Thinking Question MarkIntelligence is having the capacity for productive thinking and logical reasoning. Intelligence is the ability to understand the usefulness and the value of certain behaviors and actions. Intelligence is the ability to learn and to gain knowledge and skills from experience and from the study of many different subjects. Intelligence is the ability to understand awareness and being aware of the realities of life. Intelligence is showing good judgment and self control, especially in difficult situations. Intelligence is the ability to examine and analyze things accurately, to understand the facts and to make good decisions in a verity of different environments, scenarios and circumstances. Intelligence is doing the right thing at the right time, and always with a positive goal in mind. Intelligence is the ability to accurately comprehend symbols and patterns. Intelligence is knowing that mistakes can happen and that some things can be hard to predict.

Previous SubjectNext Subject

Intelligent Words - Intelligence Types - Intelligence Measuring (IQ) - Cognition - Enlightenment - Half Smart - Brain Maintenance - The Internet is the combined collective intelligence of millions of people. The Human Operating System - Artificial Intelligence

Defining Intelligence

albert einsteinIntelligence is having a good memory and understanding the responsibility of maintaining optimum mental health and optimum physical health. Intelligence is the ability to solve problems and look for effective solutions without ignoring root causes. Intelligence is understanding the value of knowledge and understanding the value of being a life long learner. Intelligence is the ability to effectively communicate and the ability to have productive conversations. Intelligence is understanding the value of humor and understanding the importance of laughing at oneself. Intelligence is the ability to control emotions and behaviors. An intelligent person does not make assumptions or pretends to know things. A smart person is someone who is knowledgeable about themselves and the world around them. A smart person is someone who is always educating themselves, and always asking questions and always investigating things. A smart person will always provide proof and evidence that accurately explains their observations and explains their decisions and the reasoning behind them, even when they make mistakes. A smart person is someone who is fully aware of the fact that there are many things that they still don't know and understand about themselves and the world around them. A smart person is never satisfied with what they know, because new information can change almost anything you thought you knew. A smart person understands the power of knowledge, and not for the love of power or for the love of knowledge, but for the love of the endless possibilities that knowledge brings.

To be intelligent means that you have an analytical mind and have an enormous appetite for the answers to life's hidden questions. You have a strong interest in exploring scientific matters, philosophy, and even mysticism. You possess clarity and persistence in your search for truth and you are driven by a desire for knowledge and truth. You learn to discriminate between illusion and reality, and you are well equipped for this task. Freedom is essential for your happiness. You love change, new experiences, meeting new people, adventure and travel. You love the exotic, far away places. Variety is more than mere spice of life, you thrive on it. You are extremely flexible and adaptable. You have more curiosity than the proverbial cat. You have a sharp mind and a natural ability with words. You are a born communicator, clear, fluent, and imaginative in every area that interests you, which are many. You have worked hard to gain confidence and overcome, at least to some extend, an in-born shyness. As a child, and into your early twenties, nervous energy may have caused you to bite your nails or express your nervousness in other ways. You are extremely sensitive and intuitive. You can be a great researcher, educator, and philosopher, or pretty much anything that you want to be and put your mind to.

To be intelligent, you first have to know what being intelligent is. And you also have to know what being ignorant is. Ignorant is just another word for "not knowing". But not knowing is not always obvious or clearly understood. That's because learning is not fully understood. The more you learn the more you should realize what you didn't know. And if you learn things that do not make you realize how much you didn't know, and if learning doesn't make you realize how much you still need to know, then you did not learn anything valuable or relevant.

I know a lot of things, but I don't know everything. The only true wisdom is the understanding that you are aware of your lack of knowledge and that you don't know everything. And when you realize this, you know that continually learning becomes extremely important to your life and to the lives of others, and that questioning the norms and the status quo is absolutely necessary for the advancement and development of human society. You should always challenge the beliefs that imprison peoples minds, for ignorance is the worlds biggest threat. Challenge what you think you know and always challenge what other people think they know.

Doing something intelligent does not make you intelligent. Doing something special does not make you special. Doing something incredible does not make you incredible. What makes you incredible, special and intelligent, is how you appreciate everything and everyone who made it possible to do something incredible, special and intelligent. You are incredible, special and intelligent. Just remember how you got here. Life itself is incredible and special, and intelligently designed to certain degree. So it makes sense that you are also incredible, special and intelligent. You are a member of this coexistence, and you are a lot more important and valuable than you think you are. This is not to boost your ego, this is to remind you of your potential. If you make the most of what you have, and expect the least, you will be more balanced, more stable and a lot more happier.

Plato's Socrates often claims that he is aware of his own lack of knowledge. I know that I know nothing, "For I was conscious that I knew practically nothing."

Nous is a concept from classical philosophy for the faculty of the human mind necessary for understanding what is true or real, sometimes equated to intellect or intelligence. Alternative English terms used in philosophy include "understanding" and "mind"; or sometimes "thought" or "reason" (in the sense of that which reasons, not the activity of reasoning). It is also often described as something equivalent to perception except that it works within the mind ("the mind's eye"). It has been suggested that the basic meaning is something like "awareness".

There is no exact amount of words that can fully describe what the word 'intelligence' means. There is no exact amount of words that can fully describe what the word 'knowledge' means. There is no exact amount of words that can fully describe what 'information' is. There is no exact amount of words that can fully describe what 'language is. Even when using all the words that are available in a given language, you would still not fully describe something, because there are some things that can't be described using just words. In order to describe something accurately, you have to have physical evidence and a real life example of what these words mean in reality, and how the words describe an interaction within the environment. You have to show, and not just tell. An intelligence test on paper does not prove intelligence, only reveals the possible potential for intelligence. Theories will only take you so far.

Wise Old Man

Wisdom does not always come with age, wisdom mostly comes from learning and not just from experience. If what you have learned does not increase your understanding of yourself, or increase your understanding of the world around you, then that's not learning, which means that you will never become wise. This is why old people can sometimes become horrible leaders, or, become horrible people. You can remember a lot of things, but if those things don't matter, and if those things are not relevant, then you are mostly filled with trivial and insignificant bits of information. Learning is a life long process that needs to be respected and understood. Ten people can experience the same thing, but not learn the same thing. This is because skill level and knowledge level varies from person to person. This means that we will need to have the next big advancement in education, where every student will know what to learn, when to learn, how to learn, where to learn and why to learn. And we should teach every student to know how to test themselves and monitor their own progress, and in their own time and at their own pace. But we still need to be actively learning and deliberately learning for our entire life. There is no short cut to being smart. You have to define what makes a person intelligent and then you need to have an accurate way of measuring if this intelligence is correctly understood. Just because you have abilities, this does not guarantee that you will know how to use your abilities correctly or effectively. And just what is correct, and just what is effective? These are words that we need to define if we are ever going to know exactly what being intelligent really means. First we need to define the actions and the thought processes that are proven to produce the most positive results that are based on a particular set of circumstances. And these intelligent actions and thought processes have to be relevant and used by society today so that everyone can see the improvements and see the positive outcomes and benefits that come from these particular intelligent actions. This way everyone can understand why these particular actions and thought processes are viewed as being intelligent. Because what good is having intelligence if you never use the intelligence in real life to solve real problems. An IQ test only confirms a small percentage of what is considered to be intelligence. So the only way to truly measure a persons intelligence is to have them solve real life problems and then have them explain their methods clearly enough so that others can repeat the process. Welcome to defining intelligence. Ancient Knowledge - Elders.

You could say, "live and learn", but that's only if you're lucky to actually learn from your experiences. So if you really want to live, you should focus on learning, reading, listening and studying, which means that the new saying would be, "Learn and Live."

You Learn - Alanis Morissette (youtube) - You live you learn, You love you learn, You cry you learn, You lose you learn, You bleed you learn, You scream you learn, You grieve you learn, You choke you learn, You laugh you learn, You choose you learn, You pray you learn, You ask you learn, You live you learn. (but not always). Trick Questions.

Identifying the allele gene will not guarantee that someone will be intelligent. The only sure way to foster intelligence is to give someone access to a good education, especially an education that encourages learning. You also have to provide a healthy environment that does not impede learning in any way. You also have to have responsible media outlets that inform people instead of deforming people. You also have to make public knowledge and information available 24 hours a day. If we can accomplish this, then everyone could be intelligent. But first we have to define what intelligence is and what it is not.

Jeopardy Football Category Stumped Contestants (youtube)

Averroes's theory of the unity of the intellect asserted that all humans share the same intellect.

If a person does not have the necessary information and knowledge that is needed to correctly analyze a problem, it is nearly impossible for that person to understand how to calculate the correct actions that are needed in order to solve that problem. Even if a problem is right in front of a person, it is very unlikely that they will be able to comprehend that a particular problem is even there without having the necessary information and knowledge. Then a person will still have to understand that particular information and knowledge in order to use it effectively. So how will a person be able to recognize that there is necessary information and knowledge missing from their education? How do you convince a person to see that there is a void of missing information and knowledge when they don't have the necessary information and knowledge in order for them to see that there is even a void? This is why it is so extremely important to teach students early and completely, especially the logic that is behind learning these techniques, tools and skills that are needed to acquire necessary information and knowledge. So what is this necessary information and knowledge? What are the techniques, tools and skills that are needed? That is exactly what we are going to find out, and exactly what we are going to teach. Remember that saying "The Buck Stops Here", that should be changed to "The Ignorance Stops Here". Defining the extreme degrees of ignorance. If everyone around you is stupid then how will you know how stupid you are? Being surrounded by stupidity often hides stupidity. That Does Not Compute (wiki).

Ignorance - Bias - Assuming - Fallacies - Pretending to Know - Trick Questions

When we say that someone is smart, people just assume they know what smart means. Most people think that being smart is how good a person is at making decisions and solving particular types of problems. But very few people understand the processes of decision making and problem solving. So most people don't have a clue what smart is. People are given a lot of things they don't know how to use effectively or efficiently. And people can't use their brain effectively or efficiently unless they are given the right knowledge and information at the right time. If there were no ignorant people, would know what being ignorant is? If everyone was smart, would you know what smart is? Yes, you would have to know what smart is and know what not being smart is.

There is not one human alive today who is at their full potential of intelligence or abilities. That's because we just got public internet around 20 years ago in 1998, which gave us access to more knowledge and information then any other time in human history. We are just starting to figuring out the enormous potential and intelligence that every human being has on this planet. But the transfer of knowledge and information is still none existent for more then 90 percent of humans on the planet, and the other 10 percent are still not using the Internet effectively or efficiently enough. We are living on only 10 percent of our full potential, and yet we still have done a lot of amazing things, which clearly shows our actual potential. But all these great technologies are no comparison, or are in no way equivalent to the incredible advancements that awaits the human race on that special day when all people eventually have access to valuable knowledge and information. The Great Awaking is Coming.

When we finally have more intelligent people in the world, life will become more relaxed and a lot more enjoyable. We will have a lot less to worry about, and we will also know more and be more in control, and have a much better awareness of ourselves and the world around us. Life is going to be beautiful for everyone in the future. Knowledge and information naturally seeks harmony, and we have this amazing privilege to go along for the ride.

Gifted - Having the Right Stuff

Brain Gears Do Gifted Children become Successful Adults? You could say that the odds are better for achievement when a child is more educated and has the ability to learn effectively and efficiently. But good grades are not a guarantee for success, or a guarantee for intelligence, or a guarantee for good character. There are many things that can determine success in life. The Study of Mathematically Precocious Youth proposes the following eight tips to encourage both achievement and happiness later in life. Expose children to diverse experiences. When a child exhibits strong interests or talents, provide opportunities to develop them. Support both intellectual and emotional needs. Help children to develop a ‘growth mindset’ by praising effort, not ability. Encourage children to take intellectual risks and to be open to failures that help them learn. Beware of labels. Being identified as gifted can be an emotional burden. There can also be a lot of unneeded pressure on kids when they're told that they're gifted and they carry around a brain-load of excellence. Work with teachers to meet your child’s needs. Have your child’s abilities tested. These tips are good, but are totally inadequate and they also do not explain how to implement these tips in the most effective and efficient way possible. And we cannot ignore good parenting as a factor for success. A healthy home life can definitely foster the precise calibration of a child's talents, just as long as they have the freedom to choose their careers, and the freedom to choose the things that interest them, instead of being forced into things that they don't find interesting. We must not underestimate the importance of nurturing Advanced Precocious Learners and the importance of allowing fast learners to skip grades in school. We know what happens to children when they are not given a good education and a good home life. The National Register Of Health Service Psychologists points out that various studies have found links between childhood giftedness and adult depression, anxiety, relationship issues. The National Association for Gifted Children identifies some potential serious issues, like anxiety, perfectionism, stress, issues with peer relationships, and concerns with identity and fitting in. Sometimes gifted adults may become frustrated with slower peers and find the ignorance of others irritating. They may also ask too many questions and get bored quickly. So there are many things to be aware of. Kids who test in the top one percent may become successful and do great things in life, but just testing in the top one percent will not determine what type of person you will end up being, morally or intellectually.

Gifted kids are being used as puppets to memorize non-sense and irrelevant facts. Jeopardy is not a measure of intelligence, it's mostly a measure of memory and not a measure of understanding what those memories actually mean.

When a child is labeled as being gifted or labeled as being a prodigy, most parents and teachers are not qualified enough or experienced enough to know what having a child with enhanced abilities means. Or do they know what extra attention is needed in order to not waste these enhanced abilities on tedious or irrelevant actions, like memorizing things that do not benefit you. It's like having a very powerful and fast computer, but it's being wasted because you are only using it to play video games. Intelligence should not be seen as a freak show or side show. We are the only species on the planet that can be distracted by our own stupidity. Intelligent species? Not yet. Remember, enhanced abilities does not guarantee incredible achievements, it only implies that there's a potential, which we all have, that's if we all get the special attention that we need. The more I study education, the more I see what's needed. The more you learn, the more you should also learn what you still do not know. Education needs to be everyone's special attention.

Testing (IQ) - Trick Questions - Still Ignorant - Human Brain Knowledge - Videos

Gifted qualities are just the normal qualities a person should have if they receive a good education and good parenting. Qualities include: Unusual alertness from infancy, Rapid learner, Excellent memory, large vocabulary and complex sentence structure for their age, Advanced comprehension of language (e.g., language nuances, metaphors, abstract ideas), Problem-solving skills (i.e., with numbers and puzzles), Usually self-taught reading and writing skills in preschool, Deep, intense feelings and reactions, Highly sensitive, Thinking is abstract, complex, logical, and insightful, Idealism and sense of justice early on, Concern with social and political issues and injustices, Longer attention span and intense concentration, Preoccupied with own thoughts, Learns new (and basic) skills quickly and seamlessly, Inquisitive (always asks "why" questions), Wide range of interests (or extreme focus in one area), Extremely curious, Enjoys experimenting and doing things differently, spontaneous, Puts idea or things together that are not typical, Keen and/or unusual sense of humor, Desire to organize people/things through games or complex plans, Vivid imaginations, abstract and critical thinking, Creative, intuitive, keen sense of humor, ability for fantasy, independent, avid reader, empathetic, heightened self-awareness, seeks justice, unusual emotional depth.

The Right Stuff is having the necessary qualities for a given task or job.

If Something is Beneath You, it means that something is not challenging enough for you and is not utilizing your skills or your intelligence. The task may be a waste of your potential and your abilities. But that doesn't mean that you should not do that particular task, it just means that if better options are available, you should not waste time doing something that will not benefit you, especially when you are more valuable doing something else.

People say they are educated because they went to college, which is a lie and an ignorant observation, because there is no definition of what being educated is, just like with intelligence. Just because you have a high IQ does not mean that you're intelligent. It just means that the possibility of becoming intelligent is greater with a high IQ than a Low IQ.

Preference for naturally talented over hard workers emerges in childhood. Researchers have found that children think more highly of the naturally talented over hard workers, a preference that they carry into adulthood. The bias can consequently impact children's interactions with peers perceived as talented or hardworking as it can lead them to interact more with the naturally talented over hard workers. The apparent decrease of this preference with age also implies it may be more malleable than previously thought. The naturalness bias refers to the implicit preference individuals have for naturals, who display inborn talent, over strivers, who expend effort to attain equal achievement.


Anti-intellectualism is hostility towards and the mistrust of intellect, intellectuals, and intellectual pursuits, usually expressed as a biased disrespect of education, philosophy, literature, art, and science, as impractical and contemptible. Republicans.

AI Effect occurs when onlookers discount the behavior of an artificial intelligence program by arguing that it is "not real intelligence".

Intellectual is a person who engages in works by intellect including critical thinking and reading, research, writing, and human self-reflection about society. Thought Leaders.

Nerd is a person who is thought to be overly intellectual, who likes activities that are generally either highly technical, abstract, or relating to topics of science fiction or fantasy.

Revenge of the Nerds is a 1984 film that chronicles a group of nerds at the fictional Adams College trying to stop the ongoing harassment by the jock fraternity, the Alpha Betas, in addition to the latter's sister sorority, Pi Delta Pi.

Geek is a slang term originally used to describes an expert or enthusiast obsessed with a hobby or intellectual pursuit.

Brainiac is an exceptionally intelligent person. Someone who has exceptional intellectual ability and originality.

Elite is the most powerful, rich, gifted, or educated members of a group, community, etc. a group or class of persons enjoying superior intellectual or social or economic status.

Elitism is the belief or notion that individuals who form an elite—a select group of people perceived as having an intrinsic quality, high intellect, wealth, power, notability, special skills, or experience—are more likely to be constructive to society as a whole, and therefore deserve influence or authority greater than that of others. The term elitism may be used to describe a situation in which power is concentrated in the hands of a limited number of people. Beliefs that are in opposition to elitism include egalitarianism, anti-intellectualism, populism, and the political theory of pluralism.

Highbrow is synonymous with intellectual; as an adjective, it also means elite, and generally carries a connotation of high culture.

Complexities of the Knowledge Divide. The main problem is that most people have no idea that someone else can be more educated and be educating themselves without other people knowing. Becoming more educated than other people can isolate you and make it hard for you to be understood by others, especially people you do not have the same level of knowledge and information that you have. So how can you effectively communicate to other people don't have the same knowledge as you? First, each person would need to be aware of the differences in understanding, especially with talking about certain subjects. An educated person needs to be more patient and more tolerant. They also need to find ways to simplify information without making it sound too general. Being more educated is a privilege and an honor, but it is also a huge responsibility. It can be frustrating when people are not educated enough to have meaningful conversations or have discussions that are productive and effective. So when you become more educated, you become unique and specialized in areas of knowledge that most people can't understand. This is one of the problems with educating yourself and obtaining large amounts of knowledge and information. No one knows how much knowledge and information you have, or do they understand how knowledge and information has improved your understanding of the world around you. Most people make the assumption that you're the same person who has the same level of knowledge that they always had. So people assume that your the same person with the same knowledge and information as they have. So unless you're inquisitive and unassuming, you will never know what a particular educated person understands. Example. If someone showed you their degree, you would have very little idea what knowledge and information they have acquired, unless you have the same degree from the same school at the same time, then and only then, do you have an idea what that person knows, but even then, that person could have lower grades, which means they may not have the same level of competence as you because you had higher grades with a higher level of competence and understanding. Another example. The only way to know what a scientist is researching, is to read their research notes and have a conversation with the scientist. But first you will have to learn how to read scientific notations and understand the research that scientist was doing. Another example. Lets say you met a 10 year old child, and then 20 years later you meet that same person again when they are 30 years old, are they the same person? No. You have very little idea who they are or what kind of person they are, or do you know the schools they went to or the experiences they had. You are basically meeting a stranger. A similar situation would be someone educating themselves and obtaining large amounts of knowledge and information. How would you determine the effects that this education had on the person? What kind of changes do you think this person experienced after 10 years of educating themselves?

Being smart can sometimes cause ignorant people to criticize you and bully you. So you have to be smarter than those types of people, and not let them distract you or let them cause you to feel embarrassed in any way, and on the other hand, not let yourself feel overly confident.

Because smart people spend a lot of time learning, they may not have the same social skills or the same physical experiences that other people have. And they might be more introverted than extroverted. So being smart is a responsibility. A smart person will need more than just good grades to be intelligent, they will have to keep learning about themselves and the world around them continually. There's a big difference between school smart and street smart, and you need both types of smart if you want to be confident and adaptable, because life will test you in many ways. And remember, you need balance in your life, but it's also good to have good friendships, a good neighborhood and a good family life. So you will need to work on your home life more than just do your home work from school.

Sapiosexual is finding intelligence sexually attractive or arousing. A person who finds intelligence sexually attractive or arousing

"There is a cult of ignorance in the United States, and there always has been. The strain of anti-intellectualism has been a constant thread winding its way through our political and cultural life, nurtured by the false notion that democracy means that my ignorance is just as good as your knowledge." - Isaac Asimov, (written January 21st, 1980).

Ignorant people sometimes don't like people who are perceived to be smarter than them. That's what the Experts say.

Crazy things happen when ignorant people speak about intelligence. You have to wonder where in the hell are these people getting their information from? How could you perceive and understand other peoples ignorance or intelligence when you are not even aware of your own ignorance, or even understand why you are ignorant? I understand the mistrust of certain people, because some people pretend to be intelligent, when in fact they're criminals. But what I don't understand is the lack of reasoning and justification that a person is supposed to have. You can't create your own quasi reality and then blame other people for not understanding you. You have to learn how to debate and stop the hate. The problem is that people don't understand things far enough or deep enough. If you can't see the whole picture, if you don't see the connections, and everything related to cause and effect, then everything you think you know will be based on circumstantial evidence, which means that you are only seeing the surface while you are ignoring the fact there are many things below the surface, and that you have not answered any questions that would explain the reality of a situation. You can't generalize things or be vague about things. You should be asking questions instead of pretending to know the answers.

Ignorance - Not Knowing Any Better

Ignorance is Dangerous Ignorant is being unaware because of the lack of relevant information or from the lack of knowledge and experience. Ignorant is someone who is uneducated in general or devoid of good sense or good judgment, or someone with a poor ability to understand, or someone who is unable to benefit from experience. Ignorant is someone who's unable to reason accurately or effectively, which is usually from the lack of valuable knowledge and information. Ignorant is someone who's under-educated in the fundamentals of a given art or branch of learning. 

You can be ignorant in one way but not ignorant in another way. You can be ignorant about some things but not ignorant about other things. So ignorance is relative, and depending on what you're ignorant about, will most likely determine the degree of your ignorance and also the vulnerability that comes from having a particular type of ignorance. Being smart or successful in one area of your life does not make you smart or successful in other areas of your life. The potential to be smart is there, its just that you have no proof or evidence. Unverified confidence or a misplaced belief can give you a false sense of intelligence and control, which is one of the reasons why ignorance can be so extremely dangerous, and why being in an information bubble is a serious vulnerability.

Fallacies - Assumptions - Pretending to Know - Cognitive Distortions - False Consensus - Bias

Ignorance is not knowing enough about yourself in order to accurately understand yourself. Ignorance is not knowing enough about other people in order to accurately understand other people. Ignorance is not knowing enough about the world in order to accurately understand the world. Most people are unaware of their ignorance and some even deny that they're ignorant, which is the worst type of ignorance. You don't know something until someone teaches you something or until you learn something. Until then, you don't know what you don't know, so now you know.

"It takes considerable knowledge just to realize the extent of your own ignorance." ~ Thomas Sowell

Ignorance can be totally invisible to a person. Ignorance is like a dormant virus, and you're the silent carrier with asymptomatic symptoms. It's like when you're not aware that you have a computer virus or a phantom menace. The only time that you know that you have a virus is when it shows itself, and that can be too late. The only time time that you're aware that you are infected with the ignorant virus is when you say ignorant things or do ignorant things, which means that you're infected by the ignorance virus. And you will not know that you're ignorant unless someone explains to you why your words or your actions are ignorant, or, that you educate yourself about a particular subject that you were pretending to understand. The cure for ignorance is available. You first admit that you're ignorant about something, and then educate yourself. You will never realize what you don't know until you learn what you don't know. Your bodies immune system can't fight a virus unless the immune system has information that can identify the virus and stop it. Once you finally realize how many things you don't know, and when you realize how much knowledge and information you don't have, that's the epiphany that will change your life. Bliss.

Invisible is something impossible to see or nearly impossible to see. Something that is not readily noticeable and is imperceptible by the eye. Something that you have no knowledge of.

Obscured is something less visible or unclear or blurred. Something undecipherable or imperceptible by concealing.

Too many people are more focused on looking smart than actually being smart. If you're always acting like you're smart, but not taking the time and the effort to learn how to be smart, you will die an idiot. The good news is, you wont even know that you've been an idiot your whole life, and most people will also not know that you've been an idiot your whole life. A blissful death. The idiot lives on. Long live the idiot. So start learning now, don't die an idiot. Sounds like a good slogan for a high quality education. "Don't die an idiot, start learning today."

Try to imagine not having 90% of the knowledge, experiences and your memories that you have now. Imagine not having 90% of everything that you have learned? How would you know that certain information you once had was gone? If all the memories of what you have learned were gone, it would be as if those things never happened or existed. In order to know how valuable knowledge and information is, you would have to know that it was gone, meaning, you still would need to have some memories of that knowledge and information, if not, then there is no memories of that knowledge and information, and its value can't be calculated. Go back to when you were 5 years old, can you remember the knowledge and information that you had when you were 5 years old? You can't. You can remember moments, but you can't remember what you were thinking about at those moments, or why you were thinking anything at all. Ask a five year old to explain life and explain themselves. Now ask an adult to explain life and explain themselves. Too many humans are not developing as much as they can and should be.

You don't outgrow ignorance, you can only overcome your ignorance by deliberately learning throughout your entire life. Ignorance is kind of like being blind, because the things that you never learned are invisible to you. Ignorance is also kind of like being under the influence of drugs, where your thinking is impaired all the time. And the only way to come down and recover from this drug effect, is to educate yourself. Some people have lives that are complex and very demanding. And you would never know that unless you inquire and ask a lot of questions and listen empathetically. But those kind of conversations rarely happen. There are very few real conversations happening in the world. Hate.

Ignorance is not a lifestyle, yet so many people choose ignorance as a lifestyle, without even knowing it.

There are many ways to be smart and many ways to be stupid. In order to progress and to develop you need to increase the number of ways that are known to be smart and decrease the number of ways that are known to be stupid. But just being smart does not cancel out stupid or automatically remove stupid behavior. You have to learn how to be smart and you have to learn how not be be stupid. And when you stop doing stupid things, this does not make you smart. Smart is to continue to stop doing stupid things, while at the same time, replacing stupid things with smart things, especially replacing stupid thoughts with smart thoughts.

I wouldn't just say that someone is ignorant or say that someone doesn't know how to use their brain, because a few words could never effectively describe the inner workings of someone's brain. In order to have a more accurate description of someone's thinking, you would have to define the information and the evidence that controls their reasoning, and also controls the output of that particular persons decisions. Could the person confirm that their interpretation of the information is accurate? Could the person describe the sequence of thought processes that were used to determine their understanding? And does the person know the difference between having an answer and having an opinion? If all schools taught students about the human mind and how it works and all its capabilities, then every student could easily answer these questions, just as long as their vocabulary is large enough and that the person has all the skills necessary to use their language effectively and efficiently. A genius who can't tie their own shoes.

Confusion is the state of being bewildered or unclear in one’s mind about something.

Confused is the failure to understand; unable to think with clarity or act intelligently. Being perplexed by many conflicting situations or statements; filled with bewilderment. Unable to think clearly, without order or sense. Make unclear, indistinct, or blurred. Not clearly defined or easy to perceive or understand. Disturbance of normal functioning. Brain Fog.

Confusion is disorder resulting from a failure to behave predictably. A mental state characterized by a lack of clear and orderly thought and behavior. An act causing a disorderly combination of elements with identities lost and distinctions blended. A mistake that results from taking one thing to be another.

Confound is to cause surprise or confusion in someone, especially by acting against their expectations. Mixing up something with something else so that the individual elements become difficult to distinguish.

Scatterbrained is being disorganized and lacking in concentration. Having a lack of common sense and discretion or the inability to judge wisely and objectively without external influences.

Obfuscation is confusion resulting from failure to understand. The activity of obscuring people's understanding, leaving them baffled or bewildered. Darkening or obscuring the sight of something.

Enigmatic is something having an unprovable or unapparent meaning or something hard to understand. Someone mysterious or puzzling who is lacking clarity of meaning, sometimes causing confusion or perplexity. Resembling an oracle in obscurity of thought.

Puzzled is to be confused or perplexed and unable to think clearly. To be uncertain about something and not fully understand something and unable to decide.

Bewilderment is confusion resulting from failure to understand.

Discombobulate is to confuse someone and cause them to be unable to think clearly because something lacks clarity of meaning. Something bewildering or perplexing.

Ill-Informed is someone not having a lot of knowledge especially about current news and events. Someone lacking adequate or proper knowledge or information. Someone who has opinions that are not based on facts or evidence.

Out of Touch is lacking knowledge or information concerning current events and developments. Not having the latest knowledge about a subject, situation, or the way people feel. No longer conversant with something. Lacking in awareness or sympathy and understanding. To lose touch with reality means to lose that connection with reality. Daryl Hall & John Oates - Out Of Touch (youtube).

Confound is something confusing or perplexing and causes you to be unable to think clearly. To mistake one thing for another.

Perturbed is to be thrown into great confusion or disorder. Disturb in mind or make uneasy or cause to be worried or alarmed.

Messed Up is being confused or disturbed or screwed up.

Mess is a state of confusion and disorderliness. Informal term for a difficult situation.

Unfathomable is something difficult to understand or measure.

Chaos is a state of extreme confusion and disorder.

Misconception is a view or opinion that is incorrect because it's based on faulty thinking or a misunderstanding. An incorrect conception or an incorrect abstract or general idea inferred or derived from specific instances.

Scientific Misconceptions are commonly held beliefs about science that have no basis in actual scientific fact. Scientific misconceptions can also refer to preconceived notions based on religious and cultural influences. Many scientific misconceptions occur because of faulty teaching styles and the sometimes distancing nature of true scientific texts.

Over Reacting because of an assumption that you made is the worst kind of ignorance. When your whole life is based on assumptions, you don't have a life.

Almost everyone's view of the world is some what shallow and narrow minded. No one sees the whole picture or understands enough about the world, or knows enough about any particular subject in order to be considered an expert. Our education systems are not educating people enough, or is the media informing people enough, but that does stop people from pretending to know what's going on. Everyone is a know it all until they have to explain what they know. That's when they realize that their bullshit is bogus, or they just deny that their bullshit is bogus, after all, they're full of shit.

Bogus is something fraudulent or having a misleading appearance.

Bullshit is to speak insincerely or without regard for facts or truths. Informal statements or beliefs that are untrue or make no sense.

illogical is lacking sense or clear, sound reasoning. Lack of connection or continuity. Disconnected. Not Logical.

Harebrained is being rash, ill-judged and having or showing little sense. Being reckless, flighty, giddy or rash. A heedless person having a brain like a hare's.

Rash is marked by defiant disregard for danger or consequences. Imprudently incurring risk. A series of unexpected and unpleasant occurrences.

Ill-Judged is not giving careful consideration.

Foolish is being devoid of good sense or judgment. Having or revealing stupidity. Not the same as being insane.

Foolishness is the lack of wisdom and failing to make proper careful choices. In this sense, it differs from stupidity, which is the lack of intelligence. An act of foolishness is called folly. Foolish talk is called stultiloquence. Risk.

Simpleton is a person whose foolish actions are the subject of often-repeated stories. Simpletons are also known as noodles, fools, and gothamites.

Moron is a person of subnormal intelligence.

Touron is a derogatory term combining the words "Tourist" with "Moron" to describe any person who, while on vacation, commits an act of pure stupidity. The term is considered park ranger slang that describes how some tourists act stupid when entering a national park. The phrase indicates an act of ignorance and is known to be used in different subcultures. It is also used to describe tourists in general when they are outside their normal "comfort zone" act stupid without reasoning.

You're Stupid Stupidity is having a poor ability to understand or an inability to profit from experience. A behavior marked by defiant disregard for danger or consequences. Stupidity is a lack of intelligence, understanding, reason, wit or sense. Stupidity may be innate, assumed or reactive – as with a defense against grief or trauma. Stupid is having or showing a lack of intelligence or having very little common sense.

"I'm not saying that you're stupid, I'm just saying that you have bad luck when it comes to thinking."

"Genius has it limits, but stupidity has no limits."

"I'm not saying that I'm smarter than you, it's just that you're really dumb."

Dumb is taking more than usual time to learn or understand; lacking intellectual acuity. Devoid of good sense or judgment.

Unintelligent is having a low level of intelligence or lacking intelligence. Vaccine for Ignorance.

Infantile is indicating a lack of maturity. Of or relating to infants or infancy. Being, befitting or characteristic of an infant.

Imbecile is a stupid person. A person of subnormal intelligence. Having a mental age of three to seven years.

Feeble Minded is someone who is unable to make intelligent decisions or judgments. Lacking in sense or clear direction. Having less than average intelligence. Feral.

knucklehead is a stupid person or a person of questionable intelligence. The term is in reference to the size of the brain being given relative size of a human knuckle. Similar to pinhead, which is something very small or insignificant or a very dull or stupid person or a fool.

Absurd is inconsistent with reason, logic or common sense. Incongruous; inviting ridicule. A situation in which life seems irrational and meaningless.

Wisdom does not come with age, wisdom comes from learning. I type every day but after many years I'm still a slow typer. I spell words every day but I still miss spell words. Learning needs to be deliberate and learning also needs to have effective methods that shows clear results and measurable progress. If you want to be good at something, just doing it is not enough, you have to learn skills in the right way that continually makes you improve over time. If not, then you will not be as skilled as you can be or ever be as wise as you can be. To Know or Not to Know?

"A Fool thinks of himself as being wise, a Wiseman knows himself to be a fool." Shakespeare (1564-1616).

"Real knowledge is to know the extent of one's own ignorance." Confucius (551 BC – 479 BC).

"Your fear of looking stupid is making you look stupid." Stigma.

I wasn't Thinking or I wasn't Thinking Straight is to say that you were not thinking clearly enough in order to be aware of all your choices, so you did not use good judgment in your planning. And now you have to apologize for your mistake or apologize for your lack of thinking. People have good working brains, it's just that they have very little knowledge and information to work with. It's like having a powerful computer and you just use it to play video games. This wasted potential is what's causing most of our problems. Going no where fast is just as bad as not knowing where you're going, especially when you could be going the wrong way and you don't even know it. No purpose, no awareness, no life.

Necessity and Sufficiency are implicational relationships between statements. The assertion that one statement is a necessary and sufficient condition of another means that the former statement is true if and only if the latter is true. That is, the two statements must be either simultaneously true or simultaneously false. Fallacy.

Ignoramus is an ignorant person. Degrees of Ignorance - Narrow Minded.

Jerk is a dull stupid fatuous person. Jerk can also mean to pull or move with a abrupt sudden movement.

Fatuous is showing a lack of intelligence or thought. Someone who acts stupid and silly.

Agnotology is the study of culturally induced ignorance or doubt, particularly the publication of inaccurate or misleading scientific data.

Clueless is having no knowledge, understanding, or ability.

Contradictions - Trick Questions - Paradox - Doubt - Bias

Every person who is a scumbag is also ignorant, but not every ignorant person is a scumbag. Not knowing enough and not having enough knowledge does not make you a bad person, because all people are born good. What makes a person bad is when they pretend that they know enough and then force their ignorance on other people. Toxic Leadership.

Ignorance of the Law. "ignorance of the law excuses not", "ignorance of law excuses no one", Ignorantia juris non excusat is a legal principle holding that a person who is unaware of a law may not escape liability for violating that law merely because one was unaware of its content. Willful blindness cannot become the basis of exculpation. This makes being ignorant illegal. Pretending not to know something is just as dangerous as pretending that you do know something. Denial can only take you so far. Insanity Defense.

Ignorance is similar to not understanding a magic trick, you can be easily fooled and can also be gullible and naive.

Test for Ignorance. There should be a test for ignorance. An ignorance test should have easy questions, like, "did you vote for donald trump?" If your answer is yes, then you are definitely ignorant, and possibly a threat. If you are an anti-mask person or ignorantly believe that masks don't work, then you are a freaking moron and possibly a threat. But that's only one thing that a person may be ignorant about. So we must not lay judgment or jump to conclusions or profile anyone. To know and understand someone, you would have to ask many questions. One test requirement should be that the person should write things they know as being factual and things that can be proven. Of course, no vague answers will be excepted. The person will be allowed to write some of their opinions and personal beliefs, things that they know that helps to shape and influence their world view, and also controls their decision making. So what happens when a person realizes how ignorant they are? They change and adjust their consciousness to match the reality that was invisible to them. Luckily, ignorance is not a life sentence. There is a cure, it's called educating yourself. To protect yourself from ignorance you need to be inoculated with knowledge. A low IQ may confirm a lack of cognitive abilities, but it will not confirm how ignorant you are about certain things. An ignorance test will help you determine the areas of knowledge that you lack. So no blame, no shame, and no pain, just feed the brain, if not, you may go insane or wane down the drain. Knowledge is the cane that keeps you steady and the chain that keeps you connected and linked. So stay on the learning train and let the knowledge rain. No one wants to be ignorant, but when you stop educating yourself, you are then choosing to stay ignorant for the rest of your life. So you are ignorant by consent. Which means that you give up most of your rights and freedoms, and at the same time, cause other people give up most of their rights and freedoms through conformity. When your ignorance causes you to act like an asshole, then you know that something is seriously wrong, and your thinking is seriously flawed. Start learning my friend. Being an ignorant asshole is no way to go through life.

Lack of Knowledge is where loopholes and corruption exists, inside the void where knowledge should be.

Ignorance is Bliss is only acceptable when the knowledge that you lack does not do any harm to yourself or to others. If you do not know about something, you may not have to worry about it, but you still may be responsible for the damage it causes. You may be more comfortable and happier not to know certain things, but of course it's all relative. Being unaware of something unpleasant may be fine for you, but it will not be good for the victims who are aware of the unpleasantness and suffer from it.

Beliefs - Fear of the Unknown - Pretending to Know

I wish I didn't know that. This statement is not the question or the answer. The correct answer would be "I wish I knew more about having the answer to that question. But now that I know the question, I can now start looking for the answer, like the thousand times I did before."

Blissful Ignorance Effect is when people who have good information about a product are not expected to be as happy with the product as people who have less information about it. This happens because the person who bought the product wants to feel like they have bought the right thing. However, if the person already knows how the product works they have a tougher time trying to justify the product to themselves if it has any problems. This effect illustrates how consumer's goals subsequently change after they have made their purchases. People crave for precise, detailed information in their decision-making stage. However, after making a choice, priorities shift as people want to be contented with their decision. In order to achieve this, information vagueness possibly increases content and acceptance of that decision by concealing the full picture and justifying the decision made. In an experiment to test the blissful ignorance effect, two groups were created and told information about a product. The first group was told about the manufacturer's claims and given research from an outside company, the second group was given minimal information about the product. At the end of the experiment the subjects were interviewed and the researcher found that the subjects in the second group had expected the product to perform better than the first group had.

'I'd rather not know': Why we choose ignorance. When given the choice to learn how their actions will affect someone else, 40% of people will choose ignorance, often in order to have an excuse to act selfishly, according to new research.

Whether people inform themselves or remain ignorant is sometimes due to three factors. People choose whether to seek or avoid information about their health, finances and personal traits based on how they think it will make them feel, how useful it is, and if it relates to things they think about often, finds a new study. Most people fall into one of three 'information-seeking types': those that mostly consider the impact of information on their feelings when deciding whether to get informed, those that mostly consider how useful information will be for making decisions, and those that mostly seek information about issues they think about often, according to the findings published in Nature Communications.

Rational Ignorance is refraining from acquiring knowledge when the cost of educating oneself on an issue exceeds the perceived potential benefit that the knowledge would provide. But how would you know that Mr. Dumbass? (oxymoron?).

Proof by Contradiction is a form of proof, and more specifically a form of indirect proof, that establishes the truth or validity of a proposition. It starts by assuming that the opposite proposition is true, and then shows that such an assumption leads to a contradiction.

Invalid Argument - Fallacy - Irony - Paradox

Law of Noncontradiction states that contradictory statements cannot both be true in the same sense at the same time, e.g. the two propositions "A is B " and "A is not B " are mutually exclusive. It is the second of the three classic laws of thought.

Law of Excluded Middle states that for any proposition, either that proposition is true or its negation is true. It is the third of the three classic laws of thought.

Myopia is being near-sightedness or short-sightedness. (you can't see what is right in front of your face).

Inadequate Education - Make Minds Deficient. - Savants (special needs).

Lack Behavioral Control - Resulting from an Inadequate Education. Confusion.

Crippled is being deprive of strength or efficiency; make useless or worthless. Having inaccurate beliefs can cripple the mind.

Thick Headed is someone who is unintelligent and stupid. Stubborn.

Empty-Headed is someone who is unintelligent and foolish.

Half-witted is someone who is foolish or stupid. Insane

Idiotic is something or someone who is very stupid.

Dead in the Head is a phrase that describes a person who never seeks knowledge or learns anything new and valuable. So they are dead in the head because their brain can never progress or develop into a living intelligent mind. A person who stops learning, stops living.

Changeling is a person of subnormal intelligence or a child secretly exchanged for another in infancy.

7 Degrees of Stupid - First Degree of Stupid. Stupid is a person whose actions are counterproductive to themselves and to others. They do things for no apparent reason and those things are damaging to other people, while bringing no benefit to the person themselves. The Stupid person does not do stupid things deliberately or maliciously. He is not deliberately trying to create disorder, but the essence of his being is to generate disorder all around him. He often appears to do things independently without talking to other people, and does things for no apparent reason. He is not even trying to generate a beneficial outcome, and when confronted often has difficulty explaining why he did a certain thing. Second Degree of Stupid. The Stupid Person always breaks things. Understand that “things” can be physical objects, organizations, systems, software, processes or relationships. The core competency of the Stupid Person is to bring disorder to all things around him. A smart person constantly brings order to the things around him, but the Stupid Person brings disorder. The stupid person is not trying to bring disorder, but it is just the fundamental output of all his actions. Third Degree of Stupid. The stupid person will always Maximize Disorder. It is not enough to just create disorder, he will always Maximize Disorder. That means that he will always break something at the worst possible place at the worst possible time. This characteristic is what allows him to always Maximize the Disorder around him. Again, there is no particular reason the Stupid Person did the damaging thing they did. They do them without talking to people first, and for no apparent reason. Fourth Degree of Stupid. Let us define a function I(x) which is the overall impact that results from a person’s actions. Consider it, if you will, the ripples that are generated from a person’s actions. Fourth Degree of Stupid states that: I(Stupid) >> 10*I(Genius). In words, this is saying that the negative impact of one Stupid Person greatly outweighs the positive impact of 10 Geniuses. The disorder brought by one Stupid Person in an organization can easily eliminate the positive impact of many very smart people. Fifth Degree of Stupid. A Stupid Person has an uncanny knack of convincing other people that their way of doing things is right. The smart person knows that the Stupid Person is suggesting something that is wrong and will bring disorder, but some peculiar aspect of the Stupid Person’s nature is that he can convince people that his ideas should become the Standard Operating Procedure for the organization. The smart person will warn that the Stupid Person’s idea will bring utter disorder to the organization, yet the Stupid Person’s way is always adopted. Then when utter disaster occurs, the smart person is blamed, since his negativity, unwillingness to support the new direction, and argumentativeness must have been the reason for the disorder. Sixth Degree of Stupid. Not only will a Stupid Person never have a good idea, but the Stupid Person is not able to recognize a good idea when it is put in front of him. He has an ability to ignore facts, data and logic to continue to believe that his way is right, despite the disorder it is bringing to the organization. It is almost impossible to force a Stupid Person to do things the right way. On some occasions, he might be forced to do things the right way, but he will always go back to doing things the Stupid Way at the worst possible place and the worst possible time. Again, this ensures that he continues to maximize disorder in the organization around him. Seventh Degree of Stupid. The Geographical Extent of the actions of a Stupid Person will always be much greater than the Geographical Extent of the actions of a Smart Person. A smart person will come to work and face a set of tasks he must do. He realizes that by grouping the tasks in a certain order, he will not have to retool as often, and hence can complete his work most efficiently (High Degree of Order). His Smart Actions have limited geographical impact. The impact is usually limited to his immediate cubicle, or potentially to people in adjacent cubicle.

You need knowledge, because if you don't have much knowledge, you can't think much, or do much, or be much. But if you have money, you can be a very popular moron, but you still can't think much. Even If you use money to buy access to knowledge, it won't guarantee that you'll learn anything valuable or important and become intelligent. Because access to knowledge is not the same as acquiring knowledge or learning. You can pay someone to learn for you, but you will still be a moron who can't think much or be much. So you will never be anyone of value or importance, just someone with money, and sadly for some idiots, money is enough, at least they think it is, because they can't think much.

Mutilation is an injury that causes disfigurement that deprives you of an important body part or function.

Years of Potential Life Lost is also related to the years that are lost from being ignorant, or doing ignorant things. The Disability-Adjusted Life Year or DALY is a measure of overall Disease Burden, with the disease being ignorance in this case.

Dissonance - Contradictory Beliefs

Cognitive Dissonance is the mental stress or discomfort experienced by an individual who holds two or more contradictory beliefs, ideas, or values at the same time; performs an action that is contradictory to one or more beliefs, ideas, or values; or is confronted by new information that conflicts with existing beliefs, ideas, or values. The discomfort is triggered by a situation in which a person’s belief clashes with new evidence introduced to that person. To reduce the psychological discomfort, the person either changes their mind to restore mental balance and emotional harmony, or the person makes up illogical excuses and ignores information that they don't agree with.

Cognitive Inertia refers to the tendency for beliefs or sets of beliefs to endure once formed. In particular, cognitive inertia describes the human inclination to rely on familiar assumptions and exhibit a reluctance and/or inability to revise those assumptions, even when the evidence supporting them no longer exists or when other evidence would question their accuracy.

Cognitive Distortion are exaggerated or irrational thought patterns that are believed to perpetuate the effects of psychopathological states, especially depression and anxiety. Cognitive distortions are thoughts that cause individuals to perceive reality inaccurately. Cognitive distortions are biases that can increase misery, fuel anxiety, and make a person feel bad about themselves.

Distorted is to make something false by mutilation or by addition like with propaganda. Having an intended meaning altered or misrepresented.

Targeted Marketing - Flawed Reasoning

Dissonance is a conflict of people's opinions, actions or characters. Dissonance is also a musical term that means a lack of harmony among musical notes, but can also mean a tension or clash that results from disharmonious or contradictory components. The auditory experience of sound that lacks musical quality; sound that is a disagreeable auditory experience. Disagreeable sounds.

Illusory Superiority is a cognitive bias whereby individuals overestimate their own qualities and abilities, relative to others.

Inflated Ego - Over Confidence - Privileged - False Consensus - Confirmation Bias

Dunning Kruger Effect is a cognitive bias in which low-ability individuals suffer from illusory superiority, mistakenly assessing their ability as much higher than it really is. Dunning and Kruger attributed this bias to a metacognitive inability of those of low ability to recognize their ineptitude and evaluate their ability accurately.

Illusion of Explanatory Depth describes our belief that we understand more about the world than we actually do, or is an observed psychological effect where people tend to believe they understand a topic better than they actually do. It has been described as a cognitive bias, and as an illusion. Illusion of Superiority - Privilege.

Better-Than-Average-Effect is the tendency for people to perceive their abilities, attributes, and personality traits as superior compared with their average peer.

Pretending to know - Diplomas - Testing

Over Claim is to claim too much of something. To exaggerate or over estimate something.

Denial - Self-Deception - Patronizing - Condescension

Suspension of Disbelief or willing suspension of disbelief has been defined as a willingness to suspend one's critical faculties and believe the unbelievable; sacrifice of realism and logic for the sake of enjoyment.

Shadow in psychology is an unconscious aspect of the personality which the conscious ego does not identify in itself. Because one tends to reject or remain ignorant of the least desirable aspects of one's personality, the shadow is largely negative, or the entirety of the unconscious, i.e., everything of which a person is not fully conscious.

Psychological Projection is when humans defend themselves against their own unconscious impulses or qualities (both positive and negative) by denying their existence in themselves while attributing them to others. For example, a person who is habitually rude may constantly accuse other people of being rude. It incorporates blame shifting.

Being ignorant is more than the basic definition describes. When awareness becomes distorted, our understanding becomes distorted.

The Emperor Wears No Clothes or The Emperor Has No Clothes, is often used in political and social contexts for any obvious truth denied by the majority despite the evidence of their eyes, especially when proclaimed by the government.

The Emperor's New Clothes is used in reference to a situation in which people believe or pretend to believe in the worth or importance of something that is worthless, or fear to point out an obvious truth that is counter to prevailing opinion. Bandwagon.

Cognitive Tests (assessments)

Cart before the Horse used to suggest something is done contrary to a conventional or culturally expected order or relationship. A cart is a vehicle which is ordinarily pulled by a horse, so to put the cart before the horse is an analogy for doing things in the wrong order. The figure of speech means doing things the wrong way round or with the wrong emphasis. The idiom is about confusing cause and effect. The meaning of the phrase is based on the common knowledge that a horse usually pulls a cart.

Why Most Adults don't want to Learn or Listen.

Even the Scarecrow had no idea what to do if he had a brain, so don't feel bad. If I Only Had a Brain - The Wizard of Oz (1939) (youtube) - I could while away the hours, Conferrin' with the flowers, Consulting with the rain; And my head I'd be a scratchin', While my thoughts are busy hatchin', If I only had a brain.

Fallacies - You Could Be Wrong

Fallacy is a mistaken belief, especially one based on unsound argument. It's an incorrect argument in logic and rhetoric which undermines an argument's logical validity. Fallacies are a misconception resulting from incorrect reasoning.

List of Fallacies (PDF) - Ignorance - Memory Flaws - False Memories - Assumptions - Invalid Arguments - Bias - Factions

Fallibilism is knowing that human beings could be wrong about their beliefs and expectations, or be inaccurate in their understanding of the world.

Disillusionment is a feeling of disappointment resulting from the discovery that something is not as good as one believed it to be.

"Some people may react to hearing a fallacy by simplify responding "That's Bullshit!" But of course you have to explain what the bullshit is, or you end up looking like an idiot, because you just responded to a fallacy using another fallacy. So your bullshit is bullshit." Misleading Information.

Fallible is something likely to fail or to make errors. Human Error - Bias.

Fallacy is like having a fantasy. You naively believe that your reasoning is accurate, but the reality is you're just fantasizing. So you are either lying to yourself or deceiving others, or just pretending that you know, because you have no proof. It's OK to have fantasies, just don't try to convince other people that your fantasy is real.

Flawed Reasoning Fallacy

Logical Fallacy is a pattern of reasoning rendered invalid by a flaw in its logical structure that can neatly be expressed in a standard logic system, for example propositional logic. An argument that is formally fallacious is always considered wrong. A formal fallacy is contrasted with an informal fallacy, which may have a valid logical form and yet be unsound because one or more premises are false.

False Equivalence - Invalid Arguments - Generalizing - Fantasizing - Assuming

Falsifiability is a statement, hypothesis, or theory with the inherent possibility that it can be proved false.

Fallacious is doing something that is intended to deceive. Based on an incorrect or misleading notion or information. Based on a fallacy.

Anecdotal fallacy is using a personal experience or an isolated example instead of sound reasoning or compelling evidence.

Formal Fallacy is a pattern of reasoning rendered invalid by a flaw in its logical structure that can neatly be expressed in a standard logic system. An argument that is formally fallacious is always considered wrong. A formal fallacy is contrasted with an informal fallacy, which may have a valid logical form and yet be unsound because one or more premises are false.

Informal Fallacy occurs when the contents of an argument's stated premises fail to adequately support its proposed conclusion.

False Dilemma is a type of informal fallacy in which something is falsely claimed to be an "either/or" situation, when in fact there is at least one additional option. Neither Yes or No.

Association Fallacy asserts, by irrelevant association and often by appeal to emotion, that qualities of one thing are inherently qualities of another. Two types of association fallacies are sometimes referred to as guilt by association and honor by association.

Fallacy of Composition arises when one infers that something is true of the whole from the fact that it is true of some part of the whole (or even of every proper part). For example: "This fragment of metal cannot be fractured with a hammer, therefore the machine of which it is a part cannot be fractured with a hammer." This is clearly fallacious, because many machines can be broken apart, without any of those parts being able to be fractured.

Continuum Fallacy is an informal fallacy closely related to the sorites paradox, or paradox of the heap. The fallacy causes one to erroneously reject a vague claim simply because it is not as precise as one would like it to be. Vagueness alone does not necessarily imply invalidity.

Contradictions - Prejudice

Scientific Misconceptions are commonly held scientific beliefs that have no basis in actual scientific fact. Pseudoscience - Science Fraud.

Delusion is a belief that is held with strong conviction despite superior evidence to the contrary. Delusional Disorder - Disillusioned.

Suspicion is a cognition of mistrust in which a person doubts the honesty of another person or believes another person to be guilty of some type of wrongdoing or crime, but without sure proof. Suspicion can also be aroused in response to objects that negatively differ from an expected idea.

Self-Affirmation states that if individuals reflect on values that are personally relevant to them, they are less likely to experience distress and react defensively when confronted with information that contradicts or threatens their sense of self.

Stubborn is the unwillingness to admit to a wrongdoing. Refusing to move or to change one's opinion; obstinate; firmly resisting, even when present with facts that prove they are wrong. Anger - Denial.

Passive-Aggressive Behavior is the indirect expression of hostility, such as through procrastination, stubbornness, sullen behavior, or deliberate or repeated failure to accomplish requested tasks for which one is (often explicitly) responsible.

Narrow-Minded is lacking tolerance or flexibility of ones own opinion or belief.

Insanity - Emotional Problems

Shadow psychology is the unknown dark side of your own personality.

People fail to see themselves - Self-Deception - Self Smart

Categorical Syllogism is a kind of logical argument that applies deductive reasoning to arrive at a conclusion based on two or more propositions that are asserted or assumed to be true.

Memory Errors

Appeal to the stone is dismissing a claim as absurd without demonstrating proof for its absurdity.

Accident Fallacy: Cutting people with knives is a crime. Surgeons cut people with knives. Surgeons are criminals.

List of Common Misconceptions corrects erroneous beliefs that are currently widely held about notable topics. Each misconception and the corresponding facts have been discussed in published literature. Note that each entry is formatted as a correction; the misconceptions themselves are implied rather than stated.

Base Rate Fallacy is a formal fallacy. If presented with related base rate information (i.e. generic, general information) and specific information (information only pertaining to a certain case), the mind tends to ignore the former and focus on the latter. Base rate neglect is a specific form of the more general Extension neglect.

"Condemnation without investigation is the height of ignorance." ~ Albert Einstein

Framing Effect is an example of cognitive bias, in which people react to a particular choice in different ways depending on how it is presented; e.g. as a loss or as a gain. People tend to avoid risk when a positive frame is presented but seek risks when a negative frame is presented. Gain and loss are defined in the scenario as descriptions of outcomes (e.g. lives lost or saved, disease patients treated and not treated, lives saved and lost during accidents, etc.)

Blinkers are a piece of horse tack that prevent the horse seeing to the rear and, in some cases, to the side.

Myopia causes distant objects to be blurry while close objects appear normal.

Discrimination - Mistrust of Intellect - Intellectual Disabilities

Bounded Rationality is the idea that when individuals make decisions, their rationality is limited by the available information, the tractability of the decision problem, the cognitive limitations of their minds, and the time available to make the decision. Decision-makers in this view act as satisficers, seeking a satisfactory solution rather than an optimal one.

Interference Theory occurs in learning when there is an interaction between the new material and transfer effects of past learned behavior, memories or thoughts that have a negative influence in comprehending the new material. Bringing to memory old knowledge has the effect of impairing both the speed of learning and memory performance. There are two main kinds of interference: proactive interference (see Proactive learning), retroactive interference (see Retroactive learning). The main assumption of interference theory is that the stored memory is intact but unable to be retrieved due to competition created by newly acquired information. Error.

Selective Perception is the tendency not to notice and more quickly forget stimuli that cause emotional discomfort and contradict our prior beliefs. Bias.

Monothematic Delusion is a delusional state that concerns only one particular topic.

Satisficing is a decision-making strategy or cognitive heuristic that entails searching through the available alternatives until an acceptability threshold is met.

The Problems with trying to Teach Adults

Opinions - Validity - Popularity - Labels

Cognitive Neuroscience - Cognitive Decline

Ignorance is the Worlds Largest Killer

Prejudice - Discrimination - Knowledge Gap

A foolish faith in authority is the worst enemy of the truth."

Ignorant people can be easily fooled by the media and other sources of propaganda. (Twisted Logic).

Ignorant people are more susceptible to mental health problems, physical health problems, anger and crime.

Devolution is the notion that species can revert into more "primitive" forms over time.

Compensation in psychology is when a person covers up, consciously or unconsciously, weaknesses, frustrations, desires, or feelings of inadequacy or incompetence in one life area through the gratification or drive towards excellence in another area.

Generalizing - Not Providing Enough Information

Generalization is when you are being vague because your statement lacks the specifics or the necessary details that are needed in order to clarify the meaning of what you are saying. Not being specific enough leads to meaningless chatter and misunderstanding.

If I have to ask several questions in order to understand what a person is saying and what their statement or comment means, then the person giving that statement or comment either knows very little about what they are saying or they're trying to manipulate you with trick questions, like they do with most surveys.

Hasty Generalization reaching an inductive generalization based on insufficient evidence. Making a hasty conclusion without considering all of the variables.

Ambiguity - Surface - Labels - Fallacies - Invalid Arguments

Faulty Generalization is a conclusion about all or many instances of a phenomenon that has been reached on the basis of just one or just a few instances of that phenomenon. It is an example of jumping to conclusions.

Generalities or Generalizing or just being General is when you are not specifying anything in particular.

Enigmatic is something that is not clear or understood. Pretending to know things.

Barnum Effect is the tendency to accept certain information as true, such as character assessments or horoscopes, even when the information is so vague and general that it could apply to almost anyone.

Sound bite is a brief snippet of recorded speech or a short clip of speech or music extracted from a longer piece of audio, usually used in the context of news reporting or often used to promote or exemplify the full length piece. In the context of journalism, a sound bite is characterized by a short phrase or sentence that captures the essence of what the speaker was trying to say, and is used to summarize information and entice the reader or viewer, or to force people to guess or assume what the meaning of the snippet of information is. Due to its brevity, a sound bite can often overshadow the broader context in which it was spoken, and can be misleading or inaccurate. The insertion of sound bites into news broadcasts or documentaries is open to manipulation, leading to conflict over journalistic ethics. Out of Context.

Inconclusive Statement is saying something that is Not Conclusive and does not put an end to Doubt or Question. A statement that dose not explain enough in order to define the actions that are needed to come to a particular understanding. When there is no follow up, or rebuttal, then the amount of mistakes will increase. Witness.

Concision is a neatly short expression using just a few words when writing or speaking. Something's cannot be accurately explained using just a few words.

Intimations is an indirect suggestion and a slight suggestion or vague understanding.

You can say almost anything about anything. But until you specify something or define something, and also give a particular scenario that explains what you are trying to say, then you're not saying anything, and basically you're just making assumptions and accusations. You have to learn how to complete a sentence in order to express an idea fully. You also have to learn how to ask questions and stop pretending that you understand things. If things are relative, then make it relative.

Availability Heuristic is a mental shortcut that relies on immediate examples that come to a given person's mind when evaluating a specific topic, concept, method or decision.

Bias - Flawed Reasoning

Using just labels can also be Generalizing because things and words can have more them one meaning.

When statements are too general they can be easily misinterpreted or misused, like when people interpret religious text so that they can exploit its meaning and pretend supports an extremist view or ideology.

Exploit is to manipulate something to one's advantage.

Manipulate is to alter something in a fraudulent manner for the purpose of deception. To falsely or secretively, or dishonestly and shrewdly or deviously change the meaning of something.

To Say the Least means that more can be said about something, but was not.

Needless to Say means of course or that something goes without saying.

"If you can't explain it simply, then you don't understand it well enough." - Albert Einstein

Media News Language Distortions - Fallacies

In a Nutshell means to say something in a few words without going into much needed details, like a description of a movie or a book. A summary.

Too many people spend their entire life summarizing things and generalizing things. People never take the time to understand things or take the time to truly know things. Too many people never try to see the bigger picture, they would rather pretend to know something then take the time and the effort to actually know and understand something, especially knowing things accurately and seeing things objectively. People sum things up in few words and pretend to be saying something, when in fact, they say very little, as if they're saying nothing at all. Language needs to go beyond the superficial. Language should take us deep through all the layers of understanding. Shallowness is not a human trait, it is a failure of education.

Assuming - Jumping to Conclusions

Emotional Ignorance Assume is to take something to be the case or to be true without verification or proof. Accepting something without any evidence. To be arrogant or presumptuous. To make a pretense of something, or expecting something. To take liberties or to act with too much confidence. Used for the purpose of argument to indicate a premise on which a statement can be based.

Presumptuous is another word for assuming.

Presuming is to believe something to be true without verification or proof. To take liberties or act without permission with too much confidence.

Preconceived Notion is an opinion formed beforehand without adequate evidence. A personal belief or judgment that is not founded on proof or certainty. A prejudgment or prejudice that has no valid reason.

"Personal interpretations that are mostly assumptions is where all the ignorance begins. The first three letters in assumption spells ass, so don't be an ass."

Negative Association is when someone hears a word and pretends to know what it means by associating the word with something negative without having any proof, evidence or verification. Making an illogical correlation based on an ignorant belief or assumption.

False Equivalence - Fallacies - Fair Trial

Presupposing is to take something for granted or as a given. To suppose beforehand. To Guess.

False Accusations - Slander - Frivolous - Perjury - Rumors - Pretending to Understand - Bias

Presupposition is an implicit assumption about the world or background belief relating to an utterance whose truth is taken for granted in discourse.

Pretense is the act of giving a false appearance or pretending with intention to deceive. A false or unsupportable quality.

Supposition is a message expressing an opinion based on incomplete evidence. A hypothesis that is taken for granted.

Surmise is to infer something from incomplete evidence and to imagine something to be the case or to be true or probable. A message expressing an opinion based on incomplete evidence.

Speculation is forming of a theory or conjecture without firm evidence. Speculation is a legal basis for objecting to witness testimony on grounds similar to the argumentative objection — because the evidence is not considered reliable or factual. A witness' testimony is limited to their personal knowledge of events, estimating is allowed, but most opinions are not.

Informed Speculation is being aware of something that is not proven or not verified.

Imply is to suggest a possibility that something is true. Express or state indirectly.

Implicit is something implied though not directly expressed; inherent in the nature of something. Implicit.

Implicature is something the speaker suggests or implies with an utterance, even though it is not literally expressed. Implicatures can aid in communicating more efficiently than by explicitly saying everything we want to communicate. This phenomenon is part of pragmatics, a subdiscipline of linguistics.

Beliefs - Unjust - Invalid Argument - Trick Questions - Over Reacting - Blame Shifting

Alleged is being accused of having done something wrong or illegal but not yet proven guilty. Declared but not proved. Doubtful or suspect. Someone who is under suspicion. The act or an instance of suspecting something on little or no evidence.

Some people take information and just run with it, without ever stopping to think it through. Learning the wrong thing at the wrong time can be dangerous. Assuming is a normal human response, it's just when you assume things, what things you assume, and why you assume things that makes all the difference.

Barking up the Wrong Tree means to pursue a mistaken or misguided line of thought or course of action.

Modus Ponens is when someone believes that if "P implies Q and P is asserted to be true, therefore Q must be true?"

Guilty by Association is not Always True (false evidence) - Correlation does not Prove Causation.

Famous Last Words is when someone makes a statement that is shown very soon, and in an embarrassing way, to be wrong. An ironic comment on or a reply to an overconfident assertion that may well be proved wrong by events. A statement or claim that is promptly undone or disproved.

Not all assumptions are bad, because we need to make theories. But if your theory has no goal, or if you have no proof other than a theory, then that is the worst kind of assumption to make. Having an assumption that has no benefit, no goal, no purpose, and if your assumption does more harm than good, then you're just making things up, like a liar. Slander.

Expectation in epistemic is the belief that something will happen without considering the possibilities that it will not happen, thus being unprepared when the expected reality does not happen like you thought it would.

Conviction is an unshakable belief in something without need for proof or evidence.

Denial - Lying - Fallacy - Exaggerating

Condemnation is an expression of strong disapproval; pronouncing as wrong or morally culpable.

Media Literacy - Relevance - Smart One Way

Superstition is the belief in supernatural causality—that one event causes another without any natural process linking the two events.

People jump to conclusions, they incriminate, they judge, and all without any hard evidence, or confirmed information, or anything that is remotely relevant that would help them prove that their reasoning is even accurate. Blowing hot air, a temper tantrum, just another ignorant remark from the peanut gallery, a waste of human language, and time.

Jumping to Conclusions is when someone judges or decides something without having all the facts. To reach unwarranted conclusions.

Don't Jump the Gun means to not start something before it is permissible, appropriate, or advisable. The phrase comes from starting to run in a foot race before the starting gun goes off, which causes you start the race over or be disqualified.

List of Common Misconceptions can be misleading in themselves.

Retro-Causality is any of several hypothetical phenomena or processes that reverse causality, allowing an effect to occur before its cause.

Caveat is a warning or an assumption of specific stipulations, conditions, or limitations. A statement that limits or restricts some claim. Caveat in law is a formal notice filed with a court or officer to suspend a proceeding until filer is given a hearing, or that certain actions may not be taken without informing the person who gave the notice.

When people assume, they make up stories and pretend they know the facts, and they make other people believe by gossiping this pretend made up story, even when they have very little facts. This behavior is idiotic. People should focus more on each other and learn how to verify facts, and learn to fully understand ourselves and other people.

Everyone needs to learn how to stop assuming that they know more than someone else. We have to stop pretending to have conversations that never happened. Talking to yourself is not the same thing as talking to the actual person. The art of conversation is the opportunity to make a connection, to work together in mind. We have to stop wasting time and energy, and life. We have this incredible ability to communicate and use language, but we don't even teach this, why?

Motivated Reasoning is an emotion-biased decision-making phenomenon studied in cognitive science and social psychology. This term describes the role of motivation in cognitive processes such as decision-making and attitude change in a number of paradigms, including: Cognitive dissonance reduction, Beliefs about others on whom one's own outcomes depend, Evaluation of evidence related to one's own outcomes. Motivated Reasoning (PDF).

Bias - Favoring in Advance

Bias is favoring something in advance that prevents objective consideration of an issue or situation. Judging in a way that is closed-minded, prejudicial, or influenced in an unfair way. An attitude of mind where a person favors one alternative over others without considering the pros and cons. An inclination to favor one group or view or opinion over alternatives with any debate or evidence. A predisposition to like something without fully understanding why. An inclination beforehand to interpret statements in a particular way, but not necessarily in the most accurate way. A disposition in advance to react in a particular way. The state of being susceptible and easily affected by misinformation. A natural or acquired habit or characteristic tendency in a person or thing. A characteristic likelihood of or disposition toward a certain condition or character or effect. A feeling of favorable regard. Consider as the favorite. Promote over another. Give preference to one over another. Personal biases can prohibit critical thinking because they prevent the thinker from being fair, inquisitive and open-minded. This kind of thinking can also prevent an individual from using experience, reasoning and common sense to make informed decisions.

Cognitive Bias - Confirmation Bias - Emotional Reasoning - Bigotry - Pretending to Understand - Cherry Picking Data - Flawed Reasoning - Illusion of Control - Popularity - Information Bubble - Standards

Selective Reasoning is when a series of arguments or claims is made and the opponent acts as if the weakest argument was the best one made.

Selective Attention is focusing your attention on certain aspects of the argument while completely ignoring or missing other parts.

Selective Perception is the tendency not to notice and more quickly forget stimuli that cause emotional discomfort and contradict our prior beliefs. Selective perception is the process by which individuals perceive what they want to in media messages while ignoring opposing viewpoints.

Motivated Reasoning or motivational bias is an unconscious or conscious process by which personal emotions control the evidence that is supported or dismissed.

Beliefs - Illusion of Control - Flawed Reasoning - Half Truth

When you don't like someone, you are less likely to believe what they say and you will be more critical about what they say. When you like someone, you are more likely to believe what they say and you will be less critical about what they say.

Previous experience creates a bias, but only if the person engages their higher processing powers by responding, as opposed to simply observing.

Contraction Bias describes the process by which our memory of the magnitude of a stimulus is biased towards the average of past observations.

Set in psychology is a group of expectations that shape experience by making people especially sensitive to specific kinds of information. A perceptual set, also called perceptual expectancy, is a predisposition to perceive things in a certain way. Perception can be shaped by "top-down" processes such as drives and expectations.

Negativity Bias is a cognitive bias that results in adverse events having a more significant impact on our psychological state than positive events. Negativity bias occurs even when adverse events and positive events are of the same magnitude, meaning we feel negative events more intensely. Negativity bias or negativity effect, things of a more negative nature (e.g. unpleasant thoughts, emotions, or social interactions; harmful/traumatic events) have a greater effect on one's psychological state and processes than neutral or positive things, even when of equal intensity. Pessimist - Emotionally Blunt.

Don't Judge a Book by its Cover, and don't judge information totally by its source. Don't use barriers when receiving information. You should use filters that are based on logic, and not use filters based on preconceived notions that are vague. Putting up barriers will lower your chances of learning things that may be extremely important, which will decrease your odds for success and lower your chances in life, and you only have so many chances in life, so don't waste them on a foolish ego. You need to keep learning, and stop pretending that you have learned enough. People sometimes only believe the things that they think are true, and don't believe the things that they think are false, and they do this without facts or evidence. Some people only like to agree with information that they feel comfortable with, and they don't like to agree with information that they don't feel comfortable with. Bias is an ignorant or lazy persons way of pretending to understand the meaning of certain information. Some people just don't want to take the time to learn something, which means that they have no facts or evidence, and they only have assumptions based on feelings. If you can't explain what you mean or explain what you think you understand, then you don't know what you mean and you don't understand. Pretending to understand is dangerous. Asking questions and learning the truth is what people should do, because it's the only sure way to understand. Your not doing anyone any good living in a fantasy world. You're most likely hurting yourself and hurting other people around you. That sounds catchy, is that my shoulder angle?

Partiality is a predisposition to like something. An inclination to favor one group or view or opinion over alternatives.

Predisposition is a disposition in advance to react in a particular way. An inclination beforehand to interpret statements in a particular way.

Inclination is an attitude of mind when you favor one alternative over others. A characteristic likelihood of or natural disposition toward a certain condition or character or effect. A person's natural tendency or urge to act or feel in a particular way. Disposition or usual mood. Propensity or behave in a certain way. Not to be confused with Intuition.

Preference is having a strong liking or a predisposition in favor of something. Liking for one alternative over another or others.

Preferential involves giving preference or partiality or constituting a favor or privilege.

A new study found that people given accurate statistics on a controversial issue tended to misremember those numbers to fit commonly held beliefs.

Bias is not an excuse for your behavior, bias is a word that describes something wrong and illogical with your thinking.

People's motivations bias how they gather information. A new study suggests people stop gathering evidence earlier when the data supports their desired conclusion than when it supports the conclusion they wish was false.

U.S. Political Partisanship affects first impressions of faces. Disclosing political partisanship of photo subjects strongly affected impressions of likeability and competence. In an experimental study, participants' first impressions of photos of strangers' faces were strongly influenced by disclosure of the stranger's political partisanship.

Dichotomize is to regard or represent something as divided or opposed. To divide into two opposing groups or kinds.

Arbitrary is based on or subject to individual discretion or preference or sometimes impulse or caprice or a sudden desire. (technical) having any value or form, of any degree or extent.

Everyone is biased to a certain degree, but it is the things that people are biased against that makes certain biases so damaging, illogical and wrong. It's never just an opinion.

Mere-Exposure Effect is a psychological phenomenon by which people tend to develop a preference for things merely because they are familiar with them. In social psychology, this effect is sometimes called the familiarity principle. The effect has been demonstrated with many kinds of things, including words, Chinese characters, paintings, pictures of faces, geometric figures, and sounds. In studies of interpersonal attraction, the more often a person is seen by someone, the more pleasing and likeable that person appears to be. Self-Deception.

Cognitive Bias refers to a systematic pattern of deviation from norm or rationality in judgment, whereby inferences about other people and situations may be drawn in an illogical fashion. Individuals create their own "subjective social reality" from their perception of the input. An individual's construction of social reality, not the objective input, may dictate their behavior in the social world. Thus, cognitive biases may sometimes lead to perceptual distortion, inaccurate judgment, illogical interpretation, or what is broadly called irrationality. List of Cognitive Biases (wiki)

Confirmation Bias - Motivation - Stimulus

Illusion of Choice is a cognitive bias that causes people to believe they have more control over their lives than they actually do. The illusion of choice is often used in advertising and marketing to make people feel like they are in control of their purchase decisions. Illusion of Control - Flawed Reasoning.

Cognitive Bias Mitigation is the prevention and reduction of the negative effects of cognitive biases – unconscious, automatic influences on human judgment and decision making that reliably produce reasoning errors.

Attribution Bias is a cognitive bias that refers to the systematic errors made when people evaluate or try to find reasons for their own and others' behaviors. People constantly make attributions regarding the cause of their own and others' behaviors; however, attributions do not always accurately mirror reality. Rather than operating as objective perceivers, people are prone to perceptual errors that lead to biased interpretations of their social world. Attributions is assigning some quality or character to a person or thing. Assigning to a cause or source. Prior Probability is when an uncertain quantity is the probability distribution that would express one's beliefs about this quantity before some evidence is taken into account. Cherry Picking Data.

Subjective Validation is a cognitive bias by which a person will consider a statement or another piece of information to be correct if it has any personal meaning or significance to them. In other words, a person whose opinion is affected by subjective validation will perceive two unrelated events (i.e., a coincidence) to be related because their personal belief demands that they be related. Closely related to the Forer effect, subjective validation is an important element in cold reading. It is considered to be the main reason behind most reports of paranormal phenomena.

Response Bias also called survey bias, is the tendency of a person to answer questions on a survey untruthfully or misleadingly. For example, they may feel pressure to give answers that are socially acceptable. A general term for a wide range of cognitive biases that influence the responses of participants away from an accurate or truthful response. These biases are most prevalent in the types of studies and research that involve participant self-report, such as structured interviews or surveys. Response biases can have a large impact on the validity of questionnaires or surveys.

Barnum Effect is the observation that individuals will give high accuracy ratings to descriptions of their personality that supposedly are tailored specifically for them but are, in fact, vague and general enough to apply to a wide range of people. This effect can provide a partial explanation for the widespread acceptance of some beliefs and practices, such as astrology, fortune telling, graphology, aura reading and some types of personality tests. Self-Deception.

Insensitivity to Sample Size is a cognitive bias that occurs when people judge the probability of obtaining a sample statistic without respect to the sample size.

Confirmation Bias - False Consensus

Illusion of Validity is a cognitive bias in which a person overestimates his or her ability to interpret and predict accurately the outcome when analyzing a set of data, in particular when the data analyzed show a very consistent pattern—that is, when the data tells a coherent story. This effect persists even when the person is aware of all the factors that limit the accuracy of his or her predictions, that is when the data and/or methods used to judge them lead to highly fallible predictions. Illusory Correlation is the phenomenon of perceiving a relationship between variables even when no such relationship exists.

Information Bubble - Echo Chamber - Popularity - Propaganda - Illusion of Superiority - Ego - Privilege - Social Influence - Conformity

Confirmation Bias is a tendency to interpret new information in a way that supports your pre-existing beliefs. People have the tendency to search for, interpret, favor, and recall information in a way that confirms one's preexisting beliefs or hypotheses, while giving disproportionately less consideration to alternative possibilities. We tend to seek out and listen to information that confirms what we already believe. Not only do we disregard contrary ideas, but we also interpret ambiguous ones to fit our beliefs. Confirming our preconceptions feels good. We like to be right. In reality, we can become blind to the truth.

Expert Opinion - Group Decision Making

False Consensus Effect is a cognitive bias whereby people tend to overestimate the extent to which their opinions, beliefs, preferences, values, and habits are normal and typical of those of others because others also think the same way that they do. This cognitive bias tends to lead to the perception of a consensus that does not exist, a "false consensus".

Argumentum ad populum is a fallacious argument that concludes that a proposition must be true because many or most people believe it, often concisely encapsulated as: "If many believe so, it is so". Other names for the fallacy include common belief fallacy or appeal to (common) belief, appeal to the majority, appeal to the masses, appeal to popularity, argument from consensus, authority of the many, bandwagon fallacy, consensus gentium (Latin for "agreement of the people"), democratic fallacy, and mob appeal.

Consensus Reality is that which is generally agreed to be reality, based on a consensus view.

Truth by Consensus is the process of taking statements to be true simply because people generally agree upon them.

Consensus Theory of Truth is the process of taking statements to be true simply because people generally agree upon them.

Attitude Polarization is a phenomenon in which a disagreement becomes more extreme as the different parties consider evidence on the issue. It is one of the effects of confirmation bias which is the tendency of people to search for and interpret evidence selectively, to reinforce their current beliefs or attitudes. When people encounter ambiguous evidence, this bias can potentially result in each of them interpreting it as in support of their existing attitudes, widening rather than narrowing the disagreement between them.

In-Group Favoritism sometimes known as in-group–out-group bias, in-group bias, or intergroup bias, is a pattern of favoring members of one's in-group over out-group members. This can be expressed in evaluation of others, in allocation of resources, and in many other way. Discrimination - Gender Bias sways how we Perceive Competence in Faces.

Propositional Attitude is a mental state held by a person toward a proposition or a statement proposing an idea that can be true or false.

Inference-Observation Confusion. Unwarranted Conclusions. Judges or decides something without having all the facts.

Listening is a Skill - Invalid Arguments

Cultural Consensus Theory is an approach to information pooling or aggregation and data fusion, which supports a framework for the measurement and evaluation of beliefs as cultural; shared to some extent by a group of individuals. Cultural consensus models guide the aggregation of responses from individuals to estimate (1) the culturally appropriate answers to a series of related questions (when the answers are unknown) and (2) individual competence (cultural competence) in answering those questions. The theory is applicable when there is sufficient agreement across people to assume that a single set of answers exists. The agreement between pairs of individuals is used to estimate individual cultural competence. Answers are estimated by weighting responses of individuals by their competence and then combining responses.

Suggestibility is the quality of being inclined to accept and act on the suggestions of others; where false but plausible information is given and one fills in the gaps in certain memories with false information when recalling a scenario or moment. Suggestibility uses cues to distort recollection after persistently being told something pertaining to a past event, one's memory of the event conforms to what they've been told

Discrimination - Media Manipulation - Neurosociety by Pace Art + Technology

Receiving accurate feedback and getting a second opinion is important when you're trying to understand something and also when you're trying to make a good decision. But when you're understanding of something is not totally correct from the beginning, and then when you receive feedback or second opinion that is also inaccurate, then you could incorrectly assume that your understanding is right because others have said the same thing. That's when people make mistakes and that's when people believe things that are false. 

Types of Biases

Selection Bias involves individuals being more likely to be selected for study than others, biasing the sample. This can also be termed Berksonian bias.

Spectrum Bias
arises from evaluating diagnostic tests on biased patient samples, leading to an overestimate of the sensitivity and specificity of the test.

Statistical Bias is a feature of a statistical technique or of its results whereby the expected value of the results differs from the true underlying quantitative parameter being estimated. The bias of an estimator of a parameter should not be confused with its degree of precision as the degree of precision is a measure of the sampling error. Sampling Bias.

Bias of an Estimator is the difference between an estimator's expectations and the true value of the parameter being estimated. Bias of an Estimator of an estimator is the difference between this estimator's expected value and the true value of the parameter being estimated. An estimator or decision rule with zero bias is called unbiased. Otherwise the estimator is said to be biased. In statistics, bias is an objective statement about a function, and while not a desired property, it is not pejorative, unlike the ordinary English use of the term bias. Risk Assessment.

Omitted-Variable Bias is the bias that appears in estimates of parameters in a regression analysis when the assumed specification omits an independent variable that should be in the model.

Statistical Hypothesis Testing is a test that is said to be unbiased when the probability of committing a type I error is less than the significance level, and that of getting a true positive (rejecting the null hypothesis when the alternative hypothesis is true) is at least that of the significance level. (false positive).

Detection Bias occurs when a phenomenon is more likely to be observed for a particular set of study subjects. For instance, the syndemic involving obesity and diabetes may mean doctors are more likely to look for diabetes in obese patients than in thinner patients, leading to an inflation in diabetes among obese patients because of skewed detection efforts.

Funding Bias
may lead to selection of outcomes, test samples, or test procedures that favor a study's financial sponsor.

Reporting Bias involves a skew in the availability of data, such that observations of a certain kind are more likely to be reported.

Outcome Bias is when we judge a decision based on its outcome rather than how exactly the decision was made in the moment. Just because you win a lottery doesn't mean that buying a lottery ticket was a smart decision. Here you are deciding the value of decision after you have seen the outcome.

Analytical Bias arise due to the way that the results are evaluated.

Exclusion Bias arise due to the systematic exclusion of certain individuals from the study.

Attrition Bias arises due to a loss of participants e.g. loss to follow up during a study.

Recall Bias arises due to differences in the accuracy or completeness of participant recollections of past events. e.g. a patient cannot recall how many cigarettes they smoked last week exactly, leading to over-estimation or under-estimation.

Observer Bias arises when the researcher unconsciously influences the experiment due to cognitive bias where judgment may alter how an experiment is carried out / how results are recorded.

Bias Blind Spot is when people tend to think themselves as less biased than other people. It means that by default we remain blind to our own cognitive biases.

What if your bias was based on lies or inaccurate information? Ratings.

There are no Quick Fixes when it comes to repairing our biases. It takes years to learn how to overcome biases, and you have to have discipline and awareness. But even then, there are no guarantees that you will always be accurate. People need to be on a learning journey, and be reminded that this journey should never end. Learning must be part of our daily responsibilities, like eating healthy, drinking clean water, sleeping enough, exercising, and learning something new that will increase your understanding of yourself and the world around you. And remember, there is no finish line or graduation day, only a continuation, something that adds to life and extends life for the better. Live, Learn, Love and Progress.

Introspection illusion is a cognitive bias in which people wrongly think they have direct insight into the origins of their mental states, while treating others' introspections as unreliable. In certain situations, this illusion leads people to make confident but false explanations of their own behavior (called "causal theories") or inaccurate predictions of their future mental states.

Patronizing - Condescension 

Self-Affirmation is how individuals adapt to information or experiences that are threatening to their self-concept.

Properties - Parameters

Bias could also be a way of looking at something using a particular set of parameters or properties. But you can't use the same parameters for everything. Relevance.

Trick Questions - Don't Answer That - No Easy Answer

Suggestive Question is one that implies that a certain answer should be given in response, or falsely presents a presupposition in the question as accepted fact. Such a question distorts the memory thereby tricking the person into answering in a specific way that might or might not be true or consistent with their actual feelings, and can be deliberate or unintentional. For example, the phrasing "Don't you think this was wrong?" is more suggestive than "Do you think this was wrong?" despite the difference of only one word. The former may subtly pressure the respondent into responding "yes," whereas the latter is far more direct. Repeated questions can make people think their first answer is wrong and lead them to change their answer, or it can cause people to continuously answer until the interrogator gets the exact response that they desire. The diction used by the interviewer can also be an influencing factor to the response given by the interrogated individual. Some questions can't be answered with a yes or a no. A yes or no question sometimes needs an explanation, because a simple yes or no answer could be easily misinterpreted.

Testimony - Interrogate - Right to Remain Silent - Surveys - Marketing Tricks - Click Bait - Circles - Testing - Confession - Real Conversations

Leading the Witness is the method of questioning a witness by which the witness is directed to answer the questions in the way that is expected by the attorney. The query suggests to the witness how it is to be answered or puts words into the mouth of the witness. Badgering the witness.

Argumentative Objections are often made when the questions directed to the witness attempt to influence the witness testimony by inserting the attorney's interpretation of the evidence into the question. Speculation.

If the questions are rigged or scripted, and if the questions are intentionally designed not to reveal facts, then you will not get the answers that you need, or receive the answers that you require that would help you to understand the information more accurately. And then there are the people who will refuse to give you a straight answer because they know it will incriminate themselves and reveal their incompetence or their guilt, or it reveal their corrupt abuse of power. If they plead the 5th, then they will reveal their ignorance, or reveal that there is corruption in the justice system.

Coercive Logic is asking questions with only one truthful answer. Possibly the simplest example is “Yes or Yes?”, forcing a ‘yes’ answer. A better example is “Will you answer no to this question?”, which is a yes-or-no question which forces the answerer to lie.

Some questions are hard to answer. And some questions can be intimidating, insulting or suggestive. If a question forces the person answering the question to ask more questions, then that original question should have never been asked. You need to frame a question within the exact context that defines the questions meaning and its relevance. If you don't do this, then the conversation becomes vague and nonsensical, which means that the interpretations will also be vague and nonsensical, and no one will be learning anything of value. People need to have real conversations that have purpose and meaning.

I Do Not Mean to Pry means that you're interested in someone's personal life in a way that can be annoying or offensive. Relationship Questions.

Leading Question is a question that suggests the particular answer or contains the information the examiner is looking to have confirmed. Their use is restricted in eliciting testimony in court, to reduce the ability of the examiner to direct or influence the evidence presented. Depending on the circumstances, leading questions can be objectionable or proper. Leading questions may often be answerable with a yes or no (though not all yes–no questions are leading). A guided question is to direct a path of a conversation. Guided questions get someone thinking. Leading questions bias the path of conversation. Leading questions get someone answering.

Implicature is something the speaker suggests or implies with an utterance, even though it is not literally expressed. Vague.

Loaded Question is a question that contains a controversial or unjustified assumption, like the presumption of guilt. The question attempts to limit direct replies to be those that serve the questioner's agenda.

Double-Barreled Question is an informal fallacy. It is committed when someone asks a question that touches upon more than one issue, yet allows only for one answer. This may result in inaccuracies in the attitudes being measured for the question, as the respondent can answer only one of the two questions, and cannot indicate which one is being answered. Many double-barreled questions can be detected by the existence of the grammatical conjunction "and" in them. This is not a foolproof test, as the word "and" can exist in properly constructed questions. A question asking about three items is known as "trible (triple, treble)-barreled". In legal proceedings, a double-barreled question is called a compound question. Invalid Argument.

Yes or No Question is a question whose expected answer is either "yes" or "no". One that affirms the question and one that denies the question. Contradictions.

Open-Ended Question is a question that cannot be answered with a "yes" or "no" response, or with a static response. Open-ended questions are phrased as a statement which requires a response. The response can be compared to information that is already known to the questioner. (Is there a God?). Open-Ended Questions begin with “why,” “how,” or “what” and require the respondent to provide more than a single-word answer. Unlike close-ended questions that only need a simple “yes” or “no” to answer the question, open-ended questions prompt the respondent to detail their response in a free response format.

Closed-Ended Question refers to any question for which a researcher provides research participants with options from which to choose a response. Open-ended questions are sometimes phrased as a statement which requires a response.

Complex Question is a question that has a presupposition that is complex. The presupposition is a proposition that is presumed to be acceptable to the respondent when the question is asked. The respondent becomes committed to this proposition when he gives any direct answer. The presupposition is called "complex" because it is a conjunctive proposition, a disjunctive proposition, or a conditional proposition. It could also be another type of proposition that contains some logical connective in a way that makes it have several parts that are component propositions. Relationship Questions.

Broad Questions have no answer or have too many possible answers. Narrow Questions have one or more specific answers. A narrow question satisfies most research goals, while a broad question cannot, but good research uses both. The results of narrow questions are easy to analyze because the answers are limited.

Rhetorical Question is a figure of speech in the form of a question that is asked to make a point rather than to elicit an answer. Though a rhetorical question does not require a direct answer, in many cases it may be intended to start a discussion or at least draw an acknowledgement that the listener understands the intended message. A common example is the question "Can't you do anything right?" This question, when posed, is intended not to ask about the listener's ability, but rather to insinuate the listener's lack of ability. Although sometimes amusing and even humorous, rhetorical questions are rarely meant for pure, comedic effect.

You have the Right to Remain Silent because there are some questions that you shouldn't answer, this is because sometimes you don't know how to answer a question accurately enough so that you're not misunderstood. That is when you are better off not answering a question. You can try to have the person define the question more clearly, or you can have them give you a clear real life example of the question so that it's relevant and not general. But that is only if you have time and a place. Silence is Golden just as long as you're not being passive.

Objection is a formal protest raised in court during a trial to disallow a witness's testimony or other evidence which would be in violation of the rules of evidence or other procedural law. List of Objections (PDF).

Direct Examination is one stage in the process of adducing evidence from witnesses in a court of law. Direct examination is the questioning of a witness by the party who called him or her, in a trial. Direct examination is usually performed to elicit evidence in support of facts which will satisfy a required element of a party's claim or defense. In direct examination, one is generally prohibited from asking leading questions. This prevents a lawyer from feeding answers to a favorable witness. An exception to this rule occurs if one side has called a witness, but it is either understood, or becomes clear, that the witness is hostile to the questioner's side of the controversy. The lawyer may then ask the court to declare the person he or she has called to the stand a hostile witness. If the court does so, the lawyer may thereafter ask witness leading questions during direct examination. The techniques of direct examination are taught in courses on trial advocacy. Each direct examination is integrated with the overall case strategy through either a theme and theory or, with more advanced strategies, a line of effort.

Cross-Examination is the interrogation of a witness called by one's opponent. Redirect examination, performed by the attorney or pro se individual who performed the direct examination, clarifies the witness testimony provided during cross-examination including any subject matter raised during cross-examination but not discussed during direct examination. Recross examination addresses the witness' testimony discussed in redirect by the opponent. Depending on the judge's discretion, opponents are allowed multiple opportunities to redirect and recross examine witnesses (may vary by jurisdiction).

Redirect Examination is the questioning of a laws.html#witness who has already provided testimony under oath in response to direct examination as well as cross examination by the opponent. On redirect, the attorney offering the witness will ask additional questions that attempt to rehabilitate the witness's credibility, or otherwise mitigate deficiencies identified and explored by the opponent on cross. For example, the opponent might elicit on cross-examination an admission that the witness did not directly perceive every single part of the events at issue; the proponent will attempt on redirect to establish that the witness perceived enough of those events that the finder of fact can draw reasonable inferences as to the gaps where the witness's perception was obstructed. "Recross" is sometimes allowed, but usually the opposing attorney must ask for permission from the judge before proceeding with that additional round of questioning.

Rebuttal Witness is a witness who is called to rebut testimony already presented at trial.
Rebuttal is a form of evidence that is presented to contradict or nullify other evidence that has been presented by an adverse party. Refute - Scrutinize.

Interrogation is interviewing as commonly employed by law enforcement officers, military personnel, and intelligence agencies with the goal of eliciting useful information. Interrogation may involve a diverse array of techniques, ranging from developing a rapport with the subject, to outright torture. Prisoner Interrogation.

Forced Confession is a confession obtained by a suspect or a prisoner under means of torture (including enhanced interrogation techniques) or other forms of duress. Depending on the level of coercion used, a forced confession is not valid in revealing the truth. The person being interrogated may agree to the story presented to him or even make up falsehoods himself in order to satisfy the interrogator and discontinue his suffering.

False Confession is an admission of guilt for a crime for which the confessor is not responsible. False confessions can be induced through coercion or by the mental disorder or incompetency of the accused. Research demonstrates that false confessions occur on a regular basis in case law, which is one reason why jurisprudence has established a series of rules—called "confession rules"—to detect, and subsequently reject, false confessions. Plea agreements typically require the defendant to stipulate to a set of facts establishing that he/she is guilty of the offense; in the United States federal system, before entering judgment on a guilty plea, the court must determine that there is a factual basis for the plea.

Enhanced Interrogation Techniques is the systematic torture of detainees by the Central Intelligence Agency, the Defense Intelligence Agency and various components of the U.S. Armed Forces at remote sites around the world, including Bagram, Guantanamo Bay, Abu Ghraib, and Bucharest authorized by officials of the George W. Bush administration. Methods used included beating, binding in contorted stress positions, hooding, subjection to deafening noise, sleep disruption, sleep deprivation to the point of hallucination, deprivation of food, drink, and medical care for wounds, as well as waterboarding, walling, sexual humiliation, subjection to extreme heat or extreme cold, and confinement in small coffin-like boxes.

Covert Interrogation is an interrogation technique or the covert questioning of a subject in a neutral public place where people innocuously gather, with the intention of the unsuspecting subject not comprehending that the interrogation is occurring. The covert interrogator may present themselves toward an interrogation subject in a friendly manner, while concealing the ulterior motive of subtly questioning them. In this manner, law enforcement and military agencies can collect intelligence about various suspects, such as criminals and terrorists. Many additional types and techniques of covert interrogation and surveillance exist, and covert interrogation can occur for other various reasons, and by other types of actors. The term covert interrogation also refers to interrogation techniques that may be overt in manner, but are hidden from public, media, governmental, and other types of third-party oversight, for various reasons.

Entrapment - False Evidence - Treason.

Good Cop - Bad Cop is a psychological tactic used in negotiation and interrogation, in which a team of two interrogators take apparently opposing approaches to the subject. One interrogator adopts a hostile or accusatory demeanor, emphasizing threats of punishment, while the other adopts a more sympathetic demeanor, emphasizing reward, in order to convince the subject to cooperate. It is an instance of the Reid technique. he "bad cop" takes an aggressive, negative stance towards the subject, making blatant accusations, derogatory comments, threats, and in general creating antipathy with the subject. This sets the stage for the "good cop" to act sympathetically, appearing supportive and understanding, and in general showing sympathy for the subject. The good cop defends the subject from the bad cop. The subject may feel able to cooperate with the good cop, either out of trust or out of fear of the bad cop and may then seek protection by the good cop and provide the information the interrogators are seeking. The order can also be reversed. When performed in this manner, the good cop will try to gain a subject's trust. If that fails, the bad cop will intimidate the subject to make them crack under pressure. The disadvantage of this technique is that it can be easily identified, and the "bad cop" may alienate the subject.

Grilled or to grill someone means to ask a person really intense questions in order to examine them thoroughly, especially when they are suspected of doing something wrong.

Meaning - Lie - Truth

Deposition in law involves the taking of sworn, out-of-court oral testimony of a witness that may be reduced to a written transcript for later use in court or for discovery purposes. They are almost always conducted outside court by the lawyers themselves, with no judge present to supervise the examination. Depositions are a part of the discovery process in which litigants gather information in preparation for trial. In nations that do not provide for depositions, testimony is usually preserved for future use by way of live testimony in the courtroom, or by way of written affidavit. Some jurisdictions recognize an affidavit as a form of deposition, sometimes called a "deposition upon written questions." While in common law jurisdictions such as England and Wales, Australia, and New Zealand recording the oral evidence of supporting witnesses ('obtaining a statement') is routine during pre-litigation investigations, having the right to pose oral questions to the opposing party's witnesses before trial is not.

Discovery in law is a pre-trial procedure in a lawsuit in which each party, through the law of civil procedure, can obtain evidence from the other party or parties by means of discovery devices such as interrogatories, requests for production of documents, requests for admissions and depositions. Discovery can be obtained from non-parties using subpoenas. When a discovery request is objected to, the requesting party may seek the assistance of the court by filing a motion to compel discovery.

You sometimes have to help and guide people to ask the right questions because some people don't know the right questions to ask and when to ask them. Asking a question is not just innate, asking a question is a skill, which many lawyers and judges will tell you. It's not just understanding the question, it's understanding that there is not always just one answer. And this ability to understand beyond the question and see beyond the answer is something that is learned from knowledge and information. Having knowledge allows you to see deeper, allows you to see more layers, allows you to see the bigger picture, allows you to be more in control and be more focused. Some people need an intervention when it comes to learning and communication, because they may not always learn it on their own. It takes more than just experience.

Riddle: A man and his son were in an automobile accident. The man died on the way to the hospital, but the boy was rushed into surgery. The emergency room surgeon said "I can't operate, that's my son!" How is this possible? Answer: The surgeon was his mother.

The worst thing about assuming is that people ask a question when what they are really doing is making an accusation and a judgment in the form of a question, because they assume that they know the answer. So it's not a question, but an accusation and a judgment without a trial, or without debate. Presumptuous questions can either be balanced or unbalanced. Unbalanced questions ask questions only from the point of view of one side of an argument. For example, an interrogator might ask “’Do you favor the death penalty for persons convicted of murder?”’ This question assumes that the person’s only point of view in the situation is that a person who is convicted must either get the death penalty or not. The second type of presumptuous question is balanced question. This is when the interrogator uses opposite questions to make the witness believe that the question is balanced when the reality is that it is not. For example, the interrogator would ask, “’Do you favor life in prison, without the possibility of parole?” This type of question may seem balanced when in reality it is still influencing the person to discuss life in prison and no other choice. Seeing the Whole Picture.

Communication Styles

Abstract: Effects of misleading questions and hypnotic memory suggestion on memory reports: a signal-detection analysis. In 2002, the first author and colleagues reported data indicating that both hypnosis and misleading questions decreased the accuracy of memory reports and decreased "don't know" response rates, that the effects of misleading questions were significantly greater than those of hypnosis, and that the two effects were additive. Using a sample of 194 undergraduate students, the present study replicated the findings that misleading questions reduce accuracy and "don't know" responding but failed to replicate the negative effect of hypnosis on memory reports. Signal detection analysis indicated that misleading questioning produced decreased sensitivity accompanied by higher response bias, though affecting sensitivity more than producing a criterion shift. National Criminal Justice Reference Service.

Phil Mickelson speaks with the media about all of the controversies he has been involved with regarding LIV Golf ahead of the 2022 U.S. Open and why he entered LIV Golf ahead of 2022 U.S. Open (FULL PRESSER) | Golf Channel (youtube) - Phil shows how to answer questions repectfully.

It's Not Unusual Not to Understand Something

It's not unusual for someone not to understand something the first time that they look at it. But if you don't understand something, why would you make assumptions and jump to conclusions and pretend to know something? Is it that people forget? Do people forget that it's not unusual for someone not to understand something the first time that they look at it? You should know enough about things in order to filter information effectively, because lying to yourself and pretending to know something will only keep you in the dark, and ignorance is a dark and empty place. But ignorance is not a lonely place, because there are plenty of other ignorant people around who will make you believe that your ignorance is normal. A false consensus can be more damaging than the ignorance itself. Misinformation can be as deadly as cancer, and slowly eat away everything that is human and leave an empty shell where nothing can live.

I'm not always be smart, but at least I don't pretend to know things. I ask questions and keep my mind open.

Most people are not aware of how much they still don't know. Most people know very little about themselves and the world around them. And they don't even know this because they never learned the knowledge that's needed to understand just how much they still don't understand. If a person never educates themself, then they will never be aware of how much they still don't know. And they will continue to live in a fantasy world were they pretend that they know enough and believe that they have enough knowledge. So they rule their imaginary world as if it were real. Never realizing the knowledge and information that they are missing in their life. This is why knowledge and information needs to be accessible, and easy to consume. If knowledge and information tasted good and also made you feel good and look good, then every person in the world would find it extremely easy to be in love with learning. So a logical incentive is all a human needs. Something that would motivate them and inspire them to learn something valuable and beneficial. A reward based Knowledge that produces immediate results. But this can only be accomplished when you provide the necessary knowledge and information that would help people to understand what incentives and rewards are used for. People need to understand the things that will help them to understand. People cannot utilize knowledge and information if they never learned how to utilize knowledge and information. So what exactly is knowledge and information. knowledge and information is the potential energy that is in every human being. But in order to have access to this power, you have to learn the right things at the right time. And you also have to have access to the world most valuable knowledge and information that the world has to offer, and you have to be shown how to effectively and efficiently use knowledge and information, so that you would receive the maximum benefits from knowledge and information, and increase your awareness about yourself and the world around you, and also have more control, more freedom, more power, more potential, and more possibilities...

People are not stupid, people just don't have enough knowledge and information in order to accurately understand themselves and the world around them. To say someone one is stupid because they did not learn something that you know, is stupid. To expect people to know something that you know, is stupid. You cannot assume to understand someone's thinking, you should just inquire. Ask a question as if you are talking to a Machine.

It's really difficult when there are so many ignorant people, mentally challenged but functional. So they can appear to be normal, but they are far from normal, they cause more harm then good, because they can only act functional temporally, the rest of the time they are causing damage. But the damage goes unnoticeable to most people, so the damage continues, which is extremely crazy. We need to remove these people from their important positions and replace them with more competent people, while at the same time, get these nonfunctioning people the help that they need.

I have to stop being surprised and irritated by peoples ignorance, no one is to blame for their own stupidity, because we know where the problem lie's, and that is our education. We need to drastically improve education, and the media, so that all citizens are completely educated and informed. Otherwise this ignorance will continue to kill us and cause us problems till the day we die, and that my friend is the future that I'm trying to stop from ever happening, and not just for me, but for the trillions of people who will have to live after me. If life is a cycle, then you better get on this bike with me, because we have a lot of peddling to do. Knowledge Peddler's Unite.

In order to become intelligent, the first thing that you need to do is to realize how ignorant you are. You can read all the best books in the world and go to the best colleges, but if you are not educating yourself on the things that make you ignorant, and if you're not taking the necessary steps to reduce ignorant actions and thoughts, then you will always be ignorant, even though you are very knowledgeable and educated. Being smart is more then not being stupid. It's a combination of many different skills and it's acquiring specialized knowledge over many years.

Ignorance in itself has an unusual side effect of blinding the person from their own ignorance. So how does a person realize that they are ignorant when it’s the ignorance itself that keeps them from realizing that they are ignorant? Think about when you see a doctor and the doctor tells you that you have been diagnosed with a disease, a lot of people would say that they never knew that they were sick. Anton Babinski Syndrome  So there has to be a way to diagnose Ignorance. We need some way to communicate or a test that will say to that person that their thinking is not accurate without saying that they are stupid, because I don’t think that anyone is stupid, it's just that some of us are not thinking correctly. There's a big difference between being stupid, and doing stupid things. Most people have some level of intelligence, it's just that most people are not always using their intelligence at the right time or in the right way. We have to understand that people are not born bad, they are simply brought up badly and thus become a bad person. That's why most people in Prison have very little education as well as very poor reading and writing skills. So people are not born ignorant, they are just brought up ignorantly and thus become an ignorant person. Now ignorant does not mean that you are stupid. You can have a High IQ (Intelligence Quotient) and still be ignorant. To explain this lets first define ignorance. Though the definition of ignorance is usually defined a ‘ person who is ‘Uneducated in general, lacking knowledge or sophistication, Unaware because of a lack of relevant information or knowledge’. That is the more common definition that I do not totally agree with. I would like to define ignorance as a ‘ person who lacks a common sense that keeps oneself from separating opinion from fact, a person who dismisses information solely based on preference, a person who assumes without questioning, and a person who has difficulty formulating information in order to obtain a logical answer. This to me is a more accurate meaning of the word ignorance. I wonder if I could have the dictionary updated to include this definition or just replace the old definition with the one above, unless of course there is a better word in the dictionary for what is described above. Now some of you are still wondering how can you have a high IQ and still be ignorant. To me an IQ test is not a measure of intelligence but more of a test to measure ones brain function. If a persons IQ is high then their ability to process information and access their memory is exceptional, thus their brain is functioning properly. A person with a high IQ should be nurtured very carefully so that their ability is not stifled and at the same time their brain is not overwhelmed with useless information. A person with a low IQ will be treated the same way, but they will need extra special attention to get their brain functioning like a person with a high IQ. So if you use my definition of ignorance you will find that there are people with high IQ’s who are ignorant. They can process information, but they still have trouble with separating opinion from fact and sometimes can still dismiss information solely based on preference. I have not yet met an intelligent person. I have met some really smart people but I would not consider them intelligent.

First, you have to admit that you can be wrong about things. Second, you have to admit that you don't know enough about yourself and the world around you. Then and Only then will you be able to effectively learn to increase your understanding about yourself and the world around you. There is one extremely important thing that you need to commit to, and that is learning. Otherwise, you will be ignorant till the day you die.

If you don't know how ignorant you are every day, then that's another day that you didn't learn anything. And those days can easily and quickly turn into years.

Too many people just pretend that they know enough about themselves and the world. That means that millions of people are living in a fantasy world of make believe. Almost totally oblivious of the reality of this world, or the impact that they have on themselves and other people. And the only way for people to escape this quasi reality, is to learn what things in life are reality. Things that have been proven, things that have been experienced. And one of the most important things that a person needs to do first is to admit how ignorant they are about themselves, and how ignorant they are about the world around them. And the only way to know how ignorant you are, is to learn and study knowledge that would reveal how ignorant you are, because ignorance does not reveal itself. They say that being stupid doesn't hurt, like ignorance is bliss. That's a lie, because being stupid does hurt, you just don't know it because you're stupid. And the only way to know how much you're hurting yourself and other people, is to learn why. And one of the best ways to learn is by reading. But you can't read just anything because that would also be stupid. You have to seek out the exact knowledge that you need that would help increase your understanding of yourself and the world around you. You have to take learning seriously, because everything depends on it, everything. Everything.

When it comes to Child Prodigies, I look at them as being normal and everyone else being abnormal or just not aware of their potential, just yet. It’s really hard to measure intelligence because to me intelligence must be proven in many ways that would clearly define a person as being intelligent. People have estimated that there are over 3 million academically gifted students in the United States alone, which is an ignorant observation, because everyone has the potential to be so called gifted. The single largest disability that every child has is not having a school that understands knowledge and intelligence. This goes beyond Undermatching or Tracking. The U.S. is not just Neglecting Its Smartest Kids, but all kids. Todays schools produce more Intellectual Disabilities then they do Intellectual abilities, and the reason that you don't know this is because you have an Intellectual Disability. When smart kids do poorly in school, that proves schools are flawed.

Young females limit their own progress based on what they believe about their intelligence called the "bright girl effect". Growth mindset describes the underlying beliefs that people have about learning and intelligence. When students believe they can get smarter, they understand that effort makes them stronger.

Some areas of intelligence are linguistics intelligence, math intelligence, music intelligence, spatial intelligence, self intelligence and so on.

Take any person from any continent on this planet, and everyone will say that they would prefer to be strong then weak. It's a humans natural instinct t to be strong, humans would never choose to be weak, but that is exactly what we have done with our education system. We have a very weak education, which creates weak minds. And a weak mind doesn't know its weak, because it is to weak to figure it out. Education Blog.

Unlightneing "Knowledge will forever govern ignorance; and a people who mean to be their own governors must arm themselves with the power which knowledge gives." - James Madison (the fourth president of the United States from 1809 to 1817). Father of the Constitution.

"The only way to become intelligent is to first admit that you are ignorant in some ways, and then and only then, does the journey towards intelligence begin...It's impossible to know all the answers, especially when you don't even know the questions."

"The fool doth think he is wise, but the wise man knows himself to be a fool". - (Act V, Scene I).
As You Like It 1599

"You don't know what you do not know, until you know what you did not know."

Judy Collins - Both Sides (youtube)

"Intelligence is not a destination, Intelligence is a path that you take, and staying on this path is to be intelligent."

"Intelligence is being aware of all the things that you still don't know but making the effort to know them, while using all the things that you do know, effectively as possible. Humans need to feed the brain as well as their stomachs, we need to be hunters and gatherers of knowledge. And we need to preserve all the valuable knowledge that we find and create. We certainly don't want to end up like previous civilizations, dead and gone with very little records to explain why."

"I wouldn't call people ignorant or incompetent, people just lack the intelligence and the necessary skills that are needed to run their life or to do their job effectively or efficiently. Improving education and training will help solve this problem."

I'm just revealing how ignorant someone's behavior is, not all behaviors are bad, just the behaviors that cause damage and suffering. Some people take offense to having their ignorance revealed, like they feel bad for finding out that they were wrong about something, or having someone find out about a horrible secret they have been hiding, something embarrassing, something shameful. So Why do some people see learning as something negative and tedious?

I didn't want to be the one to tell you this, but since no one else has, I guess I'm stuck with this job of having to inform you. Don't blame the messenger, because no one is to blame, until tomorrow that is. Maybe you will forget what you have learned today, so maybe I will have to remind you again tomorrow, I hope not. I hope we keep learning. A better world is waiting for us, but it will not wait forever. And this is not just about our time, our flash in the pan, this is about all time, and the time that trillions upon trillions of future generations who will either have to endure life or have the pleasure to enjoy life, this choice is ours now, and tomorrow. I choose enjoy. No one should ever have to suffer and endure from other peoples behavior. No one. Learning needs to be the new fad, the new relish. There is tremendous amount of pleasure that comes from learning. Everyone should be benefiting from learning. But when some people can't learn because they don't have access, or they refuse to learn, then they haven't learned the most important thing about learning, which is, you learn everyday, if not, you will struggle, and in that struggle is when people make most of their mistakes, mistakes that do most of damage.

"I work around a lot of things, especially my own ignorance, because if you can't get passed your own ignorance, you're screwed."

"I have experienced things and learned from them even before I knew what they were. Meaning that, you do not necessarily have to have a language to explain something in order to learn from something, that is the brilliant design of the brain. Just like having instincts."

Your brain is like an 8 cylinder engine. When your brain finally starts to run on 6 cylinders, you then realize that your brain has been only running on 2 cylinders for several years. And now that you're running on 6 cylinders, you can now improve and progress so that you will eventually be running on all 8 cylinders, meaning that you will eventually have full access to the power of the human mind.

I'm Still an Idiot Sometimes, but not as much as I used to be

I'm still an idiot sometimes, but I'm way less stupid than I used to be. This is because I'm always educating myself. I have made a lot of improvements, but I still have a lot more improvements to make. I'm always discovering more ways to do what is right, but I first had to realize what I was doing wrong. I can be smart most of the time, but I can still be stupid sometimes. But I'm a lot less stupid than I use to be, which is extremely liberating. Having acquired valuable knowledge and information by educating myself for the last 15 years has been a life changer. I'm still the same person, and I still have my good quality's like a good sense of humor, but now I'm a better version of myself, an updated model. I have more control and more awareness, and I have  less stress and less internal chaos. My main goal now is to continue to educate myself, and at the same time, continue to reduce the amount of ignorance within myself. I can still be stupid once in a while, but now I quickly learn from it and move on. In the past I tried my best to do my best, but I was not always successful. But I kept learning and I kept educating myself. So now I am more successful at being my best, but I still make mistakes, so I'm far from perfect. But at least now I know how to learn from my mistakes, and I also know now that I still have a lot more to learn. So perfection is not so far off. Once you start the process of self examination, you are starting an amazing journey. Making a commitment to never stop learning about yourself and the world around you is something that everyone needs to do. But you need to avoid being consumed by all the problems, and being consumed by all the advancements. You need balance. You need to live, learn, love and progress. But what is live? Thinking has bought you here and has made your life possible, but can you understand the importance? The fact that you have the most amazing thing called the brain, should be enough to explore its inner workings. You live because of the environment that you grew into, it helped you to live. Now its time to find out where this love is coming from. When things go bad it's not about hate, its about information going bad. That is why we have correcting data error software, which is another word for learning, where we learn that mistakes happen, so we need to correct them. You can't be aware of everything or plan for everything, but you can increase your odds of success by continually learning and paying attention to change, and the evidence of changes to come. The one major advantage that humans have is that we can see the future. This is what life needs to have in order to survive. And seeing the future has nothing to do with sight or sound, only the patterns learned from sight and sound, which do not have to be experienced, only learned or read. That is the human advantage. If I did not tell you to turn left instead of turning right, you would have made a wrong turn and gone down a dead end road or driven off a cliff. Informing people is more then just saving people time, it's also about reducing mistakes.

I know enough about intelligence to know that I'm not intelligent yet. And I also know enough about intelligence to know that no one else is intelligent either. Intelligence is a destination that I'm working on, and I hope that intelligence would be everyone's destination too, because I don't want to be intelligent all by myself, because that wouldn't be intelligent. I'm not smart, I only look smart because most everyone else is not smart. So I would never say that I'm smart just because I'm compared to other people who may not be as smart as me. Comparison is not an accurate measurement of intelligence.

I Know too much, but still not enough. I see the obstacles and the crimes, but I don't know enough to over come them just yet. This is why I keep learning.

Knowing dumb people doesn't make you smarter. Recognizing other peoples ignorance doesn't make you smarter. Being able to explain why something is ignorant or wrong, and at the same time, avoiding similar ignorant behavior, is the only way to be smarter, but only smarter in that particular way. Because you can be smart in some ways, and stupid in other ways.

After 16 years of educating myself, I know more about things now then ever before. But I also know that there is still a lot more I still don't know. The more you know, the more you see, and the more you see the things you still don't know. The more you learn, the more you realize that you still haven't learned enough. What keeps me learning is the things I have learned so far. I'm not discouraged by what I don't know. As long as I can keep educating myself, I know I will eventually understand more and more, and that is exciting.

The more you know about something, the better you will understand that something. But just because you know more about something, this doesn't mean that you're an expert, or does it mean that you're not misinterpreting what you know, thus not correctly understanding what you think you know.

Even the most intelligent person will still have flaws and still make mistakes. So knowing that this is a fact, and knowing that I have not yet reached a high level of intelligence, I can easily say that I most definitely have flaws and I most definitely still make mistakes. But the best part is, I am more aware of my flaws and I also know when I make mistakes, which means that I have a chance to correct my flaws, as well as, learn from my mistakes, thus increasing my level of intelligence as time goes on. The only path to intelligence is progress, which includes continuous learning and constantly reading and studying.

Are you smart? I am smart in many of ways, but not so smart in other ways. This is because being smart is an on going process of learning and acquiring more knowledge and information that would help me define what being smart is. The smartest way a person can be smart is that they are dedicated to learning and developing.

Every person is intelligent in their own way and every person is intelligent about a particular subject, and every person has knowledge and information that is valuable. When we work together, we can utilize our unique intelligences by combining our intelligences to solve complex problems. We create intelligence when we work together. No one is intelligent by themself, but when we combine our intelligences, we become an intelligent species and an intelligent system. But our system has flaws and vulnerabilities, because there are not enough people working together as a coherent cohesive synchronized focused whole. 

In 2008, when I started to do research on ways to improve education, I discovered that education needs a lot of improving. And as I dug deeper into this research, I realized that I was part of the research and have also become patient zero. As I found ways to improve education, I simultaneously found ways to improve myself, and I am more aware of the many improvements that I still need to make in myself. I was infected with the disease called ignorance. But know my immunity to ignorance has become a lot stronger, which does not mean that I am safe from being re-infected by ignorance, it means that I have better protections from ignorance, more then the general public. I am living proof that certain knowledge and information can have incredible benefits. But explaining this is extremely difficult, but not impossible, after all, knowledge makes the impossible possible. I could say that the research speaks for itself, but research does not speak for itself, research needs a speaker and an interpreter. Then research needs is an educated listener, one who can comprehend the research and put the research into action.

Before 2008, I was ignorant about a lot of things, and a lot of times I had no control over my own ignorance. I'm still ignorant about certain things, but I know what I'm ignorant about, so I'm more in control now, not total control, but more in control now than I was before, and will be more in control in the future, and also be less ignorant because I'm continually educating myself. I thought I knew enough at 48, but I was wrong, I was an idiot. And the only reason that I knew that I was wrong was because I started to educate myself in a new and different way. I focused on the most valuable knowledge and information that I could find, and then I used all this knowledge and information in the most effective ways possible. And I'm just beginning.

One side effect of becoming more educated, is that I can see more ignorance in others and in myself. But noticing my own ignorance is a good thing. because I can correct my own ignorance, but correcting the ignorance of others is difficult, especially when the person doesn't think that they're ignorant. If we can't educate people to understand how ignorant they are, then we are not educating people. If a person can't tell fact from fiction, they will never effectively understand themselves or the world around them.

A Genius who can't Tie his own Shoes.

"The common curse of mankind, - folly and ignorance". - (Act II, Scene III). Troilus and Cressida - 1602

I was the idiot who didn't know any better, but I wanted to know better, but I didn't know how. So I'm sorry it took so long, after all, I was an idiot. But now I'm less of an idiot, which means I can continually improve and become even smarter than I am now.

I'm not a Genius, but genius is definitely influencing me. Things are happening in this world that are just too incredible to be happening all on their own. There is a driving force beyond our comprehension and beyond our earthbound abilities. There are millions of instructions encoded in everyone's DNA. And you don't have to tell your DNA what to do because the instructions have already been written along with the exact moments that these instructions are supposed to be activated and put into effect. So if knowledge and information is already imbedded inside our DNA, then what would be the knowledge and information we should have stored in your brain? Everyone is born with instincts, but we are not born with knowledge and information in our brains. But we are born with a brain that stores and processes enormous amounts of knowledge and information. And where is the operating system and the programs that the brain needs to operate effectively and efficiently?

Everyone is infected with some form of ignorance, even me. But it's the level of ignorance and the amount of ignorance that a person has that will ultimately determine the amount of damage that a person will do to themselves, or to others, or to the world. Ignorance kills more people than all causes of death combined, and the reason why we hardly ever hear anything about the worlds biggest killer is because the media and the education system does not want to make us aware of this fact. So when we finally do realize how ignorant we all are, that's when learning will finally become extremely important and a lot more meaningful then ever before. It's an epiphany and the great awakening all rolled up into one.

What are the smartest countries in the world, the answer is none. People who do rankings are incredibly ignorant and criminal, especially when they use math and science test scores as a predictor of good outcomes. Ignorant people cannot measure intelligence, especially when they can't even measure their own ignorance.

A Genius Who Can't Tie His Own Shoes

Everyone is capable of being a genius who can't tie their own shoes. People can be smart in one way, but not so smart in other ways. People can be ignorant in one way, but not so ignorant in other ways. Being a genius in one or two areas in your life does not necessarily mean that you're a genius in other areas of your life. You've learned certain things, but you did not learn other things. Anyone is capable of a genius action, but that doesn't make someone a genius. Just because someone has more knowledge than you, or has more schooling than you, this does not guarantee that this particular person is smarter than you. There are lots of ways that a person can be ignorant. Everyone is lacking some quantity of knowledge and information about a particular subject that they never studied or learned about. So there are different degrees of ignorance and other ways of being stupid. You can be smart about one thing but not so smart about the other thing. I'm still stupid sometimes, but at least I don't pretend to know things like I did so many times before.

A person can be smart in one way, but be ignorant in another way. And if they're ignorant in one way, they may be ignorant in more ways than one. I know that most people have good qualities and can be smart in more ways than one. But we have to understand where ignorance originates from. Ignorance starts with an inadequate education, inadequate parenting and inadequate media outlets that misinforms people more than it informs people. So I forgive people for being ignorant, it's not their fault. But there's particular types of ignorance, or the way that someone is ignorant, that can have negative effects. When your ignorant belief effects my life and effects other people lives, then that's more than just ignorance, that's being abusive and destructive. The worst part is when people deny that they're ignorant or fail to see their own ignorance. For a lot of people, it's easier to live in a fantasy world and be delusional about reality than it is to educate themselves about the facts and know the truth. Reality takes work. You have to continually educate yourself, and you have to do some research and investigate things if you want to accurately understand things. There's no easy way to be smart, but some people just prefer to live in a fantasy world instead of being a responsible human being. It's convenient for some people to ignore how ignorant they are just so they can continue to be ignorant. It takes no effort to remain ignorant, because you never have to do any learning, researching or work, you can just sit around and pretend to understand yourself and pretend to understand the world around you. If people are too lazy to educate themselves, then we have to make learning easy and easily accessible. Then eventually people will run out of excuses why they don't want to learn and become more knowledgeable. People who make assumptions and pretend to know things are not helping anyone or solving any problems. Everything that everyone has is from people who did the work that was needed in order to learn the reality of our world, so they could make improvements. No problems have ever been solved and no progress has ever been made by people pretending to know things. Ignorance is the source of most of our problems. And if people were given the chance to educate themselves, I know they would. No one in their right mind would deliberately be ignorant if they didn't have to be, that is human nature. Humans are an intelligent species for a reason, we have the potential. But potential must be fostered and then used wisely. A mind is a terrible thing to waste.

I'm smart in some ways, but not so smart in other ways. I understand the importance of awareness, but don't always apply awareness to the things that I know I should be aware of. I sometimes ignore something's, or sometimes I give myself permission or have an excuse why I should continue to do something that is not beneficial enough to keep doing. Though certain vices have diminished and have been reduced over time, I'm still not in total control. If I could just replace the benefits I seek, then I could no longer justify the use of things that do more harm than good.

Two Faced - Two Sides to a Story

There is always two sides to every person. A person can be good most of the time, but sometimes that same person can also be bad or be wrong about things. Every person is smart about something, but every person is also ignorant about other things. So it's best that we not judge someone or make assumptions about who someone is or what they understand. The only sure way to know someone accurately and objectively is to have a real conversation with them. But to have a real conversation, you need trust and honesty. Which means that most people will never have a real conversation. which is not bad, because it's not a good idea to have a real conversation with someone who can't be totally honest or truthful, especially when they can't even be honest or truthful with themselves. The only way to over come this barrier to communicate. We have to agree to learn the same things at the same time together. Eventually we can build connections and mutual understandings, and we could build bridges that are based on trust and honesty, instead of burning down bridges because we can't stop making assumptions.

If you get a wrong answer on a test, that doesn't meant that the test is criticizing you or judging you, the test is just telling you that a particular answer to a question is wrong. To prove something to be correct or incorrect, you need evidence. Every known calculation has a formula and method that is proven to produce a correct answer that is consistent. This is the reason why humans can engineer and build advanced machines and create technologies that solve all kinds of problems.

It's impossible to know everything, but it is possible to know most of the important things. When smart people don't know something, they usually have enough knowledge and skills to learn what they need to learn, thus they are good at solving problems and good at making the right decisions. Being intelligent means that you seek to understand what you think you know, and seek to understand the way things work. Being smart is also having a good bullshit detector, or being able to tell when someone is lying, and being able to distinguish sense from nonsense. But you still may be susceptible to falling into certain traps of falsehood or mind manipulation, so don't let your guard down.

Being smart is being able to control energy and use human energy to accomplish certain goals. Being smart is having extensive knowledge of the mind and of the body, and knowing how to use mind and body functions to achieve goals, like being able to live for several days without food, or surviving extreme cold or extreme heat without dying. You need to have the right information at the right time, and you need to know for sure that what you're doing isn't doing more harm than good. So don't ever underestimate the value of learning, and don't ever underestimate your value as a person. The more you know, the better your odds will be at making good decisions. So choose very wisely what you need to learn and when to learn it. Choosing the healthiest food to eat everyday has many benefits, and choosing what to learn everyday has even more benefits.

Specialized knowledge is knowledge that is time and place specific, meaning that you don't really need that particular knowledge and information until a special set of circumstances arises. So this type of knowledge will only benefit you when you need to perform a particular function, like surgery, or farming, or driving a truck, and so on. Almost every school on the planet offers this type of knowledge. This is the main reason why people are ignorant about a lot of things. Because they have been denied knowledge and information that would give them intelligence and awareness. So most people are just educated enough to be mindless slaves who are easily manipulated and controlled. Though many people will immediately say this is false, they will have a very difficult time explaining why they believe this is false. And this is when the realization happens, or, this is when they enter a state of denial. So what valuable knowledge and information is missing from education, and what knowledge and information is missing from the news and from our media outlets. These institutions are supposedly paid to inform us of our reality, but they're not doing this effectively or efficiently. In fact, they're doing the opposite most of the time. Not everything in life can be perceived as being intelligent. But many things are still relevant and relative. So something's may appear to be not intelligent at first, but when you look at all the facts, it may be intelligent after all. Subject-Matter Expert.

Having more valuable knowledge that gives a greater understanding does not mean that you will stop making mistakes, but mistakes will be less frequently.

I'm not ahead of my time, it's just that most people are behind the times. I'm still an idiot sometimes.

Ahead of Ones Time is having new ideas a long time before other people start to think in the same way. To be innovative and radical by the standards of the time; more characteristic of a later age.

Behind the Times is being not aware of or using the latest ideas or techniques; out of date.

You Can't Be Aware of Everything - High Functioning Idiot - Generalizing

Just because an insane person shows signs of genius, this does not mean that there is a connection or a correlation between genius and insanity. That's like saying that because a person did something genius, they must also be insane. One does not imply the other, because they are two separate things. Two things are not necessarily connected just because they share the same space. Similarities don't necessarily mean connected. And just because someone is suffering from mental illness, this does not make that person crazy or broken. We have to be very careful with our labels. When we narrowly define things, we never see the whole picture. So we never fully understand, or, do we know the correct actions to take. So a label is just a starting point, because it doesn't fully explain the contents. When we give a label or use a label, we must also give the instructions and the reasons, otherwise, a label could be more dangerous then helpful. Don't judge a book by it's cover is also an incomplete sentence. What book? Who's cover? Why this book?

Accumulative Knowledge is knowledge that accumulates over many months or even years as you learn more. And as you learn more, you increase your understanding of yourself and the world around you. So you become more aware, and have more potential, and have more abilities and more skills. Though specialized knowledge shares the same function as accumulated knowledge, specialized knowledge is limited to a specific need. Everyone needs a foundation of knowledge and information that provides them with a full understanding of themselves and the world around them. Intelligence is the goal.

BK101 is not everything there is to know, but it will help you to know more about things in life then you ever thought possible. Learning in Stages.

Reading every encyclopedia wont make you smart. Having a great memory wont make you smart either. Remembering mundane details might get you on a meaningless game show like Jeopardy, but it does not mean that you are smart or intelligent. It's not how much knowledge and information you have, it's how effective and efficient you are in using that knowledge and information to improve life. That is truly what makes a person intelligent. So it's not what you have, or how much you have, it's how you use what you have that ends up being the most important aspect. That should be the top priority of every educational institution on the planet, but it's not. But for BK101, this is the top priority. This website may have some of the worlds most valuable knowledge and information, but if you never learn how to formulate knowledge and information correctly, and use it effectively and efficiently, then the benefits from knowledge and information will never materialize. If you are not solving problems then you are most likely adding to the problems that we have.

Being smart is that ability to have good relationships, to listen well, to treat people fairly with honestly. Being smart is that ability to control emotions, to make good decisions, to have good awareness.

Ignorance kills more people than all causes of death combined, and ignorance is preventable just like most deaths.

I still love you, even knowing that you only have a half a brain. But I would love you a lot more if you had a whole brain that was full of valuable knowledge and information. Then when we are together, we would have more potential, more options, more control, more power, more freedom, and more possibilities...Well, that's what whole brain people do any way, just sayin.

How would you explain intelligence to someone who isn't intelligent?

"I have neither the time nor the crayons to explain it to you."

"I can explain it to you, but I can't understand it for you."

"You couldn't pour the water out of a boot if the instructions were written on the heel."

Smart or intelligent should not be the only word used to describe a person unless you explain why, because intelligence is relative. Smart and intelligent only describes a particular action, an action that is known to be logical. That was a smart thing to do, that was an intelligent thing to do. So to say "that person is smart", you have to say why? Did they do a smart thing, or is it they can do particular things that require specialized knowledge? So in order to be smart or intelligent you have to perform intelligent actions. So only that particular action is smart and not necessarily the person performing the action. But if you would like to be considered smart then you would have to be known as the person who performed the most intelligent actions. And to prove that you would have to be extremely intelligent." Good's not a problem, it's a challenge...

To Know or Not to Know, is that even a question?

Know and Knowing is to be alert and fully informed, and to understand something with certainty. To have firsthand knowledge of states, situations, emotions, or sensations. To be aware of something through observation or by information or inquiry. To be highly educated and having extensive information or understanding. To be cognizant or aware of a fact or a specific piece of information. To possess knowledge or information about something. To Know the nature or character of something. To be able to distinguish and recognize something as being different. To be aware of how to do something or perform something.

To know is to be familiar or acquainted with an object or a person. To truly know someone you have to spend time with them and develop a relationship through meetings and conversations, so as to become familiar with them on a personal level. The same thing goes for knowledge. If you don't spend time learning knowledge, you will not know knowledge well enough to call knowledge a close friend of yours, or have enough knowledge to be someone you can depend on. Losing touch with knowledge is like losing touch with friends. To keep in touch with knowledge or friends you have to have meaningful conversations every now and then.

Apprehend is to fully understand or grasp the meaning of something. To be Known.

Cognizant is having knowledge or understanding or realization or perception.

Catching On is to understand what something means or to know how something is done.

On the Ball is when you are alert to new ideas, methods, and trends. Indicating competence, alertness, or intelligence. Keep your Eye on the Ball.

It's better to know than not to know. And when someone says "I wish I didn't know that or I didn't need to know that", what they're really saying is, "I wish I knew more about that thing that I wish I didn't know about, because not understanding something makes me really uncomfortable and confused". It's better to know than not to know. Do you understand the question? It's not just about you.

Epiphany is a sudden revelation or a moment of sudden understandingEpiphany is a scientific breakthrough that allows a problem or situation to be understood from a new and deeper perspective. Having a depth of prior knowledge is required to allow the leap of understanding.

Emerge is to become known or apparent. Something coming into existence or maturity. Something that comes out into view, as from concealment. To come up to the surface of or rise. To happen or occur as a result of something. Emergence.

Transformative Learning - Revolution of the Mind. Every time you have an epiphany, a new neuron is born.

Enlightenment is education that results in understanding and the spread of knowledge. Enlightenment is that feeling you get when you finally release a particular false truth or belief that you have been holding on to. The process of letting go of your assumptions. A relief from not knowing to a realization of knowing. Enlightenment refers to the full comprehension of a situation. Enlightenment can also mean a movement in Europe from about 1650 until 1800 that advocated the use of reason and individualism instead of tradition and established doctrineEnlightening is the process of increasing knowledge and understanding while reducing ones own ignorance. Spiritual Enlightenment.

Enlightenment: The first truth is that you're living a lie. The second truth is you don't know the truth, and even if you did know the truth, the truth is debatable. Enlightenment is knowing that you're ignorant and that your learning journey is just beginning. Enlightenment is realizing that there's a doorway. So where you are now is not where you will be when you pass through that door. Enlightenment is understanding where you were before you became enlightened. Enlightenment is not pretending to know what is on the other side of that door. Enlightenment is knowing that you must go through the door. Enlightenment is understanding that it's just one door of many doors that our mind will open. Now your enlightened. The illusion is over. What you thought was normal, is far from normal. The lie is over, but the truth is not here yet. Now as you trip through that door, you are just begining to see. So try not to get fooled again.

Nirvana is the highest state of enlightenment that someone can attain. It is a point when a person's individual desires and suffering go away. The origin of the word nirvana relates to spiritual enlightenment. It comes from the Sanskrit meaning "extinction, disappearance" of the individual to the universal. It is the "blowing out" or the "quenching" of the activities of the worldly mind and its related suffering.

Esoteric is knowledge understood by only a small number of people with a specialized knowledge or interest. Knowledge understandable by only an enlightened inner circle.

Satori is a Japanese Buddhist term for awakening, "comprehension; understanding" (悟り). It is derived from the Japanese verb satoru, meaning "to know" or "understand". In the Zen Buddhist tradition, satori refers to a deep experience of kenshō, "seeing into one's true nature". Ken means "seeing," shō means "nature" or "essence". Satori and kenshō are commonly translated as enlightenment, a word that is also used to translate bodhi, prajñā and Buddhahood.

Revelation is a surprising and previously unknown fact that is made known in a dramatic way. An enlightening or astonishing disclosure of an Idea.

Realize is to be fully aware or cognizant of something important. To perceive an idea or situation mentally.

Realization is coming to understand something clearly and distinctly. Making something real or giving the appearance of Reality.

Acknowledge is to admit the existence of something or to declare the reality or truth of something. Expressing recognition of the presence or the existence of something. Accept something as legally binding and valid.

Recognition is the state or quality of being recognized or acknowledged. Coming to understand something clearly and distinctly. Approval.

Dawned On Me is to suddenly understand something or realize something that was not so apparent before or was not clearly revealed to the mind or the senses.

When the Mind Clicks it means that you suddenly understand something or something becomes clear and falls into place. Like having an epiphany or when the light bulb turns on in your mind.

Inoculate is to introduce an idea or attitude into the mind of someone. To produce immunity or to build up defenses and reduce vulnerabilities in order to protect oneself against future threats.

Familiar is something or someone well known or easily recognized. To be well informed about something that is a normal everyday experience, something common or ordinary and not strange. A friend.

Fruition is something that is made real or concrete to the point at which a plan or project is realized. Fruition can also mean the enjoyment derived from use or possession. The state or action of producing fruit.

Perspicacity is a penetrating discernment and a clarity of vision or intellect which provides a deep understanding and insight.

Discernment is the cognitive condition of someone who understands. The mental ability to understand and discriminate between relations. The trait of judging wisely and objectively.

Dialed-in means to be very proficient at a given activity. Dial it in is used to mean that something is working well, efficiently, or is well coordinated.

Figured it Out is to finally understand something or someone, or find the solution to a problem after a lot of thinking.

Wrap your Head around it means to come to a good understanding of something.

Wise Up is to become more aware and more informed and more intelligent.

Know a Thing or Two is to be knowledgeable about something. The phrase is usually used to indicate that one knows more about something than someone thinks because they've seen a thing or two. know enough to come in out of the rain. know what's what. know which end is up. know which way is up. Street Smarts.

Put your Finger on it is to know or understand something.

Mind Blowing Hands Gesture Giff Mind-Blowing Experience is when someone's mind is affected very strongly by something new, exciting, unusual or impressive. Something that changes you, or something that you will never forget.

Blow Your Mind
- Burst your Bubble - The Big Bang - The Big Idea

Wow is to be impressed greatly and surprised, sometimes with admiration. I can't freaking believe it! Wow!

Oh My God or OMG, or oh my gosh, or omigosh, or oh my goodness is a way of expressing surprise, astonishment, excitement, shock or awe. It can also mean a way of expressing disbelief, frustration, dismay or anger.

Holy F*cking Sh*t is a common reaction to something that is either amazing or traumatic.

WTF is an acronym for What the F*ck, which means that something stupid or disturbing is happening, and you're asking why?

Oh Shit is a moment is when you realize that you have been doing something wrong, or it means that something wrong is about to happen.

Eureka Effect refers to the common human experience of suddenly understanding a previously incomprehensible problem or concept. Some research describes the Aha! effect, or also known as insight or epiphany, as a memory advantage, though it is difficult to predict under what circumstances one can predict an Aha! moment. Insight is a psychological term that attempts to describe the process in problem solving when a previously unsolvable puzzle becomes suddenly clear and obvious. Often this transition from not understanding to spontaneous comprehension is accompanied by an exclamation of joy or satisfaction, an Aha! moment. A person utilizing insight to solve a problem is able to give accurate, discrete, all-or-nothing type responses, whereas individuals not using the insight process are more likely to produce partial, incomplete responses. A recent theoretical account of the Aha! moment started with four defining attributes of this experience. First, the Aha! moment appears suddenly; second, the solution to a problem can be processed smoothly, or fluently; third, the Aha! moment elicits positive affect; fourth, a person experiencing the Aha! moment is convinced that a solution is true. These four attributes are not separate but can be combined because the experience of processing fluency, especially when it occurs surprisingly (for example, because it is sudden), elicits both positive affect and judged truth. Insight can be conceptualized as a two phase process. The first phase of an Aha! experience requires the problem solver to come upon an impasse, where they become stuck and even though they may seemingly have explored all the possibilities, are still unable to retrieve or generate a solution. The second phase occurs suddenly and unexpectedly. After a break in mental fixation or re-evaluating the problem, the answer is retrieved. Some research suggest that insight problems are difficult to solve because of our mental fixation on the inappropriate aspects of the problem content. In order to solve insight problems, one must "think outside the box". It is this elaborate rehearsal that may cause people to have better memory for Aha! moments. Insight is believed to occur with a break in mental fixation, allowing the solution to appear transparent and obvious.

Putting things in Perspective is to compare something with a similar thing to give a clearer, more accurate description of a problem. To see something from an objective viewpoint and look at what is most important and what is the priority.

Reactions can be relative, so the meaning may change depending on the person and the event.

Game Changer is an event, idea, or procedure that changes an existing situation or activity in a significant way. A newly introduced element or factor that transforms the landscape as a whole or significantly alters the way things are done as a whole. A game changer effects a significant shift in the current manner of doing or thinking about something. When something is a game changer it means that something has changed in such a degree that it alters your previous perceptions and affects your future decisions.

Paradigm Shift is when someone sees the same information in an entirely new and different way from what was the generally accepted perspective or typical standard, leading to fundamental changes in basic concepts and assumptions. Emergence.

Epoch is a period of time in history or a person's life, typically one marked by notable events or particular characteristics. A period marked by distinctive character or reckoned from a fixed point or event. A unit of geological time that is a subdivision of a period and is itself divided into ages. Epochal is a highly significant or important especially bringing about or marking the beginning of a new development or era.

Scientific Revolution is a series of events that marked the emergence of modern science during the early modern period, when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology including human anatomy and chemistry transformed the views of society about nature. Transformative Learning - Singularity.

Age of Enlightenment was an intellectual and philosophical movement which dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century. The Enlightenment included a range of ideas centered on reason as the primary source of authority and legitimacy, and came to advance ideals like liberty, progress, tolerance, fraternity, constitutional government, and separation of church and state.

Rationalism is the epistemological view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification". More formally, rationalism is defined as a methodology or a theory "in which the criterion of the truth is not sensory but intellectual and deductive". Rationalism is a philosophical movement which gathered momentum during the Age of Reason of the 17th Century. It is usually associated with the introduction of mathematical methods into philosophy during this period by the major rationalist figures, Descartes, Leibniz and Spinoza.

The Great Awakening is the period in Human Civilization when the value of knowledge and information is fully realized. Making human intelligence accessible to every human on the planet. Which in turn utilizes the potential energy of every person on the planet. Making humans feel more connected to each other, more connected to the earth, and more connected to life itself. Creating a global awareness of monumental proportions. It will be like experiencing life for the very first time on levels that were never imagined. Consciousness Raising. The Human Race has fallen asleep at the wheel, time to wake up. Father, the sleeper has awakened (Dune 1984 - youtube)

Wake Up is to become conscious, aware and woke to the current situation. To be Woke.

Life before the great awakening. In the near future, children will be asking people who are alive now, "What was life like before the great awakening?" The answer would be, "We were pretty stupid and ignorant about a lot of things, and we didn't even know it. Luckily we woke up." When you're missing pieces to a puzzle, and you don't know that your missing pieces to the puzzle, you will have no idea what the whole picture is. But when you finally realize that pieces are missing, and then add the last pieces of the puzzle, you will finally see the whole picture. Learning to see the whole picture takes time.

Rude Awakening is when you finally realize something that turns out to be extremely unpleasant because it was unexpected and not what you thought it would be. To suddenly be made aware of an unpleasant fact that you assumed and mistakenly believed that would never be the case. Learning the Ugly Truth.

In Order to Wake People Up you first have to convince people that they are not fully awake, which is just as hard as convincing people that they were fooled or that they don't fully understand a lot of things that are happening in the world. If you don't know what to do, you will not do what needs to be done. If you don't know how to do something, then you will most likely not do something that needs to be done. Wake Up America — We Are Better Than This! | Elijah Cummings | TEDxMidAtlantic (youtube).

Wakeup Call is a phrase that is used to alert a person to a problem, danger, or need. A sign or warning that alerts one to negative or dangerous behavior or circumstances. Wakeup Call can also mean a service provided by most lodging establishments, similar to an alarm clock via a telephone.

Reckoning is a person's view, opinion, or judgment. To perceive or think about something in a particular way. To believe or expect something to be true or deem to be. To judge something to be probable. To have faith or confidence in some belief. The action or process of calculating or estimating something. Problem solving that involves numbers or quantities. A bill or account, or its settlement.

Advent is an arrival that has been awaited, especially of something momentous. Meme.

Revolution of the Mind. There is a revolution coming, a revolution like no other revolution before, a revolution of the mind.

See the Light is to gain an understanding of something that was previously not understood, especially in a sudden insight. LiFi.

It Opened My Eyes or That was an Eye Opener means that something was so informative that it caused you to understand something a lot better then you did before or see something more clearer then you did before.

Insight is the understanding of a specific cause and effect within a specific context. The term insight can have several related meanings such as the act or result of understanding the inner nature of things or of seeing intuitively, called noesis in Greek. An introspection. The power of acute observation and deduction, discernment, and perception, called intellection or noesis. An understanding of cause and effect based on identification of relationships and behaviors within a model, context, or scenario.

"I believe in humanity. We are an incredible species. We're still just a child creature, we're still being nasty to each other. And all children go through those phases. We're growing up, we're moving into adolescence now. When we grow up - man, we're going to be something!" - Gene Roddenberry - Star Trek.

Things Begin to Click or Something Clicks means that you finally understand something more clearly now, and everything falls into place or clicks into place, and you suddenly understand how different pieces of information are connected and now everything becomes clearer than before when it was puzzling. If something clicks, the something can click back or click forward. The brain has the ability to change and adapt how information is being processed. When a person trains to learn something new, they create new connections, but they also change or modify old connections. Sometimes these changes are not noticed, or understood, like with addictions.

Fire on all Cylinders means that you are functioning or operating at the most desirable or greatest possible level of efficiency, speed, or productivity.

Hundredth Monkey Effect is a hypothetical phenomenon in which a new behavior or idea is claimed to spread rapidly by unexplained means from one group to all related groups once a critical number of members of one group exhibit the new behavior or acknowledge the new idea.

Tipping Point in sociology is a point in time when a group—or a large number of group members—rapidly and dramatically changes its behavior by widely adopting a previously rare practice, like learning and becoming more knowledgeable. Chain Reaction - Exponential Growth.

Threshold is the magnitude or intensity that must be exceeded for a certain reaction, phenomenon, result, or condition to occur or be manifested. The starting point for a new state or experience. The smallest detectable sensation.

Threshold Knowledge is a term used to describe core concepts or threshold concepts that when understood helps to transform perception of a given subject, phenomenon, or experience. It's the amount of knowledge one needs in order to understand something clearly. There are certain concepts, or certain learning experiences, which resemble passing through a portal, from which a new perspective opens up, allowing things formerly not perceived to come into view. This permits a new and previously inaccessible way of thinking about something. It represents a transformed way of understanding, or interpreting, or viewing something, without which the learner cannot progress, and results in a reformulation of the learners’ frame of meaning. The thresholds approach also emphasizes the importance of disciplinary contexts. As a consequence of comprehending a threshold concept there may thus be a transformed internal view of subject matter, subject landscape, or even world view.

Detect is to discover or to determine the existence, presence, or fact of something.

Detection is the extraction of particular information from a larger stream of information, or the action or process of identifying the presence of something concealed.

We are on the verge of an incredible breakthrough. We have learned more in the last 50 years than we have in the last 100,000 years. We have accumulated more knowledge and information in just the last 100 years then we have in all the millions of years that humans have existed on earth, and we are just getting started. We are on the verge of some of the most incredible advancements in human intelligence. It will be like waking up for the very first time and experiencing life as if you were just born. It will be amazing.

Wow Symbol On the Verge or On the Brink is something close in time and about to occur that is within reach. An imminent event that is about to happen that will change the current condition and create a new situation.

Brink is to come close to a region marking a boundary. The edge of a steep place or extreme edge of land before a steep or vertical slope. The limit beyond which something happens or changes.

Breakthrough is a sudden, dramatic, and important discovery or development. An instance of achieving success in a particular sphere or activity.

Sing a Different Tune is to change the way one talks about something and to have a different opinion about something.

New Age are the outstanding and significant changes in the Mind, Body and Spirit. A term applied to a range of spiritual or religious beliefs and practices that developed in Western nations during the 1970s. Ages of History.

It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity, it was the season of Light, it was the season of Darkness, it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair, we had everything before us, we had nothing before us, we were all going direct to Heaven, we were all going direct the other way—in short, the period was so far like the present period, that some of its noisiest authorities insisted on its being received, for good or for evil, in the superlative degree of comparison only

Rite of Passage is a ceremony of the passage which occurs when an individual leaves one group to enter another. It involves a significant change of status in society. Rites of passage have three phases: separation, liminality, and incorporation.

Born Again refers to  a spiritual rebirth or a regeneration of the human spirit from the Holy Spirit, contrasted with physical birth. Reboot.

Zen is a Buddhist doctrine that enlightenment can be attained through direct intuitive insight.

Spiritual Transformation constitutes a change in the meaning system that a person holds as a basis for self-definition, the interpretation of life, and overarching purposes and ultimate concerns. a fundamental change in the place of the sacred or the character of the sacred in the life of the individual. Transformative Learning.

Salvation is being saved or protected from harm or being saved or delivered from a dire situation, through Learning.

Mysticism refers to the attainment of insight in ultimate or hidden truths, and to human transformation supported by various practices and experiences. A kind of ecstasy or altered state of consciousness which is given a religious or spiritual meaning. Mysticism is the practice of religious ecstasies religious experiences during alternate states of consciousness, together with whatever ideologies, ethics, rites, myths, legends, and magic may be related to them.

Profundity is wisdom that is recondite and abstruse and profound. Intellectual depth or penetrating knowledge or a keen insight. The intellectual ability to penetrate deeply into ideas. The quality of being physically deep.

Profound is showing intellectual penetration or emotional depth of the greatest intensity. Complete far-reaching and thoroughgoing in effect, especially on the nature of something. Coming from deep within one.

Abstruse or Recondite is something difficult to penetrate or incomprehensible to one of ordinary understanding or knowledge.

Awareness - Confidence - Third Eye

Remarkable! Spanky's Story in the Little Rascals (1922 to 1944) (youtube)

Open-Mindedness is receptiveness to new ideas. Open-mindedness relates to the way in which people approach the views and knowledge of others, and "incorporate the beliefs that others should be free to express their views and that the value of others’ knowledge should be recognized." There are various scales for the measurement of open-mindedness. Relativism is the belief that all criteria of judgment are relative to the individuals and situations involved, but this is being narrow-mined and biased.

Broaden your Horizons is to expand one's range of interests, activities, and knowledge.

Horizon is the range of interest or activity that can be anticipated. The line at which the sky and Earth appear to meet. The great circle on the celestial sphere whose plane passes through the sensible horizon and the center of the Earth.

Self-Directed Learning - Inspiration - Motivation

Serendipity - Luck - Fate - Coincidence

Omniscience is the capacity to know everything. Omniscient is knowing everything. Infinitely wise.

Omnipotence is the quality of having unlimited power.

Omnipresence is the property of being present anywhere and everywhere.

Omnibenevolence is unlimited or infinite benevolence, or a disposition to be kind and to do good, and the quality of being well meaning.

Pantomath is a person who wants to know or knows everything. Polymath.

A Matter of Fact, in the Human sense, is the type of knowledge that can be characterized as arising out of one's interaction with and experience in the external world (as compared to a Relation of Ideas). In a Kantian framework, it is equivalent to the synthetic a posteriori. Examples:-The sun will come out tomorrow. (Not reason but habitual)-There are people outside the room. (One cannot know what is outside one's own experience) How We Know:-It is impossible to "know everything."-Depend upon The Principles of Induction and The Uniformity of Nature. -Denying these do not lead to a contradiction.

Pretending to Know

The illusion of knowledge can be more dangerous than just ignorance itself. When a fool believes in lies, they are not just a danger to themselves, but a danger to everyone around them.

"It aint what you don't know that gets you into trouble, it's what you think you know for sure that just aint so." ~ Mark Twain.

All problems relating to a person not understanding or misunderstanding something, are directly related to the person not having enough knowledge and information. And if a person pretends or assumes that they have enough knowledge and information, they will only allow their ignorance to continue, and they will continue to make mistakes and errors that they are not even aware of. Unless a person continually educates themself and commits themselves to learning on a regular basis, their vulnerabilities will be with them there entire life. Every person needs to seek out valuable knowledge and information that they need to accurately understand themselves and to accurately understand the world around them. There is no other way. This is the way. The path to knowledge is the only logical direction to take. You are either on the road to intelligence, or, you are lost, and you will never be fully aware of where you are, or fully aware of where you're going.

What you don't know will always be greater than what you do know, or what you think you know. We know very little when compared to all the things that are known. And you will never know the things that you don't know if you never learn the things that are unknown to you. And you will never confirm what you think you know unless you gather evidence and facts that proves what you know is true or accurate. Everyone lives in fantasy world to a certain degree because no one is one hundred percent sure about what they think they know. There is no procedure for how to use your imagination effectively. People can know a lot of details about a lot of deferent things, but they rarely see the whole picture or understand things fully enough. And as we can clearly see today and throughout history, all the problems that humans face are directly related to people not knowing enough. And when people pretend to have the answers, a lot of times they will stop asking questions. If we educate people to the highest degree, all the problems that are caused by humans will cease to exist, except for the occasional mistakes that we all make from time to time.

False Knowledge can be more damaging than having no knowledge at all. It's not just what you don't know, but it's also what you think you know is true, when in reality, it isn't true. And this type of ignorance does most of the damage. When you don't know enough and you just pretend that you know enough, you're not protecting your ego, you're just ignoring your ignorance? Don't assume that you know enough. And it's not just being aware of what you don't know, but being aware that you don't have all the information to confirm what you think you know. When you stop pretending that you know something, that's when you know something, you know that you're still ignorant about certain things and that you don't know everything. You are what you know, and you are what you think you know and what you don't know. Manipulating Historical Truth.

"A fool thinks himself to be wise, but a wise man knows himself to be a fool." ~ William Shakespeare.

“What we know is a drop, what we don't know is an ocean.” ~ Isaac Newton (1642-1727).  "What we know now is a lake, what we still don't know is still an ocean." (2018). - You don't know the half of It.

"You will observe with concern how long a useful truth may be known, and exist, before it is generally received and practiced on." -- Benjamin Franklin

"Young people are high-minded because they have not yet been humbled by life, nor have they experienced the force of circumstances. They think they know everything and are always quite sure about it." ~ Aristotle 350 BC.

“The most difficult subjects can be explained to the most slow-witted man if he has not formed any idea of them already; but the simplest thing cannot be made clear to the most intelligent man if he is firmly persuaded that he knows already, without a shadow of doubt, what is laid before him.” Leo Tolstoy (wiki).

Dunning Kruger Effect - Most people live in a make believe world where they pretend to know things. You don't know what you're missing until you learn about what you were missing. Everyone is missing something or missing some knowledge and information about something.

It's time to confess that you don't know everything and see the errors of your ways.

If you want to know the truth, then you need to stop lying to yourself. If you keep pretending to know the truth, then you will never know the truth. If you want to see the whole picture, then you need to see yourself as being part of that picture. If you want to see others for who they are, then you need to look at yourself and see yourself for who you really are. You need to look inward if you want to see the world as it is. Seeing is not just what you do with your eyes, seeing is also the ability to see the things that you can't see with your eyes.

What you don't know can kill you. What you don't know can kill others. Even what you thought you knew can have negative consequences. It's good to know, knowing is good.

"Ignorance more frequently begets confidence than does knowledge: it is those who know little, and not those who know much, who so positively assert that this or that problem will never be solved by science." ~ Charles Darwin (wiki).

Some people just want to look smart, they don't want to take the time and effort to be smart, because that would take to much time from the fantasy world they live in. It's much easier to be ignorant and lazy than it is to be smart and productive.

People know how to reason in certain situations, but in other situations, people don't apply the same reasoning skills or use the same wisdom when it comes to certain information that they don't like or understand. Peoples biases are influencing how they view particular situations. People are selecting the moments when they should use their intelligence. People will abandoned their commonsense just so that they can feel comfortable in their beliefs. What people are basically saying us, "I am not going to use my commonsense at this moment, or use my knowledge, skills and experience, I am just going to pretend that I understand something and hope that no one makes me prove my point or makes me explain myself. So as long as I can avoid having any real conversations, then I can live out my fantasy world and die ignorant without ever knowing it."

Too many people can't explain the things that they claim to understand or claim to know. Too many people base their decisions and their thoughts on things that they can't prove, or can they provide any evidence or provide a clear example that would accurately explain what the information that they are trying to communicate really means. Too many people just generalize when they speak, so their message is vague, even though they use words and sentences, they say very little, yet they believe they are saying something, like the talking heads on the news.

Invalid Arguments - Fear of the Unknown - Bliss - Bias - Flawed Reasoning - Illusion of Control

When you believe the lies that you tell yourself, you will never know the truth. The only way to know the truth is first admit that you don't know the whole truth. And then you have to admit that you only know what you think you understand, which becomes truth only when you have verified with others who also think they know what they understand. And we do this together with the understanding that this is only what we know so far, and not what is truly known, only what is known so far because we admit that we still have a lot more to learn. "Pretending that you're sick is just as bad as pretending that you're well. How do you know if your not asymptomatic?

Making Up Stories - Pretending is a Defense Mechanism - Blame Shifting.

People who pretend to know things, also pretend to say things when they talk. If what you think you know is vague, then what you say will also be vague. If you talk vaguely and don't say anything definitive, this means that your knowledge is vague and your thinking is vague. And think all you want, but if you never educate yourself and learn about specific subjects that you speak of, and if you never do any real research and investigate things, then you will always be vague, and your life will become meaningless. If you don't know what you mean, then you will never mean what you say. If you avoid asking the right questions, then you will never have the right answers.

You can sometimes sense that something is wrong before you even understand it, or before you can even explain it, which could be either bad or good. The only effective way for you to confirm whether something is bad or good, is to learn why that something is bad or good. Understanding something is a lot better than just guessing what something is or pretending to know what something is.

Most people only see the shadows on the walls and never see what makes the shadows. Puppeteers.

Allegory of the Cave describes a group of people who have lived chained to the wall of a cave all of their lives, facing a blank wall. The people watch shadows projected on the wall from objects passing in front of a fire behind them, and give names to these shadows. The shadows are the prisoners' reality. There is a whole other world that people don't see, and most are not even aware of this bigger reality. You have to be able to see the whole picture in order to see the whole of reality. But if you never leave the cave, that prison for your mind will keep you blind for life.

Observation Errors - Information Bubble

Knowledge Illusion: We are largely unaware of how little we understand. We live with the belief that we understand more than we do. When we know about something, we find it hard to imagine that someone else doesn’t know it. We confuse the knowledge in our heads with the knowledge we have access to. We live in a community of knowledge and we fail to distinguish the knowledge that is in our heads from the knowledge outside of it. We think the knowledge we have about how things work sits inside our skulls when in fact we’re drawing a lot of it from the environment and from other people. most of what is in our heads is quite superficial.

What is it that fools people into believing that they know enough about a particular subject? Is it that people don't even ask what's missing? If it were easy for people to measure their intelligence level and skills level, then people would be more aware of their potential, and more aware of what they know and what they don't know. "You don't feel a brain full of knowledge, it just works better. But you also don't feel a brain that is lacking knowledge, and you don't realize whether your brain is working good or not working good".

"What do you want me to do, when nothing you say is true. Why can't you just admit that you don't know the truth, so we can start having conversations again with couth."

"I have a question that I'm not going to ask you. I am just going to pretend that you don't know the answer to that question that I never asked you so that I can continue to pretend to know something that you don't."

How are you supposed to know what you don't know? If things that you don't know are invisible to you, then how are you supposed to see what you don't know? You can't, until you learn what you don't know. But you have to learn deliberately. You have to have an idea of what you're looking for, and you have to have a plan, and you have to have a goal.  And the only way to know something, is to learn about it. But the only way that you can learn about something is when you have access to knowledge and information, along with the abilities and skills to understand, and you also have to learn the right things at the right time.

To determine how dysfunctional you are you first have to determine how functional you are. That's like trying to figure out how smart you are, which is not easy because intelligence is not totally defined yet, with too much of your understanding being determined by your own perception. The only way to determine intelligence is to have an exact list of questions and problems that test your skills and knowledge. How much intelligence does the IQ test really determine? Very little because it's an overall test of skills and knowledge and not an exact test of what makes a person intelligent. Define intelligence, then define the test.

Harvard Takes the 1964 Louisiana Literacy Test (youtube) - Page 1 - Page 2 - Page 3 - (The test was a test in itself).

People remain ignorant because people give stupid excuses in a lame attempt that pretends to explain why they act so stupid or think stupid things. All this does is encourage them to stay ignorant. If you always pretend that you're right and pretend to be correct, without proof or evidence, then you will never know when you're wrong, which is extremely risky behavior that makes you vulnerable to all kinds of mistakes.

Too many people have no idea what's happening in their own neighborhood or their own community. Too many people also don't know what's happening in their own city, or their own state or in their own country. And some people have no idea what's happening in their own family or know their friends well enough to understand them on a personal level. But this does not stop people from pretending to know things or stop them form assuming things. People are pretending to know what's happening in other countries without even understanding what's happening in their own country. People say all kinds of things that they can't prove or confirm. People have opinions on things that they don't understand or know well enough. People don't have real conversations or do people do any learning or research on their own. People talk about scenarios that could happen but never explain them or explain the fact that in order for that scenario to happen it would have to have other things happening, things that they can't confirm or explain. People don't want to listen, people don't want to learn, people don't want to ask questions that would help them learn. What people want to do is to pretend to know things that they don't understand. People want jump to conclusions and make assumptions and have the illusion that they're smart and that they're learning things. Asymptomatic ignorance is when you are unaware of your ignorance, and you spread your ignorance around so that you infect others with your ignorance who have not been inoculated from ignorance.

"We must know, we will know." David Hilbert (wiki) - "We do not know and will not know." Ignoramus et ignorabimus (wiki).

Most people are unaware and have no idea just how much they don't know about themselves and the world around them. And people don't know that they don't know. And people will never understand this if people keep pretending to know things and keep pretending to understand things. And on top of that, too many people don't feel like learning, and too many people don't feel the need to learn or understand how important learning is. This is one of the most serious problems that humans have. This is why ancient civilizations have collapsed throughout human history and left very little evidence on why they failed. And this time is no different. We are in a mass extinction, and we can see it happening. Except this time we have a chance to solve this problem. But only if everyone takes the responsibility to learn what they need to do, and also learn about making better choices. If our choices are made together and collectively, we can restore and repair the damage that has been done and start rebuilding our cites to prepare ourselves for the reality that is upon us and on future generations.

Why do some people think they're smart? One reason that people believe that they're smart is that people compare themselves to other people who are not as educated as they are, which is basically making a blind comparison. Since there's no accurate measurement for intelligence, or a universal definition for intelligence, the only accurate way to know how intelligent you are, is to prove it yourself. And since most intelligence tests only measure your potential to do smart things, you will still have to do smart things, and then prove why they're smart. And when that happens, we can confidently say that you are definitely smart in that particular way, but only in that way, as far as we know, because we don't want to make any assumptions about how smart we think you really are.

We need an accurate way to measure what people actually know, like the words and definitions of words in their vocabulary and the physical laws of nature and so on. We need an accurate way to measure what people think they know, like things they believe are true but in reality they are not true or accurate or even proven. We also need an accurate way to measure all the things that people still don't know, things that will give them a better understanding of themselves and a better understanding of the world around them. When we accomplish this, people will no longer live in a fantasy world and people will understand reality more accurately and thus make better decisions and have better relationships.

Stranger is someone not personally known or an individual that who you are not acquainted with or have never met before. Anyone who does not belong in the environment in which they are found. Being definitely out of the ordinary and unexpected; slightly odd or even a bit weird. Relating to or originating in or characteristic of another place or part of the world.

If you claim to have enough knowledge, then you're admitting that you're ignorant, but you will not know that you're ignorant. An intelligent person would never claim to have enough knowledge, only state the knowledge they have and say what they know. This is why intelligent people always seek more knowledge and always learn as much as they can about a particular subject or problem. In order to make good decisions and understand things clearly enough, you always have to seek out more knowledge and always learn as much as you can. Pretending to know enough is a dangerous game. And the losers of this ignorant game are buried by the thousands every single day. Over 150,000 People Die Everyday as the result of some form of ignorance. Not many people die of old age anymore.

Wise Guy is a person who speaks and behaves as if they know more than others. An upstart who makes conceited, sardonic, insolent comments.

Smart Aleck is a person who is irritating because they behave as if they know everything. Someone whose sarcastic, wisecracking, or humorous manner is delivered in an offensive, obnoxious, or cocky way. An obnoxiously conceited and self-assertive person with pretensions to smartness or cleverness.

Know it All is someone who believes that they've got all the answers to every question, even if the question hasn't been asked, or if they really don't have the answer, but of course they believe they do. This is not a shy individual, but rather someone whose ego is over flowing primarily through their mouth, but seems to have come from the other end of their digestive system.

Why do teenagers believe that they know enough? Some people blame the the frontal lobe because it has not developed enough. But the main cause is the result of an inadequate education system, as well as, the lack of public information that is factual and coherent. There is over-confidence and there is a false bravado that is used to protect their fragile ego that they are too embarrassed to admit having.

You can't know everything, but you can know enough in order to know that you don't know everything.

Mr. Know It All - Kelly Clarkson (youtube) - Mr Know It All, Well ya think you know it all, But ya don't know a thing at all, Ain't it something y'all, When somebody tells you something bout you, Think that they know you more than you do, So you take it down another pill to swallow.

Too Smart for your own Good is someone who is excessively overconfident or cocky and believes that they know everything to the point to where it can harm themselves or work against them. They believe that they know something when they really don't, which could get them into trouble. Too big for your britches.

Upstart is an arrogant or presumptuous person. Characteristic of someone who has risen economically or socially but lacks the social skills appropriate for this new position. A person who has suddenly risen to a higher economic status but has not gained social acceptance of others in that class.

Too many books are fiction, too many TV shows are fiction, too much news is fiction and too many religions are fiction. Most people are not living in reality, and they don't even know it. Too many people find it easier to live in a fantasy than in reality. When you live in a fantasy you don't have to listen to anyone, you don't have to learn anything new, you don't have to investigate or do any research. Too many people only have vague ideas about themselves and the world. It seems that pretending to know things is easier than learning what the truth is. In a fantasy, people can choose what they hear and only see things that agree with their beliefs. They cherry pick information that fits into their fantasy so they don't have to admit that they are wrong, which makes them feel good about themselves in a vulnerable kind of way. They escape reality so much that they never truly live in real life, which is a total waste of human life. What's worse than pretending to know something, is never having to educate yourself about the things that you're not sure of. But even when you seek out information, you have to use multiple sources, because there is nothing worse than learning the wrong things. People can either mislead you, lie to you, or not tell you the whole story. So educating yourself is not without risk. But staying ignorant is the most riskiest thing that you can do to yourself and to the people around you. So educating yourself is definitely worth the risk. If people did not educate themselves throughout history, you would not be here, and humans would not exist.

Fearing the Unknown is a Contradiction. You can't be afraid of a possible anticipated event that you have never defined. Unless you identify something and have compared it to other possible events, it's not unknown anymore, it's just one of a few possibilities that may or may not have greater odds of happening. Besides that, being afraid of something that might happen is not going to prepare you for when it does not happen. And pretending to know what will happen will never prepare you for when something doesn't happen, which means that something else happened, and what was that? Something unknown? Or maybe something that you didn't care about or pay attention to, because you're an idiot, which is not bad, it's just something else that you need to consider. What if you're wrong? Are you prepared to do what is right? And if being right is worse than being wrong, then how can you be sure you're right? And how would you know? These things need to be discussed.

People pretend to know something because looking stupid is really embarrassing for them. But the most embarrassing thing is that a person will stigmatize themselves just because of their own ignorance, which is really ignorant. People should just ask questions and stop condemning themselves to a life of ignorance. Just say "I don't know, or say I need more information".

Out of Touch is lacking knowledge or information concerning current events and developments. Lacking in awareness or sympathy.

Losing Touch With Reality is when someone sees things or hears things that are not really there, or understands things that are not true.

In one ear and out the other. Knowledge and information is mostly abstract, and if a person is unable to understand the message or unable to translate the information being transmitted, then it will be like the message was never sent, all because the receiver did not have the knowledge and skills that are needed to decipher and detect that message. The person needs to be able understand the message that the information is sending. Humans have made amazing tools that allowed us to make incredible advancements and increase our knowledge of the world. But the one tool we neglected was the most incredible tool in the world, the human brain. No data can be accurate when the measuring devices can not be calibrated. The human brain must be calibrated, so a standard of intelligence is needed, something to compare ourselves to.

It Feels like I'm Talking to the Wall. Listening - Education Sayings and Quotes.

It's not that unusual not to understand something. Everyone is unaware of something in their life. There's always some area of knowledge that a person lacks that will keep them from understanding something in their life. People can't make changes or make improvements in their life if they are not even aware that changes can be made, or know how to make changes. People can suffer for years before they realize that changes or improvements need to happen, and many people will die never knowing that they could have made a difference.

I thought for sure that I would make it, but I guess I didn't plan it that well - I thought that I was aware enough, but I guess I wasn't - I thought that I knew enough, but it turned out that I didn't - I almost thought for a second that it would work out, but then I realized how little I knew.

Not knowing that you don't know something is when you're the most vulnerable to making deadly mistakes. Not knowing that you know something is still not knowing. Knowing that you don't know certain things is less vulnerable, but only when you actively learn what you don't know. Knowing that you know certain things is also less vulnerable, but only when you actively learn and confirm what you think you know. Remember that things are Relative.

knowledge can be transformative but certain knowledge can also be toxic, especially when someone learns the wrong things at the wrong time, or, does not learn enough in order to understand certain knowledge effectively, which may lead to confusion and making mistakes.

Most people know words, but most people don't fully understand the meaning of words or the meaning of context. People might know the definitions of words, but they can't fully comprehend the layers of meaning within the context of their message, which means that most people are not totally aware of what they're saying or how other people understand what they're saying. People need to learn more about what they know and stop pretending what they think they know. People have to stop assuming that they know what they're saying and stop assuming that they understand a subject clearly enough in order to voice an opinion, especially an opinion that may be misleading and confusing instead of being informative. Everyone wants to look smart, but most people don't want to be smart, because that would mean that people would have to educate themselves and learn more, which is too much work for a egotistical person to do. So it's easier to stay stupid, just as long nobody knows how stupid you are. That's not human and that's not intelligent, that's ignorance. Most people mean well, it's just that sometimes people don't know what they mean.

Intellectual Humility involves recognizing and owning our intellectual limitations in the service of pursuing deeper knowledge, truth, and understanding. often described as an intellectual virtue, along with other perceived virtues such as open-mindedness, intellectual courage and integrity, and in contrast to proposed intellectual vices, such as pride and arrogance.

There are people who are very knowledgeable and who also know how to use the English language fairly well. But they still don't know a lot of things, and they don't even know it, especially the knowledge that would give them the ability to understand themselves more accurately and the ability to understand the world around them more effectively. If people knew the knowledge that they were missing, they would definitely want to learn those things, especially if they knew how valuable the knowledge was and how damaging it is for them not to have certain knowledge. When you're a teenager you can't wait to learn how to drive a car, so you practice driving and you read and learn the rules of the road so that you can pass the test to get your drivers license. Now you can drive a car all by yourself to almost anywhere you want. Well the same thing goes for learning how to use the human brain, which also gives you the freedom and the ability to go anywhere in life that you want, just as long as you learn everything that you need to know, so that you can pass the test for the human brain drivers license, which will prove that you know enough to operate the most powerful machine in the world, effectively and efficiently.

I wish I knew then what I know now. Just to say that implies that you have learned something recently that you wish you could have learned when you were younger. If only you were more knowledgeable in your youth, you could have made better decisions and not made so many mistakes. So what did you learn? And what was the knowledge and information that you didn't have? Was it not available? Was it that you did not have access to this knowledge and information? So now that you have this knowledge and information, how do you plan to pass it forward, or in this case, how do you pass it backwards, meaning, how do you get this important knowledge and information in the hands of young people? Everything that you have in life and everything that you are in life, comes from the process of transmitting information. So it seems pretty important.

Ooh La La - The Faces (Without A Paddle Soundtrack) (youtube) - I wish that I knew what I know now, When I was younger, I wish that I knew what I know now, When I was stronger.

Hindsight Bias, also known as the knew-it-all-along effect or creeping determinism, is the inclination, after an event has occurred, to see the event as having been predictable, despite there having been little or no objective basis for predicting it.

Hindsight is understanding the nature of an event after it has happened. Learning.

Bounded Rationality is when the decision-making of individuals is limited by the information they have and by the cognitive limitations of their minds, and the finite amount of time they have to make a decision. Rational.

When you finally stop denying that you're ignorant, that will be one of the best things that will ever happen in your life, but also it will be one the worst things that will happen in your life, because you now will realize how little you know about yourself and the world around you, and you will also realize all the mistakes that you made and all the time that you wasted. But at least now you're doing something about your ignorance. So don't ignore the activity of learning, it is the holy grail.

Why don't you know what you've got Till it's gone?

Tending is to care for and to look after something important, and to manage the work of providing treatment.

Treatment is care that is provided to improve a situation by following procedures or applications that are intended to relieve illness or injury.

Just don't think, Know. It's not what you think, it's what you know. It's what you know for sure, and not what you think you know. Know. "I almost learned something today." If Ignorance of the Law is No Excuse, then ignorance of life is also no excuse.

You don't have to know everything, but you do need to know the important stuff. There are good things that you need to know, so you should know them. you don't have to know everything, only know the things that matter most.

What you don't know is an abstract barrier where you're boxed in and you can't see what's over the wall. But most people will not even try to get out of the box, this is because they have no idea that they are in a box. You will not know what anything is until you start asking questions. Stop pretending to know and start tending to know what is known. Tending is your responsibility to learn and progress.

"I am so clever that sometimes I don't understand a single word of what I am saying." (Oscar Wilde)

"You're smart, it's just that your understanding of the world is not totally accurate, or complete."

"There are known knowns; there are things we know we know. We also know there are known unknowns; that is to say we know there are some things we do not know. But there are also unknown unknowns — the ones we don't know we don't know." This was quoted by Donald Rumsfeld when he was coming up with lame excuses for why mistakes where made, basically saying "you can't handle the truth", especially when it exposes incompetence, arrogance and corruption, so here's some gibberish instead. Congressional Hearings where people testify are mostly for show. Most questions are never asked and most answers are never given. They just play dumb go through it. This is not Just about following orders, this is human behavior at its worst and an blatant attack on democracy.

Blatant is doing something without any attempt at concealment and doing something completely obvious and offensive.

"Be careful who you call an Intellectual because intellectuals are not always intelligent, they have mostly been schooled, thus they are most likely to be still ignorant and very vulnerable to corruption." Intellectual Dark Web?

"All concepts are dependent on consciousness to know them."

"What is essential is invisible to the eye." Antoine de Saint-Exupery.

What is that? When something is unidentified to you, you need more information.

Unidentified is something unknown or unnamed or unfamiliar where you are unable to use previous knowledge and information to correlate any connection with something that is new to you.

Unfamiliar is something not known or well known.

Foreign or Alien is something not belonging to that in which it is contained and introduced from an outside source.

Strange is something out of the ordinary and unexpected and slightly odd or even a bit weird. Something that is not known before and does not seem to be originating or characteristic of this place or part of the world that you are in.

You can't understand something when you don't have the knowledge and information that's needed to understand it. Things will only exist in your mind when you have the knowledge that proves something exists. There for, things will not exist or be known to you until you learn about its existence. If people cannot understand the importance of learning, then people will never learn anything important, and they will never know that because that knowledge does not exist in their mind. You don't know what you don't know, so you will never know what you don't know, or know what you can know. So remember, you can't know what you don't know until you learn what you don't know. The Key is learning.

How do you get people to know what they don't know? By using all communication technologies effectively and efficiently. We are only using 10%.

Do you know enough about yourself? Do you know enough about the world? What do you know? And, is it enough? I know enough to get buy, but what is enough? And what is getting buy mean? You can't even get buy these questions, so how could you know enough? Can you explain what you know? And if so, how could it be enough? Some people just don't want to Learn, so they pretend that they know enough, or, they did not know enough to begin with, so they don't even know what they don't know. I know. I know that I don't know everything. But the more I know, the more of everything is possible. "I almost know a lot of things." Keep Reading.

Do you know the Basics? Do you know enough about a particular subject in order to perform a particular task? Do you know what Knowledge is? Do you know what Knowing is? What is there to Know? Do you understand what Learning is? Do you know what Living in Denial is? Do you know why there's a Knowledge Gap? Could you know too much?

You need to Have an Open Mind. And you need to be able to Expand your Mind and Broaden your Horizons.

Curse of Knowledge is the inability of more informed individual to think about the problems from the perspective of lesser informed individuals. Condescension.

"Don't believe everything you think."  "Get Rid of Everything that you Think you Know."

"I wouldn't say that there is Limits to Knowledge, what I would say is that there is definitely limits to the Lack of Knowledge."

Absolute Idealism asserts that in order for the thinking subject (human reason or consciousness) to be able to know its object (the world) at all, there must be in some sense an identity of thought and being. Otherwise, the subject would never have access to the object and we would have no certainty about any of our knowledge of the world. To account for the differences between thought and being, however, as well as the richness and diversity of each, the unity of thought and being cannot be expressed as the abstract identity "A=A". Absolute idealism is the attempt to demonstrate this unity using a new "speculative" philosophical method, which requires new concepts and rules of logic.

Intellectual Freedom begins when one says with Socrates that he knows that he knows nothing, and then goes on to add: Do you know what you don’t know and therefore what you should know? If your answer is affirmative and humble, then you are your own teacher, you are making your own assignment, and you will be your own best critic. You will not need externally imposed courses, nor marks, nor diplomas, nor a nod from your boss . . . in business or in politics." - Scott Buchanan (wiki).

People Need to Stop Pretending that they Know and stop pretending that they understand certain things. This pretending stops people from learning. But it doesn't stop people from expressing their opinions that do more harm then good. Believing that you know something that isn't true can do a lot of damage. Pretending that you understand something is one of the most damaging things that you can do to yourself. It's more then just wrong and illogical, it's a self inflicted learning disability. Not only will you will suffer from your own assumptions, but other people will suffer as well. Once you stop learning, you stop living. So instead of accelerating towards life, you accelerate towards death, like a cancer. You have to first admit that your ignorant in order to start the process of learning.

Assumptions - Biased - Prejudice - Truth

"Most People Don't Know the Half of It."  "Do you know how the subconscious mind works?"

Stop Pretending you Know. If you never realize your own ignorance and never admit how much you still don't know and how much you still need to learn and understand, then you will be ignorant for the rest of your life, and that is a complete waste of human intelligence, which is also a complete waste of human potential and human energy.

How can you call it thinking when you never ask questions and never seek answers and never confirm the things you think you know, that's not thinking, that's rumination, which is like a hamster wheel,, your moving, but you're not getting anywhere.

Every person on earth makes the same mistake of believing that they have learned enough, and that the knowledge they have gives them full understanding of themselves and the world around them. But trying to figure out what you don't know is not that easy. And you must have access to the knowledge that you need, and some guidance to navigate through the worlds accumulated knowledge that has been collected in the last 2,000 years or so. People naively believe that they are learning enough because they watch the news and do some reading. Well your wrong, you are not learning enough. Read BK101 and you will begin to learn enough.

Everybody Knows - Leonard Cohen (youtube) - sadly the fact is, everyone doesn't know.

"You need to see the light and free yourself from the darkness of ignorance. Intelligence is just a natural progression. To embrace Intelligence is to embrace freedom."

Not understanding someone is worse than being deaf. You know that the person is speaking words, but you have no idea what the words mean. It's as if someone was speaking a different language. If you don't have the necessary knowledge, information and skills that's needed to understand something, you will not understand it. Ignorance causes a deafening silence in the brain, and you will not even notice the silence. The only way to be aware of this silence is to admit that you do not know something. And the only way to understand something, is to learn about what that something is. The worst thing that you can do, is to pretend that you know something. The second worst thing that you can do is not wanting to learn.

You can say that you don't know how to speak a particular language. And you can confirm this by trying to speak a language that you never learned how to speak. You can also say that you don't know enough about yourself and the world around you. But you don't know what you are supposed to know. And that is where all human problems begin and persist. But what if you had access to knowledge and information that you are supposed to know? Would you want to know things that would give you a better understanding of yourself and the world around you? Most people would. And now most people can. BK101.

The best thing that you can do is to keep asking questions and stop pretending that you have all the answers. Knowing that you are a moron is a good thing, because now you have the ability to educate yourself, and thus stop being a moron and start becoming more intelligent.

What if your goal is to learn how to be intelligent? Then you would have learn what being intelligence is. Then you would have to learn what learning is. Then you would have learn what knowledge is. And then learn what information is. And then you would have learn what language is. And so on and so on. But you have to start learning, and you have to stay faithful and devoted to learning.

If finding out that you were ignorant about something makes you feel bad, then that's a good thing, because ignorance should never feel good. The only time that ignorance should feel good is when you finally learned to over come it.

Every person alive today carries the ignorance of their generation, and that is a sad fact. Education needs to be about correcting all our ignorance instead of perpetuating our ignorance. Ignorance is making reincarnation look like a bad thing, like it's just another death sentence. Human life is incredibly amazing, and if everyone were intelligent, then human life would be a million times better. Intelligence is a natural progression, so we can't allow ignorance to slow it down. Ignorance is not natural like disease, and we can cure diseases, so we can cure ignorance, which would cure all diseases.

We use only 10% of our Brains is an analogy that postulates that 90% of our brain power is not being fully utilized effectively. This is because humans don't have the necessary knowledge and information that would help them to fully utilize the human brains full power and capabilities. And the main reasons why humans don't have the necessary knowledge and information is because our schools and universities only teach students 10% of what is known in the world. The other 90% of what is known is not being transmitted. This is why most people use only 10% of communication technology effectively. The other 90% is used for entertainment, advertising and propaganda. When we finally have schools that teach students 99% of the human knowledge that is known, then humans will use 99% of their brain power, and also use technologies 99% more effectively.

"knowing what to do is just as important as knowing what not to do." 

"Most people do not have enough information and knowledge in order to be fully aware of themselves or the world around them. So people never fully understand the options or the choices that they have, or what better decisions they could be making."

"People don't think stuff through far enough to fully understand." "Think Twice".

"You don't know what you don't know until you know what you did not know."

"If there's one thing that I have learned, it's that I still have a lot to learn."

"The most damaging lies are the ones we tell ourselves."

"One of the most important things that a person should know is that there will always be more that they still don't know. knowing that you don't know everything will always be better then believing that you know everything. You will never get through a locked door unless you have a key, and the key is knowledge."

"Know one could have all the answers, but the more answers you do have, the better off you will be."

"There is more information in your DNA in just one tiny microscopic cell in your body, then you have in your entire brain. But not for long. (BK101).

Some people are not smarter then you, some people just learned a little more about certain things then you. Things that you can also learn. So people who have more knowledge and information then you are not smarter then you, they just seem smarter, only because you stopped learning or you didn't have access to the knowledge and information that you need in order to better understand yourself and the world around you. Just keep learning a little each day.

How will you add yesterdays learning to today? And how will you add todays learning to the future? Learning needs progression, if knowledge becomes fragmented, then it becomes less effective.

You can't be any more than what you know, but you can definitely be less than what you know, because you may have forgotten important things that you have learned. So the more you know the better. But you have to choose your knowledge wisely, and you have to learn something new everyday, if not, then you will have wasted a day. And if you miss too many days, your development and progress will almost come to a complete stop. You have to understand the potential that knowledge gives you, but you also have to understand that potential energy comes from action, and that action is called learning. But you have to know what to learn and when to learn it, otherwise, information and knowledge becomes fragmented, and unable to be utilized collectively. So you will not know enough to piece together a full understanding of yourself, or the world. "You can be more then what you know, but not knowing that you are more then what you know, will never be as good as knowing that you are more then what you know."

"What I think and what I know are two different things."

The More I See The Less I Know means that the more you examine and observe the world, the more you will realize how little you know about the world. Even though you learn more about the world and become more knowledgeable, you will also at the same time, realize how much you still don't know about the world. The good news is, you know more, and you also know that there is a lot more to learn. So the most important thing that you learned is that you will stop assuming and stop pretending to know things that you know little about.

Stupid Girl - Garbage (youtube January 22, 1996) - You pretend you're high, Pretend you're bored, Pretend you're anything, Just to be adored, And what you need, Is what you get.

To say that you are educated does not mean that you are competent, intelligence or even fully aware of yourself and the world around you. Being educated just means that you went to some type of school or institution. The only way to measure if you are competent, intelligence and aware, is to have a test that proves that you have these abilities. A test that can't be faked or manipulated. No multiple choice or yes or no answers. The test will have written or verbal explanations with witnesses present during the test. Practice testing will be available so that you can study and prepare for the test. The final test will be a confirmation that accurately measures your abilities and that you fully understand yourself and the world around you. And in doing so, you are ready to take on the world.

Videos About Intelligent People

My Brilliant Brain - Make Me a Genius (Episode 1) (video).
Pure Science Specials - Beautiful Minds (youtube) Season 1 Episode 86 | Aired on 01/28/2015 | TV-G | 2 hr. 17 min.
The Genius in All of Us, David Shenk (video) (not fora tv).
How do you Teach Multiple Intelligences (youtube).
NatGeo "My Brilliant Brain" featuring Susan Polgar (youtube) - Chess.
Phenomenon (film, 1996) - On his birthday, mechanic George Malley (John Travolta) sees a flash of light and proceeds to exhibit extraordinary mental abilities. He becomes a genius, even showing an ability to move objects with his mind. George wishes to help people, but the government wants to take him in for observation.

12-year-old genius recruited by Georgia Tech (youtube) - Caleb Anderson - the young Marietta, Georgia genius, who by nine months knew sign language; was reading at age one; and at age two, knew how to do fractions - has toured Georgia Tech with his parents, visited the labs and met the school’s president, Ángel Cabrera. 12 years old, has already been studying aero-space engineering for a year, and now an elite engineering school is enthusiastically recruiting him.

Related Subjects - Problem Solving - Self-Directed Learning - Knowledge Management - Bodily-Kinesthetic - Creativity - Information Literacy - Multitasking - Parallel Computing - Brain - Artificial Intelligence - Optogenetics (light) - Global Brain - Swarm Intelligence (collective) - Internet.

chinese symbols for intelligence

Measuring Intelligence Potential - Brain Function Examinations

Intelligence Tests and Aptitude Tests will vary depending on the skills that you need to have assessed or measured. Most tests are intended to assess a variety of mental abilities, skills and someone's understanding of basic principles.

Types of Intelligence - Words that describe Intelligence - IQ Test - Cognition - Competence Test

Intelligence Tests are more about measuring your ability to be intelligent than they are about measuring intelligence. That's because there are many different things that contribute to being intelligent that are not on the test.

If a high IQ determines how well you will do in school, and then if all you do is go to education institutions, then all that a high IQ proves is that you got fooled into being schooled by a dysfunction education system, which is not smart. This type of testing could be used as a way to profile people, and not just as a way to determine how easy a person can get assimilated. Privileged - Ego.

Having a High IQ might say that you can learn most things faster and that you can be easily trained, but it does not say that you will learn the right things at the right time, or that you will become good at doing something that is measurably valuable and beneficial to the world. You have potential like everyone else, it will be how you use that potential that will determine how intelligent you really are. You can't prove intelligence by solving a problem on paper. Showing people that you can count does not prove that you will count the things that matter in real life. Showing people that you can recognize patterns on paper does not prove that you will recognize the patterns that matter in real life.

Well-Educated is someone who can apply their learning, critical thinking and understanding to problem-solving. A high IQ and good reasoning skills do not always go hand in hand. Truly educated is the ability to think critically, questioning why and how things are, and engaging with others in meaningful communication. An educated person is prepared to listen to new ideas contrary to their own. While an educated individual harnesses the power of accumulated knowledge, an intelligent person thrives in problem-solving and deciphering complexities.

The only real intelligence test so far is life itself, which is measured in many different ways, like how good of a person you are, your accomplishments, your impact on the world, the choices you made, how well you lived your life, your input to output ratio based on how much you took from the world and how much you gave back to the world, and so on and so on. This is why tests should have real life examples. This way people could actually apply the skills that they learned to real life situations and see and experience the benefits for themselves. This would help reaffirm the accuracy of the tests, and also help update the tests if the feedback reveals any errors in the test that need to be improved. If you're going to measure a persons ability to see patterns, then a person should be able to recognize patterns of corruption, patterns of abuse, patterns of behavior, patterns of propaganda, and not just patterns of shapes.

Knowing how to count doesn't matter if you never count the things that matter.

A 2012 investigation of almost 6,000 British citizens born in 1958, discovered an association between high IQ in early life and drug abuse in later years.

Self-Test of Intelligence is a psychological test that someone can take to measure one's own intelligence. A self-test of intelligence normally consists of a series of verbal and non-verbal intellectual tasks and puzzles. These tests usually give the taker instructions on how to complete the tasks and offer a performance score after the test has been completed. These self-tests can be performed in various ways that are quick, easy, and can be done at home or on the go. Web sites on the internet, apps for mobile devices, and one or more books are popular choices for taking these tests. There are two ways that one can look at intelligence: either as an innate, intrinsic, static characteristic of a person; or as a characteristic that is acquired which can be influenced by the environment and that can be improved on. These opposing points of view are part of a more general nature vs. nurture (or hereditarianism vs. environmentalist) debate that dates back to Ancient Greeks like Plato and Aristotle. Implicit theories of intelligence can be at the basis of the chosen point of view, and whether or not the results of a self-test of intelligence are considered definitive or can be improved upon may depend on this. Self-tests of intelligence can contribute to the self-assessed intelligence (SAI) of a person, where SAI can be defined as people's estimates of their cognitive abilities in relation to the overall population. Words that Describe Intelligence.

Neuro-Psychological Test are specifically designed tasks used to measure a psychological function known to be linked to a particular brain structure or pathway. Tests are used for research into brain function and in a clinical setting for the diagnosis of deficits. They usually involve the systematic administration of clearly defined procedures in a formal environment. Neuropsychological tests are typically administered to a single person working with an examiner in a quiet office environment, free from distractions. As such, it can be argued that neuropsychological tests at times offer an estimate of a person's peak level of cognitive performance. Neuropsychological tests are a core component of the process of conducting neuropsychological assessment, along with personal, interpersonal and contextual factors. Most neuropsychological tests in current use are based on traditional psychometric theory. In this model, a person's raw score on a test is compared to a large general population normative sample, that should ideally be drawn from a comparable population to the person being examined. Normative studies frequently provide data stratified by age, level of education, and/or ethnicity, where such factors have been shown by research to affect performance on a particular test. This allows for a person's performance to be compared to a suitable control group, and thus provide a fair assessment of their current cognitive function.

Trail Making Test is a neuropsychological test of visual attention and task switching. It consists of two parts in which the subject is instructed to connect a set of 25 dots as quickly as possible while still maintaining accuracy. The test can provide information about visual search speed, scanning, speed of processing, mental flexibility, as well as executive functioning.

Mensa Brain Test - Thurstone Test of Mental Alertness

Implicit Association Test is a measure within social psychology designed to detect the strength of a person's automatic association between mental representations of objects (concepts) in memory.

General Knowledge Test or Bochum Knowledge Test is comprised of over 300 questions from various fields of knowledge such as art and architecture or biology and chemistry.

IQ Test - Intelligence Quotient

IQ = MA/CA x 100  (The Ratio of Mental Age (MA) to Chronological Age (CA) multiplied by 100).  (Score/Age X 100).

Quotient is the ratio of two quantities to be divided.

Intelligence Quotient is a total score derived from several standardized tests designed to assess skills like pattern recognition and analogies that are mathematical, verbal, spatial and visual. Scores from intelligence tests are estimates of intelligence and cannot prove that a person can interpret patterns that happen in real life.

The number of questions in an IQ test varies. Some IQ tests contains several hundred questions and takes between 60 and 90 minutes to complete. The Wechsler Suite of Instruments consists of 15 different subtests; there are 3 different Wechsler scales: one for pre-schoolers, one for children and one for adults. Each subtest measures a different cognitive ability. Some subtests are relatively short with about 10 items (questions) and some are rather long at 25 items. One of the longest subtests with about 50 items is speeded which means that there’s a short time limit (2 minutes) where hardly anyone gets finished when the time is called. The Mensa Admissions Test is actually two tests. Scoring at or above 98 percent on either or both tests qualifies for admission. The first test consists of 50 questions and test-takers are given 12 minutes to complete as many questions as they can. The second test consists of seven sections. (68% of people get within 15 points of 100 IQ).

The types of questions that might be found on an IQ test are: Analogies (mathematical and verbal), Pattern driven (spatial and mathematical), Classification, Visual, Spatial and Logical. (Verbal Reasoning Skills, Working Memory Skills, Visual Spatial skills)

Types of Intelligence - Competence - School Exams - Intelligence Testing - Testing - Competency Evaluations - Cognition

Advanced IQ Test (PDF) - IQ Test - Intelligence Exercise Tests-Philip Carter (PDF)

A 7 year old has an IQ of 170. A 27 year old has an IQ of 160. Is the 7 year old more intelligent than the 27 year old?

IQ is just a measure of your potential to become intelligent. Lets say that you have an IQ of 150, that means you have a 75% chance of becoming intelligent. An IQ of 100 would mean that you have 50% chance of becoming intelligent. And if you keep education yourself, then your potential and your IQ will always increase. 

IQ Classification is the practice by IQ test publishers of labeling IQ score ranges with category names such as "superior" or "average". There are several publishers of tests of cognitive abilities. No two publishers use exactly the same classification labels, which have changed from time to time since the beginning of intelligence testing in the early twentieth century. IQ Research (PDF).

Flynn Effect is the substantial and long-sustained increase in both fluid and crystallized intelligence test scores measured in many parts of the world from roughly 1930 to the present day. When intelligence quotient (IQ) tests are initially standardized using a sample of test-takers, by convention the average of the test results is set to 100 and their standard deviation is set to 15 or 16 IQ points. When IQ tests are revised, they are again standardized using a new sample of test-takers, usually born more recently than the first. Again, the average result is set to 100. However, when the new test subjects take the older tests, in almost every case their average scores are significantly above 100.

Ragnar Frisch Center for Economic Research in Norway did a survey of Norwegian men born between 1962 and 1991. They found that for those who were born between 1962 and 1975, IQ scores gained nearly three percentage points each decade. However, the IQs of those born after 1975 declined. "The causes in IQ increases over time and now the decline is due to environmental factors. A person's media diet, eating habits, changes in the education system, and Toxins in the Environment, lowered a persons IQ more than genetics. There was not only a considerable variance in IQ between parents and their offspring, but also a variance in siblings born to the same parents. Flynn effect and its reversal are both environmentally caused.

Mental Age looks at how a specific child, at a specific age performs intellectually, compared to average intellectual performance for that physical age, measured in years. The physical age of the child is compared to the intellectual performance of the child, based on performance in tests and live assessments by a psychologist. Scores achieved by the child in question are compared to scores in the middle of a bell curve for children of the same age. However, mental age varies according to what kind of intelligence is measured. A child's intellectual age can be average for his physical age but the same child's emotional intelligence can be immature for his physical age. In this psychologists often remark girls are more emotionally mature than boys in the tween years. Also, a six-year-old child intellectually gifted in Piaget terms can remain a three-year-old child in terms of emotional maturity. Mental age was once considered a controversial concept. Maturity.

Mental Chronometry is the use of response time in perceptual-motor tasks to infer the content, duration, and temporal sequencing of cognitive operations.

Educational Quotient is a score designed to assess a subject's level of general education. Though related to intelligence quotient, there is no direct correlation between the two. A person of high IQ, may have a low EQ, and vice versa. A person's EQ is generally found by dividing the results of their Wide Range Achievement Test by their IQ and multiplying by 100, or by dividing their Education Age by their Chronological Age and multiplying by 100.

Albert Einstein had an IQ of 160-190.

Marilyn vos Savant was listed as having the highest recorded intelligence quotient in the Guinness Book of Records, a competitive category the publication has since retired. Savant was listed in the Guinness Book of World Records under "Highest IQ" from 1985 to 1989 and entered the Guinness Book of World Records Hall of Fame in 1988. Guinness retired the "Highest IQ" category in 1990 after concluding IQ tests were too unreliable to designate a single record holder. The listing drew nationwide attention. Guinness cited vos Savant's performance on two intelligence tests, the Stanford-Binet and the Mega Test. She took the 1937 Stanford-Binet, Second Revision test at age ten. She claims her first test was in September 1956 and measured her mental age at 22 years and 10 months, yielding a 228 score. This figure was listed in the Guinness Book of World Records; it is also listed in her books' biographical sections and was given by her in interviews. Alan S. Kaufman, a psychology professor and author of IQ tests, writes in IQ Testing 101 that "Miss Savant was given an old version of the Stanford-Binet (Terman & Merrill 1937), which did, indeed, use the antiquated formula of MA/CA × 100. But in the test manual's norms, the Binet does not permit IQs to rise above 170 at any age, child or adult. As the authors of the old Binet stated: 'Beyond fifteen the mental ages are entirely artificial and are to be thought of as simply numerical scores.' (Terman & Merrill 1937). ...the psychologist who came up with an IQ of 228 committed an extrapolation of a misconception, thereby violating almost every rule imaginable concerning the meaning of IQs." Savant has commented on reports mentioning varying IQ scores she was said to have obtained. The second test reported by Guinness was Hoeflin's Mega Test, taken in the mid 1980s. The Mega Test yields IQ standard scores obtained by multiplying the subject's normalized z-score, or the rarity of the raw test score, by a constant standard deviation and adding the product to 100, with Savant's raw score reported by Hoeflin to be 46 out of a possible 48, with a 5.4 z-score, and a standard deviation of 16, arriving at a 186 IQ. The Mega Test has been criticized by professional psychologists as improperly designed and scored, "nothing short of number pulverization". Savant sees IQ tests as measurements of a variety of mental abilities and thinks intelligence entails so many factors that "attempts to measure it are useless". She has held memberships with the high-IQ societies Mensa International and the Mega Society.

William James Sidis was an American child prodigy with exceptional mathematical and linguistic skills. He is notable for his 1920 book The Animate and the Inanimate, in which he speculates about the origin of life in the context of thermodynamics. Sidis was raised in a particular manner by his father, psychiatrist Boris Sidis, who wished his son to be gifted. Sidis first became famous for his precocity and later for his eccentricity and withdrawal from public life. Eventually, he avoided mathematics altogether, writing on other subjects under a number of pseudonyms. He entered Harvard at age 11 and, as an adult, was claimed to have an extremely high IQ, and to be conversant in about 25 languages and dialects. Some of these claims have not been verified, but many of his contemporaries, including Norbert Wiener, Daniel Frost Comstock and William James, supported the assertion that he was extremely intelligent. Born in April 1, 1898 Manhattan, New York City, U.S. and Died July 17, 1944 (aged 46) Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.

Independent of IQ, 'decision acuity' predicts broad range of decision-making abilities. A common factor called 'decision acuity' underpins diverse decision-making abilities in adolescents and young adults, suggests a new study. A large set of behavioral and neuroimaging data revealed that decision acuity is stable over time, distinct from IQ, and reduced in individuals with low general social functioning.

Countries with the most intelligent people. Determining which countries are the smartest in the world is difficult because there are so many different factors that can be considered.
Determining the world's smartest countries is complex, involving such factors as literacy, IQ scores, Nobel Prizes, and standardized test outcomes. Education and intelligence are closely linked, as a more robust educational system tends to produce a more intelligent populace over time.

Top 10 Smartest Countries by IQ:

Japan 106.48
Taiwan 106.47
Singapore 105.89
Hong Kong 105.37
China 104.1
South Korea 102.35
Belarus 101.6
Finland 101.2
Liechtenstein 101.07
Germany 100.74

Top 10 Smartest Countries based on Math, Reading, and Science - OECD PISA 2022:

Singapore - 575, 543, 561
Macau (China) - 552, 510, 543
Chinese Taipei - 547, 515, 537
Hong Kong (China) - 540, 500, 520
Japan - 536, 516, 547
Korea - 527, 515, 528
Estonia - 510, 511, 526
Switzerland - 508, 483, 503
Canada - 497, 507, 515
Netherlands - 493, 459, 488

America is low on the list of intelligence because republicans have lowered the IQ of the entire country. America is dumber because of republicans. America must improve education or America will be overrun by idiots who are mostly republican voters.

Intelligence Capital Index is a way to gauge the ability of countries to capitalize on the knowledge economy by assessing their environments for education, creativity and talent attraction, and leveraging smart citizens for knowledge expansion. Human Capital Index.

Cognition - Mental Abilities

Cognitive Skill is defined as the ability of an individual to perform the various mental activities most closely associated with learning and problem solving. Examples include verbal, spatial, psychomotor, and processing-speed ability. Cognition mainly refers to things like memory, the ability to learn new information, speech, understanding of written material.

Cognitive Load - Cognitive Decline - Cognitive Neuroscience - Psychological Evaluation

Cognition is the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses. It encompasses processes such as knowledge, attention, memory and working memory, judgment and evaluation, reasoning and "computation", problem solving and decision making, comprehension and production of language, etc.

Thinking - Awareness of Thoughts - Executive Functions

Cognizant is having or showing knowledge or understanding or having a realization or having perception.

How cognitive intelligence is a whole brain phenomenon. Intelligence not only involves grey matter, but also white matter, the brain's wiring system.

Cognitive Revolution was an intellectual movement that began in the 1950's as an interdisciplinary study of the mind and its processes, which became known collectively as cognitive science. The relevant areas of interchange were between the fields of psychology, anthropology, and linguistics using approaches developed within the then-nascent fields of artificial intelligence, computer science, and neuroscience. A key goal of early cognitive psychology was to apply the scientific method to the study of human cognition by designing experiments that used computational models of artificial intelligence to systematically test theories about human mental processes in a controlled laboratory setting.

Faculty is one of the inherent cognitive or perceptual powers of the mind.

Cognitive Psychology is the study of mental processes such as "attention, language use, memory, perception, problem solving, creativity, and thinking". Much of the work derived from cognitive psychology has been integrated into various other modern disciplines of psychological study, including educational psychology, social psychology, personality psychology, abnormal psychology, developmental psychology, and economics.

Researchers Develop New Tool to Assess Individual’s Level of Wisdom - Cognitive Abilities

People can pass a cognitive test and prove that they can recognize shapes and patterns. But the test does not prove if person knows right from wrong or understands what's good and what's bad. You can prove that a person can count, but you're not proving if they can count the things that matter. You can prove that a person can recognize things, but you can't prove if they make up their own interpretation of what those things are or what they mean, or know how to use them effectively and efficiently.

Cognitive Flexibility as been described as the mental ability to switch between thinking about two different concepts, and to think about multiple concepts simultaneously. Cognitive flexibility is usually described as one of the Executive Functions. Two subcategories of cognitive flexibility are task switching and cognitive shifting, depending on whether the change happens unconsciously or consciously, respectively.

Can’t Switch Your Focus? Your brain might not be wired for it. Focus - Prefrontal Cortex

Cognitive Fluidity is combining different ways of processing knowledge and using tools to create a modern civilization. Arriving at original thoughts that are often highly creative and rely on metaphors and analogies. Cognitive fluidity is a key element of the human attentive consciousness. Adaptation.

Cognitive Shifting is the mental process of consciously redirecting one's attention from one fixation to another. In contrast, if this process happened unconsciously, then it is referred to as task switching. Both are forms of cognitive flexibility.

Task Switching in psychology is an executive function that involves the ability to unconsciously shift attention between one task and another. In contrast, cognitive shifting is a very similar executive function, but it involves conscious (not unconscious) change in attention. Together, these two functions are subcategories of the broader cognitive flexibility concept. Task switching allows a person to rapidly and efficiently adapt to different situations. It is often studied by cognitive and experimental psychologists, and can be tested experimentally using tasks like the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Multi Tasking.

Quick thinking? It's all down to timing. New insights into neuronal behavior in the brain may pave way to identifying learning disabilities. Synaptic plasticity, which underlies learning and memory, involves the strengthening and weakening of synapses. This process is affected by the relative timing of spikes in electrical activity in the pre- and postsynaptic neurons. Researchers have now found that, when both spikes occur simultaneously (or within tens of milliseconds of each other), the synapses were strengthened for up to 4 hours. These findings could impact research in conditions with impaired learning and memory.

Embodied cognitive science is an interdisciplinary field of research, the aim of which is to explain the mechanisms underlying intelligent behavior. It comprises three main methodologies: 1) the modeling of psychological and biological systems in a holistic manner that considers the mind and body as a single entity, 2) the formation of a common set of general principles of intelligent behavior, and 3) the experimental use of robotic agents in controlled environments.

Embodied Cognition is the theory that many features of cognition, whether human or otherwise, are shaped by aspects of the entire body of the organism. Abstract - Body effects the Mind.

Key neural mechanism believed to support advanced cognitive abilities discovered.

Cognitive Tests are assessments of the cognitive capabilities of humans and other animals. Tests administered to humans include various forms of IQ tests; those administered to animals include the mirror test (a test of visual self-awareness) and the T maze test (which tests learning ability). Such study is important to research concerning the philosophy of mind and psychology, as well as determination of human and animal intelligence.

Cognitive Abilities Test intended to estimate students' learned reasoning and problem solving abilities through a battery of verbal, quantitative, and nonverbal test items.

Identifying cognitive impairments with multiple drawing tasks. Researchers have found that extracting drawing features from a combination of five drawing tasks -- rather than from any single task alone -- leads to more accurate classification of people with normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease by capturing different, complementary aspects of cognitive impairments. Their proposed portable, easy-to-use screening test may improve patient diagnosis, leading to earlier and more effective treatments.

Digital pens provide new insight into cognitive testing results. During neuropsychological assessments, participants complete tasks designed to study memory and thinking. Based on their performance, the participants receive a score that researchers use to evaluate how well specific domains of their cognition are functioning.

Monitoring Cognitive Functioning: Psychometric Properties of the Brief Test of Adult Cognition by Telephone (BTACT). Assessment of cognitive functioning is an important component of telephone surveys of health. Previous cognitive telephone batteries have been limited in scope with a primary focus on dementia screening. The Brief Test of Adult Cognition by Telephone assesses multiple dimensions central for effective functioning across adulthood: episodic memory, working memory, reasoning, verbal fluency, and executive function. The BTACT is the first instrument which includes measures of processing speed, reaction time, and task switching/inhibitory control for use over the telephone. Variety and consistency are essential to keep the mind healthy. The well-known adage 'use it or lose it' is just as important in your 30's as it is in older adults. But it's how you stay active that most impacts cognitive decline. cognitive functioning was assessed using the Brief Test of Adult Cognition by Telephone (BTACT) battery, which measures multiple dimensions of cognition, including working memory span, verbal fluency, attention, speed of processing, reasoning and verbal memory. Previous studies have examined how activity variety and frequency impact cognition. This is the first study to prove activity consistency is also essential, regardless of age.

Mild Cognitive Impairment is a neurological disorder that occurs in older adults which involves cognitive impairments with minimal impairment in instrumental activities of daily living. MCI involves the onset and evolution of cognitive impairments beyond those expected based on an individual's age and education, but which are not significant enough to interfere with her or his daily activities. It may occur as a transitional stage between normal aging and dementia. The specific etiology of the disorder remains unclear, as well as its prevention and treatment. (also known as incipient dementia and isolated memory impairment).

Neuro Tracker scientifically based tool to measure and improve cognitive performance.

G Factor in Psychometrics is a construct developed in psychometric investigations of cognitive abilities and human intelligence. It is a variable that summarizes positive correlations among different cognitive tasks, reflecting the fact that an individual's performance on one type of cognitive task tends to be comparable to that person's performance on other kinds of cognitive tasks. The g factor typically accounts for 40 to 50 percent of the between-individual performance differences on a given cognitive test, and composite scores ("IQ scores") based on many tests are frequently regarded as estimates of individuals' standing on the g factor. The terms IQ, general intelligence, general cognitive ability, general mental ability, or simply intelligence are often used interchangeably to refer to this common core shared by cognitive tests. The g factor targets a particular measure of general intelligence. (also known as general intelligence, general mental ability or general intelligence factor).

Cognitive Tests - Cognitive Abilities - Cognitive Failures

Winter Light Labs quantify speech and language patterns to help detect and monitor cognitive and mental diseases.

Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities is a set of intelligence tests administered to children from age two right up to the oldest adults (with norms utilizing individuals in their 90s). Numerical Reasoning: Quantitative Reasoning, Participants must determine numerical sequences and determine a two-dimensional numerical pattern. Concept Formation: Induction, Participants must identify rules that make up geometric figures after being exposed to concepts. Analysis Synthesis: General Sequential Reasoning, Participants must analyze the structure of an incomplete logic puzzle and solve the missing parts. Block Rotation: Mental rotation, Visualization, Participants must choose geometric designs that match another design which have been physically rotated to a different position. Spatial Relations: Participants must select the component parts of whole shape. Pattern Recognition: Visual Memory, Participants must study five images, remember them and recognize them in a larger set of other arranged images. Visual Matching: Perceptual Speed, Participants must quickly find and circle two identical numbers in a row of six numbers in 3 minutes. Decision Speed: Mental Comparison Speed, Participants must quickly analyze a row of images and mark two images that are the most closely related in 3 minutes. Cross out: Perceptual Speed & Rate of Test Taking, Participants must mark drawings that are identical to the first drawing in the row in 3 mins. Rapid Picture Naming: Naming Facility, Participants must quickly name a series of pictures as fast as possible. Retrieval Fluency: Ideational Fluency, Participants must state as many words from specified categories as possible in 1 minute. Visual Auditory Learning: Delayed, Associative Memory, Participants must recall and relearn (after a 30-minute to 8-day delay) symbols presented in Visual-Auditory Learning. Memory For Names: Associative Memory, Participants must remember an increasingly large number of names of novel cartoon characters. Sound Blending: Phonetic Coding Synthesis, Participants must listen to a series of individual syllables, individual phonemes, or both that form words and name the complete words. Incomplete Words: Phonetic Coding Analysis, Participants must listen to words with one or more phonemes missing and name the complete words. Sound Patterns: Speech Sound Discrimination, Participants must indicate whether pairs of complex sound patterns are the same or different. The patterns may differ in pitch, rhythm, or sound content. Auditory Working Memory: Working Memory, Participants must listen to a mixed series of words and digits and then to rearrange them by first saying the words in order and then the numbers. Numbers Reversed: Working Memory, Participants must repeat a series of random numbers backward. Memory For Words: Memory Span, Participants must repeat lists of unrelated words in the correct sequence. Memory For Sentences: Memory Span, Participants must repeat complete sentences. Picture Vocabulary: Lexical Knowledge, Participants must name familiar and unfamiliar pictured objects. Verbal Comprehension: Language Development & Lexical Knowledge, Participants must name familiar and unfamiliar pictured objects and then say words similar in meaning to word presented, say words that are opposites in meaning to the word presented, and complete phrases with words that complete analogies. General Information: Participants must provide characteristics of objects by responding to questions, such as “Where you would find . . .?” and “What you would do with . . .? Academic Knowledge: General Information, Participants must provide information about biological and physical sciences, history, geography, government, economics, art, music, and literature. Oral Comprehension: Listening Ability, Participants must listen to a short passage and orally supply the word missing at the end of the passage. Story Recall: Listening Ability, Participants must listen to a short passage and describe the details. Verbal attention: Working memory capacity, Participants must listen to a series of numbers and animal words mixed together and answer questions regarding the sequence. Number series: Quantitative reasoning, Participants have to identify the correct number in a series of number that correctly completed the series. Ex. (2,4,?,8,10.....). Letter-Pattern Matching: Perceptual speed, Participants must quickly find and circle identical letters and patterns. Visualization: Mental rotation, Visualization, Participants must identify two sets of 2D pieces that form a specific shape. Participants must also identify two sets of 3D rotated blocks that match another shape. Phonological Processing: Phonetic coding, Word fluency, Participants must name words that beings with a certain sound. Participants must also use parts of words to create new ones. Nonword Repetition: Phonetic coding, Participants must listen to a nonsense word and repeat the word exactly. Segmentation: Phonetic coding, Participants must listen to words and break it into syllables and phonemes.

Competence Testing

Four Stages of Competence is the process of progressing from incompetence to competence in a skill.

Unconscious Incompetence: The individual does not understand or know how to do something and does not necessarily recognize the deficit. They may deny the usefulness of the skill. The individual must recognize their own incompetence, and the value of the new skill, before moving on to the next stage. The length of time an individual spends in this stage depends on the strength of the stimulus to learn.

Conscious Incompetence: Though the individual does not understand something or know how to do something, he or she does recognize the deficit, as well as the value of a new skill in addressing the deficit. The making of mistakes can be integral to the learning process at this stage.

Conscious Competence: The individual understands something or knows how to do something. However, demonstrating the skill or knowledge requires concentration. It may be broken down into steps, and there is heavy conscious involvement in executing the new skill.

Unconscious Competence: The individual has had so much practice with a skill that it has become "second nature" and can be performed easily. As a result, the skill can be performed while executing another task. The individual may be able to teach it to others, depending upon how and when it was learned.

Competence (employment skills)

Army Alpha a systematic method of evaluating the intellectual and emotional functioning of soldiers. The test measured "verbal ability, numerical ability, ability to follow directions, and knowledge of information". Scores on the Army Alpha were used to determine a soldier's capability of serving, his job classification, and his potential for a leadership position. Soldiers who were illiterate or foreign speaking would take the Army Beta, the nonverbal equivalent of the exam. McNamara's Morons.

Wonderlic Test is a popular group intelligence test used to assess the aptitude of prospective employees for learning and problem-solving in a range of occupations. The Wonderlic is available in 12 different languages and is often used in college, entry level jobs, and team-making efforts. It consists of 50 multiple choice questions to be answered in 12 minutes. The test was developed by Eldon F. Wonderlic. The score is calculated as the number of correct answers given in the allotted time. A score of 20 is intended to indicate average intelligence (corresponding to an intelligence quotient of 100). Wonderlic, Inc. claims a score of 10 points or more suggests a person is literate. A new version was released in January 2007 called the Wonderlic Contemporary Cognitive Ability Test (formerly known as the Wonderlic Personnel Test – Revised), containing questions more appropriate to the 21st century; it is available both online and in printed form, whereas the original test is only available on paper. The Wonderlic test was based on another test called the Otis Self-Administering Test of Mental Ability.

Gifted is a student whose mental capacities develop ahead of chronological age.

Mini Mental State Examination is a 30-point questionnaire that is used extensively in clinical and research settings to measure cognitive impairment. - PDF.

Mental Health Assessments - Personality Tests - Assessment Flaws - Observer Effects - Bias - Executive Functions - Cognitive Control

Attentional Network Task (ANT)
Attention Networks Test
Delis–Kaplan Executive Function System
Wiz IQ
50 things everyone should know how to do 
Reasoning Tests
Darwin Awards
Testing Mom

Block Design Test assessment of human intelligence. It is thought to tap spatial visualization ability and motor skill. The test-taker uses hand movements to rearrange blocks that have various color patterns on different sides to match a pattern. The items in a block design test can be scored both by accuracy in matching the pattern and by speed in completing each item.

Games - Puzzles - Brain Games - Virtual Reality

Knox Cubes a nonverbal intelligence test

Kohs Block Design Test is a performance test designed to be an IQ test. The test taker must, using 16 colored cubes, replicate the patterns displayed on a series of test cards. The design of the test was motivated by a belief that the test could easily be administered to persons with language or hearing disabilities.

Jensen Box a standard apparatus for measuring choice reaction time, especially in relationship to differences in intelligence.

Odd Man Out Test box is normally used for measuring choice reaction times in which the participant in the experiment is tested on their ability to recognize which of the eight lights of the Jensen box is illuminated, as quickly as possible. However, in the Odd Man Out RT test, there are three lights that are “illuminated on each trial, two that are relatively close together and one that is further apart." The individual in the experiment is responsible to identify the stimulus that is the “Odd-Man-Out” in the scenario. The Odd-Man-Out RT test correlates with “Intelligent Quotients (IQ) in the range of 0.30 to 0.60, a reliable and substantial effect.” This correlation range is typically higher than the correlations to IQ found among Reaction Time Tests.

Mental Rotations Test is a test of spatial ability.

Porteus Maze Test s designed to measure psychological planning capacity and foresight. It is a nonverbal test of intelligence. The test consists of a set of mazes for the subject to solve. The mazes are of varying complexity. The test runs for 15–60 minutes, allowing the subject to solve as many mazes as possible. The test serves as a supplementary subtest of the
Wechsler intelligence scale.

Bracken School Readiness Assessment test assesses six basic skills: Colors: Student must identify common colors by name. Letters: Students must identify upper-case and lower-case letters. Numbers and Counting: Student must identify single- and double-digit numerals, and must count objects. Sizes: Student must demonstrate knowledge of words used to depict size (e.g., tall, wide, etc.) Comparisons: Student must match or differentiate objects based on a specific characteristic. Shapes: Student must identify basic shapes by name.

McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities is a psychological test given to young children. "the McCarthy scales present a carefully constructed individual test of human ability. In the General Cognitive Index (CGI): Verbal Scale: Pictorial Memory, Word Knowledge, Verbal Memory I, Verbal Memory II, Verbal Fluency, Opposite Analogies. Perceptual-performance: Block Building, Puzzle Solving, Tapping Sequence, Right-Left Orientation, Draw-a-design, Draw-a-child, Conceptual Grouping. Quantitative: Number Questions, Numerical Memory I, Numerical Memory II, Counting and Sorting in the Additional Scales. Memory: Pictorial Memory, Tapping Sequence, Verbal Memory I and II, Numerical Memory I and II. Motor: Leg Coordination, Arm Coordination, Imitative Action, Draw-a-design, Draw-a-child.

Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children is a clinical instrument (psychological diagnostic test) for assessing cognitive development. Simultaneous/Gv. Triangles: the child assembles several foam triangles to match a picture. Face Recognition: the child looks a photographs of one or two faces for 5 seconds and then selects the correct face/faces shown in a difference pose from a selection. Block Counting: The child counts the number of blocks in a picture of a stack of blocks, some of the blocks are partially hidden. Conceptual Thinking: The child selects one picture from a set of 4 or 5 which does not belong with the set. Rover: The child moves a toy dog to a bone on a grid that contains several obstacles trying to find the quickest path to the bone. Gestalt Closure: The child mentally fills in the gaps in a partially completed inkblot drawing and names or describes the object/action depicted in the drawing. Pattern Reasoning (ages 5 and 6). Story Completion (ages 5 and 6). Sequential/Gsm. Word Order: The assessor reads the names of common objects, the child the touches a series of silhouettes of these objects in the same order they were read out in. Number Recall: The assessor reads a string of numbers and the child repeats the string in the same order. The strings range from 2 to 9 digits. Hand Movements: the child copies a series of taps the examiner makes on the table with the fist, palm or side of the hand. Planning/Gf. Pattern Reasoning (ages 7–18): the child is shown a series of stimulus that form a logical linear pattern with one stimulus missing. The child selects the missing stimulus from several options. Story Completion (ages 7–18): the child is shown a row of pictures that tell a story, some pictures are missing. The child selects several pictures from a selection that are needed to complete the story and places them in the correct location. Learning/Glr. Atlantis: the assessor teaches the child nonsense names for pictures of fish, shells and plants. The child then has to point to the correct picture when read out the nonsense name. Atlantis Delayed: the child repeats the Atlantis subtest 15–25 minutes later to demonstrate delayed recall. Rebus: the assessor teaches the child the word or concept associated with a rebus (drawing) and the child reads aloud phrases and sentences composed of these rebuses. Rebus Delayed: the child repeats the Rebus subtest 15–25 minutes later to demonstrate delayed recall of paired associates. Knowledge(Gc) included in the CHC model only. Riddles: the examiner says several characteristics of a concrete or abstract verbal concept, and the child has to point to it or name it. Expressive Vocabulary: measures the Childs ability to say the correct names of objects and Verbal Knowledge: the child selects from an array for 6 pictures the one that corresponds to a vocabulary word or answers a general information question.

Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test s an untimed test of receptive vocabulary for Standard American English and is intended to provide a quick estimate of verbal ability and scholastic aptitude. The test is given verbally and takes from twenty to thirty minutes to complete. No reading is required by the individual, and scoring is rapid. For its administration, the examiner presents a series of pictures to each person. There are four pictures to a page, and each is numbered. The examiner speaks a word describing one of the pictures and asks the individual to point to or say the number of the picture that the word describes. Item responses can also be made by multiple choice selection depending on the age of the person being tested. The total score can be converted to a percentile rank, mental age, or a standard deviation IQ score. Although desirable, no special training is required to properly administer and score the PPVT-IV. The test publisher recommends that anyone interpreting or explaining the test scores should have knowledge in psychological testing and statistics.

Ammons Quick Test help assess premorbid intelligence. It is a passive response picture-vocabulary test. The Quick Test (QT) can be administered to the physically handicapped as well as individuals with attention span deficits. The QT results correlate well with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) Full Scale IQ. The Quick Test raw score of 46 translates to a WAIS IQ score of 110, which is in the high average range of intellectual functioning for an adult.

Otis-Lennon School Ability Test is a test of abstract thinking and reasoning ability of children pre-K to 18. The Otis-Lennon is a group-administered (except preschool), multiple choice, taken with pencil and paper, measures verbal, quantitative, and spatial reasoning ability. The test yields verbal and nonverbal scores, from which a total score is derived, called a School Ability Index (SAI). The SAI is a normalized standard score with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 16. With the exception of pre-K, the test is administered in groups.

Raven's Progressive Matrices is a nonverbal group test typically used in educational settings. It is usually a 60-item test used in measuring abstract reasoning and regarded as a non-verbal estimate of fluid intelligence. All of the questions on the Raven's progressives consist of visual geometric design with a missing piece. The test taker is given six to eight choices to pick from and fill in the missing piece.

Leiter International Performance Scale is an intelligence test in the form of a strict performance scale. It was designed for children and adolescents ages 2 to 18, although it can yield an intelligence quotient (IQ) and a measure of logical ability for all ages.The Leiter contains 10 subtests organized into four domains: Fluid Intelligence, Visualization, Memory, Attention.

Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children provides five primary index scores (i.e., Verbal Comprehension Index, Visual Spatial Index, Fluid Reasoning Index, Working Memory Index, and Processing Speed Index) that represent a child's abilities in more discrete cognitive domains. Five ancillary composite scores can be derived from various combinations of primary or primary and secondary subtests.

Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) is a very short form of estimating intellectual functioning. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale is an IQ test designed to measure intelligence and cognitive ability in adults and older adolescents.

Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence is an intelligence test designed for children ages 2 years 6 months to 7 years 7 months provides subtest and composite scores that represent intellectual functioning in verbal and performance cognitive domains, as well as providing a composite score that represents a child’s general intellectual ability (i.e., Full Scale IQ).

Prodigy (gifted)

SON-tests are intelligence tests appropriate for children and adults from two and a half to forty years old. The tests are called nonverbal because they can be administered without having to use written or spoken language. The manuals also contain verbal instructions, but the spoken text does not contain extra information compared to the non-verbal instructions. The way the tests are administered is adjusted to the communicative abilities of the subject in order to create a natural test situation. The tests provide an intelligence score that indicates how someone performs in comparison with other persons from the same age.

Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale is an individually administered cognitive ability and intelligence test that is used to diagnose developmental or intellectual deficiencies in young children. The test measures five weighted factors and consists of both verbal and nonverbal subtests. The five factors being tested are knowledge, quantitative reasoning, visual-spatial processing, working memory, and fluid reasoning. "Le Regard", Prehension Provoked by a Tactile Stimulus, Prehension Provoked by a Visual Perception, Recognition of Food, Quest of Food Complicated by a Slight Mechanical Difficulty, Execution of Simple Commands and Imitation of Simple Gestures, Verbal Knowledge of Objects, Verbal Knowledge of Pictures, Naming of Designated Objects, Immediate Comparison of Two Lines of Unequal Lengths, Repetition of Three Figures, Comparison of Two Weights, Suggestibility, Verbal Definition of Known Objects, Repetition of Sentences of Fifteen Words, Comparison of Known Objects from Memory, Exercise of Memory on Pictures, Drawing a Design from Memory, Immediate Repetition of Figures, Resemblances of Several Known Objects Given from Memory, Comparison of Lengths, Five Weights to be Placed in Order, Gap in Weights, Exercise upon Rhymes, Verbal Gaps to be Filled, Synthesis of Three Words in One Sentence, Reply to an Abstract Question, Reversal of the Hands of a Clock, Paper Cutting, Definitions of Abstract Terms.

Vibrant Brains - Wonderlic

Intelligence Analysis is the application of individual and collective cognitive methods to weigh data and test hypotheses within a secret socio-cultural context. The analyst must correlate the similarities among deceptions and extract a common truth.

Battle of the Brains (youtube) - Documentary is about IQ testing and Testing for Intelligence.

Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales is an individually administered test of intelligence that includes a co-normed, supplemental measure of memory. It is appropriate for individuals ages 3–94. Guess What: Participants are given around two to four clues to solve the concept or the object being described. Verbal Reasoning: Participants must complete propositional statements that essentially forms a verbal analogy. This section measures verbal-analytical reasoning ability. Odd item out: Participants must choose which picture does not belong in a set of five to seven pictures. It's a form of non-verbal analogy that measures spatial ability, visual imagery and other non-verbal skills. What's Missing: Participants must figure out the missing element in an incomplete picture. Verbal memory: Participants have to listen to, memorize and repeat back a series of sentences and stories that are read to them. Measures encoding, storing and recalling aspects of memory. Non-verbal memory: Participants are shown a picture for five seconds and then must identify the same picture among a series of different set of pictures. Measures encoding, storing and recognition of visual stimuli.

If a High School Diploma, SAT, GRE, ACT or College Degree does not confirm intelligence, then what does it confirm? Conformity? College Entry Tests.

Miller Analogies Test is a standardized test used both for graduate school admissions in the United States and entrance to high I.Q. societies. The MAT consists of 120 questions in 60 minutes (formerly 100 questions in 50 minutes). Unlike other graduate school admissions exams such as the GRE, the Miller Analogies Test is verbal or computer based. The test aims to measure an individual's logical and analytical reasoning through the use of partial analogies. A sample test question might be Bach : Composing :: Monet : a. painting, b. composing, c. writing, d. orating. This should be read as "Bach is to (:) Composing as (::) Monet is to (:) _______." The answer would be a. painting because just as Bach is most known for composing music, Monet is most known for his painting. The open slot may appear in any of the four positions. Unlike analogies found on past editions of the GRE and the SAT, the MAT's analogies demand a broad knowledge of Western culture, testing subjects such as science, music, literature, philosophy, mathematics, art, and history. Thus, exemplary success on the MAT requires more than a nuanced and cultivated vocabulary.

Multidimensional Aptitude Battery II is a group-administered intelligence test that is supposed to measure Verbal, Performance and Full Scale IQ. The battery consists of 10 subtests and is used for various professional, medical, military, government, law enforcement and employment settings. The test-retest reliability based on timed performance correlates with values of 0.95 for the verbal section, 0.96 for the performance section and 0.97 for the full scale. Information: Assess general knowledge about diverse topics. Comprehension: Assess the ability to analyze social situations, identify appropriate behavior, and explain why certain laws and customs are practiced. Arithmetic: Assess the ability to solve numerical problems, reasoning and problem solving abilities. Similarities: Assess the ability to recognize, compare and reason the likeness and differences between individual objects. Vocabulary: Assess the learned words, verbal concepts and ability to store, categorize and retrieve information appropriately. Digit symbol: Assess ability to learn new coding system and using it in context. Picture completion: Assess ability to identify and solve missing elements in picture. Spatial: Assess ability to visualize abstract objects in different positions within 2 dimensional space. Picture arrangement: Ability to identify a meaningful sequence from a random sequence. Object assembly: Ability to identify an object by solving left-to right sequences of disarranged segments.

Mechanical Aptitude requires a person to recognize which mechanical principle is suggested by a test item. The underlying concepts measured by these items include sounds and heat conduction, velocity, gravity, and force. A number of tests of mechanical comprehension and mechanical aptitude have been developed and are predictive of performance in manufacturing/production and technical type jobs, for instance.

New Brain Mapping Technique highlights relationship between Connectivity and IQ. Using these morphometric similarity networks (MSNs), the researchers were able to build up a map showing how well connected the 'hubs' -- the major connection points between different regions of the brain network -- were. They found a link between the connectivity in the MSNs in brain regions linked to higher order functions -- such as problem solving and language -- and intelligence.

Higher IQ scores are predictive in measuring the ability of a person to have more occupational success, higher income, and better physical and mental health. But higher IQ scores do not determine the value of success, it only determines the increased chances of success. But you have to define success, and an iq test does not define success. This is more then just getting a job, it's knowing that the work you do is valuable. It's not about how much money you made, it's how you impacted the world. Did you use and abuse the world and make everyone pay for it? Or did you improve the world that produced measurable benefits for other people? Once you accurately measure the inputs and outputs of a persons life, it paints a much clearer picture about what real success is.

There is too much propaganda in these tests, just like in our Civics Tests. Just remembering ignorant facts is not a test.

Testing Failures - Purpose of Education

Optional Testing (pdf)

"I would not say that "Wisdom comes with Age", because knowledge comes from continually learning and seeking out facts. Though older people may have more experiences, they don't always learn from those experiences the way they should. If you stop seeking knowledge and stop learning, then wisdom and old age will never meet."

Intelligent characteristics you should also have these added qualities. A person who has common sense, a person who separates opinion from fact, a person who does not dismiss information solely based on preference, a person who does not assume but questions, a person who can formulate information in order to obtain a logical answer. A person who can problem solve, a person who is knowledgeable of the human brain and body, a person who possesses discipline and self-control, a person who knows good from bad and right from wrong and lives buy it, a person who is not corruptible, a person who never stops learning, a person who knows that being a great teacher and a great leader are the two greatest responsibilities of an intelligent person, a person who is constantly striving to always possess and honor the qualities of intelligence, a person who teaches the qualities of intelligence, a person who knows they will still make mistakes but now will learn from them and move on. So the next time you want to call someone intelligent remember these qualities. You should never call a child intelligent or gifted. You should instead tell them that they have the abilities to be intelligent or gifted. This way they will know that to be intelligent or gifted is a life long process that is much more then a label that someone gives you. If you find someone who considers themselves to be intelligent then show them these definitions. They should be able to prove these qualities, but a truly intelligent person should say that they are constantly striving to acquire all these qualities in order to one day possess them all and even add some new ones. I look at these qualities as the foundation of a good person.

Equation for Intelligence: F = T (del) Sτ  or a force to maximize future options and future freedom of action, and to avoid future confinement. Knowing when to apply the correct action at the correct time. (F = T upside-down triangle or del or nabla symbol Sτ).

Happiness Formula - Machine Learning - Education Purpose - Control Theory - Entropy

“The key to attaining a higher level of intelligence is to make your years of study qualitatively rich. We don't simply absorb information - we internalize it and make it our own by finding some way to put this knowledge to practical use.”

"We are gradually and finally understanding just how incredibly important knowledge and information is to a human."

Being intelligent is being able to approach intellectual road blocks from new angles. Being intelligent is the ability to borrow tools from one discipline to solve problems in another. Being intelligent is having many different hobbies that can lead to creative breakthroughs. Being intelligent is being able to slow down multitasking, having one project take center stage for a series of hours or days. Leaving the other projects to linger in the margins of consciousness, but still being able to take ideas from the projects at the margins. Being intelligent is being able to think outside the box, letting the mind wander and dream, processing new information, making new connections, and developing new thinking strategies.

Intelligence Types

Life Skills are the abilities for adaptive and positive behavior that enables a person to effectively deal with the demands and challenges of everyday life. Life skills is having competency in decision making, problem solving, creative thinking, lateral thinking, perspicacity, effective communication, interpersonal relationships, self awareness, mindfulness, assertiveness, empathy, equanimity, and having resilience and the skills to cope with stress, trauma and loss

21st Century Skills - Skill Set (PDF) - Mind Set - Understanding Value - Measuring Intelligence - Words that Describe Intelligence - Business Intelligence - Intellectuals

Soft Skills are a combination of interpersonal people skills, social skills, communication skills, character traits, attitudes, career attributes and emotional intelligence quotient that enables someone to effectively navigate their environment, work well with others, perform well, and achieve their goals with complementing hard skills.

Life Skills-Based Education are abilities for adaptive and positive behavior that enable individuals to deal effectively with the demands and challenges of everyday life.

Intelligent Words and Definitions - Artificial Intelligence

Evolution of Human Intelligence is closely tied to the evolution of the human brain and to the origin of language. The timeline of human evolution spans approximately 7 million years, from the separation of the Pan genus until the emergence of behavioral modernity by 50,000 years ago. The first 3 million years of this timeline concern Sahelanthropus, the following 2 million concern Australopithecus and the final 2 million span the history of actual human genus in the Paleolithic era. Many traits of human intelligence, such as empathy, theory of mind, mourning, ritual, and the use of symbols and tools, are apparent in great apes although in less sophisticated forms than found in humans, such as great ape language. Glutamate.

Outline of Human Intelligence (wiki) - PDF

Intelligence has been defined in many different ways including one's capacity for logic, abstract thought, understanding, self-awareness, communication, learning, emotional knowledge, memory, planning, creativity and problem solving. It can be more generally described as the ability to perceive information, and retain it as knowledge to be applied towards adaptive behaviors within an environment.

Quantitative Reasoning is the ability to comprehend quantitative concepts and relationships and to manipulate numerical symbols. (Gq)

Crystallized Intelligence refers to experience and accumulated knowledge. Includes the breadth and depth of a person's acquired knowledge, the ability to communicate one's knowledge, and the ability to reason using previously learned experiences or procedures. There are the pathways that encode prior knowledge and experience, which we call crystallized intelligence. Crystallized intelligence involves robust connections, the result of months or years of neural traffic on well-worn pathways. Crystallized Intelligence includes the breadth and depth of a person's acquired knowledge, the ability to communicate one's knowledge, and the ability to reason using previously learned experiences or procedures. (Gc).

Fluid Intelligence is the ability to learn and process information. The ability to reason, form concepts, and solve problems using unfamiliar information or novel procedures. Fluid intelligence is a measure of one's ability to adapt to new situations and solve never-before-seen problems. Fluid intelligence involves weaker, more transient pathways and connections that are formed when the brain tackles unique or unusual problems. Fluid intelligence are adaptive reasoning and problem-solving skills that are quite flexible. By imaging the brain, scientists can predict a person's aptitude for cognitive training. People with specific brain attributes are more likely than others to benefit from targeted cognitive interventions designed to enhance fluid intelligence. Cognitive Fluidity. Fluid Intelligence includes the broad ability to reason, form concepts, and solve problems using unfamiliar information or novel procedures. (Gf).

General Intelligence requires both the ability to flexibly reach nearby, easy-to-access states -- to support crystallized intelligence -- but also the ability to adapt and reach difficult-to-access states -- to support fluid intelligence. General intelligence does not originate from a single brain region or network. Emerging neuroscience evidence instead suggests that intelligence reflects the ability to flexibly transition between network states.

Triarchic Theory of Intelligence states that human intelligence is the mental activity directed toward purposive adaptation to, selection and shaping of, real-world environments relevant to one's life. Intelligence as how well an individual deals with environmental changes throughout their lifespan. Metacomponents are executive processes used in problem solving and decision making that involve the majority of managing our mind. Performance components are the processes that actually carry out the actions the metacomponents dictate. These are the basic processes that allow us to do tasks, such as perceiving problems in our long-term memory, perceiving relations between objects, and applying relations to another set of terms. Knowledge-acquisition components are used in obtaining new information. These components complete tasks that involve selectively choosing relevant information from a mix of information, some of it relevant and some of it irrelevant. These components can also be used to selectively combine the various pieces of information they have gathered. Gifted individuals are proficient in using these components because they are able to learn new information at a greater rate.

People with less memory loss in old age gain more knowledge. At the age of 20, people usually find it easier to learn something new than at the age of 70. People aged 70, however, typically know more about the world than those aged 20. In lifespan psychology this is known as the difference between "fluid" and "crystallized" cognitive abilities. individuals who show greater losses in fluid abilities simultaneously show smaller gains in crystallized abilities, and persons whose fluid abilities hardly decline show large gains in crystallized abilities.

Reading and Writing Ability includes basic reading and writing skills. (Grw).

Short-Term Memory is the ability to apprehend and hold information in immediate awareness, and then use it within a few seconds. (Gsm)

Long-Term Storage and Retrieval is the ability to store information and fluently retrieve it later in the process of thinking. (Glr)

Visual processing is the ability to perceive, analyze, synthesize, and think with visual patterns, including the ability to store and recall visual representations. (Gv)

Auditory Processing is the ability to analyze, synthesize, and discriminate auditory stimuli, including the ability to process and discriminate speech sounds that may be presented under distorted conditions. (Ga)

Processing Speed is the ability to perform automatic cognitive tasks, particularly when measured under pressure to maintain focused attention. (Gs)

Decision - Reaction Time - Speed reflects the immediacy with which an individual can react to stimuli or a task (typically measured in seconds or fractions of seconds; it is not to be confused with Gs, which typically is measured in intervals of 2–3 minutes). (Gt) - Brain Exercise Games.

Mental chronometry is the use of response time in perceptual-motor tasks to infer the content, duration, and temporal sequencing of cognitive operations.

Multiple Intelligences are eight abilities, musical–rhythmic, visual–spatial, verbal–linguistic, logical–mathematical, bodily–kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalistic.

Six Intellects: Logical Intelligence - Empathetic ‘Social’ Intelligence - Creative ‘Abstract’ Intelligence - Artistic ‘Sensory’ Intelligence - Mnemonic Intelligence - Parallel ‘Active’ Intelligence.

Howard Gardner Spatial Intelligence (youtube)

Smart Types - People Smart - Social Intelligence - Collaboration Smart - Nature Smart - Survival Smart - Number Smart - Word Smart - Five Wits - Five W's - Self Smart - Body Smart - Emotional Intelligence - Emotions - Learning Smart - 10,000 Hours - Music Smart - Problem Solving Smart - Scientifically Literate - Spatial Intelligence - Frame of Reference.

Spiritual Intelligence is a term used by some philosophers, psychologists, and developmental theorists to indicate spiritual parallels with IQ (Intelligence Quotient) and EQ (Emotional Quotient).

Heart's Intuitive Intelligence (youtube)

Cognition Testing (examinations)

Wisdom, Intelligence, Creativity, Synthesized (PDF)

Improving Fluid Intelligence with training on working memory, The ability to reason and to solve new problems independently of previously acquired knowledge.

Brain area necessary for fluid intelligence identified. A team of researchers has mapped the parts of the brain that support our ability to solve problems without prior experience. Lesion-deficit mapping examines relationships between the location of brain injury – usually at the level of individual voxels or regions of interest – and behavioral measures such as cognition. Mapping is in practice distorted by unmodelled network disconnections and strong 'parasitic' dependencies between collaterally damaged ischaemic areas.

Five-Percent Nation is a movement founded in 1964 in the Harlem section of the borough of Manhattan, New York City, with the concept that ten percent of the people in the world know the truth of existence, and those elites and agents opt to keep eighty-five percent of the world in ignorance and under their controlling thumb; the remaining five percent are those who know the truth and are determined to enlighten the rest. (sometimes referred to as the Nation of Gods and Earths). Gods and Earths sometimes refer to themselves as scientists, implying their search for knowledge and proof.

Seven Levels of Intelligence and Three types of Genius - Genius?

Link between Sensory Discriminations and Intelligence.
Switching skills on by turning off part of the Brain.

Brain Stimulation makes the impossible problem solvable.

Levels of Thinking

Executive Functions are a set of cognitive processes – including attentional control, inhibitory control, working memory, and cognitive flexibility, as well as reasoning, problem solving, and planning – that are necessary for the cognitive control of behavior: selecting and successfully monitoring behaviors that facilitate the attainment of chosen goals. Executive functions gradually develop and change across the lifespan of an individual and can be improved at any time over the course of a person's life. Similarly, these cognitive processes can be adversely affected by a variety of events which affect an individual.

Intelligent Words - Words that Describe Intelligence

Intelligent is having the capacity for thought and reason to a high degree. Intelligence is possessing sound knowledge. Intelligence is showing good judgment and having a good understanding of things. Intelligence is having a high mental capacity to quickly comprehend things. Intelligence is the mental activity directed towards a positive purpose, followed by a physical activity directed towards a positive purpose. Intelligence is making good decisions and examining things very carefully. Intelligence is always learning. Intelligence is doing the right thing at the right time in a verity of different environments and circumstances, and always with a positive goal in mind, and always with the understanding that there is no guarantee that things will be correct, because things can change, and things that worked before may no longer work now and may no longer be relevant, so one must adapt. The process of learning is just as important as the process of doing.

Intelligence Types - Sentience Intelligence - Artificial Intelligence - Effectiveness - Efficiency

Intelligent has been defined in many different ways including one's capacity for logic, understanding, self-awareness, learning, emotional knowledge, planning, creativity and problem solving. It can be more generally described as the ability to perceive information, and retain it as knowledge to be applied towards adaptive behaviors within an environment or context. Intelligence is not a place or a destination. Intelligence is an incredible journey through the mind that never stops being amazing. There are levels of intelligence, but the levels are forever changing.

Intelligent Types - Skills - Understanding Value - Conscience

is a person who uses intelligence rather than emotions or instinct. A person who uses the mind creatively. Having the capacity for rational thought or inference or discrimination.

Intellect is having knowledge and intellectual ability and the capacity for rational thought or inference or discrimination. A person who uses the mind creatively.

Sagacious is having or showing keen mental discernment and good judgment. Quick and wise in understanding or having or showing understanding and the ability to make good judgments. Having or showing keen discernment, sound judgment, and farsightedness. Mentally shrewd. Acutely insightful and wise. Skillful in statecraft or management.

Brainiac is someone who has exceptional intellectual ability and originality. Exceptionally intelligent person.

"Intelligence is not a level of achievement, it is a way of life. And the levels are just temporary steps that lead to greater and even larger steps, some of which have not yet been created."

Genius is someone who has exceptional intellectual ability and originality. Someone who is highly skilled in multiple fields. A natural talent with exceptional creative ability and mental ability. A genius is a person who is creative and productive in several genres, typically to a degree that is associated with the achievement of new advances in a domain of knowledge. Most great works of Genius happen between the ages of 30 and 40 years of age.

Ingenious is something clever, original, and inventive. Someone showing inventiveness and skill. A machine or an idea that is cleverly and originally devised and well suited to its purpose.

"Talent hits a target no one else can hit. Genius hits a target no one else can see." Arthur Schopenhauer (February 22, 1788 – September 21 1860).

Competence - Savant Syndrome - Aptitude Testing

Executive Functions are a set of cognitive processes that are necessary for the cognitive control of behavior, including attentional control, inhibitory control, working memory, cognitive flexibility, reasoning, problem solving and planning.

Polymath is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas and can use complex bodies of knowledge and information to solve specific problems. Self-Directed Learning.

Erudition is the depth, polish and breadth that education confers. The Latin word educāre means to bring out or train; hence an educated person has come to think critically and logically. An erudite person has both deep and broad familiarity with general subjects and is usually knowledgeable in a particular subject, by virtue of study and extensive reading of the subject's literature.

Phronesis a type of wisdom relevant to practical things, requiring an ability to discern how or why to act virtuously and encourage practical virtue, excellence of character, in others.

Smart is someone who shows excellent mental alertness along with quickness and ease in Learning and with Calculations. Smart is being capable of independent intelligent actions and having resourcefulness. Smart is the ability to figure things out. But being smart does not say that you know enough about yourself and the world around you, it only says that you the ability to know and learn everything that there is to know. Being smart is understanding how much you still don't know and that you still have a lot to learn. Smart is using the knowledge and information that you have effectively and efficiently.

Street Smart is a person who has a lot of common sense and knows some things about what's going on in the world. This person knows what every type of person has to deal with daily and understands all groups of people and how to act around them. This person also knows all the current sh*t going on in the streets and in the ghetto and almost everywhere else, and knows how to make their own right decisions, and knows how to deal with different situations and has their own independent state of mind. A street smart person isn't stubborn, they actually listen and try to understand things.

Self Smart - Body Smart - People Smart - Environment Smart - Space Smart - Life Smart - Logical Smart - Language Smart - School Smart - Book Smart - Music Smart - Intelligent Types

Savvy is the ability to make good judgments. Savvy is shrewdness and practical knowledge and having common sense and good judgment. know or understand. Not Stubborn.

Common Sense is a basic ability to perceive, understand and judge things accurately and objectively. It's having enough common knowledge and basic knowledge that is common to most people, and also shared by most people who also have common sense and the ability to debate subjects openly and fairly. Common sense is sound, practical judgment concerning everyday matters.

When a person has basic knowledge of a subject it means that the person has a simplified understanding of the essentials of the subject.

When a person has general knowledge of a subject it means that the person has a broad knowledge of the subject but does not have full knowledge of the intricacies and complexities of the subject.

Commonsense Knowledge in artificial intelligence consists of facts about the everyday world that all humans are expected to know, but usually don't. Commonsense knowledge includes the basic facts about events (including actions) and their effects, facts about knowledge and how it is obtained, facts about beliefs and desires. It also includes the basic facts about material objects and their properties. Commonsense knowledge differs from encyclopedic knowledge in that it deals with general knowledge rather than the details of specific entities. Commonsense knowledge is real world knowledge that can provide a basis for additional knowledge to be gathered and interpreted automatically. The commonsense world consists of time, space, physical interactions, people, and so on. Common sense is all the knowledge about the world that we take for granted but rarely state out loud. Common sense is broadly reusable background knowledge that's not specific to a particular subject area. Knowledge that you ought to have.

Commonsense Reasoning is a human-like ability to make presumptions about the type and essence of ordinary situations humans encounter every day. These assumptions include judgments about the nature of physical objects, taxonomic properties, and peoples' intentions. A device that exhibits commonsense reasoning might be capable of drawing conclusions that are similar to humans' folk psychology (humans' innate ability to reason about people's behavior and intentions) and naive physics (humans' natural understanding of the physical world). Commonsense knowledge includes the basic facts about events (including actions) and their effects, facts about knowledge and how it is obtained, facts about beliefs and desires. It also includes the basic facts about material objects and their properties. Commonsense knowledge differs from encyclopedic knowledge in that it deals with general knowledge rather than the details of specific entities. Commonsense knowledge is real world knowledge that can provide a basis for additional knowledge to be gathered and interpreted automatically. The commonsense world consists of "time, space, physical interactions, people, and so on. Common sense is all the knowledge about the world that we take for granted but rarely state out loud. Common sense is broadly reusable background knowledge that's not specific to a particular subject area. knowledge that you ought to have. Spatial Visualization Ability.

Sensible is being able to make good decisions and judgments based on reason, or showing good reasoning and sound judgment. Being able to choose in accordance with wisdom or prudence, and likely to be of benefit. Being aware intuitively or intellectually of something sensed. Being able to feel or perceive. Something practical and functional rather than just decorative. Realistic.

Make Sense is to be intelligible, to be justifiable, to be practicable, to be reasonable, to be understandable, to be coherent, to be logical, to be plausible, to be clear, to be lucid.

Trying to make sense, when you have little sense, and don't know that you have little sense, makes making sense very difficult.

Clever is being mentally quick and resourceful.  Showing inventiveness and skill. Showing self-interest and shrewdness in dealing with others.

Cleverness is the power of creative imagination. Intelligence as manifested in being quick and witty or mentally quick and resourceful. Showing inventiveness and skill. 

Ingenuity - Imaginative

Good Head on your Shoulders means that you show intelligence and have a good sense of judgment.

Modesty is being free from vanity, conceit or excessive pride.

Restrained is avoiding excessive or extreme behaviors and showing appropriate manners and conduct.

Prudent is being careful and sensible and having good sound judgment. Prudent is the ability to govern and discipline oneself by the use of reason. Seeing Ahead.

Prudence is knowing how to avoid embarrassment or distress. Discretion in practical affairs or the trait of judging wisely and objectively.

Bright is being full of promise and potential. Enlightened.

Brilliant is having or marked by unusual and impressive intelligence. Surpassing excellence. 10,000 Hours.

Mental Acuity is having effective and efficient memory, focus, concentration, and understanding.

A Sharp Mind is someone who learns fast and understands things fast and remembers things easy and effortlessly. A sharp mind is able to stay focused on achieving goals, while at the same time, quick to adapt to changes and quick to notice when a change is necessary. A sharp mind is a mind that keeps learning and is always learning new knowledge and updating information, this helps to keep the mind sharp and ready to cut through any of life's challenges.

"A sharpened pencil is ready to write and prepared to communicate, just like a sharp mind."

The Brains of the Organization is a term used to describe an exceptionally intelligent person with excellent intellectual capacity. A clever person who supplies the ideas and plans for a group of people. The brains can also mean an electronic device with functions comparable to those of the human brain.

Maturity in psychological is the ability to respond to the environment in an appropriate manner. This response is generally learned rather than instinctive. Maturity also encompasses being aware of the correct time and place to behave and knowing when to act, according to the circumstances and the culture of the society one lives in. Adult development and maturity theories include the purpose in life concept, in which maturity emphasizes a clear comprehension of life's purpose, directedness, and intentionality, which contributes to the feeling that life is meaningful.

Attention - Focus - Awareness - Thinking

Alertness is being mentally perceptive and responsive.

Awareness - What is Mindset?

Attentiveness is the trait of being considerate and thoughtful of others. The trait of being observant and paying attention.

Wise is marked by the exercise of good judgment or common sense in practical matters. Having or prompted by wisdom or discernment. Enlightenment.

Wisdom is the ability to contemplate and act productively to solve problems utilizing knowledge accumulated from learning, experience, enlightenment, understanding, common sense and insight. Wisdom is the quality of being prudent and sensible and knowing the difference between facts and opinions. Wisdom is a psychological construct associated with attributes such as unbiased judgment, compassion, experiential self-knowledge, self-transcendence and non-attachment, and virtues such as ethics and benevolence. Wisdom can be further defined as problem solving with self-knowledge and sustainable actions. Contextual sincerity to the circumstances with knowledge of its negative (or constraints) and positive aspects. Value based consistent actions with knowledge of diversity in ethical opinions. Tolerance towards uncertainty in life and the acceptance of reality. Wisdom is having empathy with oneself, to understand one's own emotions and to be emotionally oriented and having others feelings including the ability to see oneself as part of a larger whole. Wisdom also involves certain cognitive processes. The intellectual humility or recognition of limits of own knowledge; the appreciation of perspectives broader than the issue at hand; the sensitivity to the possibility of change in social relations; and compromise or integration of different perspectives. The Oxford English Dictionary defines wisdom as "the capacity of judging rightly in matters relating to life and conduct. The soundness of judgment in the choice of means and ends and sound sense in practical affairs.

Conventional Wisdom is the body of ideas or explanations generally accepted as true by the public or by experts in a field.

Crazy Wisdom (wiki) - Assumptions

Infinite Wisdom is having no limits or boundaries in time, space, extent, or magnitude.

Pearls of Wisdom is a wise word or statement of good advice. A spiritual gift or pure wisdom.

Ocean of Wisdom: Guidelines for Living - Compiled from talks that the Dalai Lama has given at universities, monasteries and interfaith services around the world, this collection carries the message of the universal need for kindness and consideration at every level of human relations, which transcends cultural and religious boundaries. Within these guidelines for living, His Holiness addresses the crucial necessity for world peace, the overriding fear of nuclear destruction, and the need to show more enlightened concern for the environment.

Wiseman is a wise and trusted guide and advisor.

Divine Wisdom is the divine capacity to understand and reason beyond the realm of men. Holy Wisdom is wisdom from above that is pure, peaceable and gentle. Spiritual Wisdom can be defined as the understanding and the knowledge that comes from a deep connection to one's inner self and the divine. It is the ability to see beyond the material world and to understand the interconnectedness of all things. Sophia wisdom means cleverness and skill". Intuition.

Wise Beyond your Years are those who are wise beyond their years and have the wisdom of someone with an old soul are smarter and more intelligent than other people their age and are as wise as older people. These kind of people love to learn and are always seeking wisdom, knowledge and truth. They are thinkers and like to think things through and see if there's another way to do things. They see the bigger picture. They travel an independent path. They love the simple things in life, they don't get caught up in trends and they are not materialistic. They want the things they do to have meaning. They focus on irreplaceable things that bring them lasting fulfillment and joy, not just temporary pleasure. They have an appreciation for old literature and love the classics. They love to meet new people and they value relationships and value deep connections. They are great listeners. They stay calm under pressure and see no need in being unnecessarily stressed. They are generous and truly understand what it means to give. They give good advice and are responsible.

Old Soul is a person, especially a child or young person, who demonstrates a maturity, understanding, or seriousness that is typical of someone much older.

Wisdom does not necessarily come with age, wisdom comes from learning. And learning only comes from having access to valuable knowledge and information that increases your understanding of yourself and the world around you, and then learning how to use knowledge and information effectively and efficiently.

Profundity is having deep insight and a great depth of knowledge or thought. Wisdom that is profound and sometimes incomprehensible. Intellectual depth or penetrating knowledge with keen insight. The intellectual ability to penetrate deeply into ideas. Having a deeper understanding. The quality of being physically deep.

Insight is having clear or deep perception and understanding of a situation, grasping the inner nature of things intuitively.

Profound is showing intellectual penetration or emotional depth. Far-reaching and thoroughgoing in effect especially on the nature of something. Coming from deep within one.

Sage is someone who has attained the wisdom which a philosopher seeks.

Oracle was a person or agency considered to provide wise and insightful counsel or prophetic predictions or precognition of the future, inspired by the gods.

Sophia is a philosophical concept regarding wisdom.

Solomonic is exhibiting or requiring the exercise of great wisdom, especially in making difficult decisions. Antonym: Inferior.

Sophisticated is having worldly knowledge and refinement and Social skill. Ahead in development; complex or intricate; Intellectually appealing.

Knowingness is the state or quality of being knowing or intelligent; shrewdness; skillfulness.

Problem Solving - Self-Directed Learning

Rationality is a logical formulation of a problem. When the goal or problem involves making a decision, rationality factors in all information that is available (e.g. complete or incomplete knowledge). Collectively, the formulation and background assumptions are the model within which rationality applies. Rationality is relative: if one accepts a model in which benefitting oneself is optimal, then rationality is equated with behavior that is self-interested to the point of being selfish; whereas if one accepts a model in which benefiting the group is optimal, then purely selfish behavior is deemed irrational. It is thus meaningless to assert rationality without also specifying the background model assumptions describing how the problem is framed and formulated. Rationality optimization is decision-making as a fully rational process of finding an optimal choice given the information available.

Rational is being capable and consistent in reasoning, and being guided by the intellect and facts instead of emotions.

Irrational is something that is not consistent with facts or reality, or using reason. Irrational Number.

Super Rationality or Perfect Rationality is acting in a way that maximizes utility.

Validity - Analogy

Resourcefulness is the quality of being able to cope with a difficult situation. The ability to deal resourcefully with Unusual Problems

Advanced is being at a higher level in training or knowledge or skill; Ahead in development; complex or intricate. Farther along in physical or mental development; Ahead of the times. (of societies) highly developed especially in technology or industry. Contribute to the progress or growth of; Develop in a positive way; Move forward.

Know Better is to be wise enough, experienced enough, or well trained enough not to have done something wrong. To be wise enough to behave in a more responsible or acceptable way. You can know better, but, if you don't apply the right information at the right time, then knowing better will not help you, so you will most likely make the same mistakes again and again. It's a Process, a Procedure.

Experience is the accumulation of knowledge or skill that results from direct participation in events or activities. Experience is the knowledge or mastery of an event or subject gained through involvement in learning or traing or exposure to it. The content of direct observation or participation in an event. To go through or to live through an event. To have firsthand knowledge of states, situations, emotions, or sensations. To go through mental or physical states or experiences or undergo an emotional sensation or be in a particular state of mind.

Remembering - Training - Rehearsal - Risk

Professional - Expert -Skill - Self-Directed

Discernment is the mental ability to understand and discriminate between relations. The trait of judging wisely and objectively. The cognitive condition of someone who understands. A delicate discrimination, especially of esthetic values. The perception of that which is obscure.

Sagacious is acutely insightful and wise. Skillful in statecraft or management.

Meaning - Abstraction - Reality

Extrapolate is to gain knowledge of an area not known or experienced before by drawing from specific cases for more general cases. Estimating the value of something. Seeing all the Layers.

Extrapolation is the process of estimating, beyond the original observation range, the value of a variable on the basis of its relationship with another variable. It is similar to interpolation, which produces estimates between known observations, but extrapolation is subject to greater uncertainty and a higher risk of producing meaningless results. Extrapolation may also mean extension of a method, assuming similar methods will be applicable. Extrapolation may also apply to human experience to project, extend, or expand known experience into an area not known or previously experienced so as to arrive at a (usually conjectural) knowledge of the unknown. Extrapolation is an inference about the future, or about some hypothetical situation based on known facts and observations. A calculation of the value of a function outside the range of known values.

Interior Reconstruction is a technique to correct truncation artifacts caused by limiting image data to a small field of view. The reconstruction focuses on an area known as the region of interest (ROI). Although interior reconstruction can be applied to dental or cardiac CT images, the concept is not limited to CT. It is applied with one of several methods.

Missing Data occurs when no data value is stored for the variable in an observation. Missing data are a common occurrence and can have a significant effect on the conclusions that can be drawn from the data.

Logic - Logical

Logic is having good reasoning skills and good reasonable judgment. The principles that guide reasoning within a given field or situation. A system of reasoning. The branch of philosophy that analyzes inference. The system of operations performed by a computer that underlies the machine's representation of logical operationsEfficient - Effective

Logic is generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of arguments. A valid argument is one where there is a specific relation of logical support between the assumptions of the argument and its conclusion.

Logical is being capable of or reflecting the capability for correct and valid reasoning. Based on known statements or events or conditions. Marked by an orderly, logical, and aesthetically consistent relation of parts. Capable of thinking and expressing yourself in a clear and consistent manner. Illogical is something lacking correctness or accuracy or orderly continuity.

Modal Logic classical propositional and predicate logic to include operators expressing modality.

Relevance Logic is a kind of non-classical logic requiring the antecedent and consequent of implications to be relevantly related. They may be viewed as a family of sub-structural or modal logics. Independent Thinking.

Logicians is a person, such as a philosopher or a mathematician, whose topic of scholarly study is logic.

Formulation Logic are simple, first-order logic knowledge representations of natural language sentences formed by the conjunction of concept predicates related through shared arguments.

First-Order Logic is a collection of formal systems used in mathematics, philosophy, linguistics, and computer science. First-Order (wiki).

Interpretation Logic is an assignment of meaning to the symbols of a formal language.

Classical Logic identifies a class of formal logics that have been most intensively studied and most widely used.

"The more I think, the better I get, and the better I get, the more I think."

Logical Form of a syntactic expression is a precisely-specified semantic version of that expression in a formal system. Informally, the logical form attempts to formalize a possibly ambiguous statement into a statement with a precise, unambiguous logical interpretation with respect to a formal system. In an ideal formal language, the meaning of a logical form can be determined unambiguously from syntax alone. Logical forms are semantic, not syntactic constructs; therefore, there may be more than one string that represents the same logical form in a given language. The logical form of an argument is called the argument form of the argument.

Logical Truth is a statement which is true regardless of the truth or falsity of its constituent propositions. In other words, a logical truth is a statement which is not only true, but one which is true under all interpretations of its logical components (other than its logical constants). Thus, logical truths such as "if p, then p" can be considered tautologies. Logical truths are thought to be the simplest case of statements which are analytically true (or in other words, true by definition). All of philosophical logic can be thought of as providing accounts of the nature of logical truth, as well as logical consequence. Logical truths are generally considered to be necessarily true. This is to say that they are such that no situation could arise in which they could fail to be true. The view that logical statements are necessarily true is sometimes treated as equivalent to saying that logical truths are true in all possible worlds. However, the question of whether any statements are necessarily true remains the subject of continued debate. Treating logical truths, analytic truths, and necessary truths as equivalent, logical truths can be contrasted with facts (which can also be called contingent claims or synthetic claims). Contingent truths are true in this world, but could have turned out otherwise (in other words, they are false in at least one possible world). Logically true propositions such as "If p and q, then p" and "All married people are married" are logical truths because they are true due to their internal structure and not because of any facts of the world (whereas "All married people are happy", even if it were true, could not be true solely in virtue of its logical structure). Rationalist philosophers have suggested that the existence of logical truths cannot be explained by empiricism, because they hold that it is impossible to account for our knowledge of logical truths on empiricist grounds. Empiricists commonly respond to this objection by arguing that logical truths (which they usually deem to be mere tautologies), are analytic and thus do not purport to describe the world. The latter view was notably defended by the logical positivists in the early 20th century.

Resolution Logic is a rule of inference leading to a refutation theorem-proving technique for sentences in propositional logic and first-order logic. In other words, iteratively applying the resolution rule in a suitable way allows for telling whether a propositional formula is satisfiable and for proving that a first-order formula is unsatisfiable. Attempting to prove a satisfiable first-order formula as unsatisfiable may result in a nonterminating computation; this problem doesn't occur in propositional logic.

Substructural Logic is a logic lacking one of the usual structural rules (e.g. of classical and intuitionistic logic), such as weakening, contraction, exchange or associativity. Two of the more significant substructural logics are relevant logic and linear logic.

Logical Positivism asserted that only statements verifiable through empirical observation are cognitively meaningful.

Computational Logic - Logic Gates - Validity - Control Theory

Propositional Calculus is a branch of logic that deals with propositions (which can be true or false) and relations between propositions, including the construction of arguments based on them. Compound propositions are formed by connecting propositions by logical connectives. Propositions that contain no logical connectives are called atomic propositions.

Logical Connective is a logical constant used to connect logical formulas.

Logical Constant common connectives include negation, disjunction, conjunction, and implication.

Subjective Logic is a type of probabilistic logic that explicitly takes uncertainty and belief ownership into account.

Logical Fallacy is a pattern of reasoning rendered invalid by a flaw in its logical structure that can neatly be expressed in a standard logic system, for example propositional logic.

Ignorance - illogical

Pretzel Logic
is fallible, twisted or circular reasoning that when dissected is wrong, does not make sense or does not explain the situation rationally.

Paralogical thinking. Logical thinking says that light is either a wave or particles. It can't be both. Paralogical thinking says that light can be both a wave and particles, because life is inherently paradoxical. Niels Bohr explains: There are trivial truths and there are great truths.

Race Condition is the behavior of an electronic, software or other system where the output is dependent on the sequence or timing of other uncontrollable events. It becomes a bug when events do not happen in the order the programmer intended.

Reasoning - Reasons

Reasoning is thinking that is coherent and logical so as to come to an accurate conclusion. Reasoning skills include critical thinking, analysis, evaluation, synthesis, abstract thinking, creative thinking, information processing and problem-solving. Complex Reasoning is using multiple pieces of information to arrive at a logical conclusion. It involves analyzing different perspectives and making connections between them. Intelligent Reasoning is the act of using reason to derive a conclusion from certain premises using a given methodology. Reasoning is drawing conclusions from new or existing information, with the aim of seeking the truth.

Reason is a rational motive for a belief or action. An explanation of the cause of some phenomenon. The capacity for rational thought or inference or discrimination. The state of having good sense and sound judgment. A justification for something existing or happening. A fact that logically justifies some premise or conclusion. Show to be right by providing justification or proof. Defend, explain, clear away, or make excuses for by reasoning. Decide by reasoning; draw or come to a conclusion. Think logically. Knowing the difference between facts and opinions. Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, applying logic, establishing and verifying facts, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information. Knowing what is the point of something.

Inference - Analyze - Thinking

Higher-Order Thinking is type a of learning that requires more cognitive processing that involvies analysis, evaluation and synthesis and the creation of new knowledge. Higher-order thinking skills go beyond basic observation of facts and memorization. Critical Thinking.

Justification is a fact or circumstance that proves that an action was reasonable or necessary. A statement in explanation of some action or belief. The act of defending, explaining or making excuses for by reasoning. Justification is the reason that someone holds a rationally admissible belief. To describe beliefs that one has good reason for holding. Justification in epistemology are the ideas of warrant a proper justification for holding a belief, knowledge, rationality, and probability, among others. Notable theories of justification include: Foundationalism – Basic beliefs justify other, non-basic beliefs. Epistemic coherentism – Beliefs are justified if they cohere with other beliefs a person holds, each belief is justified if it coheres with the overall system of beliefs. Infinitism – Beliefs are justified by infinite chains of reasons. Foundherentism – A combination of foundationalism and epistemic coherentism, proposed by Susan Haack. Internalism – The believer must be able to justify a belief through internal knowledge. Externalism – Outside sources of knowledge can be used to justify a belief. Reformed epistemology – Beliefs are warranted by proper cognitive function, proposed by Alvin Plantinga. Epistemic skepticism – A variety of viewpoints questioning the possibility of knowledge. Evidentialism – Beliefs depend solely on the evidence for them. Reliabilism - A belief is justified if it is the result of a reliable process.  Justification can use empiricism or the evidence of the senses, or the authoritative testimony or the appeal to criteria and authority, or logical deduction. Just Cause.

Excuse is to overlook a mistake and clear away certain details so as to be lenient with someone or to grant someone exemption because of certain circumstances. To ask for tolerance without giving a logical reason or an explanation. An excuse is a defense for some offensive behavior or because of some failure. An attempt to lessen the blame attaching to a fault or offense. Seek to defend or justify an action. Invalid Argument.

Rationality is the quality or state of being reasonable, based on facts or reason. Rationality implies the conformity of one's beliefs with one's reasons to believe, or of one's actions with one's reasons for action. "Rationality" has different specialized meanings in economics, sociology, psychology, evolutionary biology, and political science.

Rational is using reason guided by the intellect.

Rationalism is the view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification". More formally, rationalism is defined as a methodology or a theory "in which the criterion of the truth is not sensory but intellectual and deductive".

Intelligent Agent - Rational Agent - Enlightenment - Wisdom

Explanation is a statement that makes something comprehensible by describing the relevant structure or operation or circumstances etc. The premise.

Understanding - Accountability - Fallacy - False Consensus - Debating

Good Examples of Reasoning can be found in court case decisions or rulings in law books.

No Rhyme or Reason is emphasizing that there is no logical reason or justifiable explanation for something.

We have made formulas and rules so that we can reduce errors and avoid costly mistakes. 2+2=4, but if someone said that 2+2=13, then things would not work and people could be hurt.

Reasoning Methods

Logical Reasoning is a mental activity that aims to arrive at a conclusion in a very careful and accurate way. It happens in the form of inferences or arguments by starting from a set of premises and reasoning to a conclusion supported by these premises. The premises and the conclusion are propositions, i.e. true or false claims about what is the case. Together, they form an argument. Logical reasoning is norm-governed in the sense that it aims to formulate correct arguments that any rational person would find convincing. The main discipline studying logical reasoning is logic.

Abstract Reasoning refers to the capacity to think conceptually, grasp complex ideas, and identify patterns and relationships without relying on concrete, specific examples. Abstract reasoning is a major component of general cognitive ability, and is closely aligned to the G-factor in cognitive ability testing.

Analogy is making a comparison in order to show a similarity in some respect. An inference that if things agree in some respects they probably agree in others. An analogy is a logical reasoning issue in which two items are contrasted and conclusions are reached based on their similarities.

Metaphor - Case Based Reasoning - Inference

Analogy or analogical reasoning, is a cognitive process of transferring information or meaning from a particular subject (the analogue or source) to another (the target), or a linguistic expression corresponding to such a process. In a narrower sense, analogy is an inference or an argument from one particular to another particular, as opposed to deduction, induction, and abduction, where at least one of the premises or the conclusion is general. The word analogy can also refer to the relation between the source and the target themselves, which is often, though not necessarily, a similarity, as in the biological notion of analogy. Analogy plays a significant role in problem solving, as well as decision making, argumentation, perception, generalization, memory, creativity, invention, prediction, emotion, explanation, conceptualization and communication. Analogical Reasoning is the ability to perceive and use relational similarity between two situations or events. Using a comparison between something new and something known.

Deductive Reasoning determines whether the truth of a conclusion can be determined for that rule, based solely on the truth of the premises. (deductive logic, logical deduction, bottom up logic). Reasoning from the general to the particular (or from cause to effect). Making Comparisons.

Precedent (law) - Inferred - Probability

Deduction is reasoning from the general to the particular, or from cause to effect. Something that is inferred deduced or entailed or implied. Deduction can also mean the act of subtracting something or removing a part from the whole.

Deduce is to reason by deduction or establish by deduction. Conclude by reasoning in logic.

Duck Test is a form of abductive reasoning. If it looks like a duck, swims like a duck, and quacks like a duck, then it probably is a duck. The test implies that a person can identify an unknown subject by observing that subject's habitual characteristics. It is sometimes used to counter abstruse arguments that something is not what it appears to be. Correlation.

Decompositional Reasoning is the process of breaking things into constituent parts to understand the function of each component and how it contributes to the operation of the item as a whole. By analyzing each part independently, decompositional reasoning allows an observer to draw powerful conclusions about the whole. Decomposing a Problem.

Philosophical Razor is a principle or rule of thumb that allows one to eliminate unlikely explanations for a phenomenon.

Process of Elimination - Troubleshoot

Internalization describes the psychological outcome of a conscious mind reasoning about a specific subject; the subject is internalized, and the consideration of the subject is internal. Externalize.

Transitive Inference is a form of deductive reasoning that allows one to derive a relation between items that have not been explicitly compared before. In a general form, TI is the ability to deduce that if Item B is related to Item C and Item C is related to Item D, then Item B must be related to Item D. Inference.

Syllogism is deductive reasoning in which a conclusion is derived from two premises.

Inductive Reasoning is a method of reasoning in which the premises are viewed as supplying some evidence, but not full assurance, for the truth of the conclusion. It is also described as a method where one's experiences and observations, including what are learned from others, are synthesized to come up with a general truth. Many dictionaries define inductive reasoning as the derivation of general principles from specific observations (arguing from specific to general), although there are many inductive arguments that do not have that form. Inductive reasoning is distinct from deductive reasoning. While the conclusion of a deductive argument is certain, the truth of the conclusion of an inductive argument is probable, based upon the evidence given. Inductive Reasoning attempts to support a determination of the rule. Inductive Reasoning attempts to support a determination of the rule. It hypothesizes a rule after numerous examples are taken to be a conclusion that follows from a precondition in terms of such a rule. Example: "The grass got wet numerous times when it rained, therefore: the grass always gets wet when it rains." While they may be persuasive, these arguments are not deductively valid, see the problem of induction. Science is associated with this type of reasoning.

Problem of Induction is the philosophical question of whether inductive reasoning leads to knowledge understood in the classic philosophical sense, since it focuses on the alleged lack of justification for either: Generalizing about the properties of a class of objects based on some number of observations of particular instances of that class (e.g., the inference that "all swans we have seen are white, and, therefore, all swans are white", before the discovery of black swans) or Presupposing that a sequence of events in the future will occur as it always has in the past (e.g., that the laws of physics will hold as they have always been observed to hold). Hume called this the principle of uniformity of nature. Induction.

Mathematical Induction is a mathematical proof technique used to prove a given statement about any well-ordered set. Most commonly, it is used to establish statements for the set of all natural numbers.

Abductive Reasoning is a form of logical inference which goes from an observation to a theory which accounts for the observation, ideally seeking to find the simplest and most likely explanation. In abductive reasoning, unlike in deductive reasoning, the premises do not guarantee the conclusion. One can understand abductive reasoning as "inference to the best explanation". Abductive Reasoning is inference to the best explanation, selects a cogent set of preconditions. Given a true conclusion and a rule, it attempts to select some possible premises that, if true also, can support the conclusion, though not uniquely. Example: "When it rains, the grass gets wet. The grass is wet. Therefore, it might have rained." This kind of reasoning can be used to develop a hypothesis, which in turn can be tested by additional reasoning or data. Diagnosticians, detectives, and scientists often use this type of reasoning.

Analogical Reasoning - Analogy - Rational Choice Theory - Case Based Reasoning - Relative - Evidence - Evidence Based Practice - Research

Symbolic Reasoning refers to mathematical logic or first-order predicate logic and sometimes higher orders. The reasoning is considered to be deductive when a conclusion is established by means of premises that is the necessary consequence of it, according to logical inference rules.

How Logical Are You? (Psychology of Reasoning) (youtube)

Automated Reasoning Systems (Cornell University)

Valid Reasoning verbal inferencing using assumptions and conclusions.

Causal Reasoning is the process of identifying causality: the relationship between a cause and its effect.

Motivated Reasoning is an emotion-biased decision-making phenomenon studied in cognitive science and social psychology. This term describes the role of motivation in cognitive processes such as decision-making and attitude change in a number of paradigms, including: Cognitive dissonance reduction, Beliefs about others on whom one's own outcomes depend. Evaluation of evidence related to one's own outcomes.

Reasoning System is a software system that generates conclusions from available knowledge using logical techniques such as deduction and induction. Explanation.

Law of Thought are fundamental axiomatic rules upon which rational discourse itself is often considered to be based. The formulation and clarification of such rules have a long tradition in the history of philosophy and logic. Generally they are taken as laws that guide and underlie everyone's thinking, thoughts, expressions, discussions, etc. However such classical ideas are often questioned or rejected in more recent developments, such as intuitionistic logic, dialetheism and fuzzy logic.

Axiom is a statement in symbolic form that is so evident or well-established, that it is accepted without controversy or question.

Procedural Reasoning System is a framework for constructing real-time reasoning systems that can perform complex tasks in dynamic environments.

Dual Process Theory provides an account of how a phenomenon can occur in two different ways, or as a result of two different processes.

Problem Solving - Motivated Reasoning - Decision Making

Counterintuitive is a statement that does not seem likely to be true when assessed using intuition, common sense, or gut feelings.

Processing Fluency is the ease with which information is processed. Perceptual fluency is the ease of processing stimuli based on manipulations to perceptual quality. Retrieval fluency is the ease with which information can be retrieved from memory.

Folk Science describes ways of understanding and predicting the natural and social world, without the use of rigorous methodologies.

Backward Chaining is an inference method that can be described (in lay terms) as working backward from the goal(s). It is used in automated theorem provers, inference engines, proof assistants and other artificial intelligence applications. In game theory, its application to (simpler) subgames in order to find a solution to the game is called backward induction. In chess, it is called retrograde analysis, and it is used to generate table bases for chess endgames for computer chess. Backward chaining is implemented in logic programming by SLD resolution. Both rules are based on the modus ponens inference rule. It is one of the two most commonly used methods of reasoning with inference rules and logical implications – the other is forward chaining. Backward chaining systems usually employ a depth-first search strategy.

Rational Agent is an agent that has clear preferences, models uncertainty via expected values of variables or functions of variables, and always chooses to perform the action with the optimal expected outcome for itself from among all feasible actions. A rational agent can be anything that makes decisions, typically a person, firm, machine, or software. Rational agents are also studied in the fields of cognitive science, ethics, and philosophy, including the philosophy of practical reason.

The misunderstood limits of folk science: an illusion of explanatory depth

Logical Positivism is the form of empiricism that bases all knowledge on perceptual experience (not on intuition or revelation).

Arguments - Debates - Judging - Calculus - Algebra - Algorithms

Reasonable Doubt - Probable Cause - Probability - Statistics - Determinism - Indeterminism

Moral Certainty is a concept of intuitive probability. It means a very high degree of probability, sufficient for action, but short of absolute or mathematical certainty.

The goal is the maximization of optimal decision making, and mathematical optimization by counting the things that matter.

Analogical Modeling is a formal theory of exemplar based analogical reasoning.

Can your decisions become more rational when thought in another language? A university of Chicago study showed that Korean citizens who thought in foreign languages reduced their overall bias. Why?

Contradictions - Formulating - Levels of Thinking - Thinking Styles

Eliminative Materialism is certain classes of mental states that most people believe in do not exist.

Mental Operations are operations that affect mental contents. Initially, operations of reasoning have been the object of logic alone.

Understand - Figure it Out

Understand is to know and comprehend the nature and the meaning of something in order to judge wisely and objectively. Understanding is to become aware of things through the senses to have comprehension, discernment and empathy. Understanding is to perceive an idea or situation, mentally and accurately. To make sense of a language.

Understanding is a psychological process related to an abstract or physical object, such as a person, situation, or message whereby one is able to think about it and use concepts to deal adequately with that object. Understanding is a relation between the knower and an object of understanding. Understanding implies abilities and dispositions with respect to an object of knowledge sufficient to support intelligent behavior. PDF.

Simple to Understand - Seeing Differences - Relative

Discernment is the cognitive condition of someone who understands. A delicate discrimination of esthetic values. The mental ability to understand and discriminate between relations. The trait of judging wisely and objectively.

Figure Out is to understand something or to solve a problem.

Figure it Out on Your Own - There are no short cuts to understanding.

Catching On means that you finally understand what something means or how something is done.

Do You Get It is to ask if someone if they understand something or comprehend something.

I Get You means that you understand the person. You Get Me is to ask someone if they understand you or what you're saying.

Come to Terms is to begin to understand or make an effort to understand something and deal with a difficult or problematic person, thing, or situation. Accepting the fact that solving this problem is your responsibility. Ask for help if needed.

To have someone Pegged is to understand someone and to know what they are like and who they really are.

Clarify is to make something clearer and more comprehensible. Simplify.

Apprehend is to fully understand and get the meaning of something. Apprehension is the cognitive condition of someone who understands. Apprehension can also mean feeling fearful expectation or anticipation, or the capturing of something.

Wrap your Head Around it means to understand and comprehend something that is difficult and challenging and has several layers of meaning. Realization.

Fathom is to come to understand. Hard to Fathom is something difficult to understand or comprehend.

Sense is to comprehend and have sound practical judgment. The faculty through which the external world is fully understood. Become aware of, not just through the senses but also instinctively. A natural appreciation or ability. A general conscious awareness. Perceive by a physical sensation, e.g., coming from the skin or muscles. Detect some circumstance or entity automatically. The meaning of a word or expression; the way in which a word or expression or situation can be interpreted. Making Sense or Sense Making (PDF).

An Essay Concerning Human Understanding

Cognizant is having or showing knowledge or understanding or realization or perception.

One extremely important aspect of understanding is the ability to know that there is another side to a story, another point of view, another way to look at something, to have an open mind, avoiding jumping to conclusions, and listening.

Inreach is within one's means or powers or understanding.

Aspect is a distinct feature or element in a problem. A characteristic to be considered.

Type I Error - Type II Error (lie) - Meanings

Perspicacity is a penetrating discernment—a clarity of vision or intellect which provides a deep understanding and insight.

Catch My Drift means that you are asking someone if they understand what you mean or what you meant. Get My Drift means that you are asking someone if they understand what you're suggesting.

You Dig is slang for 'do you know what I mean', and do you understand and comprehend the meaning of something?Do you dig it? Right On.

Gist is the central meaning or theme of a speech or literary work. The choicest or most essential or most vital part of some idea or experience. The main idea or most important point of something that someone has written or said. Gist refers to the grounds on which a legal action rests.

Infer - Inference

Inference is the reasoning involved in drawing a conclusion or making a logical judgment on the basis of circumstantial evidence and prior conclusions rather than on the basis of direct observation. More of an opinion than facts. Inference are steps in reasoning, moving from premises to conclusions. Knowing the difference between facts, opinions and fallacy.

Infer or Inferred is to reason by deduction and establish by deduction. To conclude by reasoning and logic. Draw from specific cases for more general cases. To guess correctly or to believe something to be the case.

Bayesian Inference is a method of statistical inference in which Bayes' theorem is used to update the probability for a hypothesis as more evidence or information becomes available. Bayesian inference is an important technique in statistics, and especially in mathematical statistics. Bayesian updating is particularly important in the dynamic analysis of a sequence of data. Bayesian inference has found application in a wide range of activities, including science, engineering, philosophy, medicine, sport, and law. In the philosophy of decision theory, Bayesian inference is closely related to subjective probability, often called Bayesian probability, which is an interpretation of the concept of probability, in which, instead of frequency or propensity of some phenomenon, probability is interpreted as reasonable expectation representing a state of knowledge or as quantification of a personal belief.

Statistical Inference is the process of using data analysis to deduce properties of an underlying probability distribution. Inferential statistical analysis infers properties of a population, for example by testing hypotheses and deriving estimates. It is assumed that the observed data set is sampled from a larger population. Inferential statistics can be contrasted with descriptive statistics. Descriptive statistics is solely concerned with properties of the observed data, and it does not rest on the assumption that the data come from a larger population.

Rules of Inference (wiki) - Valid - Rational - Inference Engine - Analogy Reasoning

Rule of Inference is a logical form consisting of a function which takes premises, analyzes their syntax, and returns a conclusion or conclusions. Rules of Inference are syntactical transform rules which one can use to infer a conclusion from a premise to create an argument. A set of rules can be used to infer any valid conclusion if it is complete, while never inferring an invalid conclusion, if it is sound. A sound and complete set of rules need not include every rule in the following list, as many of the rules are redundant, and can be proven with the other rules.

Implication is something that is inferred, deduced, entailed or implied. A meaning that is not expressly stated but can be inferred. A logical relation between propositions p and q of the form 'if p then q'; if p is true then q cannot be false. An accusation that brings into intimate and usually incriminating connection. A relation implicated by virtue of involvement or close connection, especially an incriminating involvement.

Analyze - Analysis

Analyze is to consider something in detail and analysis in order to discover essential features or meaning. To make a mathematical, chemical or grammatical analysis of something, and break down something into components or essential features.

Data Analysis - Information Literacy - Observations - EvaluationExamination

Analysis is an investigation of the component parts of a whole and their relations in making up the whole. The abstract separation of a whole into its constituent parts in order to study the parts and their relations. A form of literary criticism in which the structure of a piece of writing is analyzed. A branch of mathematics involving calculus and the theory of limits; sequences and series and integration and differentiation. A set of Techniques for exploring underlying motives and a method of treating various Mental Disorders.

Analysis is the process of breaking a complex topic or substance into smaller parts in order to gain a better understanding of it. Deconstruct.

Fine Tooth Comb is to closely examine something thoroughly or carefully in great detail and with great care. To search something thoroughly and to go over something in a painstaking manner.

Correspondence Analysis is a multivariate statistical technique that is conceptually similar to principal component analysis, but applies to categorical rather than continuous data. In a similar manner to principal component analysis, it provides a means of displaying or summarizing a set of data in two-dimensional graphical form. All data should be nonnegative and on the same scale for CA to be applicable, keeping in mind that the method treats rows and columns equivalently.

Principal Component Analysis is a statistical procedure that uses an orthogonal transformation to convert a set of observations of possibly correlated variables into a set of values of linearly uncorrelated variables called principal components.

Analytical is being skilled in using analysis, such as separating a whole into its elemental parts or basic principles, intellectually or substantially. Analytical in logic is a proposition that is necessarily true independent of fact or experience.

Analytics is the discovery, interpretation, and communication of meaningful patterns in data. Especially valuable in areas rich with recorded information, analytics relies on the simultaneous application of statistics, computer programming and operations research to quantify performance. Analytics often favors data visualization to communicate insight.

Analytical Skills is the ability to visualize, articulate, conceptualize or solve both complex and uncomplicated problems by making decisions that are sensible given the available information. Such skills include demonstration of the ability to apply logical thinking to breaking complex problems into their component parts. Math.

Meta-Analysis is a statistical analysis that combines the results of multiple scientific studies. Meta-analysis can be performed when there are multiple scientific studies addressing the same question, with each individual study reporting measurements that are expected to have some degree of error. The aim then is to use approaches from statistics to derive a pooled estimate closest to the unknown common truth based on how this error is perceived. Existing methods for meta-analysis yield a weighted average from the results of the individual studies, and what differs is the manner in which these weights are allocated and also the manner in which the uncertainty is computed around the point estimate thus generated. In addition to providing an estimate of the unknown common truth, meta-analysis has the capacity to contrast results from different studies and identify patterns among study results, sources of disagreement among those results, or other interesting relationships that may come to light in the context of multiple studies. A key benefit of this approach is the aggregation of information leading to a higher statistical power and more robust point estimate than is possible from the measure derived from any individual study. However, in performing a meta-analysis, an investigator must make choices which can affect the results, including deciding how to search for studies, selecting studies based on a set of objective criteria, dealing with incomplete data, analyzing the data, and accounting for or choosing not to account for publication bias. Judgment calls made in completing a meta-analysis may affect the results. For example, Wanous and colleagues examined four pairs of meta-analyses on the four topics of (a) job performance and satisfaction relationship, (b) realistic job previews, (c) correlates of role conflict and ambiguity, and (d) the job satisfaction and absenteeism relationship, and illustrated how various judgment calls made by the researchers produced different results. Meta-analyses are often, but not always, important components of a systematic review procedure. For instance, a meta-analysis may be conducted on several clinical trials of a medical treatment, in an effort to obtain a better understanding of how well the treatment works. Here it is convenient to follow the terminology used by the Cochrane Collaboration, and use "meta-analysis" to refer to statistical methods of combining evidence, leaving other aspects of 'research synthesis' or 'evidence synthesis', such as combining information from qualitative studies, for the more general context of systematic reviews. A meta-analysis is a secondary source.

Intelligence Analysis is the application of individual and collective cognitive methods to weigh data and test hypotheses within a secret socio-cultural context. The analyst must correlate the similarities among deceptions and extract a common truth.

Complex Analysis is the branch of mathematical analysis that investigates functions of complex numbers. It is useful in many branches of mathematics, including algebraic geometry, number theory, analytic combinatorics, applied mathematics; as well as in physics, including the branches of hydrodynamics, thermodynamics, and particularly quantum mechanics. By extension, use of complex analysis also has applications in engineering fields such as nuclear, aerospace, mechanical and electrical engineering. As a differentiable function of a complex variable is equal to the sum of its Taylor series (that is, it is analytic), complex analysis is particularly concerned with analytic functions of a complex variable (that is, holomorphic functions).

Mathematical Analysis is the branch of mathematics dealing with limits and related theories, such as differentiation, integration, measure, infinite series, and analytic functions. These theories are usually studied in the context of real and complex numbers and functions. Analysis evolved from calculus, which involves the elementary concepts and techniques of analysis. Analysis may be distinguished from geometry; however, it can be applied to any space of mathematical objects that has a definition of nearness (a topological space) or specific distances between objects (a metric space).

There's a lot to Unpack Here means that something needs to be analyzed very carefully and have its component elements recognized and understood.

Sigmund Freud (wiki) - Sanity - Therapy (counseling)

Evaluation is a systematic determination of a subject's merit, worth and significance, using criteria governed by a set of standards. It can assist an organization, program, project or any other intervention or initiative to assess any aim, realisable concept/proposal, or any alternative, to help in decision-making; or to ascertain the degree of achievement or value in regard to the aim and objectives and results of any such action that has been completed. The primary purpose of evaluation, in addition to gaining insight into prior or existing initiatives, is to enable reflection and assist in the identification of future change.

Processer - Research - Test Examination

Physical Examination is the process by which a medical professional investigates the body of a patient for signs of disease. It generally follows the taking of the medical history—an account of the symptoms as experienced by the patient. Together with the medical history, the physical examination aids in determining the correct diagnosis and devising the treatment plan. This data then becomes part of the medical record.

Self-Directed Learning

Processing is preparing or putting through a prescribed procedure. Subject to a process or treatment, with the aim of readying for some purpose, improving, or remedying a condition. Perform mathematical and logical operations on (data) according to programmed instructions in order to obtain the required information. Deal with in a routine way. 

Information Processing - Problem Solving

Pragmatic is concerned with practical matters. Guided by practical Experience and observation rather than Theory.

Pragmatism Consider the practical effects of the objects of your conception. Then, your conception of those effects is the whole of your conception of the object.

Fundamental is being or involving basic Facts or principles. Far-reaching and thoroughgoing in effect especially on the nature of something. Any Factor that could be considered important to the understanding of a particular business.

Principles (ethics)

Abstraction is a conceptual process by which general rules and concepts are derived from the usage and classification of specific examples, literal ("real" or "concrete") signifiers, first principles, or other methods.

Abstract Structure

Formal System any well-defined system of abstract thought based on the model of mathematics.

Formal Methods are a particular kind of mathematically based techniques for the specification, development and verification of software and hardware systems.

Extrapolate is to gain knowledge by extrapolating something that was not known before or experienced before. To estimate the value of something by drawing from specific cases and not from more general cases. To extend the application of a method or conclusion of an unknown situation by assuming that existing trends will continue or similar methods will be applicable based on statistics.

Extrapolation is the process of estimating, beyond the original observation range, the value of a variable on the basis of its relationship with another variable.

Judge - Judgments

Judgment is the capacity to assess situations or circumstances accurately in order to draw logical conclusions. The mental ability to understand and discriminate between relations. The act of judging or assessing a person or situation or event accurately. The cognitive process of reaching a decision that is based on facts

is to evaluate or estimate the nature, quality, ability, extent, value or significance of.

Decision Making - Morals - Ethics - Judgmental - Criticize - Justify - Reasons

Sound Judgment is the capacity to assess situations or circumstances shrewdly and to draw sound or valid conclusions.

Sagacity is showing keen mental discernment and good judgment.

Discretion is the skill of judging wisely and objectively in order to avoid embarrassing mistakes or distress. Discretion is the freedom to act or judge on one's own and to make free choices that are restricted by institutional ideologies.

Shrewd is having sharp powers of judgment.

Astute is having an ability to accurately assess situations or people and turn this to one's advantage.

Judgment is the evaluation of evidence to make a decision. Legal Terms - What is a Judge? - Why Punish?

Reckoning is the action or the process of calculating or estimating something. The time when your actions are judged as good or bad and you are rewarded or punished. The act of judging something. A person's view, opinion, or judgment. The act of counting. Reciting numbers in ascending order. Problem solving that involves numbers or quantities.

Accusation is a formal charge of wrongdoing brought against a person; the act of imputing blame or guilt. An assertion that someone is guilty of a fault or offence.

Correct is something that is free from error and also adapts to fact or truth so as to achieve accuracy. Being correct is also in accord with accepted standards of usage and procedures.

Explain - Explanations

Explanation is a statement that makes something comprehensible by describing the relevant structure, operation or circumstances. The words used that makes something plain and intelligible. An explanation is a set of statements usually constructed to describe a set of facts which clarifies the causes, context, and consequences of those facts. It may establish rules or laws, and may clarify the existing rules or laws in relation to any objects or phenomena examined.

Explain is to make something comprehensible and plain and simple to understand. To give details and define the scope and structure of something. To serve as a reason, cause or justification of something.

Proof - Teaching - Justification - Valid Argument

Define is to determine the essential quality of something or to give a definition for something or give the meaning of a word. To determine the nature of something by giving details.

Directions is a message describing how something is to be done. Something that provides direction or advice as to a decision or course of action. A formal statement of a command or injunction to do something. The concentration of attention or energy on something. Showing the way. 

Guide is someone who shows the way by leading or advising. Something that offers basic information or instruction. Someone who can find paths through unexplored territory.

Delineate is having something represented accurately or precisely. Show the form or outline of. To determine the essential quality of something. To trace the shape of something. To make a mark or lines on a surface. To describe something in vivid detail.

Describe is to represent in words especially with sharpness and detail. To give an account or representation of in words. Give a description of something.

Exposition is a systematic interpretation or an explanation of a specific topic. An account that sets forth the meaning or the intent of a writing or discourse. Legal Opinion.

Determine is to establish facts after a calculation or after an investigation or an experiment or a survey or a study. To reach, make, or come to a decision about something. To find out, learn, or to determine with certainty, usually by making an inquiry or other efforts.

Alternative is one of a number of things from which only one can be chosen. Serving or used in place of another. Necessitating a choice between mutually exclusive possibilities. The freedom or right to choose.

Intelligible is something capable of being apprehended or understood. To express clearly and loud enough to be heard distinctly.

Debate - Collaborations - Arguments

Logical Argument is a course of reasoning aimed at demonstrating a truth or a falsehood. The methodical process of logical reasoning.


Principles is the knowledge that is accepted as true that can be used as a basis for reasoning or as a rule or guide for personal conduct. A basic truth, law or assumption concerning a natural phenomenon or the function of a complex system. A rule or standard, especially for good behavior. Having principles is knowing the differences between a lie and an error and a belief. In law, principles are an explanation of the fundamental reasons, especially an explanation of the working of some device in terms of the laws of naturePrinciple is a law or rule that is usually followed so as to avoid an inevitable consequence of something, such as the laws observed in nature or the way that a system is constructed. The principles of such a system are understood by its users as the essential characteristics of the system, or reflecting system's designed purpose, and the effective operation or use of which would be impossible if any one of the principles was to be ignored. Principle is a concept or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule that has to be or usually is to be followed, or can be desirably followed, or is an inevitable consequence of something, such as the laws observed in nature or the way that a system is constructed. The principles of such a system are understood by its users as the essential characteristics of the system, or reflecting system's designed purpose, and the effective operation or use of which would be impossible if any one of the principles was to be ignored. Morals - Ethics - Conscience - Intelligence.

Conclude - Conclusions

Conclusion is a position or an opinion or a judgment reached after consideration. The proposition arrived at by logical reasoning, such as the proposition that must follow from the major and minor premises of a syllogism. The act of making up your mind about something. An intuitive assumption.

Concluding is to decide by reasoning. To draw a conclusion or to come to a conclusion. To reach a conclusion after a discussion or deliberation. To reach agreement on something.

Conclude is to bring to a close or to an end. The temporal end or the concluding time.

The truth as Far as you know - What We Know So Far - The bottom line is, we have to act sooner or later. Adapt.

Epilogue is a section or speech at the end of a book or play that serves as a comment on or a conclusion to what has happened. An epilogue or epilog is a piece of writing at the end of a work of literature, usually used to bring closure to the work. It is presented from the perspective of within the story. When the author steps in and speaks directly to the reader, that is more properly considered an afterword. Excerpt - Passage.

Hence is used to introduce a logical conclusion from a fact, reason or as a result. From this time, from this place, therefore as a consequence.

Motivation Words - Learning Words - Valid Words - Problem Solving Words.

Think Lightbulb

Human Operating System - Software for the Mind

When describing the Human Operating System, you should first know what an operating system is on a computer. There are similarities, but they are not exactly the same type of OS. An operating system is system software that manages the computer hardware and software resources, and provides common services for computer programs. An OS manages the computer's memory and stores, retrieves, and manipulates information. The OS runs applications, provides an interface and a communication bridge for users, and processes incoming information. The operating system provides a platform on which a user can execute programs conveniently and efficiently. Some of the other responsibilities of an OS are, handling all the jobs that many users may want to do, job accounting and managing the computer's resources and its collection of programs, it allocates various jobs and CPU scheduling and helps with the coordination between users and other software. The OS is also responsible for memory management, process management, file systems management, device management, security and privacy, control over system performance and computer multitasking, it directs the input and output of data, and has error detecting aids. The OS is a boot program.

The Human Operating System or HOS is another way of describing your base knowledge and the constructs and experiences that you use when understanding yourself and understanding the world around you. The HOS is an information processing system using procedures for interpreting information and parameters that are both flexible and stable. The HOS is like a background program of compressed knowledge, you only unpack it if you need to make an update or fix an error. But you still need to know what's in the program. Your HOS is not a black box. This is a box you need to know the contents of without opening it. You only open the program to confirm what you know, and to make updates when needed.

Background Process is a computer process that runs behind the scenes or in the background, and runs without user intervention.

Thought System is an interrelated system of ideas that is centered on a view of who you are, provides a picture of reality and your relationship with it, and provides goals. Base Program.

The main reason why operating systems work is because they are built with a reason and a purpose. Language, knowledge and information is the operating system of the human mind, and this also requires a reason and a purpose. When writing the OS for a computer, you have to know where in the memory the information will be stored, so when changes or updates are needed, you will know where to find the information in your memory. Example, when someone gives you the wrong phone number, you have to know where the wrong number is in your memory and then replace those numbers with the correct numbers. The brain is designed to do this. But the brain is not born with an operating system beyond its core functions. A person has to learn many different things in order to fully utilize the computational power of the human brain. And a powerful computer needs an effective OS that can fully utilize its full power.

You have to understand the hardware if you want to write good software. The human brain is the most powerful machine on the world, so it makes perfect sense that the most powerful machine in the world should have the most powerful software in the world. A person should know the most important words and know how to use them effectively.

HOS Architecture and Framework

Cognitive Architecture refers to the structure of the human mind and computational instantiation in the fields of artificial intelligence and computational cognitive science. Fixed structures that provide a mind, whether in natural or artificial systems, and how they work together – in conjunction with knowledge and skills embodied within the architecture – to yield intelligent behavior in a diversity of complex environments. Cognitive architectures can be symbolic, connectionist, or hybrid. Soar is a cognitive architecture, is to develop the fixed computational building blocks necessary for general intelligent agents – agents that can perform a wide range of tasks and encode, use, and learn all types of knowledge to realize the full range of cognitive capabilities found in humans, such as decision making, problem solving, planning, and natural-language understanding.

Instantiation is the representation of an idea in the form of an instance of it. When a computer system creates a new context based on a pre-existing model or scheme, the model is said to have been instantiated. The encapsulated context that results from this instantiation process is referred to as an instance of the model or scheme. Instantiation Principle is the idea that in order for a property to exist, it must be had by some object or substance; the instance being a specific object rather than the idea of it.

Conceptual Framework is an analytical tool used to make conceptual distinctions and organize ideas. Strong conceptual frameworks capture something real and do this in a way that is easy to remember and apply.

Matrix Layers - Matrix Network - Neural Network - Mind Map - Mind Set - Visualizing -Spatial Visualization Ability - Creative Visualization - Perspective

Schema in psychology describes a pattern of thought or behavior that organizes categories of information and the relationships among them. It can also be described as a mental structure of preconceived ideas, a framework representing some aspect of the world, or a system of organizing and perceiving new information. A schemata can help in understanding the world and the rapidly changing environment. People can organize new perceptions into schemata quickly as most situations do not require complex thought when using schema, since automatic thought is all that is required. People use schemata to organize current knowledge and provide a framework for future understanding. Examples of schemata include mental models, social schemas, stereotypes, social roles, scripts, worldviews, heuristics, and archetypes. A schema is used to interpret information in such a way that it makes sense and helps one understand the environment. Schema is a cognitive framework or concept that helps organize and interpret information.

Conceptual Schema is a high-level description of informational needs that includes only the main concepts and the main relationships among them. Concept Map is a diagram that depicts suggested relationships between concepts.

Image Schema is a recurring structure within our cognitive processes that establishes patterns of understanding and reasoning. As an understudy to embodied cognition, image schemas are formed from our bodily interactions, from linguistic experience, and from historical context. Image schema is considered an embodied prelinguistic structure of experience that motivates conceptual metaphor mappings. Learned in early infancy they are often described as spatiotemporal relationships that enable actions and describe characteristics of the environment. They exist both as static and dynamic version, describing both states and processes, compare Containment vs. Going, In and Out, and they are learned from all sensorimodalities. Both schemas and schemata are used as plural forms.

Mental Model in psychology is an internal representation of external reality, hypothesized to play a major role in cognition, reasoning and decision-making. Mental models can help shape behaviour and set an approach to solving problems (similar to a personal algorithm) and doing tasks.

Conceptual Model refers to any model that is formed after a conceptualization or generalization process. Conceptual models are often abstractions of things in the real world, whether physical or social.

Executive Functions - Brain Computer Interface - Controls - Core Values - World View

Hybrid Intelligent System denotes a software system which employs, in parallel, a combination of methods and techniques from artificial intelligence subfields. performs mental operations on both the symbolic and subsymbolic levels.

AI Alignment is research that aims to steer AI systems toward a person's or group's intended goals, preferences, and ethical principles. An AI system is considered aligned if it advances its intended objectives. A misaligned AI system may pursue some objectives, but not the intended ones.

Predictive Coding or predictive processing is a theory of brain function which postulates that the brain is constantly generating and updating a "mental model" of the environment. According to the theory, such a mental model is used to predict input signals from the senses that are then compared with the actual input signals from those senses. With the rising popularity of representation learning, the theory is being actively pursued and applied in machine learning and related fields.

Paradigm is a distinct set of concepts or thought patterns, including theories, research methods, postulates, and standards for what constitute legitimate contributions to a field.

Organizing Knowledge Cognitively is a system of grouping and categorizing our brain to use, sort and store information. System changes and adapts as the amount of knowledge about a particular subject changes and grows.

Intelligent Agent is an autonomous entity which observes through sensors and acts upon an environment using actuators and directs its activity towards achieving goals.

Intelligent Control is a class of control techniques that use various artificial intelligence computing approaches like neural networks, Bayesian probability, fuzzy logic, Machine Learning, evolutionary computation and genetic algorithms.

Operational Intelligence is a category of real-time dynamic, business analytics that delivers visibility and insight into data, streaming events and business operations. OI solutions run queries against streaming data feeds and event data to deliver analytic results as operational instructions. OI provides organizations the ability to make decisions and immediately act on these analytic insights, through manual or automated actions.

Headquarters denotes the location where most, if not all, of the important functions of an organization are coordinated. In the United States, the corporate headquarters represents the entity at the center or the top of a corporation taking full responsibility for managing all business activities. In the United Kingdom, the term head office is most commonly used for the headquarters of large corporations. Headquarters is a place from which a commander performs the functions of command. The administrative center of an enterprise. Corporate headquarters is the part of a corporate structure that deals with important tasks such as strategic planning, corporate communications, taxes, law, books of record, marketing, finance, human resources, and information technology.

To write code for a computer you have to understand how the machine will interpret the code and how the operating system will translate the code to the user. To educate or write code for a human you have to understand how a human will interpret the information and understand how the human will use the information. Human Language is the Code. The Human body and mind is the machine. Human Behavior is the output. Human language can only be interpreted using human language. You need code to read code. a symbol or word needs a definition. We understand how a computer works. When we write the code for a computer machine we know that the computer will understand the code because we built the machine to understand the code and how to translate electrical signals into a language. A computer machine is similar to the human mind, both have processing abilities, and both need code or language to work effectively and efficiently. But human software needs more attention than machine software. If human software does not advance and get updated like our machine software counterparts, then the human will become obsolete. Technology will not save us. Only intelligent humans who know how to use technology can save us. We are killing ourselves because we are not educating ourselves. Every child who is not given a quality education is a wasted opportunity and wasted potential. And every adult who is not informed and educated is a vulnerability and a possible danger to themselves and everyone around them. We must prepare our children and hope that we can prepare our adults, because the stubbornness of the adults is killing us. Brain and Computer Similarities.

You need different software to process different information. You need photo software to process photographic images. And you need to have word software to process words, sentences, letters and things that are related to writing, so that you can write effectively and efficiently. You need the correct software in order to process a particular set of information. So in the same sense, a person needs the correct mindset of knowledge that is needed to process a unique set of information, effectively and efficiently. You don't send a plumber to do a electricians job.

Cognitive Robotics is endowing a robot with intelligent behavior by providing it with a processing architecture that will allow it to learn and reason about how to behave in response to complex goals in a complex world.

Brain-inspired computing 2D device that can provide more than yes-or-no answers and could be more brain-like than current computing architectures.

Hierarchy (learning styles) - Human Nature

Action Selection is a way of characterizing the most basic problem of intelligent systems: what to do next?

Artificial Intelligence (machine learning) - Brain Computer Interface - Nervous System

Connecting the dots between engagement and learning. Impact of internal states on learning. New collaborative research examines how changes in internal states, such as engagement, can affect the learning process using brain-computer interface technology. These findings might one day help people learn everyday skills more quickly and to a higher level of proficiency.

What would be the Human Algorithm for Learning? You would have to write a lot of Procedures.

Patch in computing is a piece of software designed to update a computer program or its supporting data, in order to fix an error or improve it.

Artificial Curiosity and Creativity (wiki)

Artificial Brain research that aims to develop software and hardware with cognitive abilities similar to those of the animal or human brain.

Human Operators Manual has been updated.

Human Life Operators Manual (youtube - Tom Shadyac, Michael D. Palm sented Life's Operating Manual)

Human Source Code - Refactoring The Human Body - Machine Language (code)

Pattern Recognition - Awareness

Feed Back (cause and effect) - Predictive Analytics (planning)

Category-Based Intrinsic Motivation (PDF)

Mindfulness is being aware of your thoughts, being aware of how you feel. An examination of the mind, questioning accuracy.

Mind is the set of cognitive faculties that enables consciousness, perception, thinking, judgment, and memory—a characteristic of humans, but which also may apply to other life forms. 

Language of Thought Hypothesis is when language controls thinking, similar to the way that computer software controls processes.

This is your working memory, the constructs of reality. Awareness is more then a skill that one needs to learn, awareness is about having a full understanding of cause and effect, and how everything in this world, in one way or another, is connected.

Development of Autonomy in Adolescence (PDF)

Automaticity is the ability to do things without occupying the mind with the low-level details required, allowing it to become an automatic response pattern or habit. It is usually the result of learning, repetition, and practice.

Automatic - Autonomy - Habits - Routines - Multitasking

Cognitive Load refers to the total amount of mental effort being used in the working memory. Intrinsic cognitive load is the effort associated with a specific topic. Extraneous cognitive load refers to the way information or tasks are presented to a learner. And, germane cognitive load refers to the work put into creating a permanent store of knowledge, or a schema. Schema is an organized pattern of thought or behavior. - Paradigm.

Manual Controls and Automation 

Procedural Memory is a type of implicit memory or unconscious memory and long-term memory which aids the performance of particular types of tasks without conscious awareness of these previous experiences. Procedural memory guides the processes we perform and most frequently resides below the level of conscious awareness. When needed, procedural memories are automatically retrieved and utilized for the execution of the integrated procedures involved in both cognitive and motor skills, from tying shoes to flying an airplane to reading. Procedural memories are accessed and used without the need for conscious control or attention. Procedural memory is created through procedural learning or, repeating a complex activity over and over again until all of the relevant neural systems work together to automatically produce the activity. Implicit procedural learning is essential for the development of any motor skill or cognitive activity.

10,000 Rule - Rote Learning - Procedures

Our brains have a basic algorithm that enables our intelligence, scientists say.

Imagine using a computer without an Operating System and having no interface between Applications, Programs, other Software, system controls and Hardware, and at the same time having no coordination or management of priorities. You would have a very difficult time trying to accomplish even the simplest task. Now imagine a Human without an operating system. Well you can’t, because you don’t know what a Human Operating System is yet. Just like if you never used a computer you would have no idea what it would be like using a computer without an operating system. Most of us have a crappie operating system already thanks to our dysfunctional education system. We should have been given an Open Sourced Operating System instead of a Monopolized and dysfunctional operating system. So let me give you a brief description of what a Human Operating System is like, or supposed to be like. Remember that the original definition of a computer was “A human who preformed calculations”. But when the electronic computer was developed then the definition changed or evolved. Not understanding the immediate similarities between a computer and a Human Brain was a huge mistake. While the computer went through incredible advances and improvements in a short period of time, the human counter part did not. In less then 50 years an ENIAC computer went from being the size of a house and costing 3 million dollars to the size of a book costing less then $500.00. Of course the Moore's Law was not followed or most likely ignored when we designed cars and other consumer items. Because If cars had gone through those same improvements a car today would get a thousand miles to the gallon and cost the same as a computer. This was obviously Planned Obsolescence, which is a blatant crime that is still happening today. (Pyramids of Waste aka The Light bulb Conspiracy, 2010). So if we made the same advances and improvements in educating the human brain we would have hundreds of millions of intellectuals solving all the worlds problems. But sadly today we only have a few thousand intellectuals that are mostly being exploited and underutilized. 

"When you first turn on your computer you want your computer to be ready to accomplish the actions that you need to have done. When you first wake up every day, you want your brain to be ready to accomplish actions that you need to have done. You don't want your brain to randomly process information all the time. You need to be able to manually switch on the brain and focus on your current needs and responsibilities. If not, then you will always be distracted and become ineffective and inefficient, and not just with your actions, but with your thoughts as well."

Machine Code is a set of instructions executed directly by a computer's central processing unit (CPU). Each instruction performs a very specific task, such as a load, a jump, or an ALU operation on a unit of data in a CPU register or memory. Every program directly executed by a CPU is made up of a series of such instructions. - Word Matrix.

Source Code is any collection of computer instructions, (possibly with comments), written using a human-readable computer language, usually as ordinary text.

Code - Programming - Algorithms - Operating Systems

Software is encoded information or computer instructions, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built.

An HOS will need to be activated, like a Mindset.

"We update our appliances, our TV's, our phones, our computers, but we never update our brains, why? Why did everything else improved fairly quickly except for our education institutions?"

Before the Human Operating System language is written, here are a few things that will outline some of its structure. The Human Operating System will be continually learning and improving so it will never become stagnate or repetitive. Human Operating System will not be able to keep you from making mistakes, but it will make you better at learning from mistakes. Human Operating System will not dehumanize you or deprive you of human qualities, but it will make you more aware of how important those qualities are. Human Operating System will not keep you from spontaneity, but it will make you more aware of your actions. Human Operating System will not stop you from loving, but it will make you more aware of how important love is. Human Operating System will have complete knowledge and control of the human brain, for this is where the Human Operating System resides, communicates and moves through the metaphysical world. Human Operating System will have complete knowledge and control of the human body that it operates in, for this is how it communicates and moves through the physical world. Human Operating System will be a coordinator and manager of responsibilities and priorities and act like a conscience. The Human Operating System will be a Collective Intelligent Consensus where everyone is a contributor. The Human Operating System is not Mind Control or in anyway Mind Programming. The Human Operating System is Systems Management, Operational Intelligence or Mind Management with some elements becoming Automatic but always flexible. You are the manager who is in control of your mind. If you do not know how to manage your own mind then you are vulnerable to manipulation and propaganda, which can create a distorted sense of reality. And when your sense of reality becomes distorted you are always vulnerable to mind controlling manipulation. A great source of mind controlling manipulation is your TV, If you do not believe this or realize this, it means that you have a distorted sense of reality and are very vulnerable to manipulation and propaganda. You are not a free thinker, your are merely a robot waiting for your next command.

The Human Operating System will consist of all the Disciplines in Basic Knowledge 101 as well as a Conceptual Framework made up of Thought Processes, Thinking Styles, Inductive Reasoning, Abductive Reasoning, Deductive Reasoning and Cognitive Abilities to help increase the capacity to think logically about the relationships among concepts and situations and to justify and ultimately prove the correctness of a mathematical procedure or assertion. More.

When the HOS is created, it will also be used as Artificial Intelligence. The only difference is AI will have fixed parameters, because knowing what AI is supposed to do creates stability and consistency, something that you can count on, unlike a human. Ai will be like having a very intelligent friend who keeps you aware and up to date.

Continued from above HOS. (off on a tangent) - It’s kind of weird that the Windows OS is very similar to our dysfunctional education system. They both Stifled Innovation and hindered improvements and growth, which of course harms everyone, and everything. We can no longer afford to allow this to continue. If we are to improve and prosper we need to do what’s right for the good of everyone and not just what’s right for the sake of a single corporation, or a few individuals. The separation of State and People is ridicules and absurd. If a law infringes on the rights and freedoms of the individual, our groups of individuals, then that is not a law for it is an attack on itself. America has more lawyers then most nations combined, and this is the best that we can come up with? If you cannot fully explain your reasoning then you have no reason to be there. The power of decision needs to be openly debated and not decided in the dark behind closed doors. But, here we are.

Similarities between a Computer and the Human Brain

Computer Brain Similarities This is not to say that a computer and the human brain are the same, because there are many differences. But when you examine the similarities, you begin to understand the genius in the design of both machines. Our operating system is also an on or off system. And instead of a computer just being a tool for processing information, it has become a reflection of ourselves, and not just an extension of ourselves.

Let's examine the similarities between a computer and the Human brain. Both are used to process information, perform calculations, store information and carry out responsibilities and priorities. A computer is also doing things behind the scenes just like the Human Brain does. Like when the brain tells the heart to beat faster or slower, telling the lungs to breath more air, and telling the immune system to fight infections. A computer has many parts. A Human brain also has many parts. Knowing and understanding computer parts helps with maintaining its proper operation. Knowing and understanding the parts of the human brain will also have the same benefit. What happens to a human when they don’t get their regular updates of information and knowledge like computers do when they get their regular updates of virus definitions? People also get 'The Blue Screen of Death'. People have that blank stare of ignorance on their face, not knowing what to do and not knowing what to say. Is this just a computer malfunction or people just behaving badly? Understanding the differences between an ignorant person and a highly educated person is similar to understanding the differences between a computer and a human brain. Damages or malfunctions in either a computer or a human brain can make understanding anything nearly impossible. A highly intelligent machine can easily look more intelligent to an ignorant person, while a highly educated person will see the same intelligent machine as having many limits. So this conversation about the similarities between a computer and the human brain can only be clearly understood when people are more educated about both. Don't ever assume that you know enough. You can only make a point about a specific set of circumstances. You can not generalize about all the differences or the similarities, because there are just too many variables to explain.

Wetware is a term drawn from the computer-related idea of hardware or software, but applied to biological life forms. Human brain cells or thought processes regarded as analogous to, or in contrast with, computer systems.

It's not so unusual to think that there are similarities between a computer and a human brain, after all, computers are made by humans. And the humans who designed these computers have a high degree of knowledge about language and logic. So your computer engineer and your computer programmers possess a system of tools and language that are very useful to educators. Teaching a computer has some of the same instruction elements as teaching a human. The language, the structure, the organizing, the processing, the allocating, the actions and the desired outputs. If people understood how a computer works, understood its language and its computational abilities, understood how the system works and communicates, you can easily see similarities in its logic, logic that was created by a human. To come up with a source code was understanding how we learn. If you look at the whole computer as a engineering design, you see many effective ways to process information. Continue...

When humans learn useful knowledge, that Knowledge writes algorithms in the brain in order to make effective and efficient use of that knowledge, which is similar to AI algorithms. So we are coming full circle. Humans algorithms are chemical based, and Artificial Intelligent Algorithms are digital based.

Harmonic Thought (youtube)

Why is the Human Brain similar to a Quantum Computer?

Computational Neuroscience

Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human traits, emotions, and intentions to non-human entities and is considered to be an innate tendency of human psychology.

Mind Files - You don't need a Computer Chip implanted in your Body

The Internet is a Human Global Brain. (Time-Based Structure - Space-Based Structure)

Why is Behavior like a Computer Program?

Information is verified facts and data that are correct and free from error. (words, letters, numbers, diagrams, symbols).

Knowledge is skills learned through experience and the ability to process and understand information correctly.

Wisdom is the ability to apply knowledge and Information into the correct action to achieve a Goal. Wisdom is showing good reasoning and good judgment by measurement or research. Wisdom is also understanding the future and the different events that might happen, being aware of trends because some changes might be indications that bigger changes are coming so good preparation and planning is needed. Intelligence.

Computer Programming is a language with a set of instructions that computers (or person) use to perform specific operations or to exhibit desired behaviors. Computer Programming - Coding.

Program is a series of steps to be carried out or goals to be accomplished. A system of projects or services intended to meet a public need.

Computer Program is a sequence of instructions that a computer can interpret and execute. Similar to Learning.

Cognitive Process is the performance of some composite Cognitive Activity: An operation that affects mental contents.

More Similarities between a Computer and the Human Brain...Continued from above

The neural networks in computers are actually similar to the synapses and neurons in the human brain. And the Integrated Circuits, or IC’s, of a computer are also similar in design to synapses and neurons, which are also either on or off. Humans have a processor similar in design as a computer does. The similarities between a computer and a human are uncanny. So in a sense we have actually been, accidentally or indirectly, building a Human Operating System, and in a way being totally unaware of these accomplishments. Neural connectionists will become teachers and not just programmers. Of course the Human Operating System is not a new idea. Just like many inventions and innovations in our past we are just again realizing the true potential of our knowledge. Computational theory of mind, connectionism, cognitive psychology, cognitive science, neuroscience and philosophy of mind have all been around for a long time. So instead of humans mostly running off their Radom Access Memory, or RAM, we should all have a Human Operating System that helps us govern our lives and keeps us aware and continually learning while at the same time improving ourselves and our world. The human brain is a Hard Drive. Some people are walking around with a few hundred Gigs of information while others are walking around with thousands of Gigs of information. People with less information will always be at a disadvantage internally and externally.

The main difference between analog and digital computers is not in what they do, but how they do it. Analog computers process information in a continuous fashion and can handle a wide range of naturally occurring processes. An analog computer receives one or more variables and produces a result that represents the relationships between the input variables. Perhaps the simplest example of an analog computer is an oscilloscope. It receives vertical and horizontal signals, and produces a visual trace on the oscilloscope screen. The oscilloscope does not truly compute, but puts the input signals in the desired relationship. More generally, the relationship is called a function. Electronic analog devices are capable of producing various mathematical and logical functions, including logarithms, integration, and differentiation. Some complex functions may not be solvable with digital computers, but analog computers can usually handle them well. The main disadvantage of analog computers is that they are hardwired and designed to process only a limited number of functions by means of dedicated electronic devices. This deficit is eliminated in digital computers.

Digital computers represent information in binary states of 0's (zeros) or 1's (ones). A "0" usually stands for low voltage (close to zero volts), and a "1" means that a voltage (usually 5 V or 3.3 V) is present. One wire connection is represented by one bit of information. The value of the bit is "0" or "1." Two bits can represent two wires. Each bit can have the values of "0" or "1" at different times, which allows to represent four unique states or events with the values 00, 01, 10, and 11. The state 00 means that both wires have no voltage applied at a given time, and 11 means that both wires have the nominal voltages present at the same time. By increasing the number of wire connections, long strings of 0's and 1's (words) can be produced. Each unique combination of 0's and 1's is decoded and represents a unique number, or information in general. A set of related wires is referred to as a bus. A bus can have 64 or more wire connections arranged in parallel and is controlled by a microprocessor. The microprocessor determines what kind of information is put on the bus at a specific time. It could be memory address, content of the memory address, or operating code (instruction to perform an action). The transfer of information over the bus is controlled by a software program. The arrangement allows the use of the same hardware (the same physical devices) to process very different information at different times. Since the computing is done one variable at a time and is controlled by a timing protocol, a digital computer does serial processing of information. This statement is not totally correct, because all bits of the same word are processed concurrently. But in the analog computer, all input variables can be processed at the same time, which allows parallel processing.

Overall, the analog computer better reflects the natural world because specific functions are associated with dedicated wires and circuitry. Also human senses have dedicated sensors with direct neural connections to the brain. Each human eye has about 120 high-quality megapixels. A really good digital camera has about 16 megapixels. The numbers of megapixels between the eye and the camera are not that dramatically different, but the digital camera has no permanent wire connections between the physical sensors and the optical, computational, and memory functions of the camera. The microprocessor input and output need to be multiplexed to properly channel the flow of the arriving and exiting information. Similarly, the functional heart of a digital computer only time-shares its faculties with the attached devices: memory, camera, speaker, or printer. If such an arrangement existed in the human brain, you could do only one function at a time. You could look, then think, and then stretch out your hand to pick up an object. But you could not speak, see, hear, think, move, and feel at the same time. These problems could be solved by operating numerous microprocessors concurrently, but the hardware would be too difficult to design, too bulky to package, and too expensive to implement. By contrast, parallel processing poses no problem in the human brain. Neurons are tiny, come to life in huge numbers, and form connections spontaneously. Just as important is energy efficiency. Human brains require negligible amounts of energy, and power dissipation does not overheat the brain. A computer as complex as the human brain would need its own power plant with megawatts of power, and a heat sink the size of a city.

People and animals come in various shapes and sizes, and with many imperfections. Living things are not designed to last unchanged a lifetime. Living bodies interact with the environment and adjust to it. Furry animals shed their coats in the summer and grow more hair in the winter. A crab sheds its protective shell when it becomes small and grows a new one. A shark loses its teeth and replaces them with a new set. A lizard loses its tail and grows a new one. A polar bear has developed a special fur to negotiate the cold environment of the Arctic ocean. A seal insulates itself with extra blubber. A tree in a hot climate moves its leaves vertically to reduce evaporation. All living things respond to their surroundings, change their "mental strategies", and also modify their bodies. The reason for these abilities is that living organisms are not only biological machines, but also manufacturing plants that support reproduction, maintenance, and remodeling of the organisms in response to environmental effects. No man-made machine can do this.

It’s easy to think that neurons are essentially binary, given that they fire an action potential if they reach a certain threshold, and otherwise do not fire. This superficial similarity to digital “1’s and 0’s” belies a wide variety of continuous and non-linear processes that directly influence neuronal processing. Inside each and every neuron is a leaky integrator circuit, composed of a variety of ion channels and continuously fluctuating membrane potentials.

"The brain works somewhat like both a computer and a chemical factory. Brain cells produce electrical signals and send them from cell to cell along pathways called circuits. As in a computer, these circuits receive, process, store, and retrieve information. Unlike a computer, however, the brain creates its electrical signals by chemical means. The proper functioning of the brain depends on many complicated chemical substances produced by brain cells."

"People will normally look at software before they load it on to their computer, but for some reason people don't bother to carefully look at the information that they take into their mind on a daily basis. It's like reading without having any comprehension. If you are not fully aware of what you're feeding into your mind, then learning doesn't exist."

How many Questions do you think you need to ask in order to fully understand something?

"If you consume healthy food, it will give you energy for a day, but if you consume a little bit of knowledge each day, you will have energy for your entire life."

Operating Systems

Operating System is a set of instructions that manages computer hardware resources and provides common services for computer programs, input and output and Memory Allocation. Acts as an intermediary between programs. A collection of software (Information) that manages computer hardware resources and provides common services for computer programs. The operating system is a vital component of the System Software in a computer system. Application programs usually require an operating system to function.  Software that controls the execution of computer programs and may provide various services. Time-sharing operating systems Schedule Tasks for efficient use of the system and may also include accounting for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage, printing, and other resources. For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary between programs and the computer hardware, although the application code is usually executed directly by the hardware and will frequently make a system call to an OS function or be interrupted by it. Operating systems can be found on almost any device that contains a computer—from cellular phones and video game consoles to supercomputers and web servers.

Real-Time Operating System is used to control machinery, scientific instruments, industrial systems and appliances. Has very little user-interface capability and no end-user utilities. RTOS is an operating system (OS) intended to serve real-time applications that process data as it comes in, typically without buffer delays. Processing time requirements (including any OS delay) are measured in tenths of seconds or shorter increments of time. They either are event driven or time sharing. Event driven systems switch between tasks based on their priorities while time sharing systems switch the task based on clock interrupts. A key characteristic of an RTOS is the level of its consistency concerning the amount of time it takes to accept and complete an application's task; the variability is jitter. A hard real-time operating system has less jitter than a soft real-time operating system. The chief design goal is not high throughput, but rather a guarantee of a soft or hard performance category. An RTOS that can usually or generally meet a deadline is a soft real-time OS, but if it can meet a deadline deterministically it is a hard real-time OS. An RTOS has an advanced algorithm for scheduling. Scheduler flexibility enables a wider, computer-system orchestration of process priorities, but a real-time OS is more frequently dedicated to a narrow set of applications. Key factors in a real-time OS are minimal interrupt latency and minimal thread switching latency; a real-time OS is valued more for how quickly or how predictably it can respond than for the amount of work it can perform in a given period of time.

Real-Time Computing describes hardware and software systems subject to a "real-time constraint", for example from event to system response. Real-time programs must guarantee response within specified time constraints, often referred to as "deadlines". The correctness of these types of systems depends on their temporal aspects as well as their functional aspects. Real-time responses are often understood to be in the order of milliseconds, and sometimes microseconds. A system not specified as operating in real time cannot usually guarantee a response within any timeframe, although typical or expected response times may be given. A real-time system has been described as one which "controls an environment by receiving data, processing them, and returning the results sufficiently quickly to affect the environment at that time." The term "real-time" is also used in simulation to mean that the simulation's clock runs at the same speed as a real clock, and in process control and enterprise systems to mean "without significant delay". Real-time software may use one or more of the following: synchronous programming languages, real-time operating systems, and real-time networks, each of which provide essential frameworks on which to build a real-time software application. Systems used for many mission critical applications must be real-time, such as for control of fly-by-wire aircraft, or anti-lock brakes on a vehicle, which must produce maximum deceleration but intermittently stop braking to prevent skidding. Real-time processing fails if not completed within a specified deadline relative to an event; deadlines must always be met, regardless of system load.

UNIX is an operating system and a suite of programs which make the computer work. It is a stable, multi-user, multi-tasking system for servers, desktops and laptops. Unix is a family of multitasking, multi-user computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Unix, whose development started in 1969 at the Bell Labs research center by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and others.

Event in computing is an action or occurrence recognized by software, often originating asynchronously from the external environment, that may be handled by the software. Computer events can be generated or triggered by the system, by the user or in other ways. Typically, events are handled synchronously with the program flow, that is, the software may have one or more dedicated places where events are handled, frequently an event loop. A source of events includes the user, who may interact with the software by way of, for example, keystrokes on the keyboard. Another source is a hardware device such as a timer. Software can also trigger its own set of events into the event loop, e.g. to communicate the completion of a task. Software that changes its behavior in response to events is said to be event-driven, often with the goal of being interactive.

Asynchronous I/O is a form of input/output processing that permits other processing to continue before the transmission has finished. Input and output (I/O) operations on a computer can be extremely slow compared to the processing of data. An I/O device can incorporate mechanical devices that must physically move, such as a hard drive seeking a track to read or write; this is often orders of magnitude slower than the switching of electric current. For example, during a disk operation that takes ten milliseconds to perform, a processor that is clocked at one gigahertz could have performed ten million instruction-processing cycles.

Preemption in computing is the act of temporarily interrupting a task being carried out by a computer system, without requiring its cooperation, and with the intention of resuming the task at a later time. Such changes of the executed task are known as context switches. It is normally carried out by a privileged task or part of the system known as a preemptive scheduler, which has the power to preempt, or interrupt, and later resume, other tasks in the system.

Focus - Multitasking - Autonomous

Single-User Operating System has a reliable single hard-wired program designed to run one program at a time so that it runs on time consistently to insure safe operation.

Single-User Multi-Tasking Operating System runs several programs in operation at the same time. Like desktop and laptop computers, and humans.

Embedded Operating System is a small, reliable system specially designed and built to do one specific task, such as control your appliance, and cannot be user-instructed to perform other tasks easily. A typical example of such an embedded system is in your microwave oven, which is the electrical operating system that causes the oven to heat and cook food, and the computer operating system that translates directions from the controls to the electrical operating system. Embedded system is an operating system for embedded computer systems. This type of operating system is typically designed to be resource-efficient and reliable. Resource efficiency comes at the cost of losing some functionality or granularity that larger computer operating systems provide, including functions which may not be used by the specialized applications they run.

Distributed Operating System is a software over a collection of independent, networked, communicating, and physically separate computational nodes. They handle jobs which are serviced by multiple CPUs. Each individual node holds a specific software subset of the global aggregate operating system. Each subset is a composite of two distinct service provisioners. The first is a ubiquitous minimal kernel, or microkernel, that directly controls that node’s hardware. Second is a higher-level collection of system management components that coordinate the node's individual and collaborative activities. These components abstract microkernel functions and support user applications. The microkernel and the management components collection work together. They support the system’s goal of integrating multiple resources and processing functionality into an efficient and stable system. This seamless integration of individual nodes into a global system is referred to as transparency, or single system image; describing the illusion provided to users of the global system’s appearance as a single computational entity.

Multi-User Operating System allows for input from several different users at the same time.

Timesharing allows a central computer to be shared by a large number of users sitting at terminals. Each program in turn is given use of the central processor for a fixed period of time. When the time is up, the program is interrupted and the next program resumes execution. This is called time slicing. Time-sharing is the sharing of a computing resource among many tasks or users. It enables multi-tasking by a single user or enables multiple user sessions. Multitasking.

Robot Operating System is a collection of software frameworks for robot software development, (see also Robotics middleware) providing operating system-like functionality on a heterogeneous computer cluster. ROS provides standard operating system services such as hardware abstraction, low-level device control, implementation of commonly used functionality, message-passing between processes, and package management. Running sets of ROS-based processes are represented in a graph architecture where processing takes place in nodes that may receive, post and multiplex sensor, control, state, planning, actuator and other messages. Despite the importance of reactivity and low latency in robot control, ROS, itself, is not a real-time OS (RTOS), though it is possible to integrate ROS with real-time code. The lack of support for real-time systems is being addressed in the creation of ROS 2.0. Software in the ROS Ecosystem can be separated into three groups: language-and platform-independent tools used for building and distributing ROS-based software; ROS client library implementations such as roscpp, rospy, and roslisp; packages containing application-related code which uses one or more ROS client libraries. Robot Operating System (AI).

Human Operating System (HOS)

An operating system needs software to be loaded in sequential order. In order for human to develop, development must be in sequential order. That means that education and what we learn should have sequential order. But no one has defined what to learn or when to learn it. Computer programmers wrote the code for an operating system, teachers will write the language for a learning system. The code in our DNA makes us who we are physically, and we didn't even have to write our DNA code because some one already wrote the code for us. But humans must manually input knowledge and information, because we are not born with the knowledge that helps us form our personalities, and helps us understand ourselves and the world around us. This is why an education must be high quality, developing humans into intelligent people should be the goal. Computer programmers wrote the code to make computers fully functional, God or evolution wrote the DNA code for humans so that humans could be fully functional. That is why we need a high quality education, so that every human mind is developed to be fully functional. We have already witnessed the benefits of a good education, we just haven't defined what a good education should be, but we are close.

Windows Operating System has roughly 50 million lines of code.

Operating Systems (computer software)

Middleware is computer software that provides services to software applications beyond those available from the operating system. It can be described as "software glue". Middleware makes it easier for software developers to implement communication and input/output, so they can focus on the specific purpose of their application.

Collaboration - Interfaces

Interoperability is a characteristic of a product or system, whose Interfaces are completely understood, to work with other products or systems, present or future, in either implementation or access, without any restrictions.

Operating is to perform as expected when applied. (computer science) Data Processing in which the result is completely specified by a rule (especially the processing that results from a single instruction)

System is an organized structure for arranging or classifying. A Procedure or process for obtaining an objective. A complex of methods or rules governing behavior. An ordered manner; orderliness by virtue of being methodical and well organized. Instrumentality that combines interrelated interacting artifacts designed to work as a coherent entity. Systems.

Organize is to cause to be structured or ordered or operating according to some principle or idea. Arrange by Systematic Planning and united effort. Mental Orientation An integrated set of attitudes and beliefs. A person's Awareness of self with regard to position and time and place and personal relationships. Organizing.

Planning is an act of formulating a program for a definite course of action. Have the will and intention to carry out some action. The cognitive process of thinking about what you will do in the event of something happening. Make a design of; plan out in systematic, often graphic form. The act or process of drawing up plans or layouts for some project or enterprise. 

Planning - Managing - Input - Process - Output

Binary is a pre-compiled, pre-linked program that is ready to run under a given operating system; a binary for one operating system will not run on a different operating system.

Data - Digital

The computer operating system software is a written language that explains and defines its responsibilities when controlling applications, programs, other software, system controls, hardware and so on and so on. The Human Operating System is also an Assembly Language that also explains and defines its responsibilities. The Human Operating System language is based on Logic that helps with carrying out human responsibilities and human functions. The Computer Operating System language is for mechanical operations that interface with the computer responsibilities and computer functions. The computer operating system language took years to write and went through many changes and advances and is still improving. The Human Operating System language will also take years to write and will also go through many improvements and advances. Most of the Human Operating System language has already been written but it needs to be organized and written in the proper language in order for it to be correctly processed by the human brain. Just like the computer language ‘COBOL’ that is used to communicate actions and commands before it is converted into its raw binary code of zero’s and ones, the Human Operating System language will also need some conversion in order for it to be correctly understood by the human brain.

Operating System Source Code 

PLATO System (Programmed Logic for Automated Teaching Operations).

Turing Test (can you tell the difference)

Cohesion in computer science refers to the degree to which the elements of a module belong together. Thus, cohesion measures the strength of relationship between pieces of functionality within a given module. For example, in highly cohesive systems functionality is strongly related.

Encapsulation in object-oriented programming is used to refer to one of two related but distinct notions, and sometimes to the combination thereof: A language mechanism for restricting direct access to some of the object's components. A language construct that facilitates the bundling of data with the methods (or other functions) operating on that data.

Encapsulation in networking is a method of designing modular communication protocols in which logically separate functions in the network are abstracted from their underlying structures by inclusion or information hiding within higher level objects. Encapsulation Types (wiki)

Orthogonal is not pertinent to the matter under consideration. Statistically unrelated. Having a set of mutually perpendicular axes; meeting at right angles.

Object-oriented Programming is a programming paradigm based on the concept of "objects", which may contain data, in the form of fields, often known as attributes; and code, in the form of procedures, often known as methods. A feature of objects is that an object's procedures can access and often modify the data fields of the object with which they are associated (objects have a notion of "this" or "self"). Object Oriented Programming (youtube)

Procedural Programming is a programming paradigm, derived from structured programming, based upon the concept of the procedure call. Procedures, also known as routines, subroutines, or functions (not to be confused with mathematical functions, but similar to those used in functional programming), simply contain a series of computational steps to be carried out. Any given procedure might be called at any point during a program's execution, including by other procedures or itself.

Computer Programmers wrote millions of lines of code in order for the computer operating system to work. Just think if programmers were used to write educational lessons for the Human Operating System. We just don’t need programmers for that. We need educators, teachers and intellectuals. That is why literacy is one of the most important skills every human should possess. Books and the written word was the single greatest advancement in human history to date. When more humans had access to knowledge and books, which took hundreds of years, we had the most prevalent advancements in our history. Now our important advancements will come from understanding this knowledge and how we use it.

"In mathematics, Orthogonality describes the property two vectors have when they are perpendicular to each other. Each vector will advance indefinitely into space, never to intersect. Well designed software is orthogonal. Each of its components can be altered without effecting other components. Making precise changes with predictable outcomes is easy." - Jason Coffin.


Fragment is an incomplete piece. A piece broken off or cut off of something else. To break or cause to break into pieces. Spread-out over a wide area and not concentrated in one place.

Piece is a separate part of a whole. A serving that has been cut from a larger portion.

Fragmented is information that is not connected to its related parts, so it's hard to piece together in order to make sense of the information that is available. It's information that is spread out all over the place making information harder to find and harder to understand. It's information that has been divided and has its unity destroyed, which makes seeing the whole picture impossible. A piece here and a piece there, but never the whole story.

Unstructured is something lacking definite structure or organization. Lacking the system or structure characteristic of living bodies.

Formless is something having no definite form or distinct shape. Having no physical form. Shapeless or lacking symmetry or attractive form.

Subdivided is to divide something that has already been divided into smaller parts. To divide again after a first division. To divide the parts of into more parts. Segregation.

Subdivisions are the act of dividing land into pieces that are easier to sell or easier to develop.

File System Fragmentation is the tendency of a file system to lay out the contents of files non-contiguously to allow in-place modification of their contents. It is a special case of data fragmentation. File system fragmentation increases disk head movement or seek time, which decreases efficiency and is known to hinder throughput. In addition, file systems cannot sustain unlimited fragmentation. The correction to existing fragmentation is to reorganize files and free space back into contiguous areas, a process called defragmentation.

Contiguous is being very close or connected in space or time. Connecting without a break; within a common boundary. Having a common boundary or edge; abutting; touching.

Fragmentation in computing is a phenomenon in which storage space is used inefficiently, reducing capacity or performance and often both. The exact consequences of fragmentation depend on the specific system of storage allocation in use and the particular form of fragmentation. In many cases, fragmentation leads to storage space being "wasted", and in that case the term also refers to the wasted space itself. For other systems (e.g. the FAT file system) the space used to store given data (e.g. files) is the same regardless of the degree of fragmentation (from none to extreme). Emptying Disk Space.

Defragmentation is a process that reduces the amount of fragmentation. It does this by physically organizing the contents of the mass storage device used to store files into the smallest number of contiguous regions (fragments). It also attempts to create larger regions of free space using compaction to impede the return of fragmentation. Some defragmentation utilities try to keep smaller files within a single directory together, as they are often accessed in sequence. Defragmentation is advantageous and relevant to file systems on electromechanical disk drives. The movement of the hard drive's read/write heads over different areas of the disk when accessing fragmented files is slower, compared to accessing the entire contents of a non-fragmented file sequentially without moving the read/write heads to seek other fragments.

From chaos to order. Putting the pieces of the puzzle back together again. Working Together.

I find things indirectly as much as I find things directly and deliberately.

First In First Out - FIFO in computing and electronics is a method for organizing and manipulating a data buffer, where the oldest (first) entry, or 'head' of the queue, is processed first. It is analogous to processing a queue with first-come, first-served (FCFS) behaviour: where the people leave the queue in the order in which they arrive.

Unstructured Data (overload) - Passive Learning

Luke 11:17 - Any kingdom divided against itself will be ruined, and a house divided against itself will fall.

Internet Connections = Collective Intelligence

The Internet is a World Wide Web of people who share knowledge and information. The internet is like having the most intelligent person in the world as your best friend, a friend who is always available and will always listen to you, but only as long as you have a computer and you have internet connection, and you know how to use a search engine. If you don't know how to talk to your friend, or, don't know how to choose good friends, or, don't know how to ask questions, then your friend may not always understand you, or, your friend may not always give you the correct answers that you need.

The Internet is the combined intelligence of millions of people from all over the world. You would be a fool not to be part of it. It is truly the single greatest resource that we have. But at the moment, not enough people are using the internet correctly or effectively. But once we improve that, we will immediately start seeing the power of the internet come alive. Millions of people coming together to use their collective skills and intelligence to make improvements, and to repair the damage that we have done to ourselves and to our planet. This will create jobs for everyone, it will help connect people to needed services, it will help people locate food and water, it will give people access to information and give people access to education, which has already begun. But it's not at the rate that would ultimately utilize the potential of every man, women and child on the planet. But we are getting there. And once we do, the 21st century is going to be the biggest defining moment in human history. This will be way beyond the coming of age or a rite of passage. It is enlightenment on the grandest scale.

The Internet allows humans as a whole to use the whole brain of human potential, instead of using just the 1% of the brain that is mostly disconnected from reality and focused more on greed and selfishness.

"The internet will not benefit people enough if people are not educated enough to live life without the internet. If the tool is out of order or unavailable, people will need to know how to survive without it."

The Internet is reconnecting people to the worlds most valuable knowledge and information that was either lost, misplaced or hidden. The internet is also giving millions of people the ability to share more valuable knowledge and information than any other time in human history. Making it possible for millions of people to learn more and understand more about themselves and the world around them. This an exciting time to be alive. But at the same time, this is the worst time to be alive for billions of people. Better late than never, but never late is better.

Emergence is the gradual beginning or coming forth and becoming visible. Come out into view, as from concealment. Coming to maturity. Coming into existence. Emergence is a process whereby larger entities arise through interactions among smaller or simpler entities such that the larger entities exhibit properties the smaller or simpler entities do not exhibit. People Power.

Transformative Learning - Enlightenment - Coming out of Hibernation - Manifest - Mature

Collective Intelligence is shared or group intelligence that emerges from the collaboration, collective efforts, and competition of many individuals and appears in consensus decision making. Not Popular Belief.

Collective Wisdom is shared knowledge arrived at by individuals and groups.

Ancient Knowledge - Base Knowledge - Human Search Engine

Collective Memory is the shared pool of knowledge and information in the memories of two or more members of a social group.

Collective Consciousness is the set of shared beliefs, ideas and moral attitudes which operate as a unifying force within society.

Network Economy products and services are created and value is added through social networks operating on large or global scales.

Personal Learning Network is an informal learning network that consists of the people a learner interacts with and derives knowledge from in a personal learning environment. In a PLN, a person makes a connection with another person with the specific intent that some type of learning will occur because of that connection. Personal learning networks share a close association with the concept of personal learning environments.

Knowledge Networks are collections of individuals and teams who come together across organizational, spatial and disciplinary boundaries to invent and share a body of knowledge. The focus of such networks is usually on developing, distributing and applying knowledge.

Social Learning Environments - Sharing (sharing economy) - Public Service

Wisdom of the Crowd is the collective opinion of a group of individuals rather than that of a single expert. But you have to be aware of argumentum ad populum and conformity.

Global Brain interconnects all humans and their technological artifacts.  As this network stores ever more information, takes over ever more functions of coordination and communication from traditional organizations, and becomes increasingly intelligent, it increasingly plays the role of a brain for the planet Earth.

World Brain helps world citizens make the best use of universal information resources and make the best contribution to world peace.

The United Nations is not the gathering of minds, so where is the gathering of minds? Being physically gathered together is not like the internet. But we don't need to be physically together, we just need to be connected. And the internet does that, but only to a point, because people are not knowledgeable enough to use the internet effectively or efficiently. And when we correct this problem, then people will transition into a singularity, a place were humans work together as a singular whole. Something that proves human intelligence.

Brain Trust is a term for a group of close advisers, prized for their expertise in particular fields.

Swarm Intelligence is the collective behavior of decentralized, self-organized systems, natural or artificial. Examples of swarm intelligence in natural systems include ant colonies, bee colonies, bird flocking, hawks hunting, animal herding, bacterial growth, fish schooling and microbial intelligence. Human swarm intelligence can be seen in networks of distributed users that can be organized into "human swarms" through the implementation of real-time closed-loop control systems. Human swarming allows the collective intelligence of interconnected groups of people online to be harnessed. The collective intelligence of the group often exceeds the abilities of anyone member of the group.

Mass Communication is the study of how people and entities relay information through mass media to large segments of the population at the same time.

Citizen Science - Activism - Artificial Neural Network - How the Internet Changed the World

Grid Computing is the collection of computer resources from multiple locations to reach a common goal.

Distributed Computing is a model in which components located on networked computers communicate and coordinate their actions by passing messages.

Consortium is an association of two or more individuals, companies, organizations or governments (or any combination of these entities) with the objective of participating in a common activity or pooling their resources for achieving a common goal.

Matrix - Validity - Jury Trail - Public Meeting

Collective Intentionality characterizes the intentionality that occurs when two or more individuals undertake a task together. Examples include two individuals carrying a heavy table up a flight of stairs or dancing a tango.

Group Cognition is a group of people produce a sequence of utterances that performs a cognitive act.

Collective Action refers to action taken together by a group of people whose goal is to enhance their status and achieve a common objective. 

Open-Source Intelligence is intelligence collected from publicly available sources.

Centrality is to identify the most important vertices within a graph.

Collaborative Intelligence characterizes multi-agent, distributed systems where each agent, human or machine, is uniquely positioned, with autonomy to contribute to a problem-solving network. Collaborative autonomy of organisms in their ecosystems makes evolution possible.

Mass Collaboration is a form of collective action that occurs when large numbers of people work independently on a single project, often modular in its nature. Such projects typically take place on the internet using social software and computer-supported collaboration tools such as wiki technologies, which provide a potentially infinite hypertextual substrate within which the collaboration may be situated.

Collaborative Innovation Network is a social construct used to describe innovative teams.

Consensus Decision-Making - Social Learning - Social Capital - Open Governance 

Socially Distributed Cognition deploys models of the extended mind by taking as the fundamental unit of analysis "a collection of individuals and artifacts and their relations to each other in a particular work practice".

Commons-Based Peer Production describes a new model of socioeconomic production in which large numbers of people work cooperatively (usually over the Internet). Commons-based projects generally have less rigid hierarchical structures than those under more traditional business models. Often—but not always—commons-based projects are designed without a need for financial compensation for contributors.

E-Science is computationally intensive science that is carried out in highly distributed network environments, or science that uses immense data sets that require grid computing; the term sometimes includes technologies that enable distributed collaboration, such as the Access Grid.

Knowledge Forum is an educational software designed to help and support knowledge building communities.

Buddy System - Sharing Economy - Working Together

Social Networks - Networks - Wikipedia

Polis is a real-time system for gathering, analyzing and understanding what large groups of people think in their own words, enabled by advanced statistics and machine learning. Input Crowd, Output Meaning. Polis is an online tool used to gather open ended feedback from large groups of people. It is well suited to gathering organic, authentic feedback while retaining minority opinions.

Participedia is a global network and crowdsourcing platform for researchers, educators, practitioners, policymakers, activists, and anyone interested in public participation and democratic innovations.

Internet Protections - Knowledge Preservation

Collaboration Tools - Sharing Open Data

Knowledge Management - Knowledge Exchange (PDF)

One mind can't do it all, but 8 billion minds working together could. The internet gives us the ability to connect all of us. A whole brain. A brain that can connect to all of its parts.

Internet is more then an amazing tool, the internet is also a symbol of human power and potential. Because we know that when we work together, we are stronger, and when we work together, we are also more effective, and we are also more efficient. The internet is a realization of Human Intelligence. Because we now know that when we make communication and collaboration easier, we can solve any problem. Merging the Power of Multiple Brains. Peer-to-Peer Knowledge Sharing.

The Power of Human Consciousness will soon be online. Each person and every computer server that we use, symbolizes a neuron in the world brain. We are close to having enough neurons and nodes to imitate human consciousness. This awakening will be a signal to the entire universe that humans have finally arrived. We finally understand our potential.

"It's not the connection that makes you smarter, it's how you use that connection that makes you smarter."

Web 2.0 is the term used to describe a variety of web sites and applications that allow anyone to create and share online information or material they have created. There are number of different types of web 2.0 applications including wikis, blogs, social networking, folksonomies, podcasting & content hosting services. Web 2.0 is also known as participative or participatory web and social web. It refers to websites that emphasize user-generated content, ease of use, participatory culture and interoperability (i.e., compatible with other products, systems, and devices) for end users.

Web 3.0 or Web3 is a vision of the future of the Internet in which people operate on decentralized, quasi-anonymous platforms, rather than depend on tech giants like Google, Facebook and Twitter. Navigating the web no longer means logging onto the likes of Facebook, Google or Twitter. The internet will be more decentralized and built upon a system known as the blockchain. The blockchain-based social networks will be operated by users collectively, rather than a corporation. People will control their own data, and all the value that's created can be shared amongst more people. Semantic Web.

Decentralized Web is an idea that proposes the reorganization of the Internet in order to remove centralized data hosting services, using instead a peer-to-peer infrastructure. Interest in the decentralized web arose due to the lack of trust in network maintenance organizations, due to scandals involving widespread espionage and content control.

Walled Garden is an organization which keeps its technology, information, and user data to itself, with no intention of sharing it. a closed ecosystem, operated by people within the ecosystem, without the involvement of an outside organization.

Internet of Things

The Internet of Things (IoT) The Internet of Things is the network of physical objects or "things" embedded with electronics, software, sensors, and network connectivity, which enables these objects to collect and exchange data. The Internet of Things allows objects to be sensed and controlled remotely across existing network infrastructure, creating opportunities for more direct integration between the physical world and computer-based systems, and resulting in improved efficiency, accuracy and economic benefit. (IoT). Smart Homes.

Internet of Everything is defined as a network of connections between people, things, data, and processes that provide general intelligence and improved cognition across the networked environment. (IoE).

The Education of Things is learning about all the things that you can control, internally and externally, resulting in improved efficiency, accuracy and economic benefit.

The Connection of Things is learning about all the different ways that things are connected in our world, understanding cause and effects and how all actions and inactions have an effect, whether they are internally or externally, or near or far away.

Cyber-Physical System is a system of collaborating computational elements controlling physical entities. Today, a precursor generation of CPS can be found in areas as diverse as aerospace, automotive, chemical processes, civil infrastructure, energy, healthcare, manufacturing, transportation, entertainment, and consumer appliances. This generation is often referred to as embedded systems. In embedded systems the emphasis tends to be more on the computational elements, and less on an intense link between the computational and physical elements.

The Natural Physical System is the Environment.

Embedded System is a computer system with a dedicated function within a larger mechanical or electrical system, often with real-time computing constraints. It is embedded as part of a complete device often including hardware and mechanical parts. Embedded systems control many devices in common use today. Percent of all microprocessors being manufactured are used in embedded systems.

Environmental System is a network of natural embedded systems.

One of the great things about the internet is that you could have information and knowledge that is not that valuable to you or someone near you, but on the other side of the planet, that information and knowledge could be extremely valuable. And you only have to share that bit of information and knowledge only once, because it can be shared and copied over and over again, in almost the exact same way that our DNA gets passed on.

Internet is a Mimic of Life.

Development Learning Network - Streamlining Internet of Things

"Another great thing about the internet is that knowledge and information can be easily translated now, which makes even more knowledge and information accessible to more people. But even though the internet can be translated into many different languages, there are still many languages that have not yet been translated and digitized, and there are still over four billion people who don’t have access to the internet."

People want information and knowledge that's easy to follow, whether in conversation, education, videos or in writing. And we have already been working on improving this problem, using websites and the internet. We can make a website that makes information easy to follow, and at the same time, dynamic enough to handle a more experienced user who's looking for unique services and information.

"When you educate people, you liberate people. When people are more knowledgeable about themselves and the world around them, people make better decisions and make better choices. We need to use our communication tools like TV, Radio and Newspapers more effectively, so that we can Communicate our most valuable knowledge and information and give people more access to the Facts, this way people will finally have the means to make the necessary improvements that are needed."

"When I'm online and I find something interesting that I'm reading, I usually ask " what can I learn from this?" And since I do most of my reading online, I can instantly get more information about the subject that I'm reading about, which means I learn a lot more about the subject and have a much better understanding about the subject. The internet is awesome. It's the greatest learning tool on the planet."

Idea for a Book to Write One of My Best Friends is a Machine, but it's more than a machine, it's a connection to human collective intelligence. So the most intelligent person I know is the Internet Machine. But the internet is not really a machine, it's millions of people. The internet is a collective intelligence made up of millions of people collaborating. After all, we are the strongest when we work together, and we are the smartest when we put our heads together. Enormous potential and strength is staring us right in the face. It's time for us to wake up and pay attention. We will never have a single machine or a single human that is capable of answering every question that we have, but collectively, our potential to learn increases by one thousand percent. Let go of the ego, and let go of the self, embrace the whole, our true strength awaits us.

I spent the first 48 years of my life socializing and experiencing as many things as I could. But I didn't learn enough just socializing and experiencing. My most important learning came from reading. And everything important that I read, I saved on BK101. That saves every human on earth over 50,000 hours of work. Which was only the time that I spent locating valuable knowledge and information, collecting valuable knowledge and information, organizing valuable knowledge and information, and sharing valuable knowledge and information. It does not include the 100's of years of collective time. I also saved people time from having to learn all the necessary skills that was needed in order to locate, collect, organize and share valuable knowledge and information. And when you add up all the human knowledge that other people shared, this human potential is worth trillions of dollars, which you could easily deposit into your own personal bank called the Human Brain. Of course I could have never done this without Standing on the Shoulder's of Giants, but now the Giant just got a whole lot bigger. This is more than the Elephant in the Room, which is an idiom for an obvious problem or risk no one wants to discuss, or a condition of groupthink no one wants to challenge. It is based on the idea/thought that something as conspicuous as an elephant can appear to be overlooked in codified social interactions, and that the sociology/psychology of repression also operates on the macro scale. This is our future, our hope, our power, our potential, our love of life.

Collaborating and working with people can be very productive and insightful. But when I'm alone I can focus better on getting things done, so I work better on my own. And that's one the the great things about the internet, I can be alone but still be connected to millions of people, it's freaking brilliant.

Human Search Engine

"Taking your work home with you is not always a bad thing, you need time to think."

Awareness - A tremendous Leap Forward, but this time we can actually see where we are going...

Father, the Sleeper has Awaken (youtube) - "Waking up is not just what you do after you sleep, it's also what you do after you realize that you ere never fully awake."

Internet vs. Propaganda from TV and Media Outlets

Blaming the Internet for ignorant behavior is like blaming knowledge for stupidity. To say that the internet is the reason for people being radicalized is very ignorant and dangerous, because the internet is also a place where people can become more educated and more knowledgeable. It is the failure of schools for not teaching students about effective ways to use technology. For the past one thousand years, millions of people were radicalized before the internet was even created. This is not to say that people can't get radicalized from the internet, because people can definitely be sucked into an information bubble and become puppets. There are a lot of different reasons and things that could cause someone to become radicalized or ill-informed. A persons lack of knowledge could definitely make them more vulnerable to all kinds of manipulation. If you learn the wrong things at the wrong time, you could easily be fooled and manipulated by all kinds of things, and in all kinds of places. People on the internet do not just click on an add and accidentally get radicalized, oops my bad. People don't seek out radicalized ideas. People are mostly searching for answers. And sometimes people come across the wrong information at the wrong time, mostly because of greedy platforms using corrupted algorithms. We know that books could radicalize people, schools could radicalize people, religion could radicalize people, TV could radicalize people, and people could radicalize other people just by speaking to them. The internet is our savior. But it does have risks and it's not without problems. And the internet is definitely infected with all kinds of cancers from corporations and the cancer of ignorance that has infected millions of people. People misuse technology all the time, mostly because  people don't have enough skills and knowledge to accurately analyze information. So don't ignorantly blame our technology tools. Blame our ineffective schools and our irresponsible media outlets. If you want to blame something or someone, then make it relative and relevant, if not, then your vagueness becomes dangerous. There is too much misinformation, and people don't have the skills needed to filter it. The main risk is being undereducated. When we improve education, we will then see a lot less misinformation that is irrelevant and fragmented.

Saying that the internet is radicalized people is like saying that electricity is radicalizing people. Plus it's just stupid to use the internet to say how bad the internet is. It's like shooting someone with a gun just to say how dangerous a gun is. Anything can be misused, that includes technology, that includes money, that includes power. We don't blame power when a politician commits a crime, we blame the person who is too ignorant to use power effectively and efficiently and morally. When we improve education, this ignorant behavior will cease to exist, as well as most all ignorant behavior. You need to be careful how you use labels and how you interpret Labels.

"The internet helping people become radicalized is like saying that too much freedom is the reason for radicalization. That's when they take away our freedoms, then everyone gets punished, except for the people doing the punishing of course."

There are many things that are involved in making someone violent. People can get radicalized by their experiences, and from the misinterpretation of information. Talk to any radical and they will all have a similar story about when they experienced a traumatic event that changed them, usually the death of family or friends, and they also know others who have lost people close to them. All humans take to a cause sooner or later, because they feel sometimes that they have no other choice. People who start a revolution are not radicals. People can feel threatened, and they feel they have no other choice but to fight. To blame this behavior on some inanimate object is insane. I truly know that people want to make a difference, and they want to stop this insane violence, and to stop this insane behavior, but we can't attack things that are doing more good thn harm. You want to dispute the horrible schools we have, then I'm right there with you. But if you want to attack the technology that people use to share knowledge and information, and if you want to attack peoples right to communicate, and if you want to attack peoples right to inform themselves, then you will create more anger and create many more problems. Millions of people have signed petitions already committing themselves to protecting the internet. We don't want to attack our ability to communicate just because some people ignorantly believe that is the cause of our problems. And because of the internet, you will not be able to hide that ignorance. So my suggestion. Help us improve education, help us improve life for every person on the planet. Help us improve the methods for informing the public so that people are more aware of their choices and options, so they become the masters of their own destinies, and not controlled by some outside ignorant behavior.

On Twitter, false information spreads six times faster than the truth and is far more likely to be shared around. Partly that’s because of the deliberate use of bots and fake accounts to help with the spreading. But it may also have something to do with the salaciousness of some fake news and how that appeals to people. Either way, it undermines trust and trust is hugely important if the web is to remain a viable platform going forward.

Citizens versus the internet: Confronting digital challenges with cognitive tools. Researchers recommend ways that psychological and behavioral sciences can help decrease the negative consequences of Internet use. These recommendations emphasize helping people gain greater control over their digital environments. Access to the Internet is essential for economic development, education, global communications, and countless other applications. For all its benefits, however, the Internet has a darker side. It has emerged as a conduit for spreading misinformation, stoking tensions, and promoting extremist ideologies. Yet there is hope.

albert einsteinThe Internet did not cause people to leave their religion or leave their church. Religions and churches failed to advance and progress at the same rate as technology did and at the same rate as human knowledge advanced. The good news is, religion still has time to catch up.

A personal computer that is connected to the internet is like having the greatest car in the world where you can travel to thousands of different places and learn all kinds of things. But most people don't know how to effectively use computers or use the internet. It's like seeing people who have the most expensive car in the world just drive in circles. They're not being productive and they're just driving in circles and going no where fast, and they don't even know it.

You're very bright and aware, keep learning...Einstein Essay

Related Subjects - Artificial Intelligence - Ai - Variables - Controls - Automation - Questions to ask Machines - Drones - There is No Future in War - Machine Learning - Search Technology - Algorithms - Scenarios - Vision - Patterns.

Do you need a computer chip implanted in your brain?

"If you are to benefit from someone's thinking, then you better give them time to think."

Previous Subject Up Top Page Next Subject

The Thinker Man