Food Safety

Safety is free from danger or the risk of harm. The state of being certain that adverse effects will not be caused by some agent under defined conditions. A device or service designed to prevent injury or accidents.

Food Poisoning Symptoms - Allergies - Contamination

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Food Safety High Five
The FDA inspects less than 2 percent of our seafood imports, while the European Union inspects 20 to 50 percent of theirs. Since 90 percent of our seafood comes from other countries, banned drug residues and unwanted contaminants could be getting in. There are no specific mandatory guidelines about the type of testing they have to do. No governing body is required to precheck nutritional labels for accuracy. It’s all self-policed. I think the only time the FDA would look at it would be if customers were complaining. Sad and alarming.

Negligence - Pesticides - Allergies - Factories

About 48 million people or 1 in 6 Americans get sick, 128,000 are hospitalized, and 3,000 die each year from foodborne diseases.

Food Safety Resources - Work Place Safety - Washing Hands

CDC - FDA Regulations - Meat - Food Preserving (expiration dates)

1 In 10 People Around The World Gets Sick From Food Every Year. 420,000 lives lost with One-third of all cases were in children.

Don’t Eat Foods from Cans that are Swollen, Dented or Corroded, even though the product may look safe to eat. Don't Eat any food that looks or smells abnormal, even if the can looks normal. Don't Let garbage accumulate inside living area, both for fire and sanitation reasons. Perishable Foods.

Food Contaminant refers to the presence in food of harmful chemicals and microorganisms which can cause consumer illness. This article addresses the chemical contamination of foods, as opposed to microbiological contamination, which can be found under foodborne illness. Contamination Types (wiki).

Cross-Contamination is how bacteria can spread. It occurs when juices from raw meats or germs from unclean objects touch cooked or ready-to-eat foods. By following a few simple steps as you shop, store, cook, and transport foods, you can greatly reduce your risk of food poisoning.

Washing Hands - Allergies - Containment - Additives - Food Labels

Fresh produce contaminated with toxic BPA-like chemicals found in food labels. BPA is banned in some countries but similar chemicals like BPS are still allowed. Steps were taken in Canada to reduce the use of Bisphenol A or BPA, a toxic chemical linked to prostate and breast cancer, commonly found in plastics, the lining of food cans, water bottles, and paper receipts. But in many cases, it has been replaced with similar hormone disrupting chemicals, like Bisphenol S or BPS. A new study shows that every day Canadians are exposed to BPS in the fresh foods they eat, as chemicals migrate from labels on the packaging materials into the food.

Foodborne illness is also referred to as food poisoning, is any illness resulting from the food spoilage of contaminated food, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, or parasites that contaminate food, as well as chemical or natural toxins such as poisonous mushrooms and various species of beans that have not been boiled for at least 10 minutes.

Traveler's Diarrhea is a stomach and intestinal infection. TD is defined as the passage of unformed stool (one or more by some definitions, three or more by others) while traveling.  It may be accompanied by abdominal cramps, nausea, fever, and bloating. Occasionally bloody diarrhea may occur. Most travelers recover within four days with little or no treatment. About 10% of people may have symptoms for a week.

Norovirus is the most common cause of viral gastroenteritis in humans. It affects people of all ages. The virus is transmitted by fecally contaminated food or water, by person-to-person contact, and via aerosolization of vomited virus and subsequent contamination of surfaces. Annually, norovirus is associated with 906,000 outpatient visits in industrialized countries, with 64,200 inpatient hospitalizations. In developing countries, it is associated with 1.1 million hospitalizations, with an estimated 218,000 deaths.

Eliminating viruses in our food with cranberries and citrus fruit. developed an edible coating based on cranberry juice and citrus extract that makes noroviruses more sensitive to gamma irradiation, making it possible to eliminate them while preserving the quality of food, all without risk to consumers.

Ergotism is poisoning produced by eating food affected by ergot, typically resulting in headache, vomiting, diarrhea, and gangrene of the fingers and toes. The purple club-headed fungus—that infects rye and other cereals, and more recently by the action of a number of ergoline-based drugs. Convulsive symptoms include painful seizures and spasms, diarrhea, paresthesias, itching, mental effects including mania or psychosis, headaches, nausea and vomiting. Usually the gastrointestinal effects precede central nervous system effects.

Global burden of Foodborne Diseases - Disease

Rot is a state of decay usually accompanied by an offensive odor. The process of decay caused by bacterial or fungal action. To break down and become physically weaker

Carrion is the dead and rotting body of an animal; unfit for human food. Roadkill (wiki)

Decay is a spontaneous disintegration and a gradual decrease of something into an inferior state or ruin.

Decomposition - Unsustainable - Ferment

Spoil is to cause damage and become unfit for consumption or use. Spoiled Brat.

Stale is when food is lacking freshness, palatability, or showing deterioration from age. Food that is no longer new and is hard, musty or dry and not pleasant to eat. Staling is a chemical and physical process in bread and other foods that reduces their palatability. Stale bread is dry and hard. Storage Tips.

Food Grade Container is a food-safe plastic container that the FDA has deemed appropriate for safe food storage. High-density polyethylene (HDPE plastic) Low-density polyethylene (LDPE plastic) Polyethylene terephthalate (PET/PETE).

Chemical Leeching. Plastic containers are widely used to store and serve edibles. In the production of some types of plastic, chemicals such as bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol S (BPS) are used. These chemicals leach from the plastic containers into the edibles, get access into the biological systems, and cause a toxic impact on health. Food Preserving.

Food Contact Materials are materials that are intended to be in contact with food. These can be things that are quite obvious like a glass, a can for soft drinks, but also machinery in a food factory or a coffee machine. Food contact materials can be constructed from a variety of materials like plastics, rubber, paper, coatings, metal etc. In many cases a combination is used; for example a carton box for juices can include (from the inside to the outside): plastic layer, aluminium, paper, printing and top coating. During the contact of the food contact materials with the food, molecules can migrate from the food contact material to the food. Because of this, in many countries regulations are made to ensure food safety.

Food Contact Materials and the Depopulation Program (youtube) - 175 Chemicals - Packaging enables food producers to by pass all food safety tests prior to packaging, by the time the food and drinks reach the consumers they are fully adulterated with poisons, which leach from the packaging containers into the food or drinks contained therein.

Researchers create coating solution for safer food storage. To combat bacteria that gets on food after it's farmed, two researchers have created a galvanized steel coating for food containers. Galvanized steel containers and surfaces are used for harvested produce because of their durability, strength and lower cost compared to stainless steel. However, bacteria residing in storage containers can cause corrosion. The new coating will reduce corrosion by at least 70 percent, researchers say.

Cooking Oil Coating prevents Bacteria from growing on Food Processing Equipment. Many foods produced on an industrial scale include raw ingredients mixed together in enormous stainless steel machines that can be difficult to clean. A research team proposes a simple new solution: trapping a thin layer of cooking oil at the metal surface to fill in microscopic scrapes, cracks and fissures and create a barrier to bacterial attachment. This solution resulted in a 1,000x reduction in bacterial levels inside the industrial machines tested.

Enterobacteriaceae Bacteria are a large family of Gram-negative bacteria that includes, along with many harmless symbionts, many of the more familiar pathogens, such as Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Yersinia pestis, Klebsiella, and Shigella.

Staphylococcus aureus is a gram-positive, round-shaped bacterium that is a member of the Firmicutes, and is frequently found in the nose, respiratory tract, and on the skin.

Escherichia Coli also known as E. coli, is a gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms). Most E. coli strains are harmless, but some serotypes can cause serious food poisoning in their hosts, and are occasionally responsible for product recalls due to food contamination.

E. Coli Mutation makes it Deadlier. Scientists describe how mutations resulting in the malformation of the lipopolysaccharide transporter -- an essential protein for bacterial growth-- caused a non-pathogenic Escherichia coli strain to become pathogenic.

Botulinum Toxin is a neurotoxic protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species. It prevents the release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine from axon endings at the neuromuscular junction and thus causes flaccid paralysis. Infection with the bacterium causes the disease botulism. The toxin is also used commercially in medicine, cosmetics and research. Botulinum is the most acutely lethal toxin known, with an estimated human median lethal dose (LD50) of 1.3–2.1 ng/kg intravenously or intramuscularly and 10–13 ng/kg when inhaled. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration requires a boxed warning stating that when locally administered the toxin may spread from the injection site to other areas of the body, causing botulism. The warning was the result of deaths associated with its uses. There are seven types of botulinum toxin, named type A–G. Type A and B are capable of causing disease in humans, and are also used commercially and medically. Types C–G are less common; types E and F can cause disease in humans, while the other types cause disease in other animals. Botulinum toxin types A and B are used in medicine to treat various muscle spasms and diseases characterized by overactive muscle. The commercial form is marketed under the brand name Botox, among others. Botox is made by Allergan.

Botulism is a rare and potentially fatal illness caused by a toxin, produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. The disease begins with weakness, trouble seeing, feeling tired, and trouble speaking. This may then be followed by weakness of the arms, chest muscles, and legs. The disease does not usually affect consciousness or cause a fever. Botulism can be spread several different ways. The bacterial spores which cause it are common in both soil and water. They produce the botulinum toxin when exposed to low oxygen levels and certain temperatures. Foodborne botulism happens when food containing the toxin is eaten. Infant botulism happens when the bacteria develops in the intestines and releases the toxin. This typically only occurs in children less than six months old, as protective mechanisms develop after that time. Wound botulism is found most often among those who inject street drugs. In this situation, spores enter a wound, and in the absence of oxygen, release the toxin. It is not passed directly between people. The diagnosis is confirmed by finding the toxin or bacteria in the person in question. Prevention is primarily by proper food preparation. The toxin, though not the organism, is destroyed by heating it to more than 85 °C (185 °F) for longer than 5 minutes. Honey can contain the organism, and for this reason, honey should not be fed to children under 12 months. Treatment is with an antitoxin. In those who lose their ability to breathe on their own, mechanical ventilation may be necessary for months. Antibiotics may be used for wound botulism. Death occurs in 5 to 10% of people. Botulism also affects many other animals. The word is from Latin, botulus, meaning sausage. Early descriptions of botulism date from at least as far back as 1793 in Germany.

Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33. Arsenic occurs in many minerals, usually in combination with sulfur and metals, but also as a pure elemental crystal. Arsenic is a metalloid. It has various allotropes, but only the gray form is important to industry. Treatment of chronic arsenic poisoning is possible. British anti-lewisite (dimercaprol) is prescribed in doses of 5 mg/kg up to 300 mg every 4 hours for the first day, then every 6 hours for the second day, and finally every 8 hours for 8 additional days.

Rancidification is the process which causes a substance to have unpleasant smell or taste. Rancidification can also detract from the nutritional value of food, and some vitamins are highly sensitive to degradation.

Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped (bacillus) gram-negative bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae family. The two species of Salmonella are Salmonella enterica and Salmonella bongori. Salmonella enterica is the type species and is further divided into six subspecies that include over 2,500 serotypes.

Food Poisoning - Food-Borne illness

All foods naturally contain small amounts of bacteria. But poor handling of food, improper cooking or inadequate storage can result in bacteria multiplying in large enough numbers to cause illness. Parasites, viruses, toxins and chemicals also can contaminate food and cause illness. Foodborne Illness  - Grossed Out.

Signs and Symptoms of Food Poisoning vary with the source of contamination, and whether you are dehydrated or have low blood pressure. Generally they include: Diarrhea, Nausea. Abdominal pain. Vomiting, Dehydration.

With significant Dehydration, you might feel:
Lightheaded or faint, especially on standing. A rapid heartbeat. Whether you become ill after eating contaminated food depends on the organism, the amount of exposure, your age and your health.

High-risk groups include:
Older adults. As you get older, your immune system may not respond as quickly and as effectively to infectious organisms as it once did. Infants and young children. Their immune systems haven't fully developed. People with chronic diseases. Having a chronic condition, such as diabetes or AIDS, or receiving chemotherapy or radiation therapy for cancer reduces your immune response.

If you develop Food Poisoning: Rest and drink plenty of liquids.

Generally, anti-diarrheal medications should be avoided because they may slow elimination of organisms or toxins from your system. If in doubt, check with your doctor about your particular situation. Infants or young children should not be given anti-diarrheal medications because of potentially serious side effects. Foodborne illness often improves on its own within 48 hours. Call your doctor if you think you have a foodborne illness and your symptoms have lasted longer than two or three days. Call immediately if blood appears in your stools.

Seek Emergency Medical Assistance if: You have severe symptoms, such as severe abdominal pain or watery diarrhea that turns very bloody within 24 hours. You belong to a high-risk group.

You suspect botulism poisoning. Botulism is a potentially fatal food poisoning that results from the ingestion of a toxin formed by certain spores in food. Botulism toxin is most often found in home-canned foods, especially green beans or tomatoes. Signs and symptoms of botulism usually begin 12 to 36 hours after eating the contaminated food and may include headache, blurred vision, muscle weakness and eventual paralysis. Some people also have nausea and vomiting, constipation, urinary retention, difficulty breathing, and dry mouth. These signs and symptoms require immediate medical attention.

Poisoning and Harmful Substances:
Establish what they have taken. When? And how much? Symptoms may vary. Throat and stomach pains, mouth burns, vomiting, drowsiness. Give water to dilute poison. Call Doctor.

American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) - Contact your local Poison Control Center: 1-800-222-1222

First Aid Tips

The Simpsons: Homer & The 10-ft. Moldy Sandwich (youtube) - From the episode "Selma's Choice", Homer decides to give a left over 10-ft sub a home, thus beginning an odyssey that doesn't end with mere mold and toxins.

Activated Charcoal as medication is a medication used to treat poisonings that occurred by mouth. To be effective it must be used within a short time of the poisoning occurring, typically an hour. It does not work for poisonings by cyanide, corrosive agents, iron, lithium, alcohols, or malathion. It may be taken by mouth or given by a nasogastric tube. Other uses include inside hemoperfusion machines. Common side effects include vomiting, black stools, diarrhea, and constipation. The more serious side effect, pneumonitis, may result if aspirated into the lungs. Use in pregnancy and breastfeeding is safe. Activated charcoal works by adsorbing the toxin. While charcoal has been used since ancient times for poisonings, activated charcoal has been used since the 1900s. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. The wholesale costs in the developing world is between US$0.46 and US$0.86 per dose. In the United States a course of treatment costs less than US$25. In cases of suspected poisoning, medical personnel administer activated carbon on the scene or at a hospital's emergency department. In rare situations, it may also be used in a hemoperfusion system to remove toxins from the blood stream of poisoned patients. Activated carbon has become the treatment of choice for many poisonings, and other decontamination methods such as ipecac-induced emesis or stomach pumping are now used rarely.

Allergic Reactions

Allergy is hypersensitivity reaction to a particular allergen. Symptoms can vary greatly in intensity.

Allergen is any substance that can cause an allergy.

Allergies are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to typically harmless substances in the environment. These diseases include hay fever, food allergies, atopic dermatitis, allergic asthma, and anaphylaxis. Symptoms may include red eyes, an itchy rash, sneezing, a runny nose, shortness of breath, or swelling. Food intolerances and food poisoning are separate conditions. Common allergens include pollen and certain food. Metals and other substances may also cause problems. Food, insect stings, and medications are common causes of severe reactions. Their development is due to both genetic and environmental factors. The underlying mechanism involves immunoglobulin E antibodies (IgE), part of the body's immune system, binding to an allergen and then to a receptor on mast cells or basophils where it triggers the release of inflammatory chemicals such as histamine. Diagnosis is typically based on a person's medical history. Further testing of the skin or blood may be useful in certain cases. Positive tests, however, may not mean there is a significant allergy to the substance in question. Early exposure to potential allergens may be protective. Treatments for allergies include avoiding known allergens and the use of medications such as steroids and antihistamines. In severe reactions injectable adrenaline (epinephrine) is recommended. Allergen immunotherapy, which gradually exposes people to larger and larger amounts of allergen, is useful for some types of allergies such as hay fever and reactions to insect bites. Its use in food allergies is unclear. Allergies are common. In the developed world, about 20% of people are affected by allergic rhinitis, about 6% of people have at least one food allergy, and about 20% have atopic dermatitis at some point in time. Depending on the country about 1–18% of people have asthma. Anaphylaxis occurs in between 0.05–2% of people. Rates of many allergic diseases appear to be increasing. The word "allergy" was first used by Clemens von Pirquet in 1906. Allergies (webmd).

Allergy Test can help confirm or rule out allergies and consequently reduce adverse reactions and limit unnecessary avoidance and medications. Correct allergy diagnosis, counseling and avoidance advice based on valid allergy test results is of utmost importance and can help reduce the incidence of symptoms, need for medications and improve quality of life. A healthcare provider can use the test results to identify the specific allergic triggers that may be contributing to the symptoms. Using this information, along with a physical examination and case history, the doctor can diagnose the cause of the symptoms and tailor treatments that will help the patient feel better. A negative result can help the doctor rule out allergies in order to consider other possibilities. Ruling out allergies is as important as confirming them to limit unnecessary avoidance, worry and negative social impact.

Pollen Count Forecast - Air Filtering - Food Fraud

Seasonal Allergies or Hay Fever or seasonal Allergic Rhinitis, are allergy symptoms that happen during certain times of the year, usually when outdoor molds release their spores, and trees, grasses, and weeds release tiny pollen particles into the air to fertilize other plants. Rhinitis is inflammation and swelling of the mucous membrane of the nose, characterized by a runny nose and stuffiness, which occurs when the immune system overreacts to allergens in the air or is usually caused by the common cold

Allergic Reactions can Include: Hives, Flushed skin or rash, Tingling or itchy sensation in the mouth, Face, tongue, or lip swelling, Vomiting and/or diarrhea, Abdominal cramps, Coughing or wheezing, Dizziness and/or lightheadedness, Swelling of the throat and vocal cords, Difficulty breathing, Drop in blood pressure.

Anaphylaxis is an acute allergic reaction to an antigen to which the body has become hypersensitive. Hypersensitivity reaction to the ingestion or injection of a substance like a protein or drug, resulting from prior contact with a substance. Bee Sting. Life-threatening anaphylaxis is a allergic reaction that can cause shock and a sudden drop in blood pressure and trouble breathing. In people who have an allergy, anaphylaxis can occur minutes after exposure to a specific allergy-causing substance (allergen). In some cases, there may be a delayed reaction or anaphylaxis may occur without an apparent trigger. If you're with someone having an allergic reaction with signs of anaphylaxis: Immediately call 911 or your local medical emergency number. Ask the person if he or she is carrying an epinephrine autoinjector (EpiPen, Auvi-Q, others) to treat an allergic attack. If the person says he or she needs to use an autoinjector, ask whether you should help inject the medication. This is usually done by pressing the autoinjector against the person's thigh. Have the person lie still on his or her back. Loosen tight clothing and cover the person with a blanket. Don't give the person anything to drink. If there's vomiting or bleeding from the mouth, turn the person on his or her side to prevent choking. If there are no signs of breathing, coughing or movement, begin CPR. Do uninterrupted chest presses — about 100 every minute — until paramedics arrive. Get emergency treatment even if symptoms start to improve. After anaphylaxis, it's possible for symptoms to recur. Monitoring in a hospital for several hours is usually necessary. If you're with someone having signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis, don't wait to see whether symptoms get better. Seek emergency treatment right away. In severe cases, untreated anaphylaxis can lead to death within half an hour. An antihistamine pill, such as diphenhydramine (Benadryl), isn't sufficient to treat anaphylaxis. These medications can help relieve allergy symptoms, but work too slowly in a severe reaction. Signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis include: Skin reactions, including hives, itching, and flushed or pale skin. Swelling of the face, eyes, lips or throat. Constriction of the airways, leading to wheezing and trouble breathing. A weak and rapid pulse. Nausea, vomiting or diarrhea. Dizziness, fainting or unconsciousness. Some common anaphylaxis triggers include: Medications. Foods such as peanuts, tree nuts, fish and shellfish. Insect stings from bees, yellow jackets, wasps, hornets and fire ants. If you've had any kind of severe allergic reaction in the past, ask your doctor if you should be prescribed an epinephrine autoinjector to carry with you.

Potential drivers of chronic allergic inflammation. A research team embarked on a quest to understand the diversity and cellular mechanisms of human Th2 cells. By conducting gene expression analyses of inflamed tissues, they pinpointed a subset of Th2 cells called Th2-MPP cells. Their findings suggested that these cells might serve as precursors to several crucial Th2 cell populations responsible for disease symptoms. These discoveries lay the groundwork for therapeutic interventions targeting these cells, potentially offering relief to patients living with allergic diseases. Currently, most therapies for allergic diseases require lifelong treatment. Allergic reactions, characterized by ongoing (type 2) inflammation in response to chronic antigen exposure, underlie many chronic diseases in humans, including asthma, atopic dermatitis, ulcerative colitis and more. T helper 2 (Th2) cells play an important role in the body's immune response, particularly in allergic reactions. Despite their central role, the sustained activity of Th2 cells during allergic reactions, even in the face of constant antigen exposure, has long puzzled researchers.

Food Allergy is an abnormal immune response to food. The signs and symptoms may range from mild to severe. They may include itchiness, swelling of the tongue, vomiting, diarrhea, hives, trouble breathing, or low blood pressure. This typically occurs within minutes to several hours of exposure. When the symptoms are severe, it is known as anaphylaxis. Food intolerance and food poisoning are separate conditions. Food and Nutrition.

National Allergy Center Asthma and Allergies - Mucus and Phlegm

Allergies (food) - First Aid

Peanuts are Legumes, which are edible seeds enclosed in pods, and are in the same family as beans, lentils, and peas. Proteins in peanuts are similar in structure to those in tree nuts. For this reason, people who are allergic to peanuts can also be allergic to tree nuts, such as almonds, Brazil nuts, walnuts, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pistachios, pecans, and cashews. An allergy to one tree nut does not necessarily mean an individual is allergic to other tree nuts. Although peanuts are a member of the legume family, your risk of being allergic to other legumes, such as soybeans, does not rise simply because you are allergic to peanuts.

The Current State of Oral Immunotherapy (OIT) for the Treatment of Food Allergy. Oral immunotherapy or oral desensitization for food allergies is a medical treatment guided by a board-certified allergist. Immunotherapy.

A drug that binds to allergy-causing antibodies can protect children. from dangerous reactions to accidentally eating allergy-triggering foods, a new study found. The drug limits dangerous reactions to allergy-triggering foods, Stanford Medicine-led study of kids finds.

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Leading research to understand, treat, and prevent infectious, immunologic, and allergic diseases.

Making wheat and peanuts less allergenic. Researchers are using plant breeding and biotechnology to remove proteins associated with food allergies. The United States Department of Agriculture identifies a group of "big eight" foods that causes 90% of food allergies. Among these foods are Eggs, Wheat, Soy, Tree Nuts, Peanuts, Cow’s milk, Fish and shellfish.

Asthma is a chronic lung disease that inflames and narrows the airways. Asthma causes recurring periods of wheezing (a whistling sound when you breathe), chest tightness, shortness of breath, and coughing. The coughing often occurs at night or early in the morning. Types of Asthma: Allergic asthma. Non-allergic asthma. Allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis. Aspirin-induced asthma. Adult-onset asthma. Asthma with fixed airflow obstruction. Exercise-induced asthma. Cough-variant asthma.

Around 25 million Americans have Asthma, and 10 people die from it every day. Most of these deaths can be prevented with access to medical care and education on how to properly manage the disease, along with healthy housing and clean air. But asthma is still one of the most chronic diseases in our nation. It also costs our society $82 billion a 100 metropolitan cities that are the most challenging to live in with asthma. Asthma Hot Spots. Decrepit houses, rodents and bugs can trigger asthma attacks. Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America. Some climates are better than others for asthma. If humid air is heavier and harder to breathe, the moisture in the humid air actually helps with the absorption of oxygen. On the other hand, many people with asthma experience asthma symptoms when the air is too dry (i.e. during the winter) because insufficient moisture can also lead to airway inflammation. Hot, humid weather creates a perfect environment for dust and mold. Thunderstorms may cause large amounts of pollen to be broken into smaller particles and carried in gusts of wind. If these are triggers for your asthma, living in a hot environment with high moisture levels may worsen your symptoms. Some people's asthma symptoms get worse at certain times of the year. For others, a severe storm or sudden weather change can trigger a flare-up. Cold, dry air is a common asthma trigger and can cause bad flare-ups. Hot, humid air also can be a problem.

Better understanding of how genes make us prone to allergies. New research is bolstering scientific understanding behind why some people are more prone to allergies than others. Researchers have identified how genetic differences that alter a specific protein called ETS1 can affect our body's response to allergies. They found that small changes in ETS1 in an animal model can lead to an increased likelihood for allergic reactions that cause inflammation. Slight alterations in ETS1 protein level can lead to allergic inflammation.

Alpha-Gal Syndrome is a serious, potentially life-threatening allergic condition. AGS is also called alpha-gal allergy, or red meat allergy, or tick bite meat allergy. AGS is not caused by an infection. AGS symptoms occur after people eat red meat or are exposed to other products containing alpha-gal.

Histamine is a chemical found in some of the body's cells - causes many of the symptoms of allergies, such as a runny nose or sneezing. When a person is allergic to a particular substance, such as a food or dust, the immune system mistakenly believes that this usually harmless substance is actually harmful to the body. Histamine is an organic nitrogenous compound involved in local immune responses communication, as well as regulating physiological functions in the gut and acting as a neurotransmitter for the brain, spinal cord, and uterus.

Wines with high Histamine Levels. High histamine levels in wine may indicate poorly-controlled winemaking and are often made responsible for intolerance reactions occurring in certain subjects after drinking wine. Grapes with thicker skins (such as those used to produce Tempranillo and Cabernet Sauvignon) will be higher in histamine. The best wines to opt for are those produced from white or black grapes. Red wines, in general, have a much higher concentration of histamine and are more likely to give you symptoms if you're someone who is sensitive. The most frequent reactions are intolerance reactions to sulfites, which occur particularly after the ingestion of white wine and in asthma patients, and to histamine and other biogenic amines, mainly after ingestion of red wine. Histamines that lead to allergy symptoms may also trigger inflammation in the chest. allergies cause a variety of symptoms, like chest pain, or coronary arterial spasm provoked by the release of histamine.

Coronary Artery Spasm is a temporary constriction of an artery in the heart. The spasm can slow or stop blood flow through the artery. The main symptom experienced is chest pain. The structure of blood vessel walls is important in the regulation of blood flow.

Angina is chest pain or discomfort caused when your heart muscle doesn't get enough oxygen-rich blood. It may feel like pressure or squeezing in your chest. The discomfort also can occur in your shoulders, arms, neck, jaw, abdomen or back. Angina pain may even feel like indigestion.


Ingredient is a substance that forms part of a mixture active ingredient is that part of a formulation that yields the effect expected by the customer. National laws usually require prepared food products to display a list of ingredients, and specifically require that certain additives be listed. Food Labels.

Active Ingredient is the ingredient that is biologically active. Biological Activity describes the beneficial or adverse effects of a drug on living matter. Active Ingredient is the ingredient in a pharmaceutical drug or pesticide that is biologically active. The similar terms active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and bulk active are also used in medicine, and the term active substance may be used for natural products. Some medication products may contain more than one active ingredient.

Inactive ingredients in pills and capsules may cause allergic, adverse reactions. Majority of oral medications available to consumers contain ingredients that can affect sensitive individuals. Approximately 45 percent of medications contained lactose and approximately 33 percent of medications contained a food dye. Inactive ingredients are components of a drug product that do not increase or affect the therapeutic action of the active ingredient, which is usually the active drug. Inactive ingredients are added during the manufacturing process of pharmaceutical products such as tablets, capsules, suppositories, and injections.

Dose in biochemistry is a quantity of something (chemical, physical, or biological) that may impact an organism biologically; the greater the quantity, the larger the dose.

Additives - Toxic Chemicals

Food Safety should also include unhealthy food. Unhealthy Food kills more people and creates more disease then foodborne illnesses. So we just don't want our food to be safe, we need our food to be healthy too.

Food Safety Resources - Food Safety News

Food Safety and Inspection Service employs more than 10,000 people who are tasked with ensuring the safety and proper labeling of U.S. meat, poultry and eggs. The agency’s No. 1 job is to protect consumers. Yet according to a compliance operations official who worked at FSIS for many years, internal corruption, mismanagement, low morale and undisguised conflicts-of-interest within the agency often prevent FSIS inspectors and investigators from doing their jobs. It’s a public health crisis “just waiting to happen. Food Safety and Inspection Service (wiki).

Restaurant Health Inspections In Your Area. Local public health departments regularly inspect businesses serving food to ensure restaurants and other food retail outlets are following safe food handling procedures. Local laws regulate how frequently these inspections take place, and what specific items the inspectors look for, but, in general, environmental health inspectors check that safeguards are in place to protect food from contamination by food handlers, cross-contamination, and contamination from other sources in the restaurant.

FDA Food Safety Modernization Act gives the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) new authorities to regulate the way foods are grown, harvested and processed. The law grants the FDA a number of new powers, including mandatory recall authority, which the agency has sought for many years. The FSMA requires the FDA to undertake more than a dozen rulemakings and issue at least 10 guidance documents, as well as a host of reports, plans, strategies, standards, notices, and other tasks. - Katom.

Global Food Safety Initiative is a private organization, established and managed by the international trade association, the Consumer Goods Forum under Belgian law in May 2000. The GFSI maintains a scheme to benchmark food safety standards for manufacturers as well as farm assurance standards.

USDA Department of Agriculture
FDA Food & Drug Administration
International Food Safety &Quality Network

The Food Trust
Your Food Is Poisoning You
Food Safety News
Center for Food Safety
Public Health and Safety
Produce Safety Project
Food Integrity Now
Slow Food USA
Sustainable Table
Cool Foods Campaign
Food Policy Research
Food Borne Illness
Food Poison Journal
Antimicrobial Monitoring - PDF


Keep Foods Apart - Cross Contamination

Food Inspector Tool

Scio is a Pocket Molecular Sensor that Tells You What's Really in the Food like calories, and sugar and fat.

New technique can detect impurities in ground beef within minutes

Food Preserving - Expiration Dates of Food

Center for the Science in the
Public Interest
Consumer Federation of America
Center for Health, Environment & Justice

Food Labels

New Leaf Foods (Smart Wash)
Ca. Leafy Greens

Food Pesticide List
Public Health Advocacy
Moms Rising

Science Shows The 5-Second Rule is Real Most of the Time (youtube)

Factory Farms Abuses

Factory Farming is a modern form of intensive farming that refers to the keeping of livestock, such as cattle, poultry (including in "battery cages") and fish at higher stocking densities than is usually the case with other forms of animal agriculture—a practice typical in industrial farming by agribusinesses. The main products of this industry are meat, milk and eggs for human consumption. There are issues regarding whether factory farming is sustainable and ethical. Small Farms.

Factory Farms Map - Info-Graph (image)

Use of antibiotics in animals contribute to 23,000 American human deaths a year. - Pandemics.

A River of Waste (youtube) - Earthlings (youtube) Joaquin Phoenix - Website

Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations is an animal feeding operation (AFO) that (a) confines animals for more than 45 days during a growing season, (b) in an area that does not produce vegetation, and (c) meets certain size thresholds.

Compassion over Killing.
Factory Farming Sanctuary.
Supermarket Secrets (youtube)

Ag-gag attacks Free Speech. Ag-Gag is a term used to describe a class of anti-whistleblower laws that apply within the agriculture industry. Judge Strikes Down Idaho 'Ag-Gag' Law (npr).

It takes 2,500 gallons of water, 12 pounds of grain, 35 pounds of topsoil and the energy equivalent of one gallon of gasoline to produce one pound of feedlot beef. It takes more than 2,400 gallons of water to produce just 1 pound of meat. Only 25 gallons of water are required to grow 1 pound of wheat. You will need around 2,800 pounds of corn to produce an animal that weighs 1,250 to 1,350 pounds.

Pfiesteria is a genus of heterotrophic dinoflagellates that has been associated with harmful algal blooms and fish kills.

Europe Bans Chlorine Chicken

Poultry Farming is the process of raising domesticated birds such as chickens, ducks, turkeys and geese for the purpose of farming meat or eggs for food. Poultry - mostly chickens - are farmed in great numbers. Farmers raise more than 50 billion chickens annually as a source of food, both for their meat and for their eggs. Chickens raised for eggs are usually called layers while chickens raised for meat are often called broilers.

Broiler is any chicken that is bred and raised specifically for meat production.

Extensive Farming is an agricultural production system that uses small inputs of labour, fertilizers, and capital, relative to the land area being farmed. Relys heavily on industrial methods are often called industrial agriculture.

Intensive Animal Farming is a production approach towards farm animals in order to maximize production output, while minimizing production costs. Intensive livestock farming or "factory farming", is the process of raising livestock in confinement at high stocking density. intensive livestock operations", can hold large numbers (some up to hundreds of thousands) of cows, hogs, turkeys, or chickens, often indoors. Food and water is delivered to the animals, and therapeutic use of antimicrobial agents, vitamin supplements, and growth hormones are often employed.

Intensive Farming Increases Risk of Epidemics. Overuse of antibiotics, high animal numbers and low genetic diversity caused by intensive farming techniques increase the likelihood of pathogens becoming a major public health risk, according to new research led by UK scientists. Campylobacter facts: Causes bloody diarrhea in humans. Transferred to humans from eating contaminated meat and poultry. Although not as dangerous as typhoid, cholera or E.coli, it causes serious illness in patients with underlying health issues and can cause lasting damage. Around 1 in 7 people suffer from an infection at some point in their life. Causes three times more cases than E.coli, Salmonella and listeria combined. Carried in the faeces of chickens, pigs, cattle and wild animals. Campylobacter is estimated to be present in the faeces of 20% cattle worldwide. The bug is very resistant to antibiotics due to their use in farming. Livestock.

Feedlot or feed yard is a type of animal feeding operation which is used in intensive animal farming, notably beef cattle, but also swine, horses, sheep, turkeys, chickens or ducks, prior to slaughter. Large beef feedlots are called concentrated animal feeding operations in the United States and intensive livestock operations or confined feeding operations in Canada. They may contain thousands of animals in an array of pens. The basic principle of the feedlot is to increase the amount of fat gained by each animal as quickly as possible; if animals are kept in confined quarters rather than being allowed to range freely over grassland, they will gain weight more quickly and efficiently with the added benefit of economies of scale. This is the same reason why most people are fat and obese.

Communities in Texas are being choked by fecal dust from nearby feedlots. People living in feedlot hot spots experience some of the highest levels of asthma in the state. The Texas Panhandle is cattle-feeding country. Roughly 88% of the approximately 2.5 million cattle on feed in Texas at any one time are concentrated in 10 counties within about a 120-mile radius of Amarillo. Texas Panhandle is where cattle outnumber people 40 to 1. In the Texas Panhandle, which produces a fifth of the U.S. beef supply, communities are being choked by fecal dust from nearby feedlots. The state’s regulatory agency isn’t doing anything about it—and it’s about to get a whole lot worse. The health risks associated with breathing ammonia and particulate matter—both of which are byproducts of cow manure—are significant and well-documented. Ammonia is a key contributor to regional haze and can cause coughing and difficulty breathing; particulate matter is one of six major pollutants regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency—the tiny fragments can penetrate deep into the lungs and even the bloodstream. Exposure to particulate matter can cause asthma, an irregular heartbeat, difficulty breathing, and premature death in people with heart or lung disease. Hydrogen sulfide, which can impair a person’s respiratory and nervous systems, can also form as manure decomposes. A sizable body of research indicates that living in close proximity to concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), including feedlots, can cause or exacerbate health problems. Another primary environmental risk from improper closure of feedlots is seepage of nitrate nitrogen to ground water. This can occur from open lots or from manure-storage facilities that have not been emptied.

Managing heat stress in feedlot cattle.

Nonfood Crop is a crop grown to produce goods for manufacturing, for example fibre for clothing, rather than food for consumption.

Ractopamine is a feed additive to promote leanness in animals raised for their meat.

Livestock's long shadow: environmental issues and options.

Vegetarian Diet - Organic Food

Monoculture (food diseases and blight)

Some farmers are suckered into factory farming by manufactures who overstate the profits without explaining the real costs to the environment and the damage to human health.

Artifishal (film) - Fish hatcheries and fish farms are causing wild fish to die. This a vulnerability because the eco-system losses its ability to adapt, which means mass extinction and a collapse of a system that has been self sustaining for thousands of years. Fish hatcheries and fish farms need total rethinking. If it is doing more harm than good, than it's bad and it should not be allowed to continue. fish hatcheries and fish farms can only be allowed to operate when they have proven that they are doing more good than harm.

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