to garner prestige for a regional language or dialect,
developing it as the chosen standard language of a region.
– the attempt to increase
the number of speakers of a language. Lexical
– word coining or adaptation.
– development of unified terminologies,
mainly in technical domains. Stylistic simplification – simplification of
language usage in lexicon, grammar, and style. That includes changing the
use of language in social and formal contexts.
– facilitation of linguistic
communication between members of distinct speech communities.
– preservation of a
group's native language as a first or second language where pressures
threaten or cause a decline in the status of the language.
standardization of marginal, auxiliary aspects of language, such as signs
for the deaf, place names, or rules of transliteration and transcription.
Their respective frameworks differ slightly, but they emphasize four
common attributes: Language origin – whether a given language is
indigenous or imported to the speech community. Degree of standardization
– the extent of development of a formal set of norms that define 'correct'
usage. Juridical status. Sole official language (e.g. French in France and
Turkish in Turkey). Joint official language (e.g. English and Afrikaans in
South Africa; French, German, Italian and Romansh in Switzerland).
Regional official language (e.g. Igbo in Nigeria; Marathi in Maharashtra,
India). Promoted language – lacks official status on a national or
regional level but is promoted and sometimes used by public authorities
for specific functions (e.g. Spanish in New Mexico; West African Pidgin
English in Cameroon). Tolerated language – neither promoted nor
proscribed; acknowledged but ignored (e.g. Native American languages in
the United States in the present day). Proscribed
– discouraged by official sanction or restriction (e.g.
Galician, Basque and Catalan during Francisco Franco's regime in Spain;
Macedonian in Greece; indigenous American languages during the boarding
school era). Vitality
– the ratio, or
percent, of users of a language to another variable, such as the total
population. Kloss and Stewart both distinguish six classes of statistical
distribution. However, they draw the line between classes at different
percentages. According to Kloss, the highest level of vitality is
demarcated by 90% or more speakers, followed by 70%, 40%, 20%, 3%, and
less than 3%. According to Stewart, the six classes are determined by the
following percentages of speakers: 75%, 50%, 25%, 10%, 5%, and less than
5%. William Stewart outlines ten functional domains in language planning:
– An official language
"function[s] as a legally appropriate language for all politically and
culturally representative purposes on a nationwide basis." The official
function of a language is often specified in a constitution.
– A provincial language
functions as an official language for a geographic area smaller than a
nation, typically a province or region (e.g. French in Quebec).
– A language of wider
communication may be official or provincial, but more importantly, it
functions as a medium of communication across language boundaries within a
nation (e.g. Hindi in India; Swahili language in East Africa).
– An international
language functions as a medium of communication across national boundaries
(e.g. English, formerly French as a diplomatic and international
language). Capital – A capital language functions as a prominent language
in and around a national capital (e.g. Dutch and French in Brussels).
Group – A group language functions as a conventional language among the
members of a single cultural or ethnic group.
– An educational language functions as a medium of
instruction in primary and secondary schools on a regional or national
basis (Urdu in West Pakistan and Bengali in East Pakistan).
– A school subject language
is taught as a subject in secondary school or higher education (e.g.
Classical languages). Literary
– A literary
language functions as a language for literary or scholarly purposes (Academese).
functions as a language for the ritual purposes of
a particular religion (e.g. Liturgical Latin for the Latin Church within
the Catholic Church; Arabic for the reading of the Qur'an). Robert Cooper
outlines two additional functional domains (mass media and work) and
distinguishes three sub-types of official functions: A statutory language
is a "de jure" official language. A working language is used by a
government for daily activities. A symbolic language is used as a state
is the process whereby a
shifts to a
different language, usually over an extended period of time. Often,
languages that are perceived to be higher status stabilize or
spread at the expense of other languages
perceived by their own speakers to be lower-status. Language shift, also
known as language transfer or language replacement or
is variation over time in a language's features. Types
of changes are systematic change in the pronunciation of phonemes, or
sound change. Or borrowing, in which features of a language or dialect are
altered as a result of influence from another language or dialect. And
analogical change, in which the shape or grammatical behavior of a word is
altered to more closely resemble that of another word. All living
languages are continually undergoing change.
is an intermediary computer program module that
translates a message from the formal messaging protocol of the sender to
the formal messaging protocol of the receiver. Message brokers are
elements in telecommunication or computer networks where software
applications communicate by exchanging formally-defined messages. Message
brokers are a building block of message-oriented middleware (MOM) but are
typically not a replacement for traditional middleware like MOM and remote
procedure call (RPC).
is the systematic study of the theory, description and
application of interpretation and translation.
is an explanation of the meaning of a work of
is an approach that assumes a text should not
be interpreted literally.
is an event in speech and forensics competitions in which participants perform excerpts from plays.
is communication about the nature and purpose of
, natural, or cultural phenomena.
is the process of a performer deciding how to
that has been previously composed.
are methods for interpreting literature, including
historicism, feminism, structuralism, deconstruction.
is an institution for dissemination of knowledge
of natural or cultural heritage
is the study of the principles of
interpretation concerning the books of the Bible
Interpretation of tongues
is a supernatural ability to understand
is a dramatic art.
is the official interpretation of a statute
issued by the statute's legislator.
Financial Accounting Standards Board Interpretations
is part of the
United States Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (US GAAP).
is a stock short title used for legislation
relating to interpretation of legislation
is an interpretation of law
by a judiciary.
is determining the meaning of legislation.
is the assignment of meanings to various
concepts, symbols, or objects under consideration.
Interpretation in logic
is an assignment of meaning to the
of a formal language.
a critical explanation or interpretation of a text.
is the study of interpretation theory.
is the study of meaning in words, phrases, signs, and symbols.
is a concept in
is to put thoughts, speech,
or data into written or printed form. Transliterate foreign characters or
write or type out shorthand, notes, or other abbreviated forms into
ordinary characters or full sentences. To convert a representation of
language, typically speech but also sign language, etc., to another
representation. The term now usually implies the conversion of speech to
text by a human transcriptionist with the assistance of a computer for
word processing and sometimes also for speech recognition, the process of
a computer interpreting speech and converting it to text.
is the systematic
language in written form. The source can either be utterances (speech or
sign language) or preexisting text in another writing system.
Transcription should not be confused with
, which means representing the meaning of a source
language text in a target language (e.g. Los Angeles into City of Angels)
or with transliteration which means representing the spelling of a text
from one script to another (e.g. Jalapeño, which preserves the Ñ from
Spanish despite the diacritic having no use in English
was a widely supported movement under Islamic
ruling that resulted in the translation of materials from various
different languages to Arabic. It successfully formed an overlap of
civilizations and established new cultural and political maps. Islamic
rulers contributed to the movement in several ways, including the creation
of translation classes to organize its flow of throughout the different
periods of the Islamic Empire. The translation movement played a
significant role in the development of Arab scientific knowledge, as many
scientific theories had emerged from different origins. Later, Western
culture was introduced to the preserved Arabic translated collections
because majority of their original scripts were lost.
Principles in the Repair of Communication Problems
also sometimes referred to as Audiovisual
translation, is a specialized branch of translation which deals with
the transfer of multimodal and multimedial texts into another language
and/or culture. and which implies the use of a multimedia electronic
system in the translation or in the transmission process.
is the systematic study, evaluation,
and interpretation of different aspects of translated works. It is an
interdisciplinary academic field closely related to literary criticism and
enables the recognition and translation of spoken language into text by
computers and computerized devices such as those categorized as smart
technologies and robotics. It is also known as
automatic speech recognition
computer speech recognition
or just speech to text
- Interpreter (computing
act of communication is an act of
and understanding correctly doesn't always happens. So listening must be
the responsibility of both people. Listen to your own words and as well as
the words spoken by other people.
The brain area with which we interpret the world
. Language, empathy,
attention - as different as these abilities may be, one brain region is
involved in all these processes: The inferior parietal lobe (IPL). Yet
until now it was unclear exactly what role it plays in these profoundly
human abilities. Scientists have now shown that the IPL comes into play
when we need to interpret our environment. Usually, the different areas in
the cerebrum take on a very specific function. For example, they process
our movements or things we see or hear, i.e. direct physical information.
However, some areas of the brain come into play when dealing with more
advanced mental tasks. They process incoming information that has already
been pre-processed and is thus already at an abstract level.
in adult second language acquisition is
an attempt to explain non-target-like linguistic behavior that persists
even among highly advanced speakers. For adult second language learners,
acquiring grammatical properties within a given linguistic area, such as
phonology, syntax, or semantics, should not be problematic.
between those modules, such as communicating between the syntax and
semantic systems, should likewise be feasible. However, grammatical
operations where the speaker is required to interface between an internal
component of the grammar, and an external component, such as pragmatics or
discourse information, will prove to be very difficult, and will not be
acquired completely by the second language learner, even at very advanced
. Spanish. Italian. French. German. Portuguese.
Mandarin is a Chinese language which is considered as
one of the hardest languages to translate
It is very different from any language of the world. Translating a text
from Chinese to another language involves learning Chinese, which is a
really tough task in itself. Chinese is a tonal language and the meanings
of words change according to tone and pronunciation. There are more than
80,000 Mandarin characters, which makes translating a text or speech from
Chinese language cumbersome. Japanese is difficult
There are 1000s of Japanese characters to be learned
before translating from Japanese to another language. The Japanese grammar
and sentence structure are quite different from English or any romance
language. This also causes difficulty while translation. Not as hard as
Mandarin, but Japanese is one of the toughest languages to translate.
Arabic is a hard language to translate
because of its vocabulary. It has a huge vocabulary, and the reason behind
is that, there are multiple synonyms of a word in Arabic. Moreover, it is
written from right direction to left, adding more complexity to
translation. Another factor that makes Arabic tough is the variation in
Arabic dialect based on location. Arabic is spoken in multiple countries
and each country follows different dialect, making it hard for someone to
interpret what is being said. Hebrew is one of the most ancient languages
of the World which is still spoken. It is considered as a tough language
to translate. Just like Arabic, it is read and written from right to left
direction. The grammar, new sounds, and the root system make Hebrew tough
for translation for English speakers. However, the number of alphabets in
Hebrew is less, which makes things a bit easier for the translator.
Korean is an isolated language
, and is very
different from any other language of the World. The toughest part about
translating a text or a speech from Korean to another language is
pronunciation. Learning Korean pronunciations is really tough and takes a
lot of practice. The grammar rules are also quite different, causing
trouble for translators.
Translation Tools - Translation Apps
Voice Translation App
Languages are available in Skype Translator
- I speak 80 languages, so can you! The personal voice
translator that lets you instantly communicate in over 80 languages.
Meet the Pilot: Smart Earpiece Language Translator
. A world without
is an earpiece which translates between
CLIK- Wireless Earbuds with Voice Translation
smart earpiece capable of translating between users
speaking a different language.
translates printed words from one
language to another with your smartphone's video camera, in real
time, no network
Translate instantly by pointing your camera. With the Translate
app, you can translate text in images, either in a picture
you've taken or imported, or just by pointing your camera. You
can translate text you see around you just by pointing your
camera lens at it.
and chat and has a text-to-text translation service for its
Language Translation Tools
Google Android Translation App
Speak and Translate
Write in a language
that you’re learning and native speakers will correct your
12-Language Talking Translator
Question and Answer Platforms
Communication Related Subjects
Learning to Speak
- Speaking Effectively
Accurately when other People Speak
- Is Thinking and Talking to Yourself the