Communication - Speaking Effectively - Listening Effectively

Communication is the activity of conveying information to a receiver. A connection allowing access between persons or places. To transmit thoughts or feelings. To be in verbal contact and have an interchange of information or ideas. To transfer and transmit information from one place or period to another. To listen.

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Talking Effectively - Transferring Information - Debate - Discussion - Argue - Invalid Argument - Real Talk - Fake Talk

Speech Learning - Learning to Speak - Articulate - Disseminate - Disorders

Listen - Listening Effectively - Receiving Information - Hearing - Inner Voice

Communication Channel refers either to a physical transmission medium such as a wire, or to a logical connection over a multiplexed medium such as a radio channel in telecommunications and computer networking. A channel is used to convey an information signal, for example a digital bit stream, from one or several senders or transmitters to one or several receivers. A channel has a certain capacity for transmitting information, often measured by its bandwidth in Hz or its data rate in bits per second. Face-to-face or personal communication is one of the richest channels of communication that can be used within an organization, family or any relationship.

Levels of Communication: Direct and indirect channels of communication. Relationships - Work Relationships.

Line of Communication is the route that connects an operating social unit with its supply base. Supplies and reinforcements are transported along the line of communication. Therefore, a secure and open line of communication is vital for any social structure to continue to operate.

Information Access - Wireless - Telecommunication

Transmitting is the act of sending a message or causing a message to be transferred to another person or moved to another place or location. Transmission is the act of sending a message or causing a message to be transmitted. Communication by means of transmitted signals. The fraction of radiant energy that passes through a substance.

Message is a brief communication that is written or spoken or signaled. Messenger is a person who carries a message or someone who sends a document or package by messenger.

Statement is a message that is spoken or written that may communicate particulars or facts.

Media in communication are the collective communication outlets or tools used to store and deliver information or data.

Mediate is a connecting link or stage between two or more people. Mediator - Medium.

Liaise is to act between parties with a view to reconciling differences. Diplomacy.

Contact is to establish communication with someone. To have a close interaction or to be in direct physical contact with someone or something. Connections.

Correspond is to exchange messages or to communicate by exchanging letters. To have a direct relationship with someone or something. Correspond can also mean to have a close similarity and to match or agree almost exactly. To be compatible, similar or consistent and to coincide in their characteristics. To take the place of something or to be parallel or equivalent to something.

Impart is to transmit knowledge or skills and bestow a quality on. Transmit or serve as the medium for transmission.

Bestow is to present something of quality and give as a gift.

Impartation is the giving and receiving of spiritual gifts, blessings, healing, baptism in the Holy Spirit, etc., for the work of the ministry. It is the transference of these “gifts” from one man or woman of God to another, especially through the laying on of hands.

Interpersonal Compatibility is the long-term interaction between two or more individuals in terms of the ease and comfort of communication.

Speech Communication: Linguistic intelligence - Languages - ICT Competency - Listening

Conduit is a passage or a pipe or a tunnel through which water, electric wires or other materials can pass through.

Medium - Space - Wireless

Passage is a path, channel or duct through or along which something may pass. The act of passing something to another person.

Material is information, data, ideas or observations that can be used or reworked into a finished form. Things needed for doing or making something. Directly relevant to a matter. Having substance or capable of being treated as fact and not imaginary. Material can also mean a tangible substance that goes into the makeup of a physical object.

Information and Communications Technology is an extensional term for information technology that stresses the role of unified communications and the integration of telecommunications such as telephone lines and wireless signals and computers, as well as necessary enterprise software, middleware, storage and audiovisual, that enable users to access, store, transmit, understand and manipulate information. CT is also used to refer to the convergence of audiovisuals and telephone networks with computer networks through a single cabling or link system. There are large economic incentives to merge the telephone networks with the computer network system using a single unified system of cabling, signal distribution, and management. ICT is an umbrella term that includes any communication device, encompassing radio, television, cell phones, computer and network hardware, satellite systems and so on, as well as the various services and appliances with them such as video conferencing and distance learning. ICT also includes analog technology, such as paper communication, and any mode that transmits communication.

Communication Benefits - The Importance of Communication

Being able to effectively communicate is one of the most valuable skills to have. Without communication, life could not exist. The skill and the privilege to communicate should never be taken for granted, or misused. There is a lot to learn about communication because it covers many different subjects and categories. This is why communication is so extremely important. It's literally connected to everything that you do in your life. Effective communication will serve you more than any other skill that you will acquire in your entire life. So please do yourself a huge favor, learn to communicate effectively and efficiently, if not, then your life will be more of a struggle and you will also be more vulnerable to misinformation. If you learn this, then you could learn anything that you ever wanted to learn. Language is the gateway to all knowledge and information. Language is more then a tool and more then the ultimate vehicle for transferring information and knowledge, Language is power, Language is freedom, language is control, Language is endless possibilities. Reading.

Say what you mean, what does that mean? I mean well, but sometimes I don't always know what I mean because I can't always be sure of how I am being understood, or how I'm being misunderstood, or can I always be aware of when this happens. How do you know when someone is processing information in the exact same way that you are? How do you know when someone truly understands you? You can't always be sure of how you will be interpreted. You need some kind of confirmation that your message is understood accurately. And just because someone can guess the right answer or assume to understand something, this may not be a confirmation. Trick Questions.

"Every act of communication is an act of translation.” (Gregory Rabassa)

When anyone speaks, they can't always control how that message will be interpreted. That is a fact of life. But it's not just the receiver of a message that can create an error, it's also the transmitter of the message, because sometimes people don't know what they're saying. A person can believe that they are telling the truth, but in reality, they are just using the wrong words to describe something. This is another good reason why conversations and debates are so extremely important. Many things in life cannot be explained in one or two sentences. You need to do some research. You need facts. You need witnesses to confirm and validate information that is being used for reasoning and for accurately understanding. If no one understands your message, than what's the point of talking?

Paraphrasing is a restatement of the meaning of a text or passage using other words.

Your reality and your understanding of the world is based on what you know and how you perceive all the different experiences that you have in your life. The people that we are exposed to on TV, 90% of what we see on TV is mostly entertainment or propaganda. And hardly anyone is concerned about how underutilized our TV technology is. It's being treated more like a toy and not the incredible technology that it is, a technology that gives us incredible abilities to communicate. The adults in our world really need to start taking our communication advancements more seriously, and use them more responsibly. We are not children, we are the adults. The TV is not going to educate you, it's either going to entertaining you, or manipulate you. So where does your knowledge of the world come from? Not schools, because at the moment schools mostly teach reading, writing and math, which are extremely important, but incredibly inadequate. The transfer of information needs to be based on reality and not fantasy. Kids watch and read more about fantasy characters then they listen to intelligent people speaking. People dying and suffering is not a fantasy. Everyone has imprisoned themselves unknowingly. All because of our inability to effectively communicate, which is something that we can easily teach in schools. If there is one thing for you to remember about how extremely important transferring information is, is that if life cannot transfer important information, then life does not exist. Humans do not exist. If a cell dividing does not share it's information with the new cell, then that cell will die, and life would not exist. The transfer of information is extremely important. So we need to take communication seriously, and increase our reality based transmissions, and limit the amount of fantasy and propaganda transmissions. At this current time in 2021, most transmissions are ineffective in delivering valuable knowledge and information. We need to be more responsible and more aware. This transfer of information is the core of who we are. Human species as a whole does not want to take responsibility for the problems that we have. We have unknowingly separated ourselves and distant ourselves from each other and from our problems. Trying to pretend that these horrors don't exist literally neutralizes our greatest strength and power, which is our ability to work together as a unit to accomplish any goal that we set our minds to, like protecting and preserving all life on this planet. We have to come together and utilize our combined intelligence and utilize our combined power and strength in numbers. Pretending that we are separate undermines our greatest strength and power. Unity is everything, your entire body is a unity of microbes working together to sustain life, your life. Listen to life, life is telling you how to live, and one way to live is being able to work together with life. And since we are all part of life, working together just makes sense. A lot of people already know how beneficial working together is. So this is not foreign to us. But we need to utilize this strength that we have, because if we don't, then everyone on the planet is more vulnerable, less safe and a lot more weaker. We have the technology and the abilities, now all we need is a plan. So if you are reading this, what's your plan to become a better communicator?

Summarizing is a brief statement that presents the main points in a concise form. Without generalizing or over simplifying.

Every human brain has a the capacity to store millions upon millions of memories. So it would be a great idea to fill your brain with the most valuable knowledge and information that the world has to offer. This way you will be more intelligent then the previous generation, and also have more abilities then the previous generation. You will be the first humans on this planet to be known and confirmed as intelligent life. This is a huge responsibility and will take a lot of work. But being able to solve any problem is this world increases your odds for a great life by 1,000 percent. This goes way beyond any utopian narrow point of view. The future of this planet will be a lot more beautiful then ever imagined. Our biggest problem then will be learning how do we keep ourselves from smiling all the time?

"The biggest mistake that any human can make is believing that they know enough."

"You can only be aware of things that you learned to be aware of, so you're literally blind and you don't even know it"

"You should never feel worried or pressured because you don't know enough about a particular subject, you should only be thankful that you're aware that you don't know enough about a particular subject, at least now you can start learning."

So without wasting any more of your time, it's time to start learning...You need to learn how to use Language effectively and efficiently. You need to learn how to Read and Write effectively and efficiently. You need to learn how to carefully Analyze Information effectively and efficiently.

As extremely important as communication is, it is sadly over looked, taken for granted, and underutilized. Communication is not even being taught in schools as effectively as it should be, which is extremely disturbing considering it is the most valuable skill on the planet. All life forms survive by transferring important information. Everything from atoms to every cell in our body depends on this communication of information to live and survive. Without the ability to communicate information, there would be no life. And when information becomes distorted or infected, that is when life is the most vulnerable. The wrong information, or bad information, can easily produce mistakes in our thoughts and in our actions.

Humans ability to manually send and receive information gives us incredible advantages, but this manual ability is also a vulnerability, because when we misinterpret information, many problems can occur, like disease, death, war, poverty, crime, corruption, and so on. Education has over looked this incredibly important skill to communicate. You need more then just the ability to communicate, you need to know when, why, where and what to communicate.

Communication is all about transferring information and knowledge. And as simple as that sounds, communication is one skill that most people don't fully understand enough in order to communicate effectively or efficiently. Being able to communicate is one of the most important skills to have. Extremely valuable.

Everyone expects that other people will automatically know where they're coming from, and at the least, everyone hopes that other people will understand them correctly. But when we are misunderstood, we should never be defensive or surprised, because meaning is something that is not always a constant or a given. That is why validation is extremely important. Always make sure that you are on the same page as the other person. If you're not on the same page, then find out which pages you're both on. And please don't be stubborn or impatient when communicating, it will only impede understanding and cause more problems to happen.

Journal of Human Performance in Extreme Environments Analyzing Cockpit Communications: The Links Between Language, Performance, Error, and Workload.

Gender Differences in Language Use: Gender differences in language use were examined using standardized categories to analyze a database of over 14,000 text files from 70 separate studies. Women used more words related to psychological and social processes. Men referred more to object properties and impersonal topics.

"Let us not have any preconceived notions on who we think each other is, let us communicate openly, like friends do, and let us focus more on our abilities, and not so much on our disabilities, or perceived limits." Sign Language.

The Letter ' L ' in Sign Language The Letter ' E ' in Sign Language The Letter ' A ' in Sign Language The Letter ' R ' in Sign Language The Letter ' N ' in Sign Language


Communication is the act of conveying intended meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs and semiotic rules. The basic steps of communication are: The forming of communicative intent. Message composition. Message encoding and decoding. Transmission of the encoded message as a sequence of signals using a specific channel or medium. Reception of signals. Reconstruction of the original message. Interpretation and making sense of the reconstructed message. Data Loss.

4 C's of Effective Communication: Clarity, Coherence, Control and Credibility.

Communication Theory is a field of information theory and mathematics that studies the technical process of information and the process of Human Communication, which is the field dedicated to understanding how humans communicate. Human communication is grounded in cooperative and shared intentions.

Communication Science is an academic discipline that deals with processes of human communication. There are three types of communication: Verbal, involving listening to a person to understand the meaning of a message; written, in which a message is read; and nonverbal communication involving observing a person and inferring meaning. The discipline encompasses a range of topics, from face-to-face conversation to mass media outlets such as television broadcasting. Communication studies also examines how messages are interpreted through the political, cultural, economic, semiotic, hermeneutic, and social dimensions of their contexts. Science Communication.

Communicative Rationality describes human rationality as a necessary outcome of successful communication.

Communications System is a collection of individual communications networks, transmission systems, relay stations, tributary stations, and data terminal equipment (DTE) usually capable of interconnection and interoperation to form an integrated whole. The components of a communications system serve a common purpose, are technically compatible, use common procedures, respond to controls, and operate in union. Telecommunications is a method of communication (e.g., for sports broadcasting, mass media, journalism, etc.). A communications subsystem is a functional unit or operational assembly that is smaller than the larger assembly under consideration.

Communication Protocol is a system of rules that allow two or more entities of a communications system to transmit information via any kind of variation of a physical quantity. The protocol defines the rules, syntax, semantics and synchronization of communication and possible error recovery methods. . Protocols may be implemented by hardware, software, or a combination of both. Communicating systems use well-defined formats for exchanging various messages. Each message has an exact meaning intended to elicit a response from a range of possible responses pre-determined for that particular situation. The specified behavior is typically independent of how it is to be implemented. Communication protocols have to be agreed upon by the parties involved. To reach an agreement, a protocol may be developed into a technical standard. A programming language describes the same for computations, so there is a close analogy between protocols and programming languages: protocols are to communication what programming languages are to computations. Multiple protocols often describe different aspects of a single communication. A group of protocols designed to work together are known as a protocol suite; when implemented in software they are a protocol stack. Internet communication protocols are published by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). The IEEE handles wired and wireless networking, and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) handles other types. The ITU-T handles telecommunication protocols and formats for the public switched telephone network (PSTN). As the PSTN and Internet converge, the standards are also being driven towards convergence.

Asynchronous Communication is transmission of data, generally without the use of an external clock signal, where data can be transmitted intermittently rather than in a steady stream. Any timing required to recover data from the communication symbols is encoded within the symbols. The most significant aspect of asynchronous communications is that data is not transmitted at regular intervals, thus making possible variable bit rate, and that the transmitter and receiver clock generators do not have to be exactly synchronized all the time. In asynchronous transmission, data is sent one byte at a time and each byte is preceded by start bit and stop bit. Remote Communication. Asynchronous communication is when you send a message without expecting an immediate response. For example, when you send an email a person can respond to the email several hours later. Synchronous communication is when you send a message and the recipient processes the information and responds immediately. High-quality communication versus knee-jerk responses. Deep work becomes the default. Because employees don’t have to stay on top of each message as it comes in, they can block off large chunks of uninterrupted time to do the work that creates the most value for your organization. They can come back to process their messages in batches 1-3 times a day instead of bouncing back and forth between work and messages or meetings. Asynchronous is signal not occurring or existing at the same time or having the same period or phase. Asynchronous is a transmission technique that does not require a common clock between the communicating devices; timing signals are derived from special characters in the data stream itself. Remote Work.

Anisochronous refers to a periodic signal, pertaining to transmission in which the time interval separating any two corresponding transitions is not necessarily related to the time interval separating any other two transitions. It can also pertain to a data transmission in which there is always a whole number of unit intervals between any two significant instants in the same block or character, but not between significant instants in different blocks or characters. In practice, anisochronous typically means that data packets are not arriving in the same order they were transmitted, thus dramatically altering the quality of a multimedia transmission (e.g. voice, video, music), or after processing to restore isochronicity, have had significant amounts of latency added. Isochronous and anisochronous are characteristics, while synchronous and asynchronous are relationships.

Asynchronous Circuit is a sequential digital logic circuit which is not governed by a clock circuit or global clock signal. Instead it often uses signals that indicate completion of instructions and operations, specified by simple data transfer protocols. This type of circuit is contrasted with synchronous circuits, in which changes to the signal values in the circuit are triggered by repetitive pulses called a clock signal. Most digital devices today use synchronous circuits. However asynchronous circuits have the potential to be faster, and may also have advantages in lower power consumption, lower electromagnetic interference, and better modularity in large systems. Asynchronous circuits are an active area of research in digital logic design.

Synchronous Circuit is a digital circuit in which the changes in the state of memory elements are synchronized by a clock signal. In a sequential digital logic circuit, data is stored in memory devices called flip-flops or latches. The output of a flip-flop is constant until a pulse is applied to its "clock" input, upon which the input of the flip-flop is latched into its output. In a synchronous logic circuit, an electronic oscillator called the clock generates a string of pulses, the "clock signal". This clock signal is applied to every storage element, so in an ideal synchronous circuit, every change in the logical levels of its storage components is simultaneous. Ideally, the input to each storage element has reached its final value before the next clock occurs, so the behaviour of the whole circuit can be predicted exactly. Practically, some delay is required for each logical operation, resulting in a maximum speed at which each synchronous system can run. Synchronization in Telecommunications (wiki).

Moore Machine Moore machine is a finite-state machine whose output values are determined only by its current state. This is in contrast to a Mealy machine, whose (Mealy) output values are determined both by its current state and by the values of its inputs. Data Loss.

Deep-space optical communication demonstration project forges ahead. New laser systems lay groundwork for solar-system-wide optical communication so that future space missions can transmit more data.

Communication Studies

Communication Studies is an academic discipline that deals with processes of human communication and behavior. There are three types of communication: verbal, involving listening to a person to understand the meaning of a message; written, in which a message is read; and nonverbal communication involving observing a person and inferring meaning. The discipline encompasses a range of topics, from face-to-face conversation to mass media outlets, such as television broadcasting. Communication studies shares with cultural studies an interest in how messages are interpreted through the political, cultural, economic, semiotic, hermeneutic, and social dimensions of their contexts. In political economics, communication studies examines how the politics of ownership affects content. Quantitative communication studies examines statistics in order to help substantiate claims. UCLA Department of Communication Studies.

Early humans went from using Gestures and Non-Verbal Communication methods, to eventually having a Spoken Language. And then we advanced to Graphic Communication or Written Language. And now in the 21st century we have advanced into Digital Communication, which is an incredible advancement. We can now for the first time communicate in more ways then any other time in human history. The digital world changes everything. The Internet is us mimicking the human brain. We will soon be connected to everything on the planet. And we will soon have full consciousness and full power of our collaborative abilities.

Now that the flow of knowledge and information has no limits. The human race is about to embark on the most incredible adventure ever, the adventures in learning. Knowledge Divide.

Not only do we have millions of people with don't have access to valuable knowledge and information, but the billions of people who do have access are not communicating effectively or efficiently. So our ability to communicate has advanced, just not our ability to teach it, Why? There's a lot of room for improvements. Knowledge Management.

Visual Communication

Visual Communication is communication through a visual aid and is described as the conveyance of ideas and information in forms that can be read or looked upon. Visual communication in part or whole relies on vision, and is primarily presented or expressed with two dimensional images, it includes: Signs, typography, drawing, graphic design, illustration, Industrial Design, Advertising, Animation, Color, Body Language and electronic resources. It also explores the idea that a visual message accompanying text has a greater power to inform, educate, or persuade a person or audience. Visual Tools.

Visual Language is a system of communication using visual elements. Speech as a means of communication cannot strictly be separated from the whole of human communicative activity which includes the visual and the term 'language' in relation to vision is an extension of its use to describe the perception, comprehension and production of visible signs.

Nonverbal Communication (body language) - Presentations (charts and graphs)

Interpersonal Communication is an exchange of information between two or more people. It is also an area of study. Communication skills are developed and may be enhanced or improved with increased knowledge and practice. During interpersonal communication, there is message sending and message receiving. This can be conducted using both direct and indirect methods. Successful interpersonal communication is when the message senders and the message receivers understand the message. Encompasses: speech communication, nonverbal communication.

Intercultural Communication is a discipline that studies communication across different Cultures and social groups, or how culture affects communication. It is used to describe the wide range of communication processes and problems that naturally appear within an organization or social context made up of individuals from different religious, social, ethnic, and educational backgrounds. Intercultural communication is sometimes used synonymously with cross-cultural communication. In this sense it seeks to understand how people from different countries and cultures act, communicate and perceive the world around them. Many people in intercultural business communication argue that culture determines how individuals encode messages, what medium they choose for transmitting them, and the way messages are interpreted.

Correspondence is non-concurrent, remote communication between people, including letters, email, newsgroups, Internet forums, blogs.

Human Communication is the field dedicated to understanding how humans communicate. Human communication is grounded in cooperative and shared intentions. Internal Monologue.

Technical Communication is a means to convey scientific, engineering, or other technical information. Individuals in a variety of contexts and with varied professional credentials engage in technical communication. Some individuals are designated as technical communicators or technical writers. These individuals use a set of methods to research, document, and present technical processes or products. Technical communicators may put the information they capture into paper documents, web pages, computer-based training, digitally stored text, audio, video, and other media. The Society for Technical Communication defines the field as any form of communication that focuses on technical or specialized topics, communicates specifically by using technology or provides instructions on how to do something. More succinctly, the Institute of Scientific and Technical Communicators defines technical communication as factual communication, usually about products and services. The European Association for Technical Communication briefly defines technical communication as "the process of defining, creating and delivering information products for the safe, efficient and effective use of products (technical systems, software, services)". Whatever the definition of technical communication, the overarching goal of the practice is to create easily accessible information for a specific audience. Technical Writing process can be divided into six broad steps: Determine purpose and audience. Collect information. Organize and outline information. Write the first draft. Revise and edit. Publish output.

Communication Skills - Communication Skills - Develop Good Communication Skills (wiki-how)

Types of Communication - Communication Problems - Science Communication

Strategic Communication can mean either communicating a concept, a process, or data that satisfies a long term strategic goal of an organization by allowing facilitation of advanced planning, or communicating over long distances usually using international telecommunications or dedicated global network assets to coordinate actions and activities of operationally significant commercial, non-commercial and military business or combat and logistic subunits. It can also mean the related function within an organization, which handles internal and external communication processes. Strategic communication can also be used for political warfare.

Reading - Reading Comprehension - Poetry - Meaning - Art - Communication Noise

Models of Communication are conceptual models used to explain the human communication process. An information source, which produces a message. A transmitter, which encodes the message into signals. A channel, to which signals are adapted for transmission. A receiver, which 'decodes' (reconstructs) the message from the signal. A destination, where the message arrives. Three levels of problems for communication within this concept. The technical problem: how accurately can the message be transmitted? The semantic problem: how precisely is the meaning 'conveyed'? The effectiveness problem: how effectively does the received meaning affect behavior? Daniel Chandler critiques the transmission model by stating: It assumes communicators are isolated individuals. No allowance for differing purposes. No allowance for differing interpretations. No allowance for unequal power relations.

Four-Sides Model is a communication model that states every message has four facets. The matter layer contains statements which are matter of fact like data and facts, which are part of the news. In the self-revealing or self-disclosure the speaker - conscious or not intended - tells something about himself, his motives, values, emotions etc. In the Relationship-layer is expressed resp. received, how the sender gets along with the receiver and what he thinks of him. The Appeal contains the desire, advice, instruction and effects that the speaker is seeking for.

Four Discourses states there are four fundamental types of discourse. Master, University, Hysteric and Analyst. Discourse of the Master – Struggle for mastery / domination / penetration. Based on Hegel's master–slave dialectic. Discourse of the University – Provision and worship of "objective" knowledge — usually in the unacknowledged service of some external master discourse. Discourse of the Hysteric – Symptoms embodying and revealing resistance to the prevailing master discourse. Discourse of the Analyst – Deliberate subversion of the prevailing master discourse.

Story Telling - Stories

Freestyle Rap is a style of improvisation with or without instrumental beats, in which lyrics are recited with no particular subject or structure It is similar to other improvisational music, such as jazz (Myka 9 of Freestyle Fellowship describes it as being "like a jazz solo"), where there is a lead instrumentalist acting as the improviser and the rest of the band providing the beat. Improv/freestyles are improvised in this way.

Ad Lib is saying or doing something with little or no preparation or forethought. Said or done without having been planned or written in advance. Remark made spontaneously without prior preparation. Done on the fly. Means at one's pleasure.

Sport Communication is an aspect of communication studies which specializes in the study of communication in a sports setting. It can encompass the study of interpersonal and organizational communication (both verbal and non-verbal) between participants within a particular sport (e.g. players, coaches, managers, referees, trainers and physiotherapists, and governing bodies); communication between sports participants, fans, and the media; and the way that sports are represented and communicated in the media. Sports communication is something that happens at all levels of ranging from kindergarten to the college level and is not restricted to professionals. It happens on a constant basis and works best with people that are willing to work collectively as a team. If everyone is on board with positive thoughts and communication, it becomes very dismantling to the person receiving the message. It is not only for positive talk, though, because negative sports communication happens all the time.

Information Literacy - Media Literacy

Social Communication - Journalism - Social Media

Onomatopoeia is a word that phonetically imitates, resembles or suggests the sound that it describes.

Dispatcher are communications personnel responsible for receiving and transmitting pure and reliable messages, tracking vehicles and equipment, and recording other important information. A number of organizations, including police and fire departments, emergency medical services, motorcycle couriers, taxicab providers, trucking companies, railroads, and public utility companies, use dispatchers to relay information and coordinate their operations. Essentially, the dispatcher is the "conductor" of the force, and is responsible for the direction of all units within it.

Telegraphy is the long-distance transmission of textual or symbolic (as opposed to verbal or audio) messages without the physical exchange of an object bearing the message. Thus semaphore is a method of telegraphy, whereas pigeon post is not. Telegraphy requires that the method used for encoding the message be known to both sender and receiver. Such methods are designed according to the limits of the signalling medium used. The use of smoke signals, beacons, reflected light signals, and flag semaphore signals are early examples. In the 19th century, the harnessing of electricity led to the invention of electrical telegraphy. The advent of radio in the early 20th century brought about radiotelegraphy and other forms of wireless telegraphy. In the Internet age, telegraphic means developed greatly in sophistication and ease of use, with natural language interfaces that hide the underlying code, allowing such technologies as electronic mail and instant messaging. Telepathy.

Organizational Communication is a subfield of the larger discipline of communication studies. Organizational communication, as a field, is the consideration, analysis, and criticism of the role of communication in organizational contexts. Its main function is to inform, persuade and promote goodwill. The flow of communication could be either formal or informal. Communication flowing through formal channels are downward, horizontal and upward whereas communication through informal channels are generally termed as grapevine. Knowledge Management.

Small Group Communication is interpersonal communication within groups of between 3 and 20 individuals. Groups generally work in a context that is both relational and social. Quality communication such as helping behaviors and information-sharing causes groups to be superior to the average individual in terms of the quality of decisions and effectiveness of decisions made or actions taken. However, quality decision-making requires that members both identify with the group and have an attitude of commitment to participation in interaction. reflection of theory.

Health Communication

Crisis Communication has been defined as "a set of factors designed to combat crises and to lessen the actual damages inflicted." Crisis management should not merely be reactionary; it should also consist of preventative measures and preparation in anticipation of potential crises. Effective crisis management has the potential to greatly reduce the amount of damage the organization receives as a result of the crisis, and may even prevent an incident from ever developing into a crisis.

Emergencies - Interventions

Medium is the collective communication outlets or tools that are used to store and deliver information or data. It is either associated with communication media, or the specialized mass media communication businesses such as print media and the press, photography, advertising, cinema, broadcasting (radio and television) and publishing. Presentation.

Telemetry (environment)

Creative Thinking - Thinking - Writing Tips - Vocabulary

Technology Tools - Digital Communication - Internet Freedom

Message is a discrete unit of communication intended by the source for consumption by some recipient or group of recipients. A message may be delivered by various means, including courier, telegraphy, carrier pigeon and electronic bus. A message can be the content of a broadcast. An interactive exchange of messages forms a conversation.

Signals - Coded Information

Signal is an electric quantity of voltage, current or field strength whose modulation represents coded information about the source from which it comes. A silent non-verbal communication or any nonverbal action or gesture that encodes a message. A function that conveys information about the behavior or attributes of some phenomenon. In the physical world, any quantity exhibiting variation in time or variation in space, such as an image, is potentially a signal that might provide information on the status of a physical system, or convey a message between observers, among other possibilities as referred to in communication systems, signal processing, and electrical engineering. The IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing states that the term "signal" includes audio, video, speech, image, communication, geophysical, sonar, radar, medical and musical signals or code. In nature, signals can take the form of any action by one organism able to be perceived by other organisms, ranging from the release of chemicals by plants to alert nearby plants of the same type of a predator, to sounds or motions made by animals to alert other animals of the presence of danger or of food. Signaling occurs in organisms all the way down to the cellular level, with cell signaling and brain signals. Signaling theory, in evolutionary biology, proposes that a substantial driver for evolution is the ability for animals to communicate with each other by developing ways of signaling. There must be a receiver that can interpret the signal and produce the correct action needed. In human engineering, signals are typically provided by a sensor, and often the original form of a signal is converted to another form of energy using a transducer. For example, a microphone converts an acoustic signal to a voltage waveform, and a speaker does the reverse. The formal study of the information content of signals is the field of information theory. The information in a signal is usually accompanied by noise. The term noise usually means an undesirable random disturbance, but is often extended to include unwanted signals conflicting with the desired signal, such as crosstalk. The prevention of noise is covered in part under the heading of signal integrity. The separation of desired signals from a background is the field of signal recovery, one branch of which is estimation theory, a probabilistic approach to suppressing random disturbances. Engineering disciplines such as electrical engineering have led the way in the design, study, and implementation of systems involving transmission, storage, and manipulation of information. In the latter half of the 20th century, electrical engineering itself separated into several disciplines, specializing in the design and analysis of systems that manipulate physical signals; electronic engineering and computer engineering as examples; while design engineering developed to deal with functional design of man–machine interfaces. A signal is any pattern that can be indicated and interpreted as information.

Bio-Signal is any signal in living beings that can be continually measured and monitored. The term biosignal is often used to refer to bioelectrical signals, but it may refer to both electrical and non-electrical signals. The usual understanding is to refer only to time-varying signals, although spatial parameter variations (e.g. the nucleotide sequence determining the genetic code) are sometimes subsumed as well. Biological signals, or biosignals, are space, time, or space-time records of a biological event such as a beating heart or a contracting muscle. The electrical, chemical, and mechanical activity that occurs during this biological event often produces signals that can be measured and analyzed.

Indication is evidence or a signal that communicates that something is happening.

Codes - Decoding - Speed of Signal - Latency - Data - Noise - Filtering - Brain Waves - Brain Signals - Senses - Consciousness - Microwaves

Signalling Theory is a body of theoretical work examining communication between individuals, both within species and across species. The central question is when organisms with conflicting interests, such as in sexual selection, should be expected to provide honest signals with no presumption being made of conscious intention, rather than cheating. Mathematical models describe how signaling can contribute to an evolutionarily stable strategy. Shared Information.

Communications Protocol - Communication Laws - Music

Trellis Modulation is a modulation scheme that transmits information with high efficiency over band-limited channels such as telephone lines.

Binary offset Carrier Modulation is where a signal is multiplied by a rectangular sub-carrier of frequency fsc equal to or greater than the chip rate. Following this sub-carrier multiplication, the spectrum of the signal is divided into two parts, therefore BOC modulation is also known as a split-spectrum modulation. Their major advantages are, that one can shape the spectrum to allow inter-system-compatibility and better theoretically achievable tracking capabilities, due to higher frequencies if downmixed to the complex baseband. Binary Offset Carrier Signals are a particular case of BCS signals with a representation vector formed by +1's and -1's alternating in a particular defined way.

Spectral Band Replication is a technology to enhance audio or speech codecs, especially at low bit rates and is based on harmonic redundancy in the frequency domain. Spectral band replication is a technology to enhance audio or speech codecs, especially at low bit rates and is based on harmonic redundancy in the frequency domain. Spectrogram of this recording of a violin playing. Note the harmonics occurring at whole-number multiples of the fundamental frequency.

CQ call is transmitting the letters CQ on a particular radio frequency is an invitation for any operators listening on that frequency to respond. "who's there?" Calling CQ on the Ham Bands means you want to talk to any station anywhere that might be listening. If you call CQ, be prepared for anyone to answer. Start your call- CQ CQ CQ Calling CQ, then say your "FCC call sign name" calling. Repeat this three times. CQ is a code used by wireless operators, particularly those communicating in Morse code. CQ is a an abbreviated version of seek you or Call Question. It simply means you are looking to make contact with any op who can can hear you. CQ means, “I wish to contact any amateur station.” When answering a CQer you should zero beat the other ham's frequency. That means setting your transmit frequency as close to theirs as possible. Calling Any Station (Morse Code abbreviation) CQ. The word sécurité was used to mean "safety" or "pay attention".

Data Transmission is the transfer of data or a digital bit stream or a digitized analog signal, over a point-to-point or point-to-multipoint communication channel. Examples of such channels are copper wires, optical fibers, wireless communication channels, storage media and computer buses. The data are represented as an electromagnetic signal, such as an electrical voltage, radio wave, microwave, or infrared signal. Analog or analogue transmission is a transmission method of conveying voice, data, image, signal or video information using a continuous signal which varies in amplitude, phase, or some other property in proportion to that of a variable. The messages are either represented by a sequence of pulses by means of a line code (baseband transmission), or by a limited set of continuously varying wave forms (passband transmission), using a digital modulation method. The passband modulation and corresponding demodulation (also known as detection) is carried out by modem equipment. According to the most common definition of digital signal, both baseband and passband signals representing bit-streams are considered as digital transmission, while an alternative definition only considers the baseband signal as digital, and passband transmission of digital data as a form of digital-to-analog conversion. Data transmitted may be digital messages originating from a data source, for example a computer or a keyboard. It may also be an analog signal such as a phone call or a video signal, digitized into a bit-stream for example using pulse-code modulation (PCM) or more advanced source coding (analog-to-digital conversion and data compression) schemes. This source coding and decoding is carried out by codec equipment.

'1' bit will be represented by a 'high' voltage present on a conductor, while a '0' bit will be represented by a 'low' voltage. The specific voltages differ according to the data communications technology being used.

The method of transferal of data from one device to another requires that the two devices use some method of synchronization. A logic level on a single conductor can be captured at an instant in time. This is commonly performed with a logic block called a flip-flop. The type of flip-flop used has two inputs: one for the data bit, and another that is used to signal the flip-flop to capture and hold the data on the data input.

They use different voltages and timing methods to serialize and deserialize the data, giving the protocols different properties that make them suitable for particular tasks. Some protocols may transmit several bits of data on multiple conductors concurrently, or 'in parallel'. All protocols have some defined method of synchronizing the timing between the sender and receiver. It may include defining specific timing intervals that each device uses to send/capture bits (RS-232, Ehternet), or additional signals may be included in the cabling to provide synchronization (Centronics parallel interface, GPIB). The many different protocols use variations on these basic principles.

The internal operation of a CPU and its external buses works in a very similar way, to read a write memory and peripheral devices. Some types of buses are used both for internal communication within a single system, or may be used to transfer data between separate systems (I2C, SPI, even USB). Ethernet Over Twisted Pair.


Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, writings, images and sounds or intelligence of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems. Telecommunication occurs when the exchange of information between communication participants includes the use of technology. It is transmitted either electrically over physical media, such as cables, or via electromagnetic radiation. Such transmission paths are often divided into communication channels which afford the advantages of multiplexing. The term is often used in its plural form, telecommunications, because it involves many different technologies. Telecommunication - A Flock Of Seagulls (youtube).

Phone Networks (telephone)

Transmission in telecommunications is the process of sending and propagating an analogue or digital information signal over a physical point-to-point or point-to-multipoint transmission medium, either wired, optical fiber or wireless. One example of transmission is the sending of a signal with limited duration, for example a block or packet of data, a phone call, or an email. Transmission technologies and schemes typically refer to physical layer protocol duties such as modulation, demodulation, line coding, equalization, error control, bit synchronization and multiplexing, but the term may also involve higher-layer protocol duties, for example, digitizing an analog message signal, and data compression. Transmission of a digital message, or of a digitized analog signal, is known as digital communication.

How Does a Telephone Work? As you chat away, your phone converts your voice into an electrical signal, which is then transmitted as radio waves and converted back into sound by your friend's phone. A basic mobile phone is therefore little more than a combined radio transmitter and a radio receiver, quite similar to a walkie-talkie or CB radio.

Multiplexing is a method by which multiple analog or digital signals are combined into one signal over a shared medium. The aim is to share a scarce resource. For example, in telecommunications, several telephone calls may be carried using one wire. Multiplexing originated in telegraphy in the 1870s, and is now widely applied in communications. In telephony, George Owen Squier is credited with the development of telephone carrier multiplexing in 1910.

Duplex is a point-to-point system composed of two or more connected parties or devices that can communicate with one another in both directions. Feedback.

Wireless Communication

Wireless Communication or sometimes simply wireless, is the transfer of information or power between two or more points that are not connected by an electrical conductor. The most common wireless technologies use radio waves. With radio waves distances can be short, such as a few meters for Bluetooth or as far as millions of kilometers for deep-space radio communications. It encompasses various types of fixed, mobile, and portable applications, including two-way radios, cellular telephones, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and wireless networking. Other examples of applications of radio wireless technology include GPS units, garage door openers, wireless computer mice, keyboards and headsets, headphones, radio receivers, satellite television, broadcast television and cordless telephones. Somewhat less common methods of achieving wireless communications include the use of other electromagnetic wireless technologies, such as light, magnetic, or electric fields or the use of sound. The term wireless has been used twice in communications history, with slightly different meaning. It was initially used from about 1890 for the first radio transmitting and receiving technology, as in wireless telegraphy, until the new word radio replaced it around 1920. The term was revived in the 1980s and 1990s mainly to distinguish digital devices that communicate without wires, such as the examples listed in the previous paragraph, from those that require wires or cables. This became its primary usage in the 2000s, due to the advent of technologies such as LTE, LTE-Advanced, Wi-Fi and Bluetooth. Wireless operations permit services, such as long-range communications, that are impossible or impractical to implement with the use of wires. The term is commonly used in the telecommunications industry to refer to telecommunications systems (e.g. radio transmitters and receivers, remote controls, etc.) which use some form of energy (e.g. radio waves, acoustic energy,) to transfer information without the use of wires. Information is transferred in this manner over both short and long distances.

Cellular (wi-fi signal boosters) - Off Grid

Internet Connection using Cellphone Towers:
Cell Reception - Wi-Fi Jetpack (RSSI signal) Mobile Hotspot - Weboost Signal Booster - Directional Wi-Fi Antenna - Wi-Fi Warnings

Internet Connection Types - Networks

Wireless Communication (electromagnetic) - Bioelectronics - Brain Computer Interface

Consciousness - Telepathy - Ultrasound

Cellular Communication is an umbrella term used in biology and more in depth in biophysics and biochemistry to identify different types of communication methods between living cells. Some of the methods include cell signaling among others. This process allows millions of cells to communicate and work together to perform important bodily processes that are necessary to survival. Both multicellular and unicellular organisms heavily rely on cell-cell communication.

Long-Term Evolution or LTE is a standard for wireless broadband communication for mobile devices and data terminals, based on the GSM/EDGE and UMTS/HSPA standards. It improves on those standards' capacity and speed by using a different radio interface and core network improvements. LTE is the upgrade path for carriers with both GSM/UMTS networks and CDMA2000 networks. Because LTE frequencies and bands differ from country to country, only multi-band phones can use LTE in all countries where it is supported. Up arrow means transmitting data to the internet, and the down arrow means downloading data from the internet.

Rich Communication Services is a communication protocol between mobile-telephone carriers and between phone and carrier, aiming at replacing SMS messages with a text-message system that is richer, provides phonebook polling (for service discovery), and transmit in-call multimedia. It is also marketed as Advanced Messaging, Advanced Communications, joyn, Message+ and SMS+.

Signal Open Source project helps you send high-quality group, text, voice, video, document, and picture messages anywhere in the world without SMS or MMS fees. There are no ads, no affiliate marketers, no creepy tracking. Just open technology for a fast, simple, and secure messaging experience.

Scientists revolutionize wireless communication with three-dimensional processors. Scientists have pioneered a method for using semiconductor technology to manufacture processors that significantly enhance the efficiency of transmitting vast amounts of data across the globe.

Wireless Communication from Underwater to the Air. Translational Acoustic-RF communication or TARF transmitter, sends standard sound (or SONAR signals). Sound travels as pressure waves; when these waves hit the surface, they cause it tovibrate. To pick up these vibrations, a TARF receiver in the air uses a very sensitive radar. The radar transmits a signal which reflects off the water surface and comes back. As the water surface vibrates, it causes small changes to the received radar signal, enabling a TARF receiver to sense the tiny vibrations caused by the underwater acoustic transmitter.

Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing is a type of digital transmission and a method of encoding digital data on multiple carrier frequencies. OFDM has developed into a popular scheme for wideband digital communication, used in applications such as digital television and audio broadcasting, DSL internet access, wireless networks, power line networks, and 4G/5G mobile communications. Massive multiple-input, multiple-output, or massive MIMO, is an extension of MIMO, which essentially groups together antennas at the transmitter and receiver to provide better throughput and better spectrum efficiency.

Packet Switching is a method of grouping data that is transmitted over a digital network into packets. Packets are made of a header and a payload. Data in the header is used by networking hardware to direct the packet to its destination where the payload is extracted and used by application software. Packet switching is the primary basis for data communications in computer networks worldwide.

Networks - Communication Technologies - Wireless Energy

Bandwidth is a range of frequencies within a given band, in particular that used for transmitting a signal. Bandwidth is the maximum rate of data transfer across a given path. Bandwidth may be characterized as network bandwidth, data bandwidth, or digital bandwidth. Bandwidth describes the maximum data transfer rate of a network or Internet connection. It measures how much data can be sent over a specific connection in a given amount of time. For example, a gigabit Ethernet connection has a bandwidth of 1,000 Mbps (125 megabytes per second). 300 Mbps should be more than enough for 50-60 users. Bandwidth in signal processing is the difference between the upper and lower frequencies in a continuous band of frequencies. It is typically measured in hertz, and depending on context, may specifically refer to passband bandwidth or baseband bandwidth. Passband bandwidth is the difference between the upper and lower cutoff frequencies of, for example, a band-pass filter, a communication channel, or a signal spectrum. Baseband bandwidth applies to a low-pass filter or baseband signal; the bandwidth is equal to its upper cutoff frequency.

Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation is a technique by which traffic bandwidth in a shared telecommunications medium can be allocated on demand and fairly between different users of that bandwidth. This is a form of bandwidth management, and is essentially the same thing as statistical multiplexing. Where the sharing of a link adapts in some way to the instantaneous traffic demands of the nodes connected to the link.

Bandwidth Management is the process of measuring and controlling the communications (traffic, packets) on a network link, to avoid filling the link to capacity or overfilling the link, which would result in network congestion and poor performance of the network. Bandwidth is measured in bits per second (bit/s) or bytes per second (B/s).

Bandwidth Throttling is the intentional slowing or speeding of an internet service by an Internet service provider (ISP).

Space - Air - Medium

Medium is an intervening substance through which signals can travel as a means for communication. An intervening substance through which something is achieved. Transmissions that are disseminated widely to the public. An occupation for which you are especially well suited. Medium is a means or instrumentality for storing or communicating information.

Sound needs Molecules - Waves

Transmission Medium is a system or substance that can mediate the propagation of signals for the purposes of telecommunication.

Laser Communication in Space is free-space optical communication in outer space. In outer space, the communication range of free-space optical communication is currently of the order of several thousand kilometers, but has the potential to bridge interplanetary distances of millions of kilometers, using optical telescopes as beam expanders. Beam Expander are optical devices that take a collimated beam of light and expand its size (or, used in reverse, reduce its size). In laser physics they are used either as intracavity or extracavity elements. They can be telescopic in nature or prismatic. Generally prismatic beam expanders use several prisms and are known as multiple-prism beam expanders. Telescopic beam expanders include refracting and reflective telescopes. A refracting telescope commonly used is the Galilean telescope which can function as a simple beam expander for collimated light. The main advantage of the Galilean design is that it never focuses a collimated beam to a point, so effects associated with high power density such as dielectric breakdown are more avoidable than with focusing designs such as the Keplerian telescope. When used as intracavity beam expanders, in laser resonators, these telescopes provide two-dimensional beam expansion in the 20–50 range. In tunable laser resonators intracavity beam expansion usually illuminates the whole width of a diffraction grating. Thus beam expansion reduces the beam divergence and enables the emission of very narrow linewidths which is a desired feature for many analytical applications including laser spectroscopy.

Deep Space Optical Communications (NASA)

Free-Space Optical Communication is an optical communication technology that uses light propagating in free space to wirelessly transmit data for telecommunications or computer networking. "Free space" means air, outer space, vacuum, or a medium or something similar. This contrasts with using solids such as optical fiber cable. The technology is useful where the physical connections are impractical due to high costs or other considerations. White Space.

Optical Communication is communication at a distance using light to carry information. It can be performed visually or by using electronic devices. The earliest basic forms of optical communication date back several millennia, while the earliest electrical device created to do so was the photophone, invented in 1880. An optical communication system uses a transmitter, which encodes a message into an optical signal, a channel, which carries the signal to its destination, and a receiver, which reproduces the message from the received optical signal. When electronic equipment is not employed the 'receiver' is a person visually observing and interpreting a signal, which may be either simple (such as the presence of a beacon fire) or complex (such as lights using color codes or flashed in a Morse code sequence). Free-space optical communication has been deployed in space, while terrestrial forms are naturally limited by geography, weather and the availability of light. This article provides a basic introduction to different forms of optical communication.

Arguments - Back and Forth Communication

Argue is to discuss or debate a subject using reasons and real life examples that includes facts and evidence that would help support an idea, action, or theory, and also explain why something is either good or bad and right or wrong, typically with the aim of persuading others to share one's point of view. To exchange or express diverging or opposite views, sometimes in a heated or angry way. Refute.

Anger Ruins Arguments - Profanity Ruins Communication - Invalid Argument's

Compromises - Diplomacy - Negotiations - Proof of Evidence - Make your Case - Public Speaking - Talking - Thesis

Pros and Cons is a side by side list of things that shows a comparison of the positive and negative attributes of an argument or shows the advantages and disadvantages of something, or shows the good and the bad of something, or what is right or wrong about something. Pros and cons is an abbreviation for the Latin word 'pro et contra', which means 'for and against'. The abbreviated form has been in use since the 16th century. On the other hand or the other side of the story.

Pros is an argument in favor of a proposal by showing advantages and proven measurable benefits.

Cons is an argument opposed to a proposal by showing disadvantages and bad side effects that are measured and proven.

Juxtapose is to place things side by side. To place things close together for contrasting effect. Juxtaposition is an act or instance of placing two elements close together or side by side. This is often done in order to compare/contrast the two, to show similarities or differences, etc. Arts.

Antithesis is a person or thing that is the direct opposite of someone or something else. A contrast or opposition between two things. A figure of speech in which an opposition or contrast of ideas is expressed by parallelism of words that are the opposites of, or strongly contrasted with each other. The juxtaposition of contrasting words or ideas to give a feeling of balance.

Opposing Viewpoint is a viewpoint that's the opposite of your own, but not necessarily valid or based on facts or evidence. There's seeing the whole picture, and there's seeing two sides to a coin and there's having a point of view or view point, then there's an invalid augment based on total bull-shit and fantasies.

Fair Journalism - Contention - Controversy - Conflict

On the Other Hand means to introduce a different point of view that has other benefits that were not originally considered. "I crashed my car, but on the other hand, I'm still alive and no one was seriously injured." Two Sides to a Story.

Caveat is a statement that limits or restricts some claim. It is a warning against certain acts, especially under certain conditions that can cause limitations. Relative - Risks.

Deliberate is to think about something carefully and weigh and discuss the pros and cons of an issue. Consider.

Polemic is contentious rhetoric that is intended to support a specific position by aggressive claims and undermining of the opposing position.

Invalid Argument - Propaganda

"Seek First To Understand, Then To Be Understood." (valid, sound, persuasive, conditionals, consistent).

Logos is the logic behind an argument, which tries to inform an audience using logical arguments and supportive evidence.

It's important that you know the reasons why you approve of something, or disapprove of something. Don't generalize your reasons or pretend to understand the facts. Just tell people what you truly know, or don't know. And don't hand pick facts that can be misleading. Tell the whole story, even if you only know one chapter.

Some people are like a unique puzzle. Some puzzles can not be solved unless you approach it in the way that it was designed. Meaning, some people communicate differently. Unless you modify your communication methods, you will always struggle with communication with that particular person. Some people don't know which questions to ask.

"It's ok to disagree with me, I can't force you to be right." "I would agree with you but then we would both be wrong."

Argument is a fact or assertion offered as evidence that something is true. A contentious speech act; a dispute where there is strong disagreement. A discussion in which reasons are advanced for and against some proposition or proposal. A course of reasoning aimed at demonstrating a truth or falsehood; the methodical process of logical reasoning, without assumptions.

Legal Argument is stating the legal reasons for  suit based on statutes, regulations, case precedents, legal texts, and reasoning applied to facts in the particular situation. When writing a legal argument you need to identify relevant legal issues, apply the law to the facts, structure your answer clearly and logically (use the model plan), and use appropriate language for a legal argument. A written legal argument is usually in a format prescribed by the courts.

Make your Case means to give arguments supporting your position or ideas. Persuasion.

Compelling Argument is one that convinces people that something is true or that something should be done. To make a compelling argument you should keep it simple, concise and be specific. Be fair to your opponent and understand the opposing point of view. Avoid common fallacies. Make your assumptions clear. Rest your argument on solid foundations. Use evidence your listeners will believe. And avoid platitudes and generalizations.

Compelling is tending to persuade by forcefulness of argument. Driving or forcing. Compel is to force somebody to do something. Necessitate or exact.

Necessitate is when something must previously have happened or existed or be in place during, in order for stated thing to be happening or be the case. Cause to be a concomitant.

Concomitant is an event or situation that happens at the same time as or in connection with another. Following or accompanying as a consequence.

Strong Argument is a non-deductive argument that succeeds in providing probable, but not conclusive, logical support for its conclusion.

Oral Argument is to start strong. Introduce the problem and state the issue. After your introduction, briefly describe the case and the facts.. Provide a roadmap. You want to let people know where you are going with your argument. Know your arguments completely. Understand the basic premise of each of the supplementary materials. Focus on the two most important arguments in the problem. Always focus on why your side is right, rather than on why the other side is wrong.

Written Advocacy is to be persuasive. The document must be useful for the intended reader. Writing your outline of argument is to provide a concise logical statement on the relevant factual conclusions. State why people should form the factual conclusions you seek. Include precise references to the evidence you're relying on in connection with each disputed factual conclusion.

Getting your Point Across

How to argue with your partner when we are confronted suddenly. Don't hurt back when feeling unloved or misunderstood. (youtube)

Syllogism is a kind of logical argument that applies deductive reasoning to arrive at a conclusion based on two or more propositions that are asserted or assumed to be true.

Rhetoric in Aristotle is an ancient Greek treatise on the art of persuasion, dating from the 4th century BC.

Epideictic praise-and-blame rhetoric that deals with goodness, excellence, nobility, shame, honor, dishonor, beauty, and matters of virtue and vice. The "components" of virtue according to Aristotle, were "justice, courage, self-control, magnificence, magnanimity, liberality, gentleness, practical and speculative wisdom" or "reason". Vice was the "contrary" of virtue.

Ethos is used to describe the guiding beliefs or ideals that characterize a community, nation, or ideology.

For Good Measure is something offered in addition to what has already been done, said, or given. You mean that something is done in addition to a number of other things.

One Thing at a Time. When you talk about several things at once, or combine too many concepts into a single sentence or into a single context, your message becomes blurry and vague. It becomes confusing when you try not to say too many things at the same time. But you also don't want to say too little either, because people may not be able to understand what you're saying. Your message needs a clear goal. Build up to your message by defining the key words that help to define your message. And also make your message relative, and have a clear example or a scenario that is relevant to your message. If you focus your message to a clear point, then your message can penetrate through peoples biases and misconceptions. When your message is applied to a particular situation, then people will not assume that your message will have the same effect in other situations, because that will require a new explanation that is more relevant to a different situation.

We Need to Talk. We need to define the words that we use so there is no confusion on what we mean to say. We need to have the same definitions to the words that we use to communicate. If our definitions differ, we must speak these definitions instead of using words that can be interpreted differently. We must agree that 2+2=4 so that we can avoid making equations that are not consistent and that would cause our answers to vary. We need to use debate rules and guidelines so that it can give us the framework and the structure to make our discussions more effective and more efficient. We need to suspend our emotional reactions and focus more on the words that we use to communicate with. The information that we express needs to be precise. We need to avoid using vague words and labels that only generalize our message. If we can do this, our conversations will be a lot more productive, and it will also reduce misunderstandings and corrupt behaviors, which will allow us to progress and to develop as a human civilization. We have a lot more in common than you think.

Argumentation Theory is the interdisciplinary study of how conclusions can be reached through logical reasoning; that is, claims based, soundly or not, on premises. It includes the arts and sciences of civil debate, dialogue, conversation, and persuasion. It studies rules of inference, logic, and procedural rules in both artificial and real world settings. There are various types of dialogue: Persuasion dialogue aims to resolve conflicting points of view of different positions. Negotiation aims to resolve conflicts of interests by cooperation and deal making. Inquiry aims to resolve general ignorance by the growth of knowledge. Deliberation aims to resolve a need to take action by reaching a decision. Information seeking aims to reduce one party's ignorance by requesting information from another party that is in a position to know something. Eristic aims to resolve a situation of antagonism through verbal fighting. Refers to argument that aims to successfully dispute another's argument, rather than searching for truth.

Closing Argument is the concluding statement of each party's counsel reiterating the important arguments for the trier of fact, often the jury, in a court case. A closing argument occurs after the presentation of evidence. A closing argument may not contain any new information and may only use evidence introduced at trial. It is not customary to raise objections during closing arguments, except for egregious behavior. However, such objections, when made, can prove critical later in order to preserve appellate issues. In the United States, the plaintiff is generally entitled to open the argument. The defendant usually goes second. The plaintiff or prosecution is usually then permitted a final rebuttal argument. In some jurisdictions, however, this form is condensed, and the prosecution or plaintiff goes second, after the defense, with no rebuttals. Either party may waive their opportunity to present a closing argument. During closing arguments, counsel may not (among other restrictions) vouch for the credibility of witnesses, indicate their personal opinions of the case, comment on the absence of evidence that they themselves have caused to be excluded, or attempt to exhort the jury to irrational, emotional behavior. In some countries (e.g. France or Germany), in criminal cases, the defendant's counsel always makes their closing argument last, after the public prosecutor or any other party. Sometimes the defendant is allowed to address the court directly after his or her counsel's closing argument. In a criminal law case, the prosecution will restate all the evidence which helps prove each element of the offence. In the United States, there are often several limits as to what the prosecution may or may not say, including precluding the prosecution from using a defendant's exercise of his Fifth Amendment right to silence as evidence of guilt. One of the most important restrictions on prosecutors, however, is against shifting the burden of proof, or implying that the defense must put on evidence or somehow prove the innocence of the defendant. In some cases, a judge's presentation of the jury instruction is also known as summing up. In this case, the judge is merely articulating the law and questions of fact upon which the jury is asked to deliberate. The purposes and techniques of closing argument are taught in courses on Trial Advocacy. The closing is often planned early in the trial planning process. The attorneys will integrate the closing with the overall case strategy through either a theme and theory or, with more advanced strategies, a line of effort. The prosecution should also state the main points and be sure to give their side of the argument and to be emotional. Summary.

I Rest My Case means that you conclude your presentation of evidence and arguments in a lawsuit. It also means to show that one believes one has presented sufficient evidence for one's views.

Disputing - Debunking

Dispute is a disagreement or argument about something important. To question the truth or validity of something; Raise a formal objection in a court of law or take exception to.

Rebuttal is the speech act of refuting by offering a contrary contention or argument. Refuting is to prove to be false or incorrect.

Refute is to prove and argue something to be false or incorrect using evidence.

Questioning - Scrutinizing - Doubting

Repudiation is rejecting or disowning or disclaiming as invalid. The exposure of falseness or pretensions.

Debunking is the exposure of falseness or pretensions. Expose while ridiculing, without pretentious or false claims and ideas.

Reductio ad absurdum is a form of argument which attempts either to disprove a statement by showing it inevitably leads to a ridiculous, absurd, or impractical conclusion, or to prove one by showing that if it were not true, the result would be absurd or impossible.

Contentious is something that is likely to cause controversy, or cause a dispute and disagreement. Just Complaining is not an Argument.

Disputed Statement is when there is a concern that a statement contains inaccuracies. The accuracy of a statement may be a cause for concern if: It contains unlikely information, without providing suitable references; It contains information which is particularly difficult to verify; It contains information of a highly specific nature which changes too frequently to be assumed accurate at any given time; It is cited to sources that are antiquated or have since been called into question; It has been written (or edited) by a user who is known to write inaccurately on the topic; It contains information which is ambiguous and open to interpretation, either due to grammar, or opinionated wording; or There are reliable sources supporting two or more different claims.

Think before you respond. Taking a pause before you respond to someone's statement gives you a chance to refocus on the people you're communicating with, not just the topic. In a conversation, during which the temperature has started to rise, wait 10 seconds before you respond. Just stop. Don't respond immediately. Instead, wait and give yourself a moment to be intentional in your response, instead of emotional.

Invalid Arguments - Pretending to Make a Point

Circular Reasoning is a logical fallacy in which the reasoner begins with what they are trying to end with. The components of a circular argument are often logically valid because if the premises are true, the conclusion must be true. Circular reasoning is not a formal logical fallacy but a pragmatic defect in an argument whereby the premises are just as much in need of proof or evidence as the conclusion, and as a consequence the argument fails to persuade. Other ways to express this are that there is no reason to accept the premises unless one already believes the conclusion, or that the premises provide no independent ground or evidence for the conclusion. Begging the question is closely related to circular reasoning, and in modern usage the two generally refer to the same thing. Circular reasoning is often of the form: "A is true because B is true; B is true because A is true." Circularity can be difficult to detect if it involves a longer chain of propositions.

Contradictions - Prejudice - Bias - Blame Shifting - Manipulation - Delusions - Bliss - Fallacies - Junk Science - Flawed Reasoning

Indefensible is something that is not justifiable by argument. Incapable of being defended or explained.

Baseless is something unfounded, false, fabricated and unconfirmed or not proven. Something that is not true and not based on facts or evidence. (foundationless, groundless, invalid, unreasonable, unsupported).

Unsubstantiated is something not not supported or proven by evidence or something unsupported by other evidence. Speculation.

Argument Does Not Hold Water means that a point of view or an argument does not seem to be reasonable or in accordance with facts, or is not sound, strong or logical. 

Weak Argument is a non-deductive argument that fails to provide probable support for its conclusion.

Poke Holes in something is to find mistakes or flaws in some plan, idea, or argument. If an argument is full of holes it means that it's unsound or flawed and has many faults that do not stand up to scrutiny or criticism.

If you have no evidence and no explanation and no reasoning, then what you're saying besides nothing is that you don't even have an opinion, you have only a bunch of false accusations that do more harm than good. If you have nothing to bring to the table, then you can't be there, so don't show up until you have something real.

Moot Point is a fact that doesn't matter because it's not relevant to the current situation. Making a false equivalence by blame shifting, which means that you have no answer, only complete utter nonsense.

Some people like to make certain details seem bigger than they really are. Some people like to make false correlations as if they are relevant, or, as if they're explaining the point that they're pretending to be making. Some people cherry pick data in order to manipulate the true meaning of a discussion. Some people are like a broken TV, you can't change the channel, and it's the same thing everyday. There's no real conversation or a discussion that makes sense. Some people only give their opinions about other opinions. And when you ask them to explain, they give you the run around. So how do you fix a broken TV? First, you should not argue with a broken TV or try to reason with it. And you can't ignore a broken TV either. You need to ask real questions. Just because someone refuses to have a real conversation with you, this shouldn't stop you from having a real conversation with them. You need to keep reminding them that you live in reality, and you have to do this without insulting the fantasy world that they live in. It's like when you're trying to stop someone from jumping off a bridge, you have to be careful what you say. A person can easily go off the deep end. You have to talk them down without putting them down.

Splitting Hairs means that they are making unnecessary distinctions between things when the differences between them are so small that they are not important.

False Balance is a media bias in which the media presents an issue as being more balanced between opposing viewpoints than the evidence supports. Journalists may present evidence and arguments out of proportion to the actual evidence for each side, or may omit information that would establish one side's claims as baseless. False balance has been cited as a cause of misinformation. Bothsidesism.

Argument to Moderation is a false premise that tries to show that the truth is always in the middle of two opposites, which in most cases it is not. It is also know as a false compromise, or an argument from middle ground, or the golden mean fallacy, which is a misconception resulting from incorrect reasoning. Unconstitutional.

Slippery Slope is a logical fallacy in which a party asserts that a relatively small first step leads to a chain of related events culminating in some significant or negative effect. The core of the slippery slope argument is that a specific decision under debate is likely to result in unintended consequences. The strength of such an argument depends on the warrant, i.e. whether or not one can demonstrate a process that leads to the significant effect. This type of argument is sometimes used as a form of fear mongering, in which the probable consequences of a given action are exaggerated in an attempt to scare the audience. The fallacious sense of "slippery slope" is often used synonymously with continuum fallacy, in that it ignores the possibility of middle ground and assumes a discrete transition from category A to category B. In a non-fallacious sense, including use as a legal principle, a middle-ground possibility is acknowledged, and reasoning is provided for the likelihood of the predicted outcome.

Vague - Doublespeak - Babble - Trick Questions - Correlation does not imply Causation

Allais Paradox shows an inconsistency of actual observed choices with the predictions of expected utility theory. Rather than adhering to rationality, the Allais paradox proves that individuals rarely make rational decisions consistently when required to do so immediately.

Self-Refuting Idea is idea or statement whose falsehood is a logical consequence of the act or situation of holding them to be true. Many ideas are called self-refuting by their detractors, and such accusations are therefore almost always controversial, with defenders stating that the idea is being misunderstood or that the argument is invalid.

Argument from Ignorance asserts that a proposition is true because it has not yet been proven false or a proposition is false because it has not yet been proven true. Religious Belief.

Argumentum ad populum is a fallacious argument that concludes that a proposition must be true because many or most people believe it, often concisely encapsulated as: "If many believe so, it is so". Popularity is not a measurement of value.

Anecdotal Evidence is evidence based only on personal observation, collected in a casual or non-systematic manner. Anecdotal evidence can be in the form of a shared experience or a narrative that makes a point. Empirical evidence is scientific; it is observable. Anecdotal evidence is like “word of mouth”; it is based on personal experiences. When compared to other types of evidence, anecdotal evidence is generally regarded as limited in value due to a number of potential weaknesses, but may be considered within the scope of scientific method as some anecdotal evidence can be both empirical and verifiable, e.g. in the use of case studies in medicine. Other anecdotal evidence, however, does not qualify as scientific evidence, because its nature prevents it from being investigated by the scientific method. Where only one or a few anecdotes are presented, there is a larger chance that they may be unreliable due to cherry-picked or otherwise non-representative samples of typical cases. Similarly, psychologists have found that due to cognitive bias people are more likely to remember notable or unusual examples rather than typical examples. Thus, even when accurate, anecdotal evidence is not necessarily representative of a typical experience. Accurate determination of whether an anecdote is typical requires statistical evidence. Misuse of anecdotal evidence in the form of argument from anecdote is an informal fallacy and is sometimes referred to as the "person who" fallacy ("I know a person who..."; "I know of a case where..." etc.) which places undue weight on experiences of close peers which may not be typical. n science, definitions of anecdotal evidence include: "casual observations or indications rather than rigorous or scientific analysis". "information passed along by word-of-mouth but not documented scientifically". "evidence that comes from an individual experience. This may be the experience of a person with an illness or the experience of a practitioner based on one or more patients outside a formal research study." "the report of an experience by one or more persons that is not objectively documented or an experience or outcome that occurred outside of a controlled environment". Hearsay.

Faulty Generalization is a conclusion made on the basis of one or few instances of a phenomenon. Hasty Generalization is a conclusion made on the basis of one or few instances of a phenomenon. Post hoc ergo propter hoc is a fallacy of assumption of causality based on sequence of events.

Anecdotal Value refers to the primarily social and political value of an anecdote or anecdotal evidence in promoting understanding of a social, cultural, or economic phenomenon.

Argument from Silence is to express a conclusion that is based on the absence of statements in historical documents, rather than their presence.

Straw Man is a form of argument and an informal fallacy of having the impression of refuting an argument, meanwhile the proper idea of argument under discussion was not addressed or properly refuted. One who engages in this fallacy is said to be "attacking a straw man". The typical straw man argument creates the illusion of having completely refuted or defeated an opponent's proposition through the covert replacement of it with a different proposition (i.e., "stand up a straw man") and the subsequent refutation of that false argument ("knock down a straw man") instead of the opponent's proposition. Straw man arguments have been used throughout history in polemical debate, particularly regarding highly charged emotional subjects.

Dark Arts are techniques or practices that are regarded as obscure or dishonorable, or against the law. Secret skills and methods that are considered bad or unfair and used for evil and selfish purposes. Black Magic - Propaganda.

Just because there is no evidence that something happened, this does not necessarily mean that nothing happened. And just because there is evidence that something happened, this does not necessarily mean that it was the only thing that happened, or that it was the cause of what happened. Don't Assume.

Tone Policing is a personal attack and anti-debate tactic based on criticizing a person for expressing emotion. Tone policing detracts from the truth or falsity of a statement by attacking the tone in which it was presented rather than the message itself. Tone policing is also tone trolling, tone argument, and tone fallacy. Aggression - Uncivilized

Ad Hominem is a term that refers to a rhetorical strategy where the speaker attacks the character, motive, or some other attribute of the person making an argument rather than attacking the substance of the argument itself. This avoids genuine debate by creating a diversion to some irrelevant but often highly charged issue. The most common form of this fallacy is "A makes a claim a, B asserts that A holds a property that is unwelcome, and hence B concludes that argument a is wrong". Ad Hominem is a term that refers to several types of arguments, most of which are fallacious.

False Dilemma is a statement that falsely claims an "either / or" situation, when in fact there is at least one additional logically valid option. The false dilemma fallacy can also arise simply by accidental omission of additional options rather than by deliberate deception. This is a type of informal fallacy or a correlative-based fallacy. A False Dichotomy.

False Accusation - Frivolous Lawsuit - Slander - False Arrest

Argument from Analogy is a special type of inductive argument, whereby perceived similarities are used as a basis to infer some further similarity that has yet to be observed. Analogical reasoning is one of the most common methods by which human beings attempt to understand the world and make decisions.

Association Fallacy is an informal inductive fallacy of the hasty-generalization or red-herring type and which asserts, by irrelevant association and often by appeal to emotion, that qualities of one thing are inherently qualities of another. Two types of association fallacies are sometimes referred to as guilt by association and honor by association. Correlations.

False Equivalence is a logical fallacy in which an equivalence is drawn between two subjects based on flawed or false reasoning. This fallacy is categorized as a fallacy of inconsistency. Colloquially, a false equivalence is often called "comparing apples and oranges." This fallacy is committed when one shared trait between two subjects is assumed to show equivalence, especially in order of magnitude, when equivalence is not necessarily the logical result. False equivalence is a common result when an anecdotal similarity is pointed out as equal, but the claim of equivalence does not bear scrutiny because the similarity is based on oversimplification or ignorance of additional factors. The pattern of the fallacy is often as such: "If A is the set of c and d, and B is the set of d and e, then since they both contain d, A and B are equal". d is not required to exist in both sets; only a passing similarity is required to cause this fallacy to be used. Expert Witness - Creating more questions than providing answers - Analogies - Pros and Cons.

False Narrative is when a statement has insufficient information along with an inaccurate assessment. While certain versions of an event may be partly true, they have been shaped to create a false interpretation.

Oxymoron is the use of two opposite situations or things in one sentence to prove a point. A figure of speech in which apparently contradictory terms appear in conjunction.

Evidence of Absence is evidence of any kind that suggests something is missing or that it does not exist. In some circumstances it can be safely assumed that if a certain event had occurred, evidence of it could be discovered by qualified investigators. In such circumstances it is perfectly reasonable to take the absence of proof of its occurrence as positive proof of its non-occurrence.

Equivocation is the use of ambiguous language to conceal the truth or to avoid committing oneself; prevarication. Calling two different things by the same name is an informal fallacy resulting from the use of a particular word/expression in multiple senses within an argument. It is a type of ambiguity that stems from a phrase having two distinct meanings, not from the grammar or structure of the sentence.

Appeal to Emotion is a logical fallacy characterized by the manipulation of the recipient's emotions in order to win an argument, especially in the absence of factual evidence. This kind of appeal to emotion is a type of red herring and encompasses several logical fallacies, including appeal to consequences, appeal to fear, appeal to flattery, appeal to pity, appeal to ridicule, appeal to spite, and wishful thinking. The appeal to emotion is only fallacious when the emotions that are elicited are irrelevant to evaluating the truth of the conclusion and serve to distract from rational consideration of relevant premises or information.

Poisoning the Well is a type of informal fallacy where adverse information about a target is preemptively presented to an audience, with the intention of discrediting or ridiculing something that the target person is about to say. Propaganda.

Pathos represents an appeal to the emotions of the audience, and elicits feelings that already reside in them. Pathos is a communication technique used most often in rhetoric (where it is considered one of the three modes of persuasion, alongside ethos and logos), and in literature, film and other narrative art. Emotional appeal can be accomplished in a multitude of ways: By a metaphor or storytelling, commonly known as a hook. By passion in the delivery of the speech or writing, as determined by the audience. Personal anecdote or short account of an incident. Not the Whole Truth.

You made the assumption that someone else assumed something. You said something stupid to describe some stupid thing that someone else did. You complain about other peoples faults even when you have the same faults. You only hear things that agree with your opinion and you never look for the facts that confirm your opinion. You only pretend to know things, you never prove the things that you assume to know. In order to learn something and know something, you have to research and investigate something in detail. And can't expect that other people have done the work for you. No one can learn for you. You have to do the work yourself, and learning is the most important work that you will ever have in your life. Everything that you have came from the work of other people. It's time for you to do some work too, and take responsibility for being a human.

"I would rather be almost right than completely wrong."

People say things because they want other people to believe that they actually understand what they're talking about. People are so afraid of being ignorant or looking stupid, that they would rather lie to people than admit that they're ignorant about something. This is the type of behavior that is typical of children, this should not be the behavior of an adult. People are so insecure about being ignorant that they would rather live in a fantasy world then educate themselves and become more knowledgeable about themselves and the world around them. A person can say anything they want just as long as they don't have to prove what they're saying or explain what they're saying. A person doesn't even have to make sense or care about contradicting themselves because they have no idea what they're saying, or are they aware that they are not saying anything valuable or factual. If you have beliefs that are not based on facts or evidence, then all you have is vague opinion that says absolutely nothing. You talk, but you don't say anything. It's Just like the morons on the corporate news channels, empty words from empty minds. People believe that because they learned some words, they can naively believe they know what they're saying. Those are just words. You're being frivolous and slanderous. If you don't know what you're talking about, then you don't know what you're thinking about, and that's dangerous, not just to yourself, but dangerous to other people. If everyone went around lying, then all human existence would be just a lie. If your not saying anything, then you're only pretending to be saying something. If you can't speak the truth, then you're lying, or, you're so ignorant that you don't even know that you're lying, which is worse, because your ignorance can become a threat, which has been well documented throughout human history. It's hard to reason with someone who pretends to know what they're talking about, especially when they never have to prove anything or explain anything. Someone can have a blatant disregard for facts, truth and morality, and ignore things without any respect to the truth or to other people. When someone continually contradicts themselves, it's clear they have little understanding about what they think they know. Society needs to improve education and improve the media, otherwise, we will die from our own ignorance.

Most people never verify anything they know. Most people just pretend to have done some research, when in fact, all they do is look for other peoples stupid opinions that are similar to theirs. When they find people who think the same way they do, they ignorantly believe that this some how validates their reasoning. When they find unverified information or irrelevant information, this some how makes their point of view seem more accurate, which it doesn't, it usually just contradicts what they say or it's irrelevant to the point that they're trying to make, and on top of that, they never see any other way and never admit that they could be wrong, they just want to believe that their right and pretend that their opinion is so how more accurate than other peoples opinion, which it isn't, because their opinion is mostly based on bullshit. But they don't care, because they never have to prove anything they say, or make sense of it or explain it in a coherent way that is easy to understand. It's really easy to be ignorant about things when you have plenty of other morons who agree with you. Conformation bias is something people never consider. Fact Checking Needs to be Done.

I don't always have an answer for other peoples misconceptions. If you can't prove that you're right, then why do I have to prove that you're wrong? You're the one who made the claim. You should learn how to educate yourself instead of expecting other people to educate you. You can't learn if you get your information from the same people or in the same place. You can't learn if you don't listen to other peoples point of view. We need to talk.

What are the facts and what is the evidence? What is the current situation now? What is expected to happen in the future? How do people feel? Research.

Why Is It So Hard to Change People’s Minds? Our opinions are often based in emotion and group affiliation, not facts. Many people will vigorously defend, excuse, justify, and keep their sacred beliefs even when confronted with irrefutable proof they are wrong. Many people are unwilling to change their world view to account for new information that contradicts their cherished beliefs. Instead, they reduce dissonance by justifying their outlook rather than by changing their minds or behaviors. People try to justify their beliefs by using unproven and illogical statements. For example, "The president is a successful businessman and must know what he’s doing", this is an ignorant statement when you don't present any evidence that proves this. And when trump voters hear things that contradict what they believe, they say ignorant things like "All that stuff is just ‘fake news,’ and you can’t trust it", again without presenting any evidence or proof. "The president is doing what’s best for the country and is the victim of a political witch hunt", again this statement is baseless and vague without presenting any evidence or proof, or even an example. If your excuse for your belief is just another belief, then you don't understand what you think you know. This is more than just people ignoring information or denying information, it's peoples inability to analyze information effectively, especially the information they hold in their minds. For example, when you consider the documented and video proof that Donald Trump has lied, cheated, stolen, and committed very serious crimes, you have to wonder why trump voters are not aware of these facts or aware of the credible and incriminating information that is available. This is an education problem and a media problem. Cognitive distortions are a clear sign that people are not informed enough. Conformity can be extremely dangerous when misused. Shark Pool (vimeo).

Change of Heart is when someone changes their opinion or changes the way they feel about something or changes the way they feel about a particular situation, and now excepts that they were wrong about something, and are now willing to make the necessary changes in their thinking and in their life that will reflect this new understanding.

If you don't feel right in saying it, then you are probably wrong in thinking it. Think before you speak, and think about what you're thinking about. Thoughts are not proof and thoughts are not always accurate or honest. That's why saying the wrong thing at the wrong time is not that unusual. People tend to put their foot in their mouth when they don't think carefully and attentively about what they are saying. And sometimes peoples mouths are not their own because their mouth has been paid for by powerful influences who control their mouth like a puppet, or it could be that their mouth has been manipulated by false information. Either way, you should do more thinking and less stinking.

Debating - Deliberations

Debate is a discussion in which reasons are advanced for or against some proposition or proposal. The formal presentation of a stated proposition and the opposition to it, usually followed by a vote. To argue with one another and to think about something carefully and weigh the good against bad and to discuss the pros and cons of an issue.

Debating is a point that is asserted in argument where there is a lack of agreement. A conflict of people's opinions or actions that have a disagreement. A formal discussion of subjects before a public assembly or legislature. To express opposing view points with facts that do not manipulate the truth or lie or cherry pick data.

Public Debate is debating by the public usually in a public forum.

Diplomacy - Talking - Comments - Criticism - Invalid Argument - Listening

National Speech and Debate Association. Speech involves a presentation by one or two students that is judged against a similar type of presentation by others in a round of competition. There are two general categories of speech events, public address events and interpretive events. Public address events feature a speech written by the student, either in advance or with limited prep, that can answer a question, share a belief, persuade an audience, or educate the listener on a variety of topics. Debate involves an individual or a team of students working to effectively convince a judge that their side of a resolution or topic is, as a general principle, more valid. Students in debate come to thoroughly understand both sides of an issue, having researched each extensively, and learn to think critically about every argument that could be made on each side. Interpretation events center upon a student selecting and performing published material. Duo Interpretation is when two competitors team up to deliver a ten-minute performance of a published play or story. Using off-stage focus, Duo Interpretation competitors convey emotion and environment through a variety of performance techniques focusing on the relationships and interactions between the characters. No props or costumes are used. The event involves a pair of performers acting out a literary piece or program under certain constraints, including not making eye contact nor touching their partner, and not using props. Pieces used often include published books, movies, short stories, plays, or poems. Participants may cut anything out of their piece, but cannot add any dialogue. This event can either be dramatic or humorous.

Cloture is a motion or process in parliamentary procedure aimed at bringing debate to a quick end and avoid a filibuster.

Deliberation is a discussion of all sides of a question. The trait of thoughtfulness and careful consideration in action or decision. Planning something carefully and intentionally. A rate demonstrating an absence of haste or hurry.

Juries - Courts

Deliberation is a process of thoughtfully weighing options, usually prior to voting. Deliberation emphasizes the use of logic and reason as opposed to power-struggle, creativity, or dialog. Group decisions are generally made after deliberation through a vote or consensus of those involved. In legal settings a jury famously uses deliberation because it is given specific options, like guilty or not guilty, along with information and arguments to evaluate. In "deliberative democracy", the aim is for both elected officials and the general public to use deliberation rather than power-struggle as the basis for their vote.

Deliberative Rhetoric is a rhetorical device that juxtaposes potential future outcomes to communicate support or opposition for a given action or policy. In deliberative rhetoric, an argument is made using examples from the past to predict future outcomes in order to illustrate that a given policy or action will either be harmful or beneficial in the future. Fallacies.

Chatham House Rule is a system for holding debates and discussion panels on controversial issues.

Online Deliberation includes practices such as online consultation, e-participation, e-government, Citizen-to-Citizen, online deliberative polling, crowdsourcing, online facilitation, online research communities, interactive e-learning, civic dialogue in Internet forums and online chat, and group decision making that utilizes collaborative software and other forms of computer-mediated communication. Work in all these endeavors is tied together by the challenge of using electronic media in a way that deepens thinking and improves mutual understanding.

Talking Point in debate or discourse is a succinct statement designed to support persuasively one side taken on an issue. Such statements can either be free standing or created as retorts to the opposition's talking points and are frequently used in public relations, particularly in areas heavy in debate such as politics and marketing.

The Great Debaters (Film) - 100 Debates (wiki) - Debate

Moot is a hypothetical case that law students argue and think about carefully as an exercise. Something that is open to argument or debate and is of no legal significance or something that has been previously decided. Moot Point.

Public Forum Debate debaters argue a topic of national importance. Public Participation.

Lincoln Douglas Debate is a type of one-on-one debate with a format that emphasizes logic, ethical values, and philosophy.

Mock Trial is an act or imitation trial. It is similar to a moot court, but mock trials simulate lower-court trials, while moot court simulates appellate court hearings. Attorneys preparing for a real trial might use a mock trial consisting of volunteers as role players to test theories or experiment with each other. Mock trial is also the name of an extracurricular program in which students participate in rehearsed trials to learn about the legal system in a competitive manner. Interscholastic mock trials take place on all levels including primary school, middle school, high school, college, and law school. Mock trial is often taught in conjunction with a course in trial advocacy or takes place as an after school enrichment activity. Some gifted and talented programs may also take place in one.

Argumentation Theory is the interdisciplinary study of how conclusions can be reached through logical reasoning; that is, claims based, soundly or not, on premises. It includes the arts and sciences of civil debate, dialogue, conversation, and persuasion. It studies rules of inference, logic, and procedural rules in both artificial and real world settings. Argumentation includes debate and negotiation which are concerned with reaching mutually acceptable conclusions. It also encompasses eristic dialog, the branch of social debate in which victory over an opponent is the primary goal. This art and science is often the means by which people protect their beliefs or self-interests in rational dialogue, in common parlance, and during the process of arguing. Argumentation is used in law, for example in trials, in preparing an argument to be presented to a court, and in testing the validity of certain kinds of evidence. Also, argumentation scholars study the post hoc rationalizations by which organizational actors try to justify decisions they have made irrationally.

Evidence Based Argumentation

Ransberger Pivot is a debate technique from 1982 by Ray Ransberger and Marshall Fritz in which the speaker attempts to find common ground with the person they are trying to convince of their view. Once a person objects to the speaker's ideas, the speaker employs the technique in three stages. 1) Listen to the other person's objections. 2) Understand the other person's objections. 3) Find a common goal in the other person's objections and convince them your way is a solution to the agreed problem.

Dialectic is a discourse between two or more people holding different points of view about a subject but wishing to establish the truth through reasoned arguments.

EBA Developing Evidence Based Arguments - Evidence Based (PDF)

Cornering is to force a person or animal into a place or situation from which it is hard to escape.

Mirror Image Rule states that an offer must be accepted exactly with no modifications. The offeror is the master of one's own offer. An attempt to accept the offer on different terms instead creates a counter-offer, and this constitutes a rejection of the original offer. (also referred to as an unequivocal and absolute acceptance requirement).

Offer and Acceptance analysis is a traditional approach in contract law. The offer and acceptance formula, developed in the 19th century, identifies a moment of formation when the parties are of one mind. This classical approach to contract formation has been modified by developments in the law of estoppel, misleading conduct, misrepresentation and unjust enrichment.

To have a productive debate, you should acknowledge and validate the emotions of a debate. Ask lots of questions and genuinely listen to the answers that people give. Then come up with solutions together so that there is buy-in from both sides.

Successful Negotiation is not about getting to yes, it's about mastering no and understanding what the path to an agreement is. The more little yeses you get, the more likely you are to say yes to a big yes. "Well you want me to be successful don't you?" That's pushing for a yes. The flipside question to that instead is, "Do you want me to fail?" "That's right."

Marketing Tricks

Digression is a section of a composition or speech that marks a temporary shift of subject; the digression ends when the writer or speaker returns to the main topic. Digressions can be used intentionally as a stylistic or rhetorical device.

Devil's Advocate is someone who, given a certain argument, takes a position they do not necessarily agree with (or simply an alternative position from the accepted norm), for the sake of debate or to explore the thought further.

Heckler is a person who harasses and tries to disconcert others with questions, challenges, or gibes. Hecklers are often known to shout disparaging comments at a performance or event, or to interrupt set-piece speeches, with the intent of disturbing performers and/or participants. Interrupts (a public speaker) with derisive or aggressive comments or abuse.

Booing is an act of showing displeasure for someone or something, generally an entertainer, by loudly yelling boo! (and holding the "oo" sound) or making other noises of disparagement, such as hissing. People may make hand signs at the entertainer, such as the thumbs down sign. If spectators particularly dislike the performance they may also accompany booing by throwing objects (traditionally rotten fruit and vegetables) onstage, though the objects may not be meant to physically hurt the performer.

Critics - Bullies - Skepticism - Complaining

Internet Troll is a person who sows discord on the Internet by starting arguments or upsetting people, by posting inflammatory, extraneous, or off-topic messages in an online community (such as a newsgroup, forum, chat room, or blog) with the deliberate intent of provoking readers into an emotional response or of otherwise disrupting normal on-topic discussion, often for their own amusement.

Good communication needs instructions or a well understood procedure. To have a good debate that is productive and effective, everyone involved must understand the rules of the debate, and also be prepared to explain themselves simply and coherently, and provide real examples or scenarios of their idea and provide any evidence that will back up their opinion or assertion. Questions should be known in advanced, so that the topics can be focused on. Questions that are off topic can be submitted for the next debate. First, everyone must agree on the definitions of the words we will be using during the debate. If you use words that are not on the list, or if you have a different definition of a word, then you need to submit these words and definitions so that the community can agree on them and understand the intention of the word. Words: Confirmation Bias, False Consensus, Bias, Assumptions, Evidence, Proof, Gullible, Vague, Empathy, Freedom (specify which freedom and make it relative and have an example). Human Rights. During the debate the person speaking will be encouraged to say the definition of a word instead using just the word itself. Describe the word instead of just saying the word.

Junk Science - Invalid Argument - Distractions - Stubborn Denial

Political Debates are mostly bullshit and just a way for corrupt politicians to spread propaganda. It's political theatre at its worst. There's a difference between a debate and a case that is presented in a courtroom with evidence and witnesses, such as a mock trial or with a jury deliberation. A debate is different than having a real conversation, or an argument, or a discussion. Debating is different than diplomacy, or conflict resolution, or disagreements, or meetings, or public meetings, or collaborations or negotiations. You have to learn a lot more than just knowing how to debate because there are lots of things that impede discussions and destroy conversations, such as rhetoric, bickering or complaining, using the same key words over and over, lying, exaggerations, assumptions, beliefs, bogus analogies, invalid arguments, circular arguments, insults, slander, personal attacks, sarcasm, junk science, scams, question avoidance or question dodging, political theater, bad faith actors, two faced scammers, talking shit about irrelevant things, changing the subject and free speech abuse, just to name a few. And when it comes to politics, we don't have real debates with politicians because politicians can avoid answering questions, and they are also allowed to lie, distort information and mislead people. So we have ignorant scumbags who can't have real conversations, but we are forced to believe that they are our representatives. No transparency and no accountability. Just fraud and scumbag behavior.

Discussions - Conversations - Discourse

Discussion is an extended interactive communication dealing with some particular topic. An exchange of views on some topic.

Dialogue is a written or spoken conversational exchange between two or more people, and a literary and theatrical form that depicts such an exchange.

Dialogic refers to the use of conversation or shared dialogue to explore the meaning of something. This is as opposed to monologic which refers to one entity with all the information simply giving it to others without exploration and clarification of meaning through discussion. Dialogic processes refer to implied meaning in words uttered by a speaker and interpreted by a listener. Dialogic works carry on a continual dialogue that includes interaction with previous information presented. The term is used to describe concepts in literary theory and analysis as well as in philosophy.

Debating - Deliberation - Diplomacy - Social Learning - Talking - Argue - Invalid Reasoning - Small Talk - Language

Conversation is a form of interactive, spontaneous communication between two or more people. Typically, it occurs in spoken communication, as written exchanges are usually not referred to as conversations. The development of conversational skills and etiquette is an important part of socialization. The development of conversational skills in a new language is a frequent focus of language teaching and learning. Conversation analysis is a branch of sociology which studies the structure and organization of human interaction, with a more specific focus on conversational interaction. Real Conversations.

Converse is to carry on a conversation. Open Minded.

Discourse is an extended interactive communication dealing with some particular topic. To consider or examine in speech or writing. Carry on a conversation and talk at length and formally about a topic. Discourse denotes written and spoken communications such as: In semantics and discourse analysis: Discourse is a conceptual generalization of conversation within each modality and context of communication. The totality of codified language (vocabulary) used in a given field of intellectual enquiry and of social practice, such as legal discourse, medical discourse, religious discourse, et cetera. In the work of Michel Foucault, and that of the social theoreticians he inspired: discourse describes "an entity of sequences, of signs, in that they are enouncements (énoncés)", statements in conversation. Discourse is the use of language in context. Students learn meanings of scientific terms through engagement in discourse and practices.

Scientific Discourse includes some unique features, derived from the highly specialized nature of the epistemic communities constructing these discourse processes and practices. Science Communication.

Discourse Analysis is a general term for a number of approaches to analyze written, vocal, or sign language use, or any significant semiotic event. Narrative Therapy.

Discourse Ethics refers to a type of argument that attempts to establish normative or ethical truths by examining the presuppositions of discourse. Variations of this argument have been used in the establishment of egalitarian ethics, as well as libertarian ethics.

Critique is a detailed analysis and assessment of something, especially a literary, philosophical, or political theory. Critique is a method of disciplined, systematic study of a written or oral discourse. Although critique is commonly understood as fault finding and negative judgment, it can also involve merit recognition, and in the philosophical tradition it also means a methodical practice of doubt. The contemporary sense of critique has been largely influenced by the Enlightenment critique of prejudice and authority, which championed the emancipation and autonomy from religious and political authorities.

Dialectic refers to the dialogue between people holding different points of view about a subject but wishing to arrive at the truth through reasoned argumentation. Dialectic resembles debate, but the concept excludes subjective elements such as emotional appeal and rhetoric.

Dialectical Reasoning is a discourse between two or more people holding different points of view about a subject but wishing to establish the truth through reasoned arguments.

Socratic Method is a form of cooperative argumentative dialogue between individuals, based on asking and answering questions to stimulate critical thinking and to draw out ideas and underlying presumptions. It is a dialectical method, often involving a discussion in which the defense of one point of view is questioned; one participant may lead another to contradict themselves in some way, thus weakening the defender's point. Socrates.

Conversation Analysis is an approach to the study of social interaction, embracing both verbal and non-verbal conduct, in situations of everyday life. As its name implies, CA began with a focus on casual conversation, but its methods were subsequently adapted to embrace more task- and institution-centered interactions, such as those occurring in doctors' offices, courts, law enforcement, helplines, educational settings, and the mass media. As a consequence, the term 'conversation analysis' has become something of a misnomer, but it has continued as a term for a distinctive and successful approach to the analysis of social interactions.

Questioning - Skepticism - Assuming - Hypnotic Language - Propaganda - Trick Questions

I like to hang out with people that I can have normal conversations with. If you have difficulty having conversations with someone, then you spend less time with them. But even a bad conversation is still better than having no conversation at all. But I definitely like having good conversations a lot more than having bad conversations. I like to be productive. If your conversations go nowhere, then I'm not going with you. I don't have time to go nowhere.

Real Conversations - Meaningful and Deep

Most people never have meaningful conversations for several reasons. Most people are not experienced enough or knowledgeable enough to have a real conversation. Most people don't know what questions to ask, or know how to answer certain questions accurately enough in order to make sense. Most people don't know themselves well enough to accurately express themselves using language. Most people are hesitant to have a real conversation because they fear they will look stupid, or feel embarrassed because they are not educated enough to talk about a particular subject. Most people don't feel the need to have personal conversations because they believe that a real conversation is not necessary, or valuable. Most people don't feel the need to have personal conversations because they believe that talking about personal things could make a relationship more complicated, which is understandable, especially when there is a chance of being misunderstood. And some people don't want to have real conversations because they don't want to listen, and they don't want to learn because of they have a lack of empathy, or they are just disrespectful and prejudice, so they are just too stubborn to have a real conversation. This means that most conversations are not that productive or meaningful. So most people never connect on a meaningful level, which makes this a serious problem with almost every relationship. Most schools don't teach people how to have meaningful conversations, which they could easily do. TV shows and the movies can sometimes show good examples of people having real conversations, but that's mostly passive learning, because there's no open discussion about how to interpret the information that people are exposed to on TV or on other media outlets, which makes learning dangerously ineffective. There needs to be a procedure for meaningful conversation effectiveness. Just like with medical examinations and behavior assessments. This means that people will need to be more educated and need to be more knowledgeable about themselves and the world around them. No one can ask the hard questions when they're not skilled enough to ask questions effectively, or analyze the answers effectively. And you don't want to start an investigation without knowing the risks or the vulnerabilities that can come from having certain conversations. Our ability to have long meaningful conversations is absolutely essential for maintaining a quality of life that respects everyone and everything on our planet. But people will never learn enough if they never talk enough, or listen enough, or think enough. Most parents don't know their own children because most people never have meaningful conversations. Most divorces happen when people enter a relationship without fully knowing the other person, or without fully understanding themselves, or fully understanding the process of change and development. You have to know the truth, you have to think the truth, you have to speak the truth, and you have to be the truth. A person should know how to express themselves using facts, and do so without exaggerations, without biases and without subjective opinions. You should try to have a least one real conversation every day, even if it that conversation is only with yourself.

Translations - Interpretations - Forums - Questions and Answers - Diplomacy - Frank - Interventions - Half Smart - Two Faced

We Need To Talk about a controversial topic without being vague.

To be upfront and to tell it like it is. Most people can't explain themselves coherently or honestly because most people never learned how.

Upfront means to be honest with your intentions and your reasons. To be open or transparent and straightforward when explaining what you are really doing. To be direct without reserve or secretiveness, or not to hide the truth or mislead someone.

When people don't have deep conversations, there is no true connection. Our relationships become subjective and vague, and we only see the surface of things. People are pretending to know the answers to questions they have never asked. When we stop asking questions, we stop learning. And when we stop learning, we stop living.

Person Opens Up means that a person starts to talk more about themselves and their feelings. They become comfortable enough to talk about their personal feelings, mostly because they trust someone enough to share personal things about themselves.

Quality Time is the time spent in giving another person one's undivided attention in order to strengthen a relationship, especially with reference to working parents and their child or children. It is mindfully spending time together in order to show your appreciation & affection for one another, and increase connection and intimacy in your relationship. It means not just sitting in the same room at the same time, but actively choosing to make time for each other and for your relationship. Quality time is an expression referring to how an individual proactively interacts with another while they are together, regardless of the duration. It is the time spent with close family, partners or friends that is in some way important, special, productive or profitable to one or everyone involved. It is time that is set aside for paying full and undivided attention to the person or matter at hand. It may also refer to time spent performing some favorite activity.

Work–Life Balance - Parenting

Some people would rather play games then have a real conversation. Instead of talking directly to a person, some people would rather just talk indirectly to someone using hints, analogies, or show some weird behavior that is supposed to intimate something else, or supposed to say something about someone in an indirect way. When drawing comparisons in order to show a similarity in some respect, it is extremely difficult to do effectively without having a real conversation. Making comparisons is sometimes one-sided.

Hint is to make an indirect suggestion. Intimating something else, sometimes using a clue. A slight indication of something, or a slight amount of something that is just enough to be estimated or measured. A small piece of useful advice or information, or an indication of a potential opportunity.

In order to communicate effectively, you have to understand the words, the sentence, the context, and the subject at the same time, and then understand all these different elements as a whole, which means you need a lot more knowledge and information that goes way beyond the original message. In order to understand the whole meaning of what you're experiencing, you need knowledge and information and a particular skill set that manages your knowledge and information, and effectively uses knowledge and information accurately and factually. You should have no biases, no assumptions, no pretending to know something, no believing something without proof or evidence, and there should be no ignoring of other evidence or other information that may be of value.

To have a real discussion is a skill you need to learn. You need to understand the rules of debates and arguments. You need to be open minded with no bias, no beliefs and no assumptions. Just the facts that are relative to the subject. You can't be stubborn and pretend that you're not ignorant about something's, because you can't know everything. You learn to understand, you don't pretend that you understand. You need to truthful to yourself, and not lie to yourself. The truth is relative, so make it relative. And don't expect people to use the same definition for words that you do, because all words have different meanings depending on the context and the person. A real conversation is skillful and deliberate. An excuse is not an answer, you have to explain what you're saying. You can say that you don't know something, but do you know the reason why you don't know something. Avoid the small talk and avoid beating around the bush. You have to care about learning. You have to care about knowing and care about understanding. If you don't care to learn or care to know, then you will never know and you will never learn. You will be ignorant your entire life and not even know it, and you will die as if you never lived.

How to elicit an authentic 'yes'. Researchers suggest giving people a script to get an honest answer -- even if it's a hard 'no' -- instead of acquiescence motivated by awkwardness or guilt.

"You either have a real conversation, or live with never knowing the truth. The truth is debatable. But if you never start the debate, you will be the bait, and you will always be at the low end of the food chain."

Civil Conversation is a dialogue between two people or a group that intends to build a better understanding. Participants don't have to agree—what matters is the act of listening to other people and learning their perspective. A civil conversation focuses on process rather than results. When having a civil conversation show respect for the views expressed by others, even if you strongly disagree. Be brief in your comments so that all who wish to speak have a chance to express their views. Direct your comments to the group as a whole, rather than to any one individual. Civil Conversation Tips: Prepare Ahead of Time. Make Your Conversation Partner Feel Heard. Set Aside Your Passion. Establish Common Ground. Admit When They Make a Good Point.
Talk At Their Level. Ask Questions. Let the Other Person Speak… Even If They Talk… A Lot.

Civil Discourse refers to respectful conversation aimed at fostering understanding and constructive communication, where individuals within a group share different perspectives, enhancing the learning experience. It is a fundamental aspect of freedom of speech, characterized by dialogue that supports the societal good. Civics.

DM stands for Direct Message, which is a private mode of communication between only two social media users, which is used when a person wants to communicate with someone directly. When you send a direct message, only you and the recipient can see the content. PM stands for private message.

Since our education schools and universities don't teach students how to effectively and efficiently communicate, everyone is basically in a cult, because everyone is in there own little world, having their own agenda and individual objectives and perspectives. Even our media outlets and our information distribution channels are dysfunctional, they communicate dysfunction, and in the process, create dysfunctional listeners who have poor communication skills. This creates a society with small fragmented groups. Communication is underutilized, and people take language for granted. To have real conversations society needs to define the guidelines for having real conversations. Like guidelines we have for meetings. A meeting would have an agenda or a list of important topics, or a situation that is of concern. Guideline questions would be, what is known about the subject or situation? How well do we understand the subject? What are the facts? What things have been measured? What do these measurements tell us? What would be the next logical steps to take? Who is responsible for each task? What would be the plan, short term and long term? What are the key points that we have learned from our meeting? When shall we meet again?

Sometimes there are some conversations that you just can't have with certain people. Some ideas can seem offensive to some people. You want to challenge peoples thinking, but you don't want to freak people out. Some people will over react and assume things, so you have to be ready. It's better to ease some people into a conversation by introducing an idea in a way that asks questions instead of giving possible answers. And if people attack your view without having any evidence of their own to back them up, then it's better to change the subject, unless you have a point to make. But if someone is not willing to listen, then there is no point, and there is no point talking to some people unless you're trying to help them, but remember, some people don't want to be helped, so sometimes the best you can do is to just make a suggestion, or just walk away. Some people are just crazy and they're too ignorant to know how ignorant they are. This is why most frivolous lawsuits never make to court to be debated. Invalid arguments are just a waste of time.

knowing when to drop it is when you want someone to stop talking about something, or to immediately stop what they're were doing in order to do something else.

Sometimes people like to make a joke about a subject to avoid having a real conversation. So when is the right time for a real conversation? Do we need to set up a meeting? A meeting with rules and procedures? Yes. Do we need a real conversation on this subject? Yes. When?

When someone says something that makes no sense, I usually ignore what they say because I don't want to interrupt them and make them explain their comment more clearly. I want to acknowledge what a person says, but I know I should wait for a better time to have them explain what they really mean. But even then, most people can't accurately or honestly explain themselves. So sometimes its better to avoid asking a person certain questions, especially when the person will have a hard time answering those questions.

On the TV series Star Trek Discovery, it's amazing to hear people have real heart to heart conversations. But these real conversations always happen during critical moments in the middle of a crisis. Example, "The ship will self destruct in one minute, we should have a slow meaningful conversation first, and then we should deal with the problem". I guess what they are saying is, don't wait for an emergency to happen to have those real conversations, have them now when you can. Famous last Words.

Formative Discussion is incorporating classroom discussion in regular lesson plans. Teachers can assess their students based on personal communication and knowledge of the subject matter. This is a form of formative assessment that takes place during the learning process to help the teacher and student understand the discussed information. Formative Assessment is a range of formal and informal assessment procedures conducted by teachers during the learning process in order to modify teaching and learning activities to improve student attainment. Also known as formative evaluation, formative feedback, or assessment for learning, including diagnostic testing.

Formative is serving to form something, especially having a profound and lasting influence on a person's development. A minimal language unit that has a syntactic or morphological function.

Constructive Dialogue is a form of conversation in which people who have different values, beliefs, and perspectives seek to build new ways to understand and interact with each other, even as they sustain commitments to their own principles and perspectives. Constructive.

I don't want to talk about it usually indicates that the speaker does not want to discuss a particular topic. When a situation arises that begs for a discussion or resolution—whether simple or complicated—some people will ignore you or just walk away saying, “I don't want to talk about it."

Courtrooms is one place where you might find a real conversation happening. And debates and arguments can sometimes lead to real conversations and understanding, but not always. People have to learn how to have a meaningful conversations, because they just don't happen by themselves. Testimony.

Have a Meaningful Conversation (wikihow)

People enjoy deep conversations with strangers. People benefit from deep and meaningful conversations that help us forge connections with one another, but we often stick to small talk with strangers because we underestimate how much others are interested in our lives and wrongly believe that deeper conversations will be more awkward and less enjoyable than they actually are, according to new research. People seemed to imagine that revealing something meaningful or important about themselves in conversation would be met with blank stares and silence, only to find this wasn't true in the actual conversation. Human beings are deeply social and tend to reciprocate in conversation. If you share something meaningful and important, you are likely to get something meaningful and important exchanged in return, leading to a considerably better conversation.

Talk it Out means to discuss something thoroughly or to talk about something in detail in order to understand how each person sees and interprets each other or interprets what the problem may be, and solve possible discrepancies or misunderstandings each other has, so that a situation or relationship problem can be resolved.

Open Up to Someone is to speak openly and honestly without the fear of unfair judgments or misunderstandings. When someone opens up to you, you should acknowledge their pain, share how you fee, show gratitude that the person opened up, show interest, be encouraging, be supportive, practice active listening, ask questions, but not too many. Someone may be closed off and might have a hard time opening up because they don't feel emotionally safe to do so. They may not perceive it to be safe enough to share their inner world. The tendency to be closed off can also stem from previous relational experiences or trauma. Some people from conservative or collectivistic cultures may be less inclined to discuss personal issues. People process things in their own way and at varying speeds, as well; they truly may not know how to answer your questions because they haven't asked the questions themselves.

Heart to Heart Talk is a serious conversation between two people in which they talk honestly about their feelings. A confidential and intimate conversation. The expression implies that two persons are opening their hearts to each other.

Get Off Your Chest is to tell someone about something that has been making them upset or unhappy.

My real conversation procedure. First, you would list the questions that you would like to ask. Then I would reply to each question with a few questions of my own that you will need to answer so that I can accurately answer the main question. Then when you answer my questions effectively, I will then answer the main question, but only when the question is proven to be relative or valuable and that the question also has a point or a purpose.

Most people can't openly talk about their problems, and there are several reasons for this. Some people think that it's unnecessary to talk about their problems. Some people feel ashamed to talk about their problems. Some people feel that talking about their problems is a sign of weakness. Some people think that they will look stupid or sound stupid or be misunderstood if they talk about their problems. And some people can't openly talk about their problems because they have no one to talk to or they have no one they can trust to talk to. People can't talk about their problems if they have no one who is skilled enough and knowledgeable enough to listen to them and accurately understand them and the problems that they are having. Most people don't have the necessary skills and knowledge to communicate effectively and honestly about their problems. So every school needs to teach every student how to effectively talk about their problems, and also, teach every student how to effectively listen to other people who are talking about their problems. It's only human.

We need to talk: Communication prevents inaction by leveraging goodwill. An experimental game demonstrates that communicating sentiment (i.e. emotional state, satisfaction) and outlook (i.e. expectations, aspirations) helps people to cooperate on common problems by reinforcing pre-existing goodwill, and can lead to better outcomes.

Some people never speak directly to you, they mostly talk at you and just talk around their ideas and and dance around their thoughts as if they were asking you a question. It's like a type of mind game where the other player is not aware that they are in a game or aware that the game has no rules. Just say what you mean and stop beating around the bush.

Don't Go There means that you do not want to discuss or consider a particular subject because it's either irrelevant or it's off limits because of its severity and it's to painful to talk about, and it would take a lot much time to discuss.

People don't always know when they are being lied to. And people don't always know how to effectively react to lies, or know what to do when they hear lies. This is a big problem. American people are being manipulated and lied to everyday, especially in schools, and most people are not doing anything about it. People get mad when a family member lies to them. People get mad when a friend lies to them. But people don't always realize when they are being lied to, or aware that they are being lied to. And sometimes people just ignore the lies the hear or see, and people sometimes ignore the lies they tell themselves. This is a big problem.

Interlocutor is a person who takes part in a dialogue or conversation. Small Talk.

Cooperative Principle describes how people achieve effective conversational communication in common social situations—that is, how listeners and speakers act cooperatively and mutually accept one another to be understood in a particular way. Make your contribution such as is required, at the stage at which it occurs, by the accepted purpose or direction of the talk exchange in which you are engaged. Grice's Maxims.

Indirect speech acts are commonly used to reject proposals and to make requests. For example, if a speaker asks, "Would you like to meet me for coffee?" and the other replies, "I have class." The second speaker has used an indirect speech act to reject the proposal. This is indirect because the literal meaning of "I have class" does not entail any sort of rejection.

An opinion is never just an opinion, because there's always more to an opinion. An opinion is an observation that may not be based on facts and knowledge, but who's facts and knowledge are we talking about, the person giving the opinion or the person receiving the opinion? This is why you must be able to clearly explain your opinion, other wise it's just empty words thrown around as if to be communication something. People talk, but they're not communicating fully enough or listening clearly enough. People have to learn how to have constructive conversations, if not, then societies and people all over the world will continue to suffer from the horrible side effects of disputes that arise from communication failures, like war, crimes, corruption and pollution. All people overreact, some more than others. Most people jump to conclusions, they over exaggerate things, they under estimate things and they contradict things they claim that they know. Every human under estimates the importance of human language and communication. This is the reason why we have so many problems. And this can easily be corrected by giving people access to knowledge and information that would allow people to improve and progress in all aspects of human development and communication.

I noticed throughout my life that hardly anyone ever has a meaningful or deep conversation. No one takes the time to ask questions that would help them to truly understand someone or understand the world around them. There's no real investigations into reality. People just see the surface and pretend that they know what's underneath it all. There for, there is very little learning going on. It's easy to overlook things when you don't know they exist. To assume is to live a lie.

Negotiation - Compromise - Conflict Resolution (Dispute Management)

Diplomacy - Public Hearing - Reasoning - Activism

Clear the Air is to remove the bad feelings between people by talking about it in order to clarify an angry, tense, or confused situation. Having a discussion to make things more comfortable and easy to deal with.

Brain Storming - Decision Making - Collaboration

Lawsuit - Arbitration - Laws - Marketing - Professions

"No one should ever remain silent for fear of complexity"- Elif Shafak. (But don't just talk for the sake of talking. Be masterful when speaking. Stay focused and enjoy listening. And don't forget to follow up when the moment is appropriate).

Listening - Hearing Accurately when other People Speak

Listen is to hear with the intention to understand. Listening is to pay close attention to someone when they are talking or when they are communicating with you. Listening is a skill that you have to learn and practice often in order to listen effectively.

Compassion - Reading - Real Conversations - Honesty - Attention - Attending

Active Listening is a communication technique used in counseling, training and conflict resolution. It requires the listener to fully concentrate, understand, respond and then remember what is being said. This is opposed to reflective listening where the listener repeats back to the speaker what they have just heard to confirm understanding of both parties. Active Listening is a mental process that requires concentrating on sound, getting meaning from it and responding to it. Research suggests that the average person hears between 20,000 and 30,000 words during the course of a 24-hour period. The average number of words you're able to listen to per minute is around 450. Most people usually only remember about 17-25% of the things they listen to.

Comprehension - Speed Listening - Speed Writing - Typing Speed - Speed Reading

Do Not Interrupt Someone Speaking - Be Quiet

Hear is to perceive sound via the auditory sense. Hearing is getting to know something or to become aware of something. Hearing is to listen and pay attention. To receive a communication from someone. To hear evidence or examine a case by judicial process. To expresses enthusiastic agreement. To discover, learn, notice or comprehend.

Receive is to get something or come into possession of something. To register a perceptual input. Be subject to a specified treatment or analysis. Convert into sounds or pictures.

Receiver is a person who receives signals from something or someone. To get something or to come into possession of something, something like information. A receiver is also an earphone that converts electrical signals into sounds. Radio.

Copy That or just "Copy" is widely used in speech and text-based communications with the meaning "I Heard and Understood the Message." Roger That also indicates a message had been received, heard and understood. Intel.

Open-Mindedness is being receptive to new ideas without being biased or stubborn and without jumping to conclusions. Open-mindedness relates to the way in which people approach the views and knowledge of others. People should be free to express their views, and the value of other peoples knowledge should be recognized. Being open to new knowledge so that learning and progress are not impeded in any way. Be open to correction. Not having a closed mind.

Openness is an overarching concept or philosophy that is characterized by an emphasis on transparency and collaboration. That is, openness refers to "accessibility of knowledge, technology and other resources; the transparency of action; the permeability of organizational structures; and the inclusiveness of participation". Openness can be said to be the opposite of closedness, central authority and secrecy. Open government is the governing doctrine which holds that citizens have the right to access the documents and proceedings of the government to allow for effective public oversight. Openness in government applies the idea of freedom of information to information held by authorities and holds that citizens should have the right to see the operations and activities of government at work. Since reliable information is requisite for accountability, freedom of access to information about the government supports government accountability and helps protect other necessary rights.

Receptive is willing to consider or accept new suggestions and ideas. Able or willing to receive something different.

Listening is extremely important for learning. If you don't listen, you don't learn. But if you listen to the wrong things or misunderstand what you are hearing, then listening will not help benefit you as much as it should. Cognition.

You were Born with Two Ears and One Mouth for a Reason. We have two ears and one mouth so that we can listen twice as much as we speak.

"If we were meant to talk more than listen, we would have two mouths and one ear." Mark Twain (1835 - 1910)

Attentive Listening helps teens open up, study finds. Engaged listening techniques such as eye contact, nodding and using key words to praise openness helps teenagers when they admit bad behavior and share hurt feelings with their parents, a new study has shown. Attentive.

When you say to someone, "do you even hear yourself" it means that the person does not understand what they are saying and that their statement is somewhat crazy or ridiculous.

Having a good listener improves your brain health. Researchers find having someone to listen to you when you need to talk is associated with greater cognitive resilience. New study shows social interaction in adulthood can stave off cognitive decline despite brain aging. Supportive social interactions in adulthood are important for your ability to stave off cognitive decline despite brain aging or neuropathological changes such as those present in Alzheimer's disease, a new study finds.

Hang on Every Word is to listen very closely, intently, or with obsequious attention to what one is saying.

I'm All Ears is saying to someone that you are willing, ready and eager to listen to what they have to say.

Hear Me Out means to have someone listen to you until you finish speaking or finish explaining what you're trying to say.

Undivided Attention is to listen carefully to someone and care about what that person is saying. It is the act of focusing on just listening without having your attention divided or split, which could cause distractions or decrease your ability to listen accurately.

Reflective Listening is a communication strategy involving two key steps, seeking to understand a speaker's idea, then offering the idea back to the speaker, to confirm the idea has been understood correctly. It attempts to reconstruct what the client is thinking and feeling and to relay this understanding back to the client. Reflective listening is a more specific strategy than the more general methods of active listening. Focusing upon the conversation by reducing or eliminating any kind of distraction. Genuinely embracing the speaker’s perspective without necessarily agreeing with it. By engaging in a non-judgmental and empathetic approach, listeners encourage the others to speak freely. Mirroring the mood of the speaker, reflecting the emotional state with words and nonverbal communication. This requires the listener to quiet his mind and focus fully upon the mood of the speaker. This mood will become apparent not just in the words used but in the tone of voice, posture and other nonverbal cues given by the speaker. The listener will look for congruence between words and mood. Summarizing what the speaker said, using the speaker’s own words rather than merely paraphrasing words and phrases, thereby mirroring the essential concept of the speaker. Responding to the speaker's specific point, without digressing to other subjects. Repeating the procedure for each subject, and switching the roles of speaker and listener, if necessary. During the reflective listening approach, both client and therapist embrace the technique of thoughtful silence, rather than to engage in idle chatter.

Empathic Concern is the ability to accurately listen and understand someone in need. To empathize and respond to another's perceived emotional state by experiencing feeling of a similar sort. Other emotions include feelings of tenderness, sympathy, compassion, soft-heartedness, and the like. Empathic concern or sympathy not only include empathizing, but also entails having a positive regard or a non-fleeting concern for the other person. Listening Skills: Patience and Tolerance , avoiding Alarm Fatigue and crying wolf, confirm listening.

When listening, you have to quite your internal monologue or quite your inner voice so that you are truly listening and not just waiting to speak. Keep silent when listening. Give full attention and correctly hear and understand someone's message. Sometimes it's hard when someone's talking and you have a question to ask, but you want to be polite and wait until a person finishes speaking. And then you have to decide if the question that you want to ask is appropriate at this time? Because you first want to respond so that you can confirm that you heard the person correctly before you ask questions that might lead in a different direction. Sometimes you have to hold your questions for another time. Have a psychological connection. Do not create resistance in the listener. It's hard to listen to things that you don't understand. But don't pretend that you understand the subject. Tell the person that you're not sure that you understand them completely, but you're definitely interested in what they're saying. Trying to condense an experience or piece of knowledge is risky, because you can easily be misunderstood. And trying to give too many details can also backfire, because the message could easily be lost within all those details. Also, try not to get caught up in the heat of an argument or conversation. And remember, many things can distract us. So the skills needed to focus, listen and to be aware need to be practiced and deliberately used when needed, which is most of the time. Listen to understand and not just be waiting to reply.

Body Language - Senses - Not Paying Attention (not listening)

Most People are Not Listening to what Their Own Body is Telling Them. Not only do people not listen effectively to people and to the world around them, people also do not listen effectively to the world inside them. Interpretation - Processing - Action - Empathy.

"Listen to understand, and just don't pretend to be listening in order to give a reply." "If you hardly ever listen to someone, eventually they will stop talking to you and they will also stop listening to you."

How sounds going into our ears become words going through our brains. You're walking along a busy city street. All around you are the sounds of subway trains, traffic, and music coming from storefronts. Suddenly, you realize one of the sounds you're hearing is someone speaking, and that you are listening in a different way as you pay attention to what they are saying. Neuroscientists have understood for some time that when we hear sounds of understandable language our brains react differently than they do when we hear non-speech sounds or people talking in languages we do not know. When we hear someone talking in a familiar language, our brain quickly shifts to pay attention, process the speech sounds by turning them into words, and understand what is being said. Rapid Transformation from Auditory to Linguistic Representations of Continuous Speech.

Do Not Interrupt - “I’m sorry I interrupted you, please finish what you were saying.”

We can listen to 500 words a minute, but only speak 250 words a minute.

Julian Treasure 5 ways to Listen Better (video)

Listening Skills - Focus

Get Lincoln's Ear means to obtain someone's attention, especially favorable attention.

Informational Listening (PDF) - Directed Listening and Thinking Activity (PDF)

Silence is Golden - Internal Listening

Falling on Deaf Ears is when you speak but people fail to hear you because they are either ignoring you or they are too ignorant to understand what you're saying. Stubborn.

"Nobody is deaf as a person who doesn't want to listen" or "There's none so deaf as those who will not hear".

Communication Breakdown is a failure to exchange information and an obstruction to learning. Introvert?

Selective Auditory Attention is a type of selective attention and involves the auditory system of the nervous system. Selective hearing is characterized as the action in which people Focus their Attention on a specific source of a sound or spoken words. The sounds and noise in the surrounding environment is heard by the auditory system but only certain parts of the auditory information are processed in the brain. Most often, auditory attention is directed at things people are most interested in hearing.

You can't hear something that you have never learned how to listen for. Being able to truly listen to someone takes awareness, focus and knowing what to listen for by knowing the person and by knowing the different ways that people use to communicate. Bias.

Non-Conformist is a person whose behavior or views do not conform to prevailing ideas or practices. Someone who seeks proof and does not pretend to know things.

Know the difference between hearing and listening. Know the difference between deliberate Listening and passive listening.

The main reason why you don't listen and learn is because you never learned how to listen, and you never learned why learning is important. The main reason why you have no time to educate yourself is because you never took the time to educate yourself about why it's important to find the time that is needed to keep educating yourself. Most of what you project to the world gets reflected back to you. If you neglect yourself or neglect someone else, you will be neglected.

Media Literacy - Comprehension when Listening - Analyze Information Accurately

Unbiased Listening - Non-Judgmental Listening

"We listen to obtain information. We listen to understand. We listen for enjoyment. We listen to learn."

Auditory Neuroscience Laboratory - Auditory-Processing Malleability - Listening Skills

Brain Mechanisms of Pitch Perception. To emphasize a word, we may briefly raise our pitch or increase the volume of our voice when speaking. This alone can change the meaning of a sentence. A study performed high-density brain recordings on clinically monitored neurosurgical patients. They discovered that intonational pitch is represented by a highly specialized and dedicated neural population in the auditory cortex. Discrete cortical sites extracted intonational information in real time from the speech signal. These sites were overlapping with, but functionally independent from, sites that encode other critical aspects of speech, such as the phonemes and information about the speaker. Speakers of all human languages regularly use intonational pitch to convey linguistic meaning, such as to emphasize a particular word. Listeners extract pitch movements from speech and evaluate the shape of intonation contours independent of each speaker’s pitch range. The study used high-density electrocorticography to record neural population activity directly from the brain surface while participants listened to sentences that varied in intonational pitch contour, phonetic content, and speaker. Cortical activity at single electrodes over the human superior temporal gyrus selectively represented intonation contours. These electrodes were intermixed with, yet functionally distinct from, sites that encoded different information about phonetic features or speaker identity. Furthermore, the representation of intonation contours directly reflected the encoding of speaker-normalized relative pitch but not absolute pitch.

Listening Techniques

1. Stop Talking: Don't talk or limit your own talking and just listen. You can’t talk and listen at the same time. If you are thinking about what you are going to say next, then you're not listening. Don’t argue mentally. Don’t allow yourself to become annoyed or irritated with anything that is said. Try agreeing with points to see if you can understand the speaker’s perspective better. Don’t jump to conclusions. Avoid making unwarranted assumptions about what is going to be said. Don’t mentally try to complete the other person’s sentences. Listen and learn. When somebody else is talking, listen to what they are saying, do not interrupt, or talk over them or finish their sentences for them. Stop, just listen. Don’t interrupt or change the subject. A pause, even a long pause, doesn’t always mean that the speaker has finished saying everything that he or she has to say. When the other person has finished talking, then you may need to clarify to ensure you have received their message accurately.

2. Prepare Yourself to Listen: Prepare in advance. Remarks and questions prepared in advance, when possible, free your mind for listening. Relax. Focus on the speaker. Put other things out of mind. Turn off your own worries. Turning off and tuning in aren’t always easy, but they are important. Personal problems or worries not connected with the subject at hand form a kind of internal "static" that can blank out the real message that you are tuning in. The human mind is easily distracted by other thoughts – what’s for lunch, what time do I need to leave to catch my train, is it going to rain – try to put other thoughts out of mind and concentrate on the messages that are being communicated. Concentrate on what you are hearing. Focus your mind on what the speaker is saying. Practice shutting out outside distractions when listening.

3. Put the Speaker at Ease: Help the speaker to feel free to speak. Remember their needs and concerns. Nod or use other gestures or words to encourage them to continue. Maintain eye contact but don’t stare – show you are listening and understanding what is being said. React to ideas, not the person. Don’t allow irritation to rise from things said, or from mannerisms. Try not to respond to these distractions. Base your response on principles, not personalities.

4. Remove Distractions: Focus on what is being said: don’t doodle, shuffle papers, look out the window, pick your fingernails or similar. Avoid unnecessary interruptions. These behaviors disrupt the listening process and send messages to the speaker that you are bored or distracted. Consider taking notes. In some settings, taking notes is appropriate and will help you remember important points. Be selective. Trying to take notes on everything said can result in being left far behind or in retaining irrelevant information.

5. Empathize: Try to understand the other person’s point of view. Look at issues from their perspective. Let go of preconceived ideas. By having an open mind we can more fully empathize with the speaker. If the speaker says something that you disagree with then wait and construct an argument to counter what is said but keep an open mind to the views and opinions of others.

6. Be Patient: A pause, even a long pause, does not necessarily mean that the speaker has finished. Be patient and let the speaker continue in their own time, sometimes it takes time to formulate what to say and how to say it. Never interrupt or finish a sentence for someone. Listen for ideas, not just words. You want to get the whole picture, not just isolated bits and pieces. Listen for key themes. Use interjections to punctuate your listening. An occasional "Yes" or "I see" shows you are still with the speaker. However, wait until the speaker has finished his or her comment, and don’t overdo or use interjections as meaningless comments.

7. Avoid Personal Prejudice: Try to be impartial. Don't become irritated and don't let the person’s habits or mannerisms distract you from what they are really saying. Everybody has a different way of speaking - some people are for example more nervous or shy than others, some have regional accents or make excessive arm movements, some people like to pace whilst talking - others like to sit still. Focus on what is being said and try to ignore styles of delivery.

8. Listen to the Tone: Volume and tone both add to what someone is saying. A good speaker will use both volume and tone to their advantage to keep an audience attentive; everybody will use pitch, tone and volume of voice in certain situations – let these help you to understand the emphasis of what is being said.

9. Listen for Ideas – Not Just Words: You need to get the whole picture, not just isolated bits and pieces. Maybe one of the most difficult aspects of listening is the ability to link together pieces of information to reveal the ideas of others. With proper concentration, letting go of distractions, and focus this becomes easier.

10. Wait and Watch for Non-Verbal Communication: Gestures, facial expressions, and eye-movements can all be important. We don’t just listen with our ears but also with our eyes – watch and pick up the additional information being transmitted via non-verbal communication. Skills you Need.

More Tips: When listening, asking a good question tells the speaker the listener has not only heard what was said, but that they comprehended it well enough to want additional information. Good listening was consistently seen as a two-way dialog. It's good to Restate issues to confirm that their understanding is correct. Good listeners make the conversation a positive experience for the other party. Good listening is characterized by the creation of a safe environment in which issues and differences could be discussed openly. A good listener increasingly understands the other person’s emotions and feelings about the topic at hand, and identifies and acknowledges them. The listener empathizes with and validates those feelings in a supportive, nonjudgmental way. Good listeners never highjack the conversation so that they or their issues become the subject of the discussion. 80% of what we communicate comes from body language signals.

Listening is the ability to accurately receive and interpret messages in the communication process. Listening is key to all effective communication, without the ability to listen effectively messages are easily misunderstood – communication breaks down and the sender of the message can easily become frustrated or irritated.

A good listener will listen not only to what is being said, but also to what is left unsaid or only partially said. Effective listening involves observing body language and noticing inconsistencies between verbal and non-verbal messages. For example, if someone tells you that they are happy with their life but through gritted teeth or with tears filling their eyes, you should consider that the verbal and non-verbal messages are in conflict, they maybe don't mean what they say.

Teaching Listening - Listening Strategies

Strategies for developing listening skills. Language learning depends on listening. Listening provides the aural input that serves as the basis for language acquisition and enables learners to interact in spoken communication.

Effective language instructors show students how they can adjust their listening behavior to deal with a variety of situations, types of input, and listening purposes. They help students develop a set of listening strategies and match appropriate strategies to each listening situation.

Listening strategies are techniques or activities that contribute directly to the comprehension and recall of listening input. Listening strategies can be classified by how the listener processes the input.

Top-down strategies are listener based; the listener taps into background knowledge of the topic, the situation or context, the type of text, and the language. This background knowledge activates a set of expectations that help the listener to interpret what is heard and anticipate what will come next. Top-down strategies include

Listening for the main idea - Predicting - Drawing inferences - Summarizing.

Bottom-up strategies are text based; the listener relies on the language in the message, that is, the combination of sounds, words, and grammar that creates meaning. Bottom-up strategies include: Listening for specific details - Recognizing cognates - Recognizing word-order patterns.

Strategic listeners also use metacognitive strategies to plan, monitor, and evaluate their listening. They plan by deciding which listening strategies will serve best in a particular situation. They monitor their comprehension and the effectiveness of the selected strategies. They evaluate by determining whether they have achieved their listening comprehension goals and whether the combination of listening strategies selected was an effective one.

Listening for Meaning. To extract meaning from listening to text, students need to follow four basic steps: Figure out the purpose for listening. Activate background knowledge of the topic in order to predict or anticipate content and identify appropriate listening strategies. Attend to the parts of the listening input that are relevant to the identified purpose and ignore the rest. This selectivity enables students to focus on specific items in the input and reduces the amount of information they have to hold in short-term memory in order to recognize it. Select top-down and bottom-up strategies that are appropriate to the listening task and use them flexibly and interactively. Students' comprehension improves and their confidence increases when they use top-down and bottom-up strategies simultaneously to construct meaning. Check comprehension while listening and when the listening task is over. Monitoring comprehension helps students detect inconsistencies and comprehension failures, directing them to use alternate strategies.

Hearing Difficulties

Audiology is a branch of science that studies hearing, balance, and related disorders. Its practitioners, who treat those with hearing loss and proactively prevent related damage are audiologists. Employing various testing strategies (e.g. hearing tests, otoacoustic emission measurements, videonystagmography, and electrophysiologic tests), audiology aims to determine whether someone can hear within the normal range, and if not, which portions of hearing (high, middle, or low frequencies) are affected, to what degree, and where the lesion causing the hearing loss is found (outer ear, middle ear, inner ear, auditory nerve and/or central nervous system). If an audiologist determines that a hearing loss or vestibular abnormality is present he or she will provide recommendations to a patient as to what options (e.g. hearing aid, cochlear implants, appropriate medical referrals) may be of assistance. In addition to testing hearing, audiologists can also work with a wide range of clientele in rehabilitation (individuals with tinnitus, auditory processing disorders, cochlear implant users and/or hearing aid users), from pediatric populations to veterans and may perform assessment of tinnitus and the vestibular system.

American Academy of Audiology

Auditory Training

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.

Auditory Neuroscience Laboratory.

Listening Training and Auditory Integration

Auditory Processing Techniques

The Listening Center

Learning Specialists (Child Development)

How to Listen when others are Speaking - Hearing Impaired - Deafness - Sounds

Auditory Integration Training is used for clinical depression and suicidal tendencies, along with positive results for dyslexia and autism, although there has been very little empirical evidence regarding this assertion.

Learning to Speak - Speech

Speech is the vocalized form of communication based upon the syntactic combination of lexicals and names that are drawn from very large vocabularies. Each spoken word is created out of the phonetic combination of a limited set of vowel and consonant speech sound units. These vocabularies, the syntax which structures them, and their set of speech sound units differ, creating the existence of many thousands of different types of mutually unintelligible human languages. Most human speakers are able to communicate in two or more of them, hence being polyglots. The vocal abilities that enable humans to produce speech also provide humans with the ability to sing.

Oracy is a word formed by analogy from literacy and numeracy. The purpose is to draw attention to the neglect of oral skills in education.

Speaking Effectively - Discussions - Debates - Arguments - Listening - Voice Sounds

Talk is to speak in order to give information or express ideas or feelings. To converse or communicate by spoken words.

Speak is to make a characteristic or natural sound used in language to exchange thoughts or convey ideas.

Speeches - Speech Recognition

Speech and Language Pathology is a field of expertise practiced by a clinician known as a speech-language pathologist (SLP), also called speech and language therapist, or speech therapist, who specializes in the evaluation and treatment of communication disorders, cognition, voice disorders, and swallowing disorders. A common misconception is that speech-language pathology is restricted to correcting pronunciation difficulties, such as helping English speaking individuals enunciate their "s" and "r" sounds, and helping people who stutter to speak more fluently. In fact, speech-language pathology is concerned with a broad scope of speech, language, swallowing, and voice issues involving communication, some of which are: Word-finding issues, either as a result of a specific language problem such as a language delay or a more general issue such as dementia. Social communication difficulties involving how people communicate ideas with others (pragmatics). Structural language impairments, including difficulties creating sentences that are grammatical (syntax) and meaningful (semantics). Literacy impairments (reading and writing) related to the letter-to-sound relationship (phonics), the word-to-meaning relationship (semantics), and understanding the ideas presented in a text (reading comprehension). Voice difficulties, such as a raspy voice, a voice that is too soft, or other voice difficulties that negatively impact a person's social or professional performance. Cognitive impairments (e.g., attention, memory, executive function) to the extent that they interfere with communication. The components of speech production include: phonation (producing sound); resonance; fluency; Intonation, Pitch variance; Voice (including aeromechanical components of respiration) The components of language include: phonology (manipulating sound according to the rules of a language); Morphology (understanding and using minimal units of meaning); syntax (constructing sentences according to languages' grammar rules); semantics (interpreting signs or symbols of communication to construct meaning); pragmatics (social aspects of communication). Primary pediatric speech and language disorders include receptive and expressive language disorders, speech sound disorders, childhood apraxia of speech, stuttering, and language-based learning disabilities. Swallowing disorders include difficulties in any system of the swallowing process (i.e. oral, pharyngeal, esophageal), as well as functional dysphagia and feeding disorders. Swallowing disorders can occur at any age and can stem from multiple causes. If you notice your child is experiencing a speech delay, or having any trouble with understanding communication and/or communicating to you, it’s best to talk to your healthcare provider. There are many possible solutions that they can help you explore. One type of healthcare provider that often deals with communication issues is a speech-language pathologist. They help children find ways to communicate effectively through verbal and non-verbal language. A child may need to see a speech-language pathologist if they experience difficulty: Feeding or swallowing – unable to safely eat or drink age-appropriate foods and liquids. Articulating certain sounds with fluent speech, like stuttering. Difficulty using words, phrases, and sentences to communicate at an age appropriate level – needs help using words to communicate and/or turning words into phrases. Difficulty understanding information such as directions or questions – needs help understanding words spoken to them. Difficulty organizing information and regulating behavior.

Speech Pathology Services

Learning Specialists (Child Development)

International Speech Communication Association.

International Pragmatics Association.

Neural responses to speech in infants predict literacy. The ability of infants to process speech in the brain can predict later development of language and literacy. Recent research findings can help to develop new ways of preventing problems with reading even before school age.

Using Praat for Linguistic Research.

Voice Sauce Program for Voice Analysis.

TalkBank Database - Speech Websites

Expressive Synthetic Speech Resource.

Speech Accents Archive.

Speech-Language and Hearing

Speech Buddy - Speech Easy - Articulation

Language - Writing - Reading

Motor Learning and Control (wiki books)

UCLA Bureau of Glottal Affairs

Part-of-Speech Tagging is the process of marking up a word in a text (corpus) as corresponding to a particular part of speech, based on both its definition and its context. A simplified form of this is commonly taught to school-age children, in the identification of words as nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, etc. Once performed by hand, POS tagging is now done in the context of computational linguistics, using algorithms which associate discrete terms, as well as hidden parts of speech, by a set of descriptive tags. POS-tagging algorithms fall into two distinctive groups: rule-based and stochastic. E. Brill's tagger, one of the first and most widely used English POS-taggers, employs rule-based algorithms.

Babies First Words (effects on children) - Learning to Speak - Learning a New Language

Speaking baby talk to infants isn’t just cute, it could help them learn to make words. By mimicking the sound of a smaller vocal tract, adults may be cluing babies in to how the words should sound coming out of their own mouths.

Implanted Memories Teach Birds a Song. Discovery boosts understanding of how human brain learns speech.

Motor Theory of Speech Perception. is the hypothesis that people perceive spoken words by identifying the vocal tract gestures with which they are pronounced rather than by identifying the sound patterns that speech generates. It originally claimed that speech perception is done through a specialized module that is innate and human-specific. Though the idea of a module has been qualified in more recent versions of the theory, the idea remains that the role of the speech motor system is not only to produce speech articulations but also to detect them.

Speech Perception is the process by which the sounds of language are heard, interpreted, and understood. Research in speech perception seeks to understand how human listeners recognize speech sounds and use this information to understand spoken language.

Origin of Speech differs from the origin of language because language is not necessarily spoken; it could equally be written or signed. Speech is a fundamental aspect of human communication and plays a vital role in the everyday lives of humans. It allows them to convey thoughts, emotions, and ideas, and providing the ability to connect with others and shape collective reality.

Speech Synthesis is the artificial production of human speech. A computer system used for this purpose is called a speech synthesizer, and can be implemented in software or hardware products. A text-to-speech or TTS system converts normal language text into speech; other systems render symbolic linguistic representations like phonetic transcriptions into speech. The reverse process is speech recognition.

Language Processing Areas of the Brain

If the region in which the meaning of language is processed is impaired, the so-called left angular gyrus, our brain is able to balance it well. In this case the neighboring area, the anterior inferior frontal gyrus, stands in and enhances its activity.

Dorsal Precentral Gyrus plays an essential role in how people use the sound of their voices to control how they want the words to sound. Precentral gyrus is a prominent gyrus on the surface of the posterior frontal lobe of the brain. It is the site of the primary motor cortex that in humans is cytoarchitecturally defined as Brodmann area 4.

Angular Gyrus is transferring visual information to Wernicke's area, in order to make meaning out of visually perceived words. It is also involved in a number of processes related to language, number processing and spatial cognition, memory retrieval, attention, and theory of mind. It is Brodmann area 39 of the human brain.

Broca's Area is a region in the frontal lobe of the dominant hemisphere (usually the left) of the hominid brain with functions linked to speech production.

Inferior Frontal Gyrus is also extremely important for language comprehension and production due to the fact that most language processing takes place in the left hemisphere. Speech takes both sides of the brain.

Brodmann Area 45 determines whether a word represents an abstract or a concrete entity, and generation tasks or generating a verb associated with a noun.

Neuroscientists find multiple brain regions control speech, challenging a common assumption that only the primary motor cortex, nicknamed M1, directly influences the larynx or voice box, instead, several cortical regions send signals to laryngeal muscles to create greater vocal finesse in some nonhuman primates. This kind of parallel processing in our neural wiring might explain why humans are capable of highly sophisticated language that allows us to share information, express and perceive emotion, and tell memorable stories.

Brain recordings in people before surgery reveal how all minds plan what to say prior to speaking. A new study in people undergoing surgery to treat seizures related to epilepsy shows that pauses in speech reveal information about how people's brains plan and produce speech. The study results add to evidence that neighboring brain regions, the inferior frontal gyrus and the motor cortex, play an important role in such planning before words are said aloud. Latencies were longest in the inferior or lower regions of the motor cortex as well as another surface layer, the inferior frontal gyrus, at 1.0 second and 0.75 second, respectively. Because patients were able to keep speaking so long after stimulation, investigators say this suggests that these regions are more likely than other regions to be involved in planning what people want to say. Smaller latencies, lasting on average 0.5 second, were found in other parts of the motor cortex. Researchers say these shorter interruptions of speech indicate that these regions play a more crucial role in the physical mechanics of speaking.

Mechanisms of Real-Time Speech Interpretation in the Human Brain revealed.

Speech-Brain Machine Interfaces may unlock new information about how the brain encodes speech by developing an algorithm for brain machine interfaces that would not only decode gestures but also combine those decoded gestures to form words. Speech is composed of individual sounds, called phonemes, that are produced by coordinated movements of the lips, tongue, palate and larynx, called articulatory gestures.

Synthetic Speech Generated from Brain Recordings. New Technology is a stepping stone to a neural speech prosthesis. Scientists at the University of California, San Francisco, implanted electrodes into the brains of volunteers and decoded signals in cerebral speech centres to guide a computer-simulated version of their vocal tract - lips, jaw, tongue and larynx - to generate speech through a synthesizer. Speech synthesis from neural decoding of spoken sentences (youtube).

N400 in neuroscience is part of the normal brain response to words and other meaningful or potentially meaningful stimuli, including visual and auditory words, sign language signs, pictures, faces, environmental sounds, and smells. A component of time-locked EEG signals known as event-related potentials (ERP). It is a negative-going deflection that peaks around 400 milliseconds post-stimulus onset, although it can extend from 250-500 ms, and is typically maximal over centro-parietal electrode sites.

Rhythmic Structure of Words. Word blends combine fragments from two words, either in speech errors or when a new word is created. Previous work has demonstrated that in Japanese, such blends preserve moraic structure; in English they do not. A similar effect of moraic structure is observed in perceptual research on segmentation of continuous speech in Japanese; English listeners, by contrast, exploit stress units in segmentation, suggesting that a general rhythmic constraint may underlie both findings. The present study examined whether mis parallel would also hold for word blends. In spontaneous English polysyllabic blends, the source words were significantly more likely to be split before a strong than before a weak (unstressed) syllable, i.e. to be split at a stress unit boundary. In an experiment in which listeners were asked to identify the source words of blends, significantly more correct detections resulted when splits had been made before strong syllables. Word blending, like speech segmentation, appears to be constrained by language rhythm.

Language Processing in the Brain refers to the way humans use words to communicate ideas and feelings, and how such communications are processed and understood. Thus it is how the brain creates and understands language. Most recent theories consider that this process is carried out entirely by and inside the brain; however, environmental factors play a role in the development of language processing as well.

Speech Communication is the vocalized form of communication based upon the syntactic combination of lexicals and names that are drawn from very large vocabularies, usually about 1,000 different words. Each spoken word is created out of the phonetic combination of a limited set of vowel and consonant speech sound units or phonemes. These vocabularies, the syntax which structures them, and their sets of speech sound units differ, creating many thousands of different, and mutually unintelligible, human languages. Most human speakers are able to communicate in two or more of them, hence being polyglots. The vocal abilities that enable humans to produce speech also enable them to sing.

Speech Processing is the study of speech signals and the processing methods of these signals. The signals are usually processed in a digital representation, so speech processing can be regarded as a special case of digital signal processing, applied to speech signal. Aspects of speech processing includes the acquisition, manipulation, storage, transfer and output of speech signals. The input is called speech recognition and the output is called speech synthesis.

Speech Perception is the process by which the sounds of language are heard, interpreted and understood. The study of speech perception is closely linked to the fields of phonology and phonetics in linguistics and cognitive psychology and perception in psychology. Research in speech perception seeks to understand how human listeners recognize speech sounds and use this information to understand spoken language. Speech perception research has applications in building computer systems that can recognize speech, in improving speech recognition for hearing- and language-impaired listeners, and in foreign-language teaching.

Freedom of Speech - Children

One area of the brain is for perceiving speech, and another area of the brain is for producing speech.  Science Daily.

Computer model could improve human-machine interaction, provide insight into how children learn language. Children learn language by observing their environment, listening to the people around them, and connecting the dots between what they see and hear. Among other things, this helps children establish their language's word order, such as where subjects and verbs fall in a sentence.

Semantic Parsing is the task of converting a natural language utterance to a logical form: a machine-understandable representation of its meaning. Semantic parsing can thus be understood as extracting the precise meaning of an utterance. Applications of semantic parsing include question answering and code generation. The phrase was first used in the 1970's by Yorick Wilks as the basis for machine translation programs working with only semantic representations.

Semantic Analysis in linguistics is the process of relating syntactic structures, from the levels of phrases, clauses, sentences and paragraphs to the level of the writing as a whole, to their language-independent meanings. It also involves removing features specific to particular linguistic and cultural contexts, to the extent that such a project is possible. The elements of idiom and figurative speech, being cultural, are often also converted into relatively invariant meanings in semantic analysis. Semantics, although related to pragmatics, is distinct in that the former deals with word or sentence choice in any given context, while pragmatics considers the unique or particular meaning derived from context or tone. To reiterate in different terms, semantics is about universally coded meaning, and pragmatics, the meaning encoded in words that is then interpreted by an audience. Semantic analysis can begin with the relationship between individual words. This requires an understanding of lexical hierarchy, including hyponymy and hypernymy, meronomy, polysemy, synonyms, antonyms, and homonyms. It also relates to concepts like connotation (semiotics) and collocation, which is the particular combination of words that can be or frequently are surrounding a single word. This can include idioms, metaphor, and simile, like, "white as a ghost." With the availability of enough material to analyze, semantic analysis can be used to catalog and trace the style of writing of specific authors.

Discourse Analysis is an approach to analyze written, vocal, or sign language use, or any significant semiotic event. The objects of discourse analysis (discourse, writing, conversation, communicative event) are variously defined in terms of coherent sequences of sentences, propositions, speech, or turns-at-talk. Contrary to much of traditional linguistics, discourse analysts not only study language use 'beyond the sentence boundary' but also prefer to analyze 'naturally occurring' language use, not invented examples. Text linguistics is a closely related field. The essential difference between discourse analysis and text linguistics is that discourse analysis aims at revealing socio-psychological characteristics of a person/persons rather than text structure. Conversation Analysis.

Oral Expression is the ability to convey wants, needs, thoughts, and ideas meaningfully using appropriate syntactic, pragmatic, semantic, and phonological language structures. Oral expression should NOT be confused with reading aloud or reading fluently.

Pronunciation - Accent - Phonetics (the sounds that words make)

Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words. All verbal languages use pitch to express emotional and other paralinguistic information and to convey emphasis, contrast, and other such features in what is called intonation, but not all languages use tones to distinguish words or their inflections, analogously to consonants and vowels. Languages that do have this feature are called tonal languages; the distinctive tone patterns of such a language are sometimes called tonemes, by analogy with phoneme. Tonal languages are extremely common in Africa, East Asia, and Central America, but rare elsewhere in Asia and in Europe; as many as seventy percent of world languages may be tonal.


communicating Communication Disorder is any disorder that affects an individual's ability to comprehend, detect, or apply language and speech to engage in discourse effectively with others. The delays and disorders can range from simple sound substitution to the inability to understand or use one's native language. Feral Children.

FOXP2 is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the FOXP2 gene, also known as CAGH44, SPCH1 or TNRC10, and is required for proper development of speech and language. The gene is shared with many vertebrates, where it generally plays a role in communication, for instance, the development of bird song.

Brain's Ability to Synchronize Voice Sounds could be Related to Language Learning. Researchers studied the synchronization of speech motor rhythms, i.e. the coordinated movements of the tongue, lips and jaw that build up the speech, with speech audio rhythms. Results show some people's brains adapt spontaneously to align with the rhythm of the voices they hear, while others do not. According to the research study, these patterns show differences in functional and structural aspects of the speech network in the brain, as well as the ability to understand new words.

Music Disorders - Sensory Disorders - Amygdala - Stroke

How the mouth looks when speaking using an x-ray machine. Echtzeit-MRT-Film: Sprechen (youtube)

A speech envelope landmark for syllable encoding in human superior temporal gyrus. The loudness of vowels helps the brain break down speech into syllables. The key is detecting a rapid increase in volume that occurs at the beginning of a vowel sound. Our brain is basically listening for these time points and responding whenever they occur. The finding challenges a popular idea that the brain monitors speech volume continuously to detect syllables. Instead, it suggests that the brain periodically "samples" spoken language looking for specific changes in volume.

Speech Comprehension is correlated with temporal response patterns recorded from auditory cortex.

Visual Processing Disorders refers to a reduced ability to make sense of information taken in through the eyes.

Stuttering or stammering, is a speech disorder in which the flow of speech is disrupted by involuntary repetitions and prolongations of sounds, syllables, words or phrases as well as involuntary silent pauses or blocks in which the person who stutters is unable to produce sounds. The term stuttering is most commonly associated with involuntary sound repetition, but it also encompasses the abnormal hesitation or pausing before speech, referred to by people who stutter as blocks, and the prolongation of certain sounds, usually vowels or semivowels.

Stammering Lidcombe Program - Singing and Stuttering

Type of brain cell involved in stuttering identified. Discovery could lead to targets for new therapies. Using a mouse model of stuttering, scientists report that a loss of cells in the brain called astrocytes are associated with stuttering.

Researchers have located the brain network responsible for stuttering. Stuttering is a speech rhythm disorder characterized by involuntary repetitions, prolongations or pauses in speech that prevent typical speech production. Approximately 5-10% of young children stutter, and an estimated 1% continue to stutter into adulthood. A severe stutter can have a profound negative impact on the life of the individual affected.

Hearing Impaired - Blind - Languages - Linguistics - Meaning - Interpersonal intelligence

Aphasia is a language disorder caused by damage in a specific area of the brain that controls language expression and comprehension. Aphasia leaves a person unable to communicate effectively with others because of an inability to comprehend or formulate language because of damage to specific brain regions. Expressive language and receptive language can both be affected as well. Aphasia also affects visual language such as sign language. Aphasia affects a person's ability to express and understand written and spoken language. The difficulties of people with aphasia can range from occasional trouble finding words, to losing the ability to speak, read, or write; intelligence, however, is unaffected. Aphasia can occur suddenly after a stroke or head injury, or develop slowly from a growing brain tumor or disease. Once the underlying cause is treated, the main treatment for aphasia is speech therapy. Aphasia affects about 2 million people in the U.S. and 250,000 people in Great Britain. Nearly 180,000 people acquire the disorder every year in the U.S. alone. Technically, dysphasia means impaired language and aphasia means lack of language. Individuals with receptive aphasia (Wernicke's aphasia), also referred to as fluent aphasia, may speak in long sentences that have no meaning, add unnecessary words, and even create new "words" (neologisms). Individuals with expressive aphasia (Broca's aphasia) frequently speak short, meaningful phrases that are produced with great effort. Individuals with anomic aphasia have difficulty with naming. People with this aphasia may have difficulties naming certain words, linked by their grammatical type. Global aphasia is considered a severe impairment in many language aspects since it impacts expressive and receptive language, reading, and writing. Individuals with conduction aphasia have deficits in the connections between the speech-comprehension and speech-production areas. Transcortical aphasias include transcortical motor aphasia, transcortical sensory aphasia, and mixed transcortical aphasia. People with transcortical motor aphasia typically have intact comprehension and awareness of their errors, but poor word finding and speech production. Specific treatment techniques include the following: Copy and recall therapy (CART) - repetition and recall of targeted words within therapy may strengthen orthographic representations and improve single word reading, writing, and naming. Visual communication therapy (VIC) - the use of index cards with symbols to represent various components of speech. Visual action therapy (VAT) - typically treats individuals with global aphasia to train the use of hand gestures for specific items. Functional communication treatment (FCT) - focuses on improving activities specific to functional tasks, social interaction, and self-expression. Promoting aphasic's communicative effectiveness (PACE) - a means of encouraging normal interaction between people with aphasia and clinicians. In this kind of therapy, the focus is on pragmatic communication rather than treatment itself. People are asked to communicate a given message to their therapists by means of drawing, making hand gestures or even pointing to an object. Melodic intonation therapy (MIT) - aims to use the intact melodic/prosodic processing skills of the right hemisphere to help cue retrieval of words and expressive language. Other - i.e. drawing as a way of communicating, trained conversation partners. Some precautions can be taken to decrease risk for experiencing one of the two major causes of aphasia. Exercising regularly, Eating a healthy diet, avoiding cholesterol in particular, Keeping alcohol consumption low and avoiding tobacco use, Controlling blood pressure. Dysgraphia is the condition of impaired letter writing by hand.

Primary Progressive Aphasia is a neurological syndrome in which language capabilities slowly and progressively become impaired while other mental functions remain intact.

How emotions affect word retrieval in people with aphasia. Study suggests neutral prompts produce most accurate, timely response. People with aphasia have more trouble coming up with words they want to use when they're prompted by images and words that carry negative emotional meaning, new research suggests.

Dyslexia is characterized by trouble with reading despite normal intelligence. Different people are affected to varying degrees. Problems may include difficulties in spelling words, reading quickly, writing words, "sounding out" words in the head, pronouncing words when reading aloud and understanding what one reads. Often these difficulties are first noticed at school. When someone who previously could read loses their ability, it is known as alexia. The difficulties are involuntary and people with this disorder have a normal desire to learn.

Pure Alexia is one form of alexia which makes up "the peripheral dyslexia" group. Individuals who have pure alexia have severe reading problems while other language-related skills such as naming, oral repetition, auditory comprehension or writing are typically intact.

Dyslexia - Dyslexia Typeface (youtube)

High Density of Neurons in Frontal Cortex important for successful Reading. Dyslexia, a reading disorder, is characterized by a difficulty in "decoding" -- navigating between the visual form and sounds of a written language. But a subset of dyslexic people, dubbed "resilient dyslexics," exhibit remarkably high levels of reading comprehension despite difficulties decoding. What is the precise mechanism that allows certain individuals with dyslexia to overcome their low decoding abilities and ultimately extract meaning from text?

Neuroscientists Discover Neural Mechanisms of Developmental Dyslexia. Neuroscientist show that people with dyslexia have a weakly developed structure that is not located in the cerebral cortex, but at a subcortical processing stage; namely the white matter connectivity between the left auditory motion-sensitive planum temporale (mPT) and the left auditory thalamus (medial geniculate body, MGB).

Talking - Speaking Effectively

Talk is to exchange thoughts and convey ideas. Talking is to express something in speech and using language to reveal information. Talking is having a conversation or a discussion. Talking is using the voice with a relatively high volume. Not being silent.

Speech is the act of delivering a formal spoken communication to an audience. Communication by word of mouth or by other means.

Transmitter (radio) - Public Speaking - Words that Flow - Negotiations - Compromises

Oral is using speech rather than writing. Using the mouth or involving the mouth or mouth region or the surface on which the mouth is located. An examination conducted by spoken communication.

Whisper is to speak very softly using one's breath without one's vocal cords, especially for the sake of privacy. Whisper is a soft or confidential tone of voice. To whisper a word or phrase at very low volume.

Turn-Taking is a type of organization in conversation and discourse where participants speak one at a time in alternating turns. In practice, it involves processes for constructing contributions, responding to previous comments, and transitioning to a different speaker, using a variety of linguistic and non-linguistic cues.

Avoid generalized statements that fail to specify your message. If you give a clear example of what you're trying to say, then people will have an easier time understanding you, and they might even be able to answer your comment more accurately, and correctly. Maintain your composure and control when talking to someone. Listen to what they say and pay attention to their body language. Putting people at ease will allow people to listen to you instead of being turned off.

Debating - Articulate (clear - precise) - Speech Learning - Fluency - Pronunciation

Speaking Directly to Someone versus Speaking Indirectly to Someone. Don't make communication more complicated then it needs to be. Direct Communication versus Indirect Communication. Sometimes it's not just what you say that matters, it's also what you didn't say that matters.

Speech Learning - Meanings - Translations - Listening

Knowing when and why to be direct is the key to effective communication. Knowing when to give subtle hints, Knowing when to talk around a subject. Knowing when to give under-the-surface meaning versus implicit meaning. It's good to Speak directly too the person, not indirectly. Don't beat around the bush, speak to someone one and not at someone. Avoid blunt comments. Avoiding insults may be seen as more important than providing honest feedback. Pay attention to nonverbal behaviors. In particular, a discrepancy between nonverbal behaviors and the words used by an indirect speaker can indicate that the words aren’t accurate. Recognize that, for indirect communicators, it’s “always easier to agree than to disagree”. Sometimes it's good to use open-ended, non-leading questions. Avoid phrasing a question so that the answer may be perceived as insulting to someone (for example, may be seen as criticizing someone).

Tips for indirect speakers when communicating with direct speakers include: Recognize that your subtle messages may not be perceived in the way you expect or may not be perceived at all. Accept that direct communicators respect direct speech. Politeness can sometimes make the message less affective. Direct communicators tend to say what they think, and Indirect communicators seek to avoid conflict, tension and uncomfortable situations. We all use indirect communication strategies at times and in certain circumstances – we mean more than we say, and we gather meaning from others beyond the words they use. Avoid filler words and tiny pauses like 'Um'.

Respond is to react verbally or to show a reaction to something that you might have sensed. React favorably or as hoped.

Responsive is readily reacting or replying to people or events or stimuli, sometimes showing emotion. Reacting to a stimulus.

Response is statement, either spoken or written, that is made to reply to a question or a request or criticism or an accusation. The manner in which an electrical or mechanical device responds to an input signal or a range of input signals. A result from a cause.

Delayed Responses and Late Replies. When people don't answer your questions right away, or when people don't react to the things that you say or do, they may have a good reason. Maybe they need time to think, or maybe they are just ignoring you. And there are also other possible reasons too. As a consequence of a fragmented perception, people may experience delayed response to sensory stimuli, for example, you say something to your child, and there is no response as if the child didn’t hear you. However, actually the child has started to process your question/instruction in order to respond with meaning, but he/she may need some time to process the question and prepare their response. (Immediate responses are often given on ‘autopilot’, triggered by memories. In these cases, a person does not mean and does not know what he ‘has said’.) Before proper response, people must go through a number of separate stages in perception, and if this long decision-chain is interrupted by the outside world (for instance, we repeat the same question), the person may have to start all over again because ‘the same (but yet unprocessed) question’ is a new one for them. In other words, an interruption effectively wipes away any intermediate result, confronting the person literally “for the first time” with the same object/event/situation. The experience of ‘delayed hearing’ happens when the question/instruction has been sensed and recorded without interpretation until the second (internalized) hearing (i.e. processing of the received message). A person may be able to repeat back what has been said without comprehension that will come later. In less extreme cases, to process something takes seconds or minutes. Sometimes it takes days, weeks or months. In the most extreme cases, it can take years to process what has been said. The words, phrases, sentences, sometimes the whole situations are stored and they can be triggered at any time. You must be a detective to connect with a persons ‘announcement’ with the question he/she was asked a week before. A person can be delayed on every sensory channel. For example, if they experience delayed visual processing, the acquisition of the full meaning requires some observation time from different points of view; besides, people must translate perceptual images into their proper terminology. Perception by parts requires a great amount of time and effort to interpret the whole. Many individuals emphasize that they need a great amount of ‘thinking’ to make sense of the world. Every step of perception they experience explicitly, in a not-automatic way with a great mental effort involved. Their subjective experience of time is also different from that of other people. For them, time might seem faster, whereas other people may think that other people are slow in their decision-making. There are several consequences of delayed processing: They are often unable to start the action immediately as they need time to interpret and comprehend the situation. When they finally reach ‘comprehension’, the situation has changed. It means that they ‘experience meaning’ out of the context it should have been experienced. That is why, new experiences, no matter how similar to previous ones, are perceived as new, unfamiliar and unpredictable, and responses to them are poor regardless of the number of times the person has experienced the same thing. The amount of time needed to process any experience sometimes remains slow (or delayed) regardless of having had similar experiences in the past, some things do not get easier with time, especially when you're not continually learning about yourself and the world around you. They are sometimes unable to apply something they have learned in one situation to another. What we can do to help: Give them time to take in your question/instruction and to work out their response. Do not interrupt. Be aware that certain individuals often require more time than others to shift their attention between stimuli of different modalities and they find it extremely difficult to follow rapidly changing social interactions.

Thinking Fast - Response Time - Delayed Reaction - Over Reaction

Backchannel in linguistics is when a conversation occurs and one participant is speaking and another participant interjects responses to the speaker. A backchannel response can be verbal, non-verbal, or both. Backchannel responses are often phatic expressions, primarily serving a social or meta-conversational purpose, such as signifying the listener's attention, understanding, or agreement, rather than conveying significant information. Examples include such expressions as "yeah", "uh-huh", "hmm", and "right".

Try not to use these ignorant excuses when explaining and communicating...Tell it like it is. Let the facts speak for themselves. If you don't have anything nice to say, don't say anything. Tell someone what you think they want to hear. The squeaky wheel gets the grease. The nail that sticks out gets hammered back in. Honesty is the best policy. Being polite is more important than being honest. It's okay to say no. Avoid saying no; say “maybe” or “possibly,” even if you mean “no.” The truth is more important than sparing someone’s feelings. Don’t beat around the bush. If the truth might hurt, soften it. Say what you mean and mean what you say. Read between the lines. Take communication at face value. Handle communication to save face. Time is money. Get to the point. Small talk before business is important. It’s okay to disagree with your boss at a meeting. Criticism of others, especially people with more authority, should be unspoken or careful and veiled.

Cultural Dimension: direct versus indirect communication style (youtube)

"You can create the perfect message, but the understanding depends on the skill of the receiver to correctly decipher it."

Good enunciation is the act of speaking clearly and concisely. The opposite of good enunciation is mumbling or slurring. Pronunciation is a component of enunciation. Pronunciation is to pronounce sounds of words correctly.

"Lets be Frank" is a directness in manner or speech; without subtlety or evasion. The quality of being honest and straightforward in attitude and speech. Giving an answer that is short and precise.

Initiating is declaring one's conversational intent and inviting consent from one's prospective conversation partner. Schedule sufficient, uninterrupted time for talking.

Friendships - Speech - Listening

Have a Meaningful Conversation

Turn-Taking is managing the flow of information back and forth between partners in a conversation by alternating roles of speaker and listener.

Eloquence is the beauty and persuasion in speech. Powerful and effective language. Eloquence (wiki)

Don't talk to fill pauses, or respond to statements in a point-counterpoint fashion. 

Hearing an opinion spoken compared to a written opinion. Specific aspects of speech, such as intonation and frequent pauses, may serve as cues that humanize the people who are speaking, making them seem more intellectual and emotionally warm than those whose opinions are written. The medium by which an opinion is expressed may even influence how persuasive it is. Media Literacy.

Avoid Vulgarities (profanity)

Suspend judgment and evaluation until you can see things from another person's perspective

You Don't Know Everything, so stop pretending.

Avoid making distracting gestures and maintain an appropriate distance and posture.

Think like the person to whom you are speaking. His or her problems and needs are important. You’ll understand and retain them better if you keep his or her point of view.

Ask clarification questions. If you don’t understand something, or if you feel you may have missed a point, clear it up now before it embarrasses you later.

Eye Contact occurs when two people look at each other's eyes at the same time. In human beings, eye contact is a form of nonverbal communication and is thought to have a large influence on social behavior.

Eye Tracking is the process of measuring either the point of gaze (where one is looking) or the motion of an eye relative to the head. An eye tracker is a device for measuring eye positions and eye movement. Eye trackers are used in research on the visual system, in psychology, in psycholinguistics, marketing, as an input device for human-computer interaction, and in product design. There are a number of methods for measuring eye movement. The most popular variant uses video images from which the eye position is extracted. Other methods use search coils or are based on the electrooculogram, which is a technique for measuring the corneo-retinal standing potential that exists between the front and the back of the human eye.

Body Language (Facial Expressions) - Whole Body Listening

Make sincere eye contact.

Haptic Communication (touch) - Haptic Technology

When to Change the Subject - How to Tell if You Talk Too Much

Delayed Auditory Feedback also called delayed sidetone, is a type of altered auditory feedback that consists of extending the time between speech and auditory perception. It can consist of a device that enables a user to speak into a microphone and then hear his or her voice in headphones a fraction of a second later. Some DAF devices are hardware; DAF computer software is also available.

Knowing the right time to interrupt someone and knowing when to let someone else interrupt you is very important. Genuinely seek information. Ask clarifying questions. Offer constructive feedback. Keep feedback impersonal and goal-oriented. Articulate.

Direct negative feedback toward behavior that the recipient can control. Ask questions to ensure understanding of the feedback.

Avoid being emotional and avoid attacking others. Paraphrase the message you heard, especially to clarify the speaker's intentions. Focus on specific behaviors rather than making general statements. Learn to separate sounds and enjoy each one individually.

Incommunicado as an adjective or adverb, refers to a situation or a behavior due to which communication with outsiders is not possible, for either voluntary or involuntary reasons, especially due to confinement or reclusiveness.

Thinking in Levels

Automated Conversation Coach

Most of the time, words are translated with little confusion. It's when we put many words together is when we start to have most of the errors in translation. People are biased against certain words, and sometimes subconsciously. So we have to pay attention how we say things and also confirm what we are saying is interpreted correctly. With out any under lying meanings, or undertones, or even a perceived play on words. And that's another problem, how to deal with miss interpretations and personal perceptions. We can't assume that people are understanding our messages the right way, and not taking it the wrong way. We should choose words that minimize confusion, but still transfer our messages at a higher rate of accuracy.

Getting Your Point Across (5 Tips)

The Average Rate for an American Speaker is 150 Words Per Minute.

First: Calm yourself, don't get upset or let your emotions control your speech. Avoid arguing. Avoid degrading others or insulting people, or prejudging people. Don't use vulgar language. Try not to say anything that would be counterproductive to the goal that you want to achieve. Develop a Friendly Tone of Voice - Be Heard.

Second: Begin your speech, if necessary, state your name and any relevant information that would lead up to this point in time. Be sure to generate enough vocal power and energy to reach every listener in the room. Breathe Diaphragmatically.

Third: Express your view about the important issue. Explain the goals and explain how it benefits others. Back up your opinion with facts, evidence, witnesses and or documents. And don't forget that you have to explain why you think this evidence is relevant, because just presenting facts is not good enough, you have to explain the meaning and the importance of these facts. Use examples and make suggestions. Search for Meaning.

Fourth: Listen. Relate to the opinions of others and let them know that you understand their point of view. Be ready for the follow up questions and have appropriate responses ready. Don't tell a person they are wrong, just explain why you believe that you are right, and why it is more fair to everyone, and that it's free from favoritism, or self-interest, or bias, or deception.

Example: I once too thought that same way, or similar way. And then I experienced a change when I learned some new information. And after verifying this information and researching it more deeply, I have come to the conclusion that I must change, or, I will be responsible for any damage that is done from these negative actions, actions that do more harm then good. Humans are born good, and I have never met a bad dog either, I guess that is why dogs are mans best friend, we seek out similar company even outside our own species.

Fifth: Don't be discouraged if you need to end the conversation. Don't feel bad if your point didn't get through. Learn to ask for more time to think, and to seek out more information on the matter. And also to learn more about other peoples point of view, so that you can better explain and understand your own point of view. 

Own The Room! - Sample Lesson: Voice Modulation and Speed (youtube)
5 Aspects of a Powerful Speaking Voice (youtube)

Speaking: The Proper use of Pitch for your Speaking Voice (youtube)
Develop a Perfect Speaking Voice (wikihow)

Some Simple ways to Explain a Complex Concept

Understand your audience. Talking to a scientist or talking to a professional with a PhD is different than talking to a person with just a high school education. But even then, you should always avoid using words that have definitions that are not clearly defined. You should also avoid being vague. When people become dazed or confused they may stop listening. People may feel they can't understand something or process the information. And some people may even stop listening because they assume that you don't know what you're talking about. So you have to make sure that people are listening to you and make sure that they are not jumping to any conclusions before you finish. Presentation.
Define your terms. Don’t ever assume that everyone knows what you're talking about. Explain why something is important.
Classify and divide your concept into ‘chunks’. Describe how your concept fits into a particular category or how it can be broken down into parts that can be described more easily; this is useful in showing your reader how your concept fits into a “big picture”, how it can be divided.
Compare and contrast. Give examples of how your concept is similar or different from other concepts/ideas with which the audience are familiar.
Tell a story or give an example to illustrate the process or concept. A step-by-step explanation of how a process works or how a concept is used in practice.
Illustrate with examples. Analogies, anecdotes, and other details may help your audience better understand your concept. Feathers and swans: one helpful, the other unhelpful because of the existing knowledge of the listener.
Show Causes or Effects. A description of how a particular event leads to another and how concepts are related to each other.
Compare new concepts to familiar ones. Another illustrative technique is to use a familiar or existing object or concept as a comparison, to test the broad comprehension and build to the next concept.

Learn to mirror words selectively. Repeat the last one to three words that a person just said back to them to establish a rapport, this will help the person feel more comfortable to be open, and also help communicate to the person that you're striving to understand their feelings, and that you like them. When a person feels that you understand them, like when saying "that's right", is reaffirming that you're truly listening and understanding them. Acknowledging their side and mirroring their point. Questions that allow opportunities to say no can give the other person a measure of control and give them a sense of security, other then getting the other person to answer yes to questions. Don't try to force your opponent to admit that you are right. Rephrase and summarize.

Ask no-oriented questions like: "Have you given up on this aspect?" and "Is it too late to talk about x ?" Use phrases like "It sounds like you are afraid of..." and "It looks like you're concerned about..." Use empathy strategically. Knowing the weaknesses of your position will help you to be prepared for difficult questions.

Speech Science (youtube channel)

"Have more then you show, speak less then you know." Shakespeare

pitch-variable voice

Sonority Hierarchy is a ranking of speech sounds (or phones) by amplitude. For example, if one says the vowel [a], they will produce a much louder sound than if one says the stop [t]. Sonority hierarchies are especially important when analyzing syllable structure; rules about what segments may appear in onsets or codas together, such as SSP, are formulated in terms of the difference of their sonority values. Some languages also have assimilation rules based on sonority hierarchy, for example, the Finnish potential mood, in which a less sonorous segment changes to copy a more sonorous adjacent segment.

Timbre is the perceived sound quality of a musical note, sound, or tone that distinguishes different types of sound production, such as choir voices and musical instruments, such as string instruments, wind instruments, and percussion instruments, and which enables listeners to hear even different instruments from the same category as different (e.g. a viola and a violin).

Talk With a Deeper Voice - Your Persuasive Voice

Pitch, Tone & Inflection (youtube)

The Responsibility of confirming if someone is listening to you is your responsibility, it's not the responsibility of the listener.

What I Meant In every communication between people, only half of the message is clear, or completely understood. That's because not every question is answered during a normal conversation. People need to know more then just the definition of a word. And people also need to know more about the context, because a lot of context that surrounds words is non factual, made up of opinions that could easily mislead someone. First we need to learn to speak in truths, then we need to learn to communicate fully and accurately. I see conversations in the future being more fuller, more enjoyable, more meaningful, more open, and more honest, where one word could speak a thousand truths, and one word could answer a 1000 questions. But that's from everyone having a high quality education, an education that does not exist as of 2016. But the research is near completion, so a high quality education is not that far away. So when a person says that they are educated, it will mean that have 1000 different skills and qualities, and know a 1000 different things, and they could explain them for you if needed, using 20,000 unique words.

Why do some people assume that when they talk, people understand what they're saying? ..You're falling on deaf ears.

Just because you use a Label or a phrase, this does not explain the message, you only reveal a small detail, and then you expect people to fill in all the missing information correctly. So in your mind, you believe that you're explaining everything the person needs to understand the message. For some maybe, but for most of the people, they need more details, need more info, and they need the reason why. Other wise, you're not saying anything. You're like a barking dog. You know the dog is trying to say something, but until you investigate to find out why the dog is barking, you will not know why the dog is barking.


Articulate is expressing yourself easily by using clear expressive language that is carefully worded without generalizing. To speak, pronounce, or to utter in a certain way that is comprehensible and not unintelligible. To put into words an expression that is stated clearly.

Plain Language - Technical Writing - Legibility - Speeches

Say what you Mean and Mean what you Say, but Don't be Mean.

Explicit is precisely and clearly expressed or readily observable; leaving nothing to implication or personal interpretation. In accordance with fact or the primary meaning of a term. Explicit Language are words that can be offensive or graphic. Profanity.

Enunciate is to say a word, phrase or syllable in a certain way, to state clearly or express clearly.

Vividness is strong, distinct, or clearly perceptible on the senses. Patterns.

Unequivocally or Unambiguously is having or exhibiting a single clearly defined meaning. Admitting of no doubt or misunderstanding; having only one meaning or interpretation and leading to only one conclusion.

Literally is saying something without exaggeration that needs no special interpretation and being limited to the explicit meaning of a word or text, and without embellishment that serves no useful purpose. Literal is being essential or genuine in character.

Annotate is to provide interlinear explanations for words or phrases. Add explanatory notes to or supply with critical comments.

is written between lines of text.

Update (edit) - Contextual Clues (PDF)

Implicit is something implied though not directly expressed; inherent in the nature of something. Being without doubt or reserve. Ambiguous - Figure of Speech.

Characteristic is a prominent attribute or aspect of something that is typical or distinctive and capable of being classified.

Mean is what you intend to express or convey. Destine or designate for a certain purpose. Have as a logical consequence. Have a specified degree of importance. Mean can also mean being disrespectful or abusive.

Comprehensible is capable of being comprehended or understood. Readability.

Make Sense is to be intelligible, justifiable, or practicable. To have a clear meaning that is easy to understand. Simplify.

Eloquence is fluent or persuasive speaking or writing. Ineloquent is having or showing a lack of eloquence.

How Clear Speech equates to Clear Memory. Speaker's clearly articulated style can improve a listener's memory of what was said.

Syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, specifically word order. The term syntax is also used to refer to the study of such principles and processes. The goal of many syntacticians is to discover the syntactic rules common to all languages. Syntactic is relating to or conforming to the rules of syntax.

Semantics is primarily the linguistic, and also philosophical, study of meaning—in language, programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics. It focuses on the relationship between signifiers—like words, phrases, signs, and symbols—and what they stand for, their denotation.

Lexical Semantics is a subfield of linguistic semantics. The units of analysis in lexical semantics are lexical units which include not only words but also sub-words or sub-units such as affixes and even compound words and phrases. Lexical units make up the catalogue of words in a language, the lexicon. Lexical semantics looks at how the meaning of the lexical units correlates with the structure of the language or syntax. This is referred to as syntax-semantic interface. The study of lexical semantics looks at: The classification and decomposition of lexical items. The differences and similarities in lexical semantic structure cross-linguistically. The relationship of lexical meaning to sentence meaning and syntax. Lexical units, also referred to as syntactic atoms, can stand alone such as in the case of root words or parts of compound words or they necessarily attach to other units such as prefixes and suffixes do. The former are called free morphemes and the latter bound morphemes. They fall into a narrow range of meanings (semantic fields) and can combine with each other to generate new meanings.

Phrase may be any group of words, often carrying a special idiomatic meaning; in this sense it is roughly synonymous with expression. In linguistic analysis, a phrase is a group of words (or possibly a single word) that functions as a constituent in the syntax of a sentence, a single unit within a grammatical hierarchy. A phrase typically appears within a clause, but it is possible also for a phrase to be a clause or to contain a clause within it.

Accent is a way of pronunciation particular to a speaker or group of speakers.

Articulation is the configuration and interaction of the articulators (speech organs such as the tongue, lips, and palate) when making a speech sound. Words that sound like other words.

Place of Articulation of a consonant is the point of contact where an obstruction occurs in the vocal tract between an articulatory gesture, an active articulator (typically some part of the tongue), and a passive location (typically some part of the roof of the mouth). Along with the manner of articulation and the phonation, it gives the consonant its distinctive sound. Speaking Tips.

Glottal Consonant are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.

Glottalization is the complete or partial closure of the glottis during the articulation of another sound. Glottis is defined as the opening between the vocal folds.

Speech Segmentation is the process of identifying the boundaries between words, syllables, or phonemes in spoken natural languages. The term applies both to the mental processes used by humans, and to artificial processes of natural language processing.

Pronunciation - How to Pronounce it - How to Say it

Pronunciation is the way a word or a language is spoken, or the manner in which someone utters a word. Pronunciation is the way a word or a language is customarily spoken. The manner in which someone utters a word. If one is said to have "correct pronunciation", then it refers to both within a particular dialect. A word can be spoken in different ways by various individuals or groups, depending on many factors, such as: the duration of the cultural exposure of their childhood, the location of their current residence, speech or voice disorders, their ethnic group, their social class, or their education. Syllables are counted as units of sound (phones) that they use in their language. The branch of linguistics which studies these units of sound is phonetics. Phones which play the same role are grouped together into classes called phonemes; the study of these is phonemics or phonematics or phonology. Phones as components of articulation are usually described using the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). Misspoke is to pronounce a word incorrectly. Mispronunciation is incorrect pronunciation.

Pronounce is to say a word, phrase or syllable in a certain way.

Pronounce Names - Pronounced Words - Pronunciation Patterns - Pronunciation Practice - Pronunciation Practice.

Accent in sociolinguistics is a manner of pronunciation peculiar to a particular individual, location, or nation. An accent may be identified with the locality in which its speakers reside (a regional or geographical accent), the socio-economic status of its speakers, their ethnicity, their caste or social class (a social accent), or influence from their first language (a foreign accent).

Pitch-Accent Language is a language that has word-accents—that is, where one syllable in a word or morpheme is more prominent than the others, but the accentuated syllable is indicated by a particular pitch contour (linguistic tones) rather than by stress. This contrasts with fully tonal languages like Standard Chinese, in which each syllable can have an independent tone.

Accent in music is an emphasis, stress, or stronger attack placed on a particular note or set of notes, or chord, either as a result of its context or specifically indicated by an accent mark.

Pronunciation Guides - howjsay - forvo

Tongue Twister Exercises - Twisters - Speech Training - Words that sound like other words - How To Say.

Retroflex Consonant is a coronal consonant where the tongue has a flat, concave, or even curled shape, and is articulated between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate. They are sometimes referred to as cerebral consonants—especially in Indology. /r/ Articulation - Retroflex Position (flipped) (youtube)

Coronal Consonant are consonants articulated with the flexible front part of the tongue.

Phonological history of English close front vowels. The close and mid-height front vowels of English (vowels of i and e type) have undergone a variety of changes over time and often vary by dialect.

Dialect Coach is an acting coach who helps an actor design the voice and speech of a character in the context of an on-camera (film, television or commercial), stage (theatre, musical theatre, opera, etc.), radio or animation voiceover production. The dialect coach often does original research on dialects and speech patterns, prepares training materials, provides instruction and works on lines with the actor. A dialect coach will give the actor feedback focusing on issues of credibility, consistency, and clarity. A dialect coach may also be employed to help comedians hone impressions of celebrities, to train non-actor public speakers in vocal character and delivery, or to help singers improve in diction and attain a balance between tone and articulation, especially when singing in a second language

Voice Over Coaches work with voice actors to help them discover and make the most of their unique vocal qualities, hone their craft, and tackle any unique challenges that they are experiencing.

Voice Acting is the art of performing voice-overs to present a character or provide information to an audience. Performers are called voice actors/actresses, voice artists, voice talent, voice-over artists, or voice-over talent. Voice acting is recognized as a specialized dramatic profession in the United Kingdom, primarily due to BBC broadcasts of radio drama production. Examples of voice work include animated, off-stage, off-screen or non-visible characters in various works such as feature films, dubbed foreign-language films, animated films, anime, television shows, video games, cartoons, documentaries, commercials, audiobooks, radio dramas and comedies, amusement rides, theater productions, puppet shows and audio games. Voice actors are also heard through pre-recorded and automated announcements that are a part of everyday modern life in areas such as shops, elevators, waiting rooms and public transport. The role of a voice actor may involve singing, most often when playing a fictional character, although a separate performer is sometimes enlisted as the character's singing voice.

Filler Words - Umm

Speakers Hesitate or make brief Pauses filled with Sounds like 'uh' or 'uhm' mostly before nouns. Such slow-down effects are far less frequent before verbs.

Tips on Public Speaking: Eliminating the Dreaded "Um". Filler words like “um” may seem natural in everyday speech, but they do not belong in formal presentations or speeches. Powerful public speakers work hard to eliminate words such as “um,” “uh,” “well,” “so,” “you know,” “er,” and “like” from their vocabulary so that their listeners can focus solely on their message. Through practice and persistence, you can too. The next time you are asked a question, take a couple seconds to think about what you want to say. This pause serves two important purposes: it will help you begin powerfully, and it will help you avoid using a filler word. Pause, think, answer. The same public speaking technique applies when you are transitioning from one idea to another. While you may be tempted to fill the silence between ideas with a filler word, remember to pause and give yourself a moment to think about what you want to say next. It is important that you don’t begin speaking until you are ready. Remember: Pause, think, answer. Conjunctions.

Filler word is an apparently meaningless word, phrase, or sound that marks a pause or hesitation in speech. Also known as a pause filler or hesitation form. Some of the common filler words in English are um, uh, er, ah, like, okay, right, and you know.

Filler in linguistics is a sound or word that is spoken in conversation by one participant to signal to others a pause to think without giving the impression of having finished speaking. These are not to be confused with placeholder names, such as thingamajig, whatsamacallit, whosawhatsa and whats'isface, which refer to objects or people whose names are temporarily forgotten, irrelevant, or unknown. Fillers fall into the category of formulaic language, and different languages have different characteristic filler sounds. The term filler also has a separate use in the syntactic description of wh-movement constructions.

Formulaic Language is a linguistic term for verbal expressions that are fixed in form, often non-literal in meaning with attitudinal nuances, and closely related to communicative-pragmatic context. Along with idioms, expletives and proverbs, formulaic language includes pause fillers (e.g., "Like", "Er" or "Uhm") and conversational speech formulas (e.g., "You've got to be kidding," "Excuse me?" or "Hang on a minute").

Rhetoric and Composition Parts of Speech (wiki)

Dynamic Information Processing Measures in Audiovisual Speech Perception - PDF

Verbal Fluency Test are a kind of psychological test in which participants have to say as many words as possible from a category in a given time (usually 60 seconds). This category can be semantic, such as animals or fruits, or phonemic, such as words that begin with letter p. The semantic fluency test is sometimes described as the category fluency test or simply as "freelisting". The COWAT (Controlled oral word association test) is the most employed phonetic variant. Although the most common performance measure is the total number of words, other analyses such as number of repetitions, number and length of clusters of words from the same semantic or phonetic subcategory, or number of switches to other categories can be carried out.

Reticence in Speaking is the trait of being uncommunicative; not volunteering anything more than necessary.

Oral-Formulaic Composition seeks to explain two related issues: The process which enables oral poets to improvise poetry; and why orally improvised poetry has the characteristics it does.

Talking Tips: Let go of negative emotions like anger, sadness, fear and guilt. Gain control of your internal representations. Disconnect the power of past negative experiences. Overcome procrastination, depression and phobias. Release the blocks to achieve your goals. Create a rapport with others. Enhance your sensory awareness. Process information and communicate in ways that help you connect with all people. Utilize the structure of language to create positive thought patterns in yourself and others. Understand the decision making processes and other behavior strategies.

When two people talk to each other there is more then just words being transmitted. Words are just a very small part of the entire message. There is information beyond just our body language and the tone of voice we use, there's more information being transmitted then meets the eyes and ears. When people hear words, that's not the whole message. There is more information that is being transmitted that people don't consider or even know exist. The brain is capable of receiving information on several different frequencies. So what kind of information is being transmitted and received on these other frequencies? that's like trying to explain how words transmit information. There are other types and levels of listening that people seldom use or even know how to use.

Why is it hard to understand someone when they are talking underwater in a swimming pool? The answer is that sound couples poorly from air to water. When you talk, you do so by emitting air and then sending compression waves through this air. Your lungs provide the burst of air, and your vibrating vocal cords and mouth imprint the appropriate sound waveform on the air. On land, sound travels through air conduction. This means that sound waves travel through the air, causing your eardrum to vibrate. Researchers have determined that bone conduction allows us to hear sounds underwater that are much higher in pitch than sounds we hear on land. Sound waves actually travel five times faster in water than in air. Underwater those sound waves don't vibrate the ossicles bones in your inner ear. Air is so different from flesh that the sound waves are able to vibrate off your fleshy bits. Talk Underwater (youtube).

You're Talking, but you're Not Saying Anything

NonversationMagpie is an obnoxious and foolish talker who engages in trivial conversations that are small and of little importance and of little substance or significance.

is to speak about unimportant matters rapidly and incessantly. A chatterbox.

Blather is foolish gibberish or unintelligible talking. To talk foolishly.

Filler Words - Conjunctions - Transition Words - Jargon - Subjective - Rumination - Circular Talk - Everyday Language

Gibberish is unintelligible talking. Gibberish is a criticized expression or proposition that lacks substance or congruence, as opposed to being a differing view. The related word jibber-jabber refers to rapid talk that is difficult to understand. Gobbledygook speech that appears to be nonsense.

Unintelligible is speaking that is poorly articulated or enunciated or is drowned out by noise. Words that are not clearly understood or expressed.

Malarkey is meaningless talk or nonsense. Empty rhetoric, insincere or exaggerated talk.

Mumbo Jumbo is a complicated activity or language usually intended to obscure and confuse. Unnecessarily involved and incomprehensible language or gibberish. A complicated often ritualistic observance with elaborate trappings.

Derailment thought disorder is characterized by discourse consisting of a sequence of unrelated or only remotely related ideas. The frame of reference often changes from one sentence to the next.

Spacing Out - Irrelevant - Meaningless Conversation - Chat Bots

Trifling Conversation is a conversation that has little meaning or seriousness. Something lacking in significance or solid worth. Something of very little importance. Something insignificant and not worth considering. Frivolous.

Small Talk is an informal type of discourse that does not cover any functional topics of conversation, or based on any transactions that need to be addressed. Real Talk.

Casual Conversation is a relaxed back and forth conversation that is sometimes spontaneous. A casual conversation has no rules or guidelines and has no real purpose or intention other than being nice and friendly. A casual conversation is not intense, insulting or confrontational. A casual conversation is not usually serious or totally correct, or does it use complex vocabulary. A casual conversation is not intended to solve a problem or used to facilitate decision making, or intended to learn something, but learning something can sometimes happen indirectly. If someone is trying to teach you something, then you are part of an investigation and not really having a casual conversation anymore. Conversations can go from casual to serious fairly easily.

Informal or Unofficial is something that is not officially authorized or confirmed. Informal has no rules, function or utility, and sometimes has no purpose, reason or goal.

Candid is being openly straightforward and direct without reserve or secretiveness. A candid photograph is a picture taken informally, especially without the subject's knowledge or awareness, in order to capture a natural appearance instead of one that is planned or purposely manufactured.

Gift of Gab is not a gift. Gab is light informal conversation for social occasions. To talk profusely or to talk socially without exchanging too much information or without expressing any meaningful information.

Motor Mouth is someone who talks a lot, and talks without interruption. A person who talks excessively and talks quickly, sometimes loud or in an aggressive way, and sometimes impossible to repress or control.

Some people can use broad or general words that say very little. They can pretend that they're answering a question, when in fact, they are actually creating more questions because the answers they give are extremly vague. Even people who are very educated with a big vocabulary, and who have the skills to put words together to form complex sentences, they can also be vague about what they're saying. The person may sound good and sound interesting, but there are too many unanswered questions. So it's difficult to understand anything they say. Similar to passive learning.

Ephemera are transitory creations which are not meant to be retained or preserved. The minor transient documents of everyday life.

Relevance theory is a framework for understanding utterance interpretation. Relevance theory aims to explain the well recognized fact that communicators usually convey much more information with their utterances than what is contained in their literal sense.

Invalid Arguments - Blaming

Utterance is the smallest unit of speech. It is a continuous piece of speech beginning and ending with a clear pause. In the case of oral languages, it is generally, but not always, bounded by silence. Utterances do not exist in written language, however, only their representations do. They can be represented and delineated in written language in many ways. In oral/spoken language, utterances have several characteristics such as paralinguistic features, which are aspects of speech such as facial expression, gesture, and posture. Prosodic features include stress, intonation, and tone of voice, as well as ellipsis, which are words that the listener inserts in spoken language to fill gaps. Moreover, other aspects of utterances found in spoken languages are non-fluency features including: voiced/un-voiced pauses (i.e. "umm"), tag questions, and false starts, or when someone begins uttering again to correct themselves. Other features include fillers (i.e. "and stuff"), accent/dialect, deictic expressions (utterances such as "over there!" that need further explanation to be understood), simple conjunctions ("and," "but," etc.), and colloquial lexis (everyday informal words).

Chew the Fat is making friendly small talk, gossiping or a long and informal conversation with someone. There are claims the phrase is synonymous with the action of chewing on fat, or simply an allusion to the movement of the mouth during chewing.

Most people are not fully aware of the words that come out of their mouth when they're speaking, which means they are also not fully aware of the thoughts that they have inside their head. But awareness must be learned and then practiced. So if people never learn to understand awareness or how to control awareness, then people will never be aware enough. And they will go through life like zombies, but a zombie that is unaware that they are a zombie. So imagine not being aware that you're a zombie. It's not worth it. Just Learn, it is so much better.

Cluttering is a speech and communication disorder characterized by a rapid rate of speech, erratic rhythm, and poor syntax or grammar, making speech difficult to understand.

Can a Machine have a Human-Like Conversation? Conversational AI works by using a combination of natural language processing, foundation models, and machine learning. Conversational AI systems are trained on large amounts of data, such as text and speech. This data is used to teach the system how to understand and process human language. Chat Bots.

Chatbot talks to another Chatbot. Ultra Hal AI Chatbot Talks with another Ultra Hal AI Bot (youtube).

Chit Chat is a conversation that is not important or significant.

Pressure of Speech is a tendency to speak rapidly and frenziedly, as if motivated by an urgency not apparent to the listener. The speech produced, sometimes called pressured speech, is difficult to interrupt. It may be too fast, or too tangential for the listener to understand. It is an example of cluttered speech. It can be unrelenting, loud and without pauses.

Fran Capo is world's fastest talking female clocked at 603.32 words in 54.2 seconds. That’s 11 words a second.

Auction Chant is a rhythmic repetition of numbers and "filler words" spoken by auctioneers in the process of conducting an auction. The chant consists of at least the current price and the asking price to outbid. Auctioneers typically develop their own style, and competitions are held to judge them. Outside of auctions, the chant has been the subject of music and used in commercials and film. How to Talk Faster (wikihow).

False Advertising - Media Manipulation

We should always think before we speak and always choose the right moment. But be careful, it's not just what you say, but it's also what you don't say that can cause the most damage. Remember, no one can read your mind, so don't be afraid to speak your mind, because you may never have another chance. It's not just what you say, but how you say it. Remember, language is the easy part, communicating effectively is the hard part.

Writing Tips - Speaking with Purpose - Frank

Don't Beat Around the Bush is to treat a topic, but omit its main points, often intentionally.

"If we both stop jumping to conclusions, then maybe we'll get somewhere?"

"If you just say what you mean, you can avoid the possibility of things being lost during the translation, or being misunderstood."

The differences between "The Silent Treatment" "Ignoring Someone" and "Turning a Blind Eye".

Sometimes you don't want to satisfy someone with a response to a question, or an observation or an opinion, because it might encourage someone to continue talking about something that you don't feel comfortable about, or something that you disagree with, or something that you don't have enough information about so that you can reply with a correct response. And you don't want to get caught in a conversation with someone who is upset and will most likely drag you into an argument. But sometimes you don't want to totally ignore someone. Make eye contact with the person that shows no emotion, so as not to influence or encourage someone to continue a conversation that is making an incorrect observation, or just asking the wrong questions. Sometimes it's just better to change the subject, in a nice way of course. Or ask for the conversation to continue later in a better time and place. Shunning.

Sometimes you just want to be a fly on the wall in certain situations, meaning that you would like to be there secretly to see and hear what happens. Like a one-way mirror, being an observer and witness without the risk of actually being there. Interested but not ready to commit or ready to be fully involved where your true character can be on display and tested along side the subject matter.

Mental Masturbation is the act of following intellectual ideas that are borne out of excitement and/or novelty, but offer little value to you and your real-life goals. It's engaging in intellectually stimulating conversation with little or no practical purpose, usually as an excuse to avoid taking constructive action in your life.

Talking to Yourself - Inner Voice

Internal Monologue is also known as your inner voice or your internal speech. A verbal stream of conscious thinking using words. A semi-constant internal monologue that some people can have with themselves at a conscious or semi-conscious level. What you're thinking about may be thought of as an internal monologue, or a conversation with oneself. Internal monologue can be considered as a type of speech rehearsal, or when you're imagining different scenarios. In the philosophical field of language, there is much research about the importance of language as it relates to the process of thinking or internal speech in correlation with the building and the usage of phrases in one's own language. When reading, some people's internal monologue moves their muscles slightly as if they were speaking, this is called subvocalizing. In some medical or mental conditions, there can be uncertainty about the true source of internal sentences or internal monologue, which may lead to concerns if a person is hearing voices or having auditory hallucinations. Internal monologue can be stimulated by the sensory parts of the brain, activating both auditory and visual receptors. Mediation can be a useful tool to help calm the internal voice using various methods.

"Of course I talk to myself, because sometimes I need an expert opinion from my voice of reason, or my shoulder angel with a PhD. I try to avoid echo chambers, because having a second opinion or several opinions can be extremely valuable."

Language and Thought is when our emotions and behavior are caused by our internal dialogue. We can change ourselves by learning to challenge and refute our own thoughts, especially a number of specific mistaken thought patterns called cognitive distortions. Don't under estimate the power of words, especially your own words.

The Power of Language - Human Voice - Positive Thinking

Intrapersonal Communication is the process by which an individual communicates within themselves, acting as both sender and receiver of messages, and encompasses the use of unspoken words to consciously engage in self-talk and inner speech. It is a communicator's internal use of language or thought. It can be useful to envision intrapersonal communication occurring in the mind of the individual in a model which contains a sender, receiver, and a feedback loop.

Introspect is to reflect on one's own thoughts and feelings.

Retrospect - Default Mode Network - Ear Worm - Rumination - Small Talk

Introspection is the examination of one's own conscious thoughts and feelings. In psychology, the process of introspection relies exclusively on observation of one's mental state, while in a spiritual context it may refer to the examination of one's soul. Introspection is closely related to human self-reflection and is contrasted with external observation.

Soliloquy is a monologue addressed to oneself, thoughts spoken out loud without addressing another. Soliloquies are used as a device in drama to let a character make their thoughts known to the audience, address it directly or take it into their confidence, wholly or in part.

Some people are more comfortable having conversations with themselves than with other people? Some people rarely have real conversations, even with themselves. The conversations in your head are only one half of a conversation. Even though you're talking to yourself, it still counts as only one opinion. You can't just say "my paranoid side says yes, while my logical side says no", because you still need to confirm the accuracy of both of those questions, because everything is relative. Just like when trying to figuring out if something is propaganda, fantasy or factual? Are you being mindful, or are you being mindless?

Is thinking to yourself and talking to yourself the same thing? Is your speaking voice just you thinking out loud? Being able to think before you speak is a good thing. It gives your conscience a chance to review the material before making it public. We know that there are some things we should never say or speak, even if we think them. So why do we think them? People don't always say what they think. When people speak, a lot of times it's not the same words as what they were thinking. People can think one way but say it another way. So how do you know if your own thoughts are true or accurate? Speaking the truth is debatable, so you have to be careful when you speak. Thinking is best when done before speaking. But how do you know if your thinking is true?

Listening - Interpretation - Processing - Signals

How can you be sure that something goes without saying if you never say it out loud? How can you be sure that it goes without thinking if you never thought it out load? To pretend to have a conversation with someone else, and to guess what their responses would be, is not that unusual, people do it all the time, it's called thinking to yourself. It's anticipating responses to particular scenarios and questions that you might ask someone. But the bottom line is, you're still answering your own questions, so you're pretty much still just talking to yourself, in a form of role-playing. And it's not a great way to teach yourself, mostly because you're only relying on one information source. So you still need to seek out more information and knowledge in order to obtain a better understanding about the questions you're asking, and, you also have to be sure that you're asking the right questions, and using the right sources. Learning to become more knowledgeable will always make for better conversations, even the conversations that you have with yourself.

A conversation with yourself is not effectively learning. Learning is a active process that takes more than just thinking, you have to do things and research things. You may figure some things out a little bit by thinking, but it's only because you learned something before. You don't learn too many things just thinking on your own. And you can't say that you were trying to learn. You have to be actively learning and understand what learning is. Did you ever wonder who gave you that ability to learn? It was not you.

"You talk to yourself as if you were someone else. You're acting as if you are someone else in order to question yourself and see things from another perspective."

Acting (practicing) - Imaginary Friend (imagination) - Praying (higher self)

Voice-Over is a production technique where a voice—that is not part of the narrative (non-diegetic)—is used in a radio, television production, filmmaking, theatre, or other presentations. The voice-over is read from a script and may be spoken by someone who appears elsewhere in the production or by a specialist voice talent. Synchronous dialogue, where the voice-over is narrating the action that is taking place at the same time, remains the most common technique in voice-overs. Asynchronous, however, is also used in cinema. It is usually prerecorded and placed over the top of a film or video and commonly used in documentaries or news reports to explain information. Voice-overs are used in video games and on-hold messages, as well as for announcements and information at events and tourist destinations. It may also be read live for events such as award presentations. Voice-over is added in addition to any existing dialogue. It is not to be confused with the process of replacing dialogue with a translated version, which is called dubbing or revoicing.

Is the person talking back making sense? If the measurer is not calibrated or knowledgeable enough, then how can you be sure that the examination is accurate? Self Regulation.

Subvocalization or silent speech, is the internal speech typically made when reading; it provides the sound of the word as it is read. This is a natural process when reading and it helps the mind to access meanings to comprehend and remember what is read, potentially reducing cognitive load. This inner speech is characterized by minute movements in the larynx and other muscles involved in the articulation of speech. Most of these movements are undetectable (without the aid of machines) by the person who is reading. It is one of the components of Baddeley and Hitch's phonological loop proposal which accounts for the storage of these types of information into short-term memory.

How pronouns can be used to build confidence in stressful situations. Self-distancing language or self-talk can help us 'see' ourselves through someone else's eyes.

Preschoolers Correct Speaking Mistakes Even When Talking to Themselves

Dialogical Self is a psychological concept which describes the mind's ability to imagine the different positions of participants in an internal dialogue, in close connection with external dialogue. The "dialogical self" is the central concept in the Dialogical Self Theory (DST), as created and developed by the Dutch psychologist Hubert Hermans since the 1990s.

Talking to ourselves in our heads may be fundamentally the same as speaking our thoughts out loud. We spend a lot of time listening to our own inner speech. Previous research suggests that when we prepare to speak out loud, our brain creates a copy of the instructions that are sent to our lips, mouth and vocal cords. This copy is known as an efference-copy. It is sent to the region of the brain that processes sound to predict what sound it is about to hear. This allows the brain to discriminate between the predictable sounds that we have produced ourselves, and the less predictable sounds that are produced by other people. The efference-copy dampens the brain's response to self-generated vocalisations, giving less mental resources to these sounds, because they are so predictable. This is why we can't tickle ourselves. When I rub the sole of my foot, my brain predicts the sensation I will feel and doesn't respond strongly to it. But if someone else rubs my sole unexpectedly, the exact same sensation will be unpredicted. The brain's response will be much larger and creates a ticklish feeling simply imagining making a sound reduced the brain activity that occurred when people simultaneously heard that sound. People's thoughts were enough to change the way their brain perceived sounds. In effect, when people imagined sounds, those sounds seemed quieter.

I want everyone to know what I'm thinking, but what I'm thinking is not always what I want to say out load, or should say out load. Thinking bad things is not a victimless crime. You can say it's a joke, but why does that excuse you? Unless you are making a point? You have a responsibility for your own thoughts, as well as for the words you speak. Saying horrible things, or thinking horrible things, does not say that you are a bad person, it's only bad when you believe those words or thoughts, it's also bad when you don't apologize for your thoughts or words. (it is a learning process).

Shoulder Angel - Self-Smart - Introvert

The Voice In Your Head. A surreal comedy about an office worker who has resigned himself to spending every waking hour tortured by the negative voice in head, until a concerned coworker decides to take action.

Inferiority Complex - Internal Narrative - Thinking

If you hear a voice in your head saying to commit a crime, then that voice is wrong and bad. And pretending that the voice is a holy spirit will only make a fool of you. How to interpret information and understand information is extremely important, no matter what the source is.

Sleep Talking - Inter Voice - Speed Reading

Misinterpretations are humans achilles heal. We not only misinterpret each other sometimes, we also misinterpret our own thoughts and feelings sometimes. Not only do we experience difficulties communicating with other people, we also have difficulties communicating with ourselves. This is why we need more knowledge and information to make us more skilled, more aware, and more intelligent.

Misinterpretation is having an inaccurate mental representation of the meaning or significance of something. Not correct; not in conformity with fact or truth. 

Meanings - Translations

"if I'm joking to myself, then who is the joke intended for? My conscience? Who's that? If my awareness is random like my dreams, then how can I be sure which part of me is listening, and why?"

People with No Internal Monologue. In childhood, the dorsal stream develops slower than the ventral stream. The emergence of inner speech is influenced by dorsal stream development. It's unclear why some people don't have an internal monologue, but researchers speculate it has to do with the way the dorsal stream matures, among other things. Inner dialogue is a frequent occurrence for only 30 to 50 percent of people.

Why Some People Don't Have an Inner Monologue (youtube)

Q&A with a person who does not have an internal monologue (youtube)

People without an inner voice have poorer verbal memory. Between 5-10 per cent of the population do not experience an inner voice.
The vast majority of people have an ongoing conversation with themselves, an inner voice, that plays an important role in their daily lives. But between 5-10 per cent of the population do not have the same experience of an inner voice, and they find it more difficult to perform certain verbal memory tasks, new research shows.

Aphantasia is when your brain doesn't form or use mental images as part of your thinking or imagination. Experts don't define aphantasia as a medical condition, disorder or disability. Instead, it's a characteristic, much like which hand you naturally use to write.

Voices In My Head

Auditory Hallucination is a form of hallucination that involves perceiving sounds without auditory stimulus. A common form of auditory hallucination involves hearing one or more talking voices, and this is known as an auditory verbal hallucination. There are three main categories into which the hearing of talking voices often fall: a person hearing a voice speak one's thoughts, a person hearing one or more voices arguing, or a person hearing a voice narrating their own actions. These three categories do not account for all types of auditory hallucinations. Hallucinations of music also occur. In these, people more often hear snippets of songs that they know, or the music they hear may be original, and may occur in normal people and with no known cause. Is this related to hearing voices when your half asleep?

If your internal monologue seems to have a mind of its own, and if the dream world mechanism for creating dreams while we sleep, is some how being activated while you are awake, then your auditory hallucinations might need to seek out some professional advice.

Is God trying to talk to me? Is someone communicating with me telepathically? Am I receiving signals that are not meant for me? Is it my intuition communicating with me? Or is it a disorder of the mind that causes random feedback from the subconscious mind.

Somniloquy is a parasomnia that refers to talking aloud while asleep. It can be quite loud, ranging from simple mumbling sounds to loud shouts and long frequently inarticulate speeches, and can occur many times during a sleep cycle. As with sleepwalking and night terrors, sleeptalking usually occurs during the less-deep delta-wave NREM sleep stages or during temporary arousals therefrom.

Lateral Lemniscus is a tract of axons in the brainstem that carries information about sound from the cochlear nucleus to various brainstem nuclei and ultimately the contralateral inferior colliculus of the midbrain. Three distinct, primarily inhibitory, cellular groups are located interspersed within these fibers, and are thus named the nuclei of the lateral lemniscus

How to cope with Hearing Voices. Hearing the voices of God or just voices?

Poor supplementary motor area activation differentiates Auditory Verbal

AVATAR Therapy for Auditory Hallucinations uses speech that closely matched the pitch and tone of the persecutory voice in peoples heads. Patients were then encouraged to engage in a dialogue with the avatar, who was controlled by a therapist. Instead of propagating a relationship where the persecutory voice dominates a submissive patient, the therapist could control the avatar so it would slowly yield control to the patient as time passed. AVATAR therapy showed mean reductions in total Psychotic Symptom Rating Scale (PSYRATS) auditory hallucinations of 8.75 (P = .003), and in the Omnipotence and Malevolence subscales of the Revised Beliefs About Voices Questionnaire (BAVQ-R) of 5.88 (P = .004). On the other hand, the control group experienced no changes during the study period. Noise Masking.

Efference Copy (wiki) - Listening - Interpretation - Processing - Cross Talk Signals - Higher Dimensional Aliens - Magic - Illusions

Things I would say if I were me, "Who the hell are you?" I'm you, first person narrative. "Ohhh."

"Sometimes in order to keep the conversation going, you have to do it yourself, ask all the questions and look for the answers."

Interlocutor is a person involved in a conversation or dialogue. Two or more people speaking to one another, are each other's interlocutors.

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