Food Preserving Tips - Food Storage Tips - Food Shopping Tips


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Food Preservation is to prevent the growth of bacteria, fungi (such as yeasts), or other micro-organisms (although some methods work by introducing benign bacteria or fungi to the food), as well as slowing the oxidation of fats that cause rancidity. Food preservation may also include processes that inhibit visual deterioration, such as the enzymatic browning reaction in apples after they are cut during food preparation. Many processes designed to preserve food will involve a number of food preservation methods. Preserving fruit by turning it into jam, for example, involves boiling (to reduce the fruit’s moisture content and to kill bacteria, etc.), sugaring (to prevent their re-growth) and sealing within an airtight jar (to prevent recontamination). Some traditional methods of preserving food have been shown to have a lower energy input and carbon footprint, when compared to modern methods. Some methods of food preservation are known to create carcinogens. In 2015, the International Agency for Research on Cancer of the World Health Organization classified processed meat, i.e. meat that has undergone salting, curing, fermenting, and smoking, as "carcinogenic to humans". Maintaining or creating nutritional value, texture and flavor is an important aspect of food preservation.

Preserve is to keep or maintain in unaltered condition and cause to remain or last. To keep in safety and protect from harm, decay, loss, or destruction. To keep up and reserve for personal use or special use. To prevent food from rotting. To maintain in safety from injury, harm, or danger.

Conserve is to keep in safety and protect from harm, decay, loss, or destruction. Fruit preserved by cooking with sugar. Keep constant through physical or chemical reactions or evolutionary change.

Reserve is to hold back or set aside, especially for future use or contingency. Arrange for and reserve something for someone else in advance. Something kept back or saved for future use or a special purpose.

Fermentation - Preserving - Reduce Food Waste - Shelf Life - Food Preserving Survival Tips - Food Safety



Refrigeration Tips


Refrigerator Refrigerator and storage containers should be kept clean to avoid bacteria or contamination. Make sure the refrigerator is set to 40 F or cooler (5 C). Don't over stock refrigerators, or food draws, or food containers, because packing food to tightly will prevent cool air from circulating.

Reducing Food Waste - Root Cellars - Storing Tips

Using glass containers will help you see what's inside, especially leftovers.

Depending on the type of refrigerator, The top self may be the coldest area or the warmest area in the fridge.

The warmest part of the frige compartment is best for pre-prepared foods such as yogurt, cheese and sauces.

Store cooked meat and leftovers in sealed containers on the middle shelves. If there’s space, keep milk here too – it’ll keep for longer than it would in the door rack where it’s warmed by hot air whenever the door is opened.

Door Racks – The temperature in the door racks can fluctuate because they’re exposed to the warm air of the kitchen when the door is opened. The door racks are a good place for condiments, jam and fruit juice. A lidded compartment is ideal for keeping butter and margarine extra cold.

Refrigeration Diagram The coldest part of the fridge, keep raw meat, fish and poultry in its sealed packaging, or place it in sealed containers and store on the bottom shelf. Plus there’s less risk of raw juices dripping onto ready-to-eat foods. Food Storage Tips.

Salad Crisper Drawer – Store fruit and vegetables in the salad crisper drawer. Some come with humidity controls to retain moisture which will help certain vegetables, such as lettuce, cucumber, cauliflower, broccoli, beans, carrots and leafy veg, last longer. Line the bottom of your refrigerator’s crisper drawer with small towels. They’ll absorb the excess moisture that causes veggies to rot. 

Best Way To Keep Greens Fresh is the Bath Towel Method. Prepare your greens by cutting them into bite-sized pieces, washing them in a group all together, and then shaking off the excess water in a salad spinner. Then spread the greens out on clean bath towels to air dry for a few hours. When you're ready to store the greens, simply roll the towels up with the greens inside. The rolls are secured with rubber bands and stored in the bottom shelf of the fridge. Each day you can unroll just enough greens for your salads and then bundle them up again. The absorbent towels do a great job of keeping the greens moist but not damp so they stay fresh and crispy all week long. Veggies.

Humidity Setting. For the low humidity setting the window is completely open; for the high humidity setting it is completely closed.

Low Humidity. Put things that tend to rot in a drawer with a low humidity setting. Low Humidity Drawer should contain Produce not sensitive to moisture loss. Like apples, avocados, bananas (ripe), cantaloupes, figs, honeydews, kiwis, mangoes, papayas, pears, plantains, stone fruits (apricots, nectarines, peaches, plums).

High Humidity. Produce is sensitive to moisture loss. Produce is sensitive to ethylene gas. Leafy greens like arugula, spinach, and herbs. By having the window closed, water vapor is held in the drawer and the moisture keeps the greens crisper and fresher longer. Keeping fruits and vegetables that are sensitive to ethylene gas, like strawberries, in this drawer will also keep them away from ethylene producers. High Humidity, bananas (unripe), Belgian endive, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, carrots, cauliflower, cucumbers, eggplant, green beans, herbs, (cilantro, dill, parsley, thyme), leafy greens (kale, lettuces, spinach, Swiss chard, watercress) okra, peas, peppers, strawberries, summer squash, watermelon.

Forever Green Bag preserves food longer by absorbing the ethylene gas that produce gives off, and finally spoils it.

Evert Fresh Green Bags extend the life of fresh produce 3 to 10 times longer without chemicals in the bag and helps preserve produce freshness. Special non-chemical properties infused into the bag naturally absorb gases that fruits and vegetables produce. These minerals are found in remote Japan caves and were discovered years ago to retard ripening when the food was stored in the caves. The bags are made in the USA. Do not combine different produce in same bag. Do not pack produce tightly. Do not put fruits that need ripening into the bag as they will stay green.

Freezer units are used in households and in industry and commerce. Food stored at or below −18 °C (0 °F) is safe indefinitely. Most household freezers maintain temperatures from −23 to −18 °C (−9 to 0 °F), although some freezer-only units can achieve −34 °C (−29 °F) and lower. Refrigerators generally do not achieve lower than −23 °C (−9 °F), since the same coolant loop serves both compartments: Lowering the freezer compartment temperature excessively causes difficulties in maintaining above-freezing temperature in the refrigerator compartment. Domestic freezers can be included as a separate compartment in a refrigerator, or can be a separate appliance. Domestic freezers are generally upright units resembling refrigerators or chests (upright units laid on their backs). Many modern upright freezers come with an ice dispenser built into their door. Some upscale models include thermostat displays and controls, and sometimes flat screen televisions as well.

Why Refreezing Food is Bad?

Is It Safe to Refreeze Raw Meat and Poultry that Has Thawed? Once food is thawed in the refrigerator, it is safe to refreeze it without cooking, although there may be a loss of quality due to the moisture lost through thawing. When water molecules escape from your frozen food, it is also possible for oxygen molecules to seep in. The oxygen molecules can dull the color and modify the flavor of your frozen product. Food that has freezer burn is safe to eat, but you may find the texture and taste not to your liking.

Freezer Burn is a condition that occurs when frozen food has been damaged by dehydration and oxidation, due to air reaching the food. It is generally caused by food not being securely wrapped in air-tight packaging. Freezer burn appears as grayish-brown leathery spots on frozen food, and occurs when air reaches the food's surface and dries the product. Color changes result from chemical changes in the food's pigment. Freezer burn does not make the food unsafe; it merely causes dry spots in foods. The food remains usable and edible, but removing the freezer burns will improve the taste. Freezer burn is a condition in which frozen food has been exposed to air. When food is frozen, water molecules in the food turn into ice crystals. These ice crystals then migrate to the surface of the food, which is why you often see mounds of ice on your frozen foods. Ice recrystallization damages and destroys organic cells – the smallest living units found in animals and plants. It is just as much a problem when storing harvested food crops or biomedical research materials – like cell cultures – as it is for storing frozen pizza or peas, and can lead to a lot of waste. The food industry uses “blast freezing” to avoid formation of large ice crystals in frozen food. This process involves exposing foods very quickly to a low temperature and a high rate of air movement, which causes the food to freeze into a mass of numerous small crystals. Small crystals are much less damaging to frozen matter than large ones. The problem starts after these foods are moved to regular freezers for storage, including home freezers. The automatic defrost function in such units involves turning the compressor on and off several times a day, lowering and raising the temperature to prevent ice buildup. This fluctuation partially melts the ice in the food and then re-freezes it, a process that may create larger and more damaging ice crystals. These changes can make food at best unpalatable – who hasn’t endured eating freezer-burned vegetables or a watery, thawed strawberry? – and at worst unusable.

Freeze Drying - Food Storage Tips

Fridge Stinks. Wipe down fixed parts with a cloth dampened with soapy water and vinegar. Dry all surfaces thoroughly and place everything back in the fridge. Leave an open container of baking soda in the fridge to absorb refrigerator smell for at least 24 hours or change the baking soda or coffee grounds every two to three days until the odors are absorbed. Throw away the baking soda or coffee once it completes its job.

Why are refrigerator doors sometimes hard to open? Since cold air takes up less space than warm air, a negative pressure or a suction vacuum results. This can make the door very difficult to open until the negative pressure is relieved. The cooling of the gas causes a reduction in pressure inside the freezer, resulting in a partial vacuum that makes the door more difficult to open.
Air inside a fridge or freezer shrinks or contracts as it gets colder. This can sometimes create suction, which makes opening the door difficult. If the door is closed quickly or slammed shut, air will be forced out and it may take several minutes for the vacuum to be released, after which the door can be opened normally.



Food Shelf Life


Shelf Life the length of time for which an item remains usable, fit for consumption, or saleable. Shelf life is the length of time that a commodity may be stored without becoming unfit for use, consumption, or sale.

Sell by - Use by - Best by. These terms and their many variations have probably caused you to toss perfectly good food just because the date on the label has passed. “Sell by.” “Use by.” “Best by.” These terms and their many variations have probably caused you to toss perfectly good food just because the date on the label has passed.

Still Tasty Shelf Life Guide - Food Expiration Dates - Eat by Date

Leftovers Last How Long? (PDF) - Food Product Dating

Find when your favorite fruits and vegetables are at their peak of ripeness

Perishable is food that will decay rapidly if not refrigerated. Non-Perishable.

Detecting food spoilage with optical sensor - Food Safety

What is the difference between Peak Quality and the Expiration Date?

The Difference Between 'Best By,' 'Sell By' And 'Expires On' (youtube)

Refed - H.R.5298 - Food Date Labeling Act of 2016

Food Safety -
Food Labels Explained

Pantry is a small storeroom for storing foods or wines.

Storeroom or Storage is a room in which things are stored.

Stored or Storing is a place to keep things safe or to lay aside for future use. To put things away for storage or safekeeping.

Cabinet is a storage compartment with doors and shelves and drawers.

Shelf is a flat horizontal plane which is used in a home, business, store, or elsewhere to hold items that are being displayed, stored, or offered for sale. It is raised off the ground and usually anchored/supported on its shorter length sides by brackets. It can also be held up by columns or pillars. A shelf is also known as a counter, ledge, mantel, or rack. Tables designed to be placed against a wall, possibly mounted, are known as console tables, and are similar to individual shelves.

Cupboard is a cabinet or small recess with a door and typically shelves, used for storage.

Cubby is a small secluded room. Cubbyhole is a small compartment.

Locker is a storage compartment for clothes and valuables; usually it has a lock.

Closet is an enclosed space used for storage, particularly that of clothes.

Compartment is an area or space that is subdivided or partitioned section, chamber, or separate room within a larger enclosed area.



Food Preserving


food preserving jars Pickling s the process of preserving or expanding the lifespan of food by either anaerobic fermentation in brine or immersion in vinegar. The resulting food is called a pickle, or, to prevent ambiguity, prefaced with the adjective pickled. The pickling procedure will typically affect the food's texture and flavor. In East Asia, vinaigrette (vegetable oil and vinegar) is also used as a pickling medium. Foods that are pickled include meats, fruits, eggs, and vegetables. Another distinguishing characteristic is a pH of 4.6 or lower, which is sufficient to kill most bacteria. Pickling can preserve perishable foods for months. Antimicrobial herbs and spices, such as mustard seed, garlic, cinnamon or cloves, are often added. If the food contains sufficient moisture, a pickling brine may be produced simply by adding dry salt. For example, German sauerkraut and Korean kimchi are produced by salting the vegetables to draw out excess water. Natural fermentation at room temperature, by lactic acid bacteria, produces the required acidity. Other pickles are made by placing vegetables in vinegar. Unlike the canning process, pickling (which includes fermentation) does not require that the food be completely sterile before it is sealed. The acidity or salinity of the solution, the temperature of fermentation, and the exclusion of oxygen determine which microorganisms dominate, and determine the flavor of the end product. When both salt concentration and temperature are low, Leuconostoc mesenteroides dominates, producing a mix of acids, alcohol, and aroma compounds. At higher temperatures Lactobacillus plantarum dominates, which produces primarily lactic acid. Many pickles start with Leuconostoc, and change to Lactobacillus with higher acidity.

Mason Jar is a molded glass jar used in home canning to preserve food. The jar's mouth has a screw thread on its outer perimeter to accept a metal ring (or "band"). The band, when screwed down, presses a separate stamped aluminium disc-shaped lid against the jar's rim. An integral rubber ring on the underside of the lid creates a hermetic seal. The bands and lids usually come with new jars, but they are also sold separately. While the bands are reusable, the lids are intended for single use when canning.

Infinity Jars are premium glass jars and containers ultraviolet glass maintain the optimum freshness.

Perfect Pickler - Fresh Preserving

Canning is a method of preserving food in which the food contents are processed and sealed in an airtight container. Canning provides a shelf life typically ranging from one to five years, although under specific circumstances it can be much longer. A freeze-dried canned product, such as canned dried lentils, could last as long as 30 years in an edible state.

Canning - Canning Recipes

Canning And Preserving Food (youtube)

Vacuum Packing is a method of packaging that removes air from the package prior to sealing. This method involves (manually or automatically) placing items in a plastic film package, removing air from inside, and sealing the package. Shrink film is sometimes used to have a tight fit to the contents. The intent of vacuum packing is usually to remove oxygen from the container to extend the shelf life of foods and, with flexible package forms, to reduce the volume of the contents and package. Vacuum packing reduces atmospheric oxygen, limiting the growth of aerobic bacteria or fungi, and preventing the evaporation of volatile components. It is also commonly used to store dry foods over a long period of time, such as cereals, nuts, cured meats, cheese, smoked fish, coffee, and potato chips (crisps). On a more short term basis, vacuum packing can also be used to store fresh foods, such as vegetables, meats, and liquids, because it inhibits bacterial growth. Vacuum packing greatly reduces the bulk of non-food items. For example, clothing and bedding can be stored in bags evacuated with a domestic vacuum cleaner or a dedicated vacuum sealer. This technique is sometimes used to compact household waste, for example where a charge is made for each full bag collected. Vacuum packaging products, using plastic bags, canisters, bottles, or mason jars, are available for home use. For delicate food items which might be crushed by the vacuum packing process (such as potato chips), an alternative is to replace the interior gas with nitrogen. This has the same effect of inhibiting deterioration due to the removal of oxygen.

Vacuum Sealed Containers - VacuumClicka - World's Best Portable Vacuum Gadget

Best Food Storage Containers - Pyrex Storage 10-Piece

Reusable Food Containers - Reusable Containers - Take-Out

Curing Food Preservation is any of various food preservation and flavoring processes of foods such as meat, fish and vegetables, by the addition of combinations of salt, nitrates, nitrites, or sugar, with the aim of drawing moisture out of the food by the process of osmosis. Many curing processes also involve smoking, spicing, or cooking. Dehydration was the earliest form of food curing. Because curing increases the solute concentration in the food and hence decreases its water potential, the food becomes inhospitable for the microbe growth that causes food spoilage. Curing can be traced back to antiquity, and was the primary way of preserving meat and fish until the late 19th century. Nitrates and nitrites, in conjunction with salt, are one of the most common agents in curing meat because they further inhibit the growth of Clostridium botulinum. They also contribute to the characteristic pink color. Drying Food - Fermentation.

Freeze-Drying also known as lyophilisation or cryodesiccation, is a low temperature dehydration process which involves freezing the product, lowering pressure, then removing the ice by sublimation. This is in contrast to dehydration by most conventional methods that evaporate water using heat. Freeze drying results in a high quality product because of the low temperature used in processing. The original shape of the product is maintained and quality of the rehydrated product is excellent. Primary applications of freeze drying include biological (e.g. bacteria and yeasts), biomedical (e.g. surgical transplants), and food processing (e.g. coffee) and preservation.

Frozen Food preserves it from the time it is prepared to the time it is eaten. Since early times, farmers, fishermen, and trappers have preserved their grains and produce in unheated buildings during the winter season. Freezing food slows down decomposition by turning residual moisture into ice, inhibiting the growth of most bacterial species. In the food commodity industry, there are two processes: mechanical and cryogenic (or flash freezing). The freezing kinetics is important to preserve the food quality and texture. Quicker freezing generates smaller ice crystals and maintains cellular structure. Cryogenic freezing is the quickest freezing technology available due to the ultra low liquid nitrogen temperature −196 °C (−320 °F). Preserving food in domestic kitchens during the 20th and 21st centuries is achieved using household freezers. Accepted advice to householders was to freeze food on the day of purchase.

Frozen Vegetables are vegetables that have had their temperature reduced and maintained to below their freezing point for the purpose of storage and transportation (often for far longer than their natural shelf life would permit) until they are ready to be eaten. They may be commercially packaged or frozen at home.

Retort Pouch is a type of food packaging made from a laminate of flexible plastic and metal foils. It allows the sterile packaging of a wide variety of food and drink handled by aseptic processing, and is used as an alternative to traditional industrial canning methods. Packaged foods range from water to fully cooked, thermo-stabilized (heat-treated) high-caloric (1,300 kcal on average) meals such as Meals, Ready-to-Eat (MREs) which can be eaten cold, warmed by submersing in hot water, or through the use of a flameless ration heater, a meal component introduced by the military in 1992. Retort pouches are used in field rations, space food, camping food, and brands such as Capri Sun and Tasty Bite. Some varieties have a bottom gusset and are known as Stand-Up Pouches.

Food Safety

Edipeel is a Natural Postharvest Protection, a micro-thin, invisible peel that protects the delicate surface of fruit, reducing oxidation and water loss that cause produce to shrivel and lose flavor.

Keep Food Produce Fresh Longer - 37 Tips for Keeping Food Fresh Longer - 27-ways

How to Make Crushed Red Pepper from Garden Cayenne Peppers (youtube)

RF Technology kills bugs and pathogens in food.

Blue LED's as a chemical-free method to kill bacteria that lead to spoilage.

Non-Perishable Foods have a long shelf life and don’t require refrigeration. Most dry goods are non-perishable like pasta, oatmeal and rice. Ready.gov, Ready-to-eat canned meats, fruits, vegetables and a can opener. Protein or fruit bars, dry cereal or granola, Peanut butter, Dried fruit, Canned juices, Non-perishable pasteurized milk, High energy foods, Food for infants.

Meals Ready to Eat (MRE)

Silo is a cylindrical tower used for storing silage, which is fodder harvested while green and kept succulent by partial fermentation as in a silo.

Fodder is a coarse food, especially for livestock, composed of entire plants or the leaves and stalks of a cereal crop.

Postharvest is the stage of crop production immediately following harvest, including cooling, cleaning, sorting and packing. The instant a crop is removed from the ground, or separated from its parent plant, it begins to deteriorate. Postharvest treatment largely determines final quality, whether a crop is sold for fresh consumption, or used as an ingredient in a processed food product.

Controlled Atmosphere Storage Rooms, control the temperature, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and humidity levels are adjusted to form hospitable hibernation environments for apples being stored after harvest. The perfect combination of temperature and gases, which differs for each variety, allows apples to stay fresh for longer after harvest than if they were simply refrigerated. Commercially refrigerating apples only preserves the fruit for a few months before it gets soft and dehydrated. And just keeping them in your home refrigerator? They'll likely only stay fresh for a few weeks.

Controlled Atmosphere is an agricultural storage method in which the concentrations of oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen, as well as the temperature and humidity of a storage room are regulated. Both dry commodities and fresh fruit and vegetables can be stored in controlled atmospheres.

A 'bran' new way to preserve healthy food with natural ingredients. A natural antioxidant found in grain bran could preserve food longer and replace synthetic antioxidants currently used by the food industry, according to researchers. The Penn State researchers studied a class of compounds called alkylresorcinols (AR). Plants such as wheat, rye and barley produce ARs naturally to prevent mold, bacteria and other organisms from growing on the grain kernels. Along with using more natural ingredients, the food industry is also supplementing more foods with healthy oils rich in omega-3 fatty acids. Adding these healthy oils to foods that normally would not contain them could boost the health benefits of these foods to consumers. However, omega-3 rich oils have a shorter shelf life, which could cause these foods to spoil more rapidly. Antioxidants are compounds that slow the rate at which omega-3 fatty acids degrade, preserving their health benefits and preventing food from spoiling as quickly. While consumers demand more natural ingredients, the food industry has struggled to find natural antioxidants that are as effective as synthetic ones.

420,000 to 200,000 years ago, prehistoric humans at Qesem Cave near Tel Aviv, preserved the bone along with the skin from hunted animal carcasses for a period that could last for many weeks. This enabled early humans to break the bone when necessary and eat the still nutritious bone marrow.



Food Sterilization


Aseptic Processing is a processing technique wherein commercially thermally sterilized liquid products are packaged into previously sterilized containers under sterile conditions to produce shelf-stable products that do not need refrigeration. Aseptic processing has almost completely replaced in-container sterilization of liquid foods, including milk, fruit juices and concentrates, cream, yogurt, salad dressing, liquid egg, and ice cream mix. There has been an increasing popularity for foods that contain small discrete particles, such as cottage cheese, baby foods, tomato products, fruit and vegetables, soups, and rice desserts. Aseptic processing involves three primary steps: thermal sterilization of the product, sterilization of the packaging material, and conservation of sterility during packaging. To ensure commercial sterility, aseptic processing facilities are required to maintain proper documentation of production operations, showing that commercially sterile conditions were achieved and maintained in all areas of the facility. Any breach of a scheduled process for the processing or packaging system means that the affected product must be destroyed, reprocessed or segregated and held for further evaluation. In addition, the processing and packaging system must be cleaned and re-sterilized before processing and/or packaging operations can resume. Packaging equipment and packaging materials are sterilized with various medium or combination of mediums (i.e., saturated steam, superheated steam, hydrogen peroxide and heat and other treatments). Aseptically Filtered is a sterilizing filtration process of removing microorganisms from a fluid stream without adversely affecting product. ▪ Demonstrate removal of a standard test organism (Brevundimonas diminuta). Analytical Chemistry.

Sterilization refers to any process that removes, kills, or deactivates all forms of life (in particular referring to microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, spores, unicellular eukaryotic organisms such as Plasmodium, etc.) and other biological agents like prions present in a specific surface, object or fluid, for example food or biological culture media. Sterilization can be achieved through various means, including heat, chemicals, irradiation, high pressure, and filtration. Sterilization is distinct from disinfection, sanitization, and pasteurization, in that those methods reduce rather than eliminate all forms of life and biological agents present. After sterilization, an object is referred to as being sterile or aseptic.

Pasteurization is a process in which packaged and non-packaged foods (such as milk and fruit juice) are treated with mild heat, usually to less than 100 °C (212 °F), to eliminate pathogens and extend shelf life. The process is intended to destroy or deactivate organisms and enzymes that contribute to spoilage or risk of disease, including vegetative bacteria, but not bacterial spores.

Food Irradiation is the process of exposing foodstuffs to ionizing radiation. Ionizing radiation is energy that can be transmitted without direct contact to the source of the energy (radiation) capable of freeing electrons from their atomic bonds (ionization) in the targeted food. This treatment is used to preserve food, reduce the risk of food borne illness, prevent the spread of invasive pests, and delay or eliminate sprouting or ripening. Irradiated food does not become radioactive. The radiation can be emitted by a radioactive substance or generated electrically. Irradiation is also used for non-food applications, such as medical devices.

Ultra-High-Temperature Processing sterilizes food by heating it above 135 °C (275 °F) – the temperature required to kill spores in milk – for 1 to 2 seconds. UHT is most commonly used in milk production, but the process is also used for fruit juices, cream, soy milk, yogurt, wine, soups, honey, and stews. UHT milk was first developed in the 1960s and became generally available for consumption in the 1970s.



Drying Food


Drying Food is a method of food preservation in which food is dried (dehydrated or desiccated). Drying inhibits the growth of bacteria, yeasts, and mold through the removal of water. Dehydration has been used widely for this purpose since ancient times; the earliest known practice is 12,000 B.C. by inhabitants of the modern Middle East and Asia regions. Water is traditionally removed through evaporation (air drying, sun drying, smoking or wind drying), although today electric food dehydrators or freeze-drying can be used to speed the drying process and ensure more consistent results.

Food Dehydrator is a way to preserve fruit, vegetables, and animal proteins after harvest, that has been practiced since antiquity, and a food dehydrator refers to a device that removes moisture from food to aid in its preservation. A food dehydrator uses a heat source and air flow to reduce the water content of foods. The water content of food is usually very high, typically 80% to 95% for various fruits and vegetables and 50% to 75% for various meats. Removing moisture from food restrains various bacteria from growing and spoiling food. Further, removing moisture from food dramatically reduces the weight of the food. Thus, food dehydrators are used to preserve and extend the shelf life of various foods. Devices require heat using energy sources such as solar or electric power or biofuel (i.e. oil), and vary in form from large-scale dehydration projects to DIY projects or commercially sold appliances for domestic use. A commercial food dehydrator's basic parts usually consist of a heating element, a fan, air vents allowing for air circulation and food trays to lay food upon. A dehydrator's heating element, fans and vents simultaneously work to remove moisture from food. A dehydrator's heating element warms the food causing its moisture to be released from its interior. The appliance's fan then blows the warm, moist air out of the appliance via the air vents. This process continues for hours until the food is dried to a substantially lower water content, usually less than 20%. Most foods are dehydrated at temperatures of 130 °F, or 54 °C, although meats being made into jerky should be dehydrated at a higher temperature of 155 °F, or 68 °C, or preheated to those temperature levels, to guard against pathogens that may be in the meat. The key to successful food dehydration is the application of a constant temperature and adequate air flow. Too high a temperature can cause hardened foods: food that is hard and dry on the outside but moist, and therefore vulnerable to spoiling, on the inside.

Build a Solar Dehydrator - Solar Heat

Food Dehydrator - Homemade Solar Food Dehydrator (youtube)

Harvest Right Home Freeze-dried Food vs. Dehydrated, Canned and Frozen

Make Your Own Beef Jerky (youtube) - Make Beef Jerky (youtube)

Dried Fruit is fruit from which the majority of the original water content has been removed either naturally, through sun drying, or through the use of specialized dryers or dehydrators. Dried fruit has a long tradition of use dating back to the fourth millennium BC in Mesopotamia, and is prized because of its sweet taste, nutritive value, and long shelf life. Today, dried fruit consumption is widespread. Nearly half of the dried fruits sold are raisins, followed by dates, prunes, figs, apricots, peaches, apples and pears. These are referred to as "conventional" or "traditional" dried fruits: fruits that have been dried in the sun or in heated wind tunnel dryers. Many fruits such as cranberries, blueberries, cherries, strawberries and mango are infused with a sweetener (e.g. sucrose syrup) prior to drying. Some products sold as dried fruit, like papaya, kiwi fruit and pineapple are most often candied fruit. Dried fruits retain most of the nutritional value of fresh fruits. The specific nutrient content of the different dried fruits reflects their fresh counterpart and the processing method.

Zante Currant are dried berries of the small, sweet, seedless grape cultivar 'Black Corinth' (Vitis vinifera).

Raisin is a dried Grape. Raisins are produced in many regions of the world and may be eaten raw or used in cooking, baking, and brewing. In the United Kingdom, Ireland, New Zealand, and Australia, the word "raisin" is reserved for the dark-colored dried large grape, with "sultana" being a golden-colored dried grape, and "currant" being a dried small Black Corinth seedless grape. Raisins are rich in dietary fiber , carbohydrates with a low glycemic index, and minerals like copper and iron, with a low fat content. Raisins are often recommended as a snack for weight control because they help the control of glucose, the good functioning of the digestive system and the regulation of blood pressure. The health benefits of raisins include treating constipation, acidosis, anemia, fever, and sexual dysfunction. They have also been known for aiding in a healthy weight gain, as well as for their positive impact on the eye, dental, and bone health. Raisins can contain up to 72% sugars by weight, most of which is fructose and glucose. They also contain about 3% protein and 3.7%–6.8% dietary fiber. Raisins, like prunes and apricots, are also high in certain antioxidants, but have a lower vitamin C content than fresh grapes. Raisins are low in sodium and contain no cholesterol. Despite their small size, raisins are packed with energy and rich in fiber, vitamins, and minerals. Raisins are naturally sweet and high in sugar and calories, but they're beneficial to our health when eaten in moderation. In fact, raisins can aid digestion, boost iron levels, and keep your bones strong. Women should eat at least 1.5 cups of fruit daily and men should have 2 cups, Grapes are harvested in August through September. While drying on trays, the grapes' moisture content is reduced from 75% to under 15% and the color of the fruit changes to a brownish purple. After the fruit is dried, the paper trays are rolled up around the raisins to form a package. Raisins may help fight — not cause — cavities. ... Certain chemicals in raisins suppress the growth of oral bacteria associated with cavities and gum disease, according to a study of raisins and human health. It has long been known that eating sweet and sticky foods can lead to tooth decay. Along with water, fiber helps give stool the right consistency to pass easily. Good fruit choices for a constipation diet are raisins, prunes, figs, bananas, apples, and applesauce. Load your plate with vegetables. Vegetables are also high in fiber and can help prevent constipation. Raisin drying methods are: sun drying, shade drying, and mechanical drying. Sun drying is an inexpensive process; however, environmental contamination, insect infections, and microbial deterioration can occur and the resulting raisins are often of low quality. Additionally, sun drying is a very slow process and may not produce the most desirable raisins. Mechanical drying can be done in a safer and more controlled environment where rapid drying is guaranteed. One type of mechanical drying is to use microwave heating. Water molecules in the grapes absorb microwave energy resulting in rapid evaporation. Microwave heating often produces puffy raisins. Storing organic raisins: General rules of storing home dehydrated fruits are one month at room temperature and about a year in the freezer. Be sure to keep your newly-made organic raisins in an airtight container. If you’re storing the raisins at room temperature, be sure to do it in a cool, dark place.



Fermentation - Controlled Decay


Fermentation is a metabolic process that converts sugar to acids, gases, or alcohol. It occurs in yeast and bacteria, and also in oxygen-starved muscle cells, as in the case of lactic acid fermentation. Fermentation is also used more broadly to refer to the bulk growth of microorganisms on a growth medium, often with the goal of producing a specific chemical product.

Lactic Acid Fermentation is a metabolic process by which glucose and other six-carbon sugars (also, disaccharides of six-carbon sugars, e.g. sucrose or lactose) are converted into cellular energy and the metabolite lactate, which is lactic acid in solution. It is an anaerobic fermentation reaction that occurs in some bacteria and animal cells, such as muscle cells. If oxygen is present in the cell, many organisms will bypass fermentation and undergo cellular respiration; however, facultative anaerobic organisms will both ferment and undergo respiration in the presence of oxygen. Sometimes even when oxygen is present and aerobic metabolism is happening in the mitochondria, if pyruvate is building up faster than it can be metabolized, the fermentation will happen anyway. Lactate dehydrogenase catalyzes the interconversion of pyruvate and lactate with concomitant interconversion of NADH and NAD+. In homolactic fermentation, one molecule of glucose is ultimately converted to two molecules of lactic acid. Heterolactic fermentation, in contrast, yields carbon dioxide and ethanol in addition to lactic acid, in a process called the phosphoketolase pathway. Oxidative Fermentation - Anaerobic Fermentation.

Ethanol Fermentation or alcoholic fermentation, is a biological process which converts sugars such as glucose, fructose, and sucrose into cellular energy, producing ethanol and carbon dioxide as by-products. Because yeasts perform this conversion in the absence of oxygen, alcoholic fermentation is considered an anaerobic process. It also takes place in some species of fish (including goldfish and carp) where (along with lactic acid fermentation) it provides energy when oxygen is scarce. Ethanol fermentation has many uses, including the production of alcoholic beverages, the production of ethanol fuel, and bread cooking.

Anaerobic Respiration, also called fermentation, occurs when cells need energy but there is no oxygen for Aerobic respiration. As a result, cells convert glucose into either ethanol or lactic acid. Alcoholic respiration occurs in plants and yeast. Anaerobic respiration is respiration using electron acceptors other than molecular oxygen (O2). Although oxygen is not used as the final electron acceptor, the process still uses a respiratory electron transport chain called physolmere; it is respiration without oxygen.

Lab Grown Meat - Waste Energy - Biology

Fermentation on Wheels - Fermentation Sciences - The Wild Fermentation Portal

Fermentation in Food Processing is the process of converting carbohydrates to alcohol or organic acids using microorganisms—yeasts or bacteria—under anaerobic conditions. Fermentation usually implies that the action of microorganisms is desired. The science of fermentation is known as zymology or zymurgy.

Wild Fermented Foods, like kimchi, sauerkraut, or pickles, tend to have a higher diversity of microbes than your store-bought, probiotic-infused yogurts. Whether each individual strain in these foods is good for us is still unknown, but again, higher diversity tends to be associated with better health. Preserving.

Bacteria in fermented food signal the human immune system, explaining health benefits. Ability to detect bacteria may have enabled human ancestors to eat not-so-fresh food. Researchers have discovered that humans and great apes possess a receptor on their cells that detects metabolites from bacteria commonly found in fermented foods and triggers movement of immune cells.

How microbes generate and use their energy to grow. Researchers have shed light on how bacteria and baker's yeast generate and use their energy to grow. Knowing about cells' energy use is essential for industrial biotech processes. Cells constantly generate high-energy molecules called ATP from the sugar glucose. ATP is the cellular "food" consumed by the workers -- enzymes -- within cells. The enzymes use this energy to build biomass or do other cellular work. The more ATP available, the better the microbial workhorses perform in fermentations; at least in principle -- many other aspects play a part as well. Using a computational approach, the researchers found out that ATP can be generated by either of two pathways: a high-yielding respiratory pathway resulting in 23.5 ATP's per glucose molecule or a low-yielding fermentative pathway, which only generates 11 ATP's per glucose molecule. The two pathways supplement each other, but the researchers were able to shift the natural balance between the two by changing the conditions of the fermentation and the amount of sugar and protein available. Furthermore, they showed that the high-yielding pathway needs more protein mass than the low-yielding pathway for consuming glucose at the same rate. They also showed that making some key enzymes perform better meant that the cells changed from doing low yielding fermentative metabolism to breathing through the high yielding respiratory metabolism. This shift both results in more intracellular ATP, but also avoids the build-up of fermentative byproducts; acetate in E. coli and ethanol in baker's yeast.

Salami is a type of cured sausage consisting of fermented and air-dried meat, typically beef or pork. Historically, salami was popular among southern and central European peasants because it can be stored at room temperature for up to 40 days once cut, supplementing a potentially meager or inconsistent supply of fresh meat. Countries and regions across Europe make their own traditional varieties of salami. The production of fermented meat products goes back thousands of years because it was quickly discovered that shelf-stable meat products could be produced by adding salt to meat and subsequently dried or fermented. Fermentation involves complex microbial ecosystems that combine bacteria, yeasts, and molds.

Beef Aging is a process of preparing beef for consumption, mainly by breaking down the connective tissue. Dry-aged beef is beef that has been hung or placed on a rack to dry for several weeks. After the animal is slaughtered and cleaned, it is hung as a full or half carcass. Primal (large distinct sections) or sub primal cuts, such as strip loins, rib eyes, and sirloin, are placed in a refrigerator unit, also known as a "hot box". This process involves considerable expense, as the beef must be stored near freezing temperatures. Subprimal cuts can be dry aged on racks either in specially climate-controlled coolers or within a moisture-permeable drybag. Moreover, only the higher grades of meat can be dry aged, as the process requires meat with a large, evenly distributed fat content. Because of this, dry-aged beef is seldom available outside of steak restaurants and upscale butcher shops or groceries. The key effect of dry aging is the concentration and saturation of the natural flavour, as well as the tenderization of the meat texture. The process changes beef by two means. Firstly, moisture is evaporated from the muscle. The resulting process of desiccation creates a greater concentration of beef flavour and taste. Secondly, the beef's natural enzymes break down the connective tissue in the muscle, which leads to more tender beef. The process of dry-aging usually also promotes growth of certain fungal (mold) species on the external surface of the meat. This does not cause spoilage, but rather forms an external "crust" on the meat's surface, which is trimmed off when the meat is prepared for cooking. These fungal species complement the natural enzymes in the beef by helping to tenderize and increase the flavor of the meat. The genus Thamnidium, in particular, is known to produce collagenolytic enzymes which greatly contribute to the tenderness and flavor of dry-aged meat. Dried Meat Types (wiki).

Fatty Meats like pork can have a negative health impact on us via our microbes, because they produce a metabolite called TMAO, which has been linked to negative health outcomes. TMAO or trimethylamine N-oxide, is a microbial byproduct of intestinal bacteria. This metabolite is thought to promote atherosclerosis by contributing to cholesterol metabolism in heart artery walls, as well as in the liver and intestines.

Curing - Microbes - Beer (knowledge and history)

Brewing hoppy beer without the hops. UC Berkeley scientists have found a way to avoid expensive, variable and water-intensive hops by endowing yeast with the ability to create a hoppy flavor use yeast instead of hops to impart flavor and aroma. The engineered yeast strains were altered using CRISPR-Cas9. The two other genes were from yeast and boosted the production of precursor molecules needed to make linalool and geraniol, the hoppy flavor components. The yeast cells then translated the Cas9 gene into the Cas9 proteins, which cut the yeast DNA at specific points. Yeast repair enzymes then spliced in the four genes plus promoters.



Food Storage Tips


Refrigeration Not Needed - Fruit or vegetables that can be stored at room temperature or cool pantry without refrigerating. Avocados, Apricots, Tomatoes, Bananas, Citrus Fruits, Garlic, Kiwi, Whole Melons, Nectarines, Onions, Pears, Peaches, Plums, pineapples, potatoes. Foods that don't need Refrigeration - Root Cellars.

Refrigeration Needed - Fruits and Vegetables that should be refrigerated. Apples, Beans, berries, broccoli, cabbage, carrots, cauliflower, celery, cherries, corn, cucumbers, eggplant, grapes, jalapenos, leafy greens, mushrooms, zucchini.

Ways to make foods stay fresh longer (Info-Graph) - Refrigeration Ideas (big-5)

Meat & Poultry should be kept in its original package if you’ll use it within 2 days. (Re-wrapping increases the risk of exposing the food to harmful bacteria.) Otherwise, wrap it in foil and freeze. Wrap smoked meats (bacon, ham, etc.) in a vinegar soaked cloth then in wax paper and store in the fridge. Bacon can be frozen for up to a month. More Tips.

Fish should be kept in a bag on top of a bowl of ice and eaten as soon as possible. You can also freeze fish or broil it and store in the fridge.

Tomatoes, Roast slices or chunks about-to-go-bad, then store them in olive oil in the fridge, where they’ll keep for about a week. Fruits.

Apples, Keep away from other foods. Apples give off ethylene gas, which can cause foods to spoil. If they get too soft, just cook them! An apple tree can yield up to 15-20 bushels of fruit per year. apple industry is estimated to be worth US $10 billion a year.

Fruit or Vegetables that go bad should be separated from the others. Fruit or Vegetables should also be separated from meats to prevent cross contamination.

Celery, Carrots and Radishes, to keep fresh longer, chop them and store them in water in the fridge, which keeps them crisp for a surprisingly long time.

Bananas, avoid separating until you plan to eat them – they spoil less quickly in a bunch. Store bananas at room temperature until they ripen. Freeze over-ripened bananas for use in banana bread and other baked goods. Bananas can be frozen. First peel and slice them and put them on a cookie sheet till frozen, then store in a plastic container. Bananas should be Kept separate from other produce because they release gas that speeds up ripening. Wrap the crown of a bunch of bananas with plastic wrap. They’ll keep for 3-5 days longer than usual, which is especially helpful if you eat organic bananas. Bananas also produce more Ethelyne Gas than any other fruit, so keep them isolated on the counter.

Potatoes and Onions should not be stored together. Store potatoes with apples to keep them from sprouting. When potatoes sprout, the starch in the potatoes is converted into sugar. If the potato is firm, it has most of the nutrients intact and can be eaten after removing the sprouted part. However, if the potato is shrunken and wrinkled, it should not be eaten.

Onions last longer in a paper bag stored in a cool dark place.

Scallions Triple the life of by storing them in a jar of water on the counter. The green onions will keep growing as you snip the tips for fresh eating.

Berries should be eaten right away, But they will last longer if washed in a 10 to 1 water and white vinegar, dry them and then store.

Lettuce will last longer when the container is lined with a clean towels and then spread loosely in even layers in a sealed container. Chopped or sliced produce spoils faster, Only cut them when you are ready to eat them. Lettuce needs moisture to stay fresh and will quickly wilt if it dehydrates. Wrap lettuce in damp towels and store in a plastic bag. If salad greens begin to wilt, soak them in ice water to crisp them up before fixing a salad.

Kale, Collards and Swiss Chard, After trimming the ends, store in the fridge in a glass of water with a loose bag over the top.

Herbs last longer when they are treated like flowers. Place stems in a glass of water and cover the top with a small clean towel. Oily herbs like thyme can be tied loosely together with string and hung in the open air. The best way to keep herbs fresh is to by storing them in whole bunches. First wash them, then seal them in zip lock bags and place them in the freezer. Storing them this way should keep them at peak freshness for up to a month. When you are ready to use them, you’ll find they are actually easier to chop frozen – and they’ll defrost in a hurry once you toss them into a hot pan. Freeze and preserve fresh herbs in olive oil. The herbs will infuse the oil while freezing, and the ice cubes are very handy for cooking: just pop one out and use as the base of a dish. Works best with rosemary, sage, thyme, and oregano. Dill, basil, and mint should always be used fresh.

Weevils
, try slipping a bay leaf into your storage container. The scent of the bay leave will help repel the bugs.

Squash, summer or winter, Rub whole with vegetable oil and store them in the pantry, where they’ll last for several months.

Ginger can be kept in the freezer.

Asparagus, treat like cut flowers. Asparagus will last longer if its thick ends sit in cold water.

Avocados will last longer if coated slightly with oil before storing in the fridge. Store avocadoes unbagged in the refrigerator.

Garlic, Do not store in a sealed container. Fresh bulbs can be stored in a wire or mesh basket or even a paper bag.

Mushrooms will last longer in a paper bag, or by wrapping them in paper towels before refrigerating.

Storage for Large amounts of Food

Milk, keep in the main part of the fridge compartment if you have the space. When milk is stored in the door rack it’s warmed by the ambient air of the kitchen whenever the fridge door is opened.

Cheese that is soft should be right away. Hard cheese lasts longer. Make sure to wrap all cheese securely in wax paper or cheese paper before storing it in the refrigerator, which allows it to breathe without letting in excess moisture or odors from your fridge. You can also rub butter on the cut parts of hard cheeses to prevent them from drying out. You can also freeze cheese.

Cottage Cheese or Sour Cream last longer when you place the container upside down in the fridge. Inverting the tub creates a vacuum that inhibits the growth of bacteria that causes food to spoil.

Butter, store in its original packaging. Stock up on butter when it’s on sale – you can store it in the freezer for up to six months. Pack the butter in an airtight container, so it doesn’t take on the flavor of whatever else you’re freezing.

Eggs that are raw could last 4 weeks in the fridge. Store eggs in their original carton. If you’re unsure of an egg’s freshness, see how it behaves in a cup of water: Fresh eggs sink; bad ones float.

Mason Jars are great for storing food. They provide a healthier and longer-lasting alternative to plastic tupperware, which deteriorates and stains easily. Produce will keep a few days longer if stored in a jar.

Roast Nuts as soon as you get home from the store, then store them in the freezer. Nuts that are roasted have more flavor, keep longer, and can always be used in recipes that call for nuts, roasted or otherwise. Spread them in a single layer on a sheet pan, bake in a 350 degree oven for 15 minutes, or until golden brown and fragrant.

Flour, Freeze for 48 hours to kill any insect eggs that might be present. Then, place in a tight-sealing container; and store in a cool, dry spot away from sunlight.

Bread, storing in the refrigerator can actually make it spoil more quickly. Your best bet is to store bread on the kitchen counter in a tightly sealed bag or container. But if you are just toasting your bread, then the fridge will work fine. Staling is a chemical and physical process in Bread and other foods that reduces their palatability. Stale bread is dry and hard.

Muffins, to revive day-old, sprinkle them with water, place in a paper bag, and pop in a hot oven for five to 10 minutes. The steam created by the water will restore moisture.

Snacks, pasta, half-empty bags of cereal, pretzels and other dry foods last longer by transferring into air-tight containers after opening the original packaging. Mason jars make great air-tight pantry storage.

Coffee, Store in an airtight, opaque container to preserver flavor and freshness. Buy coffee in whole bean form and grind enough for one pot at a time. If you buy more coffee than you can use in 3-4 days, store in an airtight container in the freezer.

Salt, anybody that lives in the south where the humidity is particularly high probably has had their salt shakers clog up. If you put a little bit of dry rice in the shaker it will stop the salt from hardening.

Sugar, Keeping brown sugar in the freezer will stop it from hardening. But if you already have hardened sugar on your shelf, soften it by sealing in a bag with a slice of fresh bread or an apple – or by microwaving on high for 30 seconds.

Honey is the only nonperishable food substance, so don’t get rid of the stuff if it crystallizes or becomes cloudy. Microwave on medium heat, in 30-second increments, to make honey clear again.

Clean and prep fresh food as soon as you get it into the kitchen, making it much less likely you’ll let it spoil.



Shopping Tips


Before you go shopping for food, move all your older foods to the front, so that you can eat them first before they go to waste.

Don't throw out bruised or dented fruits and vegetables. They can be just as tasty! Just be sure to remove all bruised areas during preparation.

Don't shop hungry! Eat a piece of fruit or some vegetables before going to the grocery store to avoid hunger-based impulse buys.

Plan ahead! Make a detailed food plan for the week or month and buy only what you can store or use within that time. Calculate your Food Budget

Make regular grocery lists and stick to them. To avoid buying less healthy and more costly items, make regular grocery lists of essential items that keep you healthy [like fruits and vegetables], and stick to them.

Make a list of the healthier, less expensive foods and recipes your family likes to eat. Add that list of foods to your regular grocery list.

Keep your eye on expiration dates when you shop.

Buy locally. If you can grow them yourself, the next best option is locally grown produce. It lasts much longer than supermarket fare, which has already traveled long distances before it gets to your kitchen.

Shop in season at farmers’ markets. Many farmers’ markets offer WIC or Senior coupons for the produce. Contact your local health department to find out more information.

Stick to the outside aisles when shopping at the grocery store. This is where the fresh produce and food items are and it’s healthier to avoid the expensive, processed foods that are located in the inside aisles. Go down only those aisles that have items you need, like canned veggies and fruits.

Buy frequently-used ingredients in bulk [e.g. beans and frozen vegetables]

Canned fruits and vegetables matter. Canned vegetables [such as low-sodium tomatoes] and canned fruits in juice will last a long time, and can be a healthy addition to a variety of meals. Stock up when they are on sale.

Always keep frozen fruit on hand. It’s easy to store and will be available when you’re ready to add it to a meal or use it for a healthy dessert.

Clearly label your foods before you store them. When storing fruits and vegetables in the freezer or refrigerator, clearly label them with contents and the date to stay within a safe and tasty timeframe.

Fruits and Vegetables for Meats. Meats are more expensive but beans are an excellent protein substitute, and vegetables and fruits add flavor, texture and nutrients.

Try new fruits and vegetables! You might find a new family favorite. To minimize waste, buy new foods in smaller amounts that are easy on your budget.

Skip the Cake ... but you don't have to skip dessert! Fruits are a delicious and cheap alternative to more costly desserts.

Try more dried goods. [such as dried fruit and beans and legumes] that store well through all seasons. Beans and legumes are also a cheaper protein option than meat.

Add dried fruit to make any meal or snack healthier. They last for a long time and taste great too! Buy a large package of raisins or other dried fruit, such as cherries, cranberries or apricots, then add to cereals, salads, peanut butter sandwiches or sweet and savory dinner sauces.

Look for deals and sales at your grocery store. Check your local grocery store coupons for sales on seasonal produce, or take advantage of overstock discounts. See Fruits & Vegetables on a Budget

Use coupons only for items that are on your list! This will help to avoid buying extra, unhealthy foods.

Save with store brands. Store brands can be a great budget choice for many forms of fruits and vegetables that are just as tasty and healthy for you as fresh!

Who does the Shopping Info-Graph (image)

Cooking Tips - Nutrition and Physical Health - Farming Knowledge - Food Photos



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