Teaching Resources

Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits. Educational methods include reading, storytelling, discussion, teaching, training, and directed research. Education frequently takes place under the guidance of educators, but learners may also educate themselves. Education can take place in formal or informal settings and any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts may be considered educational. The methodology of teaching is called pedagogy. There are many debates about educations precise definition and what the exact aims education tries to achieve. Education is the transmission of some knowledge, some skills, along with undefined character traits. Education supposedly socializes children into society by teaching cultural values and norms. and supposedly helps equip students with the skills needed to become productive members of society, which is not proven or even accurately measured.

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Students Learning at ComputersTeacher Training - Lessons - Curriculum - Teaching Methods - Learning Styles

Classroom Management - Leadership - Teaching Aids - Teaching Tools - Purpose

Career Path Testing - College Readiness - On the Job Training

Education Research - Essays

Education Reform - Online Schools - Grades - School Types - Policies

Child Development - Reading and Writing - Knowledge - Inspiration

All information needs instructions, if there were no instructions, life could never exist. This is why we must make sure that the instructions we give are the best instructions available, as well as the best information available, otherwise, mistakes will happen more often, which makes life extremely vulnerable, as we can clearly see today. Our world is full of problems that should not even exist.

Teaching - Teacher Training

TeacherTraining Teacher is a person who provides education for students.

Facilitate - Teach - Instruct - Guidance - Visual Learning - Teachers Pledge

Instructor is a person whose occupation is teaching.

Instruction is a message describing how something is to be done, and how something is used, and how something can be perceived or interpreted.

Instill is to teach and impress someone by frequent repetitions or by giving cautionary advice about something imminent. To produce a vivid impression of something valuable. To fill with a certain quality. To impart gradually or enter drop by drop.

Educator is a person who provides instruction or education. Someone who educates young people. A person whose occupation is teaching.

Teaching or education involves the activities of instruction that passes on or transfers knowledge and skill. Teaching is a combination of principles and methods of instruction, that helps a student to gain knowledge by learning, and acquire valuable skills through the gradual process of training. Teaching is a profession, especially at a school or a college or university. Teaching is essential for a good upbringing. Having knowledge of social influences and correct social behavior is extremely important.

Tutoring - Counseling - Coaching - Spiritual Teachers - Online Education - Learning Methods - Testing - Grades - Education Reform - Teacher Turnover

Dropping Knowledge is the act of supplying important information at a crucial time to a person. The information supplied must be of some significance within the context with which it was dropped. To give information or share knowledge on a subject or just life in general. To teach something. To give advice or share wisdom.

When it comes to teaching, there is no single approach. You have to understand the student. The learner is not a plant or an insect, the learner is a human being with varying degrees of knowledge and experience. So the teacher must adapt to the students needs and never expect the student to adapt to the teachers needs. Education needs to be personalized.

Co-Teaching or team teaching is the division of labor between educators to plan, organize, instruct and make assessments on the same group of students, generally in the a common classroom, and often with a strong focus on those teaching as a team complementing one another's particular skills or other strengths. One Teaches, One Supports: One teacher leads instruction, while the other provides support to students who need additional help or enrichment, gathers observation data, or provides classroom management. Parallel Teaching: Each teacher, or teacher and student teacher, plan jointly but each teaches the same information to different halves of the classroom at the same time. Alternative Teaching: One teacher manages most of the class while the other teacher works with a small group inside or outside of the classroom. The small group does not have to integrate with the current lesson. Station Teaching: Both teachers divide the instructional content, and each takes responsibility for planning and teaching part of it. In station teaching, the classroom is divided into various teaching centers. The teacher and student teacher are at particular stations; the other stations are run independently by the students or by a teacher’s aide. Team Teaching: Both teachers are responsible for planning and share the instruction of all students. The lessons are taught by both teachers who actively engage in conversation, not lecture, to encourage discussion by students. Both teachers are actively involved in the management of the lesson and discipline. The Magiera-Simmons Quality Indicator Model of Co-Teaching delineates a “quality process” to ensure that co-teachers collaborate successfully and achieve the best results for their students. Team teaching, a concept first introduced in schools in the 1960s, appealed to ASU researchers because they felt it could help revitalize teachers. The model of one teacher lecturing at the front of a classroom to many kids wasn’t working. Co-Parenting.

Pedagogy is the approach to teaching that refers to the theory and practice of learning, and how this process influences, and is influenced by, the social, political and psychological development of learners. Pedagogy, taken as an academic discipline, is the study of how knowledge and skills are imparted in an educational context, and it considers the interactions that take place during learning. Both the theory and practice of pedagogy vary greatly, as they reflect different social, political, and cultural contexts. Pedagogy is often described as the act of teaching. The pedagogy adopted by teachers shapes their actions, judgments, and other teaching strategies by taking into consideration theories of learning, understandings of students and their needs, and the backgrounds and interests of individual students. Its aims may range from furthering liberal education (the general development of human potential) to the narrower specifics of vocational education (the imparting and acquisition of specific skills). Conventional western pedagogies view the teacher as knowledge holder and student as the recipient of knowledge (described by Paulo Freire as "banking methods"), but theories of pedagogy increasingly identify the student as an agent and the teacher as a facilitator. Instructive strategies are governed by the pupil's background knowledge and experience, situation, and environment, as well as learning goals set by the student and teacher. One example would be the Socratic method.

Process is a particular course of action intended to achieve a result. Process in psychology is the performance of some composite cognitive activity; an operation that affects mental contents. A sustained phenomenon or one marked by gradual changes through a series of states. A mental process that you are not directly aware of. Subject to a process or treatment, with the aim of readying for some purpose, improving, or remedying a condition. Perform mathematical and logical operations on (data) according to programmed instructions in order to obtain the required information. Shape, form, or improve a material.

Principles is a rule or standard especially of good behavior. Rule of personal conduct. Direct the course of; manage or control. Behave in a certain manner.

Visiting Scholar is a scholar from an institution who visits a host university to teach, lecture, or perform research on a topic for which the visitor is valued. In many cases the position is not salaried because visitor is salaried by their home institution (or partially salaried, as in some cases of sabbatical leave from US universities). Some visiting positions are salaried. A visiting scholar is also known as visiting scientist, visiting researcher, visiting fellow, visiting lecturer, or visiting professor.

Student Teacher is a college, university or graduate student who is teaching under the supervision of a certified teacher in order to qualify for a degree in education. Practice Teacher.

Student Teaching is a college-supervised instructional experience; usually the culminating course in a university or college undergraduate education or graduate school program leading to teacher education and certification.

Substitute Teacher is a person who teaches a school class when the regular teacher is unavailable; e.g., because of illness, personal leave, or other reasons.

Para-Professional Educator is a teaching-related position within a school generally responsible for specialized or concentrated assistance for students in elementary and secondary schools. Paraeducator is defined as a school employee who works under the supervison of teachers or other professional practitioners. Their jobs are instructional in nature and they provide other direct services to children and youth and their families. a paraprofessional is a person who is trained to assist a professional while paraeducator is a paraprofessional educator; a teacher's assistant responsible for helping students in the classroom.

Teaching Assistant is an individual who assists a teacher with instructional responsibilities.

Research Assistant is a researcher employed, often on a temporary contract, by a university or a research institute, for the purpose of assisting in academic research. Research assistants are not independent and not directly responsible for the outcome of the research and are responsible to a supervisor or principal investigator. Research assistants are often educated to degree level and might be enrolled in a postgraduate degree program and simultaneously teach.

Teaching Assistant UK is a person who supports students in the classroom. Duties can differ dramatically from school to school, though the underlying tasks often remain the same.

Teacher Education refers to the policies and procedures designed to equip prospective teachers with the knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and skills they require to perform their tasks effectively in the classroom, school and wider community.

Certified Teacher is a teacher who has earned credentials from an authoritative source, such as the government, a higher education institution or a private source.

A good teacher is measured by their ability to use multiple teaching methods and mediums to convey the same information. Behind every intelligent person, or highly skilled athlete, is a great coach or a great teacher. Even if someone taught themselves, they still had to use some knowledge that was provided to them by others. Everything should have a Learning Objective, if not, then what is it?

Teacher Training & Development - Teacher Training Program

Teachers College Columbia - wiki

Teachers Needed Report (PDF)

In Loco Parentis is Latin for "in the place of a parent", which refers to the legal responsibility of a person or organization to take on some of the functions and responsibilities of a parent. Originally derived from English common law, it is applied in two separate areas of the law. First, it allows institutions such as colleges and schools to act in the best interests of the students as they see fit, although not allowing what would be considered violations of the students' civil liberties. Second, this doctrine can provide a non-biological parent to be given the legal rights and responsibilities of a biological parent if they have held themselves out as the parent. The in loco parentis doctrine is distinct from the doctrine of parens patriae, the psychological parent doctrine, and adoption.

Teacher Education Accreditation Council - Nat. Board for Teaching Standards

Teacher Education - Teach - Teacher Vision

TN - Learning and Teaching

"Those who can, do, those who can't, teach." - George Bernard Shaw (wiki)

Learning Styles - Learning Methods - Books on Teaching Methods

Education Specialist is an advanced degree in the U.S. that is designed for individuals who wish to develop advanced knowledge and theory beyond the master's degree level, but may not wish to pursue a degree at the doctoral level.

Classroom Management - Great Teachers

Proctor is a persons who takes charge of, or acts for, another.

Professor is an academic rank at universities and other post-secondary education and research institutions in most countries. Literally, professor derives from Latin as a "person who professes" being usually an expert in arts or sciences, a teacher of the highest rank. Professors conduct original research and commonly teach undergraduate, graduate, or professional courses in their fields of expertise. In universities with graduate schools, professors may mentor and supervise graduate students conducting research for a thesis or dissertation. Professors typically hold a Ph.D., another doctorate or a different terminal degree. Some professors hold a master's degree or a professional degree, such as an M.D., as their highest degree.

Lecture is a speech that is open to the public. Teaching by giving a discourse on some subject to a group of people or a class. Deliver a lecture or talk. Lectures is an oral presentation intended to present information or teach people about a particular subject. Lectures are used to convey critical information, history, background, theories, and equations. A politician's speech, a minister's sermon, or even a businessman's sales presentation may be similar in form to a lecture. Usually the lecturer will stand at the front of the room and recite information relevant to the lecture's content. Lector is someone who reads, whether aloud or not. Lecturer is someone who lectures professionally or is a public lecturer at certain universities and denotes an academic expert without tenure in the university, who is hired to teach on a full-time or part-time basis, but who is not paid to conduct research. Passive Learning.

Chief Learning Officer is the highest-ranking corporate officer in charge of learning management. CLOs may be experts in corporate or personal training, with degrees in education, instructional design, business or similar fields. Qualified CLOs should be able to drive the corporate strategy and align the development of people with the business goals of the organization. A full complement of skills, including business analytics, technology, learning theory, performance consulting and scientific inquiry, are important for success. The CLO may report directly to the CEO, but may also report to the Head of HR or Chief Talent Officer.

Reader as a academic rank denotes an appointment for a senior academic with a distinguished international reputation in research or scholarship.

College of Education is a division within a university that is devoted to scholarship in the field of education, which is an interdisciplinary branch of the social sciences encompassing sociology, psychology, linguistics, economics, political science, public policy, history, and others, all applied to the topic of elementary, secondary, and post-secondary education.

Normal School is a school created to train high school graduates to be teachers. Most such schools are now called teachers' colleges. Elementary Education Degree.

Inspiring Teacher Movies (amazon) - Inspire My Kids

Motivation Words - Teaching Quotes - Inspiration Quotes

Revolving Door Of Teacher Turnover Costs Schools Billions Every Year.
Teacher Attrition Costs United States Up to $2.2 Billion Annually, Says New Alliance Report.

After 25 Years, This Teacher Says It's All The Paperwork That Made Him Quit.

Teacher Shortages in the U.S. School-going population will increase by roughly three million students in the next decade.

Master of Education is a degree in education that often includes the following majors: curriculum and instruction, counseling, school psychology, and administration. It is often conferred for educators advancing in their field.

Masters in Education Guide - Masters in Education - Master Teacher Corps

Masters in Elementary Education - Teaching Works

How to Get Your Teacher Certification? Earn a bachelor's degree and complete a teacher prep program. Fulfill the student teaching requirement. .Earn your master's degree if your specialization requires one. Pass your state's required exam for teachers. Apply for state teacher certification. All states require certified teachers to hold a bachelor's degree, and more and more states now require candidates to hold a master's degree or receive one within the first five years of teaching. Teachers may earn a credential that allows them to teach either certain subject matter or a specific grade level. It is still possible to become a teacher without a bachelor's degree in education by going through an accredited teacher certification program. Through the certification process, you will take classes that will provide you with an appropriate segue into a teaching job.

Rising number of Teachers have License Revoked. Forty-two Connecticut educators had their certificates revoked between 2015 and 2019, according to a list obtained from the state Department of Education, which also shows the number jumped from four revocations in 2015 to 17 revocations in 2019. State officials say a jump in revocations of educators’ certificates may be due to a new bureau, dedicated to investigating such cases. CONNECTICUT: Teacher's certificate may be revoked if certificate has been obtained through fraud or misrepresentation; teacher has neglected duties or been convicted of a crime involving moral turpitude; teacher has been neglectful of duties; or other due and sufficient cause exists.

Dean is a title employed in academic administrations such as colleges or universities for a person with significant authority over a specific academic unit, over a specific area of concern, or both. Deans are common in private preparatory schools, and occasionally found in middle schools and high schools as well.

Provost is a senior administrative officer in certain colleges and universities. Provost is the senior academic administrator at many institutions of higher education in the United States and Canada and the equivalent of a deputy vice-chancellor at some institutions in the United Kingdom, Ireland, and Australia. Additionally, the heads of certain colleges in the UK and Ireland are called provosts; it is, in this sense, the equivalent of a master at other colleges.

Academic Administration is a branch of university or college employees responsible for the maintenance and supervision of the institution and separate from the faculty or academics, although some personnel may have joint responsibilities. Some type of separate administrative structure exists at almost all academic institutions. Fewer institutions are governed by employees who are also involved in academic or scholarly work. Many senior administrators are academics who have advanced degrees and no longer teach or conduct research.

Academic Personnel in many universities, the members of the administration (e.g., department chairs, deans, vice presidents, presidents, and librarians) are also faculty members; many of them begin (and remain) as professors. At some universities, the distinction between "academic faculty" and "administrative faculty" is made explicit by the former being contracted for nine months per year, meaning that they can devote their time to research (and possibly be absent from the campus) during the summer months, while the latter are contracted for twelve months per year. These two types of faculty members are sometimes known as "nine-month faculty" and "twelve-month faculty". Faculty who are paid a nine-month salary are typically allowed to seek external funds from grant agencies to partially or fully support their research activities during the summer months. Most university faculty members hold a Ph.D. or equivalent highest-level degree in their field. Some professionals or instructors from other institutions who are associated with a particular university (e.g., by teaching some courses or supervising graduate students) but do not hold professorships may be appointed as adjunct faculty. In North America, faculty is a distinct category from staff, although members of both groups are employees of the institution in question. This is distinct from, for example, the British (and European, Australia, and New Zealand) usage, in which all employees of the institution are staff either on academic or professional (i.e. non-academic) contracts.

Teaching Assessment

Teacher Assessmen Cycle Teacher Assessment
Teacher Quality Research
Nat. Council on Teacher Quality
Teacher Evaluation Policies
Teacher Evaluation by Students (PDF)
Rate My Teachers
How Teachers Are Rated in 25 Countries
Global Teacher Prize
Teacher Vision
Teacher Qualities

Testing Failures

Assessment Warnings
Observation Flaws

The Global Teacher Status Index

Pre-Service Teacher Education is the education and training provided to student teachers before they have undertaken any teaching.

Educational Testing Service

The New Teacher Project is an organization in the United States with a mission of ensuring that poor and minority students get equal access to effective teachers. It attempts to help urban school districts and states recruit and train new teachers, staff challenged schools, design evaluation systems, and retain teachers who have demonstrated the ability to raise student achievement.

The New Teacher Project
Tennessee Teachers Association

Teach Thought 
50 Great Teachers Project (NPR)

Collective Learning - Collective Learning

Teaching Degree Programs
Education Career Schools

Become a Teacher
En Corps Teachers
Teacher U
Academic Keys

Teaching Strategies
National Alliance on Effective Education
Society for Performance Improvement

Canter Teacher Training
Merlot Learning Online Teaching
Learn Teach Read
Student Achievement
We are Teachers
Get Schooled
Learning Point Associates
Education Consumers
Academic Job Hunter
Education Jobs - School Spring
West Ed
Carnegie Foundation
Engines For Education
National Commission on Teaching
Preparing Faculty
I Love Schools Help for Teachers
Education Trust
Edu Scapes
Motivation Resources Courses - Inspiration
Connected Waldenu
Mind Tools
Moodle Course Management System
Common Sense Press
Common Sense Media
Teachers Mind
Learning and Teaching
Thoughtful Classroom
Ad Junct Nation
CNX Sharing Knowledge

A Way to Teach
Teaching Tips
Instructional Tips
Effective Teaching
National Endowment for the Arts
Wallace Foundation
Jacobs Foundation
Pearson Foundation
Imagine Cup

Learning Theories
Learning Contracts
Changing Minds
Thomas Armstrong books on human intelligence and education.
Process Network
Ctr 4 Process
Million Ways to Teach
Connect a Million Minds
After School

Parent Teacher Organization is a formal organization that consists of parents, teachers and school staff. The organization's goals may vary from organization to organization, but essentially the goals include volunteerism of parents, encouragement of teachers and students, community involvement, and welfare of students and families. It is not affiliated with Parent-Teacher Association (PTA) or Parent-Teacher-Student Association (PTSA.) PTA is a national association of millions of members and thousands of local units that provides leadership training and staff support.

PTA is a formal organization composed of parents, teachers and staff that is intended to facilitate parental participation in a school. Parent University.

Teaching Tips - Understanding Students in the Classroom

1: Watch how each student interacts. How do they prefer to engage? What do they seem to like to do? Observe so you can understand all they are capable of. 

2: Listen. Try to understand what motivates them, what their goals are and how they view you, their classmates and the activities you assign them.

3: Engage. Talk with students about their individual interests. Don't offer advice or opinions – just listen.

4: Experiment: Change how you react to challenging behaviors. Rather than responding quickly in the moment, take a breath. Realize that their behavior might just be a way of reaching out to you.

5: Meet: Each week, spend time with students outside of your role as "teacher." Let the students choose a game or other nonacademic activity they'd like to do with you. Your job is to NOT teach but watch, listen, and narrate what you see, focusing on students' interests and what they do well. This type of activity is really important for students with whom you often feel in conflict or who you avoid.

6: Reach out: Know what your students like to do outside of school. Make it a project for them to tell you about it using some medium in which they feel comfortable: music, video, writing, etc. Find both individual and group time for them to share this with you. Watch and listen to how skilled, motivated and interested they can be. Now think about school through their eyes.

7: Reflect: Think back on your own best and worst teachers, bosses or supervisors. List five words for each that describe how you felt in your interactions with them. How did the best and the worst make you feel? What specifically did they do or say that made you feel that way? Now think about how your students would describe you. Jot down how they might describe you and why. How do your expectations or beliefs shape how they look at you? Are there parallels in your beliefs and their responses to you?

Written by Researcher Robert Pianta. Originally titled "7 Ways Teachers Can Change Their Expectations"

Large Classroom with Students Classroom Management is the process of ensuring that classroom lessons run smoothly despite disruptive behavior by students. The term also implies the prevention of disruptive behavior.

Classroom Management Guide - Classroom Management.

19 Big and Small Classroom Management Strategies

Time Management - Education Specialist

Teachers Pledge - Collaborative Classroom

Teacher Vision

The Teachers Guide - Teaching Channel

Instructional Practices for an Effective Classroom (PDF)

Strategic Learning - Strategic Learning - Educational Strategies

Support for Instructional Coaches, Classroom Teachers and Educational Leaders

Learning Methods - Teacher Training - Tutoring

Rita Pierson: Every Kid needs a Champion (video)

Youth Advocate (wiki) - Education Purposes

The Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning (CSEFEL)
No Nonsense Nurturer (PDF)

25 Things Successful Educators Do Differently - Audio-Visual

A Code of Professional Ethics: A Guide to Professional Conduct in the field of Educational Communications and Technology.

Classroom Management Theorists and Theories - Fred Jones

Tools for Teaching Kids How to get Along (PDF)

Table of Contents (PDF) - Introduction (PDF) - Tool Kit (PDF)

New Teacher Center - The Center for Transformative Teacher Training (CTTT)

Whole Brain Teaching: Grade 1 Classroom (youtube) The concept is correct, but it's misused a little.

Simultaneous Subject Teaching is about making connections, it's not about silly gestures.

Interactive Teaching Methods by Chandralekha Singh's (youtube)

Learning Management System is a software application for the administration, documentation, tracking, reporting and delivery of electronic educational technology (also called e-learning) courses or training programs. Learning management systems range from systems for managing training and educational records to software for distributing online or blended/hybrid college courses over the Internet with features for online collaboration, school districts, and schools use LMSs to deliver online courses and augment on-campus courses. LMSs also act to augment the lessons the teacher is giving in a brick and mortar environment, not just replace them. Corporate training departments use LMSs to deliver online training, as well as to automate record-keeping and employee registration.

"Sometimes in order to be a good teacher you have to modify your behavior, and not just your teaching methods."

The American Statistical Association published research showing that teachers account for up to 17% of student learning.

Teacher Responsibilities

The teacher has the responsibility to lead students toward the fulfillment of his/her potential for intellectual, emotional, psychological, and social growth. Teachers are responsible for stimulating maximum learning on the part of the pupils assigned to them by providing a good environment and by guiding sound curriculum experiences and activities in the classroom, the school, and the community. The teacher reports to the building principal or other designated person. Learning Specialists - Teachers become Healthier when they Learn.

Major Duties and Responsibilities of the Teacher are to:
1. Meet and instruct assigned classes in the locations and at the times designated.
2. Develop and maintain a classroom environment conducive to effective learning within the limits of the resources provided by the division, with responsibility for the order and progress of his/her classes.
3. Prepare for classes assigned, and show written evidence of preparation upon request of the immediate supervisor.
4. Assist students in setting and maintaining standards of classroom behavior.
5. Take all necessary and reasonable precautions to protect students, equipment, materials, and facilities with responsibility for the neatness of his/her room and the proper care of all furniture and supplies.
6. Evaluate student progress on a regular basis.
7. Employ a variety of instructional techniques and instructional media, consistent with the physical limitations of the location provided and the needs and capabilities of the individuals or student groups involved.
8. Maintain accurate, complete, and correct records as required by law
9. Be available to students and parents for education-related purposes outside the instructional day when required or
requested to do so under the reasonable term.
10. Comply with and enforce school rules, administrative regulations, and School Board policies.
11. Attend and participate in faculty meetings as well as other professional meetings called by the administrative staff.
12. Cooperate with other members of staff in planning instructional goals, objectives, and methods.
13. Assist in selecting books, equipment, and other instructional materials.
14. Establish and maintain cooperative relations with others.
15. Accomplish reasonable special assignments as assigned by the principal.
16. Provide for his/her own professional growth through an ongoing program of study, including workshops, seminars, conferences, and/or advanced course work at institutions of higher learning.
17. Perform other school duties as assigned.

Teacher Duties

The purpose of the Teacher Duties and Responsibilities Instrument (TDRI) is to describe the expectations for teachers in addition to the teaching tasks outlined in the GTOL. A. Follows professional practices consistent with school and system policies in working with students, students’ records, parents, and colleagues . Classroom Management

1. Demonstrates communication and interpersonal skills as they relate to interaction with students, parents, other teachers, administrators, and other school personnel
2. Is available to students and parents for conferences according to system policies.
3. Facilitates home-school communication by such means as holding conferences, telephoning, and sending written communications.
4. Maintains confidentiality of students and students’ records.
5. Works cooperatively with school administrators, special support personnel, colleagues, and parents.
B. Complies with rules, regulations, and policies of governing agencies and supervisory personnel.
1. Complies with state administrative regulations and Board of Education policies.
2. Adheres to school and local school system procedures and rules.
3. Conducts assigned classes at the times scheduled.
4. Enforces regulations concerning student conduct and discipline.
5. Demonstrates timeliness and attendance for assigned responsibilities
6. Provides adequate information, plans, and materials for substitute teacher.
7. Maintains accurate, complete, and appropriate records and files reports promptly.
8. Attends and participates in faculty meetings and other assigned meetings and activities according to school policy
9. Complies with conditions as state in contract.
C. Demonstrates professional practices in teaching.
1. Models correct use of language, oral and written.
2. Demonstrates accurate and up-to-date knowledge of content.
3. Implements designated curriculum.
4. Maintains lesson plans as required by school policy.
5. Assigns reasonable tasks and homework to students.
6. Participates in professional development opportunities and applies the concepts to classroom and school activities.
D. Acts in a professional manner and assumes responsibility for the total school program, its safety and good order.
1. Takes precautions to protect records, equipment, materials, and facilities.
2. Assumes responsibility for supervising students in out-of-class settings.
3. Demonstrates appropriate personal contact while in performance of school duties.
E. Assumes a role in meeting the school’s student achievement goals, including academic gains of students assigned to the teacher.
F. Observations of the teacher by the principal and assistant principals, in addition to those recorded on the GTOI during instruction, at other times as appropriate.

(Other duties and responsibilities prescribed by local school or system such as, but not limited to: lunchroom, homeroom, hall, playground and other advisory duties). GTDRI Assessment Instrument.

Student Teacher Responsibilities

A student from an approved institution of higher learning may take practice teaching, practicum, or field work in Public Schools
upon approval of the Superintendent and under such regulations as the Superintendent shall set forth to ensure that the progress of the pupils in any class is not adversely affected. School Counselors (advising and guiding)

1. Teacher training institutions desiring to place students in Public Schools should begin by contacting the Human Resources Department.
2. To make the program effective and beneficial to both the student teacher and the school division, full approval of the principal and supervising teacher shall be secured.
(a) An understanding should be reached as to the hours during the day and the length of time a student teacher shall be working in any school.
(b) No student teacher shall be accepted by any Public School until the principal has approved the application sent it to the Human Resources Department.
3. Schools assigned student teachers shall work cooperatively with the representative from the teacher training institution in supervising the student teacher. Supervising teachers should not leave the responsibility for supervising students to a student teacher by being absent from the classroom until such time as the student teacher is capable of managing the classroom and has demonstrated competence in doing so.

Teacher Burn Out

Personality and Contextual Variables in Teacher Burnout (PDF) - Teacher Turnover.

Teacher Attrition Costs United States Up to $2.2 Billion Annually, Says New Alliance Report.

Teacher Stress and Health. Effects on Teachers, Students, and Schools. America Schools Report.

Mindfulness for Teachers. Simple Skills for Peace and Productivity in the Classroom. Meditation.

Is Silence Golden? Elementary school teachers' strategies and beliefs regarding hypothetical shy/quiet and exuberant/talkative children. Extroversion.

School Principal Responsibilities

Principal is the administrative and professional leader of the school, and as such, he/she is directly responsible to the Superintendent for its successful operation. The major effect of the principal is in the field of educational leadership and supervision, with stress on the improvement of teaching and learning. To bring about this improvement, he/she should call upon all of the resources of the school division. Education Policy - Department of Education.

A. Supervision of Instruction.
The primary duty of the principal is to develop and implement an effective instructional program appropriate to the pupils in his/her school. Careful attention should be given to the supervision of teachers and other instructional personnel working in the school, including both full and part-time personnel.
B. Supervision of School Property
Principals have general supervision of the grounds, building, and appurtenances of the school, and are responsible for his/her neatness and cleanliness. The safety of the children is a primary responsibility, and school premises should be inspected regularly, giving careful attention of safety factors. When repairs are needed, principals should notify the designated person in the office of the Superintendent.
C. Make Recommendations
Principals may submit recommendations to the Superintendent for the appointment, assignment, promotion, transfer and dismissal of all personnel assigned to his/her supervision.
D. Other Duties
Principals also perform the following duties:
1. Collect data, prepare and complete attendance reports as required by the Superintendent or by law.
2. Conduct, under the direction of the Superintendent, studies and investigations to improve instructional procedure.
3. Establish and maintain proper relationships between the school, the home, and the community
4. Keep an accurate record of all non-resident pupils in the school and enroll no such pupils without an official permit
from the designated person in the office of the Superintendent.
5. Supply the Superintendent's office with pertinent information whenever pupils are suspended and referred there.
6. Receive all patrons calling at the school and, when requested, arrange for conferences between patrons and teachers.
7. Hold fire drills and submit drill reports promptly.
8. Organize the school for civil defense in accordance with the latest bulletin published by the Virginia State Department of Education and in accordance with such supplementary regulations as may be issued by the office of the Superintendent.
9. File, in the administrative office, all required reports.
10. Attend all meetings called by the Superintendent.
11. Arrive at school long enough before the regular opening hour and remain there long enough after dismissal to arrange for proper supervision of activities of pupils from the time the latter arrive on the grounds until they leave.
12. Perform such other duties as may be assigned by the Superintendent pursuant to the rules and regulations of the School Board.

School Superintendent Responsibilities

A school superintendent is the chief executive officer of a school district. A superintendent is usually hired by the school board of the district. As the CEO, superintendents have general management responsibilities, including hiring of senior staff. They typically oversee education standards and student achievement, plan budgets and allocate resources, and also act as the point person for interactions with government agencies. Education Policy.
Education Background - A master's degree is the minimum education requirement for most school superintendent positions, and a significant number of superintendents have earned Ph.D.s. Many superintendents have their master's and doctoral degrees in education, education administration or public administration, but a few have graduate backgrounds in the subject areas they taught.
Certification or Licensing - Nearly all states require school superintendents to be certified or licensed. States such as Washington and Wisconsin require school superintendents to become certified before they can become licensed. Superintendent certification is typically a two-year program with a master's degree prerequisite, often including a field-based element where you work with practicing district superintendents for some months. Students working on a doctoral degree may complete course requirements for superintendent certification as part of their doctoral program.
Administrative Responsibilities - School superintendents have a broad set of administrative and supervisory responsibilities that vary based on the size of the school district. Hiring and firing of senior staff, handling teacher and staff disciplinary matters, and managing the budget are the primary administrative responsibilities of most superintendents. In most districts, superintendents are also responsible for overseeing the implementation and enforcement of all state and federal statutes and programs relating to schools.
Educational Standards and Student Achievement - School superintendents have the difficult task of helping to set educational standards and measure student achievement in their districts. Superintendents typically have general authority over school curricula, within state guidelines. They often work together with the school board to develop and implement short- and long-range plans for curriculum, as well as instructional evaluation and improvement. School boards in some districts, however, sometimes clash with superintendents when they want to take a more active role in designing school curriculum or deciding how student achievement is measured.

Commissioner of Education was the title given to the head of the federal Office of Education, which was historically a unit within and originally assigned to the Department of the Interior in the United States. The position was created on March 2, 1867, when an Act to establish the Office of Education took effect under the influence of the more Radical Republican Party they were influential mostly in the Northern states and New England which were much more progressive in the fields of education and had already established many state departments of education and created a large number of public schools and systems in cities, towns and counties, both on the elementary (grammar) school level and the high schools, in which the South had lagged behind. The Commissioner was the U.S. government's highest education official from after the Civil War and its reforming period of Reconstruction, from 1867 until 1972, when the office of Assistant Secretary for Education was established within the independent Department of Health, Education and Welfare, which had been earlier created as a cabinet-level department in April 1953, under President Harry Truman, continuing the previous advances created by the administration of Franklin D. Roosevelt and instigated under Dwight D. Eisenhower. Ultimately, the head of the Federal Government's nationwide educational efforts was reorganized with the separation and division of old H.E.W. of the new United States Department of Education in 1979, under President Jimmy Carter with its own Cabinet-level position of the U.S. Secretary of Education. The Commissioner was responsible for: Formulating educational policy. Administering the various functions of the Office of Education. Coordinating educational activities at the national level. U.S. Office of Education was a small unit in the Federal Government of the United States within the U.S. Department of the Interior from 1867 to 1972. Education Policy - Department of Education.

Curriculum Designers

Curriculum Design Cycle Curriculum is the totality of student experiences that occur in the educational process. The term often refers specifically to a planned sequence of instruction, or to a view of the student's experiences in terms of the educator's or school's instructional goals.

Seeing the Whole Picture - Multiple Degrees - Simultaneously

Curriculum as a body of knowledge to be transmitted. Curriculum as a purpose to help students achieve a goal. Praxis is the process by which a theory, lesson, or skill is enacted, embodied, or realized. "Praxis" may also refer to the act of engaging, applying, exercising, realizing, or practicing ideas. This has been a recurrent topic in the field of philosophy, discussed. Explicit curriculum are the subjects that will be taught, the identified "mission" of the school, and the knowledge and skills that the school expects successful students to acquire. Implicit curriculum are lessons that arise from the culture of the school and the behaviors, attitudes, and expectations that characterize that culture, the unintended curriculum. Hidden curriculum are things that students learn that are not included in the planning or included in the consciousness of those responsible for the school arrangements because of the way in which the work of the school is planned and organized (Kelly, 2009). The term itself is attributed to Philip W. Jackson and is not always meant to be a negative. Hidden curriculum, if its potential is realized, could benefit students and learners in all educational systems. Also, it does not just include the physical environment of the school, but the relationships formed or not formed between students and other students or even students and teachers (Jackson, 1986). Excluded curriculum are the topics or perspectives that are specifically excluded from the curriculum. It may also come in the form of extracurricular activities. This may include school-sponsored programs, which are intended to supplement the academic aspect of the school experience or community-based programs and activities. Examples of school-sponsored extracurricular programs include sports, academic clubs, and performing arts. Community-based programs and activities may take place at a school after hours but are not linked directly to the school. Community-based programs frequently expand on the curriculum that was introduced in the classroom. For instance, students may be introduced to environmental conservation in the classroom. This knowledge is further developed through a community-based program. Participants then act on what they know with a conservation project. Community-based extracurricular activities may include "environmental clubs, 4-H, boy/girl scouts, and religious groups" (Hancock, Dyk, & Jones, 2012).
Curriculum can be ordered into a procedure:
Step 1: Diagnosis of needs.
Step 2: Formulation of objectives.
Step 3: Selection of content.
Step 4: Organization of content.
Step 5: Selection of learning experiences.
Step 6: Organization of learning experiences.
Step 7: Determination of what to evaluate and of the ways and means of doing it.

Curriculum Studies is a concentration in the different types of curriculum and instruction concerned with understanding curricula as an active force influenced by human educational experiences. Its proponents investigate the relationship between curriculum theory and educational practice in addition to the relationship between school programs, the contours of the society, and the culture in which schools are located.

Syllabus s a document that communicates information about a specific course and defines expectations and responsibilities. It is generally narrower in scope than a curriculum. A syllabus may be set out by an examination board or prepared by the tutor who teaches or controls the course.

Prospectus is a catalogue listing the courses offered by a college or university. A printed document that advertises or describes a school, commercial enterprise, forthcoming book, etc., in order to attract or inform clients, members, buyers, or investors. Prospectus is also a formal written offer to sell securities usually filed with the SEC that sets forth a plan for a proposed business enterprise.

Curriculum and Instruction is a field within education which seeks to research, develop, and implement curriculum changes that increase learner achievement in educational settings. The field focuses on how people learn and the best ways to educate. It is also interested in new trends in teaching and learning process. It tries to find answers to questions such as "why to teach", "what to teach", "how to teach" and "how to evaluate" in instructional process. Master's degrees and doctorates are offered at a number of universities. instructional curriculum.

Instructional Design is the practice of creating instructional experiences and lessons which make the acquisition of knowledge and skill more efficient, effective, and appealing. Instructional design is the process of identifying the skills, knowledge, information and attitude gaps of a targeted audience and creating or selecting learning experiences that close this gap. The process consists broadly of determining the state and needs of the learner, defining the end goal of instruction, and creating some "intervention" to assist in the transition. The outcome of this instruction may be directly observable and scientifically measured or completely hidden and assumed. There are many instructional design models but many are based on the ADDIE model with the five phases: analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation. As a field, instructional design is historically and traditionally rooted in cognitive and behavioral psychology, though recently constructivism has influenced thinking in the field. Presentation - Interface

Curriculum Designers - Curriculum Specialists - Curriculum Assessment - Standards

Backward Design is a method of designing educational curriculum by setting goals before choosing instructional methods and forms of assessment. Backward design of curriculum typically involves three stages: Identify the results desired (big ideas and skills). What should the students know, understand, and be able to do? Consider the goals and curriculum expectations Focus on the "big ideas" (principles, theories, concepts, point of views, or themes). Determine acceptable levels of evidence that support that the desired results have occurred (culminating assessment tasks). What will teachers accept as evidence that student understanding took place? Consider culminating assessment tasks and a range of assessment methods (observations, tests, projects, etc.). Design activities that will make desired results happen (learning events). What knowledge and skills will students need to achieve the desired results? Consider teaching methods, sequence of lessons, and resource materials. Backward design challenges "traditional" methods of curriculum planning. In traditional curriculum planning, a list of content that will be taught is created and/or selected. In backward design, the educator starts with goals, creates or plans out assessments and finally makes lesson plans. Supporters of backward design liken the process to using a "road map". In this case, the destination is chosen first and then the road map is used to plan the trip to the desired destination. In contrast, in traditional curriculum planning there is no formal destination identified before the journey begins. The idea in backward design is to teach toward the "end point" or learning goals, which typically ensures that content taught remains focused and organized. This, in turn, aims at promoting better understanding of the content or processes to be learned for students. The educator is able to focus on addressing what the students need to learn, what data can be collected to show that the students have learned the desired outcomes (or learning standards) and how to ensure the students will learn. Although backward design is based on the same components of the ADDIE model, backward design is a condensed version of these components with far less flexibility.

Plain Language Writing and Readability (writing tips)

Instructional Design Coordinator is a person who is responsible for overseeing the implementation of instructional design techniques, usually in an academic setting or in corporate training.

Emergent Design describes a theoretical framework for the implementation of systemic change in education and learning environments.

Instructional Theory is "a theory that offers explicit guidance on how to better help people learn and develop." Instructional theories focus on how to structure material for promoting the education of human beings, particularly youth.

Master of Science in Education with Curriculum & Instruction Strategies.

Curriki Open Source Curriculum.

Instructional Coaches - Instructional Materials Development

Collaboration Solutions for Education
Education Research
Mindshift - How we will Learn
Project for School Innovation
Academia Who's Researching What?
NYC Teaching Fellows
New Visions
Marc Prensky
Teaching for Change
Core Knowledge
Subsumption Theory

Teacher Collaboration occurs when members of a learning community work together to increase student learning and achievement. If our ultimate destination as educators is student achievement, think of teacher collaboration as the journey. Learning Styles.

Lessons - Lesson Plans

Lesson is used to teach skills and show students how to use tools and learn how to understand subjects as a whole and also learn how to effectively process a particular area of knowledge in order to use the knowledge effectively. A lesson has aims and goals and explains what the lesson is reaching towards. The lesson has clear objectives and specific measurable outcomes, as well as the particular skills or knowledge students should have acquired by its conclusion. A lesson should first review previous knowledge of the learners and how this will be activated at the start of the lesson. The motivation of the learners should also be reviewed and the time required for each section of teaching and learning, and the resources that are required and available. A lesson should also cater for the different learning needs or learning styles of the individuals. The lesson is to be evaluated in several different ways.

Course is education imparted in a series of lessons or meetings. A connected series of events, actions or developments. A body of students who are taught together. A general line of orientation.

Lesson Plan is a well-developed plan that reflects the interests and needs of students. It incorporates best practices for the educational field. The lesson plan correlates with the teacher's philosophy of education, which is what the teacher feels is the purpose of educating the students. The lesson is a teacher's detailed description of the course of instruction or "learning trajectory" for a lesson. A daily lesson plan is developed by a teacher to guide class learning. Details will vary depending on the preference of the teacher, subject being covered, and the needs of the students. There may be requirements mandated by the school system regarding the plan. A lesson plan is the teacher's guide for running a particular lesson, and it includes the goal (what the students are supposed to learn), how the goal will be reached (the method, procedure) and a way of measuring how well the goal was reached (test, worksheet, homework etc.). Title of the lesson. Time required to complete the lesson. List of required materials. List of objectives, which may be behavioral objectives (what the student can do at lesson completion) or knowledge objectives (what the student knows at lesson completion). The set (or lead-in, or bridge-in) that focuses students on the lesson's skills or concepts—these include showing pictures or models, asking leading questions, or reviewing previous lessons. An instructional component that describes the sequence of events that make up the lesson, including the teacher's instructional input and, where appropriate, guided practice by students to consolidate new skills and ideas. Independent practice that allows students to extend skills or knowledge on their own. A summary, where the teacher wraps up the discussion and answers questions. An evaluation component, a test for mastery of the instructed skills or concepts—such as a set of questions to answer or a set of instructions to follow. A risk assessment where the lesson's risks and the steps taken to minimize them are documented. An analysis component the teacher uses to reflect on the lesson itself—such as what worked and what needs improving. A continuity component reviews and reflects on content from the previous lesson. Preparation/Instruction: It pertains to preparing and motivating children to the lesson content by linking it to the previous knowledge of the student, by arousing curiosity of the children and by making an appeal to their senses. This prepares the child's mind to receive new knowledge. "To know where the pupils are and where they should try to be are the two essentials of good teaching." Lessons may be started in the following manner: a. Two or three interesting but relevant questions b. Showing a picture/s, a chart or a model c. A situation Statement of Aim: Announcement of the focus of the lesson in a clear, concise statement such as "Today, we shall study the...". Presentation/Development: The actual lesson commences here. This step should involve a good deal of activity on the part of the students. The teacher will take the aid of various devices, e.g., questions, illustrations, explanation, expositions, demonstration and sensory aids, etc. Information and knowledge can be given, explained, revealed or suggested. The following principles should be kept in mind. a. Principle of selection and division: This subject matter should be divided into different sections. The teacher should also decide as to how much he is to tell and how much the pupils are to find out for themselves. b. Principle of successive sequence: The teacher should ensure that the succeeding as well as preceding knowledge is clear to the students. c. Principle of absorption and integration: In the end separation of the parts must be followed by their combination to promote understanding of the whole. Association comparison: It is always desirable that new ideas or knowledge be associated to daily life situations by citing suitable examples and by drawing comparisons with the related concepts. This step is important when we are establishing principles or generalizing definitions. Generalizing: This concept is concerned with the systematizing of the knowledge learned. Comparison and contrast lead to generalization. An effort should be made to ensure that students draw the conclusions themselves. It should result in students' own thinking, reflection and experience. Application: It requires a good deal of mental activity to think and apply the principles learned to new situations. Knowledge, when it is put to use and verified, becomes clear and a part of the student's mental make-up. Recapitulation: Last step of the lesson plan, the teacher tries to ascertain whether the students have understood or grasped the subject matter or not. This is used for assessing/evaluating the effectiveness of the lesson by asking students questions on the contents of the lesson or by giving short objectives to test the student's level of understanding; for example, to label different parts on a diagram, etc. Criteria of a Unit Plan: Needs, capabilities, interest of the learner should be considered. Prepared on the sound psychological knowledge of the learner. Provide a new learning experience; systematic but flexible. Sustain the attention of the learner til the end. Related to social and physical environment of the learner. Development of learner's personality. It is important to note that lesson planning is a thinking process, not the filling in of a lesson plan template. A lesson plan is envisaged as a blue print, guide map for action, a comprehensive chart of classroom teaching-learning activities, an elastic but systematic approach for the teaching of concepts, skills and attitudes. The first thing for setting a lesson plan is to create an objective, that is, a statement of purpose for the whole lesson. An objective statement itself should answer what students will be able to do by the end of the lesson. The objective drives the whole lesson plan; it is the reason the lesson plan exists. The teacher should ensure that lesson plan goals are compatible with the developmental level of the students. The teacher ensures as well that their student achievement expectations are reasonable. The following guidelines were set by Canadian Council on Learning to enhance the effectiveness of the teaching process: At the start of teaching, provide the students with an overall picture of the material to be presented. When presenting material, use as many visual aids as possible and a variety of familiar examples. Organize the material so that it is presented in a logical manner and in meaningful units. Try to use terms and concepts that are already familiar to the students. Maximize the similarity between the learning situation and the assessment situation and provide adequate training practice. Give students the chance to use their new skills immediately on their return home through assignments. Communicate the message about the importance of the lesson, increase their motivation level, and control sidelining behaviors by planning rewards for students who successfully complete and integrate the new content. To sustain learning performance, the assessments must be fair and attainable. Motivation affects teaching outcomes independently of any increase in cognitive ability. Learning motivation is affected by individual characteristics like conscientiousness and by the learning climate. Therefore, it is important to try to provide as much realistic assignments as possible. Students learn best at their own pace and when correct responses are immediately reinforced, perhaps with a quick “Well done.” For many Generation Z students, the use of technology can motivate learning. Simulations, games, virtual worlds, and online networking are already revolutionizing how students learn and how learning experiences are designed and delivered. Learners who are immersed in deep experiential learning in highly visual and interactive environments become intellectually engaged in the experience. Research shows that it is important to create a perceived need for learning (Why should I learn, the realistic relatable objective) in the minds of students. Then only students can perceive the transferred "how and what to learn" part from the educator. Also, provide ample information that will help to set the students' expectations about the events and consequences of actions that are likely to occur in the learning environment. For example, students learning to become adept on differential equations may face stressful situations, high loads of study, and a difficult environment. Studies suggest that the negative impact of such conditions can be reduced by letting students know ahead of time what might occur and equipping them with skills to manage. Creating a reliable lesson plan is an important part of classroom management. Doing so requires the ability to incorporate effective strategies into the classroom, the students and overall environment. There are many different types of lesson plans and ways of creating them. Teachers can encourage critical thinking in a group setting by creating plans that include the students participating collectively. Visual strategies are another component tied into lesson plans that help with classroom management. These visual strategies help a wide variety of students to increase their learning structure and possibly their overall comprehension of the material or what is in the lesson plan itself. These strategies also give students with disabilities the option to learn in a possible more efficient way. Teachers need to realize the wide range of strategies that can be used to maintain classroom management and students. They should find the best strategies to incorporate in their lesson planning for their specific grade, student type, teaching style, etc. and utilize them to their advantage. The classroom tends to flow better when the teacher has a proper lesson planned, as it provides structure for the students. Being able to utilize class time efficiently comes with creating lesson plans at their core. Keeping the students engaged, attentive, and intrigued is a must in order to have a successful classroom. Considering each teacher has a unique teaching style, it is important to focus on the students for each academic school year and make yourself flexible to their needs. Lesson planning is a critical influence on classroom management. Assignments are either in-class or take-home tasks to be completed for the next class period. These tasks are important because they help ensure that the instruction provides the students with a goal, the power to get there, and the interest to be engaged in rigorous academic contexts as they acquire content and skills necessary to be able to participate in academic coursework. Experts cite that, in order to be effective and achieve objectives, the development of these assignment tasks must take into consideration the perceptions of the students because they are different from those of the teacher's. This challenge can be addressed by providing examples instead of abstract concepts or instructions. Another strategy involves the development of tasks that are specifically related to the learners' needs, interests, and age ranges. There are also experts who cite the importance of teaching learners about assignment planning. This is said to facilitate the students' engagement and interest in their assignment. Some strategies include brainstorming about the assignment process and the creation of a learning environment wherein students feel engaged and willing to reflect on their prior learning and to discuss specific or new topics. There are several assignment types so the instructor must decide whether class assignments are whole-class, small groups, workshops, independent work, peer learning, or contractual: Whole-class—the teacher lectures to the class as a whole and has the class collectively participate in classroom discussions. Small groups—students work on assignments in groups of three or four. Workshops—students perform various tasks simultaneously. Workshop activities must be tailored to the lesson plan. Independent work—students complete assignments individually. Peer learning—students work together, face to face, so they can learn from one another. Contractual work—teacher and student establish an agreement that the student must perform a certain amount of work by a deadline. These assignment categories (e.g. peer learning, independent, small groups) can also be used to guide the instructor’s choice of assessment measures that can provide information about student and class comprehension of the material. As discussed by Biggs (1999), there are additional questions an instructor can consider when choosing which type of assignment would provide the most benefit to students. These include: What level of learning do the students need to attain before choosing assignments with varying difficulty levels? What is the amount of time the instructor wants the students to use to complete the assignment? How much time and effort does the instructor have to provide student grading and feedback? What is the purpose of the assignment? (e.g. to track student learning; to provide students with time to practice concepts; to practice incidental skills such as group process or independent research) How does the assignment fit with the rest of the lesson plan? Does the assignment test content knowledge or does it require application in a new context? Does the lesson plan fit a particular framework? For example, a Common Core Lesson Plan.

Lesson Study is a widespread professional development practice. Working in a small group, teachers collaborate with one another, meeting to discuss learning goals, planning an actual classroom lesson (called a "research lesson"), observing how their ideas work in a live lessons with students, and then reporting on the results so that other teachers can benefit from it. Features common to all three levels are: preparation of a detailed lesson plan, providing background research information, lesson goals, connections to state or local learning standards, reasoning behind the design of the lesson, and steps of the lesson along with anticipated student responses; observation of a live lesson conducted with students (the research lesson); and a discussion following the lesson, analyzing its impact on students and implications for future instruction. School-, district-, or national-level lesson study differ with respect to the students they consider. School-based lesson study (discussed in more detail below) aims to address a school-wide research theme. District-level lesson study is often used for schools to share learning with other schools. A school might have an open house, with research lessons held at every grade, which district leaders and educators from other schools will attend. National-level lesson study is conducted by enthusiastic volunteers who are also very experienced, highly respected teachers. The research lesson is done at a major conference. The objective may be to explore new content or to present a new approach to teaching particular content. National-level research lessons often inform changes in the national Course of Study.

Resources for Lessons
Learning Resources - Lesson Plans
Lesson Plans Page
Enchanted Learning
E Notes
Story Arts
Free Lesson Plans
Lesson Plans
Work Sheets
Worksheet Works
Worksheet Generator
Busy Teacher 16,831 free printable worksheets and lesson plans for teaching English.
American Field Service - Teachers Toolbox
Happy Child
Lesson Planet
Teach Hub
Teachers Pay Teachers

Brain Games - Educational Toys - Moral of the Story - Real Life Examples

Teaching Tools

Online Teacher Resource
Google Classroom 
Education News
Journal of Teacher Education (JTE)
Free Teaching Aids
Teaching Tips (PDF)
International Children's Education

Innovative Learning Conference
Purpose of Education
Open Education Resources
Books on How to be a Great Teacher
Learning for Life
Child Development
Gifted Children
Tutoring - Home Schooling
P21 Skills for the 21st Century
Differentiated Resources
Uncommon Schools
Teacher Vision
Faculty Focus
Teacher Resources
Teaching Expertise
Sites for Teachers
A Teachers Aide
Turn Around USA
A to Z Teacher Stuff
Discovery Education
Teachers First
State Educational Technology
Education World
Teachers and Families
Teacher Quick Source
Pearson Assessments

Education Research

Scholarship of Teaching and Learning is a scholarly inquiry into student learning which advances the practice of teaching by making inquiry findings public.

Educational Research refers to the systematic collection and analysis of data related to the field of education. Research may involve a variety of methods. Research may involve various aspects of education including student learning, teaching methods, teacher training, and classroom dynamics. Educational research attempts to solve a problem. Research involves gathering new data from primary or first-hand sources or using existing data for a new purpose. Research is based upon observable experience or empirical evidence. Research demands accurate observation and description. Research generally employs carefully designed procedures and rigorous analysis. Research emphasizes the development of generalizations, principles or theories that will help in understanding, prediction and/or control. Research requires expertise—familiarity with the field; competence in methodology; technical skill in collecting and analyzing the data. Research attempts to find an objective, unbiased solution to the problem and takes great pains to validate the procedures employed. Research is a deliberate and unhurried activity which is directional but often refines the problem or questions as the research progresses. Research is carefully recorded and reported to other persons interested in the problem.

Teaching Methods (learning styles) - Education Reform Research

Oxford Journals (Academic and Research Journals)

American Educational Research
American Institutes for Research
American Institutes for Research

Research Resources - Unpublished Academic Papers

Core Standards
Learn Zillion 
Science of Learning Research Centre
National Center for Education Statistics (NCES)
Nat. Association of Independent Schools
Education Commission of the States

International Student Assessment is a 15-year-old school pupils' scholastic performance on mathematics, science, and reading.

Testing Flaws

Digital Learning Now
Digital Promise 
Teaching Matters 
Early Education Research 
Association for Middle Level Education

Educational Psychology is the branch of psychology concerned with the scientific study of human learning. The study of learning processes, from both cognitive and behavioral perspectives, allows researchers to understand individual differences in intelligence, cognitive development, affect, motivation, self-regulation, and self-concept, as well as their role in learning. The field of educational psychology relies heavily on quantitative methods, including testing and measurement, to enhance educational activities related to instructional design, classroom management, assessment, which serve to facilitate learning processes in various educational settings across the lifespan.

National Center on Education
National Center for Education Info
Institute on National Education
Higher Education Research
National Education Assoc
National Education Network
Public Education
National Research & Education Network
Education Innovation Summit 
Education Sciences
Books about Teaching
MAP-Works - EBI Benchmarking

Alternative Education Resource
Education Revolution
Education Encyclopedia
Holmes Partnership
Spencer Program
Thinking Maps 
Peabody Vanderbilt Funded Projects
Jasper Research Projects
Nations Report Card
National Assessment Governing Board
National Society of High School Scholars
National Society of Collegiate Scholars
National Association of Scholars

Indian Knowledge Base

Teachers Pay Teachers
Higher Education Teaching and Learning 
Research for Action

Digital Learning Strategies
Digital Literacy
Digital Learning Now
Digital Learning Day
Technology is just a Tool
Bloom's Taxonomy (wiki)
Ithaka S+R 
Renaissance Learning 
Promethean World
Learning Research in the 21st Century
Center for Teaching and Learning
Design for Change
Education Reform


Essays - Example Essays
Research Papers & 550,000 Essays
Best Essay Tips - Spark Notes

Research Papers (never seen) - Plagiarism

Balanced Reading
Beyond Textbooks
Pearson School Systems
K-3 Teacher Resources
Starr Matica
Discovery Education
Discovery Education
Can Teach
Teachers Net
School Counselor Association

Biofeedback Training 
Make entire wall a  whiteboard 

Online Education Providers - Technology Tools - Information Sources

Education Policies

Education Policy consists of the principles and government policies in the educational sphere as well as the collection of laws and rules that govern the operation of education systems. Education occurs in many forms for many purposes through many institutions. Examples include early childhood education, kindergarten through to 12th grade, two and four year colleges or universities, graduate and professional education, adult education and job training. Therefore, education policy can directly affect the education people engage in at all ages. Examples of areas subject to debate in education policy, specifically from the field of schools, include school size, class size, school choice, school privatization, tracking, teacher selection, education and certification, teacher pay, teaching methods, curricular content, graduation requirements, school infrastructure investment, and the values that schools are expected to uphold and model. Issues in education policy also address problems within higher education. The Pell Institute analyzes the barriers experienced by teachers and students within community colleges and universities. These issues involve undocumented students, sex education, and federal grant aides. Education policy analysis is the scholarly study of education policy. It seeks to answer questions about the purpose of education, the objectives (societal and personal) that it is designed to attain, the methods for attaining them and the tools for measuring their success or failure. Research intended to inform education policy is carried out in a wide variety of institutions and in many academic disciplines. Important researchers are affiliated with departments of psychology, economics, sociology, and human development, in addition to schools and departments of education or public policy. Examples of education policy analysis may be found in such academic journals as Education Policy Analysis Archives and in university policy centers such as the National Education Policy Center housed at the University of Colorado Boulder University of Colorado Boulder.

U.S. Department of Education - Center on Education Policy - Education Policy

Public Policy and Higher Education - The Institute for Higher Education Policy

Education Development Center - Superintendent

Family Educational Rights & Privacy Act is a 1974 law that governs the access of educational information and records. FERPA gives parents access to their child's education records, an opportunity to seek to have the records amended, and some control over the disclosure of information from the records. With several exceptions, schools must have a student's consent prior to the disclosure of education records after that student is 18 years old. The law applies only to educational agencies and institutions that receive funding under a program administered by the U.S. Department of Education.

Education Public Interest
Education Reform
Center for Public Education
Fordham Institute
Higher Education
American Council on Education
Council of Chief State School Officers
European School Net
Inside Schools
Education Answers

Nat. Assoc. of Independent Schools
Association of American Educators
National Grammar School Assoc.
American Association for Higher
Education & Accreditation
Assoc. for the Study of Higher Education
Higher Education Assessment
Knowledge Management for Higher Ed
Council for Higher Education Accreditation
International Development for Education
Association for Institutional Research
United Federation of Teachers
Assoc. Elementary Principles
Middle School Association
Nat. Assoc. of Principals
Assoc. State Boards of Education
National School Boards Assoc.
American Assoc. of State Colleges & Universities
Assoc. Of American Colleges
Society for College & University Planning
American Assoc. of Professors
Nat. Assoc. of College Admissions

Phoenix Project
New Tech High
ABC Teach
Kipp Knowledge is Power
Education Corner
Teaching Monster 
Program Evaluation
Character Counts
Reach Every Child
Teach Free
Calder Center
New Visions
Bridges 4 Kids
Education Resources Information
National Academies
Council for Great City Schools
Get Schooled
Education is Freedom
Committee for Education Funding
The Class List
High School Gowns
Broad Prize 
Americas Promise
Americas Choice Pearson
Education Commission
Children's Defense

Montage Education
Reggio Emilia Approach
Classical Liberal Arts
Learning Leaders Volunteering
National Community Education Assoc.
Nat. Assoc. of School Psychologists
Fun Education

Reading, Writing & Literacy - Special Education - Child Development

Education Stages - Grade Level - Age Level

Educational Stages in formal education in the U.S. is divided into a number of distinct educational stages. Most children enter the public education system around ages five or six. Children are assigned into year groups known as grades. The American school year traditionally begins at the end of August or early in September, after a traditional summer vacation or break. Children customarily advance together from one grade to the next as a single cohort or "class" upon reaching the end of each school year in late May or early June. Depending upon their circumstances, children may begin school in pre-kindergarten, kindergarten or first grade. Students normally attend 12 grades of study over 12 calendar years of primary/elementary and secondary education before graduating and earning a diploma that makes them eligible for admission to higher education. Education is mandatory until age 16 (18 in some states). In the U.S., ordinal numbers (e.g., first grade) are used for identifying grades. Typical ages and grade groupings in contemporary, public and private schools may be found through the U.S. Department of Education. Generally there are three stages: elementary school (K–5th grade), middle school (6th–8th grades) and high school (9th–12th grades). Grading Test Method.

Preschool: Ages 3-4
Pre-K: Ages 4-5
Kindergarten: Ages 5-6
1st Grade: Ages 6-7
2nd Grade: Ages 7-8
3rd Grade: Ages 8-9
4th Grade: Ages 9-10
5th Grade: Ages 10-11
6th Grade: Ages 11-12
7th Grade: Ages 12-13
8th Grade: Ages 13-14
9th Grade: Ages 14-15
10th Grade: Ages 15-16
11th Grade: Ages 16-17
12th Grade: Ages 17-18.

Educational Stage are subdivisions of formal learning, typically covering early childhood education, primary education, secondary education and tertiary education.

Milestones - Testing

Age-Based Grade Assignments Hinder Millions of Students. Traditional age-based grade levels may be hampering the progress of millions of K-12 students in the United States and should be a target for reform, according to a new study co-authored by a UNC Charlotte education professor.

School Types - Education Types

School is an educational institution. A building where young people receive education. The process of being formally educated at a school. The period of instruction in a school; the time period when school is in session. The body of faculty and students at a university. A large and diverse institution of higher learning created to educate for life and for a profession and to grant degrees. School is an educational institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments for the teaching of students (or "pupils") under the direction of teachers. Most countries have systems of formal education, which is sometimes compulsory. In these systems, students progress through a series of schools. The names for these schools vary by country, but generally include primary school for young children and secondary school for teenagers who have completed primary education. An institution where higher education is taught, is commonly called a university college or university. School can also mean a large group of fish.

Preschool - Early Education - Life Readiness - Purpose of Education - Structure

Primary School is a school for children from about four to eleven years old, in which they receive primary or elementary education. It can refer to both the physical structure (buildings) and the organization. Typically it comes after preschool, and before secondary school. The International Standard Classification of Education considers primary education as a single phase where programmes are typically designed to provide fundamental skills in reading, writing and mathematics and to establish a solid foundation for learning. This is ISCED Level 1: Primary education or first stage of basic education. Preschool (early education).

Education History (timeline)

Secondary School is an organization that provides secondary education and the building where this takes place. Some secondary schools provide both lower secondary education and upper secondary education (levels 2 and 3 of the ISCED scale), but these can also be provided in separate schools, as in the American middle and high school system. Secondary schools typically follow on from primary schools and prepare for vocational or tertiary education. Attendance is compulsory in most countries for students until the age of 16. The organizations, buildings, and terminology are more or less unique in each country. Tertiary education is the educational level following the completion of secondary education.

College-Preparatory School or preparatory school, prep school, or college prep, is a type of secondary school. The term can refer to public, private independent or parochial schools primarily designed to prepare students for Higher Education.

Compulsory Education refers to a period of education that is required of all people and is imposed by the government.

Comprehensive School is a school type, principally in the United Kingdom. It is a school for secondary aged children that does not select its intake on the basis of academic achievement or aptitude, in contrast to the selective school system where admission is restricted on the basis of selection criteria.

Selective School is a school that admits students on the basis of some sort of selection criteria, usually academic. The term may have different connotations in different systems and is the opposite of a comprehensive school, which accepts all students, regardless of aptitude.

State School or Public School are generally primary or secondary schools mandated for or offered to all children without charge, funded in whole or in part by taxation. are funded and overseen by government rather than by private entities. often funded by religious institutions. testing and standards provided by government. Direct control of education is a power reserved to the states under the Tenth Amendment to the United States Constitution because the Constitution does not explicitly or implicitly give the federal government authority to regulate education. However, any public or private school that accepts educational funding from the federal government, including participation in collegiate federal financial aid programs (such as Pell Grants and Stafford Loans), by accepting the funds or participating in a particular federal program, subjects itself to federal jurisdiction to the extent of that participation.

Remedial Education - Assimilation

Independent School is independent in its finances and governance. Also known as private schools, non-governmental, privately funded, or non-state schools, they are not administered by local, state or national governments. They are usually not dependent upon national or local government to finance their financial endowment. They are typically governed by a board of governors which is elected independently of government, and has a system of governance that ensures its independent operation. Children who attend private schools may be there because they are dissatisfied with public schools in their area.

Charter School is a school that receives government funding but operates independently of the established state school system in which it is located. There is debate on whether charter schools ought to be described as private schools or state schools. Advocates of the charter model state that they are public schools because they are open to all students and do not charge tuition, while critics cite charter schools' private operation and loose regulations regarding public accountability and labor issues as arguments against the concept.

Magnet School are public schools with specialized courses or curricula. "Magnet" refers to how the schools draw students from across the normal boundaries defined by authorities (usually school boards) as school zones that feed into certain schools. There are magnet schools at the elementary, middle, and high school levels. In the United States, where education is decentralized, some magnet schools are established by school districts and draw only from the district, while others are set up by state governments and may draw from multiple districts.

HOPE PC - Home Organized Personalized Education - Progressive Education - Purpose of Education - Right to Education

Unschooling is an informal learning method that prioritizes learner-chosen activities as a primary means for learning. Unschoolers learn through their natural life experiences including play, household responsibilities, personal interests and curiosity, internships and work experience, travel, books, elective classes, family, mentors, and social interaction. Often considered a lesson- and curriculum-free implementation of homeschooling, unschooling encourages exploration of activities initiated by the children themselves, under the belief that the more personal learning is, the more meaningful, well-understood, and therefore useful it is to the child. While unschooled students may occasionally take courses, unschooling questions the usefulness of standard curricula, fixed times at which learning should take place, conventional grading methods and standardized tests, forced contact with children in their own age group, the compulsion to do homework regardless of whether it helps the learner in their individual situation, the effectiveness of listening to and obeying the orders of one authority figure for several hours each day, and other features of traditional schooling.

Deschooling Society calls for the use of advanced technology to support "learning webs", which incorporate "peer-matching networks", where descriptions of a person's activities and skills are mutually exchanged for the education that they would benefit from. create decentralized webs that would support the goal of a truly equal educational system: A good educational system should have three purposes: it should provide all who want to learn with access to available resources at any time in their lives; empower all who want to share what they know to find those who want to learn it from them; and, finally, furnish all who want to present an issue to the public with the opportunity to make their challenge known.

Student Voice is the individual and collective perspective and actions of students within the context of learning and education. It is identified in schools as both a metaphorical practice and as a pragmatic concern. Tech educator Dennis Harper noted that student voice gives students "the ability to influence learning to include policies, programs, contexts and principles. Student voice work is premised on the following convictions: Young people have unique perspectives on learning, teaching, and schooling; Their insights warrant not only the attention but also the responses of adults; and, they should be afforded opportunities to actively shape their education. Several typologies differentiate the practices that identify as student voice. One identifies multiple roles for students throughout the education system, including education planning, research, teaching, evaluating, decision-making and advocacy.

Inclusion in education refers to all students being able to access and gain equal opportunities to education and learning. It arose in the context of special education with an individualized education program or 504 plan, and is built on the notion that it is more effective for students with special needs to have the said mixed experience for them to be more successful in social interactions leading to further success in life. The philosophy behind the implementation of the inclusion model does not prioritize, but still provides for the utilization of special classrooms and special schools for the education of students with disabilities. Inclusive education models are brought into force by educational administrators with the intention of moving away from seclusion models of special education to the fullest extent practical, the idea being that it is to the social benefit of general education students and special education students alike, with the more able students serving as peer models and those less able serving as motivation for general education students to learn empathy. a full panoply of services and resources is required (of education for itself), including: Adequate supports and services for the student. Well-designed individualized education programs. Professional development for all teachers involved, general and special educators alike. Time for teachers to plan, meet, create, and evaluate the students together. Reduced class size based on the severity of the student needs. Professional skill development in the areas of cooperative learning, peer tutoring, adaptive curriculum. Collaboration between parents or guardians, teachers or para educators, specialists, administration, and outside agencies. Sufficient funding so that schools will be able to develop programs for students based on student need instead of the availability of funding. Indeed, the students with special needs do receive funds from the federal government, by law originally the Educational for All Handicapped Children Act of 1974 to the present day, Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act, which requires its use in the most integrated setting. In principle, several factors can determine the success of inclusive classrooms: Family-school partnerships. Collaboration between general and special educators. Well-constructed plans that identify specific accommodations, modifications, and goals for each student. Coordinated planning and communication between "general" and "special needs" staff. Integrated service delivery. Ongoing training and staff development. Leadership of teachers and administrators. Techniques to help build classroom communities: Using games designed to build community. Involving students in solving problems. Sharing songs and books that teach community. Openly dealing with individual differences by discussion. Assigning classroom jobs that build community. Teaching students to look for ways to help each other. Utilizing physical therapy equipment such as standing frames, so students who typically use wheelchairs can stand when the other students are standing and more actively participate in activities. Encouraging students to take the role of teacher and deliver instruction (e.g. read a portion of a book to a student with severe disabilities). Focusing on the strength of a student with special needs. Create classroom checklists. Take breaks when necessary. Create an area for children to calm down. Organize student desk in groups. Create a self and welcoming environment. Set ground rules and stick with them. Help establish short-term goals. Design a multi-faceted curriculum. Communicate regularly with parents and/or caregivers. Seek support from other special education teachers. Team-Teaching Models: One teach, one support: In this model, the content teacher will deliver the lesson and the special education teacher will assist student's individual needs and enforce classroom management as needed. One teach, one observe: In this model, the teacher with the most experience in the content will deliver the lesson and the other teacher will float or observe. This model is commonly used for data retrieval during IEP observations or Functional Behavior Analysis. Station teaching (rotational teaching): In this model, the room is divided into stations in which the students will visit with their small groups. Generally, the content teacher will deliver the lesson in his/her group, and the special education teacher will complete a review or an adapted version of the lesson with the students. Parallel teaching: In this model, one half of the class is taught by the content teacher and one half is taught by the special education teacher. Both groups are being taught the same lesson, just in a smaller group. Alternative teaching: In this method, the content teacher will teach the lesson to the class, while the special education teacher will teach a small group of students an alternative lesson. Team teaching (content/support shared 50/50): Both teachers share the planning, teaching, and supporting equally. This is the traditional method, and often the most successful co-teaching model.

Specialized School are secondary schools with enhanced coverage of certain subjects that constitute the specialization of the school. They should not be identified with vocational schools, whose goal is to deliver skills for a particular type of job. Specialist Schools Programme (wiki).

Micro-School is a smaller school size than traditional schools. It has a low student to teacher ratio that focus's on individual student needs and interests. A smaller school can focus on personalized learning and often employ innovative teaching methods, technology, and project-based learning experiences, but only if the curriculum is high quality and only if the school is not dumbed down. Classes can be taught using a flipped classroom approach, a form of blended learning, though not all microschools focus on technology in the same ways. One-room schools or little red schoolhouses where all of the students met in a single room, is nothing new. School Structure is more important than the school size.

Home Schooling - Private Schooling

Alternative School is an educational establishment with a curriculum and methods that are nontraditional. Such schools offer a wide range of philosophies and teaching methods; some have strong political, scholarly, or philosophical orientations, while others are more ad hoc assemblies of teachers and students dissatisfied with some aspect of mainstream or traditional education. Some schools are based on pedagogical approaches differing from that of the mainstream pedagogy employed in a culture, while other schools are for gifted students, children with special needs, children who have fallen off the track educationally or expelled from their base school, children who wish to explore unstructured or less rigid system of learning, etc. Just as long as the school is not dumbed down.

Education in the United States is provided in public, private, and home schools. State governments set overall educational standards, often mandate standardized tests for K–12 public school systems and supervise, usually through a board of regents, state colleges, and universities. The bulk of the $1.3 trillion in funding comes from state and local governments, with federal funding accounting for only about $200 billion. Private schools are generally free to determine their own curriculum and staffing policies, with voluntary accreditation available through independent regional accreditation authorities, although some state regulation can apply. In 2013, about 87% of school-age children (those below higher education) attended state funded public schools, about 10% attended tuition- and foundation-funded private schools, and roughly 3% were home-schooled. By state law, education is compulsory over an age range starting between five and eight and ending somewhere between ages sixteen and eighteen, depending on the state. This requirement can be satisfied in public schools, state-certified private schools, or an approved home school program. In most schools, compulsory education is divided into three levels: elementary school, middle or junior high school, and high school. Children are usually divided by age groups into grades, ranging from kindergarten (5–6-year olds) and first grade for the youngest children, up to twelfth grade (17–18 years old) as the final year of high school. There are also a large number and wide variety of publicly and privately administered institutions of higher education throughout the country. Post-secondary education, divided into college, as the first tertiary degree, and graduate school, is described in a separate section below. Higher education includes elite private colleges like Harvard University, Stanford University, MIT, and Caltech, large state flagship universities, private liberal arts schools, historically-black colleges and universities, community colleges, and for-profit colleges like the University of Phoenix. College enrollment rates in the United States have increased over the long term. At the same time, student loan debt has also risen to $1.5 trillion. According to a report published by the U.S. News & World Report, of the top ten colleges and universities in the world, eight are American (the other two are Oxford and Cambridge, in the United Kingdom). The United States spends more per student on education than any other country. In 2014, the Pearson/Economist Intelligence Unit rated US education as 14th best in the world. The Programme for International Student Assessment coordinated by the OECD currently ranks the overall knowledge and skills of American 15-year-olds as 31st in the world in reading literacy, mathematics, and science with the average American student scoring 487.7, compared with the OECD average of 493. In 2014, the country spent 6.2 percent of its GDP on all levels of education – 1.0 percentage points above the OECD average of 5.2 percent. In 2017, 46.4 percent of Americans aged 25 to 64 attained some form of post-secondary education. 48 percent of Americans aged 25 to 34 attained some form of tertiary education, about 4 percent above the OECD average of 44 percent. 35 percent of Americans aged 25 and over have achieved a bachelor's degree or higher. The United States ranks 3rd from the bottom among OECD nations in terms of its poverty gap, and 4th from the bottom in terms of poverty rate. Jonathan Kozol has described these inequalities in K–12 education in Savage Inequalities and The Shame of a Nation: The Restoration of Apartheid Schooling in America

SRM University, Andhra Pradesh offers undergraduate, postgraduate courses,diploma and Ph.D programmes through its two schools, the School of Engineering & Applied Sciences, launched in 2017, and the School of Liberal Arts & Basic Sciences, which was launched in 2018.

Public University is a university that is in state ownership or receives significant public funds through a national or subnational government, as opposed to a private university. Whether a national university is considered public varies from one country (or region) to another, largely depending on the specific education landscape. Degrees (accreditation).

National University is generally a university created or managed by a government, but which may at the same time operate autonomously without direct control by the state. Some national universities are associated with national cultural or political aspirations.

Private University are usually not operated by governments, although many receive tax breaks, public student loans, and grants. Depending on their location, private universities may be subject to government regulation. This is in contrast to public universities and national universities. Many private universities are nonprofit organizations.

College Readiness

College Ready Steps College Readiness refers to the set of skills, knowledge, and behaviors a high school student should have upon graduation and entering their freshmen year of college. It’s all about the ability to find success while studying at an institute of higher learning. College Readiness is about preparing students for college admission and helping them stay in college once they get there.

Just Passing an SAT or college entrance exam does not mean you're ready for college. Redefining-College-Readiness (PDF).

The Student Success Plan is an individualized student driven plan that will be developed to address every student’s needs and interests to help every student stay connected in school and to achieve postsecondary educational and career goals.

Academic Advising is a series of intentional interactions with a curriculum, a pedagogy, and a set of student learning outcomes. Academic advising synthesizes and contextualizes students' educational experiences within the frameworks of their aspirations, abilities and lives to extend learning beyond campus boundaries and timeframes.

Early College Experience
College Board
Completion Agenda
College Surfing
College Transfer 
Entrance Examinations
College Track 
Education Consultants

National Association for College Admission Counseling 

Great Schools
Concurrent Enrollment
Study Hall
Accreditation for College - Degrees
World Wide Learn
Educational Consulting

Appreciative Advising is a social-constructivist advising philosophy that provides a framework for optimizing advisor interactions with students in both individual and group settings.

Professional Development is learning to earn or maintain professional credentials such as academic degrees to formal coursework, conferences and informal learning opportunities situated in practice. It has been described as intensive and collaborative, ideally incorporating an evaluative stage. There are a variety of approaches to professional development, including consultation, coaching, communities of practice, lesson study, mentoring, reflective supervision and technical assistance. 

Education Portal - Top Education Guide

Education Options - Adventure Jobs - Adventure Schools - Vocations - Unique Employment Opportunities - Green Jobs - Job Searching Tools - Social Involvement - Public Service Jobs Ideas - Volunteering - Online Education Providers - Education Sayings & Quotes.

Master Craftsman - Training Definitions - Inspiration 101 - Teaching Resources.

"Don't just learn the tricks of the trade, learn the trade."

School Counselor Responsibilities

School Counselor is a counselor and an educator who works in elementary, middle, and/or high schools to provide academic, career, college readiness, and personal/social competencies to all K-12 students through a school counseling program.

School Social Worker provides counseling services to children and adolescents in schools.

Consultant is a professional who provides expert advice in a particular area.

Counseling Psychology - Counseling Categories (wiki)

Licensed - Accredited - Professional Advisor - On the Job Training - Careers

School Counseling professionals provide direct and indirect services to students. They also develop and implement comprehensive counseling programs that focus on student outcomes. Through direct student services, school counseling programs and their counselors provide: Core School Counseling Curriculum. Lessons that are designed to help students achieve competencies, knowledge, attitudes, and skills appropriate to their level of development. Individual Student Planning. Activities designed to assist students in establishing goals and developing their future plans. Responsive Services. Meeting the immediate needs and concerns of students in both individual and small-group settings or crisis counseling. Indirect services for students involve any activity that is completed on behalf of students. These include referrals, consultation, and collaboration with stakeholders such as administrators, teachers, parents, and community organizations. School counseling professionals are also involved in student evaluation of abilities, the identification of issues that impact school participation, and prepare and present workshops on certain topics such as bullying and drug abuse. Elementary school counselors take a collaborative approach to helping students. They work closely with teachers, administrators and parents to make sure every young student is being taught at the right level, students who may be struggling are getting the appropriate support and referrals, and the top students are being adequately challenged. They also watch for warning signs when a student may have a learning disability, an underlying emotional or behavioral concern, or having problems at home that affect their learning. In middle schools, school counseling professionals provide guidance where it is sorely needed, among a population that is experiencing physical, mental, emotional and social growing pains. From the transition from childhood to adolescence, middle school students typically explore and expand their interests, begin to connect their learning in school to real world experiences, engage in high levels of activity, develop their own identity, and seek opinions from peers for comfort, understanding, and approval. A middle school counseling office is rarely empty as all manner of issues arise daily, from physical and social conflicts, to academic struggles and emotional issues. The American School Counselor Association or ASCA describes the work of high school counseling offices as providing support, guidance, and opportunities to adolescents who are seeking to define their independence, transition into adulthood, and evaluate and further develop their skills. High school counselors provide academic and career planning activities, address personal and social development concerns, and prepare and present workshops on a variety of topics. Crisis counseling and management is prevalent to the high school counseling role as adolescents are challenged with the pressures of alcohol, sex, drug abuse, relationships, and multiple stressors.

Guide is a person who leads others to more abstract goals such as knowledge or wisdom. The term can also be applied to a person who leads travelers or tourists through unknown or unfamiliar locations. Mentor.

National Association for College Admission Counseling and the American School Counselor Association compiled this report to provide a glimpse at the 10-year trends in student-to-counselor ratios from 2004-05 to 2014-15, the latest school years for which data is available. Both NACAC and ASCA advocate for more state and federal funding to hire, train, and equip school counselors in public schools. Our intention in producing this data is to shed light on the often unmanageable caseloads public school counselors must serve. Research shows that access to a school counselor can make a significant difference in student persistence/retention, students’ postsecondary aspirations, and students’ likelihood of enrolling in postsecondary education. To realize such results, school counselors must operate in an environment free of overwhelmingly large student caseloads. In addition to a high national student-to-counselor ratio (482:1), the federal government must take into account widely varying ratios among the states. Inequitable access to school counselors across the states suggests a federal role in equipping all students, regardless of their state of residence, with the resources they need to succeed.

More Education Doesn’t Always Mean More Earnings

Occupational Outlook Handbook

Occupational Therapist works with a client to help them achieve a fulfilled and satisfied state in life through the use of purposeful activity or interventions designed to achieve functional outcomes which promote health, prevent injury or disability and which develop, improve, sustain or restore the highest possible level of independence.

Occupational Therapy is an assessment and treatment to develop, recover, or maintain the daily living and work skills of people with a physical, mental, or cognitive disorder. Occupational therapists also focus much of their work on identifying and eliminating environmental barriers to independence and participation in daily activities. Occupational therapy is a client-centered practice that places emphasis on the progress towards the client's goals. Occupational therapy interventions focus on adapting the environment, modifying the task, teaching the skill, and educating the client/family in order to increase participation in and performance of daily activities, particularly those that are meaningful to the client. Occupational therapists often work closely with professionals in physical therapy, speech therapy, nursing, social work, and the community.

Career Path Testing

Career Aptitude Test is a type of questionnaire designed to assess your interests, values, and preferences that you may have when deciding on a possible career choice. It could also provide some information about what motivates you and interests you, which could help you decide possible education choices and the types of special training that you will need to reach you goal. Once you decide on a possible career choice, then you should do some research and do an investigation into that type of work, and also talk to people in that field of work so that you can get a better understanding of the type of work that you may be doing, and the possible locations where this type of work will be needed. Remember, you will most likely have many careers to choose from. So don't choose until you have looked around and seen all the different types of work that are available. You should also look into the types of work that will have the greatest benefit to yourself, and to the world. Career Path Testing - Career Aptitude Test - Career Testing - Test Q - Central Test - Worker Qualities

Career is the particular occupation for which you are trained for and the general progression of your working or professional life. A career can also be seen as an individual's journey through learning, work and other aspects of life. There are a number of ways to define a career and the term is used in a variety of ways. Changing Careers.

Jobs that Make a Difference - Essential Workers - Professions - Maker Spaces - Collorative Learning - Cooperative Education

Occupation is the main activity or work that you do to earn money. A responsibility.

Occupations (wiki) - Occupations by Type (wiki)

One T Online has detailed descriptions of the world of work for use by job seekers, workforce. Browse groups of similar occupations to explore careers.

Occupations in Music (wiki) - Music Performance (wiki)

Arts Occupations (wiki) - Education (wiki) - Human Activities (wiki)

Unveiling a new map that reveals the hidden personalities of jobs. understanding the hidden personality dimensions of different roles could be the key to matching a person and their ideal occupation. The research used a variety of advanced artificial intelligence, machine learning and data analytics approaches to create a data-driven 'vocation compass' — a recommendation system that finds the career that is a good fit with our personality. Even when the system was wrong it was not too far off, pointing to professions with very similar skill sets.

Career and Technical Education is the practice of teaching specific career skills to students in middle school, high school, and post-secondary institutions. CTE is split into 16 career clusters that apply to different high-demand careers.

General Education, Vocational Education, and Labor-Market Outcomes over the Lifecycle (PDF)

What Is Career and Technical Education?

Male Gender Bias deters men from some career paths. Jobs in early education and other fields impacted, study finds. Men are less likely to seek careers in early education and some other fields traditionally associated with women because of male gender bias in those fields. While female gender bias in science, technology, engineering and math fields has received much public attention, male gender bias in health care, early education and domestic fields careers has been largely ignored, even though it also has negative impacts.

Association for Career and Technical Education is the largest national education association in the United States dedicated to the advancement of education that prepares for careers. The ACTE is committed to enhancing the job performance and satisfaction of its members; to increasing public awareness and appreciation for career and technical education (CTE); and to assuring growth in local, state and federal funding for these programs by communicating and working with legislators and government leaders.

Changing Careers - Changing Majors

People can change their careers between three and seven times in their lifetime: Changing your career path tips - Take a personal inventory. Assess Yourself. Evaluate your current job satisfaction. Decide if you want to change industries. Brainstorm careers. Research potential job matches. Make a List of Occupations to Explore. Make an action plan. Explore the Occupations on Your List. Continue Narrowing Down Your List. Conduct Informational Interviews. Set Your Goals. Write a Career Action Plan. Rebrand yourself. Use your network. Consider educational resources and develop new skills. Jobs that Make a Difference.

It's okay to change jobs frequently. The good thing about changing jobs frequently is it gives you a chance to build your professional credentials, get more skills and make more money. The problem is that you risk creating a work history that doesn't reflect an ability to make a commitment to a single company.

Goals - Fantasies - Quiet Qutting

Changing Majors: Many students switch their majors during their college years. 80% of college students will change their majors at least once. You don't have to feel stuck with your first choice if your career goals evolve. However, when it comes to changing college majors, it is wise to exercise caution.

You need to have people have the option to change their careers when the needs of the society changes. And in order to do this effectively everyone must have access to information, knowledge and training, so that people can acquire the necessary skills in order for them to work a new job that is needed by society. This way people will always have work and people will always have the ability to work a new and different job when needed. And then society will always have the workforce that's needed, thus people will be able to solve any problem they're faced with, and make as many improvements to services and tools that they need.

You don't want to influence people, or tell people what kind of work they should do, or what career they should pursue. You want to show people the facts. And show them how these facts were collected, show them the importance of these facts, and show them how they can verify these facts for themselves, while at the same time, also explain to them that there are things that are still not known to us, so that they are fully aware that as more information is learned they may have to make corrections to how this information is being used at the present time. If you provide this information and knowledge to people, people will always do what's right and always do what's needed. Yes, people will still make mistakes, but if people are completely educated they will be able to understand these mistakes and correct them accordingly. Highly Educated people are better prepared to learn from their mistakes instead of just continually suffering from their mistakes, as ignorant people often do.

Quality Control (management)

"It's not just what you do for work, but just as important, it's what you do in your life. You can work many hours and be very productive, but if your style of living is filled with waste and abuse then that negates all the hard work you've done, and you will most likely not be a benefit to society at all, so don't waste your potential."

“If he’d believed at any point along this journey that he had to follow a straight path in his career, he never would have found his true calling.” – Ken Robinson

“Believe me, my journey has not been a simple journey of progress. There have been many ups and downs, and it is the choices that I made at each of those times that have helped shape what I have achieved.” – Satya Nadella

The key to realizing a dream is to focus not on success but significance, and then even the small steps and little victories along your path will take on greater meaning.” – Oprah Winfrey

“Jobs fill your pockets, but adventures fill your soul.” – Jaime Lyn

Vagrant is continually changing, especially changing from one abode or occupation to another. A wanderer who has no established residence or visible means of support.

Extrovert - Polymath -

Wanderer is someone travelling about without any clear destination or having no fixed course. To go via an indirect route or at no set pace. Having no fixed home; changing location regularly as required for work or food. Searching.

"Figuring out what you want to do with your life is not easy. There's a lot to learn, there's a lot to know, and there's a lot of questions to ask. But what ever you plan to do with your life, you better do it before you die."

You need to understand that your parents don't know everything, so that means that 99% of the world doesn't know everything. And it's not their fault. We have not yet improved education adequately enough in order to fully educate people. So everyone is undereducated. So that is one of the main problems that we need to correct. When we do, we will solve all other problems. It will not happen over night, or will it be without difficulties. But it will be one of the single most important advances that humans has ever made.

Examine the world and see where the major problems are, see if any of those problems connect with you, meaning, does your knowledge and experiences help you to understand this particular problem. Do you feel like you can learn how to help solve this particular problem? And if you do, then you would need to learn the necessary steps to take, like, what education you would need? And what type of training you would need in order to provide a Needed Service, or needed product, that would Help solve this problem and also improve peoples lives, Sustainably?

When we work together we can accomplish some amazing things.

Skills - Aptitude

Aptitude is a component of a competency to do a certain kind of work at a certain level. Outstanding aptitude can be considered "talent". Aptitudes may be physical or mental.

Efficacy is the ability to get a job done effectively and efficiently.

Skills (abilities) - IQ Testing - College Entry Exam

Skills Gap is defined as the disconnect between the skills employers look for when recruiting potential employees and the number of job-seekers with those skills. Knowledge Gap.

Learning Abilities - Teaching Adults - Retraining

Criteria Cognitive Aptitude Test is a pre-employment aptitude test that measures an individual's aptitude, or ability to solve problems, digest and apply information, learn new skills, and think critically. Individuals with high aptitude are more likely to be quick learners and high performers than are individuals with low aptitude. The CCAT consists of 50 items; very few people finish all 50 items in the 15 minute time limit.

Worker Qualities - Employee Ethics - Psychological Measurement

Skill Scan Engaging Assessments for Career Development.

Accreditation - Degree - Prison Education

Transferable Skills Analysis is a set of tests or logic to determine what positions a person may fill if their previous position(s) no longer exists in the local job market, or they can no longer perform their last position(s) (e.g., because of an injury). An informal transferable skills analysis can be performed with the help of a career counselor, career portfolio or a career planning article or book. Transferable skills are determined by analyzing past accomplishments or experience. For instance, a stay-at-home parent and homemaker might find they have skills in budgeting, child development, food services, property management, and so on.

American Job Center Network - U.S. Department of Labor

Engineering - Construction

Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery. The ASVAB currently contains 9 sections (except the written test, which contains 8 sections). The duration of each test varies from as low as ten minutes up to 36 minutes for Arithmetic Reasoning; the entire ASVAB is three hours long. The test is typically administered in a computerized format at Military Entrance Processing Stations, known as MEPS, or at a satellite location called a Military Entrance Test (MET) site. The ASVAB is administered by computer at the MEPS, while a written version is given at most MET sites. Testing procedures vary depending on the mode of administration. Computerized test format: General Science (GS) – 15 questions in 8 minutes. Arithmetic Reasoning (AR) – 15 questions in 39 minutes. Word Knowledge (WK) – 15 questions in 8 minutes. Paragraph Comprehension (PC) – 10 questions in 22 minutes. Mathematics Knowledge (MK) – 15 questions in 20 minutes. Electronics Information (EI) – 15 questions in 8 minutes. Automotive and Shop Information (AS) – 10 questions in 7 minutes. Mechanical Comprehension (MC) – 15 questions in 20 minutes. Assembling Objects (AO) – 15 questions in 40 minutes. Verbal Expression (VE)= (WK)+(PC).  Written test format: General Science (GS) – 45 questions in 20 minutes. Arithmetic Reasoning (AR) – 30 questions in 36 minutes. Word Knowledge (WK) – 35 questions in 11 minutes. Paragraph Comprehension (PC) – 15 questions in 13 minutes. Mathematics Knowledge (MK) – 25 questions in 24 minutes. Electronics Information (EI) – 20 questions in 9 minutes. Automotive and Shop Information (AS) – 25 questions in 11 minutes. Mechanical Comprehension (MC) – 25 questions in 19 minutes. Assembling Objects (AO) – 25 questions in 15 minutes. Verbal Expression (VE)= (WK)+(PC). Navy applicants also complete a Coding Speed (CS) test. Previous: "Numerical Operations" (NO). "Space Perception" (SP). "Tool Knowledge" (TK). "General Information" (GI). "Attention to Detail" (AD). "Coding Speed" (CS).

On the Job Training - Work Experience

Internship is a job training program to gain work experience for a skilled labor job, as well as for white collar and professional careers. Residency.

Apprenticeship is a system of training a new generation of practitioners of a trade or profession with on-the-job training and often some accompanying study in classroom work and reading. Apprenticeship also enables practitioners to gain a license to practice in a regulated profession.

Learn while you Earn - Real Life Examples - Virtual Reality Training - Experience Learning

Journeyman is a skilled worker who has successfully completed an official apprenticeship qualification in a building trade or craft. They are considered competent and authorized to work in that field as a fully qualified employee. A journeyman earns their license through education, supervised experience, and examination.

Work Experience is any experience that a person gains while working in a specific field or occupation, but the expression is widely used to describe a type of volunteer work that is commonly intended for young people — often students — to get a feel for professional working environments. Work Experience Education is a work-based learning course of study that offers internships and employment combined with instruction in critical workplace skills. Development of "non-cognitive" skills (soft skills) play an important part in college and career success. Put it into Practice.

Trainee is an individual taking part in a trainee program within an organization after having graduated from higher and technical courses. A trainee is an official employee of the firm that is being trained to the job they were originally hired for. Literally, a trainee is an employee in training.

Professions (accreditation)

Guild is an association of artisans and merchants who oversee the practice of their craft or trade in a particular area. The earliest types of guild formed as confraternities of tradesmen, normally operating in a single city and covering a single trade. They were organized in a manner something between a professional association, a trade union, a cartel, and a secret society.

Inter-Professional Education refers to occasions when students from two or more professions in health and social care learn together during all or part of their professional training with the object of cultivating collaborative practice for providing client- or patient-centered health care.

Vocational Education is education that prepares people to work in a trade, a craft, as a technician, or in support roles in professions such as engineering, accountancy, nursing, medicine, architecture, or law. Craft vocations are usually based on manual or practical activities and are traditionally non-academic but related to a specific trade or occupation. Vocational education is sometimes referred to as career education or technical education.

Trade School is a post-secondary educational institution designed to provide vocational education, or technical skills required to perform the tasks of a particular and specific job. Vocational schools are traditionally distinguished from four-year colleges by their focus on job-specific training to students who are typically bound for one of the skilled trades, rather than providing academic training for students pursuing careers in a professional discipline.

Skilled Labor - Trades - Professions

Vocational Information Center - Vocational School Database - Vocational Schools

P Tech NYC - Ct Tech

Dual Education System combines apprenticeships in a company and vocational education at a vocational school in one course.

Job Shadow is a popular on-the-job learning, career development, and leadership development intervention. Essentially, job shadowing involves working with another employee who might have a different job in hand, might have something to teach, or can help the person shadowing him or her to learn new aspects related to the job, organization, certain behaviors or competencies. Organizations have been using this as a very effective tool for learning.

Experience Learning - Training

Cooperative Education is a structured method of combining classroom-based education with practical work experience. A cooperative education experience, commonly known as a "co-op", provides academic credit for structured job experience. Cooperative education is taking on new importance in helping young people to make the school-to-work transition.

Situated Learning is how individuals acquire professional skills, extending research on apprenticeship into how legitimate peripheral participation leads to membership in a community of practice. Situated learning "takes as its focus the relationship between learning and the social situation in which it occurs"

Higher Education Improvements

Training and Development is a function concerned with organizational activity aimed at bettering the job performance of individuals and groups in organizational settings. Training and development can be described[by whom?] as "an educational process which involves the sharpening of skills, concepts, changing of attitude and gaining more knowledge to enhance the performance of employees.

Employment Training Programs

Entrepreneurship Programs - Innovation

Industry City Innovation Lab trains a quality workforce of local community residents, and integrates them into surrounding businesses. We have a social responsibility, and we’re giving you the opportunity to get onboard. Hackerspace.

Competency-Based Learning is an approach to teaching and learning more often used in learning concrete skills than abstract learning. It differs from other non-related approaches in that the unit of learning is extremely fine grained. Rather than a course or a module every individual skill/learning outcome, known as a competency, is one single unit. Learners work on one competency at a time, which is likely a small component of a larger learning goal. The student is evaluated on the individual competency, and only once they have mastered it do they move on to others. After that, higher or more complex competencies are learned to a degree of mastery and isolated from other topics. Another common component of Competency-based learning is the ability to skip learning modules entirely if the learner can demonstrate they already have mastery. That can be done either through prior learning assessment or formative testing. Slide Show.

Competency Based Education - Learning Methods

Job Readiness Training - Jobs Program

Glass Ceiling represents an invisible barrier that keeps a given demographic (typically applied to women) from rising beyond a certain level in a hierarchy.

Professional Development is learning to earn or maintain professional credentials such as academic degrees to formal coursework, conferences and informal learning opportunities situated in practice. It has been described as intensive and collaborative, ideally incorporating an evaluative stage. Personal Development.

Resources for Professional Development:
Professional Development
The Makers Coalition 
Standards for Training
Performance Instruction 
American Society for Training and Development
My Skills My Future
Career Explorer
Read about your Career Options 
Careers in Government
Workforce Investment Act
Internet Guru Guide
Work Certified Program
Work Certification
Work Certified Testing
Military to Civilian Skills Certification Program
Service Learning with Disadvantaged Youth.

Resources for different Occupations:
Changing Course
Occupational Outlook Handbook
Fastest Growing Occupations
Career Wise
Career one Stop
Quintessential Careers
Career Education Network
Online O Net Center
O Net Center
Career Path Services
Career Descriptions
Public Service Careers
Career Planner 
Beyond Career
Know How 2 Go

Teacher Teacher by 38 Special (youtube)  - Just when I thought I finally learned my lesson well, There was more to this than meets the eye, And for all the things you taught me, only time will tell. If I'll be able to survive, oh yeah. Teacher, teacher can you teach me? Can you tell me all I need to know? Teacher, teacher can you reach me? Or will I fall when you let me go? Oh, no. Am I ready for the real world? Will I pass the test? You know it's a jungle out there, Ain't nothin' gonna stop me, I won't be second best, But the joke's on those who believe the system's fair, oh yeah. Teacher, teacher can you teach me? Can you tell me if I'm right or wrong? Teacher, teacher can you reach me? I wanna know what's goin' on, oh yeah. So the years go on and on but nothing's lost or won. What you learn is soon forgotten, They take the best years of your life, Try to tell you wrong from right, But you walk away with nothing, oh oh. Teacher, teacher can you teach me? Can you tell me all I need to know? Teacher, teacher can you reach me? Or will I fall when you let me go? Teacher, teacher can you teach me? Can you tell me if I'm right or wrong? Teacher, teacher can you reach me? I wanna know what's goin' on, oh. Teacher, teacher, can you teach me? Teacher, teacher, can you reach me? Teacher, teacher, can you teach me? Teacher, teacher, oh yeah. Teacher, teacher, Teacher, teacher.

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