City Management

Local Government - Administration - Settlements

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City ImageCity Manager is an official appointed as the administrative manager of a city, in a council–manager form of city government. Local officials serving in this position are sometimes referred to as the chief executive officer or CEO or chief administrative officer or CAO in some municipalities. City managers need to be able to conduct the following duties effectively in the job: Communicate. Delegate tasks. Oversee projects. Create and manage budgets. Bridge gaps in political disputes. Hire and fire department heads . Represent the city. Some of the basic roles, responsibilities, and powers of a city manager include: Supervision of day-to-day operations of all city departments and staff through department heads; Oversight of all recruitment, dismissal, disciplining and suspensions; Preparation, monitoring, and execution of the city budget, which includes submitting each year to the council a proposed budget package with options and recommendations for its consideration and possible approval; Main technical advisor to the council on overall governmental operations; Public relations, such as meeting with citizens, citizen groups, businesses, and other stakeholders (the presence of a mayor may alter this function somewhat); Operating the city with a professional understanding of how all city functions operate together to their best effect; Attends all council meetings, but does not have any voting rights. Additional duties that may be assigned by the council. Federal Government Departments.

Developing - Infrastructure - Transportation - Safety - Environment Monitoring - Over Development - Money - Red Tape - Bureaucracy - Micromanagement - Industry

How do you manage a city and grow without wasting time, people, resources, and energy?

Learning Society - Census - Parks

Mayor is the elected head of a city, town, or other municipality. Mayor is the highest-ranking official in a municipal government such as that of a city or a town. A mayor controls municipality workers, helps people, and provides basic necessities for them. Worldwide, there is a wide variance in local laws and customs regarding the powers and responsibilities of a mayor as well as the means by which a mayor is elected or otherwise mandated. Depending on the system chosen, a mayor may be the chief executive officer of the municipal government, may simply chair a multi-member governing body with little or no independent power, or may play a solely ceremonial role. Options for selection of a mayor include direct election by the public, or selection by an elected governing council or board. The term "Mayor" shares a linguistic origin with the military rank of Major, both ultimately derived from French majeur.

Council–Manager government form is one of two predominant forms of local government in the United States and Ireland, the other being the mayor–council government form. Council–manager government form also is used in both county and city governments in the United States. The council–manager form is also used for municipal government in Canada and many other countries, both for city councils and county councils.

Council of Governments also known as regional councils, regional commissions, regional planning commissions, and planning districts) are regional governing and/or coordinating bodies that exist throughout the United States. CoGs are normally controlled by their member local governments, though some states have passed laws granting CoGs region-wide powers over specific functions, and still other states mandate such councils. Country Management.

Aldermen is an elected member of a municipal council. Alderman is a member of a municipal assembly or council in many jurisdictions founded upon English law. The term may be titular, denoting a high-ranking member of a borough or county council, a council member chosen by the elected members themselves rather than by popular vote, or a council member elected by voters.

Administration the process or activity of running a business, organization, etc. the management of public affairs; government. Administrative relating to the running of a business, organization, etc. Administrative Division (wiki) - Leadership.

Public Administration is the implementation of government policy and also an academic discipline that studies this implementation and prepares civil servants for working in the public service. As a "field of inquiry with a diverse scope" whose fundamental goal is to "advance management and policies so that government can function". Some of the various definitions which have been offered for the term are: "the management of public programs"; the "translation of politics into the reality that citizens see every day"; and "the study of government decision making, the analysis of the policies themselves, the various inputs that have produced them, and the inputs necessary to produce alternative policies." Public administration is "centrally concerned with the organization of government policies and programs as well as the behavior of officials (usually non-elected) formally responsible for their conduct". Many unelected public servants can be considered to be public administrators, including heads of city, county, regional, state and federal departments such as municipal budget directors, human resources (HR) administrators, city managers, census managers, state mental health directors, and cabinet secretaries. Public administrators are public servants working in public departments and agencies, at all levels of government. Law Enforcement.

Local Government is a form of public administration which, in a majority of contexts, exists as the lowest tier of administration within a given state. The term is used to contrast with offices at state level, which are referred to as the central government, national government, or federal government, and also to supranational government which deals with governing institutions between states. Local governments generally act within powers delegated to them by legislation or directives of the higher level of government. In federal states, local government generally comprises the third (or sometimes fourth) tier of government, whereas in unitary states, local government usually occupies the second or third tier of government, often with greater powers than higher-level administrative divisions. The question of municipal autonomy is a key question of public administration and governance. The institutions of local government vary greatly between countries, and even where similar arrangements exist, the terminology often varies. Common names for local government entities include state, province, region, department, county, prefecture, district, city, township, town, borough, parish, municipality, shire, village, and local service district.

Red Tape - Bureaucracy

Local Government in the United States refers to governmental jurisdictions below the level of the state. Most states and territories have at least two tiers of local government: counties and municipalities. In some states, counties are divided into townships. There are several different types of jurisdictions at the municipal level, including the city, town, borough, and village. The types and nature of these municipal entities vary from state to state. In addition to these general-purpose local governments, states may also create special-purpose local governments. Many rural areas and even some suburban areas of many states have no municipal government below the county level. In other places consolidated city-county jurisdictions exist, in which city and county functions are managed by a single municipal government. In places like New England, towns are the primary unit of local government and counties have no governmental function but exist in a purely perfunctory capacity (e.g. for census data). In addition to counties and municipalities, states often create special purpose authorities, such as school districts and districts for fire protection, sanitary sewer service, public transportation, public libraries, public parks or forests, or water resource management. Such special purpose districts may encompass areas in multiple municipalities or counties. According to the US Census Bureau's data collected in 2012, there were 89,004 local government units in the United States. This data shows a decline from 89,476 units since the last census of local governments performed in 2007. Depending on the state, local governments may operate under their own charters or under general law, or a state may have a mix of chartered and general-law local governments. Generally, in a state having both chartered and general-law local governments, the chartered local governments have more local autonomy and home rule.

Office of Management and Budget is the largest office within the executive office of the President of the United States.

District is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by local government. Scale.

Municipality is usually a single urban administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and state laws, to which it is subordinate. It is to be distinguished from the county, which may encompass rural territory and/or numerous small communities such as towns, villages and hamlets.

Municipal Corporation is the legal term for a local governing body, including (but not necessarily limited to) cities, counties, towns, townships, charter townships, villages, and boroughs. The term can also be used to describe municipally owned corporations.

Municipal is relating to a city or town or its governing body. The characteristic of a municipality or relating to the government of a municipality. Waste Management.

Types of Settlements

City is a densely populated human settlement with complex systems for sanitation, utilities, safety, land usage, housing, and transportation, land use, production of goods, and communication. A city is a permanent and densely settled place with administratively defined boundaries whose members work primarily on non-agricultural tasks. Their density facilitates interaction between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process, such as improving efficiency of goods and service distribution. Due to the efficiency of transportation and the smaller land consumption, dense cities hold the potential to have a smaller ecological footprint per inhabitant than more sparsely populated areas. Therefore, compact cities are often referred to as a crucial element of fighting climate change. However, this concentration can also have significant negative consequences, such as forming urban heat islands, concentrating pollution, and stressing water supplies and other resources. Cities typically provide municipal services such as education, through school systems; policing, through police departments; and firefighting, through fire departments; as well as the city's basic infrastructure. These are provided more or less routinely, in a more or less equal fashion. Responsibility for administration usually falls on the city government, though some services may be operated by a higher level of government, while others may be privately run. Governance includes government but refers to a wider domain of social control functions implemented by many actors including nongovernmental organizations. The impact of globalization and the role of multinational corporations in local governments worldwide, has led to a shift in perspective on urban governance, away from the "urban regime theory" in which a coalition of local interests functionally govern, toward a theory of outside economic control, widely associated in academics with the philosophy of neoliberalism. In the neoliberal model of governance, public utilities are privatized, industry is deregulated, and corporations gain the status of governing actors—as indicated by the power they wield in public-private partnerships and over business improvement districts, and in the expectation of self-regulation through corporate social responsibility. The biggest investors and real estate developers act as the city's de facto urban planners. The related concept of good governance places more emphasis on the state, with the purpose of assessing urban governments for their suitability for development assistance. The concepts of governance and good governance are especially invoked in the emergent megacities, where international organizations consider existing governments inadequate for their large populations. Urban planning, the application of forethought to city design, involves optimizing land use, transportation, utilities, and other basic systems, in order to achieve certain objectives. Urban society is typically stratified. Spatially, cities are formally or informally segregated along ethnic, economic and racial lines. People living relatively close together may live, work, and play, in separate areas, and associate with different people, forming ethnic or lifestyle enclaves or, in areas of concentrated poverty, ghettoes. While in the US and elsewhere poverty became associated with the inner city. Historically, cities rely on rural areas for intensive farming to yield surplus crops, in exchange for which they provide money, political administration, manufactured goods, and culture. Urban economics tends to analyze larger agglomerations, stretching beyond city limits, in order to reach a more complete understanding of the local labor market. Cities are typically hubs for education and the arts, supporting universities, museums, temples, and other cultural institutions. They feature impressive displays of architecture ranging from small to enormous and ornate to brutal; skyscrapers, providing thousands of offices or homes within a small footprint, and visible from miles away, have become iconic urban features. Density makes for effective mass communication and transmission of news, through heralds, printed proclamations, newspapers, and digital media. Urban infrastructure involves various physical networks and spaces necessary for transportation, water use, energy, recreation, and public functions. Megaprojects such as the construction of airports, power plants, and railways require large upfront investments and thus tend to require funding from national government or the private sector. Privatization may also extend to all levels of infrastructure construction and maintenance. Sanitation, necessary for good health in crowded conditions, requires water supply and waste management as well as individual hygiene. Urban water systems include principally a water supply network and a network for wastewater including sewage and storm water. Historically, either local governments or private companies have administered urban water supply, with a tendency toward government water supply in the 20th century and a tendency toward private operation at the turn of the twenty-first. The market for private water services is dominated by two French companies, Veolia Water (formerly Vivendi) and Engie (formerly Suez), said to hold 70% of all water contracts worldwide. Modern urban life relies heavily on the energy transmitted through electricity for the operation of electric machines (from household appliances to industrial machines to now-ubiquitous electronic systems used in communications, business, and government) and for traffic lights, streetlights and indoor lighting. Cities rely to a lesser extent on hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline and natural gas for transportation, heating, and cooking. Telecommunications infrastructure such as telephone lines and coaxial cables also traverse cities, forming dense networks for mass and point-to-point communications. Because cities rely on specialization and an economic system based on wage labour, their inhabitants must have the ability to regularly travel between home, work, commerce, and entertainment. City-dwellers travel foot or by wheel on roads and walkways, or use special rapid transit systems based on underground, over-ground, and elevated rail. Cities also rely on long-distance transportation (truck, rail, and airplane) for economic connections with other cities and rural areas. A global city, also known as a world city, is a prominent centre of trade, banking, finance, innovation, and markets. States.

Why Cities Are Where They Are (youtube)

Development - Sustainable Development - Green Building - Smart Cities - Retrofit - Governance

Location - The Best Places to Build - The Worst Places to Build. Scale.

Global City is a city which is a primary node in the global economic network. The concept comes from geography and urban studies, and the idea that globalization is created and furthered in strategic geographic locales according to a hierarchy of importance to the operation of the global system of finance and trade. The most complex node is the "global city", with links binding it to other cities having a direct and tangible effect on global socio-economic affairs.

Metropolis is a large city or conurbation which is a significant economic, political, and cultural center for a country or region, and an important hub for regional or international connections, commerce, and communications. A big city belonging to a larger urban agglomeration, but which is not the core of that agglomeration, is not generally considered a metropolis but a part of it. Conurbation is a region comprising a number of cities, large towns, and other urban areas that, through population growth and physical expansion, have merged to form one continuous urban or industrially developed area. In most cases, a conurbation is a polycentric urbanised area, in which transportation has developed to link areas to create a single urban labour market or travel to work area. There are about 50 cities on earth that are larger than five million people.

Metropolitan Area is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing. A metro area usually comprises multiple jurisdictions and municipalities: neighborhoods, townships, boroughs, cities, towns, exurbs, suburbs, counties, districts, states, and even nations like the eurodistricts. As social, economic and political institutions have changed, metropolitan areas have become key economic and political regions. Metropolitan areas include satellite cities, towns and intervening rural areas that are socioeconomically tied to the urban core, typically measured by commuting patterns. Most metropolitan areas are anchored by one major city such as Paris metropolitan area (Paris) and New York metropolitan area (New York City). In some cases metropolitan areas have multiple centers of close to equal importance, such as Dallas–Fort Worth metropolitan area (Dallas and Fort Worth) and Islamabad–Rawalpindi metropolitan area (Islamabad and Rawalpindi). Elevations.

Region are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment (environmental geography). Geographic regions and sub-regions are mostly described by their imprecisely defined, and sometimes transitory boundaries, except in human geography, where jurisdiction areas such as national borders are defined in law.

Urban is a human settlement with high population density and infrastructure of built environment. Urban areas are created through urbanization and are categorized by urban morphology as cities, towns, conurbations or suburbs. In urbanism, the term contrasts to rural areas such as villages and hamlets and in urban sociology or urban anthropology it contrasts with natural environment. Urban Geography is the subdiscipline of Geography that derives from a study of cities and urban processes.

Rural is a geographic area that is located outside towns and cities, like farming, forests, mountains and parks. Countryside is the land and scenery of a rural area. Parks.

Suburb is a residential area or a mixed use area, either existing as part of a city or urban area or as a separate residential community within commuting distance of a city. Suburban Residential District is an area outside of a City where homes are.

Town is a human settlement larger than a village but smaller than a city. The size definition for what constitutes a "town" varies considerably in different parts of the world.

Civil Township is a widely used unit of local government in the United States that is subordinate to a county. Township functions are generally overseen by a governing board (the name varies from state to state) and a clerk, trustee, or mayor (in NJ townships and Utah metro townships). Township officers frequently include justice of the peace, road commissioner, assessor, constable, and surveyor. In the 20th century, many townships also added a township administrator or supervisor to the officers as an executive for the board. In some cases, townships run local libraries, senior citizen services, youth services, disabled citizen services, emergency assistance, and even cemetery services. In some states, a township and a municipality that is coterminous with that township may wholly or partially consolidate their operations.

Village is a clustered human settlement or community, larger than a hamlet but smaller than a town, with a population ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand.

Neighbourhood is a geographically localised community within a larger city, town, suburb or rural area. Neighbourhoods are often social communities with considerable face-to-face interaction among members or neighbors.

Residential Area is a land used in which housing predominates, as opposed to industrial and commercial areas. Housing may vary significantly between, and through, residential areas. These include single-family housing, multi-family residential, or mobile homes. Zoning for residential use may permit some services or work opportunities or may totally exclude business and industry. It may permit high density land use or only permit low density uses. Residential zoning usually includes a smaller FAR (floor area ratio) than business, commercial or industrial/manufacturing zoning. The area may be large or small.

Human Settlement is a community in which people live. A settlement can range in size from a small number of dwellings grouped together to the largest of cities with surrounding urbanized areas. Settlements may include hamlets, villages, towns and cities.

Industrial District is a place where workers and firms, specialized in a main industry and auxiliary industries, live and work.

Professions - Supplies - Mixed-Use Development

Commercial Area in a city are areas, districts, or neighborhoods primarily composed of commercial buildings, such as a downtown, central business district, financial district, "Main Street", commercial strip, or shopping center. Commercial activity within cities includes the buying and selling of goods and services in retail businesses, wholesale buying and selling, financial establishments, and a wide variety of uses that are broadly classified as "business." While commercial activities typically take up a relatively small amount of land, they are extremely important to a community’s economy. They provide employment, facilitate the circulation of money, and often serve many other roles important to the community, such as public gathering and cultural events. Scale.

Campus is a collection of buildings and grounds that belong to a given institution, either academic or non-academic. Usually a college campus includes libraries, lecture halls, residence halls, student centers or dining halls, and park-like settings.

Territory is the geographical area under the jurisdiction of a sovereign state.

State is an organized community living under a single political structure and government, sovereign or constituent.

State Constitutions - Country Constitutions

Country is the territory occupied by a nation of people. A politically organized body of people under a single government with geographical region boundary area outside of cities and towns. The True Size of Countries.

Nation is a large group or collective of people with common characteristics attributed to them — including language, traditions, mores (customs), habitus (habits), and ethnicity. By comparison, a nation is more impersonal, abstract, and overtly political than an ethnic group. It is a cultural-political community that has become conscious of its autonomy, unity, and particular interests.

Person is a human that has certain capacities and attributes constituting Personhood, which in turn is defined differently by different authors in different disciplines, and by different cultures in different times and places.

Citizen is someone who has a document that states that they are living in a particular country.

Refugee - Family

Immigrant is the international movement of people into a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take-up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker.


Master Plan View Diagram Master Plan is a comprehensive document that sets out an overall strategy. A small-scale graphic outline that shows all the major elements of a project. A master plan is used to develop or improve land, a community, a building complex, or the like, through a long-range plan that balances and harmonizes all known elements that will be affected by the plan. Includes land-use planning and a government entity’s plan for the overall utilization of a particular area, including its allocation for residential or manufacturing uses and the corresponding environmental impacts. Highest and best use is the use that would produce the highest value for a property, regardless of its actual current use.

How much Clean Water is available? - What is the Caring Capacity of that location? What are the Big 5 Needs? What is Sustainable Development? What is Over Development? What is Low Impact Development?

Request for Proposal - Project Management - Cost Overruns - Pandemics - Mission Statement - Urban Development - Walking - Infrastructure - Location Concerns - Growth vs. Decay - Gentrification - Demographics

Capital Project is a large scale project that helps to maintain or improve city assets such as infrastructure and public works, which may include water, drainage, sewage, streets, roads, railways, transportation, manufacturing plants, power transmission and electrical distribution. A capitol project is an investment in the procurement or in the construction, reconstruction, renovation, and preventive maintenance of fixed assets and city-owned buildings. Education is Capitol.

Capital Improvements are permanent structural changes, alterations or repairs to a property that enhance its value, increases substantially, increases its useful life, or allows for a new use and adaptability. Capital Improvement Program is a short-range plan, usually four to ten years, which identifies capital projects and equipment purchases, provides a planning schedule and identifies options for financing the plan.

Developed Country is a sovereign state that has a developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations. Most commonly, the criteria for evaluating the degree of economic development are gross domestic product or GDP, gross national product or GNP, the per capita income, level of industrialization, amount of widespread infrastructure and general standard of living. Which criteria are to be used and which countries can be classified as being developed are subjects of debate. Developed countries have generally more advanced post-industrial economies, meaning the service sector provides more wealth than the industrial sector. They are contrasted with developing countries, which are in the process of industrialization or are pre-industrial and almost entirely agrarian, some of which might fall into the category of Least Developed Countries. As of 2015, advanced economies comprise 60.8% of global GDP based on nominal values and 42.9% of global GDP based on purchasing-power parity (PPP) according to the International Monetary Fund. "A developed country with underdeveloped minds should not call themselves developed. We need to grow intellectually and grow sustainably and symbiotically, and also be fair to everyone at the same time. That's development.

Financial Planning - Milestones - Urban Planning - Development

Metropolitan Planning Organization was created to ensure regional cooperation in transportation planning. Ensuring that existing and future expenditures of governmental funds for transportation projects and programs are based on a continuing, cooperative, and comprehensive (“3-C”) planning process.

Development Geography is a branch of geography which refers to the standard of living and its quality of life of its human inhabitants. In this context, development is a process of change that affects people's lives. It may involve an improvement in the quality of life as perceived by the people undergoing change. However, development is not always a positive process.

Human Geography is the branch of geography that deals with the study of people and their communities, cultures, economies, and interactions with the environment by studying their relations with and across space and place. Human geography attends to human patterns of social interaction, as well as spatial level interdependencies, and how they influence or affect the earth's environment. As an intellectual discipline, geography is divided into the sub-fields of physical geography and human geography, the latter concentrating upon the study of human activities, by the application of qualitative and quantitative research methods.

Community Development is a process where community members come together to take collective action and generate solutions to common problems." It is a broad term given to the practices of civic leaders, activists, involved citizens and professionals to improve various aspects of communities, typically aiming to build stronger and more resilient local communities.

Redevelopment is any new construction on a site that has pre-existing uses. It represents a process of land development uses to revitalize the physical, economic and social fabric of urban space. Some redevelopment projects and programs have been incredibly controversial including the urban renewal program in the United States in the mid-twentieth century or the urban regeneration program in Great Britain.

Proto-City is a large, dense Neolithic settlement that is largely distinguished from a city by its lack of planning and centralized rule. The emergence of cities from proto-urban settlements is a non-linear development that demonstrates the varied experiences of early urbanization. Development Process.

Proto indicates the first or the earliest beginning of something, or the original.

Geopolitics is the study of the effects of Earth's geography (human and physical) on politics and international relations. While geopolitics usually refers to countries and relations between them, it may also focus on two other kinds of states: de facto independent states with limited international recognition and; relations between sub-national geopolitical entities, such as the federated states that make up a federation, confederation or a quasi-federal system. Economic Geography.

Comprehensive Planning is a process that determines community goals and aspirations in terms of community development. The outcome of comprehensive planning is the Comprehensive Plan which dictates public policy in terms of transportation, utilities, land use, recreation, and housing. Comprehensive plans typically encompass large geographical areas, a broad range of topics, and cover a long-term time horizon.

Official Community Plan is a comprehensive plan created by an incorporated municipality which dictates public policy in terms of transportation, utilities, land use, recreation, and housing. OCPs typically encompass large geographical areas, a broad range of topics, and cover a long-term time horizon. The process of creating an OCP is today often referred to as a community vision.

Five Pillars of Development - Sustainable Development - Parks - Water Management - Green Building - Infrastructure

Geodesign is a set of concepts and methods used to involve all stakeholders and various professions in collaboratively designing and realizing the optimal solution for spatial challenges in the built and natural environments, utilizing all available techniques and data in an integrated process. Originally, geodesign was mainly applied during the design and planning phase. "Geodesign is a design and planning method which tightly couples the creation of design proposals with impact simulations informed by geographic contexts." Now, it is also used during realization and maintenance phases and to facilitate re-use of for example buildings or industrial areas. Geodesign includes project conceptualization, analysis, design specification, stakeholder participation and collaboration, design creation, simulation, and evaluation (among other stages).

Environmental Design is the process of addressing surrounding environmental parameters when devising plans, programs, policies, buildings, or products. It seeks to create spaces that will enhance the natural, social, cultural and physical environment of particular areas. Classical prudent design may have always considered environmental factors; however, the environmental movement beginning in the 1940s has made the concept more explicit. Environmental design can also refer to the applied arts and sciences dealing with creating the human-designed environment. These fields include architecture, geography, urban planning, landscape architecture, and interior design. Environmental design can also encompass interdisciplinary areas such as historical preservation and lighting design. In terms of a larger scope, environmental design has implications for the industrial design of products: innovative automobiles, wind power generators, solar-powered equipment, and other kinds of equipment could serve as examples. Currently, the term has expanded to apply to ecological and sustainability issues.

Designing cities for 21st-century weather. Well-designed urban land patterns can reduce population exposures to weather extremes. Researchers have investigated how changes in urban land and population will affect future populations' exposures to weather extremes under climate conditions at the end of the 21st century. They used a data-driven model to predict how urban areas across the country will grow by 2100, and found that how a city is laid out or organized spatially has the potential to reduce population exposures to future weather extremes.

Human Impact on the Environment includes impacts on biophysical environments, biodiversity, and other resources. The term anthropogenic designates an effect or object resulting from human activity. Feasibility Study.

Environmental Planning is the process of facilitating decision making to carry out land development with the consideration given to the natural environment, social, political, economic and governance factors and provides a holistic framework to achieve sustainable outcomes. A major goal of environmental planning is to create sustainable communities, which aim to conserve and protect undeveloped land. Some of the main elements of present-day environmental planning are: Social & economic development, Urban development, Regional development, Natural resource management & integrated land use, Infrastructure systems, Governance frameworks. The environmental planning assessments encompass areas such as land use, socio-economics, transportation, economic and housing characteristics, air pollution, noise pollution, the wetlands, habitat of the endangered species, flood zones susceptibility, coastal zones erosion, and visual studies among others, and is referred to as an Integrated environmental planning assessment. It is the ability to analyze environmental issues that will facilitate critical decision making.

Urban Planning - Land Use

Participatory Design co-operative design or co-design is an approach to design attempting to actively involve all stakeholders (e.g. employees, partners, customers, citizens, end users) in the design process to help ensure the result meets their needs and is usable. Participatory design is an approach which is focused on processes and procedures of design and is not a design style. The term is used in a variety of fields e.g. software design, urban design, architecture, landscape architecture, product design, sustainability, graphic design, planning, and even medicine as a way of creating environments that are more responsive and appropriate to their inhabitants' and users' cultural, emotional, spiritual and practical needs. It is one approach to placemaking. Recent research suggests that designers create more innovative concepts and ideas when working within a co-design environment with others than they do when creating ideas on their own. Participatory design has been used in many settings and at various scales. For some, this approach has a political dimension of user empowerment and democratization. For others, it is seen as a way of abrogating design responsibility and innovation by designers.

How researchers are using digital city-building games to shape the future. Researchers have come up with exciting and sophisticated new mapping technology enabling future generations to get involved in creating their own future built landscape. They say that planners are missing a real trick when it comes to encouraging and involving the public to help shape their own towns, cities and counties for the future. They also say that games platforms can be used to plan future cities and also help the public immerse themselves in these future worlds.

Enhanced Integrated Framework is a global development program with the objective of supporting least developed countries (LDCs) to better integrate into the global trading system and to make trade a driver for development.

Frances Goldin was an unreconstructed socialist and was an advocate for affordable housing and a staunch defender of the poor. Her activism extended over two careers. She was a civic leader in a vintage neighborhood that was being gussied up with fancy names (“as soon as they said ‘East Village,’ they tripled the rent,” she told The New York Times in 1984) and becoming studded with asymmetrical buildings girdled in glass. A founder of both the Metropolitan Council on Housing and the Cooper Square Committee.

Planning Permission refers to the approval needed for construction or expansion (including significant renovation) in some jurisdictions. It is usually given in the form of a building permit (or construction permit). Generally, the new construction must be inspected during construction and after completion to ensure compliance with national, regional, and local building codes.

Land Use Change refers to the conversion of a piece of land's use by humans, from one purpose to another. For example, land may be converted from cropland to grassland, or from wild land (e.g. tropical forests) to human-specific land uses (e.g. palm oil plantations). Land use changes occur constantly and at many scales, and can have specific and cumulative effects on air and water quality, watershed function, generation of waste, extent and quality of wildlife habitat, climate, and human health.

Use Change means the conversion of an existing residential or commercial structure from one use to another use permitted within the zoning district.

Land Evaluation is concerned with the assessment of land performance when used for specified purposes. It involves the execution and interpretation of basic surveys of climate, soils, vegetation and other aspects of land in terms of the requirements of alternative forms of land use. The California Agricultural LESA Model evaluates measures of soil resource quality, a given project's size, water resource availability, surrounding agricultural lands, and surrounding protected resource lands. An estimated 80 percent of land use change worldwide is caused by agriculture.

Land use, land-use change, and forestry is defined as a "greenhouse gas inventory sector that covers emissions and removals of greenhouse gases resulting from direct human-induced land use such as settlements and commercial uses, land-use change, and forestry activities. LULUCF has impacts on the global carbon cycle and as such, these activities can add or remove carbon dioxide (or, more generally, carbon) from the atmosphere, influencing climate.

Social Geography is the branch of human geography that is most closely related to social theory in general and sociology in particular, dealing with the relation of social phenomena and its spatial components.

White Men’s Roads Through Black Men’s Homes: Advancing Racial Equity Through Highway Reconstruction. Planners of the interstate highway system, which began to take shape after the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956, routed some highways directly, and sometimes purposefully, through Black and brown communities. In some instances, the government took homes by eminent domain. (73 Vanderbilt Law Review 1259 (2020) - NYU School of Law, Public Law Research Paper No. 20-49).

How a city is organized can create less-biased citizens. The city you live in could be making you, your family, and your friends more unconsciously racist. Or, your city might make you less racist. It depends on how populous, diverse, and segregated your city is, according to a new study that brings together the math of cities with the psychology of how individuals develop unconscious racial biases. A new study presents data and a mathematical model to explain why there is more unconscious, or implicit, racial bias in some cities than others. The study, which brings together the math of cities with the psychology of how individuals develop unconscious racial biases, suggests that a city's level of implicit bias depends on how populous, diverse, and segregated that city is.

Rugosity and Concentricity: In Urban Planning, Look to Edges, Not Just The Core.

Global Urban Growth typified by Suburbs, not Skyscrapers. An analysis of 478 cities with populations of more than 1 million people finds that urban growth across the world is predominantly moving outward rather than upward, a trend that is generally considered inefficient and unsustainable.

American Institute of Certified Planners certifies professionals in the United States in the field of Urban planning and assists planners in the areas of ethics, professional development, planning education, and the standards of planning practice. Members of AICP pledge to adhere to a detailed Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct. Once certified, professional planners may place the designation "AICP" after their name to indicate their membership in AICP, and their mastery of the principles, skills, knowledge, and experience determined by the organization as essential for a professional planner. To become certified, a planner must have a specified combination of relevant education and professional experience, must pass an examination that tests skills and knowledge, must pay an annual fee, and must be a member of the American Planning Association in good standing. The AICP certification exam is offered twice a year for two weeks, in May and November. Beginning in 2004 the exam uses a computer-based format. To maintain membership in the AICP, a certified planner must earn a specified number of continuing education credit hours that include courses in planning law and ethics every two years.


Exponential Growth is a phenomenon that occurs when the growth rate of the value of a mathematical function is proportional to the function's current value, resulting in its growth with time being an exponential function.

Over Development - Tipping Point - Two Sides to a Story - Development

Doubling time is the Rule of 70. The Rule of 70 states that to find the doubling time of a quantity growing at a given annual percentage rate, divide the percentage number into 70 to obtain the approximate number of years required to double. For example, at a 10% annual growth rate, doubling time is 70 / 10 = 7 years. Doubling time is the period of time required for a quantity to double in size or value. It is applied to population growth, inflation, resource extraction, consumption of goods, Climate Change, compound interest, the volume of malignant tumors, and many other things that tend to grow over time. When the relative growth rate (not the absolute growth rate) is constant, the quantity undergoes exponential growth and has a constant doubling time or period, which can be calculated directly from the growth rate. A Century of Sprawl in the United States.

Exponential is a function in which an independent variable appears as an exponent. Exponential Function is a function of the form. Exponentiation is a mathematical operation, written as bn, involving two numbers, the base b and the exponent or power n, and pronounced as "b raised to the power of n". The definition of exponentiation can be extended to allow any real or complex exponent.

Exponent is a quantity representing the power to which a given number or expression is to be raised, usually expressed as a raised symbol beside the number or expression (e.g. 3 in 23 = 2 × 2 × 2). Exponent is a mathematical notation indicating the number of times a quantity is multiplied by itself. The inverse operation to exponentiation, just as division is the inverse of multiplication and vice versa. That means the logarithm of a number is the exponent to which another fixed number, the base, must be raised to produce that number. Exponent can also mean someone who expounds and interprets or explains. A person who pleads for a cause or propounds an idea. A person who believes in and promotes the truth or benefits of an idea or theory.

Expounds is to add details, as to an account or idea. To clarify the meaning of something and discourse in a learned way, usually in writing.

Logarithmic Growth describes a phenomenon whose size or cost can be described as a logarithm function of some input. Logarithmic growth and exponential growth may be explained by the fact that exponential growth curves may be straightened by plotting them using a logarithmic scale for the growth axis. Logarithmic Spiral.

Logarithm is the exponent required to produce a given number. Natural Logarithm (wiki)

Power Law is a functional relationship between two quantities, where a relative change in one quantity results in a proportional relative change in the other quantity, independent of the initial size of those quantities: one quantity varies as a power of another. For instance, considering the area of a square in terms of the length of its side, if the length is doubled, the area is multiplied by a factor of four.

Growth is a process of becoming larger or longer, more numerous or more important, more dangerous or more unstable. In biology growth is the process of an individual organism growing organically; a purely biological unfolding of events involved in an organism changing gradually from a simple to a more complex level.

Organic Growth is related to the growth of natural systems and organisms, societies and economies, as a dynamic organizational process, that for business expansion is marked by increased output, customer base expansion, or new product development. Organic business growth is growth that comes from a company's existing businesses, as opposed to growth that comes from buying new businesses. Organic business growth does include growth over a period that results from investment in businesses the company owned at the beginning of the period.

Inorganic Growth is the rate of growth of business and sales expansion by increasing output and business reach by acquiring new businesses by way of mergers, acquisitions and take-overs.

Increment is a process of becoming larger or longer or more numerous or more important or more dangerous. The amount by which something increases. To increase by some amount, usually by one.

Grow is to become larger, greater, or bigger; expand or gain. To develop.


Scale is an ordered reference standard. The ratio between the size of something and a representation of it.

Scaling is the act of arranging things in a graduated series. The act of measuring or arranging or adjusting according to a scale. Pattern, make, regulate, set, measure, or estimate according to some rate or standard. Size or measure according to a scale.

At Scale is at the required size that would solve a problem. Maps.

Scale in ratio of a model represents the proportional ratio of a linear dimension of the model to the same feature of the original. Examples include a 3-Dimensional Scale Model of a building or the scale drawings of the elevations or plans of a building. In such cases the scale is dimensionless and exact throughout the model or drawing. The scale can be expressed in four ways: in words (a lexical scale), as a ratio, as a fraction and as a graphical (bar) scale. Thus on an architect's drawing one might read 'one centimetre to one metre' or 1:100 or 1/100 and a bar scale would also normally appear on the drawing.

Golden Ratio - Fractals - Symmetry

Scale Parameter is a special kind of numerical parameter of a parametric family of probability distributions. The larger the scale parameter, the more spread out the distribution.

Scale Factor is a number which scales, or multiplies, some quantity. In the equation y = Cx, C is the scale factor for x. C is also the coefficient of x, and may be called the constant of proportionality of y to x. For example, doubling distances corresponds to a scale factor of two for distance, while cutting a cake in half results in pieces with a scale factor of one half. The basic equation for it is image over preimage. In the field of measurements, the scale factor of an instrument is sometimes referred to as sensitivity. The ratio of any two corresponding lengths in two similar geometric figures is also called a scale factor.

Scaling in geometry is a linear transformation that enlarges (increases) or shrinks (diminishes) objects by a scale factor that is the same in all directions. The result of uniform scaling is similar (in the geometric sense) to the original. A scale factor of 1 is normally allowed, so that congruent shapes are also classed as similar. Uniform scaling happens, for example, when enlarging or reducing a photograph, or when creating a scale model of a building, car, airplane, etc.

Spatial Scale refers to the order of magnitude of extent or size of a land area or geographical distance studied or described.
For instance, in physics an object or phenomenon can be called microscopic if too small to be visible. In climatology, a micro-climate is a climate which might occur in a mountain, valley or near a lake shore. In statistics, a megatrend is a political, social, economical, environmental or technological trend which involves the whole planet or is supposed to last a very large amount of time. The concept is also used in geography, astronomy, and meteorology. These divisions are somewhat arbitrary; where, on this table, mega- is assigned global scope, it may only apply continentally or even regionally in other contexts. The interpretations of meso- and macro- must then be adjusted accordingly.

Scale in social sciences is the process of measuring or ordering entities with respect to quantitative attributes or traits.

Scalability is the capability of a system, network, or process to handle a growing amount of work, or its potential to be enlarged in order to accommodate that growth. Sizes.

Scale-Free Network is a network whose degree distribution follows a power law, at least asymptotically. Asymptotic means approaching a value or curve arbitrarily closely (i.e., as some sort of limit is taken). A line or curve that is asymptotic to given curve is called the asymptote of. Asymptotic Analysis is a method of describing limiting behavior.

Logarithmic Scale is a way of displaying numerical data over a very wide range of values in a compact way—typically the largest numbers in the data are hundreds or even thousands of times larger than the smallest numbers. Such a scale is nonlinear: the numbers 10 and 20, and 90 and 100, are not the same distance apart on a log scale. Rather, the numbers 10 and 100, and 100 and 1000 are equally spaced. Thus moving a set distance along the scale means the number has been multiplied by 10 (or some other fixed factor). Often exponential growth curves are displayed on a log scale, otherwise they would increase too quickly to fit within a small graph. Another way to think about it is that the number of digits of the data grows at a constant rate. The numbers 10, 100, 1000, and 10000 are equally spaced on a log scale, but the number of digits is going up by 1 each time: 2, 3, 4, and 5 digits. In this way, adding two digits multiplies the quantity measured on the log scale by a factor of 100.

Power Law is a functional relationship between two quantities, where a relative change in one quantity results in a proportional relative change in the other quantity, independent of the initial size of those quantities: one quantity varies as a power of another. For instance, considering the area of a square in terms of the length of its side, if the length is doubled, the area is multiplied by a factor of four.

Prime Minister Narendra Modi in 2015 said private property developers should not decide how a city should grow, and the decision should be taken by residents and the city leadership, leadership that is not corrupted or criminal and ignorant of course.


Surveying is the technique, profession, and science of determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional position of points and the distances and angles between them. A land surveying professional is called a land surveyor. These points are usually on the surface of the Earth, and they are often used to establish land maps and boundaries for ownership, locations like building corners or the surface location of subsurface features, or other purposes required by government or civil law, such as property sales. Surveyors work with elements of geometry, trigonometry, regression analysis, physics, engineering, metrology, programming languages and the law. They use equipment like total stations, robotic total stations, GPS receivers, retroreflectors, 3D scanners, radios, handheld tablets, digital levels, drones, GIS and surveying software. Surveying has been an element in the development of the human environment since the beginning of recorded history. The planning and execution of most forms of construction require it. It is also used in transport, communications, mapping, and the definition of legal boundaries for land ownership. It is an important tool for research in many other scientific disciplines. Navigation.

Cadastre is a comprehensive register of the real estate or real property's metes-and-bounds of a country.

Public Land Survey System is the surveying method developed and used in the United States to plat, or divide, real property for sale and settling. Also known as the Rectangular Survey System, it was created by the Land Ordinance of 1785 to survey land ceded to the United States by the Treaty of Paris in 1783, following the end of the American Revolution.

Space Syntax encompasses a set of theories and techniques for the analysis of spatial configurations.

Planning (predictions)

Social Interface is face-to-face encounters between individuals or social units representing different interests and backed by different resources. Interfaces.

Temporary Megacity - Ephemeral Megacity - Informal City - Pop Up City

Every 12 years, a megacity of seven million people springs up in India for the Kumbh Mela religious festival where about 100 million people congregate. The temporary megacity of 30 square kilometers, is built in ten weeks is completely disassembled in one week. It also replicates all forms of physical, as well as social, infrastructure. Water supply, sewage, electricity, there are 1,400 CCTV cameras that are used for security by an entire station that is set up. But also social infrastructure, like clinics, hospitals, all sorts of community services, that make this function like any real megacity would do. 10,500 sweepers are employed by the city. There are five materials that are used to build this settlement for seven million people: eight-foot tall bamboo, string or rope, nails or screw and a skinning material. Could be corrugated metal, a fabric or plastic. And these materials come together and aggregate. It's like a kit of parts. And it's used all the way from a small tent, which might house five or six people, or a family, to temples that can house 500, sometimes 1,000 people. And this kit of parts, and this imagination of the city, allows it to be disassembled. And so at the end of the festival, within a week, the entire city is disassembled. Kumbh Mela (wiki).

Burning Man (temporary city design) - Social Experiment.

Square-Mile Street Network Visualization.

Grid Plan is a type of city plan in which streets run at right angles to each other, forming a grid. In the context of the culture of ancient Rome, the grid plan method of land measurement was called Centuriation.

Centuriation or Roman grid, was a method of land measurement used by the Romans. In many cases land divisions based on the survey formed a field system, often referred to in modern times by the same name. According to O. A. W. Dilke, centuriation combined and developed features of land surveying present in Egypt, Etruria, Greek towns and Greek countryside. Centuriation is characterised by the regular layout of a square grid traced using surveyors' instruments. It may appear in the form of roads, canals and agricultural plots. In some cases these plots, when formed, were allocated to Roman army veterans in a new colony, but they might also be returned to the indigenous inhabitants, as at Orange (France). The study of centuriation is very important for reconstructing landscape history in many former areas of the Roman empire.

Landscape History is the study of the way in which humanity has changed the physical appearance of the environment – both present and past. Landscape Archaeology is the study of the ways in which people in the past constructed and used the environment around them. Cultural Landscape describes a symbiosis of human activity and environment. A landscape designed and created intentionally by man. An organically evolved landscape which may be a relict or fossil landscape or a continuing landscape. An associative cultural landscape which may be valued because of the religious, artistic or cultural associations of the natural element.

Growing Pains - Over Development

Exponential Decay is the decrease in a quantity that happens over a period of time. The decay is constant and decreases at a rate that is proportional to its current value, reducing its amount by a consistent percentage rate over a period of time. Exponential Decay occurs when the growth rate is negative. In the case of a discrete domain of definition with equal intervals, it is also called geometric growth or geometric decay, the function values forming a geometric progression.

Growth of Decay are the side effects of growth and over development, like more pollution, more depleted resources, more sick people, and more problems. People need to Learn how to do math correctly and completely.

Feedback Loops - Chain Reactions - Over Development Dangers - Unsustainable - Denial - Hoarding

The Limits to Growth is a 1972 book about the computer simulation of exponential economic and population growth with finite resource supplies.

Economics - Sustainable Development - Mix Use

There are limits in physical growth, those are the facts of life and the laws of physics. But there are no limits in mental growth, because the things that we can learn has no limits. So when the growth of minds is hindered, then underdeveloped minds will always be vulnerable to bad decisions in the physical world, as we can clearly see in so many areas around the world.

Gentrification - Stratification - Progress Trap - Social Trap - Wealth Inequality - Urban Decay

Internal Colonialism is the structural political and economic inequalities between regions within a nation state. The term is used to describe the uneven effects of economic development on a regional basis, otherwise known as "uneven development", and to describe the exploitation of minority groups within a wider society. This is held to be similar to the relationship between metropole and colony, in colonialism proper. The term used to describe the distinct separation of the dominant core, from the periphery in an empire.

Why the "Wrong Side of the Tracks" is usually the East Side of Cities: Stephen DeBerry (video and text)

How do you quantify the cost of sprawl? There are so many, after all. For local governments, the cost of single-family homes and shopping malls tend to outweigh the tax benefits. Sprawl drives up fuel and energy consumption, commute times, and per capita land use, and drives down individual health, physical activity, and even psychological well-being. Combining the the 50 largest metro areas in the U.S., he found, commuters pay more than $107 billion annually, which is about $1,400 per commuter, on average. Those are the dollar costs of the number of additional hours Americans spend traveling to and from work due to sprawling land-use patterns—which, by their methodology, ends up being around 3.9 billion extra hours total, or 50 hours per worker, per year.

AI can alert urban planners and policymakers to cities' decay. As urbanization advances around the globe, the quality of the urban physical environment will become increasingly critical to human well-being and to sustainable development initiatives. However, measuring and tracking the quality of an urban environment, its evolution and its spatial disparities is difficult due to the amount of on-the-ground data needed to capture these patterns.

Greenbelts are effective at slowing urban sprawl. Study compares 60 European cities to see how protected landscapes lead to denser development. Researchers argue that greenbelts almost always work in curbing sprawl, particularly in larger cities. It looks at 60 cities in Europe, half of them with a greenbelt, half without, and uses open-source data to compare changes in and levels of urban sprawl between 2006 and 2015. 'We noticed decreases in urban sprawl in 27 of the 30 cities that had greenbelts, so we can say that overall, greenbelts are very effective,' says the study's lead author, Parnian Pourtaherian, MSc 21. Jochen Jaeger, an associate professor of geography, planning and environment in the Faculty of Arts and Science, co-authored the paper.

Modernization Theory (wiki) - Modernism (wiki) - Pollution - Problem Solving

Republicans receive bribes from developers to allow developers to over develop areas at the cost of the environment and at the cost of people who need shelter. Republican-controlled state legislature led the charge a decade ago to do away with the agency governing growth. During his campaign for governor in 2010, Sen. Rick Scott called the state's growth management rules a jobs killer. Developers disliked the checks and balances, such as limits on projects tied to road capacity and building big developments in rural areas where land was cheaper. They especially bristled over the requirement that developers pay for schools, police, roads and the other services that new housing would require.

We know the limits to growth and that the ecosystem is Fluctuating, adapting and Evolving. The balance of nature is not an equilibrium for mother nature is sometimes unpredictable just like Humans. But what we do know is that cause and effect cannot be ignored. Even when there is no 100 percent guarantee we still have to play the odds as best as we can.

St. Petersburg Paradox is a situation where a naive decision criterion which takes only the expected value into account predicts a course of action that presumably no actual person would be willing to take. Several resolutions are possible.

Arithmetic, Population and Energy with Dr. Albert Bartlett (youtube) - M. King Hubbert the rate of petroleum production of the reserve over time would resemble a bell curve.

Precautionary Principle to risk management states that if an action or policy has a suspected risk of causing harm to the public, or to the environment, in the absence of scientific consensus (that the action or policy is not harmful), the burden of proof that it is not harmful falls on those taking that action.

Sustainability (smart growth is no growth) - Economic Growth

Environmental Crime is an illegal act which directly harms the environment.

Human Development Index is a composite statistic of life expectancy, education, and income per capita indicators.

NIMBY is an acronym for the phrase "Not In My Back Yard", which is an opposition by residents to a proposal for a new development because it is close to them (or, in some cases, because the development involves controversial or potentially dangerous technology) often with the connotation that such residents believe that the developments are needed in society but should be further away. The residents are often called Nimbys and their state of mind is called Nimbyism. Hypocrisy Double Standards.

Architecture that's Built to Heal: Michael Murphy (video and interactive text)

All Watched Over by Machines of Loving Grace (Ep. 2) (youtube)

Paul Gilding: The Earth is Full (youtube)

Dystopia is a community or society that is undesirable or frightening. It is translated as "not-good place".

Cybernetics approach for exploring regulatory systems – their structures, constraints, and possibilities.

Externalities (transferring of problems)

Equilibrium Point is a constant solution to a differential equation.

Rare Earth Element (currency)

Economics - Statistics - Self Management - Productivity

Where intuition meets knowledge.

Malls and Huge Shopping Centers Repurposed (info-graph)

Developed Country is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.

Least Developed Country (wiki)

Developing Country is a nation or sovereign state with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index relative to other countries.

The growing pains have been devastating and still are devastating. But this time is different. The era of lost human civilizations has come to an end. This is our grand awakening.

Knowledge Keeper provides for instant desktop analysis of potential impacts of industrial development on traditional land use, species habitat, and any areas of importance to a community. This fully customizable referrals/consultation tracking and management system is configured to suit and support each community’s specific needs and consultation process. The CKK also provides a comprehensive digital community archive for documents, photographs, audio, and video files.

Tools for Data Sharing

There is No Free Lunch. Only criminals believe that profiting from death is somehow called making a living. This is what ignorance does, it blinds a person from their own murderess acts. And they believe they can do it just by changing the definitions of words to fit their own distorted reality. They try to cover up their crimes, and hope to some how feel good about themselves. You can't call it growth when you steal from other people and steal from millions of future generations. You can't call it growth when you poison the water, poison the land and poison the air. You can't call it growth when people die because of it. This is way beyond being amoral, or lacking any sense of moral standards or principles, this is something extremely evil and dangerous, a million times worse then a rabid animal. This is a disease. And it needs to be treated as such.

Common-Pool Resource is a type of good consisting of a natural or human-made resource system (e.g. an irrigation system or fishing grounds), whose size or characteristics makes it costly, but not impossible, to exclude potential beneficiaries from obtaining benefits from its use. Unlike pure public goods, common pool resources face problems of congestion or overuse, because they are subtractable. A common-pool resource typically consists of a core resource (e.g. water or fish), which defines the stock variable, while providing a limited quantity of extractable fringe units, which defines the flow variable. While the core resource is to be protected or nurtured in order to allow for its continuous exploitation, the fringe units can be harvested or consumed.

Urban Planning

Time-Lapse of a City Growing Urban Planning is a technical and political process concerned with the development and use of land, protection and use of the environment, public welfare, and the design of the urban environment, including air, water, and the infrastructure passing into and out of urban areas, such as transportation, communications, and distribution networks. Urban planning is also referred to as urban and regional planning, regional planning, town planning, city planning, rural planning or some combination in various areas worldwide. It takes many forms and it can share perspectives and practices with urban design.

Urban Planner is a professional who practices in the field of urban planning. Eminent Domain Abuses.

Urban Design is the process of designing and shaping the physical features of cities, towns, and villages and planning for the provision of municipal services to residents and visitors. Although it deals with issues of a larger scale than architecture, it cannot be understood as a wholly separated field of research and design, since the quality of one depends on the quality of the other. In fact, it is this very interdependency, which has been termed ‘’relational design’’. Urban design deals with the larger scale of groups of buildings, infrastructure, streets and public spaces, whole neighborhoods and districts, and entire cities, with the goal of making urban environments that are equitable, beautiful, performative, and sustainable. Urban design is an inter-disciplinary field that utilizes the procedures and the elements of architecture and other related professions, including landscape design, urban planning, civil engineering and municipal engineering. It borrows substantive and procedural knowledge from public administration, sociology, law, urban geography, urban economics and other related disciplines from the social and behavioral sciences, as well as from the natural sciences. In more recent times different sub-subfields of urban design have emerged such as strategic urban design, landscape urbanism, water-sensitive urban design, and sustainable urbanism. Urban design demands an understanding of a wide range of subjects from physical geography to social science, and an appreciation for disciplines, such as real estate development, urban economics, political economy and social theory. Urban designers work to create inclusive cities that protect the commons, ensure equal access to and distribution of public goods, and meet the needs of all residents, particularly women, people of color, and other marginalized populations. Through design interventions, urban designers work to revolutionize the way we conceptualize our social, political and spatial systems as strategies to produce and reproduce a more equitable and innovative future. Urban design is about making connections between people and places, movement and urban form, nature and the built fabric. Urban design draws together the many strands of place-making, environmental stewardship, social equity and economic viability into the creation of places with distinct beauty and identity. Urban design draws these and other strands together, creating a vision for an area and then deploying the resources and skills needed to bring the vision to life. Urban design theory deals primarily with the design and management of public space (i.e. the 'public environment', 'public realm' or 'public domain'), and the way public places are used and experienced. Public space includes the totality of spaces used freely on a day-to-day basis by the general public, such as streets, plazas, parks and public infrastructure. Some aspects of privately owned spaces, such as building facades or domestic gardens, also contribute to public space and are therefore also considered by urban design theory.

Urban Vitality is the quality of spaces in cities that attract diverse groups of people for varied activities over frequent, varied times. These spaces may be perceived as alive, lively or vibrant, in contrast with low-vitality areas, which may repel people and be perceived as unsafe.

Urban Planning Education is the practice of teaching and learning urban theory, studies, and professional practices. The interaction between public officials, professional planners and the public involves a continuous education on planning process. Community members often serve on a city planning commission, council or board. As a result, education outreach is effectively an ongoing cycle. Core courses typically include coursework in history/theory of urban planning, urban design, statistics, land use/planning law, urban economics, and planning practice. Many planning degree programs also allow a student to "concentrate" in a specific area of interest within planning, such as land use, environmental planning, housing, community development, economic development, historic preservation, international development, urban design, transportation planning, or geographic information systems (GIS). Some programs permit a student to concentrate in real estate, however, graduate real estate education has changed giving rise to specialized real estate programs.

Urban Science is an interdisciplinary field that studies diverse urban issues and problems. Based on research findings of various disciplines such as history, economics, sociology, administration, architecture, urban engineering, transportation engineering, landscape architecture, environmental engineering, and geo-informatics, it aims to produce both theoretical and practical knowledge that contributes to understanding and solving the problems of urban issues in contemporary society. Urban science uses a computational understanding of city systems to evaluate how they work and how they are grow and change. Its aim is to make cities more habitable, resilient, and sustainable.

Urban Sprawl relates to the social and environmental consequences associated with this development where the expansion of human populations away from central urban areas into low-density, monofunctional and usually car-dependent communities, in a process called suburbanization.

Achieving sustainable urban growth on a global scale. From the impacts on the environment and climate to transforming land cover and habitats, urban growth is driving global change. Urban areas contribute up to 75% of global greenhouse gas emissions. By 2050, urban areas globally will either double or triple, and the raw materials needed to build future cities is more than the world can sustainably provide.

Improving urban planning with virtual reality. Using the Unity3 game engine, they recreate scenarios in 3D where people can experience potential changes through immersion. They were able to prove that the physical reaction to this experience is measurable. Construction measures that transform urban settings change the environment of both the people who live there permanently and those who visit them temporarily. It's not always possible to foresee the effects in advance. In such cases, it helps to recreate the setting in a 3D model which people can experience through immersion. To this end, the cartographers working with Marco Weißmann use software that was originally designed to programme computer game environments. "We've developed a lab kit of sorts in which you can simulate an environment virtually, complete with traffic," explains Weißmann. The researchers can use it to directly visualise the effects of planned structural changes: how does the traffic flow? Do cars and pedestrians get in each other's way or not?

Does urbanization trigger plant evolution? Urban environments have become hotspots for understanding how rapid evolution occurs in response to extreme environmental changes. These habitats exert selective pressures on resident organisms that impact their evolutionary trajectories. Recently, researchers investigated how the creeping woodsorrel plant might adapt in response to elevated temperatures that result from urbanization. Understanding these effects can help predict evolutionary traits to manage plant evolution in the face of shifting climatic conditions. A key characteristic of such environments is the presence of impermeable, heat-retaining surfaces created using brick, stone, asphalt, and concrete. Notably, these surfaces form urban heat islands, i.e., regions with elevated surface temperatures. An unexpected result of heat stress is the impact on the behavior, physiology, and evolutionary trajectories of resident organisms. Although several studies have investigated the role of urban heat stress on evolution in animals, its effects on plant evolution remain largely unexplored.

LA city failed to build any dense housing, and the outcomes of that failure, using an important concept in public policy analysis: path dependence. (youtube)

Subdivision in land is the act of dividing land into pieces that are easier to sell or otherwise develop, usually via a plat. The former single piece as a whole is then known in the United States as a subdivision. If it is used for housing it is typically known as a housing subdivision or housing development, although some developers tend to call these areas communities. Subdivisions may also be for the purpose of commercial or industrial development, and the results vary from retail shopping malls with independently owned out parcels, to industrial parks.

Housing (home alternatives)

Land Development is making land more usable by humans without waste, abuse or corruption.

Principles of Intelligent Urbanism is urban planning composed of a set of ten axioms intended to guide the formulation of city plans and urban designs. They are intended to reconcile and integrate diverse urban planning and management concerns. These axioms include environmental sustainability, heritage conservation, appropriate technology, infrastructure-efficiency, placemaking, social access, transit-oriented development, regional integration, human scale, and institutional integrity.

Sustainable City is a city designed with consideration of environmental impact, inhabited by people dedicated to minimization of required inputs of energy, water and food, and waste output of heat, air pollution - CO2, methane, and water pollution. Green Building Codes.

City Beautiful was a reform philosophy of North American architecture and urban planning that flourished during the 1890s and 1900s with the intent of introducing beautification and monumental grandeur in cities.

Beautification is the process of making visual improvements to a person, place, or thing. With regard to a town, city, or urban area, this most often involves planting trees, shrubbery, and other greenery, but frequently also includes adding decorative or historic-style street lights and other lighting and replacing broken pavement, often with brick or other natural materials. Old-fashioned cobblestones are sometimes used for crosswalks; they provide the additional benefit of slowing motorists. Beautification projects are often undertaken by city councils to refurbish their downtown areas, in order to boost tourism or other commerce. Often, this is also spurred by broken sidewalks, which pose a safety hazard for pedestrians and potentially insurmountable obstacles for wheelchair users. These projects are frequently part of other larger projects such as construction, especially in conjunction with ones for transit, such as streets and roads and mass transit.

Garden City cities were intended to be planned, self-contained communities surrounded by "greenbelts", containing proportionate areas of residences, industry, and agriculture. Parks.

Futuristic Cities

Jacque Fresco of The Venus Project believes in having a central computer base where people can ask questions and get answers. Of course this central database will need humans to operate it, humans to manage it, humans to update it, and humans to monitor it. (Autonomic Computing) Computers are not a self reliant entity, they do need human interaction. For now you can just ask the internet a question or ask a search engine a question and get an answer, collectively, it's truly our greatest strength. So we just need to expand on that central database a little more so that people can understand the idea a little better. Jacque has great vision and great ideas. I love his ideas on future cities and society. He just needs to explain the Transition from our old incompetent way of living to the new improved and sustainable way of living. We also need to Retrofit old cities so that we can help maximize this transition and make it easy for everyone during these improvements. And of course we have to come up with a way to educate people so that these improvements are clearly understood by everyone and why we need to make these improvements as quick as possible. 

Photos of Design Ideas for Future Cities (images)

Major Cities only take up 2% of the usable land on earth. But Major Cities are home to 50% of the worlds population, consume 75% of the worlds energy and emit 80% of CO2 Carbon Dioxide. So fixing cities are a good place to start.

Paul Romer: The World's First Charter City (youtube) - Green Building

Charter City is a city in which the governing system is defined by the city's own charter document rather than by state, provincial, regional or national laws. In locations where city charters are allowed by law, a city can adopt or modify its organizing charter by decision of its administration by the way established in the charter. These cities may be administered predominantly by residents or through a third-party management structure, because a charter gives a city the flexibility to choose novel types of government structure. Charter cities are similar in administrative structure to special administrative regions.

Charter City Film (youtube) - Charter Cities

Smart City is an urban development vision to integrate multiple information and communication technology (ICT) and Internet of Things (IoT) solutions in a secure fashion to manage a city's assets – the city's assets include, but are not limited to, local departments' information systems, schools, libraries, transportation systems, hospitals, power plants, water supply networks, waste management, law enforcement, and other community services. The goal of building a smart city is to improve quality of life by using urban informatics and technology to improve the efficiency of services and meet residents' needs. ICT allows city officials to interact directly with the community and the city infrastructure and to monitor what is happening in the city, how the city is evolving, and how to enable a better quality of life. Through the use of sensors integrated with real-time monitoring systems, data are collected from citizens and devices – then processed and analyzed. The information and knowledge gathered are keys to tackling inefficiency.

Smart City Prototype - Samsø (wiki) - Smart Cities Initiative - Smart Cities Initiative - Environmentally Sustainable Urban Spaces - CNU - Practical

City that is tall and narrow and more than 105 miles long, that will be teeming with 9 million residents and running entirely on renewable energy. This new city will stretch from the Red Sea eastward across the desert and into a mountain range. It will be only 200 meters wide (roughly 220 yards). It will rise 500 meters above sea level — higher than the Empire State Building. Residents will be able to run errands with a five-minute walk. There will be no cars or roads. High-speed rail will carry people from end to end in 20 minutes. It will cost hundreds of billions of dollars to build. Construction has already begun, and Saudi projections call for 1.5 million people to live in The Line by 2030.

Renovate - Retrofit - Repurpose

Renovation is the process of improving a broken, damaged, or outdated structure. Renovations are typically either commercial or residential. Additionally, renovation can refer to making something new, or bringing something back to life and can apply in social contexts. For example, a community can be renovated if it is strengthened and revive. Mixuse.

Transition Towns refers to grassroot community projects that aim to increase self-sufficiency to reduce the potential effects of peak oil, climate destruction, and economic instability.

Retrofit refers to the addition of new technology or features to older systems.

Repurpose (reuse-re-imagine)

Capital Project is a project to construct either new facilities or make significant, long-term renewal improvements to existing facilities.

The Death and Life of Great American Cities is a 1961 book by writer and activist Jane Jacobs. The book is a critique of 1950s urban planning policy, which it holds responsible for the decline of many city neighborhoods in the United States. Going against the modernist planning dogma of the era, it proposes a newfound appreciation for organic urban vibrancy in the United States.

Real Estate Development has no specific credential required, or license. Almost any person or company can call himself a real estate developer.

Property is that which belongs to or with something, whether as an attribute or as a component of said thing.

Zoning - Building Codes

Social Economic Development - Social Entrepreneur - Community Solutions - Families and Work - Urban Habitat - Economic Co-Operation - Environmental Leader

The End of Ownership (youtube -VPRO Backlight, 47:52)

Instead of having property lines that just show ownership, we should have lines that show protected areas, polluted areas and areas that could sustain life.

Metropolitan Area Projects Plan is a multi-year, municipal capital improvement program, consisting of a number of projects, originally conceived in the 1990s in Oklahoma City by its then mayor Ron Norick. A MAPS program features several interrelated and defined capital projects, funded by a temporary sales tax (allowing projects to be paid for in cash, without incurring debt), administered by a separate dedicated city staff funded by the sales tax, and supervised by a volunteer citizens oversight committee. In some ways, a MAPS program is similar to a Local option sales tax. However, taxes collected by a MAPS program do not go to a city's general fund, but are instead deposited into a trust dedicated to the specific projects identified in the taxes' enabling ordinance. Additionally, MAPS programs are only indirectly controlled by a city's elected governance body; a citizens oversight committee provides direct oversight, which is also established by the enabling ordinance.


Traffic Noise. Levels of highway traffic noise typically range from 70 to 80 dB(A) at a distance of 15 meters or 50 feet from the highway. These levels affect a majority of people, interrupting concentration, increasing heart rates, or limiting the ability to carry on a conversation. Children who attend schools with more traffic noise show slower cognitive development. If you're within one mile of a motorway or major road, you will almost certainly hear a steady hum of traffic. Noise is affected as much by topography as distance if you have a large hill between you and a road, much of the noise will be cut out. Pollution.

Local Option Sales Tax is a local option sales tax is often used as a means of raising funds for specific local or area projects, such as improving area streets and roads, or refurbishing a community's downtown area.

Structural Engineering - Civil Engineering - Earthworks

Geotechnical Engineering is the branch of civil engineering concerned with the engineering behavior of earth materials. Geotechnical engineering is important in civil engineering, but also has applications in military, mining, petroleum and other engineering disciplines that are concerned with construction occurring on the surface or within the ground. Geotechnical engineering uses principles of soil mechanics and rock mechanics to investigate subsurface conditions and materials; determine the relevant physical/mechanical and chemical properties of these materials; evaluate stability of natural slopes and man-made soil deposits; assess risks posed by site conditions; design earthworks and structure foundations; and monitor site conditions, earthwork and foundation construction. A typical geotechnical engineering project begins with a review of project needs to define the required material properties. Then follows a site investigation of soil, rock, fault distribution and bedrock properties on and below an area of interest to determine their engineering properties including how they will interact with, on or in a proposed construction. Site investigations are needed to gain an understanding of the area in or on which the engineering will take place. Investigations can include the assessment of the risk to humans, property and the environment from natural hazards such as earthquakes, landslides, sinkholes, soil liquefaction, debris flows and rockfalls. Foundations built for above-ground structures include shallow and deep foundations. Retaining structures include earth-filled dams and retaining walls. Earthworks include embankments, tunnels, dikes and levees, channels, reservoirs, deposition of hazardous waste and sanitary landfills. Geotechnical engineers are extensively involved in earthen and concrete dam projects, evaluating the subsurface conditions at the dam site and the side slopes of the reservoir, the seepage conditions under and around the dam and the stability of the dam under a range of normal and extreme loading conditions. Geotechnical engineering is also related to coastal and ocean engineering. Coastal engineering can involve the design and construction of wharves, marinas, and jetties. Ocean engineering can involve foundation and anchor systems for offshore structures such as oil platforms. The fields of geotechnical engineering and engineering geology are closely related, and have large areas of overlap. However, the field of geotechnical engineering is a specialty of engineering, where the field of engineering geology is a specialty of geology. Coming from the fields of engineering and science, respectively, the two may approach the same subject, such as soil classification, with different methods.

Geotechnical Investigation is performed by geotechnical engineers or engineering geologists to obtain information on the physical properties of soil earthworks and foundations for proposed structures and for repair of distress to earthworks and structures caused by subsurface conditions. This type of investigation is called a site investigation. Additionally, geotechnical investigations are also used to measure the thermal resistivity of soils or backfill materials required for underground transmission lines, oil and gas pipelines, radioactive waste disposal, and solar thermal storage facilities. A geotechnical investigation will include surface exploration and subsurface exploration of a site. Sometimes, geophysical methods are used to obtain data about sites. Subsurface exploration usually involves soil sampling and laboratory tests of the soil samples retrieved. Surface exploration can include geologic mapping, geophysical methods, and photogrammetry, or it can be as simple as a geotechnical professional walking around on the site to observe the physical conditions at the site. To obtain information about the soil conditions below the surface, some form of subsurface exploration is required. Methods of observing the soils below the surface, obtaining samples, and determining physical properties of the soils and rocks include test pits, trenching (particularly for locating faults and slide planes), boring, and in situ tests. These can also be used to identify contamination in soils prior to development in order to avoid negative environmental impacts. Site investigations are needed to gain an understanding of the area in or on which the engineering will take place. Investigations can include the assessment of the risk to humans, property and the environment from natural hazards such as earthquakes, landslides, sinkholes, soil liquefaction, debris flows and rockfalls.

Geospatial Predictive Modeling is a process for analyzing events through a geographic filter in order to make statements of likelihood for event occurrence or emergence. Spatial environment factors (infrastructure, sociocultural, topographic, etc.) that constrain and influence where the locations of events occur. Geospatial predictive modeling attempts to describe those constraints and influences by spatially correlating occurrences of historical geospatial locations with environmental factors that represent those constraints and influences.

Civil Engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including works like roads, bridges, canals, dams, and buildings. Infrastructure.

American Society of Civil Engineers is dedicated to the advancement of the science and profession of civil engineering and the enhancement of human welfare through the activities of society members. It has more than 143,000 members in 177 countries. Its mission is to provide essential value to members, their careers, partners, and the public; facilitate the advancement of technology; encourage and provide the tools for lifelong learning; promote professionalism and the profession; develop and support civil engineers.Civil Engineering Society primary objective of the organization is to provide services designed to aid the holistic development of the students as future civil engineers. Institution of Civil Engineers (wiki)

Structural Engineering is a sub-discipline of civil engineering in which structural engineers are trained to design the 'bones and muscles' that create the form and shape of man made structures. Structural engineers need to understand and calculate the stability, strength and rigidity of built structures for buildings and nonbuilding structures. The structural designs are integrated with those of other designers such as architects and building services engineer and often supervise the construction of projects by contractors on site. They can also be involved in the design of machinery, medical equipment, and vehicles where structural integrity affects functioning and safety. Structural engineering theory is based upon applied physical laws and empirical knowledge of the structural performance of different materials and geometries. Structural engineering design uses a number of relatively simple structural elements to build complex structural systems. Structural engineers are responsible for making creative and efficient use of funds, structural elements and materials to achieve these goals.

Engineering Geology is the application of the geological sciences to engineering study for the purpose of assuring that the geological factors regarding the location, design, construction, operation and maintenance of engineering works are recognized and accounted for. Engineering geologists provide geological and geotechnical recommendations, analysis, and design associated with human development and various types of structures. The realm of the engineering geologist is essentially in the area of earth-structure interactions, or investigation of how the earth or earth processes impact human made structures and human activities. Soil.

Constructivist Architecture was a form of modern architecture that flourished in the Soviet Union in the 1920s and early 1930s.

Deconstructivism is a development of postmodern architecture that began in the late 1950s. It is influenced by the theory of "Deconstruction", which is a form of semiotic analysis. It is characterized by fragmentation, an interest in manipulating a structure's surface, skin, non-rectilinear shapes which appear to distort and dislocate elements of architecture, such as structure and envelope. The finished visual appearance of buildings that exhibit deconstructivist "styles" is characterized by unpredictability and controlled chaos.

Earthworks are engineering works created through the processing of parts of the earth's surface involving quantities of soil or unformed rock. Heavy construction equipment is usually used due to the amounts of material to be moved — up to millions of cubic metres. Earthwork construction was revolutionized by the development of the (Fresno) scraper and other earth-moving machines such as the loader, the dump truck, the grader, the bulldozer, the backhoe, and the dragline excavator. Typical earthworks include road construction, railway beds, causeways, dams, levees, canals, and berms. Other common earthworks are land grading to reconfigure the topography of a site, or to stabilize slopes. Workers.

Heavy Equipment refers to heavy-duty vehicles, specially designed for executing construction tasks, most frequently ones involving earthwork operations or other large construction tasks. Heavy equipment usually comprises five equipment systems: implementation, traction, structure, power train, control and information.

Dump Truck is used for taking dumps (such as sand, gravel, or demolition waste) for construction as well as coal. A typical dump truck is equipped with an open-box bed, which is hinged at the rear and equipped with hydraulic rams to lift the front, allowing the material in the bed to be deposited ("dumped") on the ground behind the truck at the site of delivery.

Backhoe is a type of excavating equipment, or digger, consisting of a digging bucket on the end of a two-part articulated arm. It is typically mounted on the back of a tractor or front loader, the latter forming a "backhoe loader" (a US term, but known as a "JCB" in Ireland and the UK). The section of the arm closest to the vehicle is known as the boom, while the section that carries the bucket is known as the dipper (or dipper-stick), both terms derived from steam shovels. The boom is generally attached to the vehicle through a pivot known as the king-post, which allows the arm to pivot left and right, usually through a total of 180 to 200 degrees.

Backhoe Loader is a heavy equipment vehicle that consists of a tractor-like unit fitted with a loader-style shovel/bucket on the front and a backhoe on the back. Due to its (relatively) small size and versatility, backhoe loaders are very common in urban engineering and small construction projects (such as building a small house, fixing urban roads, etc.) as well as developing countries. This type of machine is similar to and derived from what is now known as a TLB (Tractor-Loader-Backhoe), which is to say, an agricultural tractor fitted with a front loader and rear backhoe attachment.

Excavator are heavy construction equipment consisting of a boom, dipper (or stick), bucket and cab on a rotating platform known as the "house". The house sits atop an undercarriage with tracks or wheels. They are a natural progression from the steam shovels and often mistakenly called power shovels. All movement and functions of a hydraulic excavator are accomplished through the use of hydraulic fluid, with hydraulic cylinders and hydraulic motors. Due to the linear actuation of hydraulic cylinders, their mode of operation is fundamentally different from cable-operated excavators which use winches and steel ropes to accomplish the movements.

Steam Shovel is a large steam-powered excavating machine designed for lifting and moving material such as rock and soil. It is the earliest type of power shovel or excavator. Steam shovels played a major role in public works in the 19th and early 20th century, being key to the construction of railroads and the Panama Canal. The development of simpler, cheaper diesel-powered shovels caused steam shovels to fall out of favor in the 1930s.

Dragline Excavator is a piece of heavy equipment used in civil engineering and surface mining.

Loader is a heavy equipment machine used in construction to move aside or load materials such as asphalt, demolition debris, dirt, snow, feed, gravel, logs, raw minerals, recycled material, rock, sand, woodchips, etc. into or onto another type of machinery (such as a dump truck, conveyor belt, feed-hopper, or railroad car). There are many types of loader, which, depending on design and application, are called by various names, including bucket loader, front loader, front-end loader, payloader, scoop, shovel, skip loader, wheel loader, or skid-steer.

Bulldozer is a large and heavy tractor equipped with a substantial metal plate (known as a blade) used to push large quantities of soil, sand, rubble, or other such material during construction or conversion work and typically equipped at the rear with a claw-like device (known as a ripper) to loosen densely compacted materials. It is usually a crawler (continuous tracked) tractor.

Grader is a construction machine with a long blade used to create a flat surface during the grading process. Although the earliest models were towed behind horses or other powered equipment, most modern graders contain an engine, so are known, technically erroneously, as "motor graders".

Wheel Tractor-Scraper is a piece of heavy equipment used for earthmoving. The rear part of the scraper has a vertically moveable hopper with a sharp horizontal front edge which can be raised or lowered. The front edge cuts into the soil, like a carpenter's plane cutting wood, and fills the hopper. When the hopper is full it is raised, closed, and the scraper can transport its load to the fill area where it is dumped. With a type called an 'elevating scraper' a conveyor belt moves material from the cutting edge into the hopper.

Tractor is an engineering vehicle specifically designed to deliver a high tractive effort (or torque) at slow speeds, for the purposes of hauling a trailer or machinery such as that used in agriculture or construction. Most commonly, the term is used to describe a farm vehicle that provides the power and traction to mechanize agricultural tasks, especially (and originally) tillage, but nowadays a great variety of tasks. Agricultural implements may be towed behind or mounted on the tractor, and the tractor may also provide a source of power if the implement is mechanised.

Earthworks in archaeology are artificial changes in land level, typically made from piles of artificially placed or sculpted rocks and soil. Earthworks can themselves be archaeological features, or they can show features beneath the surface.

Cost Overruns

Cost Overrun involves unexpected incurred costs. When these costs are in excess of budgeted amounts due to an underestimation of the actual cost during budgeting, they are known by these terms. Cost overruns are common in infrastructure, building, and technology projects. For IT projects, a 2004 industry study by the Standish Group found an average cost overrun of 43 percent; 71 percent of projects came in over budget, exceeded time estimates, and had estimated too narrow a scope; and total waste was estimated at $55 billion per year in the US alone. Many major construction projects have incurred cost overruns; cost estimates used to decide whether important transportation infrastructure should be built can mislead grossly and systematically. Cost overrun is distinguished from cost escalation, which is an anticipated growth in a budgeted cost due to factors such as inflation.

Planned Extortion - Bid-Rigging - Planned Obsolescence - Poor Efficiency - Negligence

Scope Creep in project management refers to changes, continuous or uncontrolled growth in a project’s scope, at any point after the project begins. This can occur when the scope of a project is not properly defined, documented, or controlled. It is generally considered harmful. It is related to but distinct from feature creep, because feature creep refers to features, and scope creep refers to the whole project. Scope creep can be a result of: poor change control, lack of proper initial identification of what is required to bring about the project objectives, weak project manager or executive sponsor, poor communication between parties, lack of initial product versatility. These aspects can affect the operational efficiencies of companies, especially when involved in long-term relationships. Scope creep is a risk in most projects. Most megaprojects fall victim to scope creep. Scope creep often results in cost overrun. A "value for free" strategy is difficult to counteract and remains a difficult challenge for even the most experienced project managers. Megaprojects are large-scale, complex ventures that typically cost $1 billion or more, take many years to develop and build, involve multiple public and private stakeholders, are transformational, and impact millions of people.

Planning Fallacy is when predictions about how much time will be needed to complete a future task display an optimism bias and underestimate the time needed. This phenomenon sometimes occurs regardless of the individual's knowledge that past tasks of a similar nature have taken longer to complete than generally planned. The bias affects predictions only about one's own tasks; when outside observers predict task completion times, they show a pessimistic bias, overestimating the time needed. The planning fallacy requires that predictions of current tasks' completion times are more optimistic than the beliefs about past completion times for similar projects and that predictions of the current tasks' completion times are more optimistic than the actual time needed to complete the tasks.

Benefit Shortfall is when the actual benefits of a venture are less than the projected or estimated benefits, the result is known as a benefit shortfall.

Hiding Hand Principle is a theory that offers a framework to examine how ignorance (particularly concerning future obstacles when person first decides to take on a project) intersects with rational choice to undertake a project; the intersection is seen to provoke creative success over the obstacles through the deduction that it is too late to abandon the project.

Managing large-scale construction projects to avoid cost overruns. Supplier selection and pricing format decisions that reflect key characteristics of the project, such as the size of the project, duration, and type of customer, are best at reducing a significant part of cost overruns. The implications of cost overruns go beyond financial metrics and can include reputational damage, litigation, and future overreliance on rigid and formalized relationship features. Managing suppliers and subcontractors, who can run into the hundreds in major projects, is an enormously difficult task. It necessitates considerable coordination and monitoring in a context where parties often have not worked together, they lack shared procedures or rules, and there is a great need to get up to speed quickly. Researchers find that supplier selection and pricing format decisions that reflect key characteristics of the project, such as the size of the project, duration, and type of customer, are best at reducing a significant part of the cost overruns observed.


Infrastructure Infrastructure refers to structures, systems, and facilities serving the country, city, town, or area, including technical structures' such as roads, bridges, tunnels, or other constructed facilities such as loading docks, cold storage chambers, electrical capacity, fuel tanks, cranes, overhead clearances, or components of water supplies, sewers, electrical grids, telecommunications, and so forth. Infrastructure thus consists of improvements with significant cost to develop or install that return an important value over time.

Transport - Civil Engineering - Environmental Monitoring - Waste Water Management

Green Infrastructure is a network providing the ingredients for solving urban and climatic challenges by building with nature. The main components of this approach include storm-water management, climate adaptation, less heat stress, more biodiversity, food production, better air quality, sustainable energy production, clean water and healthy soils, as well as the more anthropocentric functions such as increased quality of life through recreation and providing shade and shelter in and around towns and cities. Green infrastructure also serves to provide an ecological framework for social, economic and environmental health of the surroundings.

Natural Infrastructure refers to naturally occurring landscape features and/or nature-based solutions that promote, use, restore or emulate natural ecological processes. Nature provides effective solutions for minimizing coastal flooding, erosion, and runoff, as do man-made systems that mimic natural processes. Examples include mangroves and wetlands, oyster reefs, and sand dunes; permeable pavement and driveways; green roofs; and natural areas incorporated into city designs. A natural infrastructure approach represents a successful and cost efficient way to protect coastal communities.

Knowledge Infrastructure - Internet Infrastructure - Networks - Roads

Utilities are useful features for a home or business such as electricity, gas, water, cable and telephone.

Public Utilities is an organization that maintains the infrastructure for a public service (often also providing a service using that infrastructure). Public utilities are subject to forms of public control and regulation ranging from local community-based groups to statewide government monopolies. Electricity, natural gas, water, and sewage. Broadband internet services (both fixed-line and mobile) are increasingly being included within the definition.

Public Works are a broad category of infrastructure projects, financed and constructed by the government, for recreational, employment, and health and safety uses in the greater community. They include public buildings (municipal buildings, schools, hospitals), transport infrastructure (roads, railroads, bridges, pipelines, canals, ports, airports), public spaces (public squares, parks, beaches), public services (water supply, sewage, electrical grid, dams), and other, usually long-term, physical assets and facilities. Though often interchangeable with public infrastructure and public capital, public works does not necessarily carry an economic component, thereby being a broader term. Environment - Restoration.

Government (local) - Municipality (administration)

Problem Solving - Politics - Economics

Management Tools - Maintenance

Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act was initially a $547–715 billion infrastructure package that included provisions related to federal-aid highway, transit, highway safety, motor carrier, research, hazardous materials and rail programs of the Department of Transportation. After congressional negotiations, it was amended and renamed to the Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act to include funding for broadband access, clean water and electric grid renewal in addition to the transportation and road proposals of the original House bill. This amended version included approximately $1.2 trillion in spending, with $550 billion being newly authorized spending on top of what Congress was planning to authorize regularly. (H.R. 3684), is a United States federal statute enacted by the 117th United States Congress and signed into law by President Joe Biden on November 15, 2021. On March 31, 2021, President Joe Biden unveiled his $2.3 trillion American Jobs Plan (which, when combined with the American Families Plan, amounted to $4 trillion in infrastructure spending), pitched by him as "a transformative effort to overhaul the nation's economy". The detailed plan aimed to create millions of jobs, bolster labor unions, expand labor protections, and address climate change.

Supply Chain - 5 Basic Needs - Communication

Public Service - Social Services

Converged Infrastructure operates by grouping multiple information technology components into a single, optimized computing package. Components of a converged infrastructure may include servers, data storage devices, networking equipment and software for IT infrastructure management, automation and orchestration. IT organizations use converged infrastructure to centralize the management of IT resources, to consolidate systems, to increase resource-utilization rates, and to lower costs. Converged infrastructures foster these objectives by implementing pools of computers, storage and networking resources that can be shared by multiple applications and managed in a collective manner using policy-driven processes. IT vendors and IT industry analysts use various terms to describe the concept of a converged infrastructure. These include "converged system", "unified computing", "fabric-based computing", and "dynamic infrastructure". Wireless Communication - Microwaves.

Linear Infrastructure Intrusions into natural ecosystems are man-made linear infrastructure such as roads and highways, electric power lines, railway lines, canals, pipelines, firebreaks, and fences. These intrusions cause linear opening through the habitat or breakage in landscape connectivity due to infrastructure creation and maintenance, which is known to have multiple ecological effects in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. These effects include habitat loss and fragmentation, spread of invasive alien species, desiccation, windthrow, fires, animal injury and mortality (e.g., roadkill), changes in animal behaviour, pollution, microclimate and vegetation changes, loss of ecosystem services, increased pressures from development, tourism, hunting, garbage disposal, and associated human disturbances. These intrusions, considered crucial infrastructure for economic sectors such as transportation, power, and irrigation, may also have negative social impacts on indigenous and rural people through exposure to novel social and market pressures, loss of land and displacement, and iniquitous distribution of costs and benefits from infrastructure projects. The study of the ecological effects of linear infrastructure intrusions has spawning sub-fields of research such as road ecology and railroad ecology.

World's Highest Bridge Opens in Southwest China (youtube) - The Beipanjiang Bridge is a 1,341-meter-long cable-stayed suspension bridge started construction in 2013 - 9/2016. Costing about 1 billion yuan (about 150 million U.S. dollars). 570 meters above a valley, high as 200-story building.

Bridge Report - There are 178 million daily crossings on over 47,000 structurally deficient U.S. bridges.

American Road and Transportation Builders Association.

Army Corps of Engineers is a U.S. federal agency under the Department of Defense (DoD) that primarily oversees dams, canals and flood protection in the United States, as well as a wide range of public works throughout the world. The Corps of Engineers is a major Army command made up of some 37,000 civilian and military personnel, making it one of the world's largest public engineering, design, and construction management agencies. Through some of its dams, reservoirs, and flood control projects, the Corps of Engineers also provides outdoor recreation opportunities to the public. Its hydroelectric projects provide 24% of U.S. hydropower capacity. The corps' mission is to "Deliver vital public and military engineering services; partnering in peace and war to strengthen our Nation's security, energize the economy and reduce risks from disasters." Their most visible missions include: Planning, designing, building, and operating locks and dams. Other civil engineering projects include flood control, beach nourishment, and dredging for waterway navigation. Design and construction of flood protection systems through various federal mandates. Design and construction management of military facilities for the Army, Air Force, Army Reserve, and Air Force Reserve as well as other DoD and federal government agencies. Environmental regulation and ecosystem restoration.

Infrastructure Security is the security provided to protect infrastructure, especially critical infrastructure, such as airports, highways rail transport, hospitals, bridges, transport hubs, network communications, media, the electricity grid, dams, power plants, seaports, oil refineries, and water systems. Infrastructure security seeks to limit vulnerability of these structures and systems to sabotage, terrorism, and contamination. Critical infrastructures naturally utilize information technology as this capability has become more and more available. As a result, they have become highly interconnected, and interdependent. Intrusions and disruptions in one infrastructure might provoke unexpected failures to others. How to handle interdependencies becomes an important problem. Potential causes of infrastructure failure. Critical infrastructure is vital for essential functioning of a country. Incidental or deliberate damage will have serious impact on the economy as well as providing essential services to the communities it serves. There are a number of reasons why infrastructure needs to be heavily secured and protected. Terrorism - person or groups deliberately targeting critical infrastructure for political gain. In the November 2008 Mumbai attacks, the Mumbai central station and hospital were deliberately targeted. Theft – person of groups breaking into critical infrastructure sites like electrical substations or telecommunication towers to steal materials or equipment (e.g. metal theft) Sabotage - person or groups such as ex-employee, political groups against governments, environmental groups in defense of environment. Refer to Bangkok's International Airport Seized by Protestors. Information warfare - private person hacking for private gain or countries initiating attacks to glean information and also damage a country's infrastructure. For example, in cyberattacks on Estonia and cyberattacks during the 2008 South Ossetia war. Natural disaster - hurricane or natural events which damage critical infrastructure such as oil pipelines, water and power grids. See Hurricane Ike and Economic effects of Hurricane Katrina. Waste Law.

Critical Infrastructure is a term used by governments to describe assets that are essential for the functioning of a society and economy – the infrastructure. Most commonly associated with the term are facilities for: Shelter; Heating (e.g. natural gas, fuel oil, district heating); Agriculture, food production and distribution; Water supply (drinking water, waste water/sewage, stemming of surface water (e.g. dikes and sluices)); Public health (hospitals, ambulances); Transportation systems (fuel supply, railway network, airports, harbours, inland shipping); Security services (police, military). Electricity generation, transmission and distribution; (e.g. natural gas, fuel oil, coal, nuclear power) Renewable energy, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat. Telecommunication; coordination for successful operations. Economic sector; Goods and services and financial services (banking, clearing). The USA has had a wide-reaching critical infrastructure protection program in place since 1996. Its Patriot Act of 2001 defined critical infrastructure as those "systems and assets, whether physical or virtual, so vital to the United States that the incapacity or destruction of such systems and assets would have a debilitating impact on security, national economic security, national public health or safety, or any combination of those matters." In 2014 the NIST Cyber-Security Framework was published, and quickly became a popular set of guidelines, despite the significant costs of full compliance. These have identified a number of critical infrastructures and responsible agencies: Agriculture and food – Departments of Agriculture and Health and Human Services. Water – Environmental Protection Agency. Public Health – Department of Health and Human Services. Emergency Services – Department of Homeland Security. Government – Department of Homeland Security. Defense Industrial Base – Department of Defense. Information and Telecommunications – Department of Commerce. Energy – Department of Energy. Transportation and Shipping – Department of Transportation. Banking and Finance – Department of the Treasury. Chemical Industry and Hazardous Materials – Department of Homeland Security. Post – Department of Homeland Security. National monuments and icons - Department of the Interior. Critical manufacturing - Department of Homeland Security (14th sector announced March 3, 2008; recorded April 30, 2008). The National Infrastructure Protection Plan (NIPP) defines critical infrastructure sector in the US. Presidential Policy Directive 21 (PPD-21), issued in February 2013 entitled Critical Infrastructure Security and Resilience mandated an update to the NIPP. This revision of the plan established the following 16 critical infrastructure sectors: Chemical, Commercial facilities, Communications, Critical manufacturing, Dams, Defense industrial base, Emergency services, Energy, Financial services, Food and agriculture, Government facilities, Healthcare and public health, Information technology, Nuclear reactors, materials, and waste, Transportation systems, Water and wastewater systems. National Monuments and Icons along with the postal and shipping sector were removed in 2013 update to the NIPP. The 2013 version of the NIPP has faced criticism for lacking viable risk measures. The plan assigns the following agencies sector-specific coordination responsibilities: Department of Homeland Security. Chemical. Commercial facilities. Communications. Critical manufacturing. Dams. Emergency services. Government facilities (jointly with General Services Administration). Information technology. Nuclear reactors, materials, and waste. Transportation systems (jointly with Department of Transportation). Department of Defense. Defense industrial base. Department of Energy. Energy. Department of the Treasury. Financial services. Department of Agriculture. Food and agriculture. General Services Administration. Government facilities (jointly with Department of Homeland Security). Department of Health and Human Services. Healthcare and Public Health. Department of Transportation. Transportation systems (jointly with Department of Homeland Security). Environmental Protection Agency. Water and wastewater systems.

You have to know how the system works in order to improve it, repair it, maintain it and understand it.

Municipal or Urban Engineering applies the tools of science, art and engineering in an urban environment. Municipal engineering is concerned with municipal infrastructure. This involves specifying, designing, constructing, and maintaining streets, sidewalks, water supply networks, sewers, street lighting, municipal solid waste management and disposal, storage depots for various bulk materials used for maintenance and public works (salt, sand, etc.), public parks and cycling infrastructure. In the case of underground utility networks, it may also include the civil portion (conduits and access chambers) of the local distribution networks of electrical and telecommunications services. It can also include the optimizing of garbage collection and bus service networks. Some of these disciplines overlap with other civil engineering specialties, however municipal engineering focuses on the coordination of these infrastructure networks and services, as they are often built simultaneously (for a given street or development project), and managed by the same municipal authority.

Humans are disrupting natural 'salt cycle' on a global scale, new study shows. The influx of salt in streams and rivers is an 'existential threat. A new paper revealed that human activities are making Earth's air, soil and freshwater saltier, which could pose an 'existential threat' if current trends continue. Geologic and hydrologic processes bring salts to Earth's surface over time, but human activities such as mining and land development are rapidly accelerating this natural 'salt cycle.' The new study considered a variety of salt ions that are found underground and in surface water. Salts are compounds with positively charged cations and negatively charged anions, with some of the most abundant ones being calcium, magnesium, potassium and sulfate ions. Road salts have an outsized impact in the U.S., which churns out 44 billion pounds of the deicing agent each year. Road salts represented 44% of U.S. salt consumption between 2013 and 2017, and they account for 13.9% of the total dissolved solids that enter streams across the country. This can cause a "substantial" concentration of salt in watersheds, according to Kaushal and his co-authors. Anthropogenic Salt Cycle.

Keeping it Clean - Sanitation - Waste Management

City Water (Public Water System and Water Treatment)

Sanitation and Clean Water Sanitation is the hygienic means of promoting health through prevention of human contact with the hazards of wastes as well as the treatment and proper disposal of sewage or wastewater. Hazards can be either physical, microbiological, biological or chemical agents of disease that can cause health problems. Pesticides.

Sewage is a type of wastewater that is produced by a community of people. It is characterized by volume or rate of flow, physical condition, chemical and toxic constituents, and its bacteriologic status (which organisms it contains and in what quantities). It consists mostly of greywater (from sinks, tubs, showers, dishwashers, and clothes washers), blackwater (the water used to flush Toilets, combined with the human waste that it flushes away); soaps and detergents; and toilet paper (less so in regions where bidets are widely used instead of paper). Sewage usually travels from a building's plumbing either into a sewer, which will carry it elsewhere, or into an onsite sewage facility (of which there are many kinds). Whether it is combined with surface runoff in the sewer depends on the sewer design (sanitary sewer or combined sewer). The reality is, however, that most wastewater produced globally remains untreated causing widespread water pollution, especially in low-income countries: A global estimate by UNDP and UN-Habitat is that 90% of all wastewater generated is released into the environment untreated. In many developing countries the bulk of domestic and industrial wastewater is discharged without any treatment or after primary treatment only. The term sewage is nowadays regarded as an older term and is being more and more replaced by "wastewater". In general American English usage, the terms "sewage" and "sewerage" mean the same thing. In common British usage, and in American technical and professional English usage, "sewerage" refers to the infrastructure that conveys sewage.

Wastewater is any water that has been affected by human use. Wastewater is "used water from any combination of domestic, industrial, commercial or agricultural activities, surface runoff or stormwater, and any sewer inflow or sewer infiltration". Therefore, wastewater is a byproduct of domestic, industrial, commercial or agricultural activities. The characteristics of wastewater vary depending on the source. Types of wastewater include: domestic wastewater from households, municipal wastewater from communities (also called sewage) or industrial wastewater from industrial activities. Wastewater can contain physical, chemical and biological pollutants. Households may produce wastewater from flush Toilets, sinks, dishwashers, washing machines, bath tubs, and showers. Households that use dry toilets produce less wastewater than those that use flush toilets. Wastewater may be conveyed in a sanitary sewer which conveys only sewage. Alternatively, it can be transported in a combined sewer which includes storm water runoff and industrial wastewater. After treatment at a wastewater treatment plant, the treated wastewater (also called effluent) is discharged to a receiving water body. The terms "wastewater reuse" or "water reclamation" apply if the treated waste is used for another purpose. Wastewater that is discharged to the environment without suitable treatment causes water pollution. In developing countries and in rural areas with low population densities, wastewater is often treated by various on-site sanitation systems and not conveyed in sewers. These systems include septic tanks connected to drain fields, on-site sewage systems (OSS), vermifilter systems and many more.

Waste Energy - Waste Management - Landfills Garbage Dump

Titanium oxide material can remove toxic dyes from wastewater. Drexel University researchers show titanium oxide material's potential for water treatment. Discharged in large quantities by textile, cosmetic, ink, paper and other manufacturers, dyes carry high-toxicity and can bring potential carcinogens to wastewater. It’s a major concern for wastewater treatment — but researchers may have found a solution, using a tiny nanofilament.

Life Threatening Dangers of Poor Sanitation - Maintenance - Infrastructure

Even treated wastewater affects our rivers. Wastewater treatment plants are undoubtedly a great achievement. After all, they have made a significant contribution to improving the quality of natural waters. A study shows, however, that substances still manage to enter the water cycle that have an impact on the composition of the organisms living in it.

Cleaner is someone who helps keep areas free from dirt or impurities. Makes clean by removing dirt, filth, or unwanted substances from without spreading pollution or contamination.

Safety - Security

Policeman and Two Firemen Security is protection from harm. The state of being free from danger or injury. Freedom from anxiety or fear. A guarantee that an obligation will be met. Measures taken as a precaution against theft or espionage or sabotage etc. Defense against financial failure. Security is freedom from, or resilience against, potential harm or other unwanted coercive change caused by others.

Emergency Services - Fires

Public Security is the function of governments which ensures the protection of citizens, organizations, and institutions against threats to their well-being – and to the prosperity of their communities. This includes protection against corruptioncorporate crimes and abuse from the justice system.

Securities is the state of being free from danger or injury. Freedom from anxiety or fear. Measures taken as a precaution against theft, espionage or sabotage etc. An electrical device that sets off an alarm when someone tries to break in. Defense against financial failure; financial independence. A formal declaration that documents a fact of relevance to finance and investment; the holder has a right to receive interest or dividends. A department responsible for the security of the institution's property and workers. A guarantee that an obligation will be met. Insurance - Prevention.

Civil Defense is an effort to protect the citizens of a state from military attacks, corporate aggression and natural disasters. It uses the principles of emergency operations: prevention, mitigation, preparation, response, or emergency evacuation and recovery. Programs of this sort were initially discussed at least as early as the 1920s and were implemented in some countries during the 1930s as the threat of war and aerial bombardment grew. It became widespread after the threat of nuclear weapons was realized. Watch Dogs.

National Security is the security and defense of a nation state, including its citizens, economy, and institutions, which is regarded as a duty of government.

Homeland Security the national effort to ensure a homeland that is safe, secure, and resilient against terrorism and other hazards where American interests, aspirations, and ways of life can thrive to the national effort to prevent terrorist attacks within the United States, reduce the vulnerability of the U.S. to terrorism, and minimize the damage from attacks that do occur.

Physical Security describes security measures that are designed to deny unauthorized access to facilities, equipment and resources and to protect personnel and property from damage or harm (such as espionage, theft, or terrorist attacks). Physical security involves the use of multiple layers of interdependent systems which include CCTV surveillance, security guards, protective barriers, locks, access control protocols, and many other techniques. Information Security.

Lock as a Security device is a mechanical or electronic fastening device that is released by a physical object (such as a key, keycard, fingerprint, RFID card, security token, coin etc.), by supplying secret information (such as a keycode or password), or by a combination thereof.

Anti-Theft Systems protect valuables such as vehicles and personal property like wallets, phones, and jewelry. They are also used in retail settings to protect merchandise in the form of security tags and labels. Anti-theft systems include devices such as locks and keys, RFID tags, and GPS locators.

Security Guard is a person employed by a government or private party to protect the employing party's assets (property, people, equipment, money, etc.) from a variety of hazards (such as waste, damaged property, unsafe worker behavior, criminal activity such as theft, etc.) by enforcing preventative measures. Security guards do this by maintaining a high-visibility presence to deter illegal and inappropriate actions, looking (either directly, through patrols, or indirectly, by monitoring alarm systems or video surveillance cameras) for signs of crime or other hazards (such as a fire), taking action to minimize damage (such as warning and escorting trespassers off property), and reporting any incidents to their clients and emergency services (such as the police or paramedics), as appropriate. Security officers are generally uniformed to represent their lawful authority to protect private property. Security guards are generally governed by legal regulations, which set out the requirements for eligibility (e.g., a criminal record check) and the permitted authorities of a security guard in a given jurisdiction. The authorities permitted to security guards vary by country and subnational jurisdiction. Security officers are hired by a range of organizations, including businesses, government departments and agencies and not-for-profit organizations (e.g., churches and charitable organizations).

Security Company is a business corporation, which provides armed and unarmed security services and expertise to private and public clients. Private security companies are defined by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics as companies primarily engaged in providing guard and patrol services, such as bodyguard, guard dog, parking security and security guard services. Many of them will even provide advanced special operations services if the client demands it. Examples of services provided by these companies include the prevention of unauthorized activity or entry, traffic regulation, access control, and fire and theft prevention and detection. These services can be broadly described as the protection of personnel and/or assets. Other security services such as roving patrol, bodyguard, and guard dog services are also included, but are a very small portion of the industry. The private security industry is rapidly growing, currently there are 2 million full-time security workers in the United States and this number is expected to increase by 21% percent through 2020. Making the security industry a $100 billion a year industry, with projected growth to $200 billion by 2010. The United States is the world's largest consumer of private military and security service and the private security industry in the US began seeing a huge increase in popularity in 2010. Since then, the U.S. security industry has already grown to be a 350 billion dollar market. G4S is a British multinational security services company headquartered in London, England.

Home Security includes both the security hardware placed on a property and individuals' personal security practices. Security hardware includes doors, locks, alarm systems, lighting, motion detectors, and security camera systems. Personal security involves practices like ensuring doors are locked, alarms are activated, owning a Dog, windows are closed, and extra keys are not hidden outside. According to an FBI report, 58.3% of burglaries in the United States involved forcible entry. Per the most recent statistics, the average burglary in the United States takes about 90 seconds to 12 minutes, and on average, a burglar will break into a home within 60 seconds. Most target cash first followed by jewels, drugs, and electronics. Common security methods include never hiding extra keys outside, never turning off all the lights, applying small CCTV stickers on doors, and keeping good tabs with neighbors. Castle Doctrine.

WiFi Blockers or Jammers and Deauthers can disrupt WiFi security cameras and cause them not to record. Criminals will not be recorded when committing crimes. Same thing can happen when the internet is down. Security Theater can give a false sense of security, while at the same time, violate your privacy.

Safe is being free from danger and risk and protected from harm.

Safety is the condition of being protected from harm or other non-desirable outcomes. Safety can also refer to the control of recognized hazards in order to achieve an acceptable level of risk.

Safety Engineering - Quality Control - OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health)

Protected is to keep someone safe and defended, shielded or guarded from danger, injury, loss, destruction or damage.

Protection is the act of defending, shielding and guarding someone or something from danger, damage, injury, loss or destruction. Self-Defense.

Consumer Protection - Environment Protection - Information Protection - Watch Dogs

Integrated Pest Management is a broad-based approach that integrates practices for economic control of pests. IPM aims to suppress pest populations below the economic injury level (EIL), which is the smallest number of insects (amount of injury) that will cause yield losses equal to the insect management costs. Economic threshold. The pest density at which management action should be taken to prevent an increasing pest population from reaching the economic injury level.

Defense (self) - Home Monitors

Refuge is a safe place to turn to or go to for assistance or security. A shelter from danger or hardship.

Rescue is to save someone from any violence, danger or evil. To free or liberate people from confinement or other physical restraints. The recovery or the preservation from loss or danger. Rescue Equipment.

Help is to give assistance to someone and to be of service to someone. To improve the condition of someone's situation and make a change for the better. The activity of contributing to the fulfillment of a persons needs and the furtherance of an effort or purpose.

Assist is to give help or assistance to someone and be of service to them. The activity of contributing to the fulfillment of a persons needs and the furtherance of an effort or purpose. Public Service.

Community Policing - Neighborhood Watch

Community Policing is a strategy of policing that focuses on developing relationships with community members. It is a philosophy of full-service policing that is highly personal, where an officer patrols the same area for a period of time and develops a partnership with citizens to identify and solve problems. The central goal of community policing is for police to build relationships with the community, including through local agencies to reduce social disorder. The main purpose of community policing aims to reduce low-level crime, but the broken windows theory proposes that this can reduce serious crimes as well. Community policing is related to problem-oriented policing and intelligence-led policing, and contrasts with reactive policing strategies which were predominant in the late 20th century. Many police forces have teams that focus specifically on community policing, such as Neighborhood Policing Teams in the United Kingdom, which are separate from the more centralized units that respond to emergencies.

Neighborhood Watch is an organized group of civilians devoted to crime and vandalism prevention within a neighborhood. The aim of neighborhood watch includes educating residents of a community on security and safety and achieving safe and secure neighborhoods. However, when a criminal activity is suspected, members are encouraged to report to authorities, and not to intervene. Self Defense.

Watchman perform the services of public safety, fire watch, crime prevention, crime detection, recovery of stolen goods. Watchmen have existed since earliest recorded times in various guises throughout the world and were generally succeeded by the emergence of formally organized professional policing. Private Investigators - Watch Dogs.

Proactive Policing is the practice of deterring criminal activity by showing police presence, the use of police powers by both uniformed and plain clothed officers and engaging the public to learn their concerns, as well as investigating and discovering offences and conspiracies to commit crimes thereby preventing crime from taking place in the first place. In contrast, responding to a complaint after a crime has been committed is reactive policing. Public Interest.

Problem-Oriented Policing involves the identification and analysis of specific crime and disorder problems, in order to develop effective response strategies.

Crime Prevention is the attempt to reduce and deter crime and criminals. It is applied specifically to efforts made by governments to reduce crime, enforce the law, and maintain criminal justice. Create, implement and monitor a national action plan for violence prevention. Enhance capacity for collecting data on violence. Define priorities for, and support research on, the causes, consequences, costs and prevention of violence. Promote primary prevention responses. Strengthen responses for victims of violence. Integrate violence prevention into social and educational policies, and thereby promote gender and social equality. Increase collaboration and exchange of information on violence prevention. Educational interventions to prevent relationship violence in young people. Alternative education programs and School-based programs. Promote and monitor adherence to international treaties, laws and other mechanisms to protect human rights. Seek practical, internationally agreed responses to the global drugs and global arms trade.

Intelligence-Led Policing is a policing model built around the assessment and management of risk. Intelligence officers serve as guides to operations, rather than operations guiding intelligence.

Evidence-Based Policing emphasizes the value of statistical analysis, empirical research and ideally randomized controlled trials. EBP does not dismiss more traditional drivers of police decision-making, but seeks to raise awareness and increase the application of scientific testing, targeting and tracking of police resources, especially during times of budget cuts and greater public scrutiny.

Broken Windows Theory is a criminological theory that states that visible signs of crime, anti-social behavior, and civil disorder create an urban environment that encourages further crime and disorder, including serious crimes. The theory suggests that policing methods that target minor crimes, such as vandalism, loitering, public drinking, jaywalking and fare evasion, help to create an atmosphere of order and lawfulness, thereby preventing more serious crimes.


Police is a constituted body of persons empowered by the state to enforce the law, protect property, and limit civil disorder. Their powers include the legitimized use of force, but not abuse or misuse. Nuisance - Crime Statistics.

Enforce is to compel observance of or compliance with a Law, Rule, or Obligation.

Enforcement is the process of ensuring compliance with laws, regulations, rules, standards, or social norms. By enforcing laws and regulations, governments attempt to effectuate successful implementation of policies. Brutality.

Law Enforcement is any system by which some members of society act in an organized manner to enforce the law by discovering, deterring, rehabilitating, or punishing people who violate the rules and norms governing that society. Although the term may encompass entities such as courts and prisons, it is most frequently applied to those who directly engage in patrols or surveillance to dissuade and discover criminal activity, and those who investigate crimes and apprehend offenders, a task typically carried out by the police or another law enforcement agency. Furthermore, although law enforcement may be most concerned with the prevention and punishment of crimes, organizations exist to discourage a wide variety of non-criminal violations of rules and norms, effected through the imposition of less severe consequences.

Security Increase often occurs when a nation, state, or institution has recently suffered from a serious incident or is under the perception that there is an increased risk for an incident to occur that endangers or potentially endangers its well-being.

Police State is a government that exercises power arbitrarily through the power of the police force. Dictatorship - Mass surveillance.

Martial Law is the imposition of direct military control of normal civilian functions by a government, especially in response to a temporary emergency such as invasion or major disaster, or in an occupied territory.

Constable is a person holding a particular office, most commonly in criminal law enforcement. The office of constable can vary significantly in different jurisdictions. A constable is commonly the rank of an officer within the police. Other persons may be granted powers of a constable without holding the title of constable.

Councillor is a member of a local government council.

Knightscope Robotic Security Force - Robo-Cop at your service.

Violence Prevention through Urban Upgrading (VPUU)

People need safety, insurances and stability. If things go bad, people want to be prepared and avoid catastrophic failures, like wars, diseases and environmental threats. Having insurances makes life a lot more enjoyable and a lot more pleasant. As long as we don't create a false sense of security or forget our responsibilities to maintain life to the highest degree of quality possible.

Fire Safety

Firefighting is the act of attempting to prevent the spread of and extinguish significant unwanted fires in buildings, vehicles, woodlands, etc. A firefighter suppresses fires and performs rescues to protect lives, property and the environment. Firefighters may provide other services to their communities. Firefighters typically undergo a high degree of technical training. This involves both general firefighting techniques and developing specialist expertise in particular fire operations, such as aircraft firefighting and wildland firefighting In the U.S. the national level of certifications are called Firefighter I/II. One of the major hazards associated with firefighting operations is the toxic environment created by combustible materials. The four major risks are smoke, oxygen deficiency, elevated temperatures, and poisonous atmospheres. Additional hazards include falls and structural collapse that can exacerbate the problems entailed in a toxic environment. To combat some of these risks, firefighters carry self-contained breathing equipment. The first step in a firefighting operation is reconnaissance to search for the origin of the fire and to identify the specific risks. Fires can be extinguished by water, fuel or oxidant removal, or chemical flame inhibition.

Firefighter is a rescuer extensively trained in firefighting, primarily to extinguish hazardous fires that threaten life, property and/or the environment. The complexity of modern, industrialized life has created an increase in the skills needed in firefighting technology. The fire service, also known in some countries as the fire brigade or fire department, is one of the three main emergency services. From urban areas to aboard ships, firefighters have become ubiquitous around the world. The goals of firefighting are (in order of priority): Save Life, Save Property, Save the Environment. First Aid.

Multiple-Alarm Fire. A 5 Alarm Fire is usually the highest level alarm sounded for a fire and the most dangerous. These types of fires can require as many as 100 firefighters in order to extinguish the fire entirely.

Fire Extinguisher is an active fire protection device used to extinguish or control small fires, often in emergency situations. It is not intended for use on an out-of-control fire, such as one which has reached the ceiling, endangers the user (i.e., no escape route, smoke, explosion hazard, etc.), or otherwise requires the expertise of a fire brigade. Typically, a fire extinguisher consists of a hand-held cylindrical pressure vessel containing an agent which can be discharged to extinguish a fire. Fire extinguishers manufactured with non-cylindrical pressure vessels also exist, but are less common.

Smoke Detector is a device that senses smoke, typically as an indicator of fire. Commercial security devices issue a signal to a fire alarm control panel as part of a fire alarm system, while household smoke detectors, also known as smoke alarms, generally issue a local audible or visual alarm from the detector itself or several detectors if there are multiple smoke detectors interlinked.

Fire Marshal duties vary but usually include fire code enforcement or investigating fires for origin and cause. Fire marshals may be sworn law-enforcement officers and are often experienced firefighters. In larger cities with substantially developed fire departments the local fire departments are sometimes delegated some of the duties of the fire marshal.

The US Fire Administration estimates there were 364,000 residential fires in 2016, the majority of which occurred while someone was cooking. That year, 2,775 people died in residential fires; 11,025 people were injured; and monetary losses totaled more than $5.7 billion. Avoidable Accidents.

If your home was on fire, what item would you take with you? If you only had a few seconds to escape, what would you grab in order to save it from the fire? If you had to leave home and could take only one keepsake, what would it be?

First Aid (cpr) - OSHA - Emergency Response (disasters - catastrophes)

Red Flag Warning is a forecast warning issued by the United States National Weather Service to inform area firefighting and land management agencies that conditions are ideal for wildland fire combustion, and rapid spread. After drought conditions, when humidity is very low, and especially when there are high or erratic winds which may include lightning as a factor, the Red Flag Warning becomes a critical statement for firefighting agencies. These agencies often alter their staffing and equipment resources dramatically to accommodate the forecast risk. To the public, a Red Flag Warning means high fire danger with increased probability of a quickly spreading vegetation fire in the area within 24 hours. The weather criteria for fire weather watches and red flag warnings vary with each Weather Service office’s warning area based on the local vegetation type, topography, and distance from major water sources. They usually include the daily vegetation moisture content calculations, expected afternoon high temperature, afternoon minimum relative humidity and daytime wind speed. Outdoor burning bans may also be proclaimed by local law and fire agencies based on red flag warnings. A separate but less imminent forecast may include a fire weather watch, which is issued to alert fire and land management agencies to the possibility that Red Flag conditions may exist beyond the first forecast period (12 hours). The watch is issued generally 12 to 48 hours in advance of the expected conditions, but can be issued up to 72 hours in advance if the NWS agency is reasonably confident. The term “Fire Weather Watch” is headlined in the routine forecast and issued as a product. That watch then remains in effect until it expires, is canceled, or upgraded to a red flag warning.

Monitoring - Watchdogs - Predictions - Safety

California firefighters use AI to spot wildfires. The program uses a statewide network of cameras and sensors to monitor for wildfires and other potential disasters. ALERTCalifornia has now teamed up with Cal Fire, the state's fire department, to test an AI tool that can differentiate between smoke and other particles in the air.

U.S. Fire Administration or USFA collects data from a variety of sources to provide information and analyses on the status and scope of the fire problem in the United States. Residential is the leading property type for fire deaths (75.0%), fire injuries (77.1%) and fire dollar loss (43.3%). African American males (21.6) and American Indian males (17.2) have the highest fire death rates per million population. Age - People ages 85 or older have the highest fire death rate (44.8). People ages 50-54 have the highest fire injury rate (63.8).

National Fire Protection Association or NFPA is a global self-funded nonprofit organization, established in 1896, devoted to eliminating death, injury, property and economic loss due to fire, electrical and related hazards.

Backfire is a fire set intentionally to arrest the progress of an approaching fire by creating a burned area in its path, thus depriving the fire of fuel. Backfire also means a mistimed explosion in the cylinder or exhaust of a vehicle or engine. A Plan that Backfired.

An estimated 46 million homes in the U.S., valued at $1.3 trillion, now face wildfire risks. Home hardening techniques include fire-resistant roofs, covered gutters, no plants or mulch within 5 feet of the house, mesh on air vents that can stop embers from flying inside.

About one-quarter of California is at high risk of burning, according to state wildfire authorities. And as the climate gets hotter, ten of thousands of homes have been lost in destructive wildfires in the last five years alone.

Mitigate Wildfire Risk from Proposed Developments in Fire-Prone Areas.

Wildfires increase air pollution in surrounding areas and can affect regional air quality. The effects of smoke from wildfires can range from eye and respiratory tract irritation to more serious disorders, including reduced lung function, bronchitis, exacerbation of asthma and heart failure, and premature death. Air contains about 21 percent oxygen, and most fires require at least 16 percent oxygen content to burn.

How wildfires change soil chemistry. Severe wildfires can drive chemical changes in soil that affect ecosystem recovery and risks to human health. A new study finds broader surveillance and modeling of these changes could inform strategies for protecting lives, property and natural resources, and managing wildlife.

Wildfire Risk Rezones - Fire Prone Areas

RedZone has highlighted five lesser-known areas where homeowners have increased wildfire risk. Mid-slope areas, Areas Adjacent to Wildland Fuels, In the Ember Zone, In Urban Canyons, Proximity to Highway Grade.

Building in Wildfire Prone Areas - U.S. Geological Survey - Storymaps - University of California

Wildfire Insurance and Forest Health Task Force.

Identify Your Local Fire Hazard Ranking - Evacuation Plans.

Fire-Safe Landscaping. Plant placement is the most important criteria when it comes to plant selection. Vegetation that touches the siding, is located in front of windows or under eaves and vents, and/or under or near a deck will increase the likelihood that a home will be ignited from wildfire. Reduce Fuels in the Landscape. Work strategically to thin and prune trees, mow grass, and reduce shrubs along evacuation routes, roads, and other control points. These broader actions can help reduce the energy of an oncoming fire and create places for fire personnel to work. Create Defensible Space. Defensible space does more than just preventing fire from reaching your home and giving you safe evacuation routes. Defensible space also gives fire professionals a safe or "defendable" area to stage their personnel and equipment. Home Landscaping for Fire (PDF) - Reducing Wildfire Risks (PDF).

Prepare and harden your home for a wildfire. There are three ways your home can be exposed to wildfire: Direct flames from a wildfire or burning neighboring home; radiant heat from nearby burning plants or structures; and flying embers. Flying embers from a wildfire can destroy homes up to a mile away and are responsible for the destruction of most homes during a wildfire. Taking the necessary measures to harden your home can help increase its likelihood of survival when wildfire strikes. Invest in fire-resistant materials and know the latest wildfire building codes and have an updated fire risk map. Home Ignition Zone.

Wildfire-Resistant Home.SRAs or State Responsibility Areas are lands where the state has financial responsibility for wild land fire protection.

Fire-Resistant Materials: Fire-resistant glass windows, concrete, gypsum, stucco and brick. Mineral wool. Gypsum boards. Asbestos cement. Perlite boards. Corriboard. Calcium silicate. Sodium silicate. Potassium silicate. Composites have been used in fire resistant applications for decades. 8 Fire Retardant Building Materials.

Fireproofing is rendering something resistant to fire, or incombustible. Fire-proof is a passive fire protection measure.

Acoustic Fire Suppression. Dousing flames with low-frequency sound waves and using sound waves to put out fires by displacing O2 molecules. Since sound waves can move oxygen and fire through pressure from their vibrations, this specific frequency of sound wave works to separate the flame molecules from the surrounding oxygen, effectively starving the fire and snuffing out the flame.

Americans flocking to fire: National migration study. Americans are leaving many of the U.S. counties hit hardest by hurricanes and heatwaves -- and moving towards dangerous wildfires and warmer temperatures, says one of the largest studies of U.S. migration and natural disasters. These results are concerning, as wildfire and rising temperatures are projected to worsen with climate change. The study was inspired by the increasing number of headlines of record-breaking natural disasters.

For 400 years, Indigenous tribes buffered climate's impact on wildfires in the American Southwest. Devastating megafires are becoming more common, in part, because the planet is warming. But a new study suggests bringing 'good fire' back to the U.S. and other wildfire fire-prone areas, as Native Americans once did, could potentially blunt the role of climate in triggering today's wildfires. Stoking the fires of change.

Transportation - Mobility

Transportation Services
Transport is to take or carry people or goods from one place to another by means of a vehicle, aircraft, or ship.

Transfer is the act of moving or sending something from one location or position to another place. The act of transferring something from one form to another. The application of a skill learned in one situation to a different but similar situation.

Trade - Traveler - Supply Chain - Emergencies

Intelligent Transportation Systems are advanced applications which, without embodying intelligence as such, aim to provide innovative services relating to different modes of transport and traffic management and enable various users to be better informed and make safer, more coordinated, and 'smarter' use of transport networks.

Self Driving Vehicles - Car Sharing - Air Flight

Transportation Planning is the process of defining future policies, goals, investments and designs to prepare for future needs to move people and goods to destinations.

Transport Geography is a branch of geography that investigates the movement and connections between people, goods and information on the Earth's surface. Transient.

Transportation is the movement of people, animals and goods from one location to another. Modes of transport include air, rail, road, water, bridges, cable, pipeline and space. The field can be divided into infrastructure, vehicles and operations. Transport is important because it enables trade between people, which is essential for the development of civilizations.

Public Transportation is a shared passenger-transport service which is available for use by the general public, as distinct from modes such as taxicab, carpooling, or hired buses, which are not shared by strangers without private arrangement.

Traffic Management is a key branch within logistics. It concerns the planning, control and purchasing of transport services needed to physically move vehicles (for example aircraft, road vehicles, rolling stock and watercraft) and freight. Traffic management is implemented by people working with different job titles in different branches: Within freight and cargo logistics: traffic manager, assessment of hazardous and awkward materials, carrier choice and fees, demurrage, documentation, expediting, freight consolidation, insurance, reconsignment and tracking. Within air traffic management: Air traffic controller. Within rail traffic management: Rail traffic controller, train dispatcher or signalman. Within road traffic management: Traffic Control Management is the design, auditing and implementation of traffic control plans at worksites and civil infrastructure projects. Traffic Management can include but is not limited to: Flagging, lane closures, detours, full freeway closures, pedestrian access, traffic plans and sidewalk closures. Traffic Safety.

Traffic Engineering is designing safe and efficient movement of people and goods on roadways. It focuses mainly on research for safe and efficient traffic flow, such as road geometry, sidewalks and crosswalks, cycling infrastructure, traffic signs, road surface markings and traffic lights, which are signaling devices positioned at road intersections, pedestrian crossings, and other locations to notify travelers when to stop, when to go, and where to turn, which also helps control the flow of traffic.

Road Traffic Control involves directing vehicular and pedestrian traffic around a construction zone, accident or other road disruption, thus ensuring the safety of emergency response teams, construction workers and the general public.

Institute of Transportation Engineers is an international educational and scientific association of transportation professionals who are responsible for meeting mobility and safety needs. ITE facilitates the application of technology and scientific principles to research, planning, functional design, implementation, operation, policy development and management for any mode of ground transportation. Through its products and services, ITE promotes professional development of its members, supports and encourages education, stimulates research, develops public awareness programs and serves as a conduit for the exchange of professional information.

Highway Engineering is an engineering discipline branching from civil engineering that involves the planning, design, construction, operation, and maintenance of roads, bridges, and tunnels to ensure safe and effective transportation of people and goods. Highway engineering became prominent towards the latter half of the 20th Century after World War II. Standards of highway engineering are continuously being improved. Highway engineers must take into account future traffic flows, design of highway intersections/interchanges, geometric alignment and design, highway pavement materials and design, structural design of pavement thickness, and pavement maintenance.

Geometric Design of Roads is the branch of highway engineering concerned with the positioning of the physical elements of the roadway according to standards and constraints. The basic objectives in geometric design are to optimize efficiency and safety while minimizing cost and environmental damage. Geometric design also affects an emerging fifth objective called "livability," which is defined as designing roads to foster broader community goals, including providing access to employment, schools, businesses and residences, accommodate a range of travel modes such as walking, bicycling, transit, and automobiles, and minimizing fuel use, emissions and environmental damage. Geometric roadway design can be broken into three main parts: alignment, profile, and cross-section. Combined, they provide a three-dimensional layout for a roadway. The alignment is the route of the road, defined as a series of horizontal tangents and curves. The profile is the vertical aspect of the road, including crest and sag curves, and the straight grade lines connecting them. The cross section shows the position and number of vehicle and bicycle lanes and sidewalks, along with their cross slope or banking. Cross sections also show drainage features, pavement structure and other items outside the category of geometric design.

Road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two places that has been paved or otherwise improved to allow travel by foot or by some form of conveyance (including a motor vehicle, cart, bicycle, or horse). Other names for a road include: parkway; avenue; freeway, motorway or expressway; tollway; interstate; highway; thoroughfare; or primary, secondary, and tertiary local road. Gravel Road (wiki) - Junction.

Stroad is a type of thoroughfare that is a cross between a street and a road. Stroad is part street—which he describes as a "complex environment where life in the city happens", with pedestrians, cars, buildings close to the sidewalk for easy accessibility, with many entrances and exits to and from the street, and with spaces for temporary parking and delivery vehicles—and part road, which he describes as a "high-speed connection between two places" with wide lanes, limited entrances and exits, and which are generally straight or have gentle curves.

Farm-to-Market Road or Ranch-to-Market Road  is a state highway or county road that connects rural or agricultural areas to market towns. These are better quality roads, usually a highway, that farmers and ranchers use to transport products to market towns or distribution centers.

City Block or simply block is a central element of urban planning and urban design. A city block is the smallest area that is surrounded by streets. City blocks are the space for buildings within the street pattern of a city, and form the basic unit of a city's urban fabric. City blocks may be subdivided into any number of smaller land lots usually in private ownership, though in some cases, it may be other forms of tenure. City blocks are usually built-up to varying degrees and thus form the physical containers or 'streetwalls' of public space. Most cities are composed of a greater or lesser variety of sizes and shapes of urban block. For example, many pre-industrial cores of cities in Europe, Asia, and the Middle East tend to have irregularly shaped street patterns and urban blocks, while cities based on grids have much more regular arrangements.

Urban Street Design Guide charts the principles and practices of the nation’s foremost engineers, planners, and designers working in cities today. Streets comprise more than 80% of public space in cities, but they often fail to provide their surrounding communities with a space where people can safely walk, bicycle, drive, take transit, and socialize.

Street Hierarchy is an urban planning technique for laying out road networks that exclude automobile through-traffic from developed areas. It is conceived as a hierarchy of roads that embeds the link importance of each road type in the network topology (the connectivity of the nodes to each other). Street hierarchy restricts or eliminates direct connections between certain types of links, for example residential streets and arterial roads, and allows connections between similar order streets (e.g. arterial to arterial) or between street types that are separated by one level in the hierarchy (e.g. arterial to highway and collector to arterial.) By contrast, in many regular, traditional grid plans, as laid out, higher order roads (e.g. arterials) are connected by through streets of both lower order levels (e.g. local and collector.) An ordering of roads and their classification can include several levels and finer distinctions as, for example, major and minor arterials or collectors.

Dead End or Cul-De-Sac is a street with only one inlet or outlet or a no through road or no exit road. Dead ends are created in urban planning to limit through-traffic in residential areas. While some dead ends provide no possible passage except in and out of their road entry, others allow cyclists, pedestrians or other non-automotive traffic to pass through connecting easements or paths, an example of filtered permeability. The International Federation of Pedestrians proposed to call such streets "living end streets" and to provide signage at the entry of the streets that make this permeability for pedestrians and cyclists clear. Its application retains the dead end's primary function as a non-through road, but establishes complete pedestrian and bicycle network connectivity.

Vehicle Infrastructure Integration is an initiative fostering research and applications development for a series of technologies directly linking road vehicles to their physical surroundings, first and foremost in order to improve road safety.

Freight Transport (supplies) - Logistics - Sustainable Transport - Environmentally Safe Roads.

Vac-Train is a proposed design for very-high-speed rail transportation. Maglev (magnetic levitation).

Long-Term Environmental Damage from Transportation Projects in Kenya, scientists warn.

Taken for a Ride - The U.S. History of the Assault on Public Transport in the Last Century (youtube) - Learn about how General Motors deliberately sabotaged public transportation and electric streetcar systems through service reductions and fare increases, just so that GM could sell more cars and buses that polluted the cities. General Motors also lobbied and bought politicians in order to force states to build more highways so that GM could sell more cars that caused more traffic jams and created more deadly pollution. GM was found guilty of its war on public transportation that started in the 1930's, but GM continued to sabotaged public transportation to increase GM profits. Other countries did not sell out to car manufacturers, but instead invested in public transportation, and thus did not suffer like Americans did. Of course GM was not alone. Big Oil and other companies who profited from more cars on the road also helped sabotage public transportation in almost every city in America. These are the types of things that happen when a service is manipulated and ends up becoming a racket, like with the the media being controlled by a few corporations.

Highway Revolt was in response to plans for the construction of new freeways, as advocated for by the highway lobby. A significant number of these highways were abandoned or significantly scaled back due to widespread public opposition, especially of those whose neighborhoods would be disrupted or displaced by the proposed freeways, and due to various other negative effects that freeways are considered to have.

I like to use my car as a think tank. But sometimes the thoughts can get so deep that I forget where I am, so I'm not fully aware of my surroundings, which can make driving dangerous. Deep thinking reduces your awareness because you're basically in another world, or in another dimension.

Walking - Traveling on Foot - Paths - Sidewalks

Walking Symbol for Foot Traffic Walking is one of the main gaits of locomotion among legged animals, and is typically slower than running and other gaits. Walking is defined by an 'inverted pendulum' gait in which the body vaults over the stiff limb or limbs with each step. This applies regardless of the number of limbs - even arthropods, with six, eight or more limbs, walk. Gait is the pattern of movement of the limbs of animals, including humans, during locomotion over a solid substrate.

is a leisurely walk with no apparent aim, usually in some public place. Walking 5 miles is around 10,000 steps.

One of the Longest Walks in the World (image) - Long Hike (image)

Pedestrian is a person traveling on foot, whether walking or running. In some communities, those traveling using tiny wheels such as roller skates, skateboards, and scooters, as well as wheelchair users are also included as pedestrians. In modern times, the term usually refers to someone walking on a road or pavement, but this was not the case historically.

Walkability or Walk Score is a measure of how friendly an area is to walking. Walkability has health, environmental, and economic benefits.

The City with the Highest Walking Score is New York with a walk score rating of 87.6 , then San Francisco 83.9, Boston 79.5, Philadelphia 76.5, Miami 75.6, Chicago 74.8, Washington, D.C. 74.1, Seattle 70.8, Oakland 68.5 and Baltimore with 66.2.

15-Minute City is the concept to improve the quality of life by creating cities where everything a resident needs can be reached within 15 minutes by foot or by bike. The 15-minute city requires minimal travel among housing, offices, restaurants, parks, hospitals and cultural venues. Almost everything is within a walking distance.

New Pedestrianism
Jeff Speck: The Walkable City (video)
4 ways to make a city more walkable: Jeff Speck (video and interactive text)
Walkable Communities
Global Street Design Guide - National Association of City Transportation Officials.
Superblocks: How Barcelona is taking city streets back from cars (youtube)
Vegamálun GÍH - 3D Cross walk Design makes cross walks more visible (youtube)
Sidewalks that Generate Electricity just by people walking on them.

Helsinki and Oslo cut pedestrian deaths to zero. They cut speed limits, changed street design, and reduced space for cars and increased the space for people walking, which made it safer for people to walk, so more people walk and less people drive.

Vehicular Assault is a form of assault that involves the use of a vehicle to cause another person harm or threaten him or her with harm. The possible sentence for vehicular assault varies from state to state and depends on whether the crime is classified as a felony or misdemeanor.

A new report by the Governors Highway Safety Association determined about 6,227 pedestrians were killed in motor vehicle crashes in 2018 — a 4 percent increase over 2017 and the highest mortality rate since 1990. SUVs and trucks, which are more likely to kill a human because of the size and weight difference. The number of sport utility vehicles or SUVs involved in pedestrian deaths has increased by 50 percent since 2013. By comparison, non-SUV passenger cars' involvement in pedestrian fatalities increased by 30 percent over the same time period. Although passenger cars still account for the majority of pedestrian deaths, SUVs – which generally cause more severe pedestrian injuries – make up an increasingly large percentage of registered vehicles. From 2008 to 2017 the number of nighttime pedestrian fatalities increased by 45 percent, compared to a much smaller 11 percent increase in daytime pedestrian fatalities. In 2020 there were less people driving, but there were more pedestrians killed in 2020. 7,522 pedestrian deaths occurred in 2022. Pedestrian fatalities account for 18% of all crash fatalities. Although pedestrian deaths in 2022 were approximately the same as in 1975, they have increased 83% since reaching their lowest point in 2009. They found that pickup trucks, SUVs and vans with a hood height greater than 40 inches are 45% more likely to cause fatalities than shorter vehicles with a hood height of 30 inches or less. While 19 percent of all car accidents in the US involve pedestrians, in California, that rate is closer to 25 percent. According to the Centers for Disease Control, the odds of getting hit by a car while walking are approximately 1 in 4,292. Pedestrians struck by a vehicle going 20 mph have a 95 percent survival rate, that drops to 55 percent survival at 30 mph, and 15 percent survival at 40 mph. According to NHTSA data, in 2022 most pedestrian traffic deaths occurred in urban settings (84%), on the open road (76%) versus intersections (24%), and during dark conditions with or without artificial lighting (74%). The largest number of pedestrian deaths occur on Saturdays (1,278), closely followed by Fridays (1,121). Except for a decline on Sundays, the number of pedestrian deaths during daylight hours is relatively consistent throughout the week. However, pedestrian fatalities at night (during dark with or without artificial lighting) vary substantially. Nighttime pedestrian deaths are at their lowest point on Wednesday and increase throughout the remainder of the week, peaking on Saturday. Red Light Cameras.

Pedestrian Traffic Fatalities by State: 2020 Preliminary Data. 3 out of 4 pedestrian deaths happened at night.

Families for Safe Streets. Get dangerous drivers off the road. Hold reckless drivers accountable after a crash. Demand that all streets are designed for safety.

How Your Neighborhood May Impact Your Health and Well-Being. Residents of traditional neighborhoods walk the most, while residents of suburban developments report the best mental health, the UA's Adriana Zuniga-Teran found.

Hypermobility travelers are "highly mobile individuals" who take "frequent trips, often over great distances.

Ankle exoskeleton enables faster walking. In lab tests, researchers found that an optimized ankle exoskeleton system increased participants' walking speed by about 40 percent compared with their regular speed. The researchers hope someday to help restore walking speed in older adults. The exoskeleton is externally powered by motors and controlled by an algorithm. When the researchers optimized it for speed, participants walked, on average, 42 percent faster than when they were wearing normal shoes and no exoskeleton.

Project for Public Spaces - LA Open Acres

Japanese Synchronized Walking Competition or Precision Walking Competition (youtube) - Marching Bands

Spaces Awareness - Urbanized (video)

Michael Kiwanuka - Father's Child (youtube) - Walk with me, show me the right direction.

Mobilities is a contemporary paradigm in the social sciences that explores the movement of people, ideas and things, as well as the broader social implications of those movements. Mobility Types.

Social Mobility is the movement of individuals, families, households, or other categories of people within or between social strata in a society. It is a change in social status relative to others' social location within a given society.

Geographic Mobility is the measure of how populations move over time.

Economic Mobility is the ability of an individual, family or some other group to improve (or lower) their economic status—usually measured in income.

Academic Mobility refers to students and teachers in higher education moving to another institution inside or outside their own country to study or teach for a limited time.

Bicycling - Bike Paths

Bicycle TransportUtility Cycling encompasses any cycling done simply as a means of transport rather than as a sport or leisure activity. It is the original and most common type of cycling in the world.

Bicycle Transportation Engineering is designing and implementation of cycling infrastructure.

Bike City, Great City (2014) (video)
Junction Design in the Netherlands (youtube)
How Amsterdam Cleverly Reconfigured Its Bike Crossings To Allow More Riders At Once (youtube)

Biking Knowledge and Information (fatalities)

Street Films-Ciclovia (Bogotá, Colombia). Every Sunday and holiday, every week, the City of Bogotá, Colombia closes down over 70 miles of roadways to cars and let people bike, walk, talk, exercise, picnic, sunbathe, I could go on and on. Just watch the video, it's amazing. Street Films.

Tactical Urbanism and Demonstration Projects

American Public Transportation Association

Transit Projects - Solar Roadways

Sustainable Transport evaluating sustainability include the particular vehicles used for road, water or air transport; the source of energy; and the infrastructure used to accommodate the transport (roads, railways, airways, waterways, canals and terminals).

Transportation Alternatives - Legislation

Transportation Alternatives (TA) Data Exchange

Transportation Choices - Shared Cars - Action Physics

Balanced Transportation Analyzer - Komanoff

Chinese Street Surveillance. Object / Face Recognition (youtube) Shows number of Cars, Trucks, Bicycles and Pedestrians in real time.

U.S. cities opt to ditch their off-street parking minimums in order to end up with less parking, more affordable housing, better transit, and walkable neighborhoods. One 2017 study found that including garage parking increased the rent of a housing unit by about 17 percent.

Transit-Oriented Development is a mix use residential and commercial area designed to maximize access to public transport, and often incorporates features to encourage transit ridership while dissuading the ownership of automobiles. A TOD neighborhood typically has a center with a transit station or stop (train station, metro station, tram stop, or bus stop), surrounded by relatively high-density development with progressively lower-density development spreading outward from the center. TODs generally are located within a radius of one-quarter to one-half mile (400 to 800 m) from a transit stop, as this is considered to be an appropriate scale for pedestrians, thus solving the last mile problem. Overlay zoning is a regulatory tool that creates a special zoning district, placed over an existing base zone(s), which identifies special provisions in addition to those in the underlying base zone.

Parks - Open Spaces - Public Property

City Park near Lake Side Park is an area of natural, semi-natural or planted space set aside for human enjoyment and recreation or for the protection of wildlife or natural habitats. Urban parks are green spaces set aside for recreation inside towns and cities. National parks and country parks are green spaces used for recreation in the countryside. State parks and provincial parks are administered by sub-national government states and agencies. Parks may consist of grassy areas, rocks, soil and trees, but may also contain buildings and other artifacts such as monuments, fountains or playground structures. Many parks have fields for playing sports such as soccer, baseball and football, and paved areas for games such as basketball. Many parks have trails for walking, biking and other activities. Some parks are built adjacent to bodies of water or watercourses and may comprise a beach or boat dock area. Urban parks often have benches for sitting and may contain picnic tables and barbecue grills. The largest parks can be vast natural areas of hundreds of thousands of square kilometers (or square miles), with abundant wildlife and natural features such as mountains and rivers. In many large parks, camping in tents is allowed with a permit. Many natural parks are protected by law, and users may have to follow restrictions (e.g. rules against open fires or bringing in glass bottles). Large national and sub-national parks are typically overseen by a park ranger. Large parks may have areas for canoeing and hiking in the warmer months and, in some northern hemisphere countries, cross-country skiing and snowshoeing in colder months. There are also amusement parks which have live shows, fairground rides, refreshments, and games of chance or skill.

Environmental Economics - Health Benefits from Being Outdoors - Play Grounds - Exercise Benefits - Walking - Moving Meditation - Creative Commons

Land Use involves the management and modification of natural environment or wilderness into built environment such as settlements and semi-natural habitats such as arable fields, pastures, and managed woods. Land use by humans has a long history, first emerging more than 10,000 years ago. It also has been defined as "the total of arrangements, activities, and inputs that people undertake in a certain land cover type.

Roadside Park is a designated park on the wide side of a road for the traveling tourist usually maintained by a governmental entity, either local, state, or national. It is for recreational use such as a picnic spot or a trail head. A roadside park will generally be found in a rural setting, whereas a rest area will be found on an interstate highway in a suburban setting or between major destinations like cities. A rest area is specifically designed for the rest and relaxation of the motoring public. The roadside park with the use of picnic tables is the predecessor of the modern rest area / travel plaza.

Picnic is a meal taken outdoors or al fresco, as part of an excursion, especially in scenic surroundings, such as a park, lakeside, or other place affording an interesting view, or else in conjunction with a public event such as preceding an open-air theater performance, and usually in summer.

How Land is used in America - Multi-Use - Land Use - Agriculture

Land Economics comprises all naturally occurring resources whose supply is inherently fixed. Examples are any and all particular geographical locations, mineral deposits, forests, fish stocks, atmospheric quality, geostationary orbits, and portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Natural resources are fundamental to the production of all goods, including capital goods. Location values must not be confused with values imparted by fixed capital improvements. In classical economics, land is considered one of the three factors of production (also sometimes called the three producer goods) along with capital, and labor. Land is sometimes merged with capital to simplify micro-economics. However, a common mistake is combining land and capital in macro-analysis. Income derived from ownership or control of natural resources is referred to as rent.

National Parks is a park in use for conservation purposes. Often it is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state declares or owns. More Trees means More O2.

City Parks is a park in cities which may have playgrounds, gardens, hiking, running and fitness trails or paths, bridle paths, sports fields and courts, public restrooms, boat ramps and/or picnic facilities, depending on the budget and natural features available.

Neighborhoods with More Green Space may mean Less Heart Disease. People who live in neighborhoods with more green spaces may have better blood vessel health and lower levels of stress, and a lower risk of cardiovascular diseases such as heart attacks, strokes and others. Irregularly shaped parks reduce mortality risk. Linking existing parks with greenways or adding new, connected parks might be fiscally accessible strategies for promoting health.

Public Space is a place that is generally open and accessible to people. Roads, pavement, public squares, parks and beaches are typically considered public space. Common Ownership - Common Responsibility - Meeting Place (social gatherings)

Public Land in the United States governmental entities including cities, counties, states, and the federal government all manage land which are referred to as either public lands or the public domain.

Public Property is property that is dedicated to public use and is a subset of state property. The term may be used either to describe the use to which the property is put, or to describe the character of its ownership (owned collectively by the population of a state). This is in contrast to private property, owned by an individual person or artificial entities that represent the financial interests of persons, such as corporations. State ownership, also called public ownership, government ownership or state property, are property interests that are vested in the state, rather than an individual or communities.

Open Space Reserve is an area of protected or conserved land or water on which development is indefinitely set aside.

Place Meter Urban Intelligence Platform helps quantify how public space is used structured data about pedestrian, bike, and vehicle traffic. Tools for Data Sharing.

Wilderness is a natural environment on Earth that has not been significantly modified by civilized human activity. It may also be defined as: "The most intact, undisturbed wild natural areas left on our planet—those last truly wild places that humans do not control and have not developed with roads, pipelines or other industrial infrastructure.

National Forest is a classification of protected and managed federal lands in the United States. National Forests are largely forest and woodland areas owned collectively by the American people through the federal government, and managed by the United States Forest Service, a division of the United States Department of Agriculture.

National Grassland is a classification of protected and managed federal lands in the United States authorized by Title III of the Bankhead–Jones Farm Tenant Act of 1937.

National Monument is a protected area that is similar to a national park, but can be created from any land owned or controlled by the federal government[a] by proclamation of the President of the United States.

Open Space Reserve is an area of protected or conserved land or water on which development is indefinitely set aside. The purpose of an open space reserve may include the preservation or conservation of a community or region's rural natural or historic character; the conservation or preservation of a land or water area for the sake of recreational, ecological, environmental, aesthetic, or agricultural interests; or the management of a community or region's growth in terms of development, industry, or natural resources extraction. Open space reserves may be urban, suburban, or rural; they may be actual designated areas of land or water, or they may be zoning districts or overlays where development is limited or controlled to create undeveloped areas of land or water within a community or region. They may be publicly owned or owned by non-profit or private interests. Relaxation - Recreation.

Urban Open Space is open space areas for "parks," "green spaces," and other open areas. The landscape of urban open spaces can range from playing fields to highly maintained environments to relatively natural landscapes. Generally considered open to the public, urban open spaces are sometimes privately owned, such as higher education campuses, neighborhood/community parks/gardens, and institutional or corporate grounds. Areas outside city boundaries, such as state and national parks as well as open space in the countryside, are not considered urban open space. Streets, piazzas, plazas and urban squares are not always defined as urban open space in land use planning.

State Ownership is the ownership of an industry, asset, or enterprise by the state or a public body representing a community as opposed to an individual or private party. Public ownership specifically refers to industries selling goods and services to consumers and differs from public goods and government services financed out of a government's general budget. Public ownership can take place at the national, regional, local, or municipal levels of government; or can refer to non-governmental public ownership vested in autonomous public enterprises. Public ownership is one of the three major forms of property ownership, differentiated from private, collective/cooperative, and common ownership.

Commons is the cultural and natural resources accessible to all members of a society, including natural materials such as air, water, and a habitable earth. These resources are held in common, not owned privately. Commons can also be understood as natural resources that groups of people (communities, user groups) manage for individual and collective benefit.

Common is belonging to or participated in by a community as a whole or by the public. Something shared by or having the same connection with two or more parties. A piece of open land for recreational use in an urban area. Common can also mean that something is widely known or commonly encountered that is average or ordinary or usual and having no special distinction or quality. Found in large numbers or in a large quantity. Being or characteristic of or appropriate to everyday language.

Common Land is land owned collectively by a number of persons, or by one person, but over which other people have certain traditional rights, such as to allow their livestock to graze upon it, to collect firewood, or to cut turf for fuel. Personal Space (solitude).

Common Thread is a recurring characteristic or theme present in different events or areas.

Freedom to Roam is the general public's right to access certain public or privately owned land, lakes, and rivers for recreation and exercise. The right is sometimes called the right of public access to the wilderness or the "right to roam".

Right of Way is the legal right, established by usage or grant, to pass along a specific route through grounds or property belonging to another, or a path or thoroughfare subject to such a right. This article is mainly about access by foot, by bicycle, horseback, or along a waterway, and Right-of-way (transportation) focuses on highways, railways, pipelines, etc. A footpath is a right of way that can only be used by pedestrians. A similar right of access also exists on some public land in the United States. In Canada, Australia and New Zealand, such land may alternatively be called Crown land. Loitering.

Wildlife Crossing are structures that allow animals to cross human-made barriers safely. Wildlife crossings may include underpass tunnels or wildlife tunnels, viaducts, and overpasses or green bridges (mainly for large or herd-type animals); amphibian tunnels; fish ladders; canopy bridge (especially for monkeys and squirrels), tunnels and culverts (for small mammals such as otters, hedgehogs, and badgers); and green roofs (for butterflies and birds). Wildlife crossings are a practice in habitat conservation, allowing connections or reconnections between habitats, combating habitat fragmentation. They also assist in avoiding collisions between vehicles and animals, which in addition to killing or injuring wildlife may cause injury to humans and property damage. Similar structures can be used for domesticated animals, such as cattle creeps.

Green Belt is a policy and land-use zone designation used in land-use planning to retain areas of largely undeveloped, wild, or agricultural land surrounding or neighboring urban areas. Similar concepts are greenways or green wedges, which have a linear character and may run through an urban area instead of around it. In essence, a green belt is an invisible line designating a border around a certain area, preventing development of the area and allowing wildlife to return and be established.

Nature Reserve may also be known as a natural reserve, wildlife refuge or sanctuary, biosphere reserve (bioreserve), natural or nature preserve, or nature conservation area. It is a protected area of importance for flora, fauna, or features of geological or other special interest, which is reserved and managed for purposes of conservation and to provide special opportunities for study or research.

Urban Ecology is the scientific study of the relation of living organisms with each other and their surroundings in the context of an urban environment. The urban environment refers to environments dominated by high-density residential and commercial buildings, paved surfaces, and other urban-related factors that create a unique landscape dissimilar to most previously studied environments in the field of ecology. Landscaping.

Oasis Effect refers to the creation of a local microclimate that is cooler than the surrounding dry area due to evaporation or evapotranspiration of a water source or plant life and higher albedo of plant life than bare ground. The oasis effect is so-named because it occurs in desert oases. Urban planners can design a city's layout to optimize the oasis effect to combat the urban heat island effect. Since it depends on evaporation, the oasis effect differs by season. An oasis contains moisture from a water source and/or plants. When that water evaporates or transpirates, heat from the surroundings is used to convert liquid to gas in an endothermic reaction, which results in cooler local temperatures. Moreover, vegetation has a higher albedo than bare ground, and reflects more sunlight, leading to lower land temperatures, lower air temperatures, and a cooler local microclimate. The oasis effect occurs most prominently during the summer because warmer temperatures lead to more evaporation. In the winter, the oasis effect operates differently. Instead of making the oasis cooler, the oasis effect makes it warmer at night. This occurs through the fact that trees block heat from leaving the land. Basically, radiation cannot be emitted back into the atmosphere because the trees intercept and absorb it.

The Nature of Cities - The Nature of Cities (video)

Reappropriation is the cultural process by which a group reclaims terms or artifacts that were previously used in a way disparaging of that group. Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat.

Social Center are community spaces. They are buildings which are used for a range of disparate activities, which can be linked only by being not-for-profit. They might be organizing centers for local activities or they might provide support networks for minority groups such as prisoners and refugees. Often they provide a base for initiatives such as cafes, free shops, public computer labs, graffiti murals, legal collectives and free housing for travellers. The services are determined by both the needs of the community in which the social center is based and the skills which the participants have to offer.

Community Building is a field of practices directed toward the creation or enhancement of community among individuals within a regional area (such as a neighborhood) or with a common interest. It is sometimes encompassed under the field of community development.

Community Centre are public locations where members of a community tend to gather for group activities, social support, public information, and other purposes. They may sometimes be open for the whole community or for a specialized group within the greater community.

Cultural Space - Diversity

Souq is an open-air marketplace or commercial quarter in Western Asian and North African cities.

Market is a location where people regularly gather for the purchase and sale of provisions, livestock, and other goods.

City Engineer - Future Cities - Ideas - Environmental Impacts - Farming - Surveying

Carto is an open, powerful, and intuitive platform for discovering and predicting the key insights underlying the location data in our world.

Mixed-Use Development is a type of urban development that blends residential, commercial, cultural, institutional, or industrial uses, where those functions are physically and functionally integrated, and that provides pedestrian connections. Greater housing variety and density, reduced distances between housing, workplaces, retail businesses, and other destinations, more compact development, stronger neighborhood character, pedestrian and bicycle-friendly environments.

Multiple Use refers to the harmonious and coordinated management of the various resources, each with the other, without impairment of the productivity of the land, with consideration being given to the relative values of the various resources, and not necessarily the combination of uses that will give the greatest dollar return or the greatest unit output. Multiple use implies a sustained yield of outdoor recreation, range, timber, watershed, and wildlife and fish values.

Multiple Use Lands can be used for recreation in parks, ball fields, trails, rivers, streams, mountains, plains, wilderness, wildlife, complete eco-systems. The 191 million acre National Forest System administered by the Forest Service, an agency of the Department of Agriculture, and the 265 million acres of Public Lands managed by the Bureau of Land Management or BLM, an agency of the Department of the Interior, are concentrated in the Western third of the lower 48 and Alaska.

Stadium Maracana 2013 Multi-Purpose Stadium are a type of stadium designed to be easily used by multiple types of events. While any stadium could potentially host more than one type of sport or event, this concept usually refers to a specific design philosophy that stresses multifunctionality over specificity.

Emergency Shelters - Repurpose - Empty Office Buildings

Stadiums: Last Week Tonight with John Oliver (HBO) (youtube)

Wolfgang Kessling: Building Outdoor Arenas (video)

Stadium is a place or venue for (mostly) outdoor sports, concerts, or other events and consists of a field or stage either partly or completely surrounded by a tiered structure designed to allow spectators to stand or sit and view the event.

Arena is an enclosed area, often circular or oval-shaped, designed to showcase theater, musical performances, or sporting events.

Coliseum is an oval amphitheatre in the centre of the city of Rome, Italy.

Amphitheatre is an open-air venue used for entertainment, performances, and sports.

Paint Colors (video)
Bjarke Ingels: Sustainable Design (video)
Sustainable Lawns and Landscapes
Before I Die

Urban Morphology is the study of the form of human settlements and the process of their formation and transformation. The study seeks to understand the spatial structure and character of a metropolitan area, city, town or village by examining the patterns of its component parts and the pro\ , ownership or control and occupation. Typically, analysis of physical form focuses on street pattern, lot (or, in the UK, plot) pattern and building pattern, sometimes referred to collectively as urban grain. Analysis of specific settlements is usually undertaken using cartographic sources and the process of development is deduced from comparison of historic maps.

Sustainable Development - Maintenance

Urban Decay is the process whereby a previously functioning city, or part of a city, falls into disrepair and decrepitude. It may feature deindustrialization, depopulation or changing population, restructuring, abandoned buildings, high local unemployment, fragmented families, political disenfranchisement, crime, and a desolate, inhospitable city landscape.

Noise Pollution - Pollution - Location Dangers - Floods

Urban Heat Island is an urban area or metropolitan area that is significantly warmer than its surrounding rural areas due to human activities. The temperature difference is usually larger at night than during the day, and is most apparent when winds are weak. UHI is most noticeable during the summer and winter. The main cause of the urban heat island effect is from the modification of land surfaces. Waste heat generated by energy usage is a secondary contributor. As a population center grows, it tends to expand its area and increase its average temperature. The term heat island is also used; the term can be used to refer to any area that is relatively hotter than the surrounding, but generally refers to human-disturbed areas. Monthly rainfall is greater downwind of cities, partially due to the UHI. Increases in heat within urban centers increases the length of growing seasons and decreases the occurrence of weak tornadoes. The UHI decreases air quality by increasing the production of pollutants such as ozone, and decreases water quality as warmer waters flow into area streams and put stress on their ecosystems. Not all cities have a distinct urban heat island, and the heat island characteristics depend strongly on the background climate of the area in which the city is located. Mitigation of the urban heat island effect can be accomplished through the use of green roofs and the use of lighter-colored surfaces in urban areas, which reflect more sunlight and absorb less heat. Concerns have been raised about possible contribution from urban heat islands to global warming. While some lines of research did not detect a significant impact, other studies have concluded that heat islands can have measurable effects on climate phenomena at the global scale.

Egalitarianism is a trend of thought that favors equality for all people.

We should not have Ghetto's. - Human Development Index - Development.

Resident Assistant is a trained peer leader who supervises those living in a residence hall or group housing facility. The majority of RAs work at colleges, universities, or residential mental health and substance abuse facilities.

Official Development Assistance is widely used as an indicator of international aid flow. It includes some loans.

Development Aid is financial aid given by governments and other agencies to support the economic, environmental, social, and political development of developing countries. It is distinguished from humanitarian aid by focusing on alleviating poverty in the long term, rather than a short term response.

Public Trust Feature Film | The Fight for America’s Public Lands (youtube) - A feature-length documentary about America’s system of public lands and the fight to protect them. Take action to protect our public lands. Text DEFEND to 71333

640 Million Acres of Public Land - Keep it Public - Privatizing Failures

Protected Area are locations which receive protection because of their recognized natural, ecological or cultural values.

Federal Lands are lands in the United States owned by the federal government. Pursuant to the Property Clause of the United States Constitution (Article Four, section 3, clause 2), the Congress has the power to retain, buy, sell, and regulate federal lands, such as by limiting cattle grazing on them. These powers have been recognized in a long line of U.S. Supreme Court decisions. The federal government owns about 640 million acres of land in the United States, about 28% of the total land area of 2.27 billion acres. The majority of federal lands (610.1 million acres in 2015) are administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), National Park Service (NPS), or U.S. Forest Service (FS). BLM, FWS, and NPS are part of the U.S. Department of the Interior, while the Forest Service is part of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. An additional 11.4 million acres of land (about 2% of all federal land) is owned by the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD). The majority of federal lands are located in Alaska and the Western states.

Bureau of Land Management is an agency within the United States Department of the Interior responsible for administering public lands. With oversight over 247.3 million acres (1,001,000 km2), it governs one eighth of the country's landmass. President Harry S. Truman created the BLM in 1946 by combining two existing agencies: the General Land Office and the Grazing Service. The agency manages the federal government's nearly 700 million acres (2,800,000 km2) of subsurface mineral estate located beneath federal, state and private lands severed from their surface rights by the Homestead Act of 1862. Most BLM public lands are located in these 12 western states: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington and Wyoming. The mission of the BLM is "to sustain the health, diversity, and productivity of the public lands for the use and enjoyment of present and future generations." Originally BLM holdings were described as "land nobody wanted" because homesteaders had passed them by. All the same, ranchers hold nearly 18,000 permits and leases for livestock grazing on 155 million acres (630,000 km2) of BLM public lands. The agency manages 221 wilderness areas, 27 national monuments and some 636 other protected areas as part of the National Conservation Lands (formerly known as the National Landscape Conservation System), totaling about 36 million acres (150,000 km2). In addition the National Conservation Lands include nearly 2,400 miles of Wild and Scenic Rivers, and nearly 6,000 miles of National Scenic and Historic Trails. There are more than 63,000 oil and gas wells on BLM public lands. Total energy leases generated approximately $5.4 billion in 2013, an amount divided among the Treasury, the states, and Native American groups.

National Conservation Lands is a 35-million-acre (140,000 km2) collection of lands in 873 federally recognized areas considered to be the crown jewels of the American West. These lands represent 10% of the 258 million acres (1,040,000 km2) managed by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The BLM is the largest federal public land manager and is responsible for over 40% of all the federal public land in the nation. The other major federal public land managers include the US Forest Service (USFS), National Park Service (NPS), and the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS).

Conservation of Land (organizations) - There is a big difference between Developing Land and Destroying Land, make sure that people know the difference. Restoration and Conservation.

Public Lands and Waters Are under Threat - Patagonia Action Works.

Antiquities Act is an act that was passed by the United States Congress and signed into law by Theodore Roosevelt on June 8, 1906. This law gives the President of the United States the authority to, by presidential proclamation, create national monuments from federal lands to protect significant natural, cultural, or scientific features. The Act has been used more than a hundred times since its passage. (Pub.L. 59–209, 34 Stat. 225, 54 U.S.C. §§ 320301–320303).

Wilderness Act created the legal definition of wilderness in the United States, and protected 9.1 million acres (37,000 km²) of federal land. The result of a long effort to protect federal wilderness and to create a formal mechanism for designating wilderness, the Wilderness Act was signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson on September 3, 1964 after over sixty drafts and eight years of work. The Wilderness Act is well known for its succinct and poetic definition of wilderness: "A wilderness, in contrast with those areas where man and his own works dominate the landscape, is hereby recognized as an area where the earth and its community of life are untrammeled by man, where man himself is a visitor who does not remain." - Howard Zahniser. When Congress passed and President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Wilderness Act on September 3, 1964, it created the National Wilderness Preservation System. The initial statutory wilderness areas, designated in the Act, comprised 9.1 million acres (37,000 km²) of national forest wilderness areas in the United States of America previously protected by administrative orders. The current amount of areas designated by the NWPS as wilderness totals 757 areas encompassing 109.5 million acres of federally owned land in 44 states and Puerto Rico (5% of the land in the United States). (1964 (Pub.L. 88–577) was written by Howard Zahniser of The Wilderness Society.

Clean Air Act of 1963 designed to control air pollution on a national level. It is one of the United States' first and most influential modern environmental laws, and one of the most comprehensive air quality laws in the world. As with many other major U.S. federal environmental statutes, it is administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in coordination with state, local, and tribal governments. Its implementing regulations are codified at 40 C.F.R. Sub-chapter C, Parts 50–97.

Air Quality Law govern the emission of air pollutants into the atmosphere. A specialized subset of air quality laws regulate the quality of air inside buildings. Air quality laws are often designed specifically to protect human health by limiting or eliminating airborne pollutant concentrations. Other initiatives are designed to address broader ecological problems, such as limitations on chemicals that affect the ozone layer, and emissions trading programs to address acid rain or climate change. Regulatory efforts include identifying and categorizing air pollutants, setting limits on acceptable emissions levels, and dictating necessary or appropriate mitigation technologies.

Clean Water Act is the primary federal law in the United States governing water pollution. Its objective is to restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the nation's waters; recognizing the responsibilities of the states in addressing pollution and providing assistance to states to do so, including funding for publicly owned treatment works for the improvement of wastewater treatment; and maintaining the integrity of wetlands.

Endangered Species Act of 1973 is the primary law in the United States for protecting imperiled species. Designed to protect critically imperiled species from extinction as a "consequence of economic growth and development untempered by adequate concern and conservation", the ESA was signed into law by President Richard Nixon on December 28, 1973. The U.S. Supreme Court called it “the most comprehensive legislation for the preservation of endangered species enacted by any nation.” The purposes of the ESA are two-fold: to prevent extinction and to recover species to the point where the law's protections are not needed. It therefore “protect[s] species and the ecosystems upon which they depend" through different mechanisms. For example, section 4 requires the agencies overseeing the Act to designate imperiled species as threatened or endangered. Section 9 prohibits unlawful ‘take,’ of such species, which means to “harass, harm, hunt...” Section 7 directs federal agencies to use their authorities to help conserve listed species. The Act also serves as the enacting legislation to carry out the provisions outlined in The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). The U.S. Supreme Court found that "the plain intent of Congress in enacting" the ESA "was to halt and reverse the trend toward species extinction, whatever the cost." The Act is administered by two federal agencies, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). FWS and NMFS have been delegated the authority to promulgate rules in the Code of Federal Regulations to implement the provisions of the Act.

Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 is a United States federal law that governs the way in which the public lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management are managed. The law was enacted in 1976 by the 94th Congress and is found in the United States Code under Title 43. The Federal Land Policy and Management Act phased out homesteading in the United States by repealing the pre-existing Homestead Acts. Congress recognized the value of the public lands, declaring that these lands would remain in public ownership. The National Forest Service, National Park Service, and now, the Bureau of Land Management, are commissioned in FLPMA to allow a variety of uses on their land (of greater concern for the BLM, who is the least restrictive in terms of uses) while simultaneously trying to preserve the natural resources in them. This concept is best summarized by the term 'multiple-use.' 'Multiple use' is defined in the Act as "management of the public lands and their various resource values so that they are utilized in the combination that will best meet the present and future needs of the American people." FLPMA addresses topics such as land-use planning, land acquisition, fees and payments, administration of federal land, range management, and right-of-ways on federal land. FLPMA has specific objectives and time frames in which to accomplish these objectives, giving it more authority and eliminating the uncertainty surrounding the BLM's role in wilderness designation and management. Parts of FLPMA relating specifically to Wilderness are found in Subchapter VI Designated Management Areas (§§ 1781 to 1787) under 43 U.S. Code § 1782 - Bureau of Land Management Wilderness Study. Here, the BLM is also given a mandate to recommend areas for designation as Wilderness and are given 15 years to do so. The BLM is to conduct studies, classifying areas as 'Wilderness Study Areas.' These areas are not official Wilderness areas but are, for all intents and purposes, treated as such until formally designated as Wilderness or released by Congress. Approximately 8.8 million acres of BLM wilderness are currently included in the National Wilderness Preservation System as a result of the wilderness reviews mandated by FLPMA. Those ordered to implement policies from FLPMA are trained government employees using guidelines expressly stated within the act itself.

Industry - Resources

Industry - Inside a Factory Industry is the production of goods or related services within an economy.

Industrialization is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society into an industrial one, involving the extensive re-organisation of an economy for the purpose of manufacturing.

Automation is the use of various control systems for operating equipment such as machinery, processes in factories, boilers and heat treating ovens, switching on telephone networks, steering and stabilization of ships, aircraft and other applications with minimal or reduced human intervention. Some processes have been completely automated.

Peer Production is a way of producing goods and services that relies on self-organizing communities of individuals. In such communities, the labor of a large number of people is coordinated towards a shared outcome.

Manufacturing is the value added production of merchandise for use or sale using labour and machines, tools, chemical and biological processing, or formulation. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from handicraft to high tech, but is most commonly applied to industrial production, in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale. Such finished goods may be used for manufacturing other, more complex products, such as aircraft, household appliances or automobiles, or sold to wholesalers, who in turn sell them to retailers, who then sell them to end users and consumers.

Mining (resources)

Textile Manufacturing is based on the conversion of fibre into yarn, yarn into fabric. These are then dyed or printed, fabricated into clothes. Different types of fibre are used to produce yarn. Cotton remains the most important natural fibre, so is treated in depth. There are many variable processes available at the spinning and fabric-forming stages coupled with the complexities of the finishing and coloration dyes processes to the production of a wide ranges of products. There remains a large industry that uses hand techniques to achieve the same results. Clothing Waste.

Procedural Justice is the idea of fairness in the processes that resolve disputes and allocate resources.

Cooperation instead of Competition - The Third Industrial Revolution

Sustainable - Energy - Industrial Development Report Series

Means of Production are physical, non-human inputs used for the production of economic value, such as facilities, machinery, tools, infrastructural capital and natural capital.

Division of Labour is the separation of tasks in any economic system so that participants may specialize. Individuals, organizations, and nations are endowed with or acquire specialized capabilities and either form combinations or trade to take advantage of the capabilities of others in addition to their own. Specialized capabilities may include equipment or natural resources in addition to skills and training and complex combinations of such assets are often important, as when multiple items of specialized equipment and skilled operators are used to produce a single product. The division of labour is the motive for trade and the source of economic interdependence. Jobs (work - employment).

Work Force - Businesses

Group of WorkersBusiness is an organizational entity involved in providing goods and services to people. A rightful concern or responsibility involving financial and commercial and industrial aspects. A commercial or industrial enterprise and the people who are in charge with a task or function. Small Business Administration.

Workers - Jobs - Production - Business Man - Merchant - Funding

Business Development entails tasks and processes to develop and implement growth opportunities within and between organizations. It is a subset of the fields of business, commerce and organizational theory. Business development is the creation of long-term value for an organization from customers, markets, and relationships.

Big Business involves large-scale corporate-controlled financial or business activities. As a term, it describes activities that run from "huge transactions" to the more general "doing big things". The concept first arose in a symbolic sense after 1880 in connection with the combination movement that began in American business at that time. United States corporations that fall into the category of "big business" as of 2015 include ExxonMobil, Wal-Mart, Google, Microsoft, Apple, General Electric, General Motors, Citigroup, Goldman Sachs and JPMorgan Chase. The largest German corporations as of 2012 included Daimler AG, Deutsche Telekom, Siemens and Deutsche Bank.  Among the largest companies in the United Kingdom as of 2012 are HSBC, Barclays, WPP plc and BP. The latter half of the 19th century saw more technological advances and corporate growth in additional sectors, such as petroleum, machinery, chemicals, and electrical equipment.

Small Businesses are types of corporations, partnerships, or sole proprietorships which have a small number of employees and/or less annual revenue than a regular-sized business or corporation.

Startup Company is a company or project undertaken by an entrepreneur to seek, develop, and validate a scalable economic model. While entrepreneurship refers to all new businesses, including self-employment and businesses that never intend to become registered, startups refer to new businesses that intend to grow large beyond the solo founder. At the beginning, startups face high uncertainty and have high rates of failure, but a minority of them do go on to be successful and influential. Some startups become unicorns; that is privately held startup companies valued at over US$1 billion. Entrepreneurs often become overconfident about their startups and their influence on an outcome (case of the illusion of control). Entrepreneurs tend to believe they have more degree of control over events, discounting the role of luck. Below are some of the most critical decision biases of entrepreneurs to start up a new business. Overconfidence: Perceive a subjective certainty higher than the objective accuracy. Illusion of control: Overemphasize how much skills, instead of chance, improve performance. The law of small numbers: Reach conclusions about a larger population using a limited sample. Availability bias: Make judgments about the probability of events based on how easy it is to think of examples. Escalation of commitment: Persist unduly with unsuccessful initiatives or courses of action. Startups use several action principles (lean startup) to generate evidence as quickly as possible to reduce the downside effect of decision biases such as an escalation of commitment, overconfidence, and the illusion of control. Typically, lean startup focuses on a few lean principles: find a problem worth solving, then define a solution. Engage early adopters for market validation. Continually test with smaller, faster iterations. Build a function, measure customer response, and verify/refute the idea. Evidence-based decisions on when to "pivot" by changing your plan's course. Maximize the efforts for speed, learning, and focus.

Lean Startup is a methodology for developing businesses and products that aims to shorten product development cycles and rapidly discover if a proposed business model is viable; this is achieved by adopting a combination of business-hypothesis-driven experimentation, iterative product releases, and validated learning. Lean startup emphasizes customer feedback over intuition and flexibility over planning. This methodology enables recovery from failures more often than traditional ways of product development. Central to the lean startup methodology is the assumption that when startup companies invest their time into iteratively building products or services to meet the needs of early customers, the company can reduce market risks and sidestep the need for large amounts of initial project funding and expensive product launches and financial failures. Ideas → Build → Product → Measure → Data → Learn. (Intelligence–Design–Choice–Implementation–Learning) - Getting Things Done (Collect–Process–Organize–Do–Review).

Companies That Started in a Garage - Apple, Hewlett-Packard, Amazon, Google, The Walt Disney Co, Mattel, Microsoft, Dell, Virgin and Harley-Davidson. Famous People who Dropped Out of High School.

Company is an institution created to conduct business. A band of people associated temporarily in some activity.

Small and Medium Enterprises are businesses whose personnel numbers fall below certain limits.

Enterprise is a purposeful or industrious undertaking, especially one that requires effort or boldness. An organization created for business ventures. Readiness to embark on bold new ventures.

Commercial is connected with or engaged in or sponsored by or used in commerce or commercial enterprises.

Commercial Enterprise is an enterprise connected with commerce. The activity of providing goods and services involving financial and commercial and industrial aspects.

Commerce is the activity of buying and selling of goods and services, especially on a large scale. The system includes legal, economic, political, social, cultural and technological systems that are in operation in any country or internationally.

Commerce Department is to create the conditions for economic growth and opportunity.

Chamber of Commerce of the U.S. is the world’s largest business organization representing the interests of more than 3 million businesses of all sizes, sectors, and regions. Our members range from mom-and-pop shops and local chambers to leading industry associations and large corporations. They all share one thing—they count on the Chamber to be their voice in Washington, D.C.. Department of Commerce (cabinet)

Global Business Coalition brings together leading independent business associations from the major world economies and advocates on behalf of more than 6.8 million small, medium and large companies.

Private Sector is the part of the economy, sometimes referred to as the citizen sector, which is run by private individuals or groups, usually as a means of service, and is not controlled by the State (areas of the economy controlled by the state being referred to as the public sector). The private sector employs most of the workforce in some countries. In private sector activities are guided by the motive to provide services that are sustainable, fair and reliable. Monopoly Dangers.

Trade - Fair Trade

Sales is activity related to selling or the amount of goods or services sold in a given time period. The seller or the provider of the goods or services completes a sale in response to an acquisition, appropriation, requisition or a direct interaction with the buyer at the point of sale. There is a passing of title (property or ownership) of the item, and the settlement of a price, in which agreement is reached on a price for which transfer of ownership of the item will occur. The seller, not the purchaser generally executes the sale and it may be completed prior to the obligation of payment. In the case of indirect interaction, a person who sells goods or service on behalf of the owner is known as a salesman or saleswoman or salesperson, but this often refers to someone selling goods in a store/shop, in which case other terms are also common, including salesclerk, shop assistant, and retail clerk. In common law countries, sales are governed generally by the common law and commercial codes. In the United States, the laws governing sales of goods are somewhat uniform to the extent that most jurisdictions have adopted Article 2 of the Uniform Commercial Code, albeit with some non-uniform variations.

Artisan is a skilled craft worker who makes or creates things by hand or practices some trade or handicraft. Artist

Craftsman is a profession that requires particular skills and knowledge of skilled work. People in small-scale production of goods, or their maintenance. The traditional terms craftsman and craftswoman are nowadays often replaced by artisan and rarely by craftsperson (craftspeople).

Master Craftsman is to pass through career training from apprentice to journeyman and then to Master Craftsman.

Craft Production is the process of manufacturing by hand with or without the aid of tools.

Skilled Worker is any worker who has special skill, training, knowledge, and (usually acquired) ability in their work.

Tradesman refers to a worker that specializes in a particular trade or craft requiring skill.

Profession is a vocation founded upon specialized educational training, the purpose of which is to supply disinterested objective counsel and service to others. Disinterested is not manipulated or biased by self-interest.

Employment (employees) - Production Factories

Labor Economics seeks to understand the functioning and dynamics of the markets for wage labour.

Manual Labor is physical work done by people, instead of using machines.

Wage Labour is working for Money. - Money Alternatives

Tailor is a person who makes, repairs, or alters clothing professionally, especially suits and men's clothing.

Weaving - Fashion (clothes) - Knitting

Textile is a flexible Material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres (yarn or thread). Yarn is produced by spinning raw fibres of wool, flax, cotton, or other material to produce long strands. Textiles are formed by weaving, knitting, crocheting, knotting, or felting. Clothing

Shoemaking is the process of making footwear, which are garments worn on the feet, which originally serves to purpose of protection against adversities of the environment, usually regarding ground textures and temperature.

Barber is a person whose occupation is mainly to cut, dress, groom, style and shave men's and boys' hair.

Professions Teacher (education)

Farmer (food)

Grocery Store is a retail store that primarily sells food.

Food Preparation - Cooking

Outdoor Schools (camps)

Energy (power)

Hotels - Motels - Hotel Types

Housing (homes)

Tourism is travel for pleasure or business; also the theory and practice of touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and the business of operating tours. Tourism may be international, or within the traveller's country.

Journalism (reporting)

Printing is a process for reproducing text and images using a master form or template.

Carpentry - Woodworking - Blacksmith - Welder - Machinist - Engineering - Design - Architecture - Maintenance

Construction is the process of constructing a building or infrastructure. Construction differs from manufacturing in that manufacturing typically involves mass production of similar items without a designated purchaser, while construction typically takes place on location for a known client.

Construction Worker is a tradesperson, labourer (by tradition considered an unskilled tradesperson), or professional employed in the physical construction of the built environment and its infrastructure.

Laborer is a person who works in one of the construction trades, traditionally considered unskilled manual labor, as opposed to skilled labor. Laborers are also employed outside of the construction industry, in fields such as road paving, shoveling snow, digging graves, chain gangs, and picking up leaves. In the division of labor, laborers have all blasting, hand tools, power tools, air tools, and small heavy equipment, and act as assistants to other trades.

House Painter is a tradesman responsible for the painting and decorating of buildings, and is also known as a decorator or house painter. The purpose of painting is to improve the aesthetic of a building and to protect it from damage by water, rust, corrosion, insects and mold.

Stone Mason - Brick Layer

Heavy Equipment Operators refers to heavy-duty vehicles, specially designed for executing construction tasks, most frequently ones involving earthwork operations. Also known as heavy machines, heavy trucks, construction equipment, engineering equipment, heavy vehicles, or heavy hydraulics. They usually comprise five equipment systems: implement, traction, structure, power train, control and information. Heavy equipment functions through the mechanical advantage of a simple machine, the ratio between input force applied and force exerted is multiplied. Some equipment uses hydraulic drives as a primary source of motion.

Construction Surveying is to stake out reference points and markers that will guide the construction of new structures such as roads or buildings. These markers are usually staked out according to a suitable coordinate system selected for the project.

Surveying is the technique, profession, and science of determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional position of points and the distances and angles between them. A land surveying professional is called a land surveyor. These points are usually on the surface of the Earth, and they are often used to establish land maps and boundaries for ownership, locations like building corners or the surface location of subsurface features, or other purposes required by government or civil law, such as property sales.

Sustainable Landscapes

Mechanic is a tradesman, craftsman, or technician who uses tools to build or repair machinery.

Auto Mechanic is a mechanic with a variety of automobile makes or either in a specific area or in a specific make of automobile. In repairing cars, their main role is to diagnose the problem accurately and quickly. They often have to quote prices for their customers before commencing work or after partial disassembly for inspection. Their job may involve the repair of a specific part or the replacement of one or more parts as assemblies.

Technician is a worker in a field of technology who is proficient in the relevant skills and techniques, with a relatively practical understanding of the theoretical principles.


Pipefitter is a tradesperson who installs, assembles, fabricates, maintains and repairs mechanical piping systems. Pipefitters usually begin as helpers or apprentices. Journeyman pipefitters deal with industrial/commercial/marine piping and heating/cooling systems.

Plumber is a tradesperson who specializes in installing and maintaining systems used for potable (drinking) water, sewage and drainage in plumbing systems. The term dates from ancient times and is related to the Latin word for lead, "plumbum". Solder less Copper- Just for Copper.

Compression Fitting are used in plumbing and electrical conduit systems to join two tubes or thin-walled pipes together. In instances where two pipes made of dissimilar materials are to be joined (most commonly PVC and copper), the fittings will be made of one or more compatible materials appropriate for the connection. Compression fittings for attaching tubing (piping) commonly have ferrules (or olives in the UK) in them. Compression fittings are also used extensively for hot and cold water faucets (taps) and toilet stop valves; compression fittings are well suited to this application, as these valves are usually located in confined spaces where copper pipe would be difficult to solder without creating a fire hazard. Also, the fittings allow easy disconnection and reconnection. How to Solder Copper Pipe (Important Tips!!) -- by Home Repair Tutor (youtube).

Electrician (electrical energy) - More Professions

Independent Contractor is a natural person, business, or corporation that provides goods or services to another entity under terms specified in a contract or within a verbal agreement. Unlike an employee, an independent contractor does not work regularly for an employer but works as and when required, during which time he or she may be subject to law of agency. Independent contractors are usually paid on a freelance basis. Contractors often work through a limited company or franchise, which they themselves own, or may work through an umbrella company. Temps.

General Contractor is responsible for the day-to-day oversight of a construction site, management of vendors and trades, and the communication of information to all involved parties throughout the course of a building project.

Subcontractor is an individual or in many cases a business that signs a contract to perform part or all of the obligations of another's contract. A subcontractor is a person who is hired by a general contractor (or prime contractor, or main contractor) to perform a specific task as part of the overall project and is normally paid for services provided to the project by the originating general contractor. While the most common concept of a subcontractor is in building works and civil engineering, the range of opportunities for subcontractor is much wider and it is possible that the greatest number now operate in the information technology and information sectors of business.

Trade Schools (careers) - Child Care - Elderly Care - Health Care

Contingent Workforce is an employment relationship which is considered non-permanent. These jobs are typically part time (typically with variable hours), have limited job security, and result in payment on a piece work basis. Contingent work is usually not considered to be a career or part of a career. One of the features of contingent work is that it usually offers little or no opportunity for career development. Contingent workers are also often called freelancers, independent professionals, temporary contract workers, independent contractors, or consultants. Tutors.

Temporary Workers (skill sharing)

Migrant Worker is a person who either migrates within their home country or outside it to pursue work such as seasonal work such as farming. Migrant workers usually do not have an intention to stay permanently in the country or region in which they work. Some of these people are sometimes called expatriates, which is a person temporarily or permanently residing in a country other than their native country. Several countries have millions of foreign workers. Some have millions of illegal immigrants, most of them being workers also.

Consultants is a professional who provides expert advice in a particular area such as security (electronic or physical), management, education, accountancy, law, human resources, marketing (and public relations), finance, engineering, science or any of many other specialized fields.

Legal Help

Funeral Director is a professional involved in the business of funeral rites. These tasks often entail the embalming and burial or cremation of the dead, as well as the planning and arrangement of the actual funeral ceremony. Funeral directors may at times be asked to perform tasks such as dressing (in garments usually suitable for daily wear), casketing (placing the human body in the coffin), and cossetting (applying any sort of cosmetic or substance to the viewable areas of the corpse for the purpose of enhancing its appearance). A funeral director may work at a funeral home or be an independent employee. (also known as an undertaker (British English) or mortician (American English).

Security - Scientist - Volunteering

Goods in Economics (value measuring)

Starting a Business - Management

Trade - Jobs - Adventure Jobs - Adventure Schools

Arts - Entertainment 

Career Advice - Professional Training - Worker Qualities - Accredited - Credentials

Humanitarian Aid is material and logistic assistance to people in need. It is usually short-term help until the long-term help by government and other institutions replaces it.

Retail includes product, price, place, promotion, personnel and presentation. Creative Design.

Product is anything that can be offered to a market that might satisfy a want or need. In retailing, products are called merchandise. In manufacturing, products are bought as raw materials and sold as finished goods. A service is another common product type. Business.

Supply Chain

Supply Chain Supply Chain is a system of organizations, people, activities, information, and resources involved in moving a product or service from supplier to customer or the consumer. Supply chain activities involve the transformation of natural resources, raw materials, and components into a finished product that is delivered to the end customer. In sophisticated supply chain systems, used products may re-enter the supply chain at any point where residual value is recyclable. Supply chains link value chains to maximize a competitive advantage. Supply and Demand.

Supply Chain Traceability is the process of tracking the provenance and journey of products and their inputs, from the very start of the supply chain through to end-use. In the wake of various global scandals in supply chains including contamination, labor scandals, and environmental impacts, motivations for supply chain traceability and transparency are growing. Firms are increasingly being held responsible for the practices that occur within their supply chain, even if they do not have direct control of those practices. Research shows that the drivers for increasing traceability & transparency in the supply chain are manifold, ranging from safety to risk management, efficiency, compliance, consumer demand, and sustainability goals. While the urgency to act is high, most companies currently lack the capability to understand what is happening in their supply chains. At the same time, suppliers and producers are limited in their access to technologies that connect them with supply chain partners. There is a need to increase transparency across the supply chain by employing new technologies and approaches that empower producers, manufacturers, and consumers to connect, enabling all actors in supply chains to progress towards safer and more sustainable supply chains. Any complete solution must include the right mix of people, information and technology. Supply chain players are finding themselves at a challenging decision point – how to act to increase the security and sustainability in their supply chains. This indecision, coupled with the high costs of building in visibility solutions to enable transparency, has led to an impasse in the supply chain, inhibiting the progress for safer and more sustainable supply chains. Clear, business-focused research is needed to better understand the current barriers and to provide a roadmap to implement solutions that are both effectual and cost conscious. In an effort to explore this topic further, the MIT SSC is exploring this issue together with industry partners, NGOs, and third party organizations. Food Analyzers.

Package Tracking is the process of localizing shipping containers, mail and parcel post at different points of time during sorting, warehousing, and package delivery to verify their provenance and to predict and aid delivery. Package tracking developed historically because it provided customers information about the route of a package and the anticipated date and time of delivery. This was important because mail delivery often included multiple carriers in varying environmental circumstances, which made it possible for a mail to get lost. Track and Trace is the process of determining the current and past locations (and other information) of a unique item or property. Tracking System is used for the observing of persons or objects on the move and supplying a timely ordered sequence of location data for further processing. Optical Character Recognition.

Real-Time Locating System are used to automatically identify and track the location of objects or people in real time, usually within a building or other contained area. Wireless RTLS tags are attached to objects or worn by people, and in most RTLS, fixed reference points receive wireless signals from tags to determine their location. Examples of real-time locating systems include tracking automobiles through an assembly line, locating pallets of merchandise in a warehouse, or finding medical equipment in a hospital. The physical layer of RTLS technology is usually some form of radio frequency communication, but some systems use optical (usually infrared) or acoustic (usually ultrasound) technology instead of or in addition to RF. Tags and fixed reference points can be transmitters, receivers, or both, resulting in numerous possible technology combinations. RTLS are a form of local positioning system, and do not usually refer to GPS or to mobile phone tracking. Location information usually does not include speed, direction, or spatial orientation. Telemetry.

Under international maritime law, every passenger boat must be equipped with an automatic identification system that is to remain on at all times. This allows for tracking boats in real time and helps prevent collisions in fog and bad weather. Anyone with a computer and an Internet connection can click to see what kind of vessels are sailing, where they've recently been and which country they are from. people have figured out that they are being tracked through their transponders, which is a device that, upon receiving a signal, emits a different signal in response.

Chain of Custody is the chronological documentation or paper trail that records the sequence of custody, control, transfer, analysis, and disposition of materials, including physical or electronic evidence. Of particular importance in criminal cases, the concept is also applied in civil litigation and more broadly in drug testing of athletes and in supply chain management, e.g. to improve the traceability of food products, or to provide assurances that wood products originate from sustainably managed forests. It is often a tedious process that has been required for evidence to be shown legally in court. Now however, with new portable technology that allows accurate laboratory quality results from the scene of the crime, the chain of custody is often much shorter which means evidence can be processed for court much faster. The term is also sometimes used in the fields of history, art history, and archives as a synonym for provenance (meaning the chronology of the ownership, custody or location of a historical object, document or group of documents), which may be an important factor in determining authenticity.

Supply Chain Management is managing the flow of goods and services, that involves the movement and storage of raw materials, of work-in-process inventory, and of finished goods from point of origin to point of consumption. Interconnected or interlinked networks, channels and node businesses combine in the provision of products and services required by end customers in a supply chain. Supply-chain management has been defined as the "design, planning, execution, control, and monitoring of supply chain activities with the objective of creating net value, building a competitive infrastructure, leveraging worldwide logistics, synchronizing supply with demand and measuring performance globally." SCM practice draws heavily from the areas of industrial engineering, systems engineering, operations management, logistics, procurement, information technology, and marketing and strives for an integrated approach. Marketing channels play an important role in supply chain management. (Supply Chain Buyer).

Last Mile in supply chain management describes the difficult last part in the transportation of people and packages from hubs to final destinations. "Last mile" was adopted from the telecommunications industry which faced difficulty connecting individual homes to the main telecommunications network

Global Supply Chain Crisis in 2021, was a consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic, global supply chains and shipments slowed, causing worldwide shortages and affecting consumer patterns. Causes of the economic slowdown included workers becoming sick with COVID-19 as well as mandates and restrictions affecting the availability of staff. In cargo shipping, goods remained at port due to staffing shortages. Truck Driver Shoratges.

Supply Chain Risk Management is the implementation of strategies to manage both everyday and exceptional risks along the supply chain based on continuous risk assessment with the objective of reducing vulnerability and ensuring continuity.

Monitoring - Ai Sensors - Fair Transport - Sustainable Transport - Transportation

Buyer Beware. There is an inherent lack of transparency and corporate social responsibility when it comes to measuring the true cost of a product. There are many illegal practices like using slave labor and getting things from other countries who do not follow any ethical and socially irresponsible practices, codes of conduct and guidelines, or comply with the required environmental standards. There are a variety of supply-chain models, which address both the upstream and downstream elements of supply-chain management. The primary objective of SCM is to fulfill customer demands through the most efficient use of resources. "Everyone lives down stream". Upstream is the source. Downstream is away from the source.

Waste - Middle Men - Supplier - Production - Manufacturing - Distributer - Supply and Demand - Over Consumption - Stockpile

Provision is the activity of supplying or providing something. A store or supply of something (especially of food or clothing or arms). Provisions is a stock or supply of foods. The cognitive process of thinking about what you will do in the event of something happening. Set aside (money etc.) for the future or a known liability.

New platform flips traditional on-demand supply chain approach on its head. Engineers have demonstrated how a hierarchical model that provides suppliers with a certain amount of choice could improve supply and demand matching for underutilized resources -- and may even transform what's become known as the sharing economy.

"There's almost a trillion boxes in transit and being shipped all around the world everyday. It's like cells being pumped through the human body, except this body is planet earth." Ace Tool Commerce Shipping - Global Shipping.

Raw Material is a basic material that is used to produce goods, finished products, energy, or intermediate materials which are feedstock for future finished products.

Resource is a source or supply from which benefit is produced. Resources can be broadly classified on bases upon their availability they are renewable and non renewable resources. They can also be classified as actual and potential on the basis of level of development and use, on the basis of origin they can be classified as biotic and abiotic, and in the base of their distribution as ubiquitous and localized. An item becomes a resource with time and developing technology. Typically resources are materials, energy, services, staff, knowledge, or other assets that are transformed to produce benefit and in the process may be consumed or made unavailable. Benefits of resource utilization may include increased wealth or wants, proper functioning of a system, or enhanced well being. From a human perspective a natural resource is anything obtained from the environment to satisfy human needs and wants. From a broader biological or ecological perspective a resource satisfies the needs of a living organism (see biological resource). Resources have three main characteristics: utility, limited availability, and potential for depletion or consumption. Resources have been variously categorized as biotic versus abiotic, renewable versus non-renewable, and potential versus actual, along with more elaborate classification.

Inventory is the goods and materials that a business holds for the ultimate goal of resale (or repair).

FIFO and LIFO Accounting are methods used in managing inventory and financial matters involving the amount of money a company has to have tied up within inventory of produced goods, raw materials, parts, components, or feed stocks. They are used to manage assumptions of cost sheet related to inventory, stock repurchases (if purchased at different prices), and various other accounting purposes. Stock Management (wiki).

Food Chain is a linear network of links in a food web starting from producer organisms (such as grass or trees which use radiation from the sun to make their food) and ending at apex predator species (like grizzly bears or killer whales), detritivores (like earthworms or woodlice), or decomposer species (such as fungi or bacteria). Food Analyzers.

Cold Storage Supply Chain or cold chain denotes the series of actions and equipment applied to maintain a product within a specified low-temperature range from harvest/production to consumption. A cold chain is a temperature-controlled supply chain. An unbroken cold chain is an uninterrupted series of refrigerated production, storage and distribution activities, along with associated equipment and logistics, which maintain a desired low-temperature range. It is used to preserve and to extend and ensure the shelf life of products, such as fresh agricultural produce, seafood, frozen food, photographic film, chemicals, and pharmaceutical products. Such products, during transport and when in transient storage, are sometimes called cool cargo. Unlike other goods or merchandise, cold chain goods are perishable and always en route towards end use or destination, even when held temporarily in cold stores and hence commonly referred to as cargo during its entire logistics cycle. Cold chain logistics includes all of the means used to ensure a constant temperature for a product that is not heat stable, from the time it is manufactured until the time it is used. Moreover, cold chain is considered as a science, a technology and a process. It is a science as it requires the understanding of the chemical and biological processes associated with product perishability. It is a technology as it relies on physical means to ensure desirable temperature conditions along the supply chain. It is a process as a series of tasks must be performed to manufacture, store, transport and monitor temperature sensitive products.

Supply Network is a pattern of temporal and spatial processes carried out at facility nodes and over distribution links, which adds value for customers through the manufacturing and delivery of products. It comprises the general state of business affairs in which all kinds of material (work-in-process material as well as finished products) are transformed and moved between various value-added points to maximize the value added for customers. A supply chain is a special instance of a supply network in which raw materials, intermediate materials and finished goods are procured exclusively as products through a chain of processes that supply one another. In the semiconductors industry, for example, work-in-process moves from fabrication to assembly, and then to the test house. The term "supply network" refers to the high-tech phenomenon of contract manufacturing where the brand owner does not touch the product. Instead, she coordinates with contract manufacturers and component suppliers who ship components to the brand owner. This business practice requires the brand owner to stay in touch with multiple parties or "network" at once.

Transportation Network is a network or graph in geographic space, describing an infrastructure that permits and constrains movement or flow. Examples include but are not limited to road networks, railways, air routes, pipelines, aqueducts, and power lines. The digital representation of these networks, and the methods for their analysis, is a core part of spatial analysis, geographic information systems, public utilities, and transport engineering. Network analysis is an application of the theories and algorithms of Graph theory and is a form of proximity analysis.

Alliances to ensure supply chain security. Governments and companies emphasize the importance of protecting themselves from disruptions. Yet, they hesitate to share data with each other. But why should they embrace the idea of building a supply chain mapping alliance? There are several compelling reasons for this. Understanding supply networks would have a significant impact: improving supply security, promoting and objective monitoring of the green transition, strengthening human rights compliance, and reducing tax evasion. International alliances are needed for such an understanding. Even though many companies only know their immediate trading partners, they depend on countless other supply relations up and down the supply chain. A supply shortage anywhere in this supply network may affect suppliers, suppliers of suppliers, and so on, as well as customers and their customers' customers. Such supply disruptions caused an estimated loss of 2% of global GDP in 2021 -- approximately $1.9 trillion -- and significantly contributed to the current high inflation. There are approximately 300 million companies worldwide, each with an average of 40 domestic suppliers, resulting in up to 13 billion supply connections -- researchers can now map the connections between individual companies.

Consumer is a person or organization that uses economic services or commodities, hopefully in a sustainable and non polluting way without waste or abuse. Utility (purpose) - Consumerism (consumption).

Customer is the recipient of a good, service, product or an idea - obtained from a seller, vendor, or supplier via a financial transaction or exchange for money or some other valuable consideration. (sometimes known as a client, buyer, or purchaser).

Logistics is the management of the flow of things between the point of origin and the point of consumption in order to meet requirements of customers. The resources managed in logistics can include physical items such as food, materials, animals, equipment, and liquids; as well as abstract items, such as time and information. The logistics of physical items usually involves the integration of information flow, material handling, production, packaging, inventory, transportation, warehousing, and often security. Logistics is the handling of an operation that involves providing labor and materials to be supplied as needed, a detailed organization and implementation of a complex operation.

Inbound Logistics is the receiving of raw materials or products from a supplier to a warehouse.

Outbound Logistics are the actions required to get the final goods delivered to the end user. Processes. Materials management and sourcing, warehouse receiving.

Third-Party Logistics is an organization's use of third-party businesses to outsource elements of its distribution, warehousing, and fulfillment services. Third-party logistics providers typically specialize in integrated operations of warehousing and transportation services that can be scaled and customized to customers' needs, based on market conditions, to meet the demands and delivery service requirements for their products. Services often extend beyond logistics to include value-added services related to the production or procurement of goods, such as services that integrate parts of the supply chain. A provider of such integrated services is referenced as a third-party supply chain management provider (3PSCM), or as a supply chain management service provider (SCMSP). 3PL targets particular functions within supply management, such as warehousing, transportation, or raw material provision.

Reverse Logistics is for all operations related to the reuse of products and materials. It is "the process of moving goods from their typical final destination for the purpose of capturing value, or proper disposal. Remanufacturing and refurbishing activities also may be included in the definition of reverse logistics. The reverse logistics process includes the management and the sale of surplus as well as returned equipment and machines from the hardware leasing business. Normally, logistics deal with events that bring the product towards the customer. In the case of reverse logistics, the resource goes at least one step back in the supply chain. For instance, goods move from the customer to the distributor or to the manufacturer.

Recycling - Reusing

Returns cost retailers about $260 billion each year. "Retailers" is another word for "People and Environment".

Sourcing as the process of identifying sources that could provide needed products or services for the acquiring organization. The term procurement used to reflect the entire purchasing process or cycle, and not just the tactical components. ISM defines procurement as an organizational function that includes specifications development, value analysis, supplier market research, negotiation, buying activities, contract administration, inventory control, traffic, receiving and stores. Purchasing refers to the major function of an organization that is responsible for acquisition of required materials, services and equipment.

Acquisition as the conceptualization, initiation, design, development, test, contracting, production, deployment, Logistics Support (LS), modification, and disposal of waste and other systems, supplies, or services (including construction) to satisfy Department needs, intended for use in or in support of missions. Acquisition and sourcing are therefore much wider concepts than procurement. Multiple sourcing business models exist, and acquisition models exist.

Procurement is the process of finding, agreeing terms and acquiring goods, services or works from an external source, often via a tendering or competitive bidding process. The process is used to ensure the buyer receives goods, services or works at the best possible price, when aspects such as quality, quantity, time, and location are compared. Almost all purchasing decisions include factors such as delivery and handling, marginal benefit, and price fluctuations. Procurement generally involves making buying decisions under conditions of scarcity. If good data is available, it is good practice to make use of economic analysis methods such as cost-benefit analysis or cost-utility analysis. An important distinction should be made between analyses without risk and those with risk. Where risk is involved, either in the costs or the benefits, the concept of best value should be employed. Procurement activities are often split into two distinct categories, direct and indirect spend. Direct spend refers to production-related procurement that encompasses all items that are part of finished products, such as raw material, components and parts. Direct procurement, which is the focus in supply chain management, directly affects the production process of manufacturing firms. In contrast, indirect procurement concerns non-production-related acquisition: obtaining “operating resources” which a company purchases to enable its operations. Indirect procurement comprises a wide variety of goods and services, from standardized items like office supplies and machine lubricants to complex and costly products and services like heavy equipment, consulting services, and outsourcing services. Procurement is the method of discovering and agreeing to terms and purchasing goods, services, or other works from an external source, often with the use of a tendering or competitive bidding process. When a government agency buys goods or services through this practice, it is referred to as public procurement. Procurement as an organizational process is intended to ensure that the buyer receives goods, services, or works at the best possible price when aspects such as quality, quantity, time, and location are compared. Corporations and public bodies often define processes intended to promote fair and open competition for their business while minimizing risks such as exposure to fraud and collusion. Almost all purchasing decisions include factors such as delivery and handling, marginal benefit, and fluctuations in the prices of goods. Organizations which have adopted a corporate social responsibility perspective are also likely to require their purchasing activity to take wider societal and ethical considerations into account. On the other hand, the introduction of external regulations concerning accounting practices can affect ongoing buyer-supplier relations in unforeseen manners. Procurement is the act of getting possession of something.

Delays - Contractor Fraud

Procurement Controls are controls which an organization can put in place to minimize the risk of corruption by, on behalf of, or against the organization in relation to procurement. Corruption can include bribery, extortion, fraud, cartels, abuse of power, embezzlement, and money laundering. Procurement of an organization refers to the process of selecting a contractor, consultant, supplier or sub-contractor to execute a particular contract, and determining the terms on which that contract will be executed. The selection process may involve a simple nomination of one organization without any competition, or it may involve selection from a number of competing organizations who offer to undertake the relevant contract. In the latter case, the procurement process may involve only a tender stage, or both a pre-qualification and tender stage. In a particular project, the project owner may procure consultants to carry out design and other advisory services, and contractors to construct various parts of the works. These consultants and contractors will then procure sub-contractors and suppliers. Alternatively, a project owner may procure a management contractor which will then be responsible for procuring all other organizations. Procurement of a project: This refers to the process whereby a whole project is procured or obtained. The process would, therefore, include all phases of a project as these will all play a part in providing the completed project. These phases would include: project identification; financing; the placing of contracts with all contractors, suppliers and consultants; execution; maintenance; and operation. Anti-corruption procurement controls. There are many different types of procurement controls used in the infrastructure sector. Most organizations have developed their own controls, and these may be very comprehensive. In particular, public sector procurement controls (such as the EU Procurement Directives) can be very comprehensive, rigid and rigorous. Smaller private sector organizations may have much more simple and flexible controls. It is not, therefore, possible to summarize all these different controls, nor to prescribe in detail how such controls should be tailored so as to minimize corruption in the procurement process. It is, however, recommended that the following controls should be applied, as far as reasonable and proportionate, to the procurement process by the relevant procuring entity. Some controls may be appropriate only for public sector procuring entities and/or for large projects. The purpose of these controls is much wider than corruption prevention. However, these controls can also have an anti-corruption effect, and, in designing and implementing these controls, the organisation should consider and take account of their effectiveness in reducing corruption risk. Some of the measures below refer to publication of information. In the case of public sector procuring entities, this information should be published to all relevant contract parties, and also to the public. In the case of private sector procuring entities, the information should be made available to all relevant contract parties. The following controls are recommended: (1) Written, fair and transparent procedures. Pre-qualification, tender and selection procedures: Should be in writing, transparent, and fair. Should not provide an improper benefit or advantage to any individual or organization should be operated in a fair and transparent manner. Should be published. (2) Open competitive process. Contractors should, as far as reasonable, be selected by the procuring entity using a non-restricted open competitive process whereby the tender is open to any tenderer. However, in many cases, it may be necessary to ensure that all tenderers have sufficient technical or financial strength to enable them to be able to undertake the contract in an appropriate manner. In these cases, it is common to require tenderers to be on an approved list of eligible tenderers before they are permitted to tender. If this system is adopted, the method by which a contractor can be included on this approved list should be fair and transparent, and all eligible contractors should be entitled to be included on this list. (3) Restricted competitive process. It may in certain circumstances be justifiable to restrict the number of tenderers who will be invited to tender. However, in this case: there should be a valid reason for imposing this restriction; the criteria on which tenderers are selected to participate should be fair and transparent; the number of tenderers selected to tender should be sufficient to provide genuine competition in the tender process; and the reason for the restriction, the selection criteria and the identity of the selected tenderers should be published. (4) Negotiated competitive process and competitive dialogue process. Some procurement procedures permit the procuring entity to invite a restricted number of tenderers to negotiate or to enter into a competitive dialogue prior to submission of tender, or prior to award. The purpose of this negotiation/competitive dialogue is respectively to attempt to adapt the tenders to the requirements of the intended contract, or to identify the best means for satisfying the needs of the procuring entity. In the competitive dialogue procedure, a tenderer may be requested to fine tune its tender. After a successful tenderer has been selected, it may be requested to clarify aspects of its tender. These negotiations may be commercially desirable, but may also increase the risk of corruption in that they allow communication between the procuring entity and selected tenderers prior to tender submission and/or award, and they therefore provide opportunity for possibly corrupt preferential treatment of a particular tenderer. The project owner should therefore use these procedures only where: circumstances justify doing so. The negotiation/dialogue process does not give preferential treatment to any tenderer, and is properly monitored. The full circumstances, process and results are published. (5) Low value competitive process. Where the estimated contract value is below a prescribed threshold for an open competitive process, quotations should be requested from as many suppliers as practicable, and at least three. This low value process should only be applied to very minor contracts where the value of the contract is sufficiently low to make a fully open non-restricted competitive process not cost effective and unreasonable. (6) Single-source procurement. Single-source procurement should be used only where: Work, products or services to be provided are available only from a particular provider, and where the specification has not been manipulated so as to restrict it to the particular provider, or there is a need for standardization or compatibility with existing work, products or services, or it is essential for reasons of national security or emergency, and such emergency was not foreseeable by the procuring entity, and not due to delay on its part. (7) The procurement subject-matter and its design. The design of the procurement subject-matter should be pre-determined, based on the needs of the procuring entity and the subject matter of the procurement, and described in terms that are objective, functional and generic. The procurement subject-matter should not be designed so as to exclude the procurement from the scope of the procurement regulations, or to favor any particular suppliers, products or services, or to artificially narrow competition. (8) Timetable. The procurement process should allow tenderers sufficient time to prepare their tenders, and should ensure that no tenderer is given an improper or unfair advantage by being notified in advance of other tenderers of the impending tender. (9) Terms of contract. The contract documentation (including contract terms and specification) should, as far as possible, be set out in the tender documentation. This will ensure that all tenderers are bidding on the same basis. It will also minimize the risk of corruption which occurs where a tenderer is able to influence the terms of contract. (10) Independent assessment. In the case of public sector projects over a specified value threshold, there should be an independent assessor who monitors the procurement process to ensure as far as possible that the process is undertaken without corruption. “Independent” means having no connection with any party involved in the procurement process. (11) Due diligence. Proper due diligence should be carried out by the procuring entity on each tenderer for contracts over a specified value threshold, and the results should be provided by the procuring entity to the independent assessor, if any, and funders, if any. The aim of this due diligence should be to establish the risk of corruption in appointing a particular tenderer. Similarly, the procuring entity should provide information about itself and the project to each tenderer so that the tenderers can form their own assessment of the risk of corruption on the project. (12) Anti-corruption notification. The tender documentation should notify all tenderers that anti-corruption measures are being adopted by the procuring entity for the procurement and contract management process, that tenderers will be contractually bound to comply with those measures, and that any corruption may have the following results: Civil penalties: Where the contract has not yet been awarded, any corruption in the award process will result in the immediate disqualification of the relevant tenderer. Where the contract has been awarded, any corruption in the award process will result in that contract being terminated. Criminal penalties: Any suspected or actual corruption will be reported to the authorities. The criminal penalties for individuals and organizations in the particular jurisdiction should be specified in the tender documentation. Publication: All parties who may have suffered loss or damage as a result of the corruption will be informed of the corruption. (This may apply, for example, to tenderers who may have wasted tender costs.) Any corruption conviction will be disclosed to the public. (13) Submissions should be sealed. All pre-qualification and tender submissions should be sealed, and should be kept sealed in a secure place until the official opening date. (Equivalent security should be implemented in the case of electronic submissions.) (14) Notice of opening of submissions. Reasonable notice should be provided to all tenderers, funders and the public (in the case of a public sector tender), of the date, time and place of the opening of pre-qualification and tender submissions, and all these parties should be informed that they are entitled to be present at the opening. (15) Public and monitored opening. In the case of a public sector tender, at the opening of the pre-qualification and tender submissions: The independent assessor (if any) should be present. The public should be entitled to be present. The names of the tenderers, the titles of each document submitted by them, and the price of each tenderer should be read out. (16) Careful selection of evaluators. Tender evaluators should be carefully selected so as to ensure that: They are properly qualified. They have no personal or business connections with any tenderer. They have no record of involvement in corruption. They are persons of integrity. (17) Pool of evaluators. In order to minimize the risk of tender evaluators of large public sector tenders being bribed, there should be a large pool of evaluators from which a computer-generated, random and confidential selection can be made at relatively short notice for a particular project. The risk of a permanent evaluator, or a small number of evaluators selected a long time in advance, is that tenderers will know whom to bribe, or may bribe all possible evaluators, or an evaluator may solicit a bribe, or arrange for a related company to tender for a project which she/he knows she/he will be evaluating. This is less likely if there is a large pool of evaluators from which an evaluator(s) is randomly selected at short notice. (18) Isolation of evaluators. The evaluators should have no ability to make direct or indirect contact with the tenderers during the evaluation process. In some countries, the evaluators of large public sector projects are kept in isolated conditions during the evaluation process. (19) Fair and transparent evaluation criteria. The evaluation process should be carried out according to fair and transparent criteria. The criteria should be publicized to the tenderers and the public. (20) Disclosure of the evaluation and the award. The evaluation and the contract award should be publicly and promptly published, with details as to identity of the winning tenderer and of the terms of contract. (21) Challenge to the procurement process or contract award. There should be an effective, fair, transparent, and independent process by which the procuring entity or contractors can seek, either during the procurement process, or following contract award, a review of the procurement process and/or contract award on grounds inter alia that the procurement regulations were not followed or that there is evidence of corruption. (22) Reporting. A system should be established whereby persons involved in the procurement process or members of the public may report suspected corruption or breach of the procurement process. (23) Recording of controls. These procurement controls should be incorporated into the organization's procurement procedures, and should be recorded in writing.

Distribution in economics is the way total output, income, or wealth is distributed among individuals or among the factors of production (such as labour, land, and capital). Equally.

Distribution in business is one of the four elements of the marketing mix. Distribution is the process of making a product or service available for the consumer or business user that needs it. This can be done directly by the producer or service provider, or using indirect channels with intermediaries. The other three parts of the marketing mix are product, pricing, and promotion. Middle Men.

Distribution Resource Planning is a method used in business administration for planning orders within a supply chain. DRP enables the user to set certain inventory control parameters (like a safety stock) and calculate the time-phased inventory requirements. This process is also commonly referred to as distribution requirements planning. DRP uses several variables: The required quantity of product needed at the beginning of a period. The constrained quantity of product available at the beginning of a period. The recommended order quantity at the beginning of a period. The backordered demand at the end of a period. The on-hand inventory at the end of a period. DRP needs the following information: The demand in a future period. The scheduled receipts at the beginning of a period. The on-hand inventory at the beginning of a period. The safety stock requirement for a period.

Food Distribution is the process in which a general population is supplied with food. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) considers food distribution as a subset of the food system.

Resource Distribution refers to the distribution of resources, including land, water, minerals, fuel and wealth in general among corresponding geographic entities (states, countries, etc.).

Optoro is a technology company that works with retailers and manufacturers to manage and then resell their returned and excess merchandise.

Commissary are officials charged with overseeing the purchase and delivery of supplies.

Coops (food security)

Food Supply Chain Quarter of a million tons of food could be saved a year with better logistics - Food Waste

Material Flow Accounting is the study of material flows on a national or regional scale. It is therefore sometimes also referred to as regional, national or economy-wide material flow analysis.

Transport Engineering is the application of technology and scientific principles to the planning, functional design, operation and management of facilities for any mode of transportation in order to provide for the safe, efficient, rapid, comfortable, convenient, economical, and environmentally compatible movement of people and goods (transport). It is a sub-discipline of civil engineering.

Public Transportation - Travel Warnings - Monitoring

Managing - Predicting - Planning

Uline office Supplies majority of our products made in the USA.

Cargo or freight refers to goods or produce being conveyed – generally for commercial gain – by water, air or land. Cargo was originally a shipload. Cargo now covers all types of freight, including that carried by train, van, truck, or intermodal container. The term cargo is also used in case of goods in the cold-chain, because the perishable inventory is always in transit towards a final end-use, even when it is held in cold storage or other similar climate-controlled facility. Multi-modal container units, designed as reusable carriers to facilitate unit load handling of the goods contained, are also referred to as cargo, specially by shipping lines and logistics operators. Similarly, aircraft ULD boxes are also documented as cargo, with associated packing list of the items contained within. When empty containers are shipped each unit is documented as a cargo and when goods are stored within, the contents are termed as containerized cargo.

United States Transportation Command is one of eleven unified combatant commands of the United States Department of Defense. The command is located at Scott Air Force Base, Illinois, and was established in 1987. USTRANSCOM coordinates missions worldwide using both military and commercial transportation resources. It is composed of three service component commands: The Air Force's Air Mobility Command, the Navy's Military Sealift Command and the Army's Surface Deployment and Distribution Command. The Joint Enabling Capabilities Command, which was part of the former U.S. Joint Forces Command, is now part of the U.S. Transportation Command.

Ground Freight

Driving is the controlled operation and movement of a motorized vehicle with wheels, such as a car, motorcycle, truck, or bus by either a human or computer controller.

Chauffeur is a person employed to drive a passenger motor vehicle.


Road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two places that has been paved or otherwise improved to allow travel by foot or some form of conveyance, including a motor vehicle, cart, bicycle, or horse. Roads that are available for use by the public may be referred to as parkways, avenues, freeways, interstates, highways, or primary, secondary, and tertiary local roads. Civil Engineering.

Highway is any public road or other public way on land. It is used for major roads, but also includes other public roads and public tracks: It is not an equivalent term to controlled-access highway, or a translation for autobahn, autoroute, etc.

Why Truck Drivers are Important Freight Transport is the physical process of transporting commodities and merchandise goods and cargo. The term shipping originally referred to transport by sea, but is extended in American English to refer to transport by land or air (International English: "carriage") as well. "Logistics", a term borrowed from the military environment, is also fashionably used in the same sense.

Freight Exchange is an online service for haulage companies, logistics providers, freight forwarders and transport companies. It allows haulage companies to search a database of available freight that needs to be delivered and advertise their available vehicle capacity. Logistics providers and freight forwarders can advertise their freight loads that needs delivering as well as match their freight loads to the available vehicle capacity. These systems provide a platform that allows carriers to communicate freight traffic information to fellow operators such as transporters, forwarders and logistics companies. They allow forwarders to advertise their freight either privately or publicly to a large number of freight operators that are looking for loads. They also allow freight operators to offer vehicle space. Online systems are normally subscription-based with a small charge for advertising (posting) and searching (consulting). The main purpose of a freight exchange is to fill empty vehicles on their return journeys (when they are on their way back to their depot after a delivery) by matching them to available freight. For example, a trucker has an order to transport tulips from Keukenhof in the Netherlands to Como, Italy. Ideally, a freight order for the return trip would increase profitability, so the trucker would search for return freight or return load on a freight exchange. By finding return loads it results in improving efficiency for haulage and transport companies as well as helping cut down on empty journeys which reduces CO2 emissions. The world's first electronic freight exchange was called Teleroute and was launched in France on the Minitel system in 1985. Before the Internet, users were supplied with a terminal to advertise or search for freight. Today, there are many examples around the world offering many services to haulers and freight forwarders. The classic freight exchange was a favorite tool in the centralized economies. For example, there was a ban against driving with an empty truck in the socialistic Czechoslovakia. Transport companies had to use the national system showing information about available loads. With the help of new technology freight exchanges are now able to improve efficiency even more by integrating with telematics and transport management systems to offer realtime freight load matching utilizing GPS technology

DAT Load Bards originally known as Dial-a-Truck, is a US-based freight exchange service ("load board") and provider of transportation information serving North America. Freight exchange services are used to match material ("loads") that need to shipped with over-the-road carriers that can be hired to move those loads. DAT was established in 1978 and is part of Roper Technologies. Direct Freight.

Truck Driver is a person who earns a living as the driver of a truck (usually a semi truck, box truck or dump truck). There are 3.5 million truckers in the United States. Nearly half of those in California are immigrants, most from Mexico or Central America. But as drivers age toward retirement — the average American trucker is 55 — and a shortage grows, Sikh immigrants and their kids are increasingly taking up the job.

Truck is a motor vehicle designed to transport cargo. Trucks vary greatly in size, power, and configuration; smaller varieties may be mechanically similar to some automobiles. Commercial trucks can be very large and powerful, and may be configured to mount specialized equipment, such as in the case of fire trucks and concrete mixers and suction excavators.

Semi-Trailer Truck is the combination of a tractor unit and one or more semi-trailers to carry freight. A semi-trailer attaches to the tractor with a type of hitch called a fifth-wheel. It is variously known as a transport truck, semi-truck, trailer truck, tractor truck, transfer truck, articulated truck, articulated lorry (UK), artic, single truck, semi-trailer, tractor-trailer, semi-tractor, semi, trailer, tractor, big rig, eighteen-wheeler, juggernaut, depending on the country and region. semi-tractor-trailer truck, also known as simply a semi-trailer truck, semi-tractor truck, semi-tractor-trailer or tractor-trailer truck.

Tesla Semi Truck is the safest, most comfortable, easy to drive, and lowest energy cost per mile then any other truck ever built so far. Electric Cars.

Tractor Unit is a characteristically heavy-duty towing engine that provides motive power for hauling a towed or trailered load. These fall into two categories: heavy- and medium-duty military and commercial rear-wheel-drive semi-tractors used for hauling semi-trailers, and very heavy-duty typically off-road-capable, often 6×6, military and commercial tractor units, including ballast tractors.
A tractor unit (also known as a truck unit, prime mover, ten-wheeler, semi-tractor, semi-truck, tractor cab, truck cab, tractor rig, truck rig or big rig or simply a tractor, truck or rig).

Towing is coupling two or more objects together so that they may be pulled by a designated power source or sources. The towing source may be a motorized land vehicle, vessel, animal, or human, and the load being anything that can be pulled. These may be joined by a chain, rope, bar, hitch, three-point, fifth wheel, coupling, drawbar, integrated platform, or other means of keeping the objects together while in motion.

Trailer is an unpowered vehicle towed by a powered vehicle. It is commonly used for the transport of goods and materials. Sometimes recreational vehicles, travel trailers, or mobile homes with limited living facilities where people can camp or stay have been referred to as trailers. In earlier days, many such vehicles were towable trailers. Mobile Homes.

Marbie Delivery Robots are creating a fleet of intelligent courier robots to reliably and securely transport the goods that people need and want in a way that is accessible to everyone. Marble’s robot is perfectly suited to transport the essentials including groceries, meals, and medicine. Self Driving Vehicles.

Delivery is the process of transporting goods from a source location to a predefined destination.

Package Delivery is the delivery of shipping containers, parcels, or high value mail as single shipments. The service is provided by most postal systems, express mail, private courier companies, and less than truckload shipping carriers. Infrastructure.

Truck Driver Shortages

Shortage of Truck Drivers. As of 2021, the industry is short 68,000 drivers that are needed on the roads. by the year 2028 the shortage could exceed 100,000 drivers. Marijuana violations have taken over 10,000 truck drivers off the road 2021, adding more supply chain disruptions.

Trucks: Last Week Tonight with John Oliver (HBO) (youtube) - John Oliver explains how little most truck drivers are paid, and how companies exploit truck drivers to increase profits. And because of that, many truck drivers go broke and have to quit, which causes truck driver shortages around the country

Air Freight

Airline is a company that provides air transport services for traveling passengers and freight. Airlines utilize aircraft to supply these services and may form partnerships or alliances with other airlines for codeshare agreements. Airplane (action physics).

Cargo Airline are airlines mainly dedicated to the transport of cargo by air. Some cargo airlines are divisions or subsidiaries of larger passenger airlines.

Train Freight

Train is a form of transport consisting of a series of connected vehicles that generally runs along a railroad track to transport cargo or passengers. The word "train" comes from the Old French trahiner, derived from the Latin trahere meaning "to pull" or "to draw". Motive power for a train is provided by a separate locomotive or individual motors in a self-propelled multiple unit. Although historically steam propulsion dominated, the most common types of locomotive are diesel and electric, the latter supplied by overhead wires or additional rails. Trains can also be hauled by horses, pulled by engine or water-driven cable or wire winch, run downhill using gravity, or powered by pneumatics, gas turbines or batteries. The track usually consists of two running rails with a fixed spacing, which may be supplemented by additional rails such as electric conducting rails and rack rails. Monorails and maglev guideways are also used occasionally. A passenger train includes passenger-carrying vehicles and can often be very long and fast. One notable and growing long-distance train category is high-speed rail. To achieve much faster operation at speeds of over 500 km/h (310 mph), innovative maglev technology has been the subject of research for many years. The term "light rail" is sometimes used to refer to a modern tram system, but it may also mean an intermediate form between a tram and a train, similar to a heavy rail rapid transit system. In most countries, the distinction between a tramway and a railway is precise and defined in law. A freight train (or goods train) uses freight cars (or wagons/trucks) to transport goods or materials (cargo). It is possible to carry passengers and freight in the same train using a mixed consist. Rail cars and machinery that are used for the maintenance and repair of tracks, are termed "maintenance of way" equipment; these may be assembled into maintenance of way trains. Similarly, dedicated trains may be used to provide support services to stations along a train line, such as garbage or revenue collection. Solar Powered Train.

Sea Freight

Cargo Ship is any sort of ship or vessel that carries cargo, goods, and materials from one port to another. Thousands of cargo carriers ply the world's seas and oceans each year, handling the bulk of international trade. Cargo ships are usually specially designed for the task, often being equipped with cranes and other mechanisms to load and unload, and come in all sizes. Today, they are almost always built by welded steel, and with some exceptions generally have a life expectancy of 25 to 30 years before being scrapped. International Law.

Maritime Transport is the transport of people (passengers) or goods (cargo) via waterways. Freight transport by sea has been widely used throughout recorded history. How many Ships at Sea?

Tres Hombres: Engineless Sailing Cargo Ship that doesn't Pollute the Environment - Sustainable Trade

Container Ship are cargo ships that carry all of their load in truck-size intermodal containers, in a technique called containerization. They are a common means of commercial intermodal freight transport and now carry most seagoing non-bulk cargo. Container ship capacity is measured in twenty-foot equivalent units (TEU). Typical loads are a mix of 20-foot and 40-foot (2-TEU) ISO-standard containers, with the latter predominant. Today, about 90% of non-bulk cargo worldwide is transported by container, and modern container ships can carry over 19,000 TEU (e.g., MSC Zoe). Container ships now rival crude oil tankers and bulk carriers as the largest commercial vessels on the ocean.

Emma Maersk | World's Largest Cargo Ship | History Documentary Films (youtube) - Can carry 12,000 Containers.

Maersk in December 2021 unveiled its brand new design for its next generation of green ships. Intended to sail on green methanol with 16,000 teu of capacity, 350 m in length and a new look. Intended to sail on green methanol with 16,000 teu of capacity, 350 m in length and a new look for container vessels, Maersk’s groundbreaking new series of eight ships will deliver from Hyundai Heavy Industries in 2024. The design allows a 20% improved energy efficiency per transported container. The crew accommodation and bridge will be located at the bow to enable increased container capacity. bow is the forward part of the hull of a ship or boat. Maersk - Next Generation of Maersk Container Vessels Designed for Green Methanol (youtube).

Merchant Vessel is a boat or ship that transports cargo or carries passengers for hire. This excludes pleasure craft that do not carry passengers for hire; warships are also excluded.

Merchant Ship is a watercraft that transports cargo or carries passengers for hire. This is in contrast to pleasure craft, which are used for personal recreation, and naval ships, which are used for military purposes. They come in myriad sizes and shapes, from twenty-foot inflatable dive boats in Hawaii, to 5,000 passenger casino vessels on the Mississippi River, to tugboats plying New York Harbor, to 1,000-foot oil tankers and container ships at major ports, to passenger-carrying submarines in the Caribbean. Most countries of the world operate fleets of merchant ships. However, due to the high costs of operations, today these fleets are in many cases sailing under the flags of nations that specialize in providing manpower and services at favourable terms. Such flags are known as "flags of convenience". Currently, Liberia and Panama are particularly favoured. Ownership of the vessels can be by any country, however. The Greek merchant marine is the largest in the world. Today, the Greek fleet accounts for some 16 per cent of the world's tonnage; this makes it currently the largest single international merchant fleet in the world, albeit not the largest in history. During wars, merchant ships may be used as auxiliaries to the navies of their respective countries, and are called upon to deliver military personnel and materiel.

Sea Captain is a high-grade licensed mariner who holds ultimate command and responsibility of a merchant vessel. The captain is responsible for the safe and efficient operation of the ship‍—‌including its seaworthiness, safety and security, cargo operations, navigation, crew management, and legal compliance‍—‌and for the persons and cargo on board. A captain will understand most of the responsibilities on the ship, while a sailor will mostly understand their specific job and responsibilities. Though the captain is versatile, captains are mostly focused on the top layer of incoming information, like the weather, navigation, and the overall functioning and seaworthiness of the ship. The captain is responsible for every person on board, including the cargo. On the ship, everyone relies on each other and everyone plays an important part. Every person on the ship needs to be focused on their particular job and hope that the captain makes good decisions and keeps everyone safe, and on course. A good captain treats everyone with respect and expects the crew to do the same. The true power of every ship is the personal on board. Strong minds, strong bodies and strong hearts. The ship gives you everything you need to sail, but it's the sailor who must give everything they have in order to succeed. We are strongest when we work together as a team. So let us focus now on what we have to do today, so that we can continue to dream about all the tomorrows that will soon come our way.

Bridge is a room or platform of a ship from which the ship can be commanded. When a ship is under way, the bridge is manned by an officer of the watch aided usually by an able seaman acting as lookout. During critical maneuvers the captain will be on the bridge, often supported by an officer of the watch, an able seaman on the wheel and sometimes a pilot, if required. Cockpit or flight deck is the area, usually near the front of an aircraft or spacecraft, from which a pilot controls the aircraft. The cockpit of an aircraft contains flight instruments on an instrument panel, and the controls that enable the pilot to fly the aircraft.

Maritime Pilot is a mariner who maneuvers ships through dangerous or congested waters, such as harbors or river mouths. They are navigational experts possessing knowledge of the particular waterway such as its depth, currents, and hazards, as well as being experts in handling ships of all types and size. A Maritime pilot is an expert ship handler who is licensed or authorised by a recognised pilotage authority.

Helmsman is a person who steers a ship, sailboat, submarine, other type of maritime vessel, or spacecraft. The rank and seniority of the helmsman may vary: on small vessels such as fishing vessels and yachts, the functions of the helmsman are combined with that of the skipper; on larger vessels, there is a separate officer of the watch who is responsible for the safe navigation of the ship and gives orders to the helmsman, who physically steers the ship in accordance with those orders.

Rudder is a primary control surface used to steer a ship, boat, submarine, hovercraft, aircraft, or other conveyance that moves through a fluid medium (generally air or water). On an aircraft the rudder is used primarily to counter adverse yaw and p-factor and is not the primary control used to turn the airplane. A rudder operates by redirecting the fluid past the hull (watercraft) or fuselage, thus imparting a turning or yawing motion to the craft. In basic form, a rudder is a flat plane or sheet of material attached with hinges to the craft's stern, tail, or after end. Often rudders are shaped so as to minimize hydrodynamic or aerodynamic drag. On simple watercraft, a tiller—essentially, a stick or pole acting as a lever arm—may be attached to the top of the rudder to allow it to be turned by a helmsman. In larger vessels, cables, pushrods, or hydraulics may be used to link rudders to steering wheels. In typical aircraft, the rudder is operated by pedals via mechanical linkages or hydraulics.

Sailor is a person who works aboard a watercraft as part of its crew, and may work in any one of a number of different fields that are related to the operation and maintenance of a ship. A common deck crew for a ship includes: (1) Captain / Master
(1) Chief Officer / Chief Mate. (1) Second Officer / Second Mate. (1) Third Officer / Third Mate. (1) Boatswain (unlicensed Petty Officer: Qualified member Deck Dept.). (2) Able seamen (unlicensed qualified rating). (2) Ordinary seamen (entry-level rating) (0-1) Deck Cadet / unlicensed Trainee navigator / Midshipman. A common engineering crew for a ship includes: (1) Chief Engineer. (1) Second Engineer / First Assistant Engineer. (1) Third Engineer / Second Assistant Engineer. (1) Fourth Engineer / Third Assistant Engineer. (1) Motorman (unlicensed Junior Engineer: Qualified member Engine Dept.). (2) Oiler (unlicensed qualified rating). (2) Entry-level rating Wiper. (0–1) Engine Cadet / unlicensed Trainee engineer.

Able Seaman is a naval rating of the deck department of a merchant ship with more than two years' experience at sea and considered "well acquainted with his duty". An AB may work as a watchstander, a day worker, or a combination of these roles. Once a sufficient amount of sea time is acquired, then the AB can apply to take a series of courses/examinations to become certified as an officer.

Watch-keeping is the assignment of sailors to specific roles on a ship to operate it continuously. These assignments, also known as at sea watches are constantly active as they are considered essential to the safe operation of the vessel, and also allow the ship to respond to emergencies and other situations quickly. These watches are divided into work periods to ensure that the roles are always occupied at all times, while those members of the crew who are assigned to a work during a watch are known as watch keepers. On a typical seafaring vessel, be it naval or merchant, personnel "keep watch" in various locations and duties across the ship, such as the bridge and engine room. Typical bridge watchkeepers include a lookout and a deck officer who is responsible for the safe navigation of the ship; whereas in the engine room, an engine officer ensures that running machinery continues to operate within tolerances.

Lookout is a person in charge of the observation of hazards. The term originally comes from a naval background, where lookouts would watch for other ships, land, and various dangers. The term has now passed into wider parlance.

Naval Architecture is an engineering discipline incorporating elements of mechanical, electrical, electronic, software and safety engineering as applied to the engineering design process, shipbuilding, maintenance, and operation of marine vessels and structures. Naval architecture involves basic and applied research, design, development, design evaluation (classification) and calculations during all stages of the life of a marine vehicle. Preliminary design of the vessel, its detailed design, construction, trials, operation and maintenance, launching and dry-docking are the main activities involved. Ship design calculations are also required for ships being modified (by means of conversion, rebuilding, modernization, or repair). Naval architecture also involves formulation of safety regulations and damage-control rules and the approval and certification of ship designs to meet statutory and non-statutory requirements.

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