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Knowledge Management

Knowledge Management is the process of capturing, developing and sharing knowledge, and effectively using organizational knowledge or social knowledge to achieve goals. It refers to a multi-disciplinary approach to achieving organizational objectives by making the best use of knowledge to improve services or products to the highest level of quality possible. "Knowledge is the Key, it's time to unlock our potential."

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Knowledge Management Interactions Knowledge Worker are workers whose main capital is knowledge. The main responsibilities of a knowledge worker is the advancement of knowledge and the producing and distributing knowledge products, and the handling and distribution of information. This includes the direct manipulation of symbols to create an original knowledge product, or to add obvious value to an existing one. Knowledge workers spend 38% of their time searching for information and work in various departments and time zones or from remote sites. Knowledge workers are sometimes are called "gold collars", because of their high salaries, as well as because of their relative independence in controlling the process of their own work. Most knowledge workers prefer some level of autonomy, and do not like being overseen or managed. They prefer a system at their disposal to create, process and enhance their own knowledge. Knowledge workers can bring benefits to organizations in a variety of ways. These include: Making connections and analyzing data to establish relationships, understanding cause and effect, the ability to brainstorm, the ability to think broadly using divergent thinking, the ability to drill down and creating more focus using convergent thinking, producing a new capability, creating or modifying a strategy, identifying and understanding trends, assessing input in order to evaluate complex or conflicting priorities. Roles of knowledge workers across the workforce are incredibly diverse. The typology of knowledge worker roles suggested by them are "controller, helper, learner, linker, networker, organizer, retriever, sharer, solver, and tracker". Controller - People who monitor the organizational performance based on raw information. (Analyze, dissemination, information organization, monitoring). Helper - People who transfer information to teach others, once they passed a problem. (Authoring, analyze, dissemination, feedback, information search, learning, networking). Learner - People who use information and practices to improve personal skills and competence. (Acquisition, analyze, expert search, information search, learning, service search). Linker - People who associate and mash up information from different sources to generate new information. (Analyze, dissemination, information search, information organization, networking). Networker - People who create personal or project related connections with people involved in the same kind of work, to share information and support each other. (Analyze, dissemination, expert search, monitoring, networking, service search). Organizer - People who are involved in personal or organizational planning of activities, e.g. to-do lists and scheduling. (Analyze, information organization, monitoring, networking). Retriever - People who search and collect information on a given topic. (Acquisition, analyze, expert search, information search, information organization, monitoring). Sharer - People who disseminate information in a community. (Authoring, co-authoring, dissemination, networking). Solver - People who find or provide a way to deal with a problem. (Acquisition, analyze, dissemination, information search, learning, service search). Tracker - People who monitor and react on personal and organizational actions that may become problems. (Analyze, information search, monitoring, networking).

Knowledge Management Responsibilities - Transparency (accountable) - Information Literacy - Agent - Knowledge Officers - Big Data - Digital - Data - Organizing - Categorizing - Systems - Technology Education - Interfaces - Keyboard - Usability - Least Effort - Questions and Answers - Mind Maps - Visualizing Tools - Skills - Links

One of the main goals of KM is to facilitate learning and create a learning environment where everyone benefits from an organizations combined knowledge and experiences. Using the power of an organizations collective intelligence to solve problems, minimize mistakes, minimizing waste, eliminating pollution, accomplishing goals, making jobs easier and less stressful, while at the same time maximizing productivity.

Knowledge Communication

Knowledge Communication is the activity of interactively conveying and co-constructing insights, assessments, experiences, or skills through verbal and non-verbal means. Knowledge systems can be regarded as agents communicating between domain experts and end users. Communication knowledge is distinct from the domain knowledge. Three aspects of communication knowledge are domain-related knowledge, discourse knowledge and mediating knowledge. This frame of reference is applied in the contexts of knowledge acquisition, user interface management in knowledge systems, text generation in expert critiquing systems and tutoring systems. If decision makers, communicators, experts, and the public understand what the crisis is about and share their knowledge, the process of handling it will be optimized. Effective crisis communication implies the necessity of an unhindered but purposeful exchange of information within and between authorities, organizations, media, involved individuals, and groups before, during, and after a crisis.

Knowledge Preservation - Knowledge Mobilization - Science Communication - Informing the Public - Freedom of Information - Rights to Access Information and Knowledge - Avoiding Misinformation - Crisis Management

Knowledge Ecosystem is an approach to knowledge management that helps to foster the dynamic evolution of knowledge interactions between entities to improve decision-making and innovation through improved evolutionary networks of collaboration.

Knowledge-Based Systems is a computer program that reasons and uses a knowledge base to solve complex problems.

Knowledge Engineering refers to all technical, scientific and social aspects involved in building, maintaining and using knowledge-based systems.

Knowledge-Based Engineering is the application of knowledge-based systems technology to the domain of manufacturing design and production.

Knowledge Base - Intelligence Briefing - Intelligence Types

Business Intelligence is a set of techniques and tools for the acquisition and transformation of raw data into meaningful and useful information for business analysis purposes. Business Intelligence comprises the strategies and technologies used by enterprises for the data analysis and management of business information. Common functions of business intelligence technologies include reporting, online analytical processing, analytics, dashboard development, data mining, process mining, complex event processing, business performance management, benchmarking, text mining, predictive analytics, and prescriptive analytics. IT.

Business Analytics is the process of transforming data into insights to improve business decisions. Tools used to create insights from data include data management, data visualization, predictive modeling, data mining, forecasting simulation, and optimization. Business Analytics refers to the skills, technologies, and practices for iterative exploration and investigation of past business performance to gain insight and drive business planning. Business analytics focuses on developing new insights and understanding of business performance based on data and statistical methods. In contrast, business intelligence traditionally focuses on using a consistent set of metrics to both measure past performance and guide business planning. In other words, business intelligence focuses on description, while business analytics focuses on prediction and prescription.

Intelligence Assessment is the development of forecasts of behavior or recommended courses of action to the leadership of an organization, based on a wide range of available information sources both overt and covert. Assessments are developed in response to requirements declared by the leadership in order to inform decision making. An intelligence assessment reviews both available information and previous assessments for relevance and currency. Where additional information is required, some collection may be directed by the analyst. Intelligence Cycle is when decision makers provide feedback and revised requirements.

Intelligence Collection Management is the process of managing and organizing the collection of intelligence from various sources. The collection department of an intelligence organization may attempt basic validation of what it collects, but is not supposed to analyze its significance.

Intelligence Analysis Management is the process of managing and organizing the analytical processing of raw intelligence information.

Intelligence Analysis is the application of individual and collective cognitive methods to weigh data and test hypotheses within a secret socio-cultural context. The descriptions are drawn from what may only be available in the form of deliberately deceptive information; the analyst must correlate the similarities among deceptions and extract a common truth. Although its practice is found in its purest form inside national intelligence agencies, its methods are also applicable in fields such as business intelligence or competitive intelligence.

Intelligence Cycle Management refers to the overall activity of guiding the intelligence cycle, which is a set of processes used to provide decision-useful information (intelligence) to leaders. The cycle consists of several processes, including planning and direction (the focus of this article), collection, processing and exploitation, analysis and production, and dissemination and integration. The related field of counterintelligence is tasked with impeding the intelligence efforts of others. Intelligence organizations are not infallible (intelligence reports are often referred to as "estimates," and often include measures of confidence and reliability) but, when properly managed and tasked, can be among the most valuable tools of management and government.

Organizational Learning is the process of creating, retaining, and transferring knowledge within an organization. An organization improves over time as it gains experience. From this experience, it is able to create knowledge.

Knowledge-Sharing: A How-to Guide. How is knowledge exchanged and shared when interdisciplinary research teams work together?

Social Learning - Work Ethics

Intellectual Capital is the result of mental processes that form a set of intangible objects that can be used in economic activity and bring income to its owner (organization), covering the competencies of its people (human capital), the value relating to its relationships (relational capital), and everything that is left when the employees go home (structural capital), of which intellectual property (IP) is but one component. It is the sum of everything everybody in a company knows that gives it a competitive edge. Brain Drain.

Organizational Memory is the accumulated body of data, information, and knowledge created in the course of an individual organization’s existence. Falling under the wider disciplinary umbrella of knowledge management, it has two repositories: an organization's Archives, including its electronic data bases; and individuals’ memories.

Institutional Memory is a collective set of facts, concepts, experiences and know-how held by a group of people. As it transcends the individual, it requires the ongoing transmission of these memories between members of this group.

Organizing Knowledge Cognitively is a system of grouping and categorizing our brain to use, sort and store information. System changes and adapts as the amount of knowledge about a particular subject changes and grows.

Digital Asset Management consists of management tasks and decisions surrounding the ingestion, annotation, cataloguing, storage, retrieval and distribution of digital assets.

Data Visualization - Mind Maps - Represent

Digital Asset is anything that exists in a binary format and comes with the right to use. Files that do not possess the aforementioned right are not considered assets. Digital assets are classified as images, multimedia and textual content files.

Intelligence of another Kind - Intelligence is your best Defense

Counterintelligence is tasked with impeding the intelligence efforts of others, or any activity aimed at protecting an agency's intelligence program from an opposition's intelligence service. It includes gathering information and conducting activities to prevent espionage, sabotage, assassinations or other intelligence activities conducted by, for, or on behalf of foreign powers, organizations or persons.

Spying - AI abuse - Supercomputers - War Profiteering

Intellipedia is an online system for collaborative data sharing used by the United States Intelligence Community. Consists of three wikis running on the separate JWICS (Intellipedia-TS), SIPRNet (Intellipedia-S), and Intelink-U (Intellipedia-U) networks. The levels of classification allowed for information on the three wikis are Top Secret, Secret, and Sensitive But Unclassified/For Official Use Only information, respectively. Each of the wikis is used by individuals with appropriate clearances from the 16 agencies of the US intelligence community and other national-security related organizations, including Combatant Commands and other federal departments. The wikis are not open to the public.

Cyber intelligence (CYBINT) - Financial intelligence (FININT) - Geo-spatial intelligence (GEOINT) - Human intelligence (HUMINT) - Imagery intelligence (IMINT) - Measurement and signature intelligence (MASINT) - Open-source intelligence (OSINT) - Signals intelligence (SIGINT) - Technical intelligence (TECHINT)

Intelligence Community is a federation of 16 separate United States government agencies that work separately and together to conduct intelligence activities considered necessary for the conduct of foreign relations and national security of the United States. Member organizations of the IC include intelligence agencies, military intelligence, and civilian intelligence and analysis offices within federal executive departments. The IC is headed by the Director of National Intelligence, who reports to the President of the United States.

Organizing Knowledge

Knowledge Organization is an intellectual discipline concerned with activities such as document description, indexing, and classification that serve to provide systems of representation and order for knowledge and information objects. It addresses the "activities carried out and tools used by people who work in places that accumulate information resources (e.g., books, maps, documents, datasets, images) for the use of humankind, both immediately and for posterity. It discusses the processes that are in place to make resources findable, whether someone is searching for a single known item or is browsing through hundreds of resources just hoping to discover something useful. Information organization supports a myriad of information-seeking scenarios." Traditional human-based approaches performed by librarians, archivists, and subject specialists are increasingly challenged by computational (big data) algorithmic techniques. KO as a field of study is concerned with the nature and quality of such knowledge organizing processes (KOP) (such as taxonomy and ontology) as well as the resulting knowledge organizing systems (KOS). Divergent historical and theoretical approaches towards organizing knowledge are based on different views of knowledge, cognition, language, and social organization. This richness lends itself to many complementary ways to consider knowledge organization. The academic International Society for Knowledge Organization (ISKO) engages with these issues via the research journal Knowledge Organization.

Database is an organized body of related informationDatabases - Classification - Curation.

Systems Knowledge Base is the content of a particular field of knowledge.

Knowledge Base is a technology used to store complex structured and unstructured information used by a computer system.

Information Architecture is the structural design of shared information environments; the art and science of organizing and labeling websites, intranets, online communities and software to support usability and findability; and an emerging community of practice focused on bringing principles of design and architecture to the digital landscape. Data Architecture.

Knowledge Infrastructures - Knowledge Infrastructures

Information needs is relevant information needed for a person to complete a given task. Intrinsic - Prerequisite.

Knowledge Acquisition is the process used to define the rules and ontologies required for a knowledge-based system.

Knowledge Extraction is the creation of knowledge from structured (relational databases, XML) and unstructured (text, documents, images) sources. The resulting knowledge needs to be in a machine-readable and machine-interpretable format and must represent knowledge in a manner that facilitates inferencing.

Information Extraction - Data Extraction (acquisition)

Knowledge Policy describes the institutional aspects of knowledge creation, management, and use within the context of an organization's mandate or business model. Social knowledge policies balance between progress in the knowledge economy to promote global competitiveness with social values, such as equity, unity, and the well-being of citizens.

Ethics - Knowledge Principles for Government (PDF)

Chief Information Officer is a senior executive in an enterprise who works with information technology and computer systems, in order to support enterprise goals. The CIO makes executive decisions regarding matters such as the purchase of IT equipment from suppliers or the creation of new IT systems. Also as a business leader, the CIO is responsible for leading and directing the workforce of their specific organization. A CIO is typically "required to have strong organizational skills." This is particularly relevant for the chief information officer of an organization who must balance roles and responsibilities in order to gain a competitive advantage, whilst keeping the best interests of the organization's employees in mind. CIOs also have the responsibility of recruiting, so it is important that they work proactively to source and nurture the best employees possible.

Chief Knowledge Officer duties involve intellectual capital and organizing, and the preservation and distribution of knowledge in an organization. Organization Structure.

Information Governance is the set of multi-disciplinary structures, policies, procedures, processes and controls implemented to manage information at an enterprise level, supporting an organization's immediate and future regulatory, legal, risk, environmental and operational requirements.

Enterprise Information Management specializes in finding solutions for optimal use of information within organizations to support decision-making processes or day-to-day operations that require the availability of knowledge.

Enterprise Interoperability Framework is used as a guideline for collecting and structuring knowledge/solution for an enterprise to exchange and use information. The Enterprise Interoperability Framework defines the domain and sub-domains for interoperability research and development in order to identify a set of pieces of knowledge for solving enterprise interoperability problems by removing barriers to interoperability.

Service-Oriented Architecture (PDF)

Employee Engagement is defined as one who is fully absorbed by and enthusiastic about their work and so takes positive action to further the organization's reputation and interests. This could help reduce Human Capital Flight or brain drain, which happens when highly skilled or well-educated individuals leave a company for what ever reason.

Gamification in Knowledge Management (PDF) - Learning Games - Technical Communications - Technical Writing.

Tactic Knowledge - Implicit Knowledge

Tacit Knowledge is the kind of knowledge that is difficult to transfer to another person by means of writing it down or verbalizing it.

Abstract - Prerequisite - Comprehension - Generalizing - Implicit Learning - Document Writing - Explained

Implicit is something said indirectly and not clearly expressed so that the true meaning of the message can not be accurately understood.

Explicit Knowledge is knowledge that can be readily articulated, codified, accessed and verbalized and easily transmitted to others.

Distributed Knowledge refers to all the knowledge that a community of agents possesses and might apply in solving a problem.

Human Capital refers to the stock of knowledge, habits, social and personality attributes, including creativity, embodied in the ability to perform labor so as to produce economic value.

"Whether you're connecting people with people, or connecting people to Documents that other people created, you are still making connections."

“Sharing knowledge is the greatest of all callings. There's nothing like it in the land” - The Satire of the Trades.

"KM is organizing what we know, so that we can determine where we are and accurately predict where we're going."

The Power of the Internet

Questions to ask:
Do employees understand the acquisition of knowledge and information? Do employees know how to use the tools and software that will be used in the acquisition of knowledge and information? Do employees know how to organize and categorize knowledge and information in order to combine or compare knowledge with new knowledge, or compare knowledge or combine knowledge with the knowledge of fellow employees.

An organizations knowledge may be in the form of procedures, data, facts, unique processes used, and Information about those processes used, employee names with job titles, area of expertise and contact info, a list of functions provided by skilled employees, products used and Information about those products, machines used and information about those machines, resources used (electric, oil, gas, etc..), cost of operation, pay rates, cost of services provided, suppliers used and their contact information, and so on and so on. The KM platform may also include goals, objectives, milestones, performance indicators, and other important operation factors. This includes tagging and labeling information correctly so that it can be easily found in searches and inquires.

One of the first steps of KM is to provide the software platform, and interface, that will be used in the collecting, storing and the organizing all of the knowledge and information that the organization currently has. Then the organization must decide who will manage the knowledge? Who will organize its structure? Who will facilitate its input? How will the organizations knowledge and information be collected? How much training will it take to make everyone in the organization proficient in knowledge input, and also, proficient in the use of knowledge and information? Who will provide the training and how will it be verified?

An organization must learn to Translate Tacit Knowledge that's been accumulated into lessons and Explicit Knowledge, while at the same time showing the value and the potential of Human Capital, Intangible Assets and Intellectual Capital. Organizing Knowledge should be made easily accessible by creating a User Friendly Interface with Menu that's easy to use and navigate through so that people can easily find the information they seek. This makes it easy to Transfer and Share information, knowledge and ideas with others, while at the same time, assisting people in decision making and Problem SolvingIntelligence Assessment.

KM also makes it easier to educate and train people by creating a Learning Pathway, which saves time, people and resources. Transfer of Learning Transfer & Retention of Implicit Critical Knowledge.

Learning Management System is a software application for the administration, documentation, tracking, reporting and delivery of electronic educational technology courses or training programs. (also called e-learning).

Professional Development is learning to earn or maintain professional credentials such as academic degrees to formal coursework, conferences and informal learning opportunities situated in practice. It has been described as intensive and collaborative, ideally incorporating an evaluative stage. There are a variety of approaches to professional development, including consultation, coaching, communities of practice, lesson study, mentoring, reflective supervision and technical assistance.

Synchronize - Integrate - Align

KM also reduces mistakes and errors that are associated with peoples lack of information by making information and knowledge more available. Like knowing what research has been done, Knowing what ideas have been pursued and knowing what type of help is available, and so on. As more information and knowledge is acquired KM also provides a platform that makes it easy to add to your Knowledge Database. KM also helps you to visualize and understand what your accumulated knowledge and information means as a whole.

Personal Knowledge Management is a collection of processes that a person uses to gather, classify, store, search, retrieve, and share knowledge in his or her daily activities.

Systems Management for a small business startup with ten computers, automated centralized processes may take more time to learn how to use and implement than just doing the management work manually on each computer. A very large business with thousands of similar employee computers may clearly be able to save time and money, by having IT staff learn to do systems management automation. A small branch office of a large corporation may have access to a central IT staff, with the experience to set up automated management of the systems in the branch office, without need for local staff in the branch office to do the work.

Application Performance Management is the monitoring and management of performance and availability of software applications. APM strives to detect and diagnose complex application performance problems to maintain an expected level of service.

BK101 Knowledge Management Responsibilities

Maintain and Manage Knowledge Repository for Education Resources. Update it on a Daily, Weekly and Monthly Basis.

Knowledge Management Activities Include: Periodic Knowledge Audits that help define what knowledge has been generated and if that knowledge is available for use. To identify new knowledge, identify relevant knowledge, identify old knowledge and identify existing knowledge. To define what knowledge is required by users, and then acquire that knowledge using knowledge extraction and information extraction. To verify knowledge, validate knowledge, evaluate knowledge, register knowledge, create new knowledge, organize knowledge, categorize knowledge, classify knowledge, manage knowledgecross-reference knowledge, develop knowledge, plan knowledge, use knowledge, reuse knowledge, edit knowledge, update knowledge, remove outdated knowledge, disseminate knowledge, create knowledge user friendly interface and search engine, analyze knowledge feedback. 

To learn more about the BK101 education project, you should read the home page, the about page, the instructions page, the research page, the human search engine page, and then read the rest of BK101.

Information Governance is the set of multi-disciplinary structures, policies, procedures, processes and controls implemented to manage information at an enterprise level, supporting an organization's immediate and future regulatory, legal, risk, environmental and operational requirements. Knowledge Management Strategy (PDF)

Develop Knowledge Management Strategy and Requirements

Create a knowledge sharing platform with easy to use interface. (Openplace Service) 

Information Broker (data mining - Illegal profiles) - Human Search Engine - Chief Knowledge Officer (CKO) - National Information Officers Association - Database Guardian - Knowledge Bank Manager - Knowledge Inventory Specialist - Subject-Matter Expert - Chief Information Officer (CIO) - Knowledge Management Consultant - Information Sources - Information Systems

Reward people for knowledge input, especially when a persons knowledge input improves quality, productivity or safety. Educate people about the benefits and the importance of knowledge sharing.

Educate and train people about effective Knowledge Sharing Techniques, KS Principles, KS Responsibilities, KS Standards, Knowledge Validation Standards, Knowledge Dissemination Standards, Social Learning Techniques, KS Security Policies, KS Privacy Policies, Structured Socializing to increase communication between Departments, Collaboration Skills, Knowledge Transfer Software Tools and Skills, How to Resolve Issues, How to Innovate, How to Measure Knowledge Assets.

Knowledge Management Implementation (youtube)

Open Web Platform is a collection of Web technologies developed by the World Wide Web Consortium and other Web standardization bodies such as the Unicode Consortium, the Internet Engineering Task Force, and Ecma International.

Platform Service is a category of cloud computing services that provides a platform allowing customers to develop, run, and manage applications without the complexity of building and maintaining the infrastructure typically associated with developing and launching an app.

Lessons Learned - Best Practices

Knowledge-Based Engineering is the application of knowledge-based systems technology to the domain of manufacturing design and production. The design process is inherently a knowledge-intensive activity, so a great deal of the emphasis for KBE is on the use of knowledge-based technology to support computer-aided design (CAD) however knowledge-based techniques (e.g. knowledge management) can be applied to the entire product lifecycle.

Knowledge-Based Systems is a computer program that reasons and uses a knowledge base to solve complex problems. A knowledge based system has two types of sub-systems: a Knowledge Base and an inference engine. The knowledge base represents facts about the world, often in some form of subsumption ontology. The inference engine represents logical assertions and conditions about the world, usually represented via IF-THEN rules. Systems.

Open Knowledge Base Management is a set of computer software for systems management of applications that use knowledge management techniques (the KBM in OpenKBM stands for Knowledge Based Management).

Object model for representing the systems to be managed.

Object-oriented Hierarchy of monitoring information types such as events, fault, and statistics. Data acquisition, signal processing, and Event Processing Engines.

Forward chaining Event Correlation Engine.

Knowledge Based Management Language for codifying event correlation rules, and signal and event processing logic. Frameworks for both Thick Client and web-based graphical user interfaces. 

Expert System S.p.A. is a software company founded in Modena, Italy in 1989. It specializes in the analysis and management of unstructured information using a semantic approach.

Develop, Edit, and Publish Knowledge Base Content to Support Education Objectives.

Educational Consultant is an independent consultant who helps parents/students and organizations with educational planning. They are classed as "educational, vocational, and school counselors." Educational Consultants, however, are normally self-employed (or are part of consulting firms), while school counselors are employed by a school.

Use the Worlds Accumulated Knowledge as a Guide for Solving Problems and Making Improvements.

Managing Codified Knowledge

Knowledge Based Theory considers knowledge as the most strategically significant resource of a firm. Its proponents argue that because knowledge-based resources are usually difficult to imitate and socially complex, heterogeneous knowledge bases and capabilities among firms are the major determinants of sustained competitive advantage and superior corporate performance.

Learning Community - Strategy Development - Evidence-Based Practice (physical health questions)

Create Knowledge Resources and Knowledge Bases that are valuable and easy to use. Human Search Engines.

Create effective processes in strategy, planning, execution and improvement that are required for the capture, organization, dissemination, and utilization of knowledge. 

Collate is to compare Information Critically and Assemble in proper sequence.

Tacit Knowledge versus Explicit Knowledge (PDF)

Analyzing the effectiveness of Knowledge Management Programs by observing its usage and evaluate its impact and benefits as well as by collecting insights, understandings, and practical know-how of the Environment and the Community.

Information Technology Consulting - Knowledge Advisors

Demonstrate proficiency with Knowledge Management Principles and Tactics in adherence to Knowledge Management Methodology Guidelines to help improve Content Delivery.

Analyze technical processes to formulate and develop new and modified information processing systems.

Dynamic Knowledge Repository is a computerized system that systematically captures, organizes and categorizes an organization's knowledge. The repository can be searched and data can be quickly retrieved. The effective knowledge repositories include factual, conceptual, procedural and meta-cognitive techniques. The key features of knowledge repositories include communication forums. A knowledge repository can take many forms to "contain" the knowledge it holds. A customer database is a knowledge repository of customer information and insights – or electronic explicit knowledge. A Library is a knowledge repository of books – physical explicit knowledge. A community of experts is a knowledge repository of tacit knowledge or experience. The nature of the repository only changes to contain/manage the type of knowledge it holds. A repository (as opposed to an archive) is designed to get knowledge out. It should therefore have some rules of structure, classification, taxonomy, record management, etc., to facilitate user engagement.

Enhanced the creation and storage of information in databases. Content Management.

Check the availability of knowledge and its use for different projects. Information Sources.

Use the available knowledge for new product development. Ideas.

Use Knowledge Management System to transform ideas and implement appropriate solutions to efficiently manage the intelligence of the available resources of the community. Management.

Facilitate and drive the flow of knowledge across all local services by linking people and information, supporting collaborative working, promoting techniques to capture and share knowledge and by sharing answers, insights, expertise, ideas and information. Establishing principles and standards about knowledge sharing and acquiring.

Encourage, Mentor and Coach others on how to share knowledge effectively and efficiently. Increase awareness.

Provided guidance to people to help increase knowledge sharing within the community and assist people by showing them all the right questions to ask. 

Collaborative Communication (Knowledge Consulting) - Information Assistants - Knowledge Management Tools - Qualities and Skills of a Worker - Human Search Engine - Social Learning - Job Titles

Act as a mediator to answer queries from people who wish to know more about knowledge management products and practices.

The Universal Knowledge Moderator for globally distributed and collaborative e-manufacturing

Analyze social networks and the formation of communities. 

Structured Socialization - Knowledge Network - Cyber Consulting - Website Development

Manage current knowledge management practices as well as design new knowledge distribution policies and encourage use of new practices. 

Utilize knowledge base resources and design a training module for people to help them access knowledge management tools. Online Training.

EMC builds information infrastructures and virtual infrastructures.

Create the best ways to disseminate information and knowledge so that is easily accessible to everyone and easy to understand by anyone who uses the information and knowledge service. 

Decentralization is the process of redistributing or dispersing functions, powers, people or things away from a central location or authority. While centralization, especially in the governmental sphere, is widely studied and practiced, there is no common definition or understanding of decentralization. The meaning of decentralization may vary in part because of the different ways it is applied. Concepts of decentralization have been applied to group dynamics and management science in private businesses and organizations, political science, law and public administration, economics and technology.

Society for Technical Communication - My Database Gurus

Focus on improving database effectiveness and develop collaborative ways for improving productivity and skills.

Maintain in-depth information about managed databases.

Q&A System Implementation - Decision Support System - Collaborations

Maintain good communications skills and expert planning skills. Maintain good analyzing skills and maintain the ability to tackle critical situations. Maintain constructive relationships with people of all ages and races. Maintain and improve leadership qualities and abilities that would help supervise and guide people.

Work with project manager and project analysts to clarify and refine project goals, user goals, the target audience and measurement criteria.  Work with project team members to develop user scenarios in support of stated user goals, and, when appropriate, use cases. Analyze and communicate any results from competitive analysis completed for the project. Contribute to content and functional requirements.  Define site structure and create site maps.  Define global and local navigation. Create wireframe prototype of page mockups.  Identify and design for cross-site integration needs. Work with/as visual designer to create final designs. Direct prototyper and visual designer in developing prototypes for Usability and Design Review. Site map (which should include a prototype page inventory indicating which pages will be prototyped) and or screen flow diagrams.

The Knowledge Management Skill Set above is also part of a subroutine in artificial intelligence development. It also encompasses Key factors that will become infused with the Development of the human operating system.

"Knowledge and information is uncharted territory, it's time that we learn are way around our most valuable resource."

Organizing - Order

Organizing is putting things in a correct order or placement, or in a specific location, making things easier to find and to learn from. The act of rearranging elements following one or more rules. Logical or comprehensible arrangement of separate elements.

is to give structure or order, operating according to some principle or idea. To plan and direct a complex undertaking. Arrange by systematic planning and united effort. Form or join a union. Create as an entity. Grouping. Making things easier to compare.

Reorganize is to change the way that something was originally organized. To rearrange a plan or structure of something. To make anew or to redo something again but in a new way or different way. Update.

The Law of Proximity states objects that are near or proximate to each other tend to be grouped together. It is part of the Gestalt Laws of Perceptual Organization and Gestalt psychology.

Knowledge Organization - Library Science - Ontology - Seeing the Whole Picture - Mind Maps - Symmetry - Patterns

Order is a logical or comprehensible arrangement of separate elements. A condition of regular or proper sequential arrangement. Arrange thoughts, ideas, temporal events. Defrag.

Arrange is to put things into a proper or systematic order. Organize thoughts, ideas, or temporal events. Plan, organize, and carry out an event. To set printed matter into a specific format. To arrange in music is to adapt for performance in a different way. Rearrange is to put things into a new order or arrangement. Changing an arrangement.

Arrangement is an orderly grouping of things or persons into an organized structure for classifying. The spatial property of the way in which something is placed. To agree how something is done. An arrangement in music is adapting a piece of music.

Integrate is to combine one thing with another thing so that they become a whole. To make into a whole or make part of a whole. To bring people or groups with particular characteristics or needs into equal participation of a social group or institution. Integration is the action of incorporating a racial or religious group into a community.

Why do we collect things? It's not just about hording or being a pack rat. We should be consuming knowledge and not just consuming things.

Format is the organization of information according to preset specifications. Determine the arrangement of data for storage and display. Divide a data disk into marked sectors so that it may store data. The general appearance of a publication.

Compartment is a space into which an area is subdivided. A partitioned section, chamber, or separate room within a larger enclosed area.

Compartmentalize is to divide things into sections or categories. Compartmentalization of Thoughts.

Sort is to arrange things systematically in groups and separate according to type, class, etc.. A category of things distinguished by some common characteristic or quality. An operation that segregates items into groups according to a specified criterion. Arrange or order by classes or categories. An approximate definition or example. The Great Sorter.

Separate is to divide into components or constituents, or to divide into parts, pieces, fragments, or portions, or by sex, race, or age. To arrange or order by classes or categories.

Configuration is an arrangement of parts or elements. Links.

Anthology is a collection of literary or musical works, such as poems or short stories.
A collection of various things.

Collection is several things grouped together or considered as a whole. A publication containing a variety of works. The act of gathering something together.

Collecting includes seeking, locating, acquiring, organizing, cataloging, displaying, storing, and maintaining items that are of interest to an individual collector. Collections differ in a wide variety of respects, most obviously in the nature and scope of the objects contained, but also in purpose, presentation, and so forth. The range of possible subjects for a collection is practically unlimited, and collectors have realized a vast number of these possibilities in practice, although some are much more popular than others. In collections of manufactured items, the objects may be antique or simply collectable. Antiques are collectable items at least 100 years old, while other collectables are arbitrarily recent. The word vintage describes relatively old collectables that are not yet antiques.

is to gather together a large number of things. Collector is a person who collects things.

Accrue is to come into the possession of something. To grow by addition. Accruement is the act of accumulating.

Accumulate is to gather together or acquire an increasing number or quantity of something. Gradually gather and build up or acquire things to a resulting whole. Get or gather together a large number of something. Collect in one place and growing to a large number or quantity.

Accumulate in Stages - Learning - Knowledge - Accumulative Knowledge

Compendium is a collection of concise but detailed information about a particular subject, especially in a book or other publication. A collection of things, especially one systematically gathered.

Assemblage is a collection or gathering of things or people. A system of components assembled together for a particular purpose. Several things grouped together or considered as a whole. A machine or object made of pieces fitted together.

is a group of machine parts that fit together to form a self-contained unit. A public facility to meet for open discussion or a group of persons who are gathered together for a common purpose.

Amalgamate is to join together into a whole. To bring or combine together or with something else. Bond.

Accession is a new item added to an existing collection of books, paintings, or artifacts. A process of increasing by addition as to a collection or group. The act of attaining or gaining access to a new office or right or position. The attainment or acquisition of a position of rank or power, typically that of monarch or president.

Conglomerate is a number of different things or parts that are put or grouped together to form a whole but remain distinct entities.

Combination is a collection of things that have been combined or assembled from separate parts or qualities. A group of people having a common purpose. The act of combining things to form a new whole. An arrangement of elements into specified groups.

Configuration is an arrangement of parts or elements.

Gather is to assemble or get together and collect in one place. Draw and bring closer. Get people together. Harvest.

Combine is to put something together or to join things together for a common purpose or in a common action. To gather in a mass, sum, or whole.

Kit and Caboodle is the whole lot of persons or things or all of something, or refers to taking everything with you or covering all your bases in preparation for your needs. (The origin of Kit and Kaboodle comes from 18th century England. The word “kith” refers to an estate. Therefore, “the entire kith” would refer to all the contents of the estate. Soldiers in the 1700s would also carry a kitbag with them when going into battle, known as the “kaboodle.”)

Construction - Building - Organization - Coordinate - Synthesize - Compound.

Compilation is something that is compiled as into a single book or file or list. The action or process of producing something, especially a list, a book, or a report, by assembling information collected from other sources. A thing, especially a book, record, or broadcast program, that is put together by assembling previously separate items.

Compile is to get or gather together a large number of something. To put things together out of existing material. Compilation is the process of producing something by assembling information collected from other sources. Something collected or a compiled as a list, book, or a report. Compile is a computer program to translate source code written in a particular programming language into computer-readable machine code that can be executed.

Compilation Album is a collection of several separate recordings by either one performer or by several performers. Greatest hits album or best-of album is a type of compilation album that collects popular and commercially successful songs by a particular artist or band.

Product Bundling is offering several products or services for sale as one combined product or service package.

Consolidation is the act of combining into an integral whole or solid mass. Memory Consolidation.

Compositing is the process or technique of combining visual elements from separate sources into single images, often to create the illusion that all those elements are parts of the same scene. In physical compositing the separate parts of the image are placed together in the photographic frame and recorded in a single exposure. A compositor is a person who is responsible for making sure all of the visual elements of the film flow together perfectly, like the animations, background plates, graphics and special effects.

Composition is the spatial property resulting from the arrangement of parts in relation to each other and to the whole. A mixture of ingredients. Structure.

Compose is to put things together out of existing material. To make up plans or basic details for a particular goal in order to form a substance, or to write music, or to produce a literary work. Compose also means to be calm and quiet.

Compounded is to put things together or add things together and create something by mixing or combining things so as to form a whole. Compounded is chemistry is to combined a chemical compound to make more intense, stronger, or more marked.

Mix is to combine things together, or add as an additional element or part with something else.

Blend is to combine components together thoroughly into one new component.

Organizing Principle is a core assumption from which everything else by proximity can derive a classification or a value. It is like a central reference point that allows all other objects to be located, often used in a conceptual framework. Having an organizing principle might help one simplify and get a handle on a particularly complicated domain or phenomenon. On the other hand, it might create a deceptive prism that colors one's judgment.

Organizing Terms - Aggregate

Organizing in management is a systematic process of structuring, integrating, co-ordinating task goals, and activities to resources in order to attain objectives. Viable System Model.

Organ System Level of Organization is when two or more organs work together for a specific function. An organ-system grade organization is when different organs are joined together to form organ system.

Constituting is to form something or to compose or represent something. To set up or lay the groundwork for something important that has direction and function.

Aggregate is a whole formed by combining several, typically disparate or different elements. A material or structure formed from a loosely compacted mass of fragments or particles. Formed or calculated by the combination of many separate units or items; total. Compound - Cement.

Aggregate Data are data combined from several measurements. When data are aggregated, groups of observations are replaced with summary statistics based on those observations. Aggregate (wiki).

Cluster is a grouping of a number of similar things. To come together or cause to gather. A cluster in computing is a group of linked computers.

Cluster Analysis is the task of grouping a set of objects in such a way that objects in the same group or cluster are more similar in some sense to each other than to those in other groups or other clusters. It is a main task of exploratory data analysis, and a common technique for statistical data analysis, used in many fields, including pattern recognition, image analysis, information retrieval, bioinformatics, data compression, computer graphics and machine learning.

Cohering is to cause something to form a united, orderly, and aesthetically consistent whole. Have internal elements or parts logically connected so that aesthetic consistency results. Come or be in close contact with; stick or hold together and resist separation.

Natural Kind is an intellectual grouping, or categorizing of things, in a manner that is reflective of the actual world and not just human interests. Some treat it as a classification identifying some structure of truth and reality that exists whether or not humans recognize it. Others treat it as intrinsically useful to the human mind, but not necessarily reflective of something more objective. Candidate examples of natural kinds are found in all the sciences, but the field of chemistry provides the paradigm example of elements.

Composite is a conceptual whole made up of complicated and related parts. Somthing consisting of separate interconnected parts.

Composite Entity is a thing composed of other things. It is one of the most basic concepts in a knowledge base of commonsense knowledge.

Part is something determined in relation to something that includes it. Something less than the whole of a human artifact. A portion of a natural object or something divided from something from which together constitutes a whole. A part is a piece, a portion, a division, a fragment or a segment of something such as an object, activity, or a period of time, which when combined with other pieces, can make up the whole of something.

Component is an abstract part of something. Something determined in relation to something that includes it.

Thing is a separate and self-contained entity. An artifact or entity that is not named specifically.

Entity is something perceived or known or inferred to have its own distinct existence, either living or nonliving.

Constituent is being a part of something or the part of the physical structure. An artifact that is one of the individual parts of which a composite entity is made up; especially a part that can be separated from or attached to a system. Something determined in relation to something that includes it. An abstract part of something. Constituent in grammar is a word, phrase or clause forming part of a larger grammatical construction. Constituent can also mean a member of a constituency or a citizen who is represented in a government by officials for whom he or she votes. Constituency is the body of voters who elect a representative for their area.  district represented by one or more elected officials. An interest or fan group; a group of a people in some category.

Paradigm is a systematic arrangement of all the inflected forms of a word. Paradigm also means a standard or typical example or the generally accepted perspective of a particular discipline at a given time. Paradigm Shift.

Documentation - Knowledge Base

Pooling is the grouping together of resources, assets, equipment, personnel and effort for the purposes of maximizing advantage or minimizing risk to the users.

Atom order theory in the mathematical field of order theory, an element a of a partially ordered set with least element 0 is an atom if 0 < a and there is no x such that 0 < x < a. Equivalently, one may define an atom to be an element that is minimal among the non-zero elements, or alternatively an element that covers the least element 0. Crystal phases are the differing configurations that atoms can take in order to make a solid. Crystal Lattices - Levels (layers) - Symmetry

Order Theory is a branch of mathematics which investigates the intuitive notion of order using binary relations. It provides a formal framework for describing statements such as "this is less than that" or "this precedes that".

Partial Order on a set is an arrangement such that, for certain pairs of elements, one precedes the other. The word partial is used to indicate that not every pair of elements needs to be comparable; that is, there may be pairs for which neither element precedes the other. Partial orders thus generalize total orders, in which every pair is comparable. Partial Order Relation is any relation that is reflexive, antisymmetric, and transitive. A total order relation is a partial order in which every element of the set is comparable with every other element of the set. All total order relations are partial order relations, but the converse is not always true.

Menu Navigation - Search Features

Directory is an alphabetical list of names and addresses.

Directory in file systems is a cataloging structure which contains references to other computer files, and possibly other directories. A directory is an organizational unit, or container, used to organize folders and files into a hierarchical structure.

Directory in computing is a file system cataloging structure which contains references to other computer files, and possibly other directories. On many computers, directories are known as Folders, or drawers to provide some relevancy to a workbench or the traditional office file cabinet. Files are organized by storing related files in the same directory. In a Hierarchical file system (that is, one in which files and directories are organized in a manner that resembles a tree), a directory contained inside another directory is called a subdirectory. The terms parent and child are often used to describe the relationship between a subdirectory and the directory in which it is cataloged, the latter being the parent. The top-most directory in such a filesystem, which does not have a parent of its own, is called the root directory.

Sorting Algorithm - Operating System

Hierarchy is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in which the items are represented as being "above," "below," or "at the same level as" one another. Alphabetical.

File System is used to control how data is stored and retrieved. Separating the data into pieces and giving each piece a name, the information is easily isolated and identified. Database.

File Manager is a computer program that provides a user interface to manage files and folders.

Clustered File System (wiki) - Journaling File System (wiki)

Path in computing is the general form of the name of a file or directory, specifies a unique location in a file system. A path points to a file system location by following the directory tree hierarchy expressed in a string of characters in which path components, separated by a delimiting character, represent each directory.

Archive is an accumulation of historical records or the physical place they are located. Archives contain primary source documents that have accumulated over the course of an individual or organization's lifetime, and are kept to show the function of that person or organization.

Archival Science - Library Science - Curating Archives

Self-Archiving is the act of (the author's) depositing a free copy of an electronic document online in order to provide open access to it. The term usually refers to the self-archiving of peer-reviewed research journal and conference articles, as well as theses and book chapters, deposited in the author's own institutional repository or open archive for the purpose of maximizing its accessibility, usage and citation impact. The term green open access has become common in recent years, distinguishing this approach from gold open access, where the journal itself makes the articles publicly available without charge to the reader.

Archivist is an information professional who assesses, collects, organizes, preserves, maintains control over, and provides access to records and archives determined to have long-term value. The records maintained by an archivist can consist of a variety of forms, including letters, diaries, logs, various other writings, official documents, sound and/or picture recordings, etc.

Referencing is a relation between objects in which one object designates, or acts as a means by which to connect to or link to, another object. The first object in this relation is said to refer to the second object. The second object, the one to which the first object refers, is called the referent of the first object. Reference.

Cross-Referencing is an instance within a document which refers to related information elsewhere in the same document. In both printed and online dictionaries cross-references are important because they form a network structure of relations existing between different parts of data, dictionary-internal as well as dictionary external. In programming, "cross-referencing" means the listing of every file name and line number where a given named identifier occurs within the program's source tree. In a relational database management system, a table can have an xref as prefix or suffix to indicate it is a cross-reference table that joins two or more tables together via primary key. A cross reference helps strengthen a document's structure and supports the whole document. Index

Taxonomies are general principles of scientific classification.

Connections (Neural Network) - Links - Networks

Replication in computing in computing involves sharing information so as to ensure consistency between redundant resources, such as software or hardware components, to improve reliability, fault-tolerance, or accessibility. Redundant.

Logical Volume Management provides a method of allocating space on mass-storage devices that is more flexible than conventional partitioning schemes. In particular, a volume manager can concatenate, stripe together or otherwise combine partitions (or block devices in general) into larger virtual ones that administrators can re-size or move, potentially without interrupting system use. Volume management represents just one of many forms of storage virtualization; its implementation takes place in a layer in the device-driver stack of an operating system (OS) (as opposed to within storage devices or in a network).

Partitioning a division of a hard disk drive. Or a subdivision of a computer's memory, usually for use by a single job. Or the division of a database. Checksum.

Dichotomy is a partition of a whole (or a set) into two parts (subsets). In other words, this couple of parts must be jointly exhaustive: everything must belong to one part or the other, and mutually exclusive: nothing can belong simultaneously to both parts. Pros and Cons.

Snapshot is the state of a system at a particular point in time. The term was coined as an analogy to that in photography. It can refer to an actual copy of the state of a system or to a capability provided by certain systems. Scale.

Human-Based Computation is a computer science technique in which a machine performs its function by outsourcing certain steps to humans, usually as microwork. This approach uses differences in abilities and alternative costs between humans and computer agents to achieve symbiotic human-computer interaction.

Intelligent Software Assistant

Conduit software allows the user to synchronize information to and from various destinations.
The developers of Conduit aim to provide a complete solution to keeping all of a user's information synchronized, regardless of where and how the data is stored.

Evidence Management - Intelligent Agent - Semantic Web

Interdiscipline (simultaneous)

Document Management System
Association of Records Managers and Administrators
Concept Searching

Digital Library is a special library with a focused collection of digital objects that can include text, visual material, audio material, video material, stored as electronic media formats (as opposed to print, microform, or other media), along with means for organizing, storing, and retrieving the files and media contained in the library collection. Digital libraries can vary immensely in size and scope, and can be maintained by individuals, organizations, or affiliated with established physical library buildings or institutions, or with academic institutions. The digital content may be stored locally, or accessed remotely via computer networks. An electronic library is a type of information retrieval system.

Digital Library Software

Culling is the process of segregating organisms from a group according to desired or undesired characteristics. In animal breeding, culling is the process of removing or segregating animals from a breeding stock based on specific trait. This is done to exaggerate desirable characteristics, or to remove undesirable characteristics. For livestock and wildlife, culling often refers to the act of killing removed animals. In fruits and vegetables, culling is the sorting or segregation of fresh harvested produce into marketable lots, with the non-marketable lots being discarded or diverted into food processing or non-food processing activities. This usually happens at collection centres located at, or close to farms. Culling is sometimes used as a term to describe indiscriminate killing within one particular species which can be due to a range of reasons, for example, badger culling in the United Kingdom.

Media and Digital Curation (preservation)

Help: Category are intended to group together pages on similar subjects. They are implemented by a MediaWiki feature that adds any page with a text like [[Category:XYZ]] in its wikimarkup to the automated listing that is the category with name XYZ. Categories help readers to find, and navigate around, a subject area, to see pages sorted by title, and to thus find article relationships. Categories are normally found at the bottom of an article page. Clicking a category name brings up a category page listing the articles (or other pages) that have been added to that particular category. There may also be a section listing the subcategories of that category. The subcategorization feature makes it possible to organize categories into tree-like structures to aid navigation. The term category does refer to both the title of a category page—the category pagename—and the category itself. Keeping this in mind while reading about categorization, plus learning a category page layout is a worthwhile investment in research techniques.

National Association of Professional Organizers - Become a Professional Organizer - Block Storage

Metadata Management involves managing data about other data, whereby this "other data" is generally referred to as content data. The term is used most often in relation to Digital media, but older forms of metadata are catalogs, dictionaries, and taxonomies. For example, the Dewey Decimal Classification is a metadata management system for books developed in 1876 for libraries.

Object Storage Device is a computer data storage architecture that manages data as objects, as opposed to other storage architectures like file systems which manage data as a file hierarchy and block storage which manages data as blocks within sectors and tracks. Each object typically includes the data itself, a variable amount of metadata, and a globally unique identifier. Object storage can be implemented at multiple levels, including the device level (object storage device), the system level, and the interface level. In each case, object storage seeks to enable capabilities not addressed by other storage architectures, like interfaces that can be directly programmable by the application, a namespace that can span multiple instances of physical hardware, and data management functions like data replication and data distribution at object-level granularity.

Digital Object Memory is a digital storage space intended to keep permanently all related information about a concrete physical object instance that is collected during the lifespan of this object and thus forms a basic building block for the Internet of Things (IoT) by connecting digital information with physical objects. Such memories require each object instance to be uniquely identified and this ID to be attached to the physical object. The underlying techniques to create identification codes and to attach them to objects are manifold but machine-readable techniques are mandatory. Commonly used are barcodes with one or two dimensions (e.g. QRcode or DataMatrix) and radio based tags like RFID or NFC. Such codes or tags are a low cost solution but demand an underlying server infrastructure to host the memory data.

Centralized Database in every country, with a backup in several different locations.

Databases - Database Index - Digital Executor

For Every Minute Spent in Organizing, an Hour is Earned.” - Benjamin Franklin.

Recordkeeping Principles: Accountability - Integrity - Protection - Compliance - Availability - Retention - Disposition - TransparencyRecordkeeping Principles (wiki) - Records Management - Knowledge Base.

Categorizing - Groups

Category is a collection of things sharing a common attribute. A general concept that marks divisions or coordination's in a conceptual scheme.

Categorizing is the process in which ideas and objects are recognized, differentiated, and understood, and then grouped into categories for some specific purpose. A category illuminates a relationship between the subjects and objects of knowledge. Categorization is fundamental in language, prediction, inference, decision making and in all kinds of environmental interaction.

Order - Patterns

Categorical Perception is a phenomenon of perception of distinct categories when there is a gradual change in a variable along a continuum. It was originally observed for auditory stimuli but now found to be applicable to other perceptual modalitie.

Coordination is the regulation of diverse elements into an integrated and harmonious operation. The grammatical relation of two constituents having the same grammatical form. Being of coordinate importance, rank, or degree. The skillful and effective interaction of movements.

Coordinate is to bring order and organization to things by intentionally matching desirable correlations that are of equal importance, rank, or degree in order to operating as a unit and bring into common action, movement, or condition. Coordinated can also mean being dexterous in the use of more than one set of muscle movements.

Integrate is to form or unite into a whole. Formed into a whole or introduced into another entity. Resembling a living organism in organization or development. Not segregated and Not Fragmented. Assimilate.

Classify or Separate is to arrange or order by classes or categories. To identify an object, we also must classify it, without profiling. Private Information.

Classification is a process related to categorization, the process in which ideas and objects are recognized, differentiated and understood. The act of distributing things into classes or categories of the same type. The action or process of classifying something according to shared qualities or characteristics. A group of people or things arranged by class or category. The basic cognitive process of arranging into classes or categories. Classified.

Binary Classification is the task of classifying the elements of a given set into two groups (predicting which group each one belongs to) on the basis of a classification rule. Contexts requiring a decision as to whether or not an item has some qualitative property, some specified characteristic, or some typical binary classification include: Medical testing to determine if a patient has certain disease or not – the classification property is the presence of the disease. A "pass or fail" test method or quality control in factories, i.e. deciding if a specification has or has not been met – a Go/no go classification. Information retrieval, namely deciding whether a page or an article should be in the result set of a search or not – the classification property is the relevance of the article, or the usefulness to the user. Binary classification is dichotomization applied to practical purposes, and in many practical binary classification problems, the two 2 groups are not symmetric – rather than overall accuracy, the relative proportion of different types of errors is of interest. For example, in medical testing, a false positive (detecting a disease when it is not present) is considered differently from a false negative (not detecting a disease when it is present).

Classes is a collection of things sharing a common attribute. Arrange or order by classes or categories.

Attribute is to decide as to where something belongs in a scheme. A construct whereby objects or individuals can be distinguished.

Distinctive is a feature that helps to distinguish a person or thing so that it is capable of being classified.

Distinguish is to detect something with the senses that can be marked as different when compared to other things.

Differentiated is having a distinctive feature, attribute, or trait that can be identified and shown to be different

Characteristic is a prominent attribute or aspect of something or any measurable property or distinguishing quality.

Category Theory is used to formalize concepts of other high-level abstractions such as sets, rings, and groups. Category theory formalizes mathematical structure and its concepts in terms of a labeled directed graph called a category, whose nodes are called objects, and whose labelled directed edges are called arrows (or morphisms). A category has two basic properties: the ability to compose the arrows associatively, and the existence of an identity arrow for each object. The language of category theory has been used to formalize concepts of other high-level abstractions such as sets, rings, and groups. Informally, category theory is a general theory of functions. Several terms used in category theory, including the term "morphism", are used differently from their uses in the rest of mathematics. In category theory, morphisms obey conditions specific to category theory itself.

Group or grouping is any number of entities  or members considered as a unit. A system for classifying things into groups. The activity of putting things together in groups.

Group Theory studies the algebraic structures known as groups. Symmetry.

Group in mathematics is an algebraic structure consisting of a set of elements equipped with an operation that combines any two elements to form a third element.

Form is a category of things distinguished by some common characteristic or quality. A perceptual structure to compose or represent or develop into a distinctive entity to give shape. Any spatial attributes, especially as defined by outline. The spatial arrangement of something as distinct from its substance. The visual appearance of something or someone. Form in biology is a group of organisms within a species that differ in trivial ways from similar groups. An arrangement of the elements in a composition or discourse. A particular mode in which something is manifested. Form in physical chemistry is a distinct state of matter in a system; matter that is identical in chemical composition and physical state and separated from other material by the phase boundary. Form also means to make something, usually for a specific function.

Index Term is a term that captures the essence of the topic of a document. Index terms make up a controlled vocabulary for use in bibliographic records. They are an integral part of bibliographic control, which is the function by which libraries collect, organize and disseminate documents. They are used as keywords to retrieve documents in an information system, for instance, a catalog or a search engine. A popular form of keywords on the web are tags which are directly visible and can be assigned by non-experts. Index terms can consist of a word, phrase, or alphanumerical term. They are created by analyzing the document either manually with subject indexing or automatically with automatic indexing or more sophisticated methods of keyword extraction. Index terms can either come from a controlled vocabulary or be freely assigned. Web Indexing.

Index in publishing is a list of words or phrases ('headings') and associated pointers ('locators') to where useful material relating to that heading can be found in a document or collection of documents. Index Publishing.

Subject Indexing is the act of describing or classifying a document by index terms or other symbols in order to indicate what the document is about, to summarize its content or to increase its findability. In other words, it is about identifying and describing the subject of documents. Indexes are constructed, separately, on three distinct levels: terms in a document such as a book; objects in a collection such as a library; and documents (such as books and articles) within a field of knowledge.

Subject Documents are classified and searched by subject - as well as by other attributes such as author, genre and document type. This makes "subject" a fundamental term in this field. Library and information specialists assign subject labels to documents to make them findable. There are many ways to do this and in general there is not always consensus about which subject should be assigned to a given document. To optimize subject indexing and searching, we need to have a deeper understanding of what a subject is. The question: "what is to be understood by the statement 'document A belongs to subject category X'?"

Entity Linking is the task of determining the identity of entities mentioned in text. Links.

Typology is classification according to general type.

Typology Archaeology is the classification of things according to their physical characteristics.

Tag in reference to metadata is a non-hierarchical keyword or term assigned to a piece of information (such as an Internet bookmark, digital image, or computer file). This kind of metadata helps describe an item and allows it to be found again by browsing or searching. Tags are generally chosen informally and personally by the item's creator or by its viewer, depending on the system.

Legal Coding is the process of creating summary or keyword data from a Document. It is widely used in the legal profession to create a fast-search index or database of documents for use in litigation. Objective Coding Definitions. The recording of basic data such as date, author, or document type, from documents into a database. Extracting information from electronic documents such as date created, author recipient, CC and linking each image to the information in pre-defined objective fields. In direct opposition to Subjective coding where legal interpretations of data in a document are linked to individual documents. Also called bibliographic coding. Extracting such information from a Document as its author, its mailing date, etc. Objective coding is usually done from the document text or image, because the metadata may be inaccurate. For example, a document written and signed by a partner might show the administrative assistant as the author in the metadata, because it was originally typed on the assistant’s computer.

Document Classification

Abstraction is a concept or idea not associated with any specific instance. The process of formulating general concepts by abstracting common properties of instances. A general concept formed by extracting common features from specific examples.
Abstraction in its main sense is a conceptual process by which general rules and concepts are derived from the usage and classification of specific examples, literal ("real" or "concrete") signifiers, first principles, or other methods. "An abstraction" is the product of this process — a concept that acts as a super-categorical noun for all subordinate concepts, and connects any related concepts as a group, field, or category. Conceptual abstractions may be formed by filtering the information content of a concept or an observable phenomenon, selecting only the aspects which are relevant for a particular purpose. For example, abstracting a leather soccer ball to the more general idea of a ball selects only the information on general ball attributes and behavior, eliminating the other characteristics of that particular ball. In a type–token distinction, a type (e.g., a 'ball') is more abstract than its tokens (e.g., 'that leather soccer ball').

Abstract and Concrete

Library Classification is a system by which library resources are arranged according to subject. Library classifications use a notational system that represents the order of topics in the classification and allows items to be stored in that order. Library classification systems group related materials together, typically arranged in a hierarchical tree structure. A different kind of classification system, called a faceted classification system, is also widely used which allows the assignment of multiple classifications to an object, enabling the classifications to be ordered in multiple ways. The library classification numbers can be considered identifiers for resources but are distinct from the International Standard Book Number (ISBN) or International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) system. - Category: Subject (wiki).

Table of Contents are titles or descriptions of subjects or content to help speed up location of desired information.

Glossary, also known as a vocabulary or clavis, is an alphabetical list of terms in a particular domain of knowledge with the definitions for those terms. Traditionally, a glossary appears at the end of a book and includes terms within that book that are either newly introduced, uncommon, or specialized. While glossaries are most commonly associated with non-fiction books, in some cases, fiction novels may come with a glossary for unfamiliar terms.

Reference Book - Category Subject Tree - Knowledge Base

Cataloging is the process of creating metadata representing information resources, such as books, sound recordings, moving images, etc. Cataloging provides information such as creator names, titles, and subject terms that describe resources, typically through the creation of bibliographic records. The records serve as surrogates for the stored information resources. Since the 1970s these metadata are in machine-readable form and are indexed by information retrieval tools, such as bibliographic databases or search engines. While typically the cataloging process results in the production of library catalogs, it also produces other types of discovery tools for documents and collections. Bibliographic control provides the philosophical basis of cataloging, defining the rules for sufficiently describing information resources to enable users to find and select the most appropriate resource. A cataloger is an individual responsible for the processes of description, subject analysis, classification, and authority control of library materials. Catalogers serve as the "foundation of all library service, as they are the ones who organize information in such a way as to make it easily accessible".

Knowledge Organization - Knowledge Visualization - Data

Bibliographic Database is a database of bibliographic records, an organized digital collection of references to published literature, including journal and newspaper articles, conference proceedings, reports, government and legal publications, patents, books, etc. In contrast to library catalogue entries, a large proportion of the bibliographic records in bibliographic databases describe articles, conference papers, etc., rather than complete monographs, and they generally contain very rich subject descriptions in the form of keywords, subject classification terms, or abstracts. A bibliographic database may be general in scope or cover a specific academic discipline like computer science. A significant number of bibliographic databases are proprietary, available by licensing agreement from vendors, or directly from the indexing and abstracting services that create them. Many bibliographic databases have evolved into digital libraries, providing the full text of the indexed contents.[citation needed] Others converge with non-bibliographic scholarly databases to create more complete disciplinary search engine systems, such as Chemical Abstracts or Entrez.

Metadata is data that provides information about other data or data about data. Many distinct types of metadata exist, including descriptive metadata, structural metadata, administrative metadata, reference metadata and statistical metadata. Descriptive metadata is descriptive information about a resource. It is used for discovery and identification. It includes elements such as title, abstract, author, and keywords. Structural metadata is metadata about containers of data and indicates how compound objects are put together, for example, how pages are ordered to form chapters. It describes the types, versions, relationships and other characteristics of digital materials. Administrative metadata is information to help manage a resource, like resource type, permissions, and when and how it was created. Reference metadata is information about the contents and quality of statistical data. Statistical metadata, also called process data, may describe processes that collect, process, or produce statistical data.

Quantifier in logic is a construct that specifies the quantity of specimens in the domain of discourse that satisfy an open formula.

Set Theory is the branch of mathematical logic that studies sets, which informally are collections of objects. Although any type of object can be collected into a set, set theory is applied most often to objects that are relevant to mathematics.

Set in mathematics is a collection of distinct objects, considered as an object in its own right.

Predicate in mathematical logic is the characteristic function or the indicator function of a relation.

Indicator Function defined on a set X that indicates membership of an element in a subset A of X, having the value 1 for all elements of A and the value 0 for all elements of X not in A. It is usually denoted by a symbol 1 or I.

Subjects are the subject matter of a conversation or discussion. A branch of knowledge. The sum or range of what has been perceived, discovered, or learned. Academic.

Content is everything that is included in a collection and that is held or included in something. What a communication that is about something is about. Context.

New research reveals that infants can use even a few labeled examples to spark the acquisition of object categories. Those
labeled examples lead infants to initiate the process of categorization, after which they can integrate all subsequent objects, labeled or unlabeled, into their evolving category representation. Even before infants begin to speak, hearing language promotes object categorization. Hearing the same label, "That's a dog!" applied to a diverse set of objects -- a collie, a terrier, a pug -- promotes infants' acquisition of object categories (e.g., the category "dog"). But in infants' daily lives, most objects go unlabeled. Infants are constantly seeing new things, and even the most determined caregivers cannot label each one.

Related Subject Pages - Collaboration - Artificial Neural Network - Human Search Engine - Filtering - Learning Methods - Research - Management - Structure - Constructs - Visual Maps - Time Management - Planning.


System is a set of interacting or interdependent component parts forming a complex/intricate whole. Every system is delineated by its spatial and temporal boundaries, surrounded and influenced by its environment, described by its structure and purpose and expressed in its functioning.

System is an instrumentality that combines interrelated interacting artifacts designed to work as a coherent entity. A group of independent but interrelated elements comprising a unified whole. A complex of methods or rules governing behavior. An organized structure for arranging or classifying. A procedure or process for obtaining an objective. The living body considered as made up of interdependent components forming a unified whole. An ordered manner; orderliness by virtue of being methodical and well organized.

is a self-contained system within a larger system. Subroutine - Controls.

Systems Science is an interdisciplinary field that studies the nature of systems—from simple to complex—in nature, society, cognition, and science itself. To systems scientists, the world can be understood as a system of systems. The field aims to develop interdisciplinary foundations that are applicable in a variety of areas, such as psychology, biology, medicine, communication, business management, engineering, and social sciences. Systems science covers formal sciences such as complex systems, cybernetics, dynamical systems theory, information theory, linguistics or systems theory. It has applications in the field of the natural and social sciences and engineering, such as control theory, operations research, social systems theory, systems biology, system dynamics, human factors, systems ecology, systems engineering and systems psychology. Themes commonly stressed in system science are (a) holistic view, (b) interaction between a system and its embedding environment, and (c) complex (often subtle) trajectories of dynamic behavior that sometimes are stable (and thus reinforcing), while at various 'boundary conditions' can become wildly unstable (and thus destructive). Concerns about Earth-scale biosphere/geosphere dynamics is an example of the nature of problems to which systems science seeks to contribute meaningful insights.

Dynamical System is a system in which a function describes the time dependence of a point in an ambient space, such as in a parametric curve.

Complex System is a system composed of many components which may interact with each other. Examples of complex systems are Earth's global climate, organisms, the human brain, infrastructure such as power grid, transportation or communication systems, social and economic organizations (like cities), an ecosystem, a living cell, and ultimately the entire universe. Complex systems are systems whose behavior is intrinsically difficult to model due to the dependencies, competitions, relationships, or other types of interactions between their parts or between a given system and its environment. Systems that are "complex" have distinct properties that arise from these relationships, such as nonlinearity, emergence, spontaneous order, adaptation, and feedback loops, among others. Because such systems appear in a wide variety of fields, the commonalities among them have become the topic of their independent area of research. In many cases it is useful to represent such a system as a network where the nodes represent the components and the links their interactions. Examples of complex systems are Earth's global climate, organisms, the human brain, social organization, an ecosystem, a living cell, and ultimately the entire universe. Machine Learning - Hierarchical Organization.

Complexity characterizes the behavior of a system or model whose components interact in multiple ways and follow local rules, meaning there is no reasonable higher instruction to define the various possible interactions. The term is generally used to characterize something with many parts where those parts interact with each other in multiple ways, culminating in a higher order of emergence greater than the sum of its parts. The study of these complex linkages at various scales is the main goal of complex systems theory. Levels of Complexity.

Complex is a complicated in structure; consisting of interconnected parts. A conceptual whole made up of complicated and related parts. A whole structure (as a building) made up of interconnected or related structures.

Complexity Factor is the level of complexity to any situation or system. Complexity factor can be measured by the number of parts or factors or types, by the number of their interrelationships and interconnections, and by the number of unknowns or degrees of uncertainty.

Intricate is something having many complex arranged elements.

Elaborate is something marked by complexity and richness of detail. To develop or execute with care and in minute detail. Elaborate is to add details in order to clarify the meaning of something in a learned way.

Unraveling complex systems: The backtracking method. Scientists have developed a new method to analyze the dynamical, out-of-equilibrium properties of complex disordered systems, such as gold with magnetic impurities or opinions spreading on social media. In physics, a "disordered system" refers to a physical system whose components -- e.g. its atoms -- are not organized in any discernible way. The approach is called the Backtracking Dynamical Cavity Method and it works by looking first at the end state of the system rather than the beginning; instead of studying the system's trajectory forward from the start, it traces the steps backward from stable points.

Cavity Method is one of the cornerstones of the statistical physics of disordered systems such as spin glasses and other complex systems. It is able to analytically and asymptotically exactly describe the equilibrium properties of a broad range of models.

Systems Thinking involves the use of various techniques to study systems of many kinds. In nature, examples of the objects of systems thinking include ecosystems - in which various elements (such as air, water, movement, plants, and animals) interact. In organizations, systems consist of people, structures, and processes that operate together to make an organization "healthy" or "unhealthy". Systems engineering is the discipline that utilizes systems thinking to design, build, operate and maintain complex engineered systems. Expert System.

Systems Theory is discovering patterns and elucidating principles that can be discerned from and applied to all types of systems at all nesting levels in all fields of research. Systems Theory is the interdisciplinary study of systems. A system is an entity with interrelated and interdependent parts; it is defined by its boundaries and it is more than the sum of its parts (subsystem). Changing one part of the system affects other parts and the whole system, with predictable patterns of behavior. Positive growth and adaptation of a system depend upon how well the system is adjusted with its environment, and systems often exist to accomplish a common purpose (a work function) that also aids in the maintenance of the system or the operations may result in system failure. The goal of systems theory is systematically discovering a system's dynamics, constraints, conditions and elucidating principles (purpose, measure, methods, tools, etc.) that can be discerned and applied to systems at every level of nesting, and in every field for achieving optimized equifinality. General systems theory is about broadly applicable concepts and principles, as opposed to concepts and principles applicable to one domain of knowledge. It distinguishes, dynamic or active systems and static or passive systems. Active systems are activity structures or components that interact in behaviours and processes. Passive systems are structures and components that are being processed. E.g. a program is passive when it is a disc file and active when it runs in memory. The field is related to systems thinking and systems engineering.

Systems Analysis is the process of studying a procedure or business in order to identify its goals and purposes and create systems and procedures that will achieve them in an efficient way.

Computer Systems Analyst specializes in analyzing, designing and implementing information systems.

Systemic is something that affects an entire system. Systemic is something that is spread throughout the environment and is system-wide, affecting a group or system, such as a body, economy, market or society as a whole.

Systemic Problem is a problem due to issues inherent in the overall system, rather than due to a specific, individual, isolated factor. Contrast with pilot error, user error, or mistake. A change to the structure, organization or policies in that system could alleviate the systemic problem. On an Ishikawa diagram or fishbone diagram of cause-and-effect links, the source of the problem can be said to be a common cause, rather than a special cause.

Systemics refers to an initiative to study systems from a holistic point of view. Endemic.

Systematic is done or acting according to a fixed plan or system; methodical. Characterized by order and planning.

Systems Science studies the nature of systems—from simple to complex—in nature, society, and science itself.

Systems Engineering focuses on how to design and manage complex engineering systems over their life cycles.

Physical System is a portion of the physical universe chosen for analysis. Everything outside the system is known as the environment. The environment is ignored except for its effects on the system. The split between system and environment is the analyst's choice, generally made to simplify the analysis. For example, the water in a lake, the water in half of a lake, or an individual molecule of water in the lake can each be considered a physical system. An isolated system is one that has negligible interaction with its environment. Often a system in this sense is chosen to correspond to the more usual meaning of system, such as a particular machine. In the study of quantum coherence, the "system" may refer to the microscopic properties of an object (e.g. the mean of a pendulum bob), while the relevant "environment" may be the internal degrees of freedom, described classically by the pendulum's thermal vibrations.

Isolated System in physical science is a physical system so far removed from other systems that it does not interact with them, or a thermodynamic system enclosed by rigid immovable walls through which neither matter nor energy can pass. Virtual Particles.

Coupling is the degree of interdependence between software modules; a measure of how closely connected two routines or modules are; the strength of the relationships between modules.

Loose Coupling system is one in which each of its components has, or makes use of, little or no knowledge of the definitions of other separate components. Subareas include the coupling of classes, interfaces, data, and services. Loose coupling is the opposite of tight coupling, which is when a group of classes are highly dependent on one another.

Cohesion refers to the degree to which the elements inside a module belong together. In one sense, it is a measure of the strength of relationship between the methods and data of a class and some unifying purpose or concept served by that class. In another sense, it is a measure of the strength of relationship between the class's methods and data themselves.

System Integration is defined as the process of bringing together the component subsystems into one system and ensuring that the subsystems function together as a system. In information technology, systems integration is the process of linking together different computing systems and software applications physically or functionally, to act as a coordinated whole. Subsystems is a system that is part of some larger system. Subset.

Artificial Intelligence Systems Integration is making individual software components, such as speech synthesizers, interoperable with other components, such as common sense knowledge bases, in order to create larger, broader and more capable A.I. systems. The main methods that have been proposed for integration are message routing, or communication protocols that the software components use to communicate with each other, often through a middleware blackboard system.

Systems Design is the process of defining the architecture, components, modules, interfaces, and data for a system to satisfy specified requirements.

Systems Architect defines the architecture of a computerized system in order to fulfill certain requirements. Such definitions include: a breakdown of the system into components, the component interactions and interfaces (including with the environment, especially the user), and the technologies and resources to be used in the design.

Open System is thinking or organizing with a radically different way of thinking or organizing.

System Image is a serialized copy of the entire state of a computer system stored in some non-volatile form such as a file. A system is said to be capable of using system images if it can be shut down and later restored to exactly the same state. In such cases, system images can be used for backup. Hibernation is an example that uses an image of the entire machine's RAM.

Management Information System focuses on the management of information technology to provide efficiency and effectiveness or strategy decision making. The concept may include systems termed transaction processing system, decision support system, expert system, or executive information system.

Systems Management refers to enterprise-wide administration of distributed systems including (and commonly in practice) computer systems. Systems management is strongly influenced by network management initiatives in telecommunications. The application performance management (APM) technologies are now a subset of Systems management. Maximum productivity can be achieved more efficiently through event correlation, system automation and predictive analysis which is now all part of APM.

System Administration is a person who is responsible for the upkeep, configuration, and reliable operation of computer systems; especially multi-user computers, such as servers.

File System

Certified Information Systems Security Professional is an independent information security certification governed by the International Information System Security Certification Consortium, also known as (ISC).

Technical Communication is a means to convey scientific, engineering, or other technical information. Individuals in a variety of contexts and with varied professional credentials engage in technical communication. Some individuals are designated as technical communicators or technical writers. These individuals use a set of methods to research, document, and present technical processes or products. Technical communicators may put the information they capture into paper documents, web pages, computer-based training, digitally stored text, audio, video, and other media. The Society for Technical Communication defines the field as any form of communication that focuses on technical or specialized topics, communicates specifically by using technology or provides instructions on how to do something. More succinctly, the Institute of Scientific and Technical Communicators defines technical communication as factual communication, usually about products and services. The European Association for Technical Communication briefly defines technical communication as "the process of defining, creating and delivering information products for the safe, efficient and effective use of products (technical systems, software, services)". Whatever the definition of technical communication, the overarching goal of the practice is to create easily accessible information for a specific audience.

Electronic Commerce is a transaction of buying or selling online.

System Safety concept calls for a risk management strategy based on identification, analysis of hazards and application of remedial controls using a systems-based approach. This is different from traditional safety strategies which rely on control of conditions and causes of an accident based either on the Epidemiological analysis or as a result of investigation of individual past accidents. The concept of system safety is useful in demonstrating adequacy of technologies when difficulties are faced with probabilistic risk analysis. The underlying principle is one of synergy: a whole is more than sum of its parts. Systems-based approach to safety requires the application of scientific, technical and managerial skills to hazard identification, hazard analysis, and elimination, control, or management of hazards throughout the life-cycle of a system, program, project or an activity or a product. "Hazop" is one of several techniques available for identification of hazards.

Decision Making - Decision Tree - Engineering - Development

Steady State is a system or a process in a steady state, when the variables (called state variables) which define the behavior of the system or the process are unchanging in time. In continuous time, this means that for those properties p of the system, the partial derivative with respect to time is zero and remains so.

Interactive - Interface

Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. The idea of a two-way effect is essential in the concept of interaction, as opposed to a one-way causal effect.

is to act together or towards others or with others.

Interactive is capable of acting on or influencing each other.

Interactive Map responds to touch or when the mouse moves over it, off of it, or clicks on it.

Interactive Learning - Virtual RealityAugmented Reality - Haptic Feedback - Interface

Interactivity is the interaction with computers and other machines with a user interface. Multiple views on interactivity exist. In the contingency view of interactivity, there are three levels: No interactive: when a message is not related to previous messages. Reactive: when a message is related only to one immediately previous message. Interactive: when a message is related to a number of previous messages and to the relationship between them. Many fields are concerned with interactivity, including information science, computer science, human-computer interaction, communication, and industrial design, where the meaning of the term interactivity can vary. Interactivity accepts and responds to input.

Interaction Design is defined as "the practice of designing interactive digital products, environments, systems, and services.

Interactive Design is the design of user interfaces for machines and software, such as computers, home appliances, mobile devices, and other electronic devices, with the focus on maximizing usability and the user experience. The goal of user interface design is to make the user's interaction as simple and efficient as possible, in terms of accomplishing user goals (user-centered design).

Interaction Design Pattern are a way to describe solutions to common usability or accessibility problems in a specific context. They document interaction models that make it easier for users to understand an interface and accomplish their tasks. A formal way of documenting a solution to a common design problem.

Experience Management is the process of monitoring every interaction people experience with a company in order to spot opportunities for improvement.

Behavioral Pattern are design patterns that identify common communication patterns among objects and realize these patterns. By doing so, these patterns increase flexibility in carrying out this communication. Examples of this type of design pattern include: Blackboard design pattern: provides a computational framework for the design and implementation of systems that integrate large and diverse specialized modules, and implement complex, non-deterministic control strategies. Chain of responsibility pattern: Command objects are handled or passed on to other objects by logic-containing processing objects. Command pattern: Command objects encapsulate an action and its parameters. "Externalize the stack": Turn a recursive function into an iterative one that uses a stack. Interpreter pattern: Implement a specialized computer language to rapidly solve a specific set of problems. Iterator pattern: Iterators are used to access the elements of an aggregate object sequentially without exposing its underlying representation. Mediator pattern: Provides a unified interface to a set of interfaces in a subsystem. Memento pattern: Provides the ability to restore an object to its previous state (rollback). Null object pattern: Designed to act as a default value of an object. Observer pattern: a.k.a. Publish/Subscribe or Event Listener. Objects register to observe an event that may be raised by another object. Weak reference pattern: De-couple an observer from an observable. Protocol stack: Communications are handled by multiple layers, which form an encapsulation hierarchy. Scheduled-task pattern: A task is scheduled to be performed at a particular interval or clock time (used in real-time computing). Single-serving visitor pattern: Optimise the implementation of a visitor that is allocated, used only once, and then deleted. Specification pattern: Recombinable business logic in a boolean fashion. State pattern: A clean way for an object to partially change its type at runtime. Strategy pattern: Algorithms can be selected on the fly, using composition. Template method pattern: Describes the program skeleton of a program; algorithms can be selected on the fly, using inheritance. Visitor pattern: A way to separate an algorithm from an object.

Card Sorting is a technique in user experience design in which a person tests a group of subject experts or users to generate a dendrogram (category tree) or folksonomy. It is a useful approach for designing information architecture, workflows, menu structure, or web site navigation paths.

Culturomics - N Grams - Just Works

Touchpoint can be defined as any way a consumer can interact with a business, whether it be person-to-person, through a website, an app or any form of communication (“Touchpoint Glossary”, n.d.). When consumers come in contact with these touchpoints it gives them the opportunity to compare their prior perceptions of the business and form an opinion.

Software Design Pattern are formalized best practices that the programmer can use to solve common problems when designing an application or system.

Interfaces - Control Panels - Menus

Interface is a device that allows a person to communicate to a computer or to a person. Interface controls can be physically operated or voice operated. A touchscreen, keyboard, mouse, microphone and speaker can both send and receive data through the interface. An interface program controls a display for the user to both send and receive data through and interact with the system. An interface is a shared boundary across which two separate components of a computer system exchange information. The exchange can be between software, computer hardware, peripheral devices, humans and combinations of these. An interface is the overlap where two theories or phenomena affect each other or have links with each other. An interface is a computer circuit consisting of the hardware and associated circuitry that links one device with another computer or a hard disk drive or other peripheral.

Dashboard - Menu Navigation - Command Lines - Controls - Design Usability - Code - Interactive - Virtual Reality

User Interface in the industrial design field of human–machine interaction, is the space where interactions between humans and machines occur. The goal of this interaction is to allow effective operation and control of the machine from the human end, whilst the machine simultaneously feeds back information that aids the operators' decision-making process.

"A user interface is like a joke, if you have to explain it, it's not that good."

Application Programming Interface is a way for two or more computer programs to communicate with each other. It is a type of software interface, offering a service to other pieces of software. API is a document or standard that describes how to build or use such a connection or interface is called an API specification. A computer system that meets this standard is said to implement or expose an API. The term API may refer either to the specification or to the implementation. API is a set of subroutine definitions, protocols, and tools for building application software. In general terms, it is a set of clearly defined methods of communication between various software components. It defines methods of communication between various software components and provides access to data of an operating system, application, or other service. A good API makes it easier to develop a computer program by providing all the building blocks, which are then put together by the programmer. An API may be for a web-based system, operating system, database system, computer hardware or software library. An API specification can take many forms, but often includes specifications for routines, data structures, object classes, variables or remote calls. POSIX, Microsoft Windows API, the C++ Standard Template Library and Java APIs are examples of different forms of APIs. Documentation for the API is usually provided to facilitate usage. API services are a means for an application to interact with a server-side system to retrieve and/or update data.

The whole thing about interfaces is getting them to do what we want them to do, and also to have them work no matter what level of experience you have. We occasionally find ourselves trying to fit a square peg inside a round hole, and when it doesn't work, for some reason we keep trying anyway, and that is when we get frustrated. Everyone should learn to understand how interfaces work, and how our brain works too. So what would be the perfect interface? An interface that you can modify, so you should have a known standard of operation code, so if you needed to modify it, you can. Flexible user interface distribution for ubiquitous multi-device interaction. Researchers have developed mobile software platform technology that allows a mobile application (app) to be executed simultaneously and more dynamically on multiple smart devices. Its high flexibility and broad applicability can help accelerate a shift from the current single-device paradigm to a multiple one, which enables users to utilize mobile apps in ways previously unthinkable. Mindtouch.

Graphical User Interface - GUI

AI improves touchscreen interfaces for users with impairments. A new algorithmic approach to user interface optimization that takes individual differences into account.

Dark Patterns: User Interfaces Designed to Trick People (youtube) - Marketing.

Bio-interface is the region of contact between a biomolecule, cell, biological tissue or living organism or organic material considered living with another biomaterial or inorganic/organic material. The motivation for biointerface science stems from the urgent need to increase the understanding of interactions between biomolecules and surfaces. The behavior of complex macromolecular systems at materials interfaces are important in the fields of biology, biotechnology, diagnostics, and medicine. Biointerface science is a multidisciplinary field in which biochemists who synthesize novel classes of biomolecules (peptide nucleic acids, peptidomimetics, aptamers, ribozymes, and engineered proteins) cooperate with scientists who have developed the tools to position biomolecules with molecular precision (proximal probe methods, nano-and micro contact methods, e-beam and X-ray lithography, and bottom up self-assembly methods), scientists who have developed new spectroscopic techniques to interrogate these molecules at the solid-liquid interface, and people who integrate these into functional devices (applied physicists, analytical chemists and bioengineers). Topics of interest include, but are not limited to: Neural interfaces. Cells in engineered microenvironments and regenerative medicine. Computational and modeling approaches to biointerfaces. Membranes and membrane-based biosensing. Peptides, carbohydrates and DNA at biointerfaces. Pathogenesis and pathogen detection. Molecularly designed interfaces. Nanotube/nanoparticle interfaces. Related fields for biointerfaces are biomineralization, biosensors, medical implants, and so forth.

Dashboard in management information systems an easy to read, often single page, real-time user interface, showing a graphical presentation of the current status (snapshot) and historical trends of an organization’s or computer appliance's key performance indicators to enable instantaneous and informed decisions to be made at a glance.

Dashboard in business is a type of graphical user interface which often provides at-a-glance views of key performance indicators relevant to a particular objective or business process. In other usage, "dashboard" is another name for "progress report" or "report." The "dashboard" is often displayed on a web page which is linked to a database that allows the report to be constantly updated.

Dashboard is a control panel placed in front of the driver of an automobile, housing instrumentation and controls for operation of the vehicle.

Grow is dashboard software to unify and blend your business data in real time.

Control Panel in engineering is a flat, often vertical, area where control or monitoring instruments are displayed or it is an enclosed unit that is the part of a system that users can access, such as the control panel of a security system.

Control Panel in windows allows computer users to view and manipulate basic system settings and controls via applets, such as adding hardware, adding and removing software, controlling user accounts, and changing accessibility options. Additional applets can be provided by third party software.

Menu - Menu Sample

Head-Up Display is any transparent display that presents data without requiring users to look away from their usual viewpoints. The origin of the name stems from a pilot being able to view information with the head positioned "up" and looking forward, instead of angled down looking at lower instruments. A HUD also has the advantage that the pilot's eyes do not need to refocus to view the outside after looking at the optically nearer instruments. Although they were initially developed for military aviation, HUDs are now used in commercial aircraft, automobiles and other, mostly professional applications. (HUD).

Peripheral is an added system device used to put information into and get information out of the computer. Input device sends data or instructions to the computer, such as a mouse, keyboard, graphics tablet, image scanner, barcode reader, game controller, light pen, light gun, microphone, digital camera, webcam, dance pad, and read-only memory); Output device provides output from the computer, such as a computer monitor, projector, printer, headphones and computer speaker); Input / Output device performs both input and output functions, such as a computer data storage device (including a disk drive, USB flash drive, memory card and tape drive). Many modern electronic devices, such as internet capable digital watches, keyboards, and tablet computers, have interfaces that allow them to be used as computer peripheral devices. Sensors.

Actuator is a mechanism that puts something into automatic action.

Actuate is to put in motion, or initiate a device, reaction, circuit. To give an incentive for action.

Input Device is a piece of computer hardware equipment used to provide data and control signals to an information processing system such as a computer or information appliance. Examples of input devices include keyboards, mouse, scanners, digital cameras and joysticks. Audio input devices may be used for purposes including speech recognition. Many companies are utilizing speech recognition to help assist users to use their device(s). Input devices can be categorized based on: Modality of input (e.g. mechanical motion, audio, visual, etc.) Whether the input is discrete (e.g. pressing of key) or continuous (e.g. a mouse's position, though digitized into a discrete quantity, is fast enough to be considered continuous). The number of degrees of freedom involved (e.g. two-dimensional traditional mice, or three-dimensional navigators designed for CAD applications).

Console is a scientific instrument consisting of displays and an input device that an operator can use to monitor and control a system, especially a computer system.

System Console is the text entry and display device for system administration messages, particularly those from the BIOS or boot loader, the kernel, from the init system and from the system logger. It is a physical device consisting of a keyboard and a screen, and traditionally is a text terminal, but may also be a graphical terminal. System consoles are generalized to computer terminals, which are abstracted respectively by virtual consoles and terminal emulators. Today communication with system consoles is generally done abstractly, via the standard streams (stdin, stdout, and stderr), but there may be system-specific interfaces, for example those used by the system kernel.

Virtual Console is a conceptual combination of the keyboard and display for a computer user interface. It is a feature of some Unix-like operating systems such as BSD, Linux, illumos and UnixWare in which the system console of the computer can be used to switch between multiple virtual consoles to access unrelated user interfaces. Virtual consoles date back at least to Xenix and Concurrent CP/M in the 1980s.

Linux Console is a system console internal to the Linux kernel (a system console is the device which receives all kernel messages and warnings and which allows logins in single user mode). The Linux console provides a way for the kernel and other processes to send text output to the user, and to receive text input from the user. The user typically enters text with a computer keyboard and reads the output text on a computer monitor. The Linux kernel supports virtual consoles – consoles that are logically separate, but which access the same physical keyboard and display. The Linux console (and Linux virtual consoles) are implemented by the VT subsystem of the Linux kernel, and do not rely on any user space software. This is in contrast to a terminal emulator, which is a user space process that emulates a terminal, and is typically used in a graphical display environment.

Console Application is a computer program designed to be used via a text-only computer interface, such as a text terminal, the command line interface of some operating systems (Unix, DOS, etc.) or the text-based interface included with most Graphical User Interface (GUI) operating systems, such as the Win32 console in Microsoft Windows, the Terminal in macOS, and xterm in Unix. A user typically interacts with a console application using only a keyboard and display screen, as opposed to GUI applications, which normally require the use of a mouse or other pointing device. Many console applications such as command line interpreters are command line tools, but numerous text-based user interface (TUI) programs also exist.

Console in video games is a command line interface where the personal computer game's settings and variables can be edited while the game is running. Consoles also usually display a log of warnings, errors, and other messages produced during the program's execution. Typically it can be toggled on or off and appears over the normal game view.

Video Game Console is a computer device that outputs a video signal or visual image to display a video game that one or more people can play.

Home Video Game Console is a video game device that is primarily used for home gamers, as opposed to in arcades or some other commercial establishment.

Handheld Game Console is a small, portable self-contained video game console with a built-in screen, game controls, and speakers. Handheld game consoles are smaller than home video game consoles and contain the console, screen, speakers, and controls in one unit, allowing people to carry them and play them at any time or place.

Remote Control is an electronic device used to operate another device from a distance, usually wirelessly. In consumer electronics, a remote control can be used to operate devices such as a television set, DVD player or other digital home media appliance. A remote control can allow operation of devices that are out of convenient reach for direct operation of controls. They function best when used from a short distance. This is primarily a convenience feature for the user. In some cases, remote controls allow a person to operate a device that they otherwise would not be able to reach, as when a garage door opener is triggered from outside. Remote Control.

Wii Remote is the primary game controller for Nintendo's Wii home video game console.

Game Controller is a device used with games or entertainment systems to provide input to a video game, typically to control an object or character in the game. A controller is usually connected to a game console or computer by means of a wire or cord, although, since the mid-2000s, wireless controllers have become widespread. Input devices that have been classified as game controllers include keyboards, mouses, gamepads, joysticks, etc. Special purpose devices, such as steering wheels for driving games and light guns for shooting games, are also game controllers.

Command Line Interface - Programing

Command-Line Interface is a means of interacting with a computer program where the user or client issues commands to the program in the form of successive lines of text or command lines. A program which handles the interface is called a command language interpreter or shell. The CLI was the primary means of interaction with most computer systems on computer terminals in the mid-1960s, and continued to be used throughout the 1970s and 1980s on OpenVMS, Unix systems and personal computer systems including MS-DOS, CP/M and Apple DOS. The interface is usually implemented with a command line shell, which is a program that accepts commands as text input and converts commands into appropriate operating system functions. Command-line interfaces to computer operating systems are less widely used by casual computer users, who favor graphical user interfaces or menu-driven interaction. Command-Line Interface is also known as a console user interface or a character user interface.

Computer Terminal is an electronic or electromechanical hardware device that is used for entering data into, and displaying or printing data from, a computer or a computing system. The teletype was an example of an early day hardcopy terminal, and predated the use of a computer screen by decades. Computer Code.

Kernel is a computer program at the core of a computer's operating system and generally has complete control over everything in the system. It is the portion of the operating system code that is always resident in memory, and facilitates interactions between hardware and software components. A full kernel controls all hardware resources (e.g. I/O, memory, cryptography) via device drivers, arbitrates conflicts between processes concerning such resources, and optimizes the utilization of common resources e.g. CPU & cache usage, file systems, and network sockets. On most systems, the kernel is one of the first programs loaded on startup (after the bootloader). It handles the rest of startup as well as memory, peripherals, and input/output (I/O) requests from software, translating them into data-processing instructions for the central processing unit. The critical code of the kernel is usually loaded into a separate area of memory, which is protected from access by application software or other less critical parts of the operating system. The kernel performs its tasks, such as running processes, managing hardware devices such as the hard disk, and handling interrupts, in this protected kernel space. In contrast, application programs such as browsers, word processors, or audio or video players use a separate area of memory, user space. This separation prevents user data and kernel data from interfering with each other and causing instability and slowness, as well as preventing malfunctioning applications from affecting other applications or crashing the entire operating system. Even in systems where the kernel is included in application address spaces, memory protection is used to prevent unauthorized applications from modifying the kernel. The kernel's interface is a low-level abstraction layer. When a process requests a service from the kernel, it must invoke a system call, usually through a wrapper function. There are different kernel architecture designs. Monolithic kernels run entirely in a single address space with the CPU executing in supervisor mode, mainly for speed. Microkernels run most but not all of their services in user space, like user processes do, mainly for resilience and modularity. MINIX 3 is a notable example of microkernel design. Instead, the Linux kernel is monolithic, although it is also modular, for it can insert and remove loadable kernel modules at runtime. This central component of a computer system is responsible for executing programs. The kernel takes responsibility for deciding at any time which of the many running programs should be allocated to the processor or processors.

Input in computer science is to provide or give something to the computer, in other words, when a computer or device is receiving a command or signal from outer sources, the event is referred as input to the device. Some computer devices can also be categorized as input devices because we use these devices to send instructions to the computer, some common examples of computer input devices are: Mouse, Keyboard, Touchscreen, Microphone, Webcam, Softcam, Touchpad, Trackpad, Image scanner, Trackball.

Input/Output or I/O, is the communication between an information processing system, such as a computer, and the outside world, possibly a human or another information processing system. Inputs are the signals or data received by the system and outputs are the signals or data sent from it. The term can also be used as part of an action; to "perform I/O" is to perform an input or output operation. I/O devices are the pieces of hardware used by a human (or other system) to communicate with a computer. For instance, a keyboard or computer mouse is an input device for a computer, while monitors and printers are output devices. Devices for communication between computers, such as modems and network cards, typically perform both input and output operations.

CMD.exe is the command-line interpreter on Windows NT, Windows CE, OS/2 and eComStation operating systems. It is the counterpart of COMMAND.COM in DOS and Windows 9x systems (where it is also called "MS-DOS Prompt"), and analogous to the Unix shells used on Unix-like systems.

Computer Crash - Computer Reboot

System Console - Virtual Console

Graphical User Interface is a type of user interface that allows users to interact with electronic devices through graphical icons and visual indicators such as secondary notation, instead of text-based user interfaces, typed command labels or text navigation. GUIs were introduced in reaction to the perceived steep learning curve of command-line interfaces (CLIs), which require commands to be typed on a computer keyboard. API.

Graphical User Interface Testing is the process of testing a product's graphical user interface to ensure it meets its specifications. This is normally done through the use of a variety of test cases.

Application Programming Interface is a set of subroutine definitions, protocols, and tools for building application software. In general terms, its a set of clearly defined methods of communication between various software components. A good API makes it easier to develop a computer program by providing all the building blocks, which are then put together by the programmer. An API may be for a web-based system, operating system, database system, computer hardware, or software library. An API specification can take many forms, but often includes specifications for routines, data structures, object classes, variables, or remote calls. POSIX, Microsoft Windows API, the C++ Standard Template Library, and Java APIs are examples of different forms of APIs. Documentation for the API is usually provided to facilitate usage. The status of APIs in intellectual property law is controversial. - PDF.

Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (wiki)

Application Performance Management is the monitoring and management of performance and availability of software applications. APM strives to detect and diagnose complex application performance problems to maintain an expected level of service.

Apps (design software)

Application Layer is an abstraction layer that specifies the shared protocols and interface methods used by hosts in a communications network. The application layer abstraction is used in both of the standard models of computer networking: the Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) and the Open Systems Interconnection model (OSI model).

OSI Model is a conceptual model that characterizes and standardizes the communication functions of a telecommunication or computing system without regard to their underlying internal structure and technology. Its goal is the interoperability of diverse communication systems with standard protocols. The model partitions a communication system into abstraction Layers. The original version of the model defined seven layers.

Text-Based User Interface is a retronym coined sometime after the invention of graphical user interfaces. TUIs display computer graphics in text mode. An advanced TUI may, like GUIs, use the entire screen area and accept mouse and other inputs. Text-Based User Interface uses the entire screen area and accept mouse and other inputs.

Retronym is a word introduced because an existing term has become inadequate.

Text Entry Interface is an interface that is used to enter text information into an electronic device. A commonly used device is a mechanical computer keyboard. Most laptop computers have an integrated mechanical keyboard, and desktop computers are usually operated primarily using a keyboard and mouse. Devices such as smartphones and tablets mean that interfaces such as virtual keyboards and voice recognition are becoming more popular as text entry systems.

Cyber-Physical System is a mechanism controlled or monitored by computer-based algorithms, tightly integrated with internet and its users. In cyber physical systems, physical and software components are deeply intertwined, each operating on different spatial and temporal scales, exhibiting multiple and distinct behavioral modalities, and interacting with each other in a myriad of ways that change with context. Examples of CPS include smart grid, autonomous automobile systems, medical monitoring, process control systems, robotics systems, and automatic pilot avionics. typically designed as a network of interacting elements with physical input and output instead of as standalone devices. The notion is closely tied to concepts of robotics and sensor networks with intelligence mechanisms proper of computational intelligence leading the pathway. Interactive.

Usability - End User Design

Usability is the ease of use and learnability of a human-made object such as a tool or a device. In software engineering, usability is the degree to which a software can be used by specified consumers to achieve quantified objectives with effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction in a quantified context of use. The object of use can be a software application, website, book, tool, machine, process, vehicle, or anything a human interacts with. A usability study may be conducted as a primary job function by a usability analyst or as a secondary job function by designers, technical writers, marketing personnel, and others. It is widely used in consumer electronics, communication, and knowledge transfer objects (such as a cookbook, a document or online help) and mechanical objects such as a door handle or a hammer. Usability includes methods of measuring usability, such as needs analysis and the study of the principles behind an object's perceived efficiency or elegance. In human-computer interaction and computer science, usability studies the elegance and clarity with which the interaction with a computer program or a web site (web usability) is designed. Usability differs from user satisfaction and user experience because usability does not directly consider usefulness or utility. Key Factors of Usability: More efficient to use—takes less time to accomplish a particular task. Easier to learn—operation can be learned by observing the object. More satisfying to use. Learnability: How easy is it for users to accomplish basic tasks the first time they encounter the design? Efficiency: Once users have learned the design, how quickly can they perform tasks? Memorability: When users return to the design after a period of not using it, how easily can they re-establish proficiency? Errors: How many errors do users make, how severe are these errors, and how easily can they recover from the errors? Satisfaction: How pleasant is it to use the design?

Usability User Experience - Utility - Overuse Dangers

Usability Engineering is a field that is concerned generally with human-computer interaction and specifically with devising human-computer interfaces that have high usability or user friendliness. It provides structured methods for achieving efficiency and elegance in interface design. Functional - Interface.

End User is a person who ultimately uses or is intended to ultimately use a product. The end user stands in contrast to users who support or maintain the product.

End-User Development refers to activities and tools that allow end-users or people who are not professional software developers to program computers.

User-Centered Design is a framework of processes in which the needs, wants, and limitations of end users of a product, service or process are given extensive attention at each stage of the design process. (not restricted to interfaces or technologies).

Behavioral Design is a sub-category of design, which is concerned with how design can shape, or be used to influence human behavior. Interface.

Accessibility refers to the design of products, devices, services, or environments for people who experience disabilities. The concept of accessible design and practice of accessible development ensures both "direct access" (i.e. unassisted) and "indirect access" meaning compatibility with a person's assistive technology (for example, computer screen readers). Accessibility can be viewed as the "ability to access" and benefit from some system or entity. The concept focuses on enabling access for people with disabilities, or special needs, or enabling access through the use of assistive technology; however, research and development in accessibility brings benefits to everyone. Accessibility is not to be confused with usability, which is the extent to which a product (such as a device, service, or environment) can be used by specified users to achieve specified goals with effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction in a specified context of use. Accessibility is strongly related to universal design which is the process of creating products that are usable by people with the widest possible range of abilities, operating within the widest possible range of situations. This is about making things accessible to all people (whether they have a disability or not).

Human Interface Guidelines is a method to improve the experience for the users by making application interfaces more intuitive, learnable, and consistent. Most guides limit themselves to defining a common look and feel for applications in a particular desktop environment. The guides enumerate specific policies.

Human-Centered Design is a design and management framework that develops solutions to problems by involving the human perspective in all steps of the problem-solving process. Human involvement typically takes place in observing the problem within context, brainstorming, conceptualizing, developing, and implementing the solution.

Human Computer Interaction is the process of researching the design and the use of computer technology that focuses on the interfaces between people or users and computers. Researchers in the field of HCI both observe the ways in which humans interact with computers and design technologies that let humans interact with computers in novel ways.

Hands-On Computing is a branch of human-computer interaction research which focuses on computer interfaces that respond to human touch or expression, allowing the machine and the user to interact physically. Hands-on computing can make complicated computer tasks more natural to users by attempting to respond to motions and interactions that are natural to human behavior. Thus hands-on computing is a component of user-centered design, focusing on how users physically respond to virtual environments.

Human Factors is the practice of designing products, systems, or processes to take proper account of the interaction between them and the people who use them. Human Factors is also known as comfort design, functional design, and systems.

Human Interface Device is a type of computer device that interacts directly with, and most often takes input from, humans and may deliver output to humans. (HID) Refactoring UI: Bad About (youtube).

The Humane Interface is a book about user interface design written by Jef Raskin and published in 2000.

Analytical Dashboards

User Interface Design is the design of user interfaces for machines and software, such as computers, home appliances, mobile devices, and other electronic devices, with the focus on maximizing usability and the user experience. The goal of user interface design is to make the user's interaction as simple and efficient as possible, in terms of accomplishing user goals (user-centered design). (UI)

User Experience Design is the process of enhancing user satisfaction with a product by improving the usability, accessibility, and pleasure provided in the interaction with the product. User experience design encompasses traditional human–computer interaction (HCI) design, and extends it by addressing all aspects of a product or service as perceived by users. (UX).

Experience Design is the practice of designing products, processes, services, events, omnichannel journeys, and environments with a focus placed on the quality of the user experience and culturally relevant solutions.

Direct Manipulation Interface is a human–computer interaction style which involves continuous representation of objects of interest and rapid, reversible, and incremental actions and feedback. As opposed to other interaction styles, for example, a command language, the intention of direct manipulation is to allow a user to manipulate objects presented to them, using actions that correspond at least loosely to manipulation of physical objects. An example of direct-manipulation is resizing a graphical shape, such as a rectangle, by dragging its corners or edges with a mouse. Having real-world metaphors for objects and actions can make it easier for a user to learn and use an interface (some might say that the interface is more natural or intuitive), and rapid, incremental feedback allows a user to make fewer errors and complete tasks in less time, because they can see the results of an action before completing the action, thus evaluating the output and compensating for mistakes.

Touchscreen - Monitors

Web Browser is a software application for accessing information on the World Wide Web. Each individual web page, image, and video is identified by a distinct URL, enabling browsers to retrieve and display them on the user's device. Note that a web browser is not the same thing as a search engine, though the two are often confused. For a user, a search engine is just a website, such as, that stores searchable data about other websites. But in order to connect to and display websites on their device, a user needs to have a web browser installed. The most popular web browsers are Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Internet Explorer, and Edge. The first web browser, called WorldWideWeb, was invented in 1990 by Sir Tim Berners-Lee. He then recruited Nicola Pellow to write the Line Mode Browser, which displayed web pages on dumb terminals; it was released in 1991. The purpose of a web browser is to fetch information resources and display them on a user's device. Common user interface features of browsers: Back and forward buttons to go back to the previous page visited or forward to the next one. A refresh or reload button to reload the current page. A stop button to cancel loading the page. (In some browsers, the stop button is merged with the reload button). A home button to return to the user's home page. An address bar to input the URL of a page and display it. A search bar to input terms into a search engine. (In some browsers, the search bar is merged with the address bar). Wireframe (website terminology)

Classic Shell is a perfect example of being able to modify an interface for personal preference.

C-Panel web hosting Control Panel. Menu - Navigation

Line Mode Browser is the second web browser ever created. The browser was the first demonstrated to be portable to several different operating systems. Operated from a simple command-line interface, it could be widely used on many computers and computer terminals throughout the Internet. The browser was developed starting in 1990, and then supported by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) as an example and test application for the libwww library. Internet of Things.

Operating Systems - HOS - Designing - Engineering - Development

Virtual Desktop (computers) - Human Factors Ergonomics (good posture)

Networks (computers) - Matrix - Computer Simulations

Brain Computer Interface - Interface

Human-Computer Interaction Laboratory - Dash Boards

Interactive Video usually refers to a technique used to blend interaction and linear film or video.

Multimedia is content that uses a combination of different content forms such as text, audio, images, animations, video and interactive content. Multimedia contrasts with media that use only rudimentary computer displays such as text-only or traditional forms of printed or hand-produced material.

E-Assessment (testing examinations)

Electronic Performance Support Systems is any computer software program or component that improves user performance.

Path of Least Resistance

Path of Least Resistance is the physical or metaphorical pathway that provides the least resistance to forward motion by a given object or entity, among a set of alternative paths. A path that has balance, synchronicity and sustainability along with low entropy.

Balanced - Work Skills - Ethics - Relaxed - Can't Control Everything

Principle of Least Effort postulates that animals, people, even well-designed machines will naturally choose the path of least resistance or effort. States that an information-seeking client will tend to use the most convenient search method, in the least exacting mode available. Information seeking behavior stops as soon as minimally acceptable results are found. This theory holds true regardless of the user's proficiency as a searcher, or their level of subject expertise. Also, this theory takes into account the user’s previous information-seeking experience. The user will use the tools that are most familiar and easy to use that find results. The principle of least effort is known as a “deterministic description of human behavior”. The principle of least effort applies not only in the library context, but also to any information-seeking activity. For example, one might consult a generalist co-worker down the hall rather than a specialist in another building, so long as the generalist's answers were within the threshold of acceptability.

Law of Reversed Effort believes that the harder we try or the more effort we give, the more difficult things become. If we take our time and think rationally, sometimes working smarter becomes more productive than working harder.

Working Smarter, not harder, means finding ways to use your energy and time to work more efficiently, which can help you complete tasks more quickly. To do this, you can use various strategies to help you prioritize your work, helping you identify the most important tasks.

Linking - Making Connections

Link is to connect, fasten, or put together two or more things. To become joined or united or linked like a single element of a chain. To make a connection between things or make a logical or causal connection between ideas. Link in computing is an instruction that connects one part of a program or an element on a list to another program or list. Link in communication is a two-way radio communication system that is part of a more extensive telecommunication network.

Chain is a series of things depending on each other as if linked together. A linked or connected series of objects. A series of rings or links fitted into one another to make a flexible ligament. Chain in chemistry is a series of linked atoms, generally in an organic molecule.

Hyperlink is a reference to data that the reader can directly follow either by clicking, tapping, touching, talking or hovering. A hyperlink points to a whole document or to a specific element within a document. Hypertext is text with hyperlinks. The text that is linked is called anchor text. A software system that is used for viewing and creating hypertext is a hypertext system, and to create a hyperlink is to hyperlink (or simply to link). A user following hyperlinks is said to navigate or browse the hypertext. The document containing a hyperlink is known as its source document. For example, in an online reference work such as Wikipedia, many words and terms in the text are hyperlinked to definitions of those terms. Hyperlinks are often used to implement reference mechanisms such as tables of contents, footnotes, bibliographies, indexes, letters and glossaries. In some hypertext hyperlinks can be bidirectional: they can be followed in two directions, so both ends act as anchors and as targets. More complex arrangements exist, such as many-to-many links. The effect of following a hyperlink may vary with the hypertext system and may sometimes depend on the link itself; for instance, on the World Wide Web most hyperlinks cause the target document to replace the document being displayed, but some are marked to cause the target document to open in a new window. Another possibility is transclusion, for which the link target is a document fragment that replaces the link anchor within the source document. Not only persons browsing the document follow hyperlinks; they may also be followed automatically by programs. A program that traverses the hypertext, following each hyperlink and gathering all the retrieved documents is known as a Web spider or crawler. Clickbait is a fraudulent link that looks interesting, but actually, it takes you down a rabbit hole.

Permalink is a URL that is intended to remain unchanged for many years into the future, yielding a hyperlink that is less susceptible to link rot. Permalinks are often rendered simply, that is, as friendly URLs, so as to be easy for people to type and remember. Most modern blogging and content-syndication software systems support such links. Sometimes URL shortening is used to create them.

Hypertext is text displayed on a computer display or other electronic devices with references (hyperlinks) to other text which the reader can immediately access, or where text can be revealed progressively at multiple levels of detail (also called StretchText). The hypertext pages are interconnected by hyperlinks, typically activated by a mouse click, keypress sequence or by touching the screen. Apart from text, hypertext is sometimes used to describe tables, images and other presentational content forms with hyperlinks. Hypertext is the underlying concept defining the structure of the World Wide Web, with pages often written in the Hypertext Markup Language (HTML). It enables an easy-to-use and flexible connection and sharing of information over the Internet.

Linking Data is a method of publishing structured data so that it can be interlinked and become more useful through semantic queries. It builds upon standard Web technologies such as HTTP, RDF and URIs, but rather than using them to serve web pages for human readers, it extends them to share information in a way that can be read automatically by computers. This enables data from different sources to be connected and queried.

Interconnected is reciprocally connected. Operating as a unit.

Interlinked is linked or locked closely together. Fit together tightly as if by weaving. Interlaced or interwoven.

Widespread machine learning methods behind 'link prediction' are performing very poorly. New research establishes that the metric used to measure link prediction performance is missing crucial information, and link prediction tasks are performing significantly worse than popular literature indicates.

Link Prediction is the problem of predicting the existence of a link between two entities in a network. Examples of link prediction include predicting friendship links among users in a social network, predicting co-authorship links in a citation network, and predicting interactions between genes and proteins in a biological network. Link prediction can also have a temporal aspect, where, given a snapshot of the set of links at time t, the goal is to predict the links at time t + 1. Link prediction is widely applicable. In e-commerce, link prediction is often a subtask for recommending items to users. In the curation of citation databases, it can be used for record deduplication. In bioinformatics, it has been used to predict protein-protein interactions (PPI). It is also used to identify hidden groups of terrorists and criminals in security related applications.

Menu - Navigation - File System

Interface Drop Down Menu for Water Menu in computing is graphical control element. It is a list of options or commands presented to an operator by a computer or communications system. Choices given from a menu may be selected by the operator by a number of methods. Interfaces.

Web Navigation refers to the process of navigating a network of information resources in the World Wide Web, which is organized as hypertext or hypermedia. The user interface that is used to do so is called a web browser. A central theme in web design is the development of a web navigation interface that maximizes usability.

Navigation Structure - Navigation Types of Websites

Mode as a computer interface is a distinct setting within a computer program or any physical machine interface, in which the same user input will produce perceived results different to those that it would in other settings. The best-known modal interface components are probably the Caps lock and Insert keys on the standard computer keyboard, both of which put the user's typing into a different mode after being pressed, then return it to the regular mode after being re-pressed.

In computing and telecommunications, a menu is a list of options or commands presented to an operator by a computer, a Human or a communications system.

File System is used to control how data is stored and retrieved. Without a file system, information placed in a storage medium would be one large body of data with no way to tell where one piece of information stops and the next begins. By separating the data into pieces and giving each piece a name, the information is easily isolated and identified. Taking its name from the way paper-based information systems are named, each group of data is called a "file". The structure and logic rules used to manage the groups of information and their names is called a "file system".

Hierarchical File System is a proprietary file system developed by Apple Inc. for use in computer systems running Mac OS.

File System Hierarchy Standard defines the directory structure and directory contents in Unix-like operating systems.

Connectome - Association Structures - Links - Networks

Journaling File System is a file system that keeps track of changes not yet committed to the file system's main part by recording the intentions of such changes in a data structure known as a "journal", which is usually a circular log. In the event of a system crash or power failure, such file systems can be brought back online more quickly with a lower likelihood of becoming corrupted. Depending on the actual implementation, a journaling file system may only keep track of stored metadata, resulting in improved performance at the expense of increased possibility for data corruption. Alternatively, a journaling file system may track both stored data and related metadata, while some implementations allow selectable behavior in this regard.

File System Permissions are methods to assign permissions or access rights to specific users and groups of users. These systems control the ability of the users to view, change, navigate, and execute the contents of the file system.

Directory Computing is a file system cataloging structure which contains references to other computer files, and possibly other directories. On many computers, directories are known as folders, or drawers to provide some relevancy to a workbench or the traditional office file cabinet.

Information Retrieval is the activity of obtaining information resources relevant to an information need from a collection of information resources. Searches can be based on full-text or other content-based indexing. Automated information retrieval systems are used to reduce what has been called "information overload". Many universities and public libraries use IR systems to provide access to books, journals and other documents. Web search engines are the most visible IR applications.

Metadata is "data [information] that provides information about other data, relating to emails, telephone calls, web pages, video traffic, IP connections and cell phone locations. Descriptive metadata describes a resource for purposes such as discovery and identification. It can include elements such as title, abstract, author, and keywords. Structural metadata indicates how compound objects are put together, for example, how pages are ordered to form chapters. Administrative metadata provides information to help manage a resource, such as when and how it was created, file type and other technical information, and who can access it.

Tagging is a keyword or term assigned to a piece of information (such as an Internet bookmark, digital image, database record, or computer file). This kind of metadata helps describe an item and allows it to be found again by browsing or searching. Tags are generally chosen informally and personally by the item's creator or by its viewer, depending on the system, although they may also be chosen from a controlled vocabulary.

Search Engines - Human Search Engine - Search Tips

File Viewer is application software that presents the data stored in a computer file in a human-friendly form. The file contents are generally displayed on the screen, or they may be printed. Also, they may be read aloud using speech synthesis.

Computer File is a computer resource for recording data discretely in a computer storage device. Just as words can be written to paper, so can information be written to a computer file. There are different types of computer files, designed for different purposes. A file may be designed to store a picture, a written message, a video, a computer program, or a wide variety of other kinds of data. Some types of files can store different several types of information at once. By using computer programs, a person can open, read, change, and close a computer file. Computer files may be reopened, modified, and copied an arbitrary number of times. Typically, computer files are organised in a file system, which keeps track of where the files are, and enables people to access them.

File Format (preservation) - Operating Systems

File System Permissions are methods to assign permissions or access rights to specific users and groups of users. These systems control the ability of the users to view, change, navigate, and execute the contents of the file system.

Page Orientation is the way in which a rectangular page is oriented for normal viewing. The two most common types of orientation are portrait and landscape. The specific word definition comes from the fact that a close-up portrait of a person's face and upper body is more fitting for a canvas or photo where the height of the display area is greater than the width, and is more common for the pages of books. Landscape originally described artistic outdoor scenes where a wide view area is needed, but the upper part of the painting would be mostly sky and so is omitted. Page orientation is also used to describe the dimensions of a video display. The most common video display orientation is landscape mode, especially the 4:3 ratio, which is 4 units wide and 3 units tall, and the more recent 16:9 widescreen landscape display mode. Portrait screen orientation is also used for computer displays, though less commonly than landscape, and is the most popular orientation for mobile devices. Portrait is preferred for editing page-layout work, in order to view the entire page on the screen at once without wasted space along the sides, and for script-writing, legal work (in drafting contracts etc.), and other applications where it is useful to see a maximum number of lines of text. It is also common in public information displays.

Website Development - Structure - Interfaces

Q&A Website

Presentation - Summarization - Explanation - Navigation - Exploration

Decision Tree Learning - Decision Tree

Tree Structure is a way of representing the hierarchical nature of a structure in a graphical form. It is named a "tree structure" because the classic representation resembles a tree, even though the chart is generally upside down compared to an actual tree, with the "root" at the top and the "leaves" at the bottom.

Tree Mapping is a method for displaying hierarchical data using nested rectangles.

Alternating Decision Tree is a machine learning method for classification. It generalizes decision trees and has connections to boosting. An ADTree consists of an alternation of decision nodes, which specify a predicate condition, and prediction nodes, which contain a single number. An instance is classified by an ADTree by following all paths for which all decision nodes are true, and summing any prediction nodes that are traversed.

Logistic Model Tree is a classification model with an associated supervised training algorithm that combines logistic regression (LR) and decision tree learning.

Pruning Decision Trees is a technique in machine learning that reduces the size of decision trees by removing sections of the tree that provide little power to classify instances. Pruning reduces the complexity of the final classifier, and hence improves predictive accuracy by the reduction of overfitting.

Network Topology is the arrangement of the various elements (links, nodes, etc.) of a computer network. Essentially, it is the topological structure of a network and may be depicted physically or logically. Physical topology is the placement of the various components of a network, including device location and cable installation, while logical topology illustrates how data flows within a network, regardless of its physical design. Distances between nodes, physical interconnections, transmission rates, or signal types may differ between two networks, yet their topologies may be identical.

Computer Vision is an interdisciplinary field that deals with how computers can be made for gaining high-level understanding from digital images or videos. From the perspective of engineering, it seeks to automate tasks that the human visual system can do.

More Organizing Terms and Methods
Presentation - Meeting Presentation
Word Matrix - Data Visualization - Mind Maps
Organizing - Collaboration Tools
Immersion - Simultaneous Subject Teaching
Learning Management System (HOPE PC)

Three-Click Rule is an unofficial web design rule concerning the design of website navigation. It suggests that a user of a website should be able to find any information with no more than three mouse clicks. It is based on the belief that users of a site will become frustrated and often leave if they cannot find the information within the three clicks. Although there is little analytical evidence that this is the case, it is a commonly held belief amongst designers that the rule is part of a good system of navigation. Critics of the rule suggest that the number of clicks is not as important as the success of the clicks or information sent. Clickbait.

Workflow consists of an orchestrated and repeatable pattern of business activity enabled by the systematic organization of resources into processes that transform materials, provide services, or process information. It can be depicted as a sequence of operations, declared as work of a person or group, an organization of staff, or one or more simple or complex mechanisms. From a more abstract or higher-level perspective, workflow may be considered a view or representation of real work. The flow being described may refer to a document, service or product that is being transferred from one step to another. Workflows may be viewed as one fundamental building block to be combined with other parts of an organization's structure such as information technology, teams, projects and hierarchies.

Flowchart is a type of diagram that represents an algorithm, workflow or process, showing the steps as boxes of various kinds, and their order by connecting them with arrows. This diagrammatic representation illustrates a solution model to a given problem. Flowcharts are used in analyzing, designing, documenting or managing a process or program in various fields.

Site Map is a list of pages of a web site accessible to crawlers or users. It can be either a document in any form used as a planning tool for Web design, or a Web page that lists the pages on a website, typically organized in hierarchical fashion. Sitemaps make relationships between pages and other content components. It shows shape of information space in overview. Sitemaps can demonstrate organization, navigation, and labeling system.

Topic Map is a standard for the representation and interchange of knowledge, with an emphasis on the findability of information. Topic maps were originally developed in the late 1990s as a way to represent back-of-the-book index structures so that multiple indexes from different sources could be merged. However, the developers quickly realized that with a little additional generalization, they could create a meta-model with potentially far wider application. A topic map represents information using topics, representing any concept, from people, countries, and organizations to software modules, individual files, and events, associations, representing hypergraph relationships between topics, and occurrences, representing information resources relevant to a particular topic. Topic Maps are similar to concept maps and mind maps in many respects, though only Topic Maps are ISO standards. Topic Maps are a form of semantic web technology similar to RDF.

Bloom's Taxonomy is a set of three hierarchical models used to classify educational learning objectives into levels of complexity and specificity. The three lists cover the learning objectives in cognitive, affective and sensory domains.

Mind Maps (visual tools)

Interconnectivity - Interconnectedness - Networks

Spatial intelligence

Most subjects share common information and knowledge. That is why you will see the Cross Reference Links in Black.

Semiotics is the study of meaning-making, the study of sign processes and meaningful communication. This includes the study of signs and sign processes (semiosis), indication, designation, likeness, analogy, allegory, metonymy, metaphor, symbolism, signification, and communication.

Jeet Grid System - Content Organization

Workspace is a file or directory that allows a user to gather various source code files and resources and work with them as a cohesive unit. workspaces refer to the grouping of windows in some window managers. Grouping applications in this way is meant to reduce clutter and make the desktop easier to navigate.

Interfaces Info-Graph (image)

Presentation - HPC Interface - Mind Maps (visualizing)

Model View Controller is a software architectural pattern mostly (but not exclusively) for implementing user interfaces on computers.

Knowledge Navigator describes a device that can access a large networked database of hypertext information, and use software agents to assist searching for information.

WebSphere Portal is a set of software tools that enables companies to build and manage web portals. It provides a single access point to web content and applications, while delivering differentiated, personalized experiences for each user.

Content Management System

Content Management System is a computer application that supports the creation and modification of digital content using a simpler interface to abstract away low-level details unless required, usually supporting multiple users working in a collaborative environment. Allows publishing, editing, modifying, organizing, deleting, and maintaining content from a central interface.

Content Management is a set of processes and technologies that supports the collection, managing, and publishing of information in any form or medium. When stored and accessed via computers, this information may be more specifically referred to as digital content, or simply as content. Digital content may take the form of text (such as electronic documents), multimedia files (such as audio or video files), or any other file type that follows a content lifecycle requiring management. Open Source Software.

Content in media is the information and experience(s) directed towards an end-user or audience. Context.

Cognitive Content is the sum or range of what has been perceived, discovered, or learned.

Content Format is an encoded format for converting a specific type of data to displayable information. Content formats are used in recording and transmission to prepare data for observation or interpretation.

User Needs
The user needs to know how to use the different features of the application easily.
The user needs to be able to explore details of specific content easily and intuitively.
The user needs to be able to seamlessly move between options.
The user needs to have quick access to additional options or actions they can perform.
The user needs to be able to perform different types of actions, so controls need to be easily accessed, but hidden when not in use.
The user needs a way to navigate between different sections of the app, so controls need to be easily accessed, but hidden when not in use.
The user needs a way to navigate between different sections of the app without being distracted in each individual section.
The user needs a consistent way of navigating through content without being distracted by additional content.
The user needs to navigate from one piece of content to the next without having to go back to the index.
The user needs to have access to the menus anytime while in the application.
The user needs to be able to view relevant information without losing their current place in the UI.
The user needs to see their current position in the context of an entire content set, or move to a specific section of a long list or gallery more quickly.

Navigation Design Patterns for Mobile

Requirements Elicitation is the practice of collecting the requirements of a system from users, customers and other stakeholder.

10 Usability Heuristics for User Interface Design

Visibility of system status: The system should always keep users informed about what is going on, through appropriate feedback within reasonable time.

Match between system and the real world: The system should speak the users' language, with words, phrases and concepts familiar to the user, rather than system-oriented terms. Follow real-world conventions, making information appear in a natural and logical order.

User control and freedom: Users often choose system functions by mistake and will need a clearly marked "emergency exit" to leave the unwanted state without having to go through an extended dialogue. Support undo and redo.

Consistency and standards: Users should not have to wonder whether different words, situations, or actions mean the same thing. Follow platform conventions.

Error prevention: Even better than good error messages is a careful design which prevents a problem from occurring in the first place. Either eliminate error-prone conditions or check for them and present users with a confirmation option before they commit to the action.

Recognition rather than recall: Minimize the user's memory load by making objects, actions, and options visible. The user should not have to remember information from one part of the dialogue to another. Instructions for use of the system should be visible or easily retrievable whenever appropriate.

Flexibility and efficiency of use: Accelerators -- unseen by the novice user -- may often speed up the interaction for the expert user such that the system can cater to both inexperienced and experienced users. Allow users to tailor frequent actions.

Aesthetic and minimalist design: Dialogues should not contain information which is irrelevant or rarely needed. Every extra unit of information in a dialogue competes with the relevant units of information and diminishes their relative visibility.

Help users recognize, diagnose, and recover from errors: Error messages should be expressed in plain language (no codes), precisely indicate the problem, and constructively suggest a solution.

Help and documentation: Even though it is better if the system can be used without documentation, it may be necessary to provide help and documentation. Any such information should be easy to search, focused on the user's task, list concrete steps to be carried out, and not be too large. 

Switch Control Overview
Switch Control, a new feature in iOS 7 that provides comprehensive switch access. Switch Control lets you control your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch using a single switch, or multiple switches. Use any of several methods to perform actions such as selecting, tapping, dragging, typing, and even freehand drawing. The basic technique is to use a switch to select an item or location on the screen, and then use the same (or a different) switch to choose an action to perform on that item or location.
Three basic methods are:
Item scanning (default): Highlights items on the screen until you select one.
Point scanning: Use scanning crosshairs to pick a screen location.
Manual selection: Move from item to item on demand (needs multiple switches).

Questions and Answers - Help Desk

Questionnaire is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions and other prompts for the purpose of gathering information from respondents.

Questionnaire Construction refers to a series of questions asked to individuals to obtain statistically useful information about a given topic. When properly constructed and responsibly administered, questionnaires can provide valuable data about any given subject. Feedback - Surveys.

Q and A Website is a website where the site creators use the images of pop culture icons to answer input from the site's visitors, usually in question/answer format.

Comparison of Q&A Websites (wiki)

Question Manager is a system that allows institutional staff to manage questions from ‘clients’. Questions being offered to ‘experts’ to give answers. The answers are eventually packaged into a concise of question-answer pair that is made available to the client.

Self-Service Software allows people to secure answers to their inquiries and/or needs through an automated interview fashion instead of traditional search approaches.

Question Answering is a computer science discipline within the fields of information retrieval and natural language processing (NLP), which is concerned with building systems that automatically answer questions posed by humans in a natural language. A structured database of knowledge or information, usually a knowledge Base.

Watson on jeopardy answering questions. 

Knowledge Graph is a knowledge Base used by Google and its services to enhance its search engine's results with information gathered from a variety of sources. The information is presented to users in an infobox next to the search results. Knowledge Graph display was added to Google's search engine in 2012. It provides structured and detailed information about the topic in addition to a list of links to other sites. The goal is that users would be able to use this information to resolve their query without having to navigate to other sites and assemble the information themselves. The short summary provided in the knowledge graph is often used as a spoken answer in Google Now searches. Visualizing Knowledge.

Freebase was a large collaborative knowledge base consisting of data composed mainly by its community members. It was an online collection of structured data harvested from many sources, including individual, user-submitted wiki contributions. Freebase aimed to create a global resource that allowed people (and machines) to access common information more effectively. It was developed by the American software company Metaweb and ran publicly beginning in March 2007. Metaweb was acquired by Google in a private sale announced 16 July 2010. Google's Knowledge Graph was powered in part by Freebase.

Underlay Search Engine - MIT Scientists are building a new Search Engine called the Underlay knowledge database, which is a future search engine app that is meant to serve the common good rather than private enterprise. A New Model for Knowledge. The Underlay is not truth, but assertions of truths and their sources. Through these chains of relationships, even simple assertions are interconnected with the entire web of knowledge. Sometimes sources contradict one another. (presenting information in clear, direct, human-readable statements).

A Machine-Learning System that Trains Itself by Surfing the Web. And so it begins ...December 8, 2016. MIT researchers have designed a new machine-learning system that can learn by itself to extract text information for statistical analysis when available data is scarce. This new “information extraction” system turns machine learning on its head. It works like humans do. When we run out of data in a study (say, differentiating between fake and real news), we simply search the Internet for more data, and then we piece the new data together to make sense out of it all. That differs from most machine-learning systems, which are fed as many training examples as possible to increase the chances that the system will be able to handle difficult problems by looking for patterns compared to training data.

Teaching-Machines to Understand and Summarize Text - Machine Readable.

Answer Hub - Exo-Platform - Twiki

Self Teaching Machine

Information Stations - Information Sources

Human Search Engines - Validity

3 Keys to Successful Enterprise Question and Answer System Implementation - Q & A Styles

Build and manage your own custom question and answer website like Quora or Stack Overflow - D Zone

If you don't ask the right questions, you will most likely never get the correct answers that you need.

Question and Answer Website Guidelines

1st Option: If there is a match to the question a person will also see related questions and top questions that a number of people asked when seeking similar information about this subject, word or phrase. (Filter Options Available). Answer Page is to help people to define the question more. Visualizing Possible Questions and Answers. People will also see a second list that has things related to this subject. This is to aid the person in defining what the question may be, and also help the person to be more aware of other questions that might need to be asked in order to fully understand the information. A person can also read comments from experts and non-experts relating to the subject matter.
2nd Option: Person can E-mail an Expert, or E-mail the Knowledge Community if time is not important.
3rd Option: A person can contact 24-Hr. Assistant or Avatar, if 24-Hr. Assistant or Avatar is not available, then a phone# is posted.
4th Option: If there is no exact match to the question, then a page will appear to inform the user that there was no exact match.

Issue Tracking System is a computer software package that manages and maintains lists of issues. Issue tracking systems are generally used in collaborative settings—especially in large or distributed collaborations—but can also be employed by individuals as part of a time management or personal productivity regime. These systems often encompass resource allocation, time accounting, priority management, and oversight workflow in addition to implementing a centralized issue registry. Ticketing System.

Q&A Software Resources
Q-Hub - Stack Exchange - Shapado
User Voice - Question 2 Answer - OS QA

Do I need to setup a Database?

Wikimedia Discovery is building a trusted and relevant source of knowledge.

Knowledge Visualization

"Which questions should you be asking? And when should you be asking questions? We can answer most of the simple questions with simple answers, but how do you know that full understanding has been verified? One way is by verifying the level of intelligence of the user, and knowing the user, and then showing more choices and possible questions that surround that particular question, like knowing why the person asked this question in the first place. So you have to know the difference between a simple question, and a more important question, one that needs more then just a simple answer. You have to know the difference between someone asking a question for no real reason, and someone asking a question for a particular reason and for a particular purpose in mind. Listening is an ability that should not be over looked or be taken for granted."

Answer Rank Algorithm

Brainboost is a metasearch engine designed to provide specific answers to questions asked in natural language. Currently it only supports English. The Brainboost engine uses machine learning and natural language processing AI techniques to answer the questions. Ratings. is an Internet-based knowledge exchange, which includes WikiAnswers, ReferenceAnswers, VideoAnswers, and five international language Q&A communities.

Speech Recognition - Voice Questions

Voice Command Device is a device controlled by means of the human voice. By removing the need to use buttons, dials and switches, consumers can easily operate appliances with their hands full or while doing other tasks. Interface.

Voice User Interface makes human interaction with computers possible through a voice/speech platform in order to initiate an automated service or process.

Speech Recognition enables the recognition and translation of spoken language into text by computers.

Engineers Translate Brain Signals directly into Speech.

Translation (language interpretation)

Interactive Voice Response is a technology that allows a computer to interact with humans through the use of voice and DTMF tones input via keypad.

Voice Browser is a software application that presents an interactive voice user interface to the user in a manner analogous to the functioning of a web browser interpreting Hypertext Markup Language (HTML).

Visible Speech is a system of phonetic symbols developed by Alexander Melville Bell in 1867 to represent the position of the speech organs in articulating sounds.

Speech Synthesis is the artificial production of human speech.

Speech Generating Device are electronic augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems used to supplement or replace speech or writing for individuals with severe speech impairments, enabling them to verbally communicate.

Text-to-Speech (sight limitations)

Phonetic Transcription is the visual representation of speech sounds (or phones).

International Phonetic Alphabet is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.

NATO Phonetic Alphabet is the most widely used radiotelephonic spelling alphabet.

Hearing Difficulties

Speech Corpus is a database of speech audio files and text transcriptions. In speech technology, speech corpora are used, among other things, to create acoustic models (which can then be used with a speech recognition or speaker identification engine). In linguistics, spoken corpora are used to do research into phonetic, conversation analysis, dialectology and other fields.

ANNABELL (Artificial Neural Network with Adaptive Behavior Exploited for Language Learning) - 2 million interconnected artificial neurons, able to learn to communicate using human language starting from a state of 'tabula rasa'.

Intelligent Avatar Personal Assistant Knowledge Navigator

Intelligent Agent is an autonomous entity which observes through sensors and acts upon an environment using actuators (i.e. it is an agent) and directs its activity towards achieving goals (i.e. it is "rational", as defined in economics). Intelligent agents may also learn or use knowledge to achieve their goals. They may be very simple or very complex: a reflex machine such as a thermostat is an intelligent agent. Intelligent agents are able to analyze themselves in terms of behavior, error and success. Learn and improve through interaction with the environment (embodiment). Accommodate new problem solving rules incrementally. Learn quickly from large amounts of data. - PDF.

Expert System is a computer system that emulates the decision-making ability of a human expert.

Rule-Based System are used as a way to store and manipulate knowledge to interpret information in a useful way.

Inference Engine is a component of the system that applies logical rules to the knowledge base to deduce new information.

Rational Agent is an agent that has clear preferences, models uncertainty via expected values of variables or functions of variables, and always chooses to perform the action with the optimal expected outcome for itself from among all feasible actions. A rational agent can be anything that makes decisions, typically a person, firm, machine, or software. Rational Agents are also studied in the fields of cognitive science, ethics, and philosophy, including the philosophy of practical reason.

Rational Choice Theory is that aggregate social behavior results from the behavior of individual actors, each of whom is making their individual decisions. Rational choice theory then assumes that an individual has preferences among the available choice alternatives that allow them to state which option they prefer. Realist - Logic - Least Effort.

Software Agent is a computer program that acts for a user or other program in a relationship of agency, which derives from the Latin agere (to do): an agreement to act on one's behalf. Such "action on behalf of" implies the authority to decide which, if any, action is appropriate.

Automated Online Assistant is a program that uses artificial intelligence to provide customer service or other assistance on a website. Such an assistant may basically consist of a dialog system, an avatar, as well as an expert system to provide specific expertise to the user.

Automated Attendant allows callers to be automatically transferred to an extension without the intervention of an operator/receptionist).

Smartphone Technologies

Avatar (teaching machine)

Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing is an interviewing technique or surveying technique in which the respondent or interviewer uses a computer to answer the questions. It is similar to computer-assisted telephone interviewing, except that the interview takes place in person instead of over the telephone. This method is usually preferred over a telephone interview when the questionnaire is long and complex. It has been classified as a personal interviewing technique because an interviewer is usually present to serve as a host and to guide the respondent. If no interviewer is present, the term Computer-Assisted Self Interviewing (CASI) may be used. An example of a situation in which CAPI is used as the method of data collection is the British Crime Survey. Characteristics of this interviewing technique are: Either the respondent or an interviewer sits at a computer terminal and answers a questionnaire using the keyboard or mouse. Help screens and courteous error messages are provided. Colorful screens and on and off-screen stimuli can add to the respondent's interest and involvement in the task. This approach is used in shopping malls, preceded by the intercept and screening process. It is also used to conduct business-to-business research at trade shows or conventions. The interviewer follows a script provided by a software application. It is a structured system of microdata collection by telephone that speeds up the collection and editing of microdata and also permits the interviewer to educate the respondents on the importance of timely and accurate data. The software is able to customize the flow of the questionnaire based on the answers provided, as well as information already known about the participant. It is used in B2B services and corporate sales. CATI may function in the following manner: A computerized questionnaire is administered to respondents over the telephone. The interviewer sits in front of a computer screen. Upon command, the computer dials the telephone number to be called. When contact is made, the interviewer reads the questions posed on the computer screen and records the respondent's answers directly into the computer. Interim and update reports can be compiled instantaneously, as the data are being collected. CATI software has built-in logic, which also enhances data accuracy. The program will personalize questions and control for logically incorrect answers, such as percentage answers that do not add up to 100 percent. The software has built-in branching logic, which will skip questions that are not applicable or will probe for more detail when warranted.

Skills - Qualities Every Worker Should Have

Communication Skills: Every person should have the ability to effectively communicate, listen, speak, read and write.

Interpersonal Skills: Gets along with co-workers. A self motivated self-starter and an enthusiastic team player with the ability to multi-task and deal with constantly changing priorities in fast-paced environments. A person who has networking skills and has empathy and emotional intelligence. Possesses a high level of professionalism, self-confidence and assertiveness. Exercises discretion, ethics, sensitivity, tact and confidentiality. Understands body language.

Competence - Mind Set - Skill Set - Screening - Résumé

Work Etiquette is a code that governs the expectations of social behavior in a workplace, in a group or a society. Work etiquette tells the individual how to behave when dealing with situations in a working environment however difficult the situation is. Office etiquette in particular applies to co-worker interaction and communication with colleagues. There is no universal agreement about a standard work etiquette which may vary from one environment to another. Etiquette - Professional Behavior.

Employee Handbook contains information about company policies and procedures.

Work Ethic is a value based on hard work and diligence. A belief that work, hard work and diligence has a moral benefit and an inherent ability, virtue or value to strengthen character. It is about prioritizing work and putting it in the center of life. Social ingrainment of this value is considered to enhance character through hard work that is respective to an individuals field of work. Factors are: Goal-Oriented actions: It is not about making plans or the next logical steps; it's about getting things done so that the work invested wouldn't be counter-productive. Dedicate on Priority: Focusing on qualitative activities that a person is capable and where they can make a difference or a high impact based on objectives. Being Available and Reliable: Spending time on the work and building oneself up for the task. Conscientiousness: A desire to do a task well, being vigilant and organized. Creating a rewarding routine/system: Engaging in tasks that provide strength and energy which can be transferred to your ultimate goals, creating a habit and a habitat for success. Embracing positivism.

Diligence is conscientiousness in paying proper attention to a task; giving the degree of care required in a given situation. Persevering determination to perform a task.

Workplace Politics is the process and behavior in human interactions involving power and authority. It is also a tool to assess the operational capacity and to balance diverse views of interested parties. It is also known by other names like office politics and organizational politics. It is the use of power and social networking within an organization to achieve changes that benefit the organization or individuals within it. Influence by individuals may serve personal interests without regard to their effect on the organization itself. Making A Difference.

Dating - Relationships - Conformity - First Impressions - Worker Qualities

Are You Seen as a Jerk at Work - Counterproductive Work Behavior - Slacker

Jobs of the Future - Employee Hiring - Employee Managing

Have experience with Knowledge Management Tools and understand Job Performance.

Organizational Skills: Good at problem-solving, decision making and reasoning. Is a fast learner. Is accurate, organized and analytical. Is versatile and has higher-order thinking skills and multitasking abilities. Has ability to plan and think ahead. Has good time management skills. Is able to do research and synthesis. Has multiple skills in more than one area. Follows company policies and procedures. Works independently and is self-managed and solves problems in a timely and professional manner. Adept at networking and building consensus with all levels of society. Is a strong analytical and strategic thinker, with ability to draw conclusions and determine strategies based on data. Has a willingness to ask questions and willing to do more than expected. An independent learner and is interested in Learning.

Honesty and integrity: Openness, shares experience and ideas, accepts responsibilities and has interest in the job. Is cooperative, has a positive attitude, is mature, conscientious, considerate, polite, loyal and helpful. Has leadership abilities, is open minded and well groomed. Choosing the Right Tie - Morals and Ethics - kuleana.

Self-advocacy refers to people with disabilities taking control of their own lives, including being in charge of their own care in the medical system.

Job Responsibilities - Personality and Personal Development

How to be a Good Waitress - How to be a Waiter with Respectful Attitude by Vitorino (youtube)

On time, dependable, reliable, flexible, adaptable, self-motivated and disciplined. Time Management Skills - Prioritizing.

Adaptive Performance in the work environment refers to adjusting to and understanding change in the workplace. An employee who is versatile is valued and important in the success of an organization. Employers seek employees with high adaptability, due to the positive outcomes that follow, such as excellent work performance, work attitude, and ability to handle stress. Employees, who display high adaptive performance in an organization, tend to have more advantages in career opportunities unlike employees who are not adaptable to change. Dimensions of adaptive performance are, Handling emergencies and crisis situations: making quick decisions when faced with an emergency. Handling stress in the workforce: keeping composed and focused on task at hand when dealing with high demand tasks. Creative problem solving: thinking outside the boundary limits, and innovatively to solve a problem. Dealing with uncertain and unpredictable work situations: able to become productive despite the occurrence of unknown situations. Learning and manipulating new technology, task, and procedures: approach new methods and technological constructs in order to accomplish a work task. Demonstrating interpersonal adaptability: being considerate of other people's points of view when working in a team to accomplish a certain goal. Demonstrating cultural adaptability: being respectful and considerate of different cultural backgrounds. Demonstrating physically oriented adaptability: physically adjusting one's self to better fit the surrounding environment.

Computer Skills: Technology skills and is technologically literate. Understands computer software, word processing, e-mail, spreadsheets and internet navigation. Familiar with computer hardware and maintenance.

Basic Computer Operations - Computer Concepts

Homer Simpson Any Key Do you understand the basic function of computer hardware components such as the CPU, monitor, keyboard, and file storage?
Do you know the type of personal computer you use or own?
Do you know what operating system is installed on your computer?
Can you find and start a program?
Can you navigate between programs? Software.
Can you select a word processing program that you have installed on your computer?
Can you save files to the hard drive or removable storage, such as a CD or flash drive?
Can you exit or quit an application?
Can you log off a computer?
Can you shut down a computer properly?

Computer Assisted Instruction Terms (wiki)

Computer Literacy is the ability to use computers and related technology efficiently, with a range of skills covering levels from elementary use to programming and advanced problem solving. Computer literacy can also refer to the comfort level someone has with using computer programs and other applications that are associated with computers. Another valuable component is understanding how computers work and operate. Computer literacy may be distinguished from computer programming which is design and coding of computer programs rather than familiarity and skill in their use.

How to Use a Computer (youtube) - Computer Basics - Learn to use Computers

Word Processing Skills
Can you create a new document?
Can you save a document?
Can you cut, copy and paste text?
Can you change font style and size?
Can you utilize spell-check?
Can you center text?
Can you change the line spacing in a document?
Can you set margins?
Can you change the page orientation from portrait to landscape?
Can you include page numbers?
Can you use headers and footers?
Can you create a numbered or bulleted list?
Can you create a table?
Worker Qualities / Working Skills

Spreadsheet Skills
Have you ever used Excel?
Can you use the Formula Bar to perform mathematical calculations?
Can you use the built-in Function capability to create equations?
Can you create charts?
Can you sort and filter information?

Do you know how to check if your computer is connected to Internet?
Do you know the type of Internet connection that you have on your computer?
Do you know how to check your Internet connection speed?
Do you know how to check which web browser are you utilizing?
Can you locate a website given the address?
Can you use a browser's capabilities to go back, forward, reload/refresh, print and stop?
Can you use a web browser to follow links to another website?
Do you know how to adjust browser settings and options?
Do you know what internet cookies are?
Can you save a website address in the bookmarks or favorites?
Can you find information using a search engine such as Google or Yahoo?
Can you download and save files, such as graphics, documents, or PDFs, from the Internet?
Can you download and install software from the Internet?
Can you install and update antivirus software?

Can you log in to a website? - Computer Code
Can you upload/download files to and from a website?
Can you insert graphics, images, or clip art to a website?

Do you know how to activate or setup an email account?
Can you read email messages?
Can you compose and send email messages?
Can you reply to an email message?
Can you manage your email by moving messages between folders, forwarding messages and deleting messages?
Can you send attachments through email?

Can you type at a good speed?
Can you write at a good speed?
Can you read at a good speed?
Can you listen at a good speed?
Are you comfortable with written instructions?
Can you comprehend what you're reading when you first read something or do you have to read something a few times in order to understand it?
Are you comfortable with asking questions?
Are you comfortable with asking for help?
Are you good at keeping yourself busy?
Are you good at problem solving?
Are you comfortable with trying different ways of doing things, and can you do one thing at a time?
Are you comfortable with being challenged with learning new things that seem complex and over whelming?
Are you comfortable with admitting that you made a mistake?
Can you stay calm in difficult and stressful situations?
Are you comfortable with working on your own?
Are you comfortable with leadership roles, and can you take the initiative when needed?
Do you consider yourself to be self-disciplined?
How well can you adapt to different personalities?
Do you have a sense of humor?

"Though the questions above don't cover all the different scenarios, it does give you an idea"

Keyboard Shortcuts Computer Keyboard is a typewriter-style device which uses an arrangement of buttons or keys to act as mechanical levers or electronic switches. Following the decline of punch cards and paper tape, interaction via teleprinter-style keyboards became the main input method for computers. Keyboard keys (buttons) typically have characters engraved or printed on them, and each press of a key typically corresponds to a single written symbol. However, producing some symbols may require pressing and holding several keys simultaneously or in sequence. While most keyboard keys produce letters, numbers or signs (characters), other keys or simultaneous key presses can produce actions or execute computer commands. In normal usage, the keyboard is used as a text entry interface for typing text and numbers into a word processor, text editor or any other program. In a modern computer, the interpretation of key presses is generally left to the software. A computer keyboard distinguishes each physical key from every other key and reports all key presses to the controlling software. Keyboards are also used for computer gaming — either regular keyboards or keyboards with special gaming features, which can expedite frequently used keystroke combinations. A keyboard is also used to give commands to the operating system of a computer, such as Windows' Control-Alt-Delete combination. Although on Pre-Windows 95 Microsoft operating systems this forced a re-boot, now it brings up a system security options screen. A command-line interface is a type of user interface navigated entirely using a keyboard, or some other similar device that does the job of one.

Computer Keyboard symbols and punctuation marks meanings.

.    Period or full stop
,    Comma
?   Question Mark
&   ampersand or and
‘     apostrophe or single quote
Computer Keyboard Keys Names `    back quote
"    Quotation mark
*    Asterisk
@   at sign
\     back slash
/     forward slash
{ }  braces or curly braces
{     open brace
}     close brace
[ ]   brackets
[     open bracket
]     close bracket
( )   parenthesis
(     open parenthesis
)     close parenthesis
^    caret
:     colonEmoticon Smile using Keyboard Characters
;     semi-colon
,     comma
=    equal sign
–    minus or hyphen or Dash
_    underscore
+    plus sign
$    dollar sign
!     exclamation mark
>    greater than sign
<    less than sign
%   percent
|     pipe or bar
#    pound or number sign or sharp or hash
~    tilde
...    Ellipsis

Function Key on a terminal may either generate short fixed sequences of characters, sending special character sequences interpreted directly by the application program.

Unicode Symbols - Keyboard Designs - Touch Screen

Keystroke Dynamics is the detailed timing information which describes exactly when each key was pressed and when it was released as a person is typing at a computer keyboard. - Video Courses.

Keyboard Shortcut is a sequence or combination of keystrokes on a computer keyboard which invokes commands in software. Most keyboard shortcuts require the user to press a single key or a sequence of keys one after the other. Other keyboard shortcuts require pressing and holding several keys simultaneously (indicated in the tables below by this sign: +). Keyboard shortcuts may depend on the keyboard layout. Hot Keys are a specific key combination used to trigger an action or a series of one or several keys, such as "Ctrl+F" to search a character string. Such a directive invokes a software or operating system operation (in other words, cause an event) when triggered by the user.

Input Method is an operating system component or program that allows any data, such as keyboard strokes or mouse movements, to be received as input. In this way users can enter characters and symbols not found on their input devices. Using an input method is obligatory for any language that has more graphemes than there are keys on the keyboard.

Computer Mouse Computer Mouse is a hand-held pointing device that detects two-dimensional motion relative to a surface. This motion is typically translated into the motion of a pointer on a display, which allows a smooth control of the graphical user interface. Modern mice often have optical sensors that have no moving parts. In addition to moving a cursor, computer mice have one or more buttons to allow operations such as selection of a menu item on a display. Mice often also feature other elements, such as touch surfaces and "wheels", which enable additional control and dimensional input. Douglas Engelbart applied for a patent in 1967 and received it in 1970, for the wooden shell with two metal wheels (computer mouse – U.S. Patent 3,541,541).

Kira 99-key Mechanical Keyboard that is programmable with a open source firmware keyboard layout language. (Should make 3D printed replacement keys for any language).

Technology Education

Technology is machinery and equipment that is developed for practical purposes using scientific knowledge. Technology is the sum of techniques, skills, methods, and processes that are used in the production of goods or services or in the accomplishment of an objective or when solving a problem. - Technology Addiction.

Technical is relating to technique or proficiency in a practical skill. Characterizing or showing skill in or specialized knowledge of applied arts and sciences. Of or relating to a practical subject that is organized according to scientific principles.

Educational Technology is the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using, and managing appropriate technological processes and resources.

E-Learning - Virtual Learning

Technologist is a person who uses scientific knowledge to solve practical problems. Mastering digital technology to solve problems, organize information and disseminate knowledge

Applied Science Technologist is a Canadian professional title in engineering and applied science technology.
Architectural Technologist is a specialist in the technology of building design and construction.
Cardiovascular Technologist is a health specialist who uses imaging technology to help diagnose cardiac and vascular ailments.
Chemical Technologist is a worker who provides technical support or services in chemical-related fields.
Civic Technologist is a specialist capable of satisfying societal needs by exploiting technologies.
Educational Technologist is a specialist in tools to enhance learning.
Electrical Technologist is a person whose knowledge lies between that of an electrical engineer and an electrical tradesperson.
Engineering Technologist is a specialist who implements technology within a field of engineering.
Industrial Technologist is a specialist in the management, operation, and maintenance of complex operation systems.
Information Technologist helps keep all the computers in an office running efficiently by doing routine database and computer security duties. The use of computers to store, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data or information. Computer Knowledge.
Medical Technologist is a healthcare professional who performs diagnostic analysis on a variety of body fluids.
Polysomnographic Technologist is a health specialist who administers overnight polysomnograms.
Professional Technologist is a Canadian professional title in engineering and technology related fields.
Radiologic Technologist is a medical professional who applies doses of radiation for imaging and treatment.
Surgical Technologist is a health specialist who facilitates the conduct of invasive surgical procedures.
Technologist is a European science magazine.
Technical Director is usually a senior technical person within e.g. a software company, engineering firm, film studio, theatrical company or television studio. This person usually possesses the highest level of skill within a specific technical field and may be recognized as an expert in that industry.

Information Technology Management is the discipline whereby all of the information technology resources of a firm are managed in accordance with its needs and priorities. These resources may include tangible investments like computer hardware, software, data, networks and data centre facilities, as well as the staff who are hired to maintain them. Managing this responsibility within a company entails many of the basic management functions, like budgeting, staffing, change management, and organizing and controlling, along with other aspects that are unique to technology, like software design, network planning, tech support etc.

Information Technology - IT - Information Management - CommunicationIT Service Management - Knowledge Organization.

Technical Support refers to a plethora of services by which enterprises provide assistance to users of technology products such as mobile phones, televisions, computers, software products or other informatic, electronic or mechanical goods. In general, technical support services address specific problems with a product or service rather than the provision of training, customization, or other support services. Most companies offer technical support for the products they sell, either freely available or for a fee. Technical support may be delivered over by e-mail, live support software on a website, or a tool where users can log a call or incident. Larger organizations frequently have internal technical support available to their staff for computer-related problems. The Internet can also be a good source for freely available tech support, where experienced users help users find solutions to their problems. In addition, some fee-based service companies charge for premium technical support services.

Remote Desktop refers to a software or operating system feature that allows a personal computer's desktop environment to be run remotely on one system (usually a PC, but the concept applies equally to a server), while being displayed on a separate client device. Remote desktop applications have varying features. Some allow attaching to an existing user's session (i.e., a running desktop) and "remote controlling", either displaying the remote control session or blanking the screen. Taking over a desktop remotely is a form of remote administration.

Information Technology Consulting is a field of activity focuses on advising organizations on how best to use information technology or IT in achieving their business objectives. In addition to providing advice, IT consultancies often estimate, manage, implement, deploy, and administer IT systems on behalf of their client organizations - a practice known as "outsourcing". (also called IT consulting, computer consultancy, business and technology services, computing consultancy, technology consulting, and IT advisory).

Chief Technology Officer is an executive-level position in a company or other entity whose occupation is focused on the scientific and technological issues within an organization.

Information and Communications Technology is an extended term for information technology or IT which stresses the role of unified communications and the integration of telecommunications (telephone lines and wireless signals), computers as well as necessary enterprise software, middleware, storage, and audio-visual systems, which enable users to access, store, transmit, and manipulate information. The term ICT is also used to refer to the convergence of audio-visual and telephone networks with computer networks through a single cabling or link system. There are large economic incentives (huge cost savings due to elimination of the telephone network) to merge the telephone network with the computer network system using a single unified system of cabling, signal distribution and management.

Networks (computers) - Computer Knowledge - Computer Documentaries 

Mobile Device Management is an industry term for the administration of mobile devices, such as smartphones, tablet computers, laptops and desktop computers. MDM is usually implemented with the use of a third party product that has management features for particular vendors of mobile devices.

Interactive Whiteboard is a large interactive display in the form factor of a whiteboard. It can either be a standalone touchscreen computer used independently to perform tasks and operations, or a connectable apparatus used as a touchpad to control computers from a projector. They are used in a variety of settings, including classrooms at all levels of education, in corporate board rooms and work groups, in training rooms for professional sports coaching, in broadcasting studios, and others. Amplify - WG - Citizen Journalism.

Mature Technology is a technology that has been in use for long enough that most of its initial faults and inherent problems have been removed or reduced by further development. In some contexts, it may also refer to technology that has not seen widespread use, but whose scientific background is well understood. One of the key indicators of a mature technology is the ease of use for both non-experts and professionals. Another indicator is a reduction in the rate of new breakthrough advances related to it—whereas inventions related to a (popular) immature technology are usually rapid and diverse, and may change the whole use paradigm—advances to a mature technology are usually incremental improvements only.

Technology Fusion involves a transformation of core technologies. An example is the fusion of mechanical and electronic engineering to create mechatronics.

ITIL is a set of practices for IT service management (ITSM) that focuses on aligning IT services with the needs of business. In its current form (known as ITIL V3), ITIL is published as a series of five core volumes, each of which covers a different ITSM lifecycle stage. Although ITIL underpins ISO/IEC 20000 (previously BS 15000), the International Service Management Standard for IT service management, there are some differences between the ISO 20000 standard and the ITIL framework. ITIL describes processes, procedures, tasks, and checklists which are not organization-specific, but can be applied by an organization for establishing integration with the organization's strategy, delivering value, and maintaining a minimum level of competency. It allows the organization to establish a baseline from which it can plan, implement, and measure. It is used to demonstrate compliance and to measure improvement.

Internet Safety - Innovation - Information Protection - Library and information Science - Data

Technical Writing is any written form of writing or drafting technical communication used in a variety of technical and occupational fields, such as computer hardware and software, engineering, chemistry, aeronautics, robotics, finance, consumer electronics, and biotechnology. It encompasses the largest sub-field within technical communication.

Technical Writer is a professional writer who produces technical documentation that helps people understand and use a product or service. This documentation includes online help, manuals (system, end-user, training), white papers, design specifications, project plans, test plans, business correspondence, etc. With the rise of e-learning, technical writers are also charged with creating online training for their audience of learners. Technical writers explain technologies, processes, and products in many formats, including print, online, and other electronic means.

Writing Knowledge (writing tips)

Tool is a device or implement used to carry out a particular function. The means whereby some act is accomplished. Tool is any physical item that can be used to achieve a goal, especially if the item is not consumed in the process. Tool use by humans dates back millions of years, and other animals are also known to employ simple tools.

Machine is a tool containing one or more parts that uses energy to perform an intended action. Machines are usually powered by chemical, thermal, or electrical means, and are often motorized. Historically, a power tool also required moving parts to classify as a machine. However, the advent of electronics has led to the development of power tools without moving parts that are considered machines. A simple machine is a device that simply transforms the direction or magnitude of a force, but a large number of more complex machines exist. Examples include vehicles, electronic systems, molecular machines, computers, television, and radio.

Electrical Equipment includes any machine powered by electricity. It usually consists of an enclosure, a variety of electrical components, and often a power switch.

Medical Equipment is designed to aid in the diagnosis, monitoring or treatment of medical conditions.

Laboratory Equipment (chemistry) - Agricultural Machinery (farming)

Protective Equipment refers to protective clothing, helmets, goggles, or other garments or equipment designed to protect the wearer's body from injury or infection. The hazards addressed by protective equipment include physical, electrical, heat, chemicals, biohazards, and airborne particulate matter. Protective equipment may be worn for job-related occupational safety and health purposes, as well as for sports and other recreational activities. "Protective clothing" is applied to traditional categories of clothing, and "protective gear" applies to items such as pads, guards, shields, or masks, and others.

Device is an instrumentality invented for a particular purpose. Something in an artistic work designed to achieve a particular effect.

Instrument is a device that requires skill for proper use. Scientific Instrument - Quality Control.

Engineering is the practical application of science to commerce or industry. The discipline dealing with the art or science of applying scientific knowledge to practical problems. Engineering.

Manufacture is to put something together out of artificial or natural components or parts. Produce naturally. Create or produce in a mechanical way. The organized action of making of goods and services for sale. The act of making something (a product) from raw materials.

Technology is Just a Tool - Using Technology and KM to Improve Education.

Addicted to Technology? Or is it just an Addictive Personality?

Polytechnic is a technical school offering instruction in many industrial arts and applied sciences. Polytechnic is a school, college, or university that qualifies as an institute of technology or vocational university. An institution of higher education offering courses in many subjects, especially vocational or technical subjects.

Institute of Technology is an institution, university or college that specializes in engineering, technology, applied science, and natural sciences.

Technology Education Resources
Management Information Sciences (MIS)
Association of Computer Machinery
Sigite - Master of Educational Technology Leadership
Youth Learn
i Learn
i Skills
Improving Instruction Through Technology
The National Center for Academic Transformation
Center for Technology and Teacher Education
21st Century Educators
International Society for Technology in Education
Technology-Based Instruction
Institute for Computer Based Learning
Tech and Learning
i learn technology Blog
Learning Technologies
Campus Technology
Fundación Proacceso ECO A.C (wiki)
Archives and Research for Information Technology
The World Information Technology and Services Alliance
How Does Technology Impact Communication?
Exploration of CBLT 
Future Trends in Education Technology (PDF)
Tech Liberation
Future of Education Technology
Future of Higher Ed (PDF)
Intelligent use of Information Technology
Report on Laptops for Learning (pdf)
Pew Internet Research
A guide to classroom technologies that increase learning, an educators resource
Technology Classroom School Future
The Learning Collective Instructional Designers
Tests That Measure Technological Orientation
Technology Skills Assessment

Related Subject Pages - Smartphones as Tools for Education - Computer Based Instructions - Science - Intelligent Tutoring System - Hope PC - Art and Technology - Social Networks Etiquette - Learning Methods - Testing - Online Education - Audio-Visual - Video Teacher - Internet Knowledge - Search Engines.

Visual Graphics Tools - Flow Chart Software - Mind Maps Creator

KM Mind Map Visualization of Knowledge is any technique for creating images, diagrams, or animations to communicate a message. A mind map is a way to expand on a particular subject using physical diagrams.

Visualizing Information - Knowledge Visualization - Visualization - Decision Tree - Algorithm

Visual Learning is a learning style in which information is presented to a learner in a visual format. Visual learners can utilize graphs, charts, maps, diagrams, and other forms of visual stimulation to effectively interpret information. Using graphic organizers can improve student performance in the following areas: Retention. Students remember information better and can better recall it when it is represented and learned both visually and verbally. Reading comprehension. The use of graphic organizers helps improve the reading comprehension of students. Student achievement. Students with and without learning disabilities improve achievement across content areas and grade levels. Thinking and learning skills; critical thinking. When students develop and use a graphic organizer their higher order thinking and critical thinking skills are enhanced.

Knowledge Visualization is the use of visual representations to transfer knowledge between at least two persons, aims to improve the transfer of knowledge by using computer and non-computer-based visualization methods complementarily.

Graphic Organizer is a pedagogical tool that uses visual symbols to express knowledge and concepts through relationships between them. The main purpose of a graphic organizer is to provide a visual aid to facilitate learning and instruction. Graphic organizer is also known as a knowledge map, concept map, story map, cognitive organizer, advance organizer, or concept diagram.

Relationship Model - Associative Learning - Human Operating System - Spatial Intelligence

Mental Model is an internal representation or a model of the external reality. A way of representing reality within one's mind.

Conceptual System is a system of abstract concepts of various kinds. The abstract concepts can range from numbers, to emotions, and from social roles, to mental states.

Cognitive Map is a type of mental representation which serves an individual to acquire, code, store, recall, and decode information about the relative locations and attributes of phenomena in their everyday or metaphorical spatial environment. Conceptual Model.

Graphicacy is defined as the ability to understand and present information in the form of sketches, photographs, diagrams, maps, plans, charts, graphs and other non-textual, two-dimensional formats. Visuo-Spatial Abilities or the communication of spatial information that cannot be conveyed adequately by verbal or numerical means is extremely useful, e.g. the plan of a town, the pattern of a drainage network or a picture of a distant place - in other words the whole field of the graphic arts and much of geography cartography, computer-graphics, photography, itself. All of these words contain the syllable "graph" which seemed a logical stem for "graphicacy" which was completed by analogy with literacy, numeracy and articulacy.

Infographic are graphic visual representations of information, data or knowledge intended to present information quickly and clearly. They can improve cognition by utilizing graphics to enhance the human visual system's ability to see patterns and trends. Similar pursuits are information visualization, data visualization, statistical graphics, information design, or information architecture. Infographics have evolved in recent years to be for mass communication, and thus are designed with fewer assumptions about the readers' knowledge base than other types of visualizations. Isotypes is a method of showing social, technological, biological and historical connections in pictorial form. It consisted of a set of standardized and abstracted pictorial symbols to represent social-scientific data with specific guidelines on how to combine the identical figures using serial repetition. An early example of conveying information quickly and easily to the masses.

Knowledge Visualization - Education Visualization - Visual Language

Mind Map is a diagram used to visually organize information. A mind map is hierarchical and shows relationships among pieces of the whole. It is often created around a single concept, drawn as an image in the center of a blank page, to which associated representations of ideas such as images, words and parts of words are added. Major ideas are connected directly to the central concept, and other ideas branch out from those.

Resources for Mind Maps: Mind Mapping KM - Mind Map Creator - Mind Map Maker - Mind Meister - The Brain Map Software.

Cognitive Map is a type of mental representation which serves an individual to acquire, code, store, recall, and decode information about the relative locations and attributes of phenomena in their everyday or metaphorical spatial environment.

Hypergraph is a generalization of a graph in which an edge can join any number of vertices. In contrast, in an ordinary graph, an edge connects exactly two vertices. Wolfram.

Perspective in the graphic arts is an approximate representation, generally on a flat surface (such as paper), of an image as it is seen by the eye. The two most characteristic features of perspective are that objects appear smaller as their distance from the observer increases; and that they are subject to foreshortening, meaning that an object's dimensions along the line of sight appear shorter than its dimensions across the line of sight. Point of View.

Interfaces - Menus - Navigation - Presentations - Charts - Living Charts

Painting Pictures with Words is an imagery literary device that creates a mental picture for the reader using words. Word Cloud.

Thinking Maps (PDF) - Q&A

Table of Contents are titles or descriptions of subjects or content to help speed up location of desired information.

Flowchart is a type of diagram that represents an algorithm, workflow or process, showing the steps as boxes of various kinds, and their order by connecting them with arrows.

Engineering Drawings - Models - Website Terminology - Organizing Methods

Organizational Chart is a diagram that shows the structure of an organization and the relationships and relative ranks of its parts and positions/jobs. Power Structure.

Map Story is the free atlas of change tool that everyone can edit, how the world evolves geographically over time.

Template is a pre-formatted example on which to base other files and documents.

Directory Information Tree is data represented in a hierarchical tree-like structure consisting of the Distinguished Names (DNs) of directory service entries.

New model for solving novel problems uses internal cognitive mental map. Humans and animals have a great ability to solve novel problems by generalizing from existing knowledge and inferring new solutions from limited data. This is much harder to achieve with artificial intelligence. Animals (including humans) navigate by creating a representative map of the outside world in their head as they move around. Once we know two locations are close to each other, we can infer that there is a shortcut between them even if we haven't been there. These maps make use of a network of "grid cells" and "place cells" in parts of the brain.

Represent - Representations - Representative

Represent is to take the place of something or be parallel or equivalent to something. Express indirectly by an image, form, model or symbol. Serve as a means of expressing something. Describe or present, usually with respect to a particular quality. Bring forward and present to the mind. Create an image or likeness of something. To establish a mapping of mathematical elements or sets. Example.

Emblematic is to serve as a visible symbol for something abstract, existing only in the mind; separated from embodiment, or giving concrete form to an abstract concept. Being or serving as an illustration of a type. Interface.

Presentation is to bring forward and present to the mind. A visual representation of something. A show or display; the act of presenting something to sight or view. Cause to come to know personally. Represent abstractly, for example in a painting, drawing, or sculpture. Charts & Graphs.

Expressing is to articulate; either verbally or with a cry, shout, or noise. Indicate through a symbol, formula, etc. 

Articulate is to put into words or an expression. Express or state clearly. Speak, pronounce, or utter in a certain way.

Appearance is an outward or visible aspect of a person or thing. The act of appearing in public view. Aesthetics (art).

Representation is a presentation to the mind in the form of an idea or image. A creation that is a visual or tangible rendering of someone or something. An activity that stands as an equivalent of something or results in an equivalent. Representation can also meant the act of representing someone else or standing in for someone or some group and speaking with authority in their behalf, or the state of serving as an official and authorized delegate or agent. Representative.

Representation in mathematics is a very general relationship that expresses similarities between objects.

Representation in arts is the use of signs that stand in for and take the place of something else. It is through representation that people organize the world and reality through the act of naming its elements. Signs are arranged in order to form semantic constructions and express relations. Illustrate - Creativity - Art.

Representation in psychology is a hypothetical internal cognitive symbol that represents external reality, or else a mental process that makes use of such a symbol: "a formal system for making explicit certain entities or types of information, together with a specification of how the system does this.

Mental Representation is a hypothetical internal cognitive symbol that represents external reality, or else a mental process that makes use of such a symbol: "a formal system for making explicit certain entities or types of information, together with a specification of how the system does this." Mental representation is the mental imagery of things that are not actually present to the senses. In contemporary philosophy, specifically in fields of metaphysics such as philosophy of mind and ontology, a mental representation is one of the prevailing ways of explaining and describing the nature of ideas and concepts.

Visual Representation - Visual Classification

Cognitive Model is an approximation to animal cognitive processes (predominantly human) for the purposes of comprehension and prediction.

Conceptual Model is a representation of a system, made of the composition of concepts which are used to help people know, understand, or simulate a subject the model represents. Some models are physical objects; for example, a toy model which may be assembled, and may be made to work like the object it represents. Mind Map.

Knowledge Representation and Reasoning is representing information about the world in a form that a computer system can utilize to solve complex tasks such as diagnosing a medical condition or having a dialog in a natural language. Ai.

Depiction is a form of non-verbal representation in which two-dimensional images are regarded as viable substitutes for things seen, remembered or imagined. Camouflage.

Describe is to represent something in words especially with sharpness and detail. To give an account or representation of in words. To give a description of something factually without being vague or misleading.

Direct and Indirect Realism arises in the philosophy of perception and of mind out of the debate over the nature of conscious experience; the epistemological question of whether the world we see around us is the real world itself or merely an internal perceptual copy of that world generated by neural processes in our brain. Virtual Reality.

Graph Drawing to derive two-dimensional depictions of graphs arising from applications such as social network analysis, cartography, linguistics, and bioinformatics.

Graph Database is a database that uses graph structures for semantic queries with nodes, edges and properties to represent and store data.

Glossary of Graph Theory used to modify notation for graph invariants so that it applies to the line graph instead of the given graph.

Spreadsheet is an interactive computer application for organization, analysis and storage of data in tabular form.

Graphs - Plots - Analytics - Statistics

Meaning (understanding symbols) -Art

Abstraction Layer is a way of hiding the implementation details of a particular set of functionality, allowing the separation of concerns to facilitate interoperability and platform independence. Layers (Levels).

Separation of Content and Presentation is a design principle under which visual and design aspects (presentation and style) are separated from the core material and structure (content) of a document.

Object-Oriented Design is the process of planning a system of interacting objects for the purpose of solving a software problem.

Object-Relational Mapping is a programming technique for converting data between incompatible type systems in object-oriented programming languages. This creates, in effect, a "virtual object database" that can be used from within the programming language.

Sentence Diagram is a pictorial representation of the grammatical structure of a sentence.

Parse Tree is an ordered, rooted tree that represents the syntactic structure of a string according to some context-free grammar. The term parse tree itself is used primarily in computational linguistics; in theoretical syntax, the term syntax tree is more common.

Labels for Food Meanings - Ideas - Development

Multiple Representations in mathematics are ways to symbolize, to describe and to refer to the same mathematical entity.

Information Graphics are graphic visual representations of information, data or knowledge intended to present information quickly and clearly. Also known as Info-Graphic.

Graphic Organizer is a communication tool that uses visual symbols to express knowledge, concepts, thoughts, or ideas, and the relationships between them. The main purpose of a graphic organizer is to provide a visual aid to facilitate learning and instruction.

Information Visualization is the study of (interactive) visual representations of abstract data to reinforce human cognition. The abstract data include both numerical and non-numerical data, such as text and geographic information.

Social Learning Tools (data sharing) - Information Literacy

Information is Beautiful Visualizing Data - Patricio Gonzalez Vivo

Data Visualization involves the creation and study of the visual representation of data, meaning "information that has been abstracted in some schematic form, including attributes or variables for the units of information.

Database Schema organization of data as a blueprint of how the database is constructed (divided into database tables in the case of relational databases).

Scientific Modeling is a scientific activity, the aim of which is to make a particular part or feature of the world easier to understand, define, quantify, visualize, or simulate by referencing it to existing and usually commonly accepted knowledge. It requires selecting and identifying relevant aspects of a situation in the real world and then using different types of models for different aims, such as conceptual models to better understand, operational models to operationalize, mathematical models to quantify, and graphical models to visualize the subject. Modelling is an essential and inseparable part of scientific activity, and many scientific disciplines have their own ideas about specific types of modelling.

Scientific Visualization concerned with the visualization of three-dimensional phenomena (architectural, meteorological, medical, biological, etc.), where the emphasis is on realistic renderings of volumes, surfaces, illumination sources, and so forth, perhaps with a dynamic (time) component.

3D Engineering Models (drawings)

A Study of Graphic Communication (PDF)

Multidimensional Scaling is a means of visualizing the level of similarity of individual cases of a dataset. It refers to a set of related ordination techniques used in information visualization, in particular to display the information contained in a distance matrix.

Knowledge Visualization

Information and knowledge is not always in chronological order. Sometimes you may find yourself too far ahead of what you need to know. You may have to go back and learn something again, or acquire more information about the subject. So you need to be aware of when more information and knowledge is needed before continuing to learn from your current level of knowledge. Knowing the chronological order of information and knowledge makes it easy to navigate through knowledge and information, as well as, makes it easy to plan and manage your learning time efficiently and effectively.

Curriculum is broadly defined as the totality of student experiences that occur in the educational process. The term often refers specifically to a planned sequence of instruction, or to a view of the student's experiences in terms of the educator's or school's instructional goals.

Timeline - Pattern Recognition - Mind Map

Outline of Knowledge familiarity with someone or something, which can include facts, information, descriptions, and/or skills acquired through experience or education. It can refer to the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject. It can be implicit (as with practical skill or expertise) or explicit (as with the theoretical understanding of a subject); and it can be more or less formal or systematic.

Wolfram Mathematica is a Problem Generator for algebra, calculus, statistics, number theory, and R&D workflows.

Wolfram Physics project leads a new approach to discover the fundamental theory of physics.

Wolfram Knowledgebase across thousands of domains, the Knowledgebase contains carefully curated expert knowledge directly derived from primary sources. It includes not only trillions of data elements, but also immense numbers of algorithms encapsulating the methods and models of almost every field.

Wolfram integrated technical computing software. Cellular Automaton - Models

Wolfram Alpha Computational Knowledge Engine an Answer Engine developed in 16 May 2009. Vast collection of built-in data, algorithms, and methods. Systematic knowledge immediately computable and accessible to everyone.

Wolfram Research is a private company that creates computational technology. - Wolfram Cloud.

Carnegie Mellon Tool Automatically Turns Math Into Pictures - Mind Maps - Branchial Graphs

Imprint is your visual learning guide (formerly Lucid) Polywise Inc.

Bloom's Taxonomy is a set of three hierarchical models used to classify educational learning objectives into levels of complexity and specificity. The three lists cover the learning objectives in cognitive, affective and sensory domains.

Tree Structure is a way of representing the hierarchical nature of a structure in a graphical form. It is named a "tree structure" because the classic representation resembles a tree, even though the chart is generally upside down compared to an actual tree, with the "root" at the top and the "leaves" at the bottom. A tree structure is conceptual, and appears in several forms.

Tree Data Structure simulates a hierarchical tree structure, with a root value and subtrees of children with a parent node, represented as a set of linked nodes. Family Tree.

Decision Tree (problem solving)

Tree of Life - Story Maps - Family History

Topic Map is a standard for the representation and interchange of knowledge, with an emphasis on the findability of information.

Network Topology is the arrangement of the various elements (links, nodes, etc.) of a computer network. Essentially, it is the topological structure of a network and may be depicted physically or logically.

Computer Vision is an interdisciplinary field that deals with how computers can be made to gain high-level understanding from digital images or videos. From the perspective of engineering, it seeks to automate tasks that the human visual system can do.

Decision Tree is a decision support tool that uses a tree-like graph or model of decisions and their possible consequences, including chance event outcomes, resource costs, and utility. It is one way to display an algorithm.

Spatial intelligence - Organizing - Folding Proteins

Collaboration Tools - Human Search Engine

Most subjects share common information and knowledge. That is why you will see the Cross Reference Links in Black. 

Word Matrix

Design Elements and the Perception of Information Structure (wiki)

Bars and Lines: A Study of Graphic Communication Jeff Zacks and Barbara Tversky (PDF)

The Science of what we do and don't know about data visualization.

Processing electronic sketchbook for developing ideas.

Network Science studies complex networks such as telecommunication networks, computer networks, biological networks, cognitive and semantic networks, and social networks, considering distinct elements or actors represented by nodes (or vertices) and the connections between the elements or actors as links (or edges).

Conceive - Imagine - Form - Visualize - Envision - Realize - Foresee

Form an idea in the mind. Form a mental picture of something that is invisible or abstract. A perceptual structure. Predict. A category of things distinguished by some common characteristic or quality. The spatial arrangement of something as distinct from its substance. An arrangement of the elements in a composition or discourse. The visual appearance of something or someone. To compose or represent. Give shape or form to. Establish or impress firmly in the mind. The phonological or orthographic sound or appearance of a word that can be used to describe or identify something. Form a mental image of something that is not present or that is not the case. Picture to oneself; imagine possible. Perceive an idea or situation mentally. Make real or concrete; give reality or substance to. Be fully aware or cognizant of. Bearing in mind. Having knowledge of.

Visual Metaphor is one image or set of images used in place of another to suggest an analogy between the two images or sets of images.

Graphic Arts (design) - Visual Tools (art)

Abstract and Concrete (when ideas exist only in the mind)

Physical Body is an identifiable collection of matter, which may be more or less constrained by an identifiable boundary, to move together by translation or rotation, in 3-dimensional space. In common usage an object is a collection of matter within a defined contiguous boundary in 3-dimensional space. The boundary must be defined and identified by the properties of the material. The boundary may change over time. The boundary is usually the visible or tangible surface of the object. The matter in the object is constrained (to a greater or lesser degree) to move as one object. The boundary may move in space relative to other objects that it is not attached to (through translation and rotation). An object's boundary may also deform and change over time in other ways.

Example: A good example should be knowledgeable in itself, and a close relative that's closely related to other similar valuable knowledge. Something that is representative of all such things in a group. Something that serves to illustrate or explain a rule. Something that serves as a pattern of behavior to be imitated as with a good example, or not to be imitated as with a bad example. A parallel or closely similar case, especially when serving as a precedent or model. A simulation. An instance (as a problem to be solved) serving to illustrate the rule or precept or to act as an exercise in the application of the rule. Something to be imitated. A task performed or problem solved in order to develop skill or understanding. Make a reproduction or copy of. A representation of a physical object, usually in miniature. Similarities between objects relationships existing among the representing objects. Having the same overall direction; the comparison is indicated with "to".


"Being able to visualize things are important. When you here something, it's good to be able to visualize it because it helps understand it and remember it. That is why abstract ideas are harder to imagine and understand."

Abstract - Abstraction

It all started in caves around 30,000 years ago. 

Cave Paintings are a type of parietal art (which category also includes petroglyphs, or engravings), found on the wall or ceilings of caves. The term usually implies prehistoric origin, but cave paintings can also be of recent production: In the Gabarnmung cave of northern Australia, the oldest paintings certainly predate 28,000 years ago, while the most recent ones were made less than a century ago.


"There is no end to what you can do once you start with the business of collecting facts." (Page 159, to be exact, from the book 'How to write, speak and think more effectively')

"All Libraries in the world should have Visualization Maps of their Books and Educational Materials, as seen from above. So you can see everything in the library before visiting. So as you search for Subjects and Categories the map will highlight the areas you are interested in, and then you can then zoom in and do a street view, or row aisle view, like you would with Google maps." But of course with Automated Library Systems there will probably be no need for this

"People can not visualize or understand the value or the importance of knowledge and information, unless they have learned the necessary knowledge and information in order to understand it. Example, an engineer or an architect can visualize a building, like the empire state building, but if you don't have the necessary knowledge, skills and experience, you can not visualize that type of building, or would you know enough in order to build a complex building that high. Now lets imagine if you had the necessary knowledge and information that was needed in order to understand the value and the importance of knowledge and information, What would you see? What would you build?"

"One good thing about the digital world is that it doesn't take up a lot of space in the physical world. Imagine if it did, your head would increase in size as you got older to accommodate your growing brain, that's of course if you continued to educate yourself and learn new things, and not many people do. So in reality, some peoples heads would actually get smaller, which doesn't mean that the big headed people would take over the world, it just means that it would be easy to spot a big headed person in a crowd of people, "Hey, there's one now, ask her a question."

Visual Tools Resources

Canva Graphs easier way to create compelling graphs and charts.
Chart Go
Online Chart Tool
Chart Porn
Time Glider
One Dataset, Visualized 25 Ways (flowing data)
Lovely Charts
High Charts
Graphiq contextually-rich visualizations.
Charts Bin
Smart Draw Flowchart Maker, Floor Plan, Chart Maker, Diagram Maker, Templates.
Scribble Maps
Bubbl is a mind map is a graphical representation of ideas and concepts.
Spider Scribe
Metric Maps
Things Made Thinkable
Using Automatic Show Me
NCH Software
Lucid Chart
Geographic Information Map Creator
Google knowledge Graph
Visual Variables
Flowing Data
Ersatz 1
Alchemy Api

Natural Language Interface for Data Visualization. FlowSense lets those who may not be experts in machine learning create highly flexible visualizations from almost any data. NYU Tandon School of Engineering's Visualization and Data Analytics Lab. Visflow Web-Based Dataflow Framework for Visual Data Exploration.

Building Blocks - Bricks - Spatial intelligence (3D Smart)

Visual Thesaurus is a 3D interactive reference tool, powered by Thinkmap.

Tag Clouds is a visual representation of text data, typically used to depict keyword metadata (tags) on websites, or to visualize free form text. Tags are usually single words, and the importance of each tag is shown with font size or color. This format is useful for quickly perceiving the most prominent terms and for locating a term alphabetically to determine its relative prominence. When used as website navigation aids, the terms are hyperlinked to items associated with the tag.

Diagramming Software is software that is used to model, represent and visualize information.

Loopy tool is to make interactive simulations that lets you draw the nodes and arrows of your system and give them definitions. Then, you can actually interact with the model you made: add inputs into the system and diagram animates. The "+" or "-" sign on the arrows denotes the effect one node has on the next, and the nodes grow or shrink accordingly. If you start by adding a positive input (hit the "up" arrow on the node) to "Kid downloads apps," you'll watch the "performance" and "joy" nodes shrink while "willingness to lend" grows. (Open Source and Public Domain).

KM Resources
Knowledge Management Training
Knowledge Management Certification
Knowledge Management Professional Society
All KM (Fellows Program) 
Global Knowledge Initiative
Global Knowledge Research
American Productivity and Quality Center
KM World
RealKM Magazine is a management discipline that aims to sustainably improve the effectiveness of organisations and social systems through deliberate and planned systems interventions.
Know Question
Knowledge Harvesting is a structured, results-driven process for capturing vital knowledge, including deep insights and complex cognitive processes. Our methodology ensures capture and application of declarative, procedural, conditional, social, and systemic knowledge.
KM Gamification Collection (games)
Knowledge Management Software
Knowledge Management Software
Knowledgebase Software
DAML Language
Human System Biology-based Knowledge Management
KM Benefits

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