Robots - Robotics - Autonomous Machines

Advancements in Robotics and Robots

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Robot Photo Robotics is a device consisting of a piece of machinery that has moving parts that perform some function. A mechanism that can be programed to move automatically.

Robot is a constructed replication of something that uses Robotics for the purpose of mimicking something else or achieving a task. Robots can be guided by an external control device or the control may be embedded within. Robots may be constructed to take on human form but most robots are machines designed to perform a task with no regard to how they look.

Robots don't take Jobs - Three Laws of Robotics - Ethical Robots - Tesla Bot Optimus Gen 2 (youtube)

Atlas is the world’s most dynamic humanoid robot, our fully electric Atlas robot is designed for real-world applications.

Ai - Half Man Half Robot - Bionic - Robot News - Robotics Education - Personal Robots

Automaton is a moving mechanical device made in imitation of a human being. A machine that performs a function according to a predetermined set of coded instructions, especially one capable of a range of programmed responses to different circumstances. Automaton is a self-operating machine, or a machine or control mechanism designed to follow automatically a predetermined sequence of operations, or respond to predetermined instructions. Some automata, such as bellstrikers in mechanical clocks, are designed to give the illusion to the casual observer that they are operating under their own power.

Unmanned Spacecraft - Satellites - Environmental Monitoring - Telemetry - Autonomous - Remote Control

Animatronics refers to the use of robotic devices to emulate a human or an animal, or bring lifelike characteristics to an otherwise inanimate object. A robot designed to be a convincing imitation of a human is more specifically labeled as an android. Modern animatronics have found widespread applications in movie special effects and theme parks and have, since their inception, been primarily used as a spectacle of amusement. Animatronics is a multi-disciplinary field which integrates anatomy, robots, mechatronics, and puppetry resulting in lifelike animation. Animatronic figures are often powered by pneumatics, hydraulics, and/or by electrical means, and can be implemented using both computer control and human control, including teleoperation. Motion actuators are often used to imitate muscle movements and create realistic motions in limbs. Figures are covered with body shells and flexible skins made of hard and soft plastic materials and finished with details like colors, hair and feathers and other components to make the figure more life like.

Humanoid is something that has an appearance resembling a human without actually being one. The earliest recorded use of the term, in 1870, referred to indigenous peoples in areas colonized by Europeans. By the 20th century, the term came to describe fossils which were morphologically similar, but not identical, to those of the human skeleton.

For hundreds of years we have had imaginary friends, then we made dolls, then we made talking dolls with a pull string, and now we make talking dolls with no strings. You could say that humans are advancing, but not everyone is advancing. If we build intelligent robots like Data from star trek, or like the robot from lost in space, then maybe all humans could advance together.

Ameca Advanced Humanoid Robot (video) -  Designed as a platform for AI and human robot interaction.

Apollo humanoid robot is the first commercial  robot that was designed for friendly interaction, mass manufacturability, high payloads and safety. Apollo is 5 foot 8 inches tall and weighs 160 pounds. It can lift 55 pounds and will cost around $50,000.

Humanoid Robot is a robot with its body shape built to resemble the human body. The design may be for functional purposes, such as interacting with human tools and environments, for experimental purposes, such as the study of bipedal locomotion, or for other purposes. In general, humanoid robots have a torso, a head, two arms, and two legs, though some forms of humanoid robots may model only part of the body, for example, from the waist up. Some humanoid robots also have heads designed to replicate human facial features such as eyes and mouths.

Androids are humanoid robots built to aesthetically resemble humans.

Android Robot is a humanoid robot or synthetic organism designed to look and act like a human, especially one with a body having a flesh-like resemblance. Historically, androids remained completely within the domain of science fiction where they are frequently seen in film and television. Only recently have advancements in robot technology allowed the design of functional and realistic humanoid robots. Human Operating System.

Uncanny Valley is a hypothesized relationship between the degree of an object's resemblance to a human being and the emotional response to such an object. The concept suggests that humanoid objects which imperfectly resemble actual human beings provoke uncanny or strangely familiar feelings of eeriness and revulsion in observers. "Valley" denotes a dip in the human observer's affinity for the replica, a relation that otherwise increases with the replica's human likeness.

Health Industry Robotics

Minimally Invasive Surgery by Robots Robot-Assisted Surgery uses robotic systems to aid in surgical procedures. Robotically-assisted surgery was developed to overcome the limitations of pre-existing minimally-invasive surgical procedures and to enhance the capabilities of surgeons performing open surgery. Operating Robots with Virtual Reality (youtube).

Computer-Assisted Surgery represents a surgical concept and set of methods, that use computer technology for surgical planning, and for guiding or performing surgical interventions. CAS is also known as computer-aided surgery, computer-assisted intervention, image-guided surgery and surgical navigation, but these are terms that are more or less synonymous with CAS. CAS has been a leading factor in the development of robotic surgery. Augmented Reality.

Da Vinci Surgical Robot is a robotic surgical system made by the American company Intuitive Surgical. Approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2000, it is designed to facilitate complex surgery using a minimally invasive approach, and is controlled by a surgeon from a console. The system is commonly used for prostatectomies, and increasingly for cardiac valve repair and gynecologic surgical procedures. Medical Device Warnings.

Telemedicine is the use of telecommunication and information technology to provide clinical health care from a distance. It helps eliminate distance barriers and can improve access to medical services that would often not be consistently available in distant rural communities. It is also used to save lives in critical care and emergency situations.

Virtual Patient is used to describe interactive computer simulations used in health care education. The special focus is targeted on the simulation of clinical processes with virtual patients. Virtual patients combine scientific excellence, modern technologies and the innovative concept of game-based learning. Virtual patients allow the learner to take the role of a health care professional and develop clinical skills such as making diagnoses and therapeutic decisions. Virtual patients have also been considered computer-based simulations designed to complement clinical training. The use of virtual patient programmes is increasing in healthcare, partly in response to increasing demands on health care professionals and education of students but also because they allow opportunity for students to practice in a safe environment There are many different formats a virtual patient may take. However the overarching principle is that of interactivity - a virtual patient will have mechanisms for the learner to interact with the case and material or information is made available to the learner as they complete a range of learning activities. The interactivity is non-sequential.

Robot stand-in mimics movements in VR. Researchers have developed a souped-up telepresence robot that responds automatically and in real-time to a remote user's movements and gestures made in virtual reality. The robotic system, called VRoxy, allows a remote user in a small space, like an office, to collaborate via VR with teammates in a much larger space. VRoxy represents the latest in remote, robotic embodiment. Donning a VR headset, a user has access to two view modes: Live mode shows an immersive image of the collaborative space in real time for interactions with local collaborators, while navigational mode displays rendered pathways of the room, allowing remote users to "teleport" to where they'd like to go. This navigation mode allows for quicker, smoother mobility for the remote user and limits motion sickness.

Remote Patient Monitoring - Telemetry - Remote Services.

Telepresence is the use of virtual reality technology, especially for remote control of machinery or for apparent participation in distant events. A sensation of being elsewhere, created by the use of virtual reality technology. Telepresence Robots.

Teleoperation indicates operation of a system or the electronic remote control of machine at a distance. It is similar in meaning to the phrase "remote control" but is usually encountered in research, academic and technical environments. It is most commonly associated with robotics and mobile robots but can be applied to a whole range of circumstances in which a device or machine is operated by a person from a distance. The term teleoperation is in use in research and technical communities as a standard term for referring to operation at a distance. This is as opposed to telepresence which is a less standard term and might refer to a whole range of existence or interaction that include a remote connotation.

Telecommand is a command sent to control a remote system or systems not directly connected (e.g. via wires) to the place from which the telecommand is sent. Telerobotics.

Robotic Arm for Extremity Amputations

Tele-Doctors (house calls anywhere) - Sensors

How Augmented Reality could change the future of Surgery - Nadine Hachach-Haram at TED Women 2017 (video and text)

Lifelike simulations that make real-life surgery safer: Peter Weinstock (video and interactive text)

Virtual Reality turns a patient's pre-procedural CT scans into 3-D images that the radiologist can virtually move and examine while wearing virtual reality-type glasses. By allowing the operator to manipulate routine, two-dimensional images in an open three-dimensional space, VR provides a look into a patients' organs and tissues that had not been possible outside of the human body, until now. As a result, the operator is armed with a deeper and intuitive understanding of spatial relationships, such as between an aneurysm and the surrounding arteries.

Surgical Theater is a 360-degree virtual reality reconstruction of the patient's anatomy.

Sound Waves Levitate multiple objects. Surgeons could perform a range of medical procedures all without touching the patient using a specialized array of mini-speakers to create an intricate sound field that 'traps' and manipulates selected objects in 'acoustic tweezers' for manipulation within tissue. Sound Waves.

Robotic Implants spur Tissue Regeneration inside the Body. Mechanical pull stimulates stunted hollow organs to grow, which could help treat defects like esophageal atresia and short bowel syndrome. An implanted, programmable medical robot can gradually lengthen tubular organs by applying traction forces -- stimulating tissue growth in stunted organs without interfering with organ function or causing apparent discomfort. (mechanostimulation).

Robot therapist Manipulative Massage Automation a single, 6-axis robotic arm capable of highly articulated movements.

Flexdex - Minimally Invasive Surgery.

Application of See One, Do One, Teach One Concept in Surgical Training. The traditional method of teaching in Surgery is known as “See One, Do One, Teach One.” However, many have argued that this method is no longer applicable mainly because of concerns for patient safety. Studies have shown that Learning is most efficient when learners are actively involved either physically or mentally in the learning process. This can be accomplished by writing notes or drawing diagrams while studying, asking residents appropriate questions, and engaging residents in surgery. The retention rate is greater the more multisensory and active a learning activity is. Accordingly, only 5% of information is retained when it is learned in a lecture format.

Innovative surgical simulator is a significant advance in training trauma teams. Simulators have long been used for training surgeons and surgical teams, but traditional simulator platforms typically have a built-in limitation: they often simulate one or a limited number of conditions that require performance of isolated tasks, such as placing an intravenous catheter, instead of simulating and providing opportunities for feedback on the performance of multiple interventions that a trauma victim may require at the same time. To overcome this limitation, the Advanced Modular Manikin (AMM), an innovative simulation platform that allows integration of other simulation devices, was developed and field testing was conducted, with support from the Department of Defense (DoD).

Robot performs first laparoscopic surgery without human help. A robot has performed laparoscopic surgery on the soft tissue of a pig without the guiding hand of a human -- a significant step in robotics toward fully automated surgery on humans. The robot excelled at intestinal anastomosis, a procedure that requires a high level of repetitive motion and precision. Connecting two ends of an intestine is arguably the most challenging step in gastrointestinal surgery, requiring a surgeon to suture with high accuracy and consistency. Even the slightest hand tremor or misplaced stitch can result in a leak that could have catastrophic complications for the patient.

New flexible, steerable device placed in live brains by minimally invasive robot. Scientists have successfully placed a bioinspired steerable catheter into the brain of an animal. The early-stage research tested the delivery and safety of the new implantable catheter design in two sheep to determine its potential for use in diagnosing and treating diseases in the brain.

Adapting laboratory techniques for remote instruction. Researchers designed a laboratory exercise to teach students how to use micropipettes, through remote learning, using at-home kits.

Disaster Relief Robots

Disaster Relief Robots Rescue Robot is a robot that has been designed for the purpose of rescuing people. Common situations that employ rescue robots are mining accidents, urban disasters, hostage situations, and explosions. The benefits of rescue robots to these operations include reduced personnel requirements, reduced fatigue, and access to otherwise unreachable areas. Rescue robots in development are being made with abilities such as searching, reconnaissance and mapping, removing or shoring up rubble, delivery of supplies, medical treatment, and evacuation of casualties. Even with all these ideas coming about there are still some technical challenges that remain. Robin Murphy, a professor of computer science and engineering, says that “Real disasters are infrequent, and every one is different. The robots never get used exactly the way you think they will, and they keep uncovering new bottlenecks and problems. So it’s an emerging technology.” There are three main levels of challenges. First, the information processing of the robot. Second, the mobility of the robot. Third, the manipulation of the robot. Bringing these robots into real-world use and being able to utilize them in all situations is so close to becoming a reality. “We're just inches away” Murphy says, “a lot of software is just waiting for the hardware to catch up”.

4WD 100mm Mecanum Wheel Learning Arduino Kit C009 Robot Can Move In Every Direction Without Turning Its Wheel.

Flying Machines - Drones

Drones (types, rules and regulations) - Autonomous

Drone n Base: Race & Battle Drones at Home

Eyes in the Sky (Environmental Monitoring using Drones)

Radio Controlled - Remote Control - Remote

Telerobotics is the area of robotics concerned with the control of semi-autonomous robots from a distance, chiefly using Wireless network (like Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, the Deep Space Network, and similar) or tethered connections. It is a combination of two major subfields, Teleoperation and Telepresence. Sensors - Telemetry.

Underwater Inspection Robots

Aquabotix - 2 Grobotics - Inspector Bots - Openrov

Submarines (scuba) - Oceans - Underwater Drones - Decompression

Deepfield Robotics Robotic Ultra-Precise Weed Control (youtube) You can turn weed killing and pest control into a video game that anyone can play from around the world.

Manufacturing Robots

Manufacturing Robotic Arms Industrial Robot is a robot system used for manufacturing. Industrial robots are automated, programmable and capable of movement on two or more axes. Typical applications of robots include welding, painting, assembly, pick and place for printed circuit boards, packaging and labeling, palletizing, product inspection, and testing; all accomplished with high endurance, speed, and precision. They can help in material handling and provide interfaces.

Laboratory Robotics is the act of using robots in biology or chemistry labs. For example, pharmaceutical companies employ robots to move biological or chemical samples around to synthesize novel chemical entities or to test pharmaceutical value of existing chemical matter. Advanced laboratory robotics can be used to completely automate the process of science, as in the Robot Scientist project.

Robotic Process Automation is an emerging form of business process automation technology based on the notion of software robots or artificial intelligence (AI) workers. In traditional workflow automation tools, a software developer produces a list of actions to automate a task and interface to the back-end system using internal application programming interfaces (APIs) or dedicated scripting language. In contrast, RPA systems develop the action list by watching the user perform that task in the application's graphical user interface (GUI), and then perform the automation by repeating those tasks directly in the GUI. This can lower the barrier to use of automation in products that might not otherwise feature APIs for this purpose. RPA tools have strong technical similarities to graphical user interface testing tools. These tools also automate interactions with the GUI, and often do so by repeating a set of demonstration actions performed by a user. RPA tools differ from such systems including features that allow data to be handled in and between multiple applications, for instance, receiving email containing an invoice, extracting the data, and then typing that into a bookkeeping system.

Programming by Demonstration is an end-user development technique for teaching a computer or a robot new behaviors by demonstrating the task to transfer directly instead of programming it through machine commands.

Engineering Machines - 3D Printing

Biorobotics covers the fields of cybernetics, bionics and even genetic engineering as a collective study.

Cybernetics is used for exploring regulatory systems—their structures, constraints, and possibilities. Norbert Wiener defined cybernetics in 1948 as "the scientific study of control and communication in the animal and the machine. Universal Robots.

Collision Avoidance Using the Reflexxes Motion Libraries (youtube)
Artificial Robot Nervous System to Teach Robots How to Feel Pain (youtube)
Madeline the Robot Tamer (vimeo)
Quipt is a gesture-based control software that gives industrial robots basic spatial behaviors for interacting closely with people.
How to Tame Your Robot
Robotnik Summit XL OMNI - Mecanum Wheels | Омни боты (youtube)
Get a Grip with Soft Electronics (youtube) Soft Robotic Gripper Electroadhesion
SALTO - Berkeley's leaping robot (youtube)
Robots Sorting System sorts 200,000 packages a day in Chinese warehouse. (youtube)

Vention - Manufacturing automation platform enables its clients to design, program, order and commission automated equipment directly. We enable engineers and manufacturing professionals to design, order and assemble custom industrial equipment in just a few days. Design Your Machine Today. Deploy It Tomorrow. Powerful tools to help you design.

Association for Computing Machinery.

Artificial muscles made of proteins. The autonomous contractions of the material, can be controlled with the help of pH and temperature changes. The movements are driven by a chemical reaction that consumes molecular energy for this purpose.

How to help assembly-line robots shift gears and pick up almost anything. A University of Washington team created a new tool that can design a 3D-printable passive gripper and calculate the best path to pick up an object. The team tested this system on a suite of 22 objects -- including a 3D-printed bunny, a doorstop-shaped wedge, a tennis ball and a drill.

Artificial Muscles give soft Robots Superpowers. Origami-inspired muscles are both soft and strong, and can be made for less than $1. Origami-inspired artificial muscles are capable of lifting up to 1,000 times their own weight, simply by applying air or water pressure powered by a vacuum. They can generate about six times more force per unit area than mammalian skeletal muscle can and are also incredibly lightweight (water-soluble polymer PVA); a 2.6-gram muscle can lift a 3-kilogram object, muscles is that they're programmable and soft actuators are highly scalable.

Gelbots crawling through human bodies to deliver medicine. A new gelatinous robot that crawls, powered by nothing more than temperature change and clever design, brings 'a kind of intelligence' to the field of soft robotics. New robot does 'the worm' when temperature changes. Tiny Machines.

Bionics - Electronic Physiological Functions - Prosthesis

Bionic Arm Prosthetic Bionics is the application of biological methods and systems found in nature to the study and design of engineering systems and modern technology.

Sensors - Bio-Mimicry - Self Healing

Bio-Robotics covers the fields of cybernetics, bionics and even genetic engineering.

Powered Exoskeleton is a wearable mobile machine that is powered by a system of electric motors, pneumatics, levers, hydraulics, or a combination of technologies that allow for limb movement with increased strength and endurance.

Exoskeleton is the external skeleton that supports and protects an animal's body, in contrast to the internal skeleton (endoskeleton) of, for example, a human. In usage, some of the larger kinds of exoskeletons are known as "shells". Examples of animals with exoskeletons include insects such as grasshoppers and cockroaches, and crustaceans such as crabs and lobsters. The shells of certain sponges and the various groups of shelled molluscs, including those of snails, clams, tusk shells, chitons and nautilus, are also exoskeletons. Some animals, such as the tortoise, have both an endoskeleton and an exoskeleton.

Hybrid Assistive Limb is a powered exoskeleton suit designed to support and expand the physical capabilities of its users, particularly people with physical disabilities. There are two primary versions of the system: HAL 3, which only provides leg function, and HAL 5, which is a full-body exoskeleton for the arms, legs, and torso. Phantom Limb.

Soft Robotics is the specific subfield of robotics dealing with constructing robots from highly compliant materials, similar to those found in living organisms. Soft robotics draws heavily from the way in which living organisms move and adapt to their surroundings. In contrast to robots built from rigid materials, soft robots allow for increased flexibility and adaptability for accomplishing tasks, as well as improved safety when working around humans. These characteristics allow for its potential use in the fields of medicine and manufacturing. Lifelike Robots.

Dynamic Hydrogel used to make 'Soft Robot' components and LEGO-like building blocks. A new type of hydrogel material could soon make assembling complex microfluidic or soft robotic devices as simple as putting together a LEGO set. Using a new type of dual polymer material capable of responding dynamically to its environment, Brown University researchers have developed a set of modular hydrogel components that could be useful in a variety of "soft robotic" and biomedical applications. The components, which are patterned by a 3D printer, are capable of bending, twisting or sticking together in response to treatment with certain chemicals.

Self-healing materials for robotics made from ‘jelly’ and salt. Researchers have developed self-healing, biodegradable, 3D-printed materials that could be used in the development of realistic artificial hands and other soft robotics applications. The self-healing hydrogels bond well with a range of different materials, meaning they can easily be incorporated with other types of robotics.

Technique speeds up thermal actuation for soft robotics. Researchers have come up with a new design for thermal actuators, which can be used to create rapid movement in soft robotic devices. Controls.

Robotic Skins are made of elastic sheets embedded with sensors and remotely operated actuators, which work together to create the makeshift bots. Touch Bionics.

Robotics Skins” turn everyday objects into Robots (youtube)

Soft Robotic Muscles Created by CU Engineering Researchers. Liquefied Soft Artificial Muscle Electrically Activated to Mimic the Expansion and Contraction of Natural Muscles.

Better understanding of soft artificial muscles. Research sheds light on the underlying mechanics of soft filaments.

Will strong and fast-switching artificial muscle be feasible? A research team has developed a bifunctional polymer electrolyte with enhanced mechanical strength and ionic conductivity. The new technology can be applied to producing strong artificial muscles with fast switching speeds.

Advancing trajectory tracking control of pneumatic artificial muscle-based systems. Pneumatic artificial muscles are artificial devices that can simulate the mechanics of human muscles, and have shown great promise in industries requiring human-robot interaction systems. Despite their potential, controlling the trajectory performance of PAM-based systems is challenging owing to their nonlinear characteristics. Now, researchers have developed a novel adaptive sliding mode controller that uses fuzzy logic to estimate PAM-based system's parameters, promising enhanced tracking accuracy and adaptability compared to traditional control methods. Pneumatics.

Peano-HASEL Actuators: Muscle-Mimetic, Electrohydraulic Transducers that Linearly Contract on Activation. Hydraulically Amplified Self-Healing Electrostatic (HASEL).

Artificial muscle device produces force 34 times its weight. Scientists developed a soft fluidic switch using an ionic polymer artificial muscle that runs with ultra-low power to lift objects 34 times greater than its weight. Its light weight and small size make it applicable to various industrial fields such as soft electronics, smart textiles, and biomedical devices by controlling fluid flow with high precision, even in narrow spaces. A polysulfonated covalent organic framework (pS-COF) made by combining organic molecules on the surface of the artificial muscle electrode was used to generate an impressive amount of force relative to its weight with ultra-low power (~0.01V). As a result, the artificial muscle, which was manufactured to be as thin as a hair with a thickness of 180 µm, produced a force more than 34 times greater than its light weight of 10 mg to initiate smooth movement.

Amputees Merge with their Bionic Leg. A smart artificial hand for amputees merges user and robotic control. Scientists from a European consortium led by Swiss Institutions, ETH Zurich and EPFL spin-off SensArs Neuroprosthetics, with clinical trials in collaboration with institutions in Belgrade, Serbia, successfully characterized and implemented bionic leg technology with three amputees.

Amputees feel warmth in their missing hand. An unexpected discovery about temperature feedback has led to new bionic technology that allows amputees to sense the temperature of objects ¬-- both hot and cold -- directly in the phantom hand. The technology opens up new avenues for non-invasive prosthetics.

Underactuation is a technical term used in robotics and control theory to describe mechanical systems that cannot be commanded to follow arbitrary trajectories in configuration space. This condition can occur for a number of reasons, the simplest of which is when the system has a lower number of actuators than degrees of freedom. In this case, the system is said to be trivially underactuated. The class of underactuated mechanical systems is very rich and includes such diverse members as automobiles, airplanes, and even animals.

Allen Zderad, uses Bionic Eye to see (youtube)
Body Builders Bionics (youtube)

ABENICS: Active Ball Joint Mechanism.

How insects activate muscles to adapt to limbs removed. Adaptability explains why insects spread so widely and why they are the most abundant animal group on earth. Insects exhibit resilient and flexible locomotion, even with drastic changes in their body structure such as losing a limb.

Patient controls Prosthesis with own Thoughts. Radboud university medical center connects first click-on arm prosthesis to nerves.

Amputees can Learn to Control a Robotic arm with their Minds  through Electrodes Implanted in the Brain.

Engineers light the way to nerve-operated prosthetics of the future. A multi-disciplinary team has found a way to convert nerve impulses into light, opening the way for more scalable neural implants.

The Force is Strong: Amputee Controls Individual Prosthetic Fingers. Luke Skywalker’s bionic hand made possible by ultrasound technology.

Surgical and engineering innovations enable unprecedented control over every finger of a bionic hand. For the first time, a person with an arm amputation can manipulate each finger of a bionic hand as if it was his own. Thanks to revolutionary surgical and engineering advancements that seamlessly merge humans with machines, this breakthrough offers new hope and possibilities for people with amputations worldwide. A study presents the first documented case of an individual whose body was surgically modified to incorporate implanted sensors and a skeletal implant. A.I. algorithms then translated the user's intentions into movement of the prosthesis.

The First Dexterous and Sentient Hand Prosthesis has been successfully implanted. A Swedish patient with hand amputation has become the first recipient of an osseo-neuromuscular implant to control a dexterous hand prosthesis. In a pioneering surgery, titanium implants were placed in the two forearm bones (radius and ulnar), from which electrodes to nerves and muscle were extended to extract signals to control a robotic hand and to provide tactile sensations. This makes it the first clinically viable, dexterous and sentient prosthetic hand usable in real life.

AI helps robots manipulate objects with their whole bodies. With a new technique, a robot can reason efficiently about moving objects using more than just its fingertips.

This touchy-feely glove senses and maps tactile stimuli. The design could help restore motor function after stroke, enhance virtual gaming experiences. The team has designed a new touch-sensing glove that can "feel" pressure and other tactile stimuli. The inside of the glove is threaded with a system of sensors that detects, measures, and maps small changes in pressure across the glove. The individual sensors are highly attuned and can pick up very weak vibrations across the skin, such as from a person's pulse.

Rewalk - Robotics Mobility for Stroke Victims.

Brain Computer Interfaces (implants) - Hearing Aids

Prosthesis driven by the nervous system helps people with amputation walk naturally. With a new surgical intervention and neuroprosthetic interface, researchers restored a natural walking gait in people with amputations below the knee. Seven patients were able to walk faster, avoid obstacles, and climb stairs more naturally than people with a traditional amputation. State-of-the-art prosthetic limbs can help people with amputations achieve a natural walking gait, but they don't give the user full neural control over the limb. Instead, they rely on robotic sensors and controllers that move the limb using predefined gait algorithms.

Neurolutions is a medical device company developing neuro-rehabilitation solutions that utilize a patient’s own brain activity to facilitate motor recovery.

Neurorobotics is a combined study of neuroscience, robotics, and artificial intelligence.

Artificial Skin with Solar Cells could Power Prosthetics. Scientist creates graphene skin that's more sensitive than our own.

The Six Million Dollar Man is an American science fiction television series in 1973 about a former astronaut who was given superhuman strength due to bionic implants. A spin-off television series, The Bionic Woman, featuring the lead female character Jaime Sommers, ran from 1976 to 1978.

Advanced Artificial Limbs Mapped in the Brain. Neuroprosthetics have used functional MRI to show how the brain re-maps motor and sensory pathways following targeted motor and sensory reinnervation (TMSR), a neuroprosthetic approach where residual limb nerves are rerouted towards intact muscles and skin regions to control a robotic limb.

Prosthetic is the branch of medicine dealing with the production and use of artificial body parts. A replacement for a part of the body.

Neuroprosthetics or neural prostheses, are sometimes contrasted with a brain–computer interface, which connects the brain to a computer rather than a device meant to replace missing biological functionality. Neural prostheses are a series of devices that can substitute a motor, sensory or cognitive modality that might have been damaged as a result of an injury or a disease.

Prosthesis is an artificial device that replaces a missing body part, which may be lost through trauma, disease, or congenital conditions. Prostheses are intended to restore the normal functions of the missing body part. Amputee rehabilitation is primarily coordinated by a physiatrist as part of an inter-disciplinary team consisting of physiatrists, prosthetists, nurses, physical therapists, and occupational therapists. Prostheses can be created by hand or with computer-aided design (CAD), a software interface that helps creators design and analyze the creation with computer-generated 2-D and 3-D graphics as well as analysis and optimization tools.

Open Bionics 3d Printed Prosthetic Limbs

Exoskeleton therapy improves mobility, cognition and brain connectivity in people with MS. A team of multiple sclerosis (MS) experts led a pilot randomized controlled trial of robotic-exoskeleton assisted exercise rehabilitation (REAER) effects on mobility, cognition, and brain connectivity in people with substantial MS-related disability. Their results showed that REAER is likely an effective intervention, and is a promising therapy for improving the lives of those with MS.

Open Bionics - Open Bionics - Limbitless Solutions

Orthotics externally applied device used to modify the structural and functional characteristics of the neuromuscular and skeletal system. An orthosis may be used to Control, guide, limit and/or immobilize an extremity, joint or body segment for a particular reason, Restrict movement in a given direction. Assist movement generally. Reduce weight bearing forces for a particular purpose. Aid rehabilitation from fractures after the removal of a cast. Otherwise correct the shape and/or function of the body, to provide easier movement capability or reduce pain.

Artificial Muscles power up with new Gel-Based Robotics.

Wearable Computing Ring Allows Users to Write Words and Numbers with Thumb. Technology provides eyes-free way to interact with smart devices.

UCLA scientists make Cells that enable the Sense of Touch. Researchers are the first to create sensory interneurons from stem cells.

A Prosthetic that Restores the Sense of where your Hand is. Researchers have developed a next-generation bionic hand that allows amputees to regain their proprioception. The results of the study are the culmination of ten years of robotics research.

Mind-Controlled Arm Prostheses.

Amart Artificial Hand for Amputees merges user and robotic control. Scientists have successfully tested new neuroprosthetic technology that combines robotic control with users' voluntary control, opening avenues in the new interdisciplinary field of shared control for neuroprosthetic technologies.

How 3D printers can give robots a soft touch. Soft skin coverings and touch sensors have emerged as a promising feature for robots that are both safer and more intuitive for human interaction, but they are expensive and difficult to make. A recent study demonstrates that soft skin pads doubling as sensors made from thermoplastic urethane can be efficiently manufactured using 3D printers.

Even after long-term exposure, bionic touch does not remap the brain. A new study by neuroscientists demonstrates that the brain does not remap itself even with long-term bionic limb use, posing challenges for the development of realistic prosthetic limbs.

Seeing through a Robot's Eyes helps those with profound Motor Impairments. An interface system that uses augmented reality technology could help individuals with profound motor impairments operate a humanoid robot to feed themselves and perform routine personal care tasks such as scratching an itch and applying skin lotion. The web-based interface displays a 'robot's eye view' of surroundings to help users interact with the world through the machine.

Highly sensitive sensors show promise in enhancing human touch. Ultrathin crack-based sensors operate on a principle similar to a spider's sense organ and display remarkable sensitivity to movement. People rely on a highly tuned sense of touch to manipulate objects, but injuries to the skin and the simple act of wearing gloves can impair this ability. Surgeons, for example, find that gloves decrease their ability to manipulate soft tissues. Astronauts are also hampered by heavy spacesuits and find it difficult to work with equipment while wearing heavy gloves.

Robots and prosthetic hands sense of touch could be as fast as humans. Research could pave the way for a prosthetic hand and robot to be able to feel touch like a human hand. The technology could also be used to help restore lost functionality to patients after a stroke. The skin contains millions of receptors. Current e-skin technology cannot deliver enough receptors, but this technology makes it possible, so we would like to produce artificial skin for a whole robot.

Mind-Controlled Arm Prostheses that 'feel' are now a part of everyday life. Our study shows that a prosthetic hand, attached to the bone and controlled by electrodes implanted in nerves and muscles, can operate much more precisely than conventional prosthetic hands. We further improved the use of the prosthesis by integrating tactile sensory feedback that the patients use to mediate how hard to grab or squeeze an object. Over time, the ability of the patients to discern smaller changes in the intensity of sensations has improved. The new concept of a neuromusculoskeletal prosthesis is unique in that it delivers several different features which have not been presented together in any other prosthetic technology in the world: It has a direct connection to a person's nerves, muscles, and skeleton. It is mind-controlled and delivers sensations that are perceived by the user as arising from the missing hand. It is self-contained; all electronics needed are contained within the prosthesis, so patients do not need to carry additional equipment or batteries. It is safe and stable in the long term; the technology has been used without interruption by patients during their everyday activities, without supervision from the researchers, and it is not restricted to confined or controlled environments.

Virtual Reality Reduces Phantom Pain in Paraplegics - Phantom Pain

Tech makes it possible to digitally communicate through human touch. Researchers have developed the first technology capable of sending digital information, such as a photo or password, by touching a surface with your finger. Instead of inserting a card or scanning a smartphone to make a payment, what if you could simply touch the machine with your finger? A prototype developed by Purdue University engineers would essentially let your body act as the link between your card or smartphone and the reader or scanner, making it possible for you to transmit information just by touching a surface.

Versatile new material family could build realistic prosthetics, futuristic army platforms. Researchers have developed a new family of polymers that can self-heal, have shape memory and are recyclable. Nature's blueprint for the human limb is a carefully layered structure with stiff bone wrapped in layers of different soft tissue, like muscle and skin, all bound to each other perfectly. Achieving this kind of sophistication using synthetic materials to build biologically inspired robotic parts or multicomponent, complex machines has been an engineering challenge.

Scientists craft living human skin for robots.

Robots sense human touch using camera and shadows. Researchers have created a low-cost method for soft, deformable robots to detect a range of physical interactions, from pats to punches to hugs, without relying on touch at all. Instead, a USB camera located inside the robot captures the shadow movements of hand gestures on the robot's skin and classifies them with machine-learning software.

Robotic 'Third Thumb' use can alter brain representation of the hand.

A brain-computer interface that evokes tactile sensations improves robotic arm control. Robotic arm provides tactile feedback directly to the man's brain as he uses his thoughts to control the device, a team reports Thursday in the journal Science.

Slender robotic finger senses buried items. The technology uses tactile sensing to identify objects underground, and might one day help disarm land mines or inspect cables. Researchers developed a 'Digger Finger' robot that digs through granular material, like sand and gravel, and senses the shapes of buried objects. The technology could aid in disarming buried bombs or inspecting underground cables.

The powerhouse future is flexoelectric. 'Giant flexoelectricity' breakthrough in soft elastomers paves way for improved robots and self-powered pacemakers. Researchers have demonstrated "giant flexoelectricity" in soft elastomers that could improve robot movement range and make self-powered pacemakers a real possibility.

Robotics Education

Robotics Education Roboticist is a person who designs, builds, programs, and experiments with robots. Since robotics is a highly interdisciplinary field, roboticists often have backgrounds in a number of disciplines including computer science, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, physics, human–computer interaction and interaction design. Roboticists often work for university, industry, and government research labs, but may also work for startup companies and other entrepreneurial firms. Amateur Robotics is also a growing hobby all over the world. Robotics Education.

Robotics is an interdisciplinary branch of computer science and engineering. Robotics involves design, construction, operation, and use of robots. The goal of robotics is to design machines that can help and assist humans. Robotics integrates fields of mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, information engineering, mechatronics, electronics, bioengineering, computer engineering, control engineering, software engineering, mathematics, etc. Robotics develops machines that can substitute for humans and replicate human actions. Robots can be used in many situations for many purposes, but today many are used in dangerous environments (including inspection of radioactive materials, bomb detection and deactivation), manufacturing processes, or where humans cannot survive (e.g. in space, underwater, in high heat, and clean up and containment of hazardous materials and radiation). Robots can take on any form, but some are made to resemble humans in appearance. This is claimed to help in the acceptance of robots in certain replicative behaviors which are usually performed by people. Such robots attempt to replicate walking, lifting, speech, cognition, or any other human activity. Many of today's robots are inspired by nature, contributing to the field of bio-inspired robotics. Certain robots require user input to operate while other robots function autonomously. The concept of creating robots that can operate autonomously dates back to classical times, but research into the functionality and potential uses of robots did not grow substantially until the 20th century. Throughout history, it has been frequently assumed by various scholars, inventors, engineers, and technicians that robots will one day be able to mimic human behavior and manage tasks in a human-like fashion. Today, robotics is a rapidly growing field, as technological advances continue; researching, designing, and building new robots serve various practical purposes, whether domestically, commercially, or militarily. Many robots are built to do jobs that are hazardous to people, such as defusing bombs, finding survivors in unstable ruins, and exploring mines and shipwrecks. Robotics is also used in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) as a teaching aid.

Robots don't take Jobs.

Robotics Education Courses could help you learn and understand algorithms, sensors, control systems and the mechanisms used in robotics. A Robotics Course List could include an Intro to Robotics where students take on the roles of mechanical engineers, computer scientists and electrical engineers. A Motion Planning Course. A Computer Vision Course. An Artificial Intelligence Course. Learning the purpose of computerized intelligence course. A Machine Learning Course.

Open Robotics supports the development, distribution, and adoption of open software and hardware for use in robotics research, education, and product development.

Locorobo-Master Programming Robotics
Robotics Trends
Cloud Robotics
Boston Dynamics
µTug: Micro robot pulls 2000 times its weight on glass (youtube)
Revolve Robotics
Festo Automation
Kiva Systems
KOOV: all-in-one Coding & Robotics design Kit.
Anki toy robot that is also a programming platform.
Fect Robotics Toys
Robotics and Automation (ICRA 2014)
Petman, Atlas (youtube)
Robot Restaurant

Another great reason why we need to improve education is to make sure that students learn about human relationships and the relationships and interactions that we have with machines, technology and robots. Techno-Stress.

Grade-school students teach a robot to help themselves learn geometry

Lost in Space Robot Lost in Space STS-117 B9 Robot Presentation Video (youtube)
Janken (rock-paper-scissors) Robot with 100% winning rate (youtube)

Learning Code
Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence (body smart)
Engineering Machines
Information Stations
Artificial Intelligence
3D Printing
Software - Hardware
Technology News
Technology Apps and Accessories
Virtual Reality

Science Kits

The Media Equation is a general communication theory that claims that people tend to treat computers and other media as if they were either real people or real places. The effects of this phenomenon on people experiencing these media are often profound, leading them to behave and to respond to these experiences in unexpected ways, most of which they are completely unaware.

Robot Competitions

Robot Competition is an event where the abilities and characteristics of robots may be tested and assessed. Usually they have to beat other robots in order to become the best one. Many competitions are for schools but several competitions with professional and hobbyist participants are also arising.

Battle-Bots - Robo-Cup - The Robotics Challenge - Robot Events - Robo Games

MIT Zero Robotics - Robot Hall of Fame - Robot Festival - Vacation Ideas

The Robotics Challenge - Robots for Humanity (video)

Rescue Robot League is an international competition for urban search and rescue robots, in which robots compete to find victims in a simulated earthquake environment. The rescue robot league is run alongside Robocup Rescue Simulation, as part of the RoboCup robot competition. Robots perform 20 minute search and rescue missions in a test arena measuring approximately 10m by 6m, which features a number of obstacle zones designed to challenge autonomous operation, mobility during tele-operation, and object manipulation. Points are allocated based on the number of victims found, the detail with which victims were detected, and the quality with which the arena has been mapped.

Robot Building Kits

Robot Building Kits - Robotics Electronic Kits - Robotics Parts - Science Kits and Tools

Antbo: An Insect Robot Anyone Can Build

DRONOID Modular Drone for Kids & Adults - Tinkerbots Robotics Wheeler Set

Personal Home Robots

Personal Robot is one whose human interface and design make it useful for individuals. This is by contrast to industrial robots which are generally configured and operated by robotics specialists. A personal robot is one that enables an individual to automate the repetitive or menial part of home or work life making them more productive.

Domestic Robot is a type of service robot, an autonomous robot that is primarily used for household chores, but may also be used for education, entertainment or therapy. While most domestic robots are simplistic, some are connected to Wi-Fi home networks or smart environments and are autonomous to a high degree. There were an estimated 16.3 million service robots in 2018.

Leka Robotic Toy for Exceptional Children with motor, cognitive, social, and emotional disorders.
Could Robots have the same beneficial qualities as owning a Pet?

Jibo: The World's First Family Robot - Alpha 2, the First Humanoid Robot for the Family!

Buddy: Family's Companion Robot

Robit - The World's Most Affordable Home Robot.

Baxter - Baxter Robot (wiki) - Baxter Robot Video

Aido: Next Gen Home Robot - Voice-Activated Assistants - Riley Mobile Companion

Charli-2 (youtube)

Romela - Saffir Autonomous Humanoid - Human Operating System

i robot - Robotic - Musio Robot

Tamaggo Panoramic Videos

Rp-7i Robot - Cobot (wiki) - irobot Virtual Robots

Zenbo Asus - Moorebot - Nao Robot (wiki)

Robelf - multi-camera home security robot Moving Monitor. Home Monitoring.

Robot News

Alter: a new type of robot has its own neural network Takashi Ikegami (University of Tokyo) (youtube)

Boston Dynamics - Atlas uses its whole body -- legs, arms, torso -- to perform a sequence of dynamic maneuvers that form a gymnastic routine. We created the maneuvers using new techniques that streamline the development process. First, an optimization algorithm transforms high-level descriptions of each maneuver into dynamically-feasible reference motions. Then Atlas tracks the motions using a model predictive controller that smoothly blends from one maneuver to the next. Using this approach, we developed the routine significantly faster than previous Atlas routines, with a performance success rate of about 80%.

Boston Dynamics Robots Dancing (youtube) - The anthropomorphic Atlas, Spot the robot dog, and even Handle, a box moving robot, danced to the classic song "Do You Love Me" by the Contours. "First they dance for us, then they start killing us".

Unitree G1 - Humanoid Agent AI Avatar for $16,000.

AI designs new robot from scratch in seconds. Researchers developed the first AI to date that can intelligently design robots from scratch by compressing billions of years of evolution into mere seconds. It's not only fast but also runs on a lightweight computer and designs wholly novel structures from scratch — without human-labeled, bias-filled datasets.

COWAROBOT R1: Robotic Suitcase, Autonomous Navigation, High-tech Security. There are probably more practicable uses for this technology besides just a suitcase.

Lifelike Robots. A self-contained soft actuator three times stronger than natural muscle, without the need of externals, signals a breakthrough in Soft Robotics.

FenSens Smart Wireless Parking Sensor - Installs in less than 5 min, no wires, and hands-free App .

3D-Printed Robot wave-propelled that can swim, climb and crawl. 3D printed wave producing robot (SAW).

Let's all Pull Together: Team of µTug Microrobots Pulls a Car (microTug microrobots).

Everybot RS500 Robotic Spin Mop

Largest Walking Robot (youtube) - 400-year-old festival has the world's largest walking robot
weighs 11 tonnes, has a 12-metre wingspan, and breathes fire.

Team designs four-legged robotic system that can walk a balance beam. Spacecraft-inspired system enhances quadruped agility and balance.

Peeqo - The GIF Bot (youtube)

Transparent Gel Robot that Can Snatch Fish Right Up (youtube)

Now you can "build your own" bio-bot Optogenetic skeletal muscle-powered adaptive biological machines.

Robotic Meta-Material: An endless domino effect. If it walks like a particle, and talks like a particle... it may still not be a particle. A topological soliton is a special type of wave or dislocation which behaves like a particle: it can move around but cannot spread out and disappear like you would expect from, say, a ripple on the surface of a pond. Researchers now demonstrate the atypical behavior of topological solitons in a robotic metamaterial, something which in the future may be used to control how robots move, sense their surroundings and communicate.

Robotic Proxy brings remote users to life in real time. Researchers have developed a robot, called ReMotion, that occupies physical space on a remote user's behalf, automatically mirroring the user's movements in real time and conveying key body language that is lost in standard virtual environments. The lean, nearly six-foot-tall device is outfitted with a monitor for a head, omnidirectional wheels for feet and game-engine software for brains. It automatically mirrors the remote user's movements -- thanks to another Cornell-made device, NeckFace, which the remote user wears to track head and body movements. The motion data is then sent remotely to the ReMotion robot in real-time.

Uncanny Lover: Building a Sex Robot | Robotica | The New York Times (youtube) - Sex Dolls with AI will replace most prostitutes. RealDoll could be used for practice and education.

Three-dimensionally printed biological machines powered by skeletal muscle.

Robo-Thread (youtube) - MIT engineers have developed a magnetically steerable, thread-like robot that can actively glide through narrow, winding pathways, such as the labyrinthine vasculature of the brain.

Engineers have designed a microfluidic device they call a "tree-on-a-chip," which mimics the pumping mechanism of trees and plants. The more sugar there is in the phloem, the more water flows from xylem to phloem to balance out the sugar-to-water gradient, in a passive process known as osmosis. The resulting water flow flushes nutrients down to the roots. Trees and plants are thought to maintain this pumping process as more water is drawn up from their roots. engineers have previously attempted to design tree-inspired microfluidic pumps, fabricating parts that mimic xylem and phloem. Hosoi envisions that the tree-on-a-chip pump may be built into a small robot to produce hydraulically powered motions, without requiring active pumps or parts.

Nano Robots

Physicists propose path to faster, more flexible robots. Physicists revealed a microscopic phenomenon that could greatly improve the performance of soft devices, such as agile flexible robots or microscopic capsules for drug delivery. Living organisms use osmosis for such activities as bursting seed dispersing fruits in plants or absorbing water in the intestine. Normally, we think of osmosis as a flow of water moving through a membrane, with bigger molecules like polymers unable to move through. Such membranes are called semi-permeable membranes and were thought to be necessary to trigger osmosis.

Smart microrobots learn how to swim and navigate with artificial intelligence. The AI-powered swimmer is able to switch between different locomotory gaits adaptively to navigate toward any target location on its own. Researchers have been able to successfully teach microrobots how to swim via deep reinforcement learning, marking a substantial leap in the progression of microswimming capability.

Physicists take first step toward Cell-Sized Robots. An electricity-conducting, environment-sensing, shape-changing machine the size of a human cell. A robot exoskeleton that can rapidly change its shape upon sensing chemical or thermal changes in its environment. And, they claim, these microscale machines – equipped with electronic, photonic and chemical payloads – could become a powerful platform for robotics at the size scale of biological microorganisms, with the computational power of the spaceship Voyager onto an object the size of a cell. The machines move using a motor called a bimorph. A bimorph is an assembly of two materials – in this case, graphene and glass – that bends when driven by a stimulus like heat, a chemical reaction or an applied voltage. The shape change happens because, in the case of heat, two materials with different thermal responses expand by different amounts over the same temperature change.

Bimorph is a cantilever used for actuation or sensing which consists of two active layers. It can also have a passive layer between the two active layers. In contrast, a piezoelectric unimorph has only one active (i.e. piezoelectric) layer and one passive (i.e. non-piezoelectric) layer. The term is most commonly used with piezoelectric bimorphs. In actuator applications, one active layer contracts and the other expands if voltage is applied, thus the bimorph bends. In sensing applications, bending the bimorph produces voltage which can for example be used to measure displacement or acceleration. This mode can also be used for energy harvesting. A bimetal could be regarded as a thermally activated bimorph. The first theory about the bending of thermally activated bimorphs was given by Stoney. Newer developments also enabled electrostatically activated bimorphs for the use in Microelectromechanical systems.

First walking robot that can explore its environment randomly and go home automatically, without GPS or mapping.
AntBot, the brand-new robot designed by CNRS and Aix-Marseille University (AMU) researchers at ISM, copies the desert ants' exceptional navigation capacities. It is equipped with an optical compass used to determine its heading by means of polarized light, and by an optical movement sensor directed to the sun to measure the distance covered. Armed with this information, AntBot has been shown to be able, like the desert ants, to explore its environment and to return on its own to its base, with precision of up to 1 cm after having covered a total distance of 14 meters. Weighing only 2.3 kg, this robot has six feet for increased mobility, allowing it to move in complex environments, precisely where deploying wheeled robots and drones can be complicated (disaster areas, rugged terrain, exploration of extraterrestrial soils, etc.).

Mori3: A polygon shape-shifting robot for space travel. By combining inspiration from the digital world of polygon meshing and the biological world of swarm behavior, the Mori3 robot can morph from 2D triangles into almost any 3D object. The research shows the promise of modular robotics for space travel.

What happens when a Gorilla meets a Robot that looks like a small Ape? Animals can be fooled just like Humans can. Alpha Silverback Gorilla Welcomes Spy Gorilla To The Family | BBC Earth (youtube).

Giving Robots Social Skills, but not to humans. A new machine-learning system helps robots understand and perform certain social interactions. Researchers have developed a control framework that enables robots to understand what it means to help or hinder one another and incorporate social reasoning into the tasks they are accomplishing.

Magnetically propelled cilia power climbing soft robots and microfluidic pumps. The rhythmic motions of hair-like cilia move liquids around cells or propel the cells themselves. In nature, cilia flap independently, and mimicking these movements with artificial materials requires complex mechanisms. Now, researchers have made artificial cilia that move in a wave-like fashion when a rotating magnetic field is applied, making them suitable for versatile, climbing soft robots and microfluidic devices.

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