or the acquisition
Educational methods include storytelling,
and directed research
. Education frequently takes place under the
of educators, but learners
. Education can take
place in formal
that has a
formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts may be considered
educational. The methodology of teaching is called
- Teacher Training
- Classroom Management
Career Path Testing
- On the Job Training
Reading and Writing
All information needs
, if there
were no instructions, life could never exist. This is why we must make
sure that the instructions we give are the best instructions available, as
well as the best information available, otherwise,
mistakes will happen
often, which makes life extremely
we can clearly see today. Our world is full of problems that should not even exist.
Teaching - Teacher Training
is a person who provides
is a person whose occupation is
is a message describing
how something is to be done
and how something
is used, and how something can be
. Teaching by
giving a discourse
some subject to a group of people or a class. Deliver a
is an oral
intended to present
information or teach people about a particular subject. Lectures
are used to convey critical information, history,
background, theories, and equations. A politician's
speech, a minister's sermon, or even a businessman's
sales presentation may be similar in form to a lecture.
Usually the lecturer will stand at the front of the room
and recite information relevant to the lecture's content.
is someone who reads, whether aloud or not.
is someone who lectures professionally
or is a
certain universities and
denotes an academic expert
without tenure in the university, who is hired
to teach on a full-time or part-time basis, but who is not paid to conduct
research. Passive Learning
and skill. Teaching is a combination of principles
of instruction, that helps a student to
, and acquire
through the gradual process of
Teaching is a profession
especially at a school or a college or university. Teaching is essential
and correct social behavior
is extremely important. Tutoring
Chief Learning Officer
is the highest-ranking corporate officer in
charge of learning management
. CLOs may be
experts in corporate or personal training, with degrees in education,
, business or similar
fields. Qualified CLOs should be able to drive the corporate strategy and
align the development of people with the business goals of the
organization. A full complement of skills, including business analytics,
technology, learning theory, performance consulting and scientific
inquiry, are important for success. The CLO may report directly to the
CEO, but may also report to the Head of HR or Chief Talent Officer.
is to teach and impress someone
by frequent repetitions
or by giving cautionary advice
. To produce a
vivid impression of something valuable. To fill with a certain quality. To
or enter drop by drop.
is the approach to teaching, refers to the theory and
practice of learning
, and how this process influences, and is influenced
by, the social, political and psychological development of learners.
Pedagogy, taken as an academic discipline, is the study of how
are imparted in an educational context, and it considers the
interactions that take place during learning. Both the theory and practice
of pedagogy vary greatly, as they reflect different social, political, and
cultural contexts. Pedagogy is often described as the act of teaching. The
pedagogy adopted by teachers shapes their actions, judgments, and other
teaching strategies by taking into consideration theories of learning,
understandings of students and their needs, and the backgrounds and
interests of individual students. Its aims may range from furthering
liberal education (the general development of human potential) to the
narrower specifics of vocational education (the imparting and acquisition
of specific skills). Conventional western pedagogies view the teacher as
knowledge holder and student as the recipient of knowledge (described by
Paulo Freire as "banking methods"), but theories of pedagogy increasingly
identify the student as an agent and the teacher as a facilitator.
Instructive strategies are governed by the pupil's background knowledge
and experience, situation, and environment, as well as learning goals set
by the student and teacher. One example would be the Socratic method.
is a particular
course of action
achieve a result
Process in psychology
of some composite
activity; an operation
. A sustained
phenomenon or one marked by gradual changes through a series of
A mental process
that you are not directly aware of. Subject to
a process or treatment, with the aim of readying for some
, improving, or remedying a condition. Perform
mathematical and logical operations
on (data) according to
in order to obtain the required
information. Shape, form, or
is a rule or standard especially of good behavior.
Rule of personal conduct
. Direct the course of; manage or
Behave in a certain manner.
is a college, university or graduate student
who is teaching under the supervision of a certified teacher in order to
qualify for a degree in education
is a person who teaches a
when the regular teacher is unavailable; e.g., because of illness,
personal leave, or other reasons.
is a college-supervised instructional
experience; usually the culminating course
in a university or college
undergraduate education or graduate school program leading to teacher
education and certification.
is a teaching-related position
within a school generally responsible for specialized or concentrated
assistance for students in elementary and secondary schools
is an individual who assists a teacher
with instructional responsibilities.
is a researcher employed, often on a
temporary contract, by a university or a research institute, for the
purpose of assisting in academic research. Research assistants are not
independent and not directly responsible for the outcome of the research
and are responsible to a supervisor or principal investigator. Research
assistants are often educated to degree level and might be enrolled in a
postgraduate degree program and simultaneously teach.
Teaching Assistant UK
is a person who supports students in
the classroom. Duties can differ dramatically from school to school,
though the underlying tasks often remain the same.
refers to the policies
designed to equip prospective teachers with the
knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and skills they require to perform their
tasks effectively in the classroom, school and wider community.
is a teacher who has earned
authoritative source, such as the government, a higher education
institution or a private source.
A good teacher is measured by their ability to use
and mediums to convey the same information. Behind every intelligent person, or highly skilled
athlete, is a great coach or a great teacher. Even if
someone taught themselves, they still had to use some
knowledge that was provided to them by others. Everything should have a Learning Objective, if not,
then what is it?
Teacher Training & Development
- Teacher Training Program
Teachers College Columbia
Teachers Needed Report
In Loco Parentis
is Latin for "in the place of a parent", which refers
to the legal responsibility of a person or organization to take on some of
the functions and
responsibilities of a parent
. Originally derived from English common
law, it is applied in two separate areas of the law. First, it allows
institutions such as colleges and schools to act in the best interests of
the students as they see fit, although not allowing what would be
considered violations of the students'
. Second, this
doctrine can provide a non-biological parent to be given the legal rights
and responsibilities of a biological parent if they have held themselves
out as the parent. The in loco parentis doctrine is distinct from the
doctrine of parens patriae, the psychological parent doctrine, and
Teacher Education Accreditation Council
Nat. Board for
Learning and Teaching
Books on Teaching Methods
is an advanced degree in the U.S. that
is designed for individuals who wish to develop advanced knowledge and
theory beyond the master's degree level, but may not wish to pursue a
degree at the doctoral level.
is a persons who takes charge of, or acts for, another.
academic rank at universities and other post-secondary education and
research institutions in most countries. Literally, professor derives from
Latin as a "person who professes" being usually an
in arts or
sciences, a teacher of the highest rank. Professors conduct original
research and commonly teach undergraduate, graduate, or
their fields of expertise. In universities with graduate schools,
professors may mentor and supervise graduate students conducting research
for a thesis or dissertation. Professors typically hold a Ph.D., another
doctorate or a different terminal degree. Some professors hold a master's
degree or a professional
, such as an M.D., as their highest degree.
as a academic rank
denotes an appointment for a senior academic with a distinguished
international reputation in research or scholarship.
College of Education
is a division within a university that
is devoted to scholarship in the field of education, which is an
interdisciplinary branch of the social sciences encompassing sociology,
psychology, linguistics, economics, political science, public policy,
history, and others, all applied to the topic of elementary, secondary,
and post-secondary education.
is a school created to train high school graduates to be teachers. Most
such schools are now called teachers' colleges.
Elementary Education Degree
Inspiring Teacher Movies
Inspire My Kids
Revolving Door Of Teacher Turnover Costs Schools Billions Every Year
Teacher Attrition Costs United States Up to $2.2 Billion Annually, Says
New Alliance Report
After 25 Years, This Teacher Says It's All The Paperwork That Made Him
Teacher Shortages in the U.S.
School-going population will increase by
roughly three million students in the next decade.
Master of Education
degree in education often includes the
following majors: curriculum and instruction, counseling, school
psychology, and administration. It is often conferred for educators
advancing in their field.
Masters in Education Guide
Masters in Education
Master Teacher Corps
Masters in Elementary Education
How to Get Your Teacher Certification
Earn a bachelor's degree
and complete a teacher prep program. Fulfill the student teaching
requirement. .Earn your master's degree if your specialization requires
one. Pass your state's required exam for teachers. Apply for state teacher
certification. All states require certified teachers to hold a bachelor's
degree, and more and more states now require candidates to hold a master's
degree or receive one within the first five years of teaching. Teachers
may earn a credential that allows them to teach either certain subject
matter or a specific grade level. It is still possible to become a teacher
without a bachelor's degree in education by going through an accredited
teacher certification program. Through the certification process, you will
take classes that will provide you with an appropriate segue into a
teaching job.Rising number of Teachers
have License Revoked
. Forty-two Connecticut educators had their
certificates revoked between 2015 and 2019, according to a list obtained
from the state Department of Education, which also shows the number jumped
from four revocations in 2015 to 17 revocations in 2019. State officials
say a jump in revocations of educators’ certificates may be due to a new
bureau, dedicated to investigating such cases. CONNECTICUT: Teacher's
certificate may be revoked if certificate has been obtained through fraud
or misrepresentation; teacher has neglected duties or been convicted of a
crime involving moral turpitude; teacher has been neglectful of duties; or
other due and sufficient cause exists.
Teacher Quality Research
Nat. Council on
Teacher Evaluation Policies
Teacher Evaluation by Students
How Teachers Are Rated in 25 Countries
Global Teacher Prize
The Global Teacher Status Index
Pre-Service Teacher Education
is the education and
training provided to student teachers before they have undertaken any
Educational Testing Service
The New Teacher Project
is an organization in the United
States with a mission of ensuring that poor and minority students get
equal access to effective teachers. It attempts to help urban school
districts and states recruit and train new teachers, staff challenged
schools, design evaluation systems, and retain teachers who have
demonstrated the ability to raise student achievement.
The New Teacher Project
Tennessee Teachers Association
50 Great Teachers Project
Teaching Degree Programs
Education Career Schools
National Alliance on Effective Education
Society for Performance Improvement
Canter Teacher Training
Merlot Learning Online Teaching
Learn Teach Read
We are Teachers
Learning Point Associates
Job HunterEducation Jobs
Commission on Teaching
I Love Schools Help for Teachers
Motivation Resources Courses
Common Sense Press
Common Sense Media
Learning and Teaching
NationCNX Sharing Knowledge
A Way to
for the Arts
books on human intelligence and education.
Million Ways to Teach
Connect a Million Minds
is a formal organization that
consists of parents, teachers and school staff. The organization's goals
may vary from organization to organization, but essentially the goals
include volunteerism of parents, encouragement of teachers and students,
community involvement, and welfare of students and families. It is not
affiliated with Parent-Teacher Association (PTA) or Parent-Teacher-Student
Association (PTSA.) PTA is a national association of millions of members
and thousands of local units that provides leadership training and staff
is a formal organization composed of parents,
teachers and staff that is intended to facilitate parental participation
in a school.
Teaching Tips - Understanding Students in the Classroom
Watch how each student
interacts. How do they prefer to engage? What do they seem to like to do?
Observe so you can understand all they are capable of.
Listen. Try to understand what motivates
them, what their goals are and how they view you, their
classmates and the activities you assign them.
Engage. Talk with students about their
individual interests. Don't offer advice or opinions – just
Experiment: Change how you react to
challenging behaviors. Rather than responding quickly in the
moment, take a breath. Realize that their behavior might just be
a way of reaching out to you.
Meet: Each week, spend time with students
outside of your role as "teacher." Let the students choose a
game or other nonacademic activity they'd like to do with you.
Your job is to NOT teach but watch, listen, and narrate what you
see, focusing on students' interests and what they do well. This
type of activity is really important for students with whom you
often feel in conflict or who you avoid.
Reach out: Know what your students like to
do outside of school. Make it a project for them to tell you
about it using some medium in which they feel comfortable:
music, video, writing, etc. Find both individual and group time
for them to share this with you. Watch and listen to how
skilled, motivated and interested they can be. Now think about
school through their eyes.
Reflect: Think back on your own best and
worst teachers, bosses or supervisors. List five words for each
that describe how you felt in your interactions with them. How
did the best and the worst make you feel? What specifically did
they do or say that made you feel that way? Now think about how
your students would describe you. Jot down how they might
describe you and why.
How do your expectations or beliefs shape how they look at you?
Are there parallels in your beliefs and their responses to you?
Written by Researcher
. Originally titled "7 Ways Teachers Can Change
is the process of ensuring that
classroom lessons run smoothly despite disruptive
The term also implies the prevention of disruptive behavior.
Classroom Management Guide
19 Big and Small Classroom Management Strategies
The Teachers Guide
Instructional Practices for an Effective Classroom
Support for Instructional Coaches, Classroom Teachers and
Rita Pierson: Every Kid needs a Champion
Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early
25 Things Successful Educators Do
A Code of Professional Ethics
: A Guide to Professional
Conduct in the field of Educational Communications and
Classroom Management Theorists and Theories
Tools for Teaching Kids How to get Along
Table of Contents
New Teacher Center
The Center for Transformative Teacher Training
Whole Brain Teaching: Grade 1 Classroom
The concept is correct, but it's misused a little.
Simultaneous Subject Teaching
is about making connections,
it's not about silly gestures.
Interactive Teaching Methods by Chandralekha Singh's
Learning Management System
is a software application for the administration, documentation, tracking,
reporting and delivery of electronic educational technology (also called
e-learning) courses or training programs. Learning management systems
range from systems for managing training and educational records to
software for distributing online or blended/hybrid college courses over
the Internet with features for online collaboration, school districts, and
schools use LMSs to deliver online courses and augment on-campus courses.
LMSs also act to augment the lessons the teacher is giving in a brick and
mortar environment, not just replace them. Corporate training departments
use LMSs to deliver online training, as well as to automate record-keeping
and employee registration.
"Sometimes in order to be a good teacher you have to modify your
r, and not just your
published research showing that
teachers account for up to 17% of student learning.
to lead students toward the
fulfillment of his/her potential for intellectual, emotional,
psychological, and social growth. Teachers are responsible for
stimulating maximum learning on the part of the pupils assigned
to them by providing a good environment and by guiding sound
curriculum experiences and activities in the classroom, the
school, and the community. The teacher reports to the building principal
or other designated person.
Teachers become Healthier when they Learn
.Major Duties and
Responsibilities of the
Teacher are to:
1. Meet and instruct assigned classes in the locations and at
the times designated.
2. Develop and maintain a classroom environment conducive to
effective learning within the limits of the resources provided
by the division, with responsibility for the order and progress
of his/her classes.
3. Prepare for classes assigned, and show written evidence of
preparation upon request of the immediate supervisor.
4. Assist students in setting and maintaining standards of
5. Take all necessary and reasonable precautions to protect
students, equipment, materials, and facilities with
responsibility for the neatness of his/her room and the proper
care of all furniture and supplies.
6. Evaluate student progress on a regular basis.
7. Employ a variety of instructional techniques and
instructional media, consistent with the physical limitations of
the location provided and the needs and capabilities of the
individuals or student groups involved.
8. Maintain accurate, complete, and correct records as required
9. Be available to students and parents for education-related
purposes outside the instructional day when required or
requested to do so under the reasonable term.
10. Comply with and enforce school rules, administrative
regulations, and School Board policies.
11. Attend and participate in faculty meetings as well as other
professional meetings called by the administrative staff.
12. Cooperate with other members of staff in planning
instructional goals, objectives, and methods.
13. Assist in selecting books, equipment, and other
14. Establish and maintain cooperative relations with others.
15. Accomplish reasonable special assignments as assigned by the
16. Provide for his/her own professional growth through an
ongoing program of study, including workshops, seminars,
conferences, and/or advanced course work at institutions of
17. Perform other school duties as assigned.
The purpose of the Teacher
Duties and Responsibilities
Instrument (TDRI) is to describe the expectations
for teachers in addition to the teaching tasks outlined in the GTOL.
professional practices consistent with school and system policies in working
with students, students’ records, parents, and colleagues .
1. Demonstrates communication and interpersonal skills as they relate to
interaction with students, parents, other teachers, administrators, and other
2. Is available to students and parents for conferences according to system
3. Facilitates home-school communication by such means as holding conferences,
telephoning, and sending written communications.
4. Maintains confidentiality of students and students’ records.
with school administrators, special support personnel, colleagues, and parents.
B. Complies with rules, regulations, and policies of governing agencies and
1. Complies with state administrative regulations and Board of Education
2. Adheres to school and local school system procedures and rules.
3. Conducts assigned classes at the times scheduled.
4. Enforces regulations concerning student conduct and discipline.
5. Demonstrates timeliness and attendance for assigned responsibilities
6. Provides adequate information, plans, and materials for substitute
7. Maintains accurate, complete, and appropriate records and files reports
8. Attends and participates in faculty meetings and other assigned meetings
and activities according to school policy
9. Complies with conditions as state in contract.
C. Demonstrates professional practices in teaching.
1. Models correct use of language, oral and written.
accurate and up-to-date knowledge of content.
plans as required by school policy.
reasonable tasks and homework to students.
professional development opportunities and applies the concepts to classroom and
D. Acts in a
professional manner and assumes responsibility for the total school program, its
safety and good order.
Takes precautions to protect records, equipment, materials, and facilities.
Assumes responsibility for supervising students in out-of-class
appropriate personal contact while in performance of school duties.
E. Assumes a
role in meeting the school’s student achievement goals, including academic gains
of students assigned to the teacher.
F. Observations of the teacher by the principal and assistant principals, in
addition to those recorded on the GTOI during instruction, at other times as
(Other duties and
responsibilities prescribed by local school or system such as, but not limited
to: lunchroom, homeroom, hall, playground and other advisory duties).
GTDRI Assessment Instrument
Student Teacher Responsibilities
A student from an approved institution of higher learning may
take practice teaching, practicum, or field work in Public
upon approval of the Superintendent and under such regulations
as the Superintendent shall set forth to ensure that the
progress of the pupils in any class is not adversely affected.
(advising and guiding)
1. Teacher training institutions desiring to place students in
Public Schools should begin by contacting the Human Resources
2. To make the program effective and beneficial to both the
student teacher and the school division, full approval of the
principal and supervising teacher shall be secured.
(a) An understanding should be reached as to the hours during
the day and the length of time a student teacher shall be
working in any school.
(b) No student teacher shall be accepted by any Public School
until the principal has approved the application sent it to the
Human Resources Department.
3. Schools assigned student teachers shall work cooperatively
with the representative from the teacher training institution in
supervising the student teacher. Supervising teachers should not
leave the responsibility for supervising students to a student
teacher by being absent from the classroom until such time as
the student teacher is capable of managing the classroom and has
demonstrated competence in doing so.
Teacher Burn Out
Personality and Contextual Variables in Teacher Burnout
- Teacher Turnover
Teacher Attrition Costs United States Up to $2.2 Billion
Annually, Says New Alliance Report
Teacher Stress and Health
. Effects on Teachers, Students, and Schools.
America Schools Report
Mindfulness for Teachers
. Simple Skills for Peace and Productivity in
Is Silence Golden?
Elementary school teachers' strategies
and beliefs regarding hypothetical shy/quiet and
School Principal Responsibilities
is the administrative and professional leader of
the school, and as such, he/she is directly responsible to the
for its successful operation. The major
effect of the principal is in the field of educational
leadership and supervision, with stress on the improvement of
teaching and learning. To bring about this improvement, he/she
upon all of the resources of the school division.
Department of Education
A. Supervision of Instruction
The primary duty of the principal is to develop and implement an
effective instructional program appropriate to the pupils in
his/her school. Careful attention should be given to the
supervision of teachers and other instructional personnel
working in the school, including both full and part-time
B. Supervision of School Property
Principals have general supervision of the grounds, building,
and appurtenances of the school, and are responsible for his/her
neatness and cleanliness. The safety of the children is a
primary responsibility, and school premises should be inspected
regularly, giving careful attention of safety factors. When
repairs are needed, principals should notify the designated
person in the office of the Superintendent.
C. Make Recommendations
Principals may submit recommendations to the Superintendent for
the appointment, assignment, promotion, transfer and
dismissal of all personnel assigned to his/her supervision.
D. Other Duties
Principals also perform the following duties:
1. Collect data, prepare and complete attendance reports as
required by the Superintendent or by law.
2. Conduct, under the direction of the Superintendent, studies
and investigations to improve instructional procedure.
3. Establish and maintain proper relationships between the
school, the home, and the community
4. Keep an accurate record of all non-resident pupils in the
school and enroll no such pupils without an official permit
from the designated person in the office of the Superintendent.
5. Supply the Superintendent's office with pertinent information
whenever pupils are suspended and referred there.
6. Receive all patrons calling at the school and, when
requested, arrange for conferences between patrons and teachers.
7. Hold fire drills and submit drill reports promptly.
8. Organize the school for civil defense in accordance with the
latest bulletin published by the Virginia State Department of
Education and in accordance with such supplementary regulations
as may be issued by the office of the Superintendent.
9. File, in the administrative office, all required reports.
10. Attend all meetings called by the Superintendent.
11. Arrive at school long enough before the regular opening hour
and remain there long enough after dismissal to arrange for
proper supervision of activities of pupils from the time the
latter arrive on the grounds until they leave.
12. Perform such other duties as may be assigned by the
Superintendent pursuant to the rules and regulations of the School Board.
School Superintendent Responsibilities
A school superintendent is the chief executive officer of a
school district. A superintendent is usually hired by the school
board of the district. As the CEO, superintendents have general
management responsibilities, including hiring of senior staff.
They typically oversee education standards and student
achievement, plan budgets and allocate resources, and also act
as the point person for interactions with government agencies.
A master's degree is the minimum education requirement for most
school superintendent positions, and a significant number of
superintendents have earned Ph.D.s. Many superintendents have
their master's and doctoral degrees in education, education
administration or public administration, but a few have graduate
backgrounds in the subject areas they taught.
Certification or Licensing
Nearly all states require school superintendents to be certified
or licensed. States such as Washington and Wisconsin require
school superintendents to become certified before they can
become licensed. Superintendent certification is typically a
two-year program with a master's degree prerequisite, often
including a field-based element where you work with practicing
district superintendents for some months. Students working on a
doctoral degree may complete course requirements for
superintendent certification as part of their doctoral program.
School superintendents have a broad set of administrative and
supervisory responsibilities that vary based on the size of the
school district. Hiring and firing of senior staff, handling
teacher and staff disciplinary matters, and managing the budget
are the primary administrative responsibilities of most
superintendents. In most districts, superintendents are also
responsible for overseeing the implementation and enforcement of
all state and federal statutes and programs relating to schools.
Educational Standards and Student Achievement
School superintendents have the difficult task of
helping to set educational standards and measure student achievement in
their districts. Superintendents typically have general authority over
school curricula, within state guidelines. They often work together with
the school board to develop and implement short- and long-range plans for
curriculum, as well as instructional evaluation and improvement. School
boards in some districts, however, sometimes clash with superintendents
when they want to take a more active role in designing school curriculum
or deciding how student achievement is measured.
Commissioner of Education
was the title given to the head of the
federal Office of Education, which was historically a unit within and
originally assigned to the Department of the Interior in the United
States. The position was created on March 2, 1867, when an Act to
establish the Office of Education took effect under the influence of the
more Radical Republican Party they were influential mostly in the Northern
states and New England which were much more progressive in the fields of
education and had already established many state departments of education
and created a large number of public schools and systems in cities, towns
and counties, both on the elementary (grammar) school level and the high
schools, in which the South had lagged behind. The Commissioner was the
U.S. government's highest education official from after the Civil War and
its reforming period of Reconstruction, from 1867 until 1972, when the
office of Assistant Secretary for Education was established within the
independent Department of Health, Education and Welfare, which had been
earlier created as a cabinet-level department in April 1953, under
President Harry Truman, continuing the previous advances created by the
administration of Franklin D. Roosevelt and instigated under Dwight D.
Eisenhower. Ultimately, the head of the Federal Government's nationwide
educational efforts was reorganized with the separation and division of
old H.E.W. of the new United States Department of Education in 1979, under
President Jimmy Carter with its own Cabinet-level position of the U.S.
Secretary of Education. The Commissioner was responsible for: Formulating
educational policy. Administering the various functions of the Office of
Education. Coordinating educational activities at the national level.
Office of Education
was a small unit in the Federal Government of the
United States within the U.S. Department of the Interior from 1867 to
Department of Education
is the totality of student experiences
in the educational process. The term often refers specifically to a
, or to a view of the student's experiences
in terms of the educator's or school's instructional
is the practice of creating
which make the acquisition of knowledge and skill more
efficient, effective, and appealing. Instructional design is the process
of identifying the skills, knowledge, information and attitude gaps of a
targeted audience and creating or selecting learning experiences that
close this gap. The process consists broadly of
determining the state and needs of the learner
, defining the end goal of
instruction, and creating some "intervention" to assist in the transition.
may be directly observable and
scientifically measured or completely hidden and assumed. There are many
instructional design models but many are based on the ADDIE model with the
five phases: analysis, design
. As a field, instructional design is historically and
traditionally rooted in cognitive
and behavioral psychology, though
recently constructivism has influenced thinking in the field.
is a method of designing educational curriculum
by setting goals before
choosing instructional methods and forms of assessment. Backward design of
curriculum typically involves three stages: Identify the results desired
(big ideas and skills). What should the students know, understand, and be
able to do? Consider the goals and curriculum expectations Focus on the
"big ideas" (principles, theories, concepts, point of views, or themes).
Determine acceptable levels of evidence that support that the desired
results have occurred (culminating assessment tasks). What will teachers
accept as evidence that student understanding took place? Consider
culminating assessment tasks and a range of assessment methods
(observations, tests, projects, etc.). Design activities that will make
desired results happen (learning events). What knowledge and skills will
students need to achieve the desired results? Consider teaching methods,
sequence of lessons, and resource materials. Backward design challenges
"traditional" methods of curriculum planning. In traditional curriculum
planning, a list of content that will be taught is created and/or
selected. In backward design, the educator starts with goals, creates or
plans out assessments and finally makes lesson plans. Supporters of
backward design liken the process to using a "road map". In this case, the
destination is chosen first and then the road map is used to plan the trip
to the desired destination. In contrast, in traditional curriculum
planning there is no formal destination identified before the journey
begins. The idea in backward design is to teach toward the "end point" or
learning goals, which typically ensures that content taught remains
focused and organized. This, in turn, aims at promoting better
understanding of the content or processes to be learned for students. The
educator is able to focus on addressing what the students need to learn,
what data can be collected to show that the students have learned the
desired outcomes (or learning standards) and how to ensure the students
will learn. Although backward design is based on the same components of
the ADDIE model, backward design is a condensed version of these
components with far less flexibility.
Plain Language Writing and
Instructional Design Coordinator
is a person who is responsible for
overseeing the implementation of instructional design techniques, usually
in an academic setting or in corporate training
describes a theoretical framework for the
implementation of systemic change in education and
is "a theory that offers explicit guidance on how
to better help people learn and develop." Instructional theories focus on
how to structure material for promoting the education of human beings,
Master of Science in Education with
Curriculum & Instruction Strategies
Instructional Materials Development
Solutions for EducationEducation
How we will Learn
for School Innovation
Who's Researching What?
Teaching for Change
occurs when members of a learning community work together to increase
student learning and achievement. If our ultimate destination as educators
is student achievement, think of teacher collaboration as the journey.
Lessons - Lesson Plans
is used to teach skills and show students how to use tools and learn how to
understand subjects as whole and also learn how to process a particular
area of knowledge. A lesson has aims and goals and explains what the
lesson is reaching towards. The lesson has clear objectives and specific
measurable outcomes, as well as the particular skills or knowledge
students should have acquired by its conclusion. A lesson should first
review previous knowledge of the learners
and how this will be activated
at the start of the lesson. The motivation of the learners should also be
reviewed and the time required for each section of teaching and learning,
and the resources that are required and available. A lesson should also
cater for the different learning needs or
individuals. The lesson is to be evaluated in several different ways.
is a well-developed plan that reflects the interests and
needs of students. It incorporates best practices for the educational
field. The lesson plan correlates with the teacher's philosophy of
education, which is what the teacher feels is the purpose of educating the
students. The lesson is a teacher's detailed description of the course of
instruction or "learning trajectory" for a lesson. A daily lesson plan is
developed by a teacher to guide class learning. Details will vary
depending on the preference of the teacher, subject being covered, and the
needs of the students. There may be requirements mandated by the school
system regarding the plan. A lesson plan is the teacher's guide for
running a particular lesson, and it includes the goal (what the students
are supposed to learn), how the goal will be reached (the method,
procedure) and a way of measuring how well the goal was reached (test,
worksheet, homework etc.). Title of the lesson
Time required to complete the lesson. List of required materials. List of
objectives, which may be behavioral objectives (what the student can do at
lesson completion) or knowledge objectives (what the student knows at
lesson completion). The set (or lead-in, or bridge-in) that focuses
students on the lesson's skills or concepts—these include showing pictures
or models, asking leading questions, or reviewing previous lessons. An
instructional component that describes the sequence of events that make up
the lesson, including the teacher's instructional input and, where
appropriate, guided practice by students to consolidate new skills and
ideas. Independent practice that allows students to extend skills or
knowledge on their own. A summary, where the teacher wraps up the
discussion and answers questions. An evaluation component, a test for
mastery of the instructed skills or concepts—such as a set of questions to
answer or a set of instructions to follow. A risk assessment where the
lesson's risks and the steps taken to minimize them are documented. An
analysis component the teacher uses to reflect on the lesson itself—such
as what worked and what needs improving. A continuity component reviews
and reflects on content from the previous lesson.
: It pertains to preparing and motivating
children to the lesson content by linking it to the previous knowledge of
the student, by arousing curiosity of the children and by making an appeal
to their senses. This prepares the child's mind to receive new knowledge.
"To know where the pupils are and where they should try to be are the two
essentials of good teaching." Lessons may be started in the following
manner: a. Two or three interesting but relevant questions b. Showing a
picture/s, a chart or a model c. A situation Statement of Aim:
Announcement of the focus of the lesson in a clear, concise statement such
as "Today, we shall study the...".
: The actual lesson commences here. This
step should involve a good deal of activity on the part of the students.
The teacher will take the aid of various devices, e.g., questions,
illustrations, explanation, expositions, demonstration and sensory aids,
etc. Information and knowledge can be given, explained, revealed or
suggested. The following principles should be kept in mind. a. Principle
of selection and division: This subject matter should be divided into
different sections. The teacher should also decide as to how much he is to
tell and how much the pupils are to find out for themselves. b. Principle
of successive sequence: The teacher should ensure that the succeeding as
well as preceding knowledge is clear to the students. c. Principle of
absorption and integration: In the end separation of the parts must be
followed by their combination to promote understanding of the whole.
: It is always
desirable that new ideas or knowledge be associated to daily life
situations by citing suitable examples and by drawing comparisons with the
related concepts. This step is important when we are establishing
principles or generalizing definitions.
: This concept is concerned with the systematizing of
the knowledge learned. Comparison and contrast lead to generalization. An
effort should be made to ensure that students draw the conclusions
themselves. It should result in students' own thinking, reflection and
: It requires a good
deal of mental activity to think and apply the principles learned to new
situations. Knowledge, when it is put to use and verified, becomes clear
and a part of the student's mental make-up.
: Last step of the lesson plan, the teacher tries to
ascertain whether the students have understood or grasped the subject
matter or not. This is used for assessing/evaluating the effectiveness of
the lesson by asking students questions on the contents of the lesson or
by giving short objectives to test the student's level of understanding;
for example, to label different parts on a diagram, etc.
Criteria of a Unit Plan
capabilities, interest of the learner should be considered. Prepared on
the sound psychological knowledge of the learner. Provide a new learning
experience; systematic but flexible. Sustain the attention of the learner
til the end. Related to social and physical environment of the learner.
Development of learner's personality. It is important to note that
lesson planning is a thinking process, not the filling in of a lesson plan
template. A lesson plan is envisaged as a blue print, guide map for
action, a comprehensive chart of classroom teaching-learning activities,
an elastic but systematic approach for the teaching of concepts, skills
and attitudes. The first thing for setting a lesson plan is to create an
objective, that is, a statement of purpose for the whole lesson. An
objective statement itself should answer what students will be able to do
by the end of the lesson. The objective drives the whole lesson plan; it
is the reason the lesson plan exists. The teacher should ensure that
lesson plan goals are compatible with the developmental level of the
students. The teacher ensures as well that their student achievement
expectations are reasonable. The following guidelines were set by Canadian
Council on Learning to enhance the effectiveness of the teaching process:
At the start of teaching, provide the students with an overall picture of
the material to be presented. When presenting material, use as many visual
aids as possible and a variety of familiar examples. Organize the material
so that it is presented in a logical manner and in meaningful units. Try
to use terms and concepts that are already familiar to the students.
Maximize the similarity between the learning situation and the assessment
situation and provide adequate training practice. Give students the chance
to use their new skills immediately on their return home through
assignments. Communicate the message about the importance of the lesson,
increase their motivation level, and control sidelining behaviors by
planning rewards for students who successfully complete and integrate the
new content. To sustain learning performance, the assessments must be fair
and attainable. Motivation affects teaching outcomes independently of any
increase in cognitive ability. Learning motivation is affected by
individual characteristics like conscientiousness and by the learning
climate. Therefore, it is important to try to provide as much realistic
assignments as possible. Students learn best at their own pace and when
correct responses are immediately reinforced, perhaps with a quick “Well
done.” For many Generation Z students, the use of technology can motivate
learning. Simulations, games, virtual worlds, and online networking are
already revolutionizing how students learn and how learning experiences
are designed and delivered. Learners who are immersed in deep experiential
learning in highly visual and interactive environments become
intellectually engaged in the experience. Research shows that it is
important to create a perceived need for learning (Why should I learn, the
realistic relatable objective) in the minds of students. Then only
students can perceive the transferred "how and what to learn" part from
the educator. Also, provide ample information that will help to set the
students' expectations about the events and consequences of actions that
are likely to occur in the learning environment. For example, students
learning to become adept on differential equations may face stressful
situations, high loads of study, and a difficult environment. Studies
suggest that the negative impact of such conditions can be reduced by
letting students know ahead of time what might occur and equipping them
with skills to manage. Creating a reliable lesson plan is an important
part of classroom management. Doing so requires the ability to incorporate
effective strategies into the classroom, the students and overall
environment. There are many different types of lesson plans and ways of
creating them. Teachers can encourage critical thinking in a group setting
by creating plans that include the students participating collectively.
Visual strategies are another component tied into lesson plans that help
with classroom management. These visual strategies help a wide variety of
students to increase their learning structure and possibly their overall
comprehension of the material or what is in the lesson plan itself. These
strategies also give students with disabilities the option to learn in a
possible more efficient way. Teachers need to realize the wide range of
strategies that can be used to maintain classroom management and students.
They should find the best strategies to incorporate in their lesson
planning for their specific grade, student type, teaching style, etc. and
utilize them to their advantage. The classroom tends to flow better when
the teacher has a proper lesson planned, as it provides structure for the
students. Being able to utilize class time efficiently comes with creating
lesson plans at their core. Keeping the students engaged, attentive, and
intrigued is a must in order to have a successful classroom. Considering
each teacher has a unique teaching style, it is important to focus on the
students for each academic school year and make yourself flexible to their
needs. Lesson planning is a critical influence on classroom management.
Assignments are either in-class or take-home tasks to be completed for the
next class period. These tasks are important because they help ensure that
the instruction provides the students with a goal, the power to get there,
and the interest to be engaged in rigorous academic contexts as they
acquire content and skills necessary to be able to participate in academic
coursework. Experts cite that, in order to be effective and achieve
objectives, the development of these assignment tasks must take into
consideration the perceptions of the students because they are different
from those of the teacher's. This challenge can be addressed by providing
examples instead of abstract concepts or instructions. Another strategy
involves the development of tasks that are specifically related to the
learners' needs, interests, and age ranges. There are also experts who
cite the importance of teaching learners about assignment planning. This
is said to facilitate the students' engagement and interest in their
assignment. Some strategies include brainstorming about the assignment
process and the creation of a learning environment wherein students feel
engaged and willing to reflect on their prior learning and to discuss
specific or new topics. There are several assignment types so the
instructor must decide whether class assignments are whole-class, small
groups, workshops, independent work, peer learning, or contractual:
Whole-class—the teacher lectures to the class as a whole and has the class
collectively participate in classroom discussions. Small groups—students
work on assignments in groups of three or four. Workshops—students perform
various tasks simultaneously. Workshop activities must be tailored to the
lesson plan. Independent work—students complete assignments individually.
Peer learning—students work together, face to face, so they can learn from
one another. Contractual work—teacher and student establish an agreement
that the student must perform a certain amount of work by a deadline.
These assignment categories (e.g. peer learning, independent, small
groups) can also be used to guide the instructor’s choice of assessment
measures that can provide information about student and class
comprehension of the material. As discussed by Biggs (1999), there are
additional questions an instructor can consider when choosing which type
of assignment would provide the most benefit to students. These include:
What level of learning do the students need to attain before choosing
assignments with varying difficulty levels? What is the amount of time the
instructor wants the students to use to complete the assignment? How much
time and effort does the instructor have to provide student grading and
feedback? What is the purpose of the assignment? (e.g. to track student
learning; to provide students with time to practice concepts; to practice
incidental skills such as group process or independent research) How does
the assignment fit with the rest of the lesson plan? Does the assignment
test content knowledge or does it require application in a new context?
Does the lesson plan fit a particular framework? For example, a Common
Core Lesson Plan.
is a widespread professional development practice.
Working in a small group, teachers collaborate with one another, meeting
to discuss learning goals, planning an actual classroom lesson (called a
"research lesson"), observing how their ideas work in a live lessons with
students, and then reporting on the results so that other teachers can
benefit from it. Features common to all three levels are: preparation of a
detailed lesson plan, providing background research information, lesson
goals, connections to state or local learning standards, reasoning behind
the design of the lesson, and steps of the lesson along with anticipated
student responses; observation of a live lesson conducted with students
(the research lesson); and a discussion following the lesson, analyzing
its impact on students and implications for future instruction. School-,
district-, or national-level lesson study differ with respect to the
students they consider. School-based lesson study (discussed in more
detail below) aims to address a school-wide research theme. District-level
lesson study is often used for schools to share learning with other
schools. A school might have an open house, with research lessons held at
every grade, which district leaders and educators from other schools will
attend. National-level lesson study is conducted by enthusiastic
volunteers who are also very experienced, highly respected teachers. The
research lesson is done at a major conference. The objective may be to
explore new content or to present a new approach to teaching particular
content. National-level research lessons often inform changes in the
national Course of Study.
Resources for Lessons
- Lesson Plans
Free Lesson Plans
free printable worksheets and lesson plans for teaching English.
American Field Service - Teachers Toolbox
Teachers Pay Teachers
Moral of the Story
Real Life Examples
Journal of Teacher Education
International Children's Education
Innovative Learning Conference
Purpose of Education
Books on How to be a Great Teacher
Learning for Life
P21 Skills for the
Z Teacher Stuff
Teachers and Families
Teacher Quick Source
Scholarship of Teaching and Learning
is a scholarly inquiry
into student learning which advances the practice of teaching by making
inquiry findings public.
refers to the
collection and analysis
of data related to the field of education.
involve a variety of methods. Research may involve various aspects of
education including student
, teaching methods, teacher training, and classroom dynamics.
Educational research attempts to solve a problem. Research involves
gathering new data from primary or first-hand sources or using existing
data for a new purpose. Research is based upon observable experience or
Research demands accurate observation and description. Research generally
employs carefully designed procedures and rigorous analysis. Research
emphasizes the development of generalizations, principles or theories that
will help in understanding, prediction and/or control.
expertise—familiarity with the field; competence in methodology; technical
skill in collecting and analyzing the data. Research attempts to find an
solution to the problem and takes great pains to
Research is a deliberate and unhurried activity which is directional but
often refines the problem or questions as the research progresses.
Research is carefully
to other persons interested in the problem.
(learning styles) -
Education Reform Research
(Academic and Research Journals)
Institutes for Research
Institutes for Research
Unpublished Academic Papers
Learning Research Centre
Center for Education Statistics (NCES)
of Independent Schools
Commission of the States
International Student Assessment is a 15-year-old school
pupils' scholastic performance on mathematics, science, and
Middle Level Education
Educational Psychology is the branch of psychology concerned
with the scientific study of human learning. The study of
learning processes, from both cognitive and behavioral
perspectives, allows researchers to understand individual
differences in intelligence, cognitive development, affect,
motivation, self-regulation, and self-concept, as well as their
role in learning. The field of educational psychology relies
heavily on quantitative methods, including testing and
measurement, to enhance educational activities related to
instructional design, classroom management, assessment, which
serve to facilitate learning processes in various educational
settings across the lifespan.
National Center on
for Education Info
Higher Education Research
National Research & Education Network
Education Innovation Summit
Books about Teaching
MAP-Works - EBI
Alternative Education Resource
Peabody Vanderbilt Funded Projects
Jasper Research Projects
Nations Report Card
Assessment Governing Board
of High School Scholars
of Collegiate Scholars
Association of Scholars
Indian Knowledge Base
Teachers Pay Teachers
Teaching and Learning
Research for Action
Digital Learning Strategies
Digital Learning Day
Technology is just a Tool
Learning Research in the 21st Century
Center for Teaching and Learning
Design for Change
Research Papers & 550,000 Essays
(never seen) -
Pearson School Systems
K-3 Teacher Resources
Make entire wall a whiteboard
Online Education Providers
consists of the principles and government policies in
the educational sphere as well as the collection of laws and rules that
govern the operation of education systems
. Education occurs in many forms
for many purposes through many
. Examples include early
childhood education, kindergarten through to 12th grade
, two and four year
colleges or universities, graduate and professional education, adult
education and job training. Therefore, education policy can directly
affect the education people engage in at all ages. Examples of areas
subject to debate in education policy, specifically from the field of
schools, include school size, class size, school choice, school
, teacher selection, education and certification,
teacher pay, teaching methods
requirements, school infrastructure investment, and the values that
schools are expected to uphold and model. Issues in education policy also
address problems within higher education. The Pell Institute analyzes the
barriers experienced by teachers
and students within community colleges
and universities. These issues involve undocumented students,
, and federal grant aides. Education policy analysis is the
scholarly study of education policy. It seeks to answer questions about
the purpose of education, the objectives (societal and personal) that it
is designed to attain, the methods for attaining them and the tools for
measuring their success or failure. Research intended to inform education
policy is carried out in a wide variety of institutions and in many
academic disciplines. Important researchers are affiliated with
departments of psychology, economics, sociology, and human development, in
addition to schools and departments of education
or public policy.
Examples of education policy analysis may be found in such academic
journals as Education Policy Analysis Archives and in university policy
centers such as the National Education Policy Center housed at the
University of Colorado Boulder University of Colorado Boulder.
U.S. Department of Education
Policy and Higher Education
The Institute for
Higher Education Policy
Education Development Center
Family Educational Rights & Privacy Act
is a 1974
law that governs the access of educational information and records. FERPA
gives parents access to their child's education records, an opportunity to
seek to have the records amended, and some control over the disclosure of
information from the records. With several exceptions, schools must have a
student's consent prior to the disclosure of education records after that
student is 18 years old. The law applies only to educational agencies and
institutions that receive funding under a program administered by the
Department of Education
Center for Public Education
Council of Chief
State School Officers
Nat. Assoc. of
Association of American Educators
Grammar School Assoc.
Association for Higher
Assoc. for the
Study of Higher Education
Higher Education Assessment
Management for Higher Ed
Higher Education Accreditation
International Development for Education
Boards of Education
of State Colleges &
College & University Planning
American Assoc. of
Nat. Assoc. of
New Tech High
Kipp Knowledge is
Council for Great
Education is Freedom
Reggio Emilia Approach
Classical Liberal Arts
Learning Leaders Volunteering
of School Psychologists
Reading, Writing & Literacy
Education Stages - Grade Level - Age Level
in the U.S. is divided into a number of distinct
. Most children enter
the public education system around ages five or six. Children are assigned
into year groups known as grades. The American school year traditionally
begins at the end of August or early in September, after a traditional
summer vacation or break. Children customarily advance together from one
grade to the next as a single cohort or "class" upon reaching the end of
each school year in late May or early June. Depending upon their
circumstances, children may begin school in pre-kindergarten, kindergarten
or first grade. Students normally attend 12 grades of study over 12
calendar years of primary/elementary and secondary education before
graduating and earning a diploma that makes them eligible for admission to
higher education. Education is mandatory until age 16 (18 in some states).
In the U.S., ordinal numbers (e.g., first grade) are used for identifying
grades. Typical ages and grade groupings in contemporary, public and
private schools may be found through the U.S. Department of Education.
Generally there are three stages: elementary school (K–5th grade), middle
school (6th–8th grades) and high school (9th–12th grades).
Preschool: Ages 3-4
Pre-K: Ages 4-5
Kindergarten: Ages 5-6
1st Grade: Ages 6-7
2nd Grade: Ages 7-8
3rd Grade: Ages 8-9
4th Grade: Ages 9-10
5th Grade: Ages 10-11
6th Grade: Ages 11-12
7th Grade: Ages 12-13
8th Grade: Ages 13-14
9th Grade: Ages 14-15
10th Grade: Ages 15-16
11th Grade: Ages 16-17
12th Grade: Ages 17-18.
are subdivisions of
typically covering early childhood education, primary education, secondary
education and tertiary education.
Age-Based Grade Assignments Hinder Millions of Students
age-based grade levels may be hampering the progress of millions of K-12
students in the United States and should be a
target for reform
, according to a new
study co-authored by a UNC Charlotte education professor.
is an educational
building where young people receive
. The process of being
at a school. The
period of instruction in a school; the time period when school is in
session. The body of faculty and students at a university. A large and
diverse institution of higher learning created to
educate for life
and to grant degrees.
educational institution designed to provide
for the teaching of students (or "pupils") under the
direction of teachers. Most countries have systems of formal education,
which is sometimes compulsory
In these systems, students progress through a series
of schools. The names for these schools vary by country, but generally include primary
school for young children and secondary school for teenagers who have
completed primary education. An institution where higher education is
taught, is commonly called a
or university. School can
also mean a large group of fish.
is a school for children from about
four to eleven years old
, in which they
receive primary or
. It can refer to both the physical structure (buildings) and
the organization. Typically it comes after
before secondary school. The International Standard Classification of
Education considers primary education as a single phase where programmes
are typically designed to provide fundamental skills in reading, writing
and mathematics and to establish a solid foundation for learning. This is
ISCED Level 1: Primary education or first stage of basic education.
(education delivered to your home) -
is an organization that provides secondary education
and the building where this takes place. Some secondary schools provide
both lower secondary education and upper secondary education (levels 2 and
3 of the ISCED scale), but these can also be provided in separate schools,
as in the American middle and high school system. Secondary schools
typically follow on from primary schools and prepare for vocational or
tertiary education. Attendance is compulsory in most countries for
students until the age of 16. The organizations, buildings, and
terminology are more or less unique in each country.
is the educational level following the completion of
or preparatory school,
, or college prep, is a type of
secondary school. The term can refer to public, private independent or
parochial schools primarily designed to prepare students for
refers to a period of education that is
of all people
and is imposed by the government.
is a school type, principally in the United
Kingdom. It is a school for secondary aged children that does not select
its intake on the basis of academic achievement or aptitude, in contrast
to the selective school system where admission is restricted on the basis
of selection criteria.
is a school that admits students on the basis of some
sort of selection criteria, usually academic. The term may have different
connotations in different systems and is the opposite of a comprehensive
school, which accepts all students, regardless of aptitude.
or Public School
are generally primary or secondary schools mandated for or
offered to all children without charge, funded in whole or in part by
taxation. are funded and overseen by government rather than by private
entities. often funded by religious institutions. testing and standards
provided by government. Direct control of education is a power reserved to
the states under the Tenth Amendment to the United States Constitution
because the Constitution does not explicitly or implicitly give the
federal government authority to regulate education. However, any public or
private school that accepts educational funding from the federal
government, including participation in collegiate federal financial aid
programs (such as Pell Grants and Stafford Loans), by accepting the funds
or participating in a particular federal program, subjects itself to
federal jurisdiction to the extent of that participation.
is independent in its finances and governance. Also
known as private schools
, non-governmental, privately funded, or non-state
schools, they are not administered by local, state or national
governments. They are usually not dependent upon national or local
government to finance their financial endowment. They are typically
governed by a board of governors which is elected independently of
government, and has a system of governance that ensures its independent
operation. Children who attend private schools may be there because they
are dissatisfied with public schools in their area.
is a school that receives government funding but
operates independently of the established state school system in which it
is located. There is debate on whether charter schools ought to be
described as private schools or state schools. Advocates of the charter
model state that they are public schools because they are open to all
students and do not charge tuition, while critics cite charter schools'
private operation and loose regulations regarding public accountability
and labor issues as arguments against the concept.
are public schools with specialized courses or
curricula. "Magnet" refers to how the schools draw students from across
the normal boundaries defined by authorities (usually school boards) as
school zones that feed into certain schools. There are magnet schools at
the elementary, middle, and high school levels. In the United States,
where education is decentralized, some magnet schools are established by
school districts and draw only from the district, while others are set up
by state governments and may draw from multiple districts.
are secondary schools with enhanced coverage of
certain subjects that constitute the specialization of the school. They
should not be identified with vocational schools, whose goal is to deliver
skills for a particular type of job.
Specialist Schools Programme
Education in the United States
is provided in public, private, and
home schools. State governments set overall educational standards, often
mandate standardized tests for K–12 public school systems and supervise,
usually through a board of regents, state colleges, and universities. The
bulk of the $1.3 trillion in funding
comes from state and local
governments, with federal funding accounting for only about $200 billion.
Private schools are generally free to determine their own curriculum and
staffing policies, with voluntary accreditation available through
independent regional accreditation authorities, although some state
regulation can apply. In 2013, about 87% of school-age children (those
below higher education) attended state funded public schools, about 10%
attended tuition- and foundation-funded private schools, and roughly 3%
were home-schooled. By state law, education is compulsory over an age
range starting between five and eight and ending somewhere between ages
sixteen and eighteen, depending on the state. This requirement can be
satisfied in public schools, state-certified private schools, or an
approved home school program. In most schools, compulsory education is
divided into three levels: elementary school, middle or junior high
school, and high school. Children are usually divided by age groups into
grades, ranging from kindergarten (5–6-year olds) and first grade for the
youngest children, up to twelfth grade (17–18 years old) as the final year
of high school. There are also a large number and wide variety of publicly
and privately administered institutions of higher education throughout the
country. Post-secondary education, divided into college, as the first
tertiary degree, and graduate school, is described in a separate section
below. Higher education includes elite private colleges like Harvard
University, Stanford University, MIT, and Caltech, large state flagship
universities, private liberal arts schools, historically-black colleges
and universities, community colleges, and for-profit colleges like the
University of Phoenix. College enrollment rates in the United States have
increased over the long term. At the same time, student loan debt has also
risen to $1.5 trillion
. According to a
report published by the U.S. News & World Report, of the top ten colleges
and universities in the world, eight are American (the other two are
Oxford and Cambridge, in the United Kingdom). The United States spends
more per student on education than any other country. In 2014, the
Pearson/Economist Intelligence Unit rated US education as 14th best in the
world. The Programme for International Student Assessment coordinated by
the OECD currently ranks the overall knowledge and skills of American
15-year-olds as 31st in the world in reading literacy, mathematics, and
science with the average American student scoring 487.7, compared with the
OECD average of 493. In 2014, the country spent 6.2 percent of its GDP on
all levels of education – 1.0 percentage points above the OECD average of
5.2 percent. In 2017, 46.4 percent of Americans aged 25 to 64 attained
some form of post-secondary education. 48 percent of Americans aged 25 to
34 attained some form of tertiary education, about 4 percent above the
OECD average of 44 percent. 35 percent of Americans aged 25 and over have
achieved a bachelor's degree or higher. The United States ranks 3rd from
the bottom among OECD nations in terms of its poverty gap, and 4th from
the bottom in terms of poverty rate. Jonathan Kozol has described these
inequalities in K–12 education in Savage Inequalities and The Shame of a
Nation: The Restoration of Apartheid Schooling in America
SRM University, Andhra Pradesh
offers undergraduate, postgraduate
courses,diploma and Ph.D programmes through its two schools, the School of
Engineering & Applied Sciences, launched in 2017, and the School of
Liberal Arts & Basic Sciences, which was launched in 2018.
is a university that is in state ownership or
receives significant public funds through a national or subnational
government, as opposed to a private university. Whether a national
university is considered public varies from one country (or region) to
another, largely depending on the specific education landscape.
is generally a university created or managed by a
government, but which may at the same time operate autonomously without
direct control by the state. Some national universities are associated
with national cultural or political aspirations.
are usually not operated by governments, although
many receive tax breaks, public student loans, and grants. Depending on
their location, private universities may be subject to government
regulation. This is in contrast to public universities and national
universities. Many private universities are nonprofit organizations.
Early College Experience
Association for College Admission Counseling
is a series of intentional interactions
with a curriculum, a pedagogy, and a set of student learning outcomes.
Academic advising synthesizes and contextualizes students' educational
experiences within the frameworks of their aspirations, abilities and
lives to extend learning beyond campus boundaries and timeframes.
is a social-constructivist advising
philosophy that provides a framework for optimizing advisor interactions
with students in both individual and group settings.
is learning to earn or maintain
to formal coursework,
conferences and informal learning opportunities situated in practice. It
has been described as intensive and collaborative, ideally incorporating
an evaluative stage. There are a variety of approaches to professional
, including consultation, coaching, communities of practice,
lesson study, mentoring, reflective supervision and technical assistance.
Unique Employment Opportunities
Job Searching Tools
Public Service Jobs Ideas
Online Education Providers
Education Sayings & Quotes
"Don't just learn the tricks of the trade, learn the trade."
- Training Definitions
- Teaching Resources
School Counselor Responsibilities
and an educator who works in
elementary, middle, and/or high schools to provide academic, career,
college readiness, and personal/social competencies to all K-12 students
through a school counseling program
School Social Worker
provides counseling services to
children and adolescents in schools.
is a professional who provides expert
advice in a particular area.
the Job Training
professionals provide direct and indirect
to students. They also develop
and implement comprehensive
programs that focus on student
. Through direct student services, school counseling programs and
their counselors provide: Core School Counseling Curriculum. Lessons that
are designed to help students achieve competencies, knowledge, attitudes,
and skills appropriate to their level of development. Individual Student
Planning. Activities designed to assist students in establishing
developing their future plans. Responsive Services. Meeting the immediate
needs and concerns of students in both individual and small-group settings
or crisis counseling. Indirect services
students involve any activity that is completed on behalf of students.
These include referrals, consultation, and collaboration with stakeholders
such as administrators, teachers,
, and community organizations.
School counseling professionals are also involved in student
abilities, the identification of issues that impact school participation,
and prepare and present workshops on certain topics such as bullying and
drug abuse. Elementary school counselors take a collaborative approach to
helping students. They work closely with teachers
, administrators and
parents to make sure every young student is being taught at the right
level, students who may be struggling are getting the appropriate support
and referrals, and the top students are being adequately challenged. They
also watch for warning signs when a student may have a learning
disability, an underlying emotional or behavioral concern, or having
problems at home that affect their learning. In middle schools, school
where it is sorely needed, among
a population that is experiencing physical, mental, emotional and social
growing pains. From the transition from childhood to adolescence, middle
school students typically explore and expand their interests, begin to
connect their learning in school to real world experiences, engage in high
levels of activity, develop their own identity, and seek opinions from
peers for comfort, understanding, and approval. A
middle school counseling
office is rarely empty as all manner of
issues arise daily, from physical and social conflicts, to academic
struggles and emotional issues.
School Counselor Association
or ASCA describes the work of high school
counseling offices as providing support, guidance, and opportunities to
adolescents who are seeking to define their independence, transition into
adulthood, and evaluate and further develop their skills. High school
counselors provide academic and career planning activities, address
personal and social development concerns, and prepare and present
workshops on a variety of topics. Crisis counseling and management is
prevalent to the high school counseling role as adolescents are challenged
with the pressures of alcohol, sex, drug abuse, relationships, and
is a person who leads others
to more abstract
knowledge or wisdom. The term can also be applied to a person who leads
travelers or tourists through unknown or unfamiliar locations.
works with a client to help them
achieve a fulfilled and satisfied state in life through the use of
purposeful activity or interventions designed to achieve functional
outcomes which promote health,
develop, improve, sustain or restore the highest possible level of
is an assessment and treatment to develop,
recover, or maintain the daily living and work skills of people with a
physical, mental, or
. Occupational therapists also
focus much of their work on identifying and eliminating environmental
barriers to independence and participation in daily activities.
Occupational therapy is a client-centered practice that places emphasis on
the progress towards the client's goals. Occupational therapy
the environment, modifying the task,
teaching the skill, and educating the client/family in order to increase
participation in and performance of
, particularly those
that are meaningful to the client. Occupational therapists often work
closely with professionals in physical therapy, speech therapy, nursing,
social work, and the community.
Career Path Testing
Career Aptitude Test
type of questionnaire
designed to assess your interests, values, and preferences that you may
have when deciding on a possible career choice. It could also provide some
information about what
you, which could help you decide possible
types of special
that you will need to reach you goal. Once you decide on a
possible career choice, then you should do some
and do an
that type of work, and also talk to people in that field of work so that
you can get a better understanding of the type of work that you may be
doing, and the possible locations where this
type of work
will be needed.
Remember, you will most likely have many careers to choose from. So don't
choose until you have looked around and seen all the different types of
work that are available. You should also look into the types of work that
will have the greatest benefit to yourself, and to the world.
Career Path Testing
Career Aptitude Test
is the particular occupation for which you are trained for and
the general progression
of your working or professional life. A career can
also be seen as an individual's journey through
, work and other
aspects of life. There are a number of ways to define a career and the
term is used in a variety of ways.
Jobs that Make a Difference
is the main activity or
that you do to earn Money
Occupations by Type
One T Online
has detailed descriptions of the world of
for use by
workforce. Browse groups of similar occupations to explore careers.
Occupations in Music
Unveiling a new map that reveals the hidden personalities of jobs
understanding the hidden
of different roles could be the key to matching a person and their ideal
occupation. The research used a variety of advanced artificial
intelligence, machine learning and data analytics approaches to create a
data-driven 'vocation compass' — a recommendation system that finds the
career that is a good fit with our personality. Even when the system was
wrong it was not too far off, pointing to professions with very similar skill sets.
is the practice of teaching specific career skills
to students in middle school, high school, and post-secondary
institutions. CTE is split into 16 career clusters that apply to different
General Education, Vocational Education, and Labor-Market Outcomes over
What Is Career and Technical Education
Association for Career and Technical Education
is the largest national
education association in the United States dedicated to the advancement of
education that prepares for careers. The ACTE is committed to enhancing
the job performance and satisfaction of its members; to increasing public
awareness and appreciation for career and technical education (CTE); and
to assuring growth in local, state and federal funding for these programs
by communicating and working with legislators and government leaders.
Skills - Aptitude
is a component of a
to do a
certain kind of work at a certain level. Outstanding aptitude can be
may be physical or
is the ability to get a job done
College Entry ExamSkills Gap
defined as the disconnect between the skills employers look for when
recruiting potential employees and the number of job-seekers with those
skills. Knowledge Gap
Criteria Cognitive Aptitude Test
is a pre-employment
that measures an individual's aptitude, or ability to solve
problems, digest and apply information, learn new skills, and think
critically. Individuals with high aptitude are more likely to be quick
learners and high performers than are individuals with low aptitude.
The CCAT consists of 50 items
; very few people finish all 50 items in
the 15 minute time limit.
- Employee Ethics
Engaging Assessments for Career Development.
Transferable Skills Analysis
is a set of
logic to determine what positions a person may fill if their previous
position(s) no longer exists in the local job market, or they can no
longer perform their last position(s) (e.g., because of an injury). An
informal transferable skills analysis can be performed with the help of a
career counselor, career portfolio or a career planning article or book.
Transferable skills are determined by analyzing past accomplishments or
. For instance, a stay-at-home parent and homemaker might find
they have skills in budgeting, child development, food services, property
management, and so on.
American Job Center Network
U.S. Department of
Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery
. The ASVAB currently
contains 9 sections (except the written test, which contains 8 sections).
The duration of each test varies from as low as ten minutes up to 36
minutes for Arithmetic Reasoning; the entire ASVAB is three hours long.
The test is typically administered in a computerized format at Military
Entrance Processing Stations, known as MEPS, or at a satellite location
called a Military Entrance Test (MET) site. The ASVAB is administered by
computer at the MEPS, while a written version is given at most MET sites.
Testing procedures vary depending on the mode of administration.
Computerized test format:
(GS) – 15 questions in 8 minutes. Arithmetic Reasoning (AR) – 15 questions
in 39 minutes. Word Knowledge (WK) – 15 questions in 8 minutes. Paragraph
Comprehension (PC) – 10 questions in 22 minutes. Mathematics Knowledge
(MK) – 15 questions in 20 minutes. Electronics Information (EI) – 15
questions in 8 minutes. Automotive and Shop Information (AS) – 10
questions in 7 minutes. Mechanical Comprehension (MC) – 15 questions in 20
minutes. Assembling Objects (AO) – 15 questions in 40 minutes. Verbal
Expression (VE)= (WK)+(PC). Written test
General Science (GS) – 45 questions in 20 minutes.
Arithmetic Reasoning (AR) – 30 questions in 36 minutes. Word Knowledge
(WK) – 35 questions in 11 minutes. Paragraph Comprehension (PC) – 15
questions in 13 minutes. Mathematics Knowledge (MK) – 25 questions in 24
minutes. Electronics Information (EI) – 20 questions in 9 minutes.
Automotive and Shop Information (AS) – 25 questions in 11 minutes.
Mechanical Comprehension (MC) – 25 questions in 19 minutes. Assembling
Objects (AO) – 25 questions in 15 minutes. Verbal Expression (VE)=
(WK)+(PC). Navy applicants also complete a Coding Speed (CS) test.
"Numerical Operations" (NO).
"Space Perception" (SP). "Tool Knowledge" (TK). "General Information"
(GI). "Attention to Detail" (AD). "Coding Speed" (CS).
On the Job Training - Work Experience
is a job
training program to gain
a skilled labor job, as well as for white collar and
is a system of training
a new generation of practitioners of a trade or
with on-the-job training
and often some accompanying study
in classroom work
and reading. Apprenticeship also enables practitioners to
gain a license to practice in a regulated profession.
Learn while you Earn
Real Life Examples
who has successfully
completed an official apprenticeship qualification in a building trade or
craft. They are considered competent and authorized to work in that field
as a fully qualified employee. A journeyman earns their
, supervised experience
is any experience
that a person gains while working
in a specific field or occupation, but the expression is widely used to
describe a type of volunteer work that is commonly intended for young
people — often students — to get a feel for professional working
environments. Work Experience Education
a work-based learning course of study that offers internships and
employment combined with instruction in critical workplace skills.
Development of "non-cognitive" skills (soft skills) play an important part
in college and career success. Put it into Practice
is an individual taking part in a
within an organization after having graduated from higher and technical
courses. A trainee is an official employee of the firm that is being
trained to the job they were originally hired for. Literally, a trainee is
an employee in training.
is an association of
who oversee the practice of their craft or trade in a particular area. The
earliest types of guild formed as confraternities of tradesmen, normally
operating in a single city and covering a single trade. They were
organized in a manner something between a professional association, a
trade union, a cartel, and a secret society.
to occasions when students from two or more professions in health and
social care learn together during all or part of their professional
training with the object of
cultivating collaborative practice
providing client- or patient-centered health care.
is education that prepares people to
work in a trade, a craft, as a technician, or in support roles in
professions such as engineering, accountancy, nursing, medicine,
architecture, or law. Craft vocations are usually based on manual or
practical activities and are traditionally non-academic but related to a
specific trade or occupation. Vocational education is sometimes referred
to as career education or technical education.
is a post-secondary educational institution
designed to provide vocational education, or technical skills required to
perform the tasks of a particular and specific job. Vocational schools are
traditionally distinguished from four-year colleges by their focus on
job-specific training to students who are typically bound for one of the
skilled trades, rather than providing academic training for students
pursuing careers in a professional discipline
Vocational Information Center
Vocational School Database
P Tech NYC
- Ct Tech
Dual Education System
combines apprenticeships in a company
and vocational education at a vocational school
in one course.
is a popular on-the-job learning
development, and leadership
development intervention. Essentially, job
shadowing involves working with another employee who might have a
different job in hand, might have something to teach, or can help the
person shadowing him or her to learn new aspects related to the job,
organization, certain behaviors or competencies. Organizations have been
using this as a very effective tool for learning.
is a structured method of combining
classroom-based education with practical work experience. A cooperative
education experience, commonly known as a "co-op", provides academic
credit for structured job experience. Cooperative education is taking on
new importance in helping young people to make the school-to-work
is how individuals acquire professional skills,
extending research on apprenticeship into how legitimate peripheral
participation leads to membership in a community of practice. Situated
learning "takes as its focus the relationship between learning and the
social situation in which it occurs"
Higher Education Improvements
Training and Development
is a function concerned with
organizational activity aimed at bettering the job performance of
individuals and groups in organizational settings. Training and
development can be described[by whom?] as "an educational process which
involves the sharpening of skills, concepts, changing of attitude and
gaining more knowledge to enhance the performance of employees.
Innovation Lab trains a quality workforce of local
community residents, and integrates them into surrounding businesses. We
have a social responsibility, and we’re giving you the opportunity to get
is an approach to teaching and
learning more often used in learning concrete skills than abstract
learning. It differs from other non-related approaches in that the unit of
learning is extremely fine grained. Rather than a course or a module every
individual skill/learning outcome, known as a competency, is one single
unit. Learners work on one competency at a time, which is likely a small
component of a larger learning goal. The student is evaluated on the
individual competency, and only once they have mastered it do they move on
to others. After that, higher or more complex
learned to a degree of mastery and isolated from other topics. Another
common component of Competency-based learning is the ability to skip
learning modules entirely if the learner can demonstrate they already have
mastery. That can be done either through prior learning assessment or
Competency Based Education
represents an invisible barrier that keeps a
given demographic (typically applied to
) from rising beyond a
certain level in a hierarchy
is learning to earn or maintain
to formal coursework,
conferences and informal learning opportunities situated in practice. It
has been described as intensive and collaborative, ideally incorporating
an evaluative stage.
You need to have people have the option
to change their careers when the needs of the society changes
And in order to do this effectively everyone must have access to
information, knowledge and training, so that people can acquire
the necessary skills in order for them to work a new job that
is needed by society. This way people will always have work and
people will always have the ability to work a new and different
job when needed. And then society will always have the workforce
that's needed, thus people will be able to solve any problem
they're faced with, and make as many improvements to services
and tools that they need.
You don't want to influence
people, or tell people what kind of work they should do, or what
career they should pursue
. You want to show people the facts.
And show them how these facts were collected, show them the
importance of these facts, and show them how they can verify
these facts for themselves, while at the same time, also explain to
them that there are things that are still not known to us, so
that they are fully aware that as more information is learned
they may have to make corrections to how this information is
being used at the present time. If you provide this information
and knowledge to people, people will always do what's right and
always do what's needed. Yes,
people will still make mistakes
but if people are completely educated they will be able to understand
these mistakes and correct them accordingly. Highly Educated people are
better prepared to learn from their mistakes instead of just continually
suffering from their mistakes, as ignorant people often do.
"It's not just what you do for work,
but just as important, it's what you do in your life
. You can
work many hours and be very productive, but if your style of
living is filled with waste and abuse then that negates all the
hard work you've done, and
you will most likely not be a benefit to society at all, so
don't waste your potential."
"Figuring out what you want to do with your life is not easy.
There's a lot to learn, there's a lot to know, and there's a lot
of questions to ask. But what ever you plan to do with your
life, you better do it before you die."
You need to understand that your
parents don't know everything, so
that means that 99% of the world doesn't know everything. And
it's not their fault. We have not yet improved education
adequately enough in order to fully educate people. So everyone
is undereducated. So that is one of the main problems that we
need to correct. When we do, we will solve all other problems.
It will not happen over night, or will it be without
difficulties. But it will be one of the single most important
advances that humans has ever made.
Examine the world and see where
the major problems are
, see if any
of those problems connect with you, meaning, does your knowledge
and experiences help you to understand this particular problem.
Do you feel like you can learn how to help solve this particular
problem? And if you do, then you would need to learn the
necessary steps to take, like, what education you would need?
And what type of training you would need in order to provide a
, or needed product, that would
solve this problem and also improve peoples lives,
When we work together
we can accomplish some amazing things.
Resources for Professional Development
American Society for Training and Development
My Skills My Future
your Career Options
Careers in Government
Workforce Investment Act
Work Certified Program
Military to Civilian Skills
Service Learning with Disadvantaged Youth
Resources for different Occupations
Occupational Outlook Handbook
Fastest Growing Occupations
Career one Stop
Career Education Network
Career Path Services
Public Service Careers
Teacher by 38 Special
Just when I thought I finally
learned my lesson well
There was more to this than meets the eye
for all the things you taught me, only time will tell
If I'll be able
to survive, oh yeah.
Teacher, teacher can you teach me?
Can you tell
me all I need to know?
Teacher, teacher can you reach me?
Or will I
fall when you let me go? Oh, no.
Am I ready for the real world? Will I
pass the test?
You know it's a jungle out there
Ain't nothin' gonna
stop me, I won't be second best
But the joke's on those who believe the
system's fair, oh yeah.
Teacher, teacher can you teach me?
tell me if I'm right or wrong?
Teacher, teacher can you reach me?
wanna know what's goin' on, oh yeah.
So the years go on and on but
nothing's lost or won
What you learn is soon forgotten
They take the
best years of your life
Try to tell you wrong from right
walk away with nothing, oh oh.
Teacher, teacher can you teach me?
Can you tell me all I need to know?
Teacher, teacher can you reach me?
Or will I fall when you let me go?
Teacher, teacher can you teach me?
Can you tell me if I'm right or wrong?
Teacher, teacher can you reach
I wanna know what's goin' on, oh.
Teacher, teacher, can you
Teacher, teacher, can you reach me?
Teacher, teacher, can
you teach me?
Teacher, teacher, oh yeah.