Awake is when you are not sleeping and completely
conscious and mentally perceptive and responsive. Eyes are open and moving,
and the eye lids are blinking. (I am usually awake for 16 hours and I
usually sleep for 8 hours everyday.)
Alert is being mentally perceptive,
responsive and prepared for action. Having heightened watchfulness and feeling
energetic and ready to move quickly. Having alertness. (I am the most
alert when I am well rested and well nourished.)
focusing your time and effort on something important. The process of
looking at something attentively while avoiding being distracted. Taking
special care and mentally concentrating on someone or something
interesting or important. (I have an easier time focusing when I'm
interested in something and have prior knowledge of something.)
Awareness is knowing
what is happening around you and understanding a situation or a moment in
time. (I am most aware when I understand the environment and
understand behaviors and patterns.)
possessing life. Being mentally perceptive and responsive. Breathing or other
life related activities. Not dead or frozen. (I feel the most alive
when I am happy and when I'm enjoying an activity that I like.)
Alphabet is character set that includes
letters. Letters are used to
words and speak a language. There are 26 letters in the
English Language Alphabet. (I know all 26 letters of the English
alphabet and I know how to form words using letters.)
Animal is a living multicellular organism
with tissues and organs that have cells that have a cell nucleus and other
organelles enclosed within membranes. Animals are able to move, eat and
consume organic material, and reproduce sexually. Animals are either
vertebrates or invertebrates. Vertebrates are fishes, amphibians,
reptiles, birds, and mammals like Humans, which have a vertebral column or
spine. Invertebrates do not have backbones or spines, like insects, crabs,
lobsters, snails, clams, octopuses, jellyfish and worms. (There are
all kinds of different animals on earth. Humans are animals, but humans
have a more advanced brain that gives humans special abilities. But many
animals can do certain things better than humans can, which makes all
animals very special.)
Ask is to make a request for information
and to seek an answer. Ask is to search for knowledge with a desire to know
something. Ask is to address a question to someone in order to get an answer. Ask is to inquire about something and to
seek an answer to a question, or to make a request or a demand for something or
somebody. Ask is to conduct an
investigation. (I love to ask questions, it helps me to learn more and
to understand things easier.)
Answer is to reply to a
question verbally or by other means. Answer is to understand the meaning of
something in order to give an
accurate response. An answer should be
satisfactory for the question and meet the requirements of the question
and also serve the purpose of that question. (Some
answers are better than other answers. A good answer is when you don't
have to ask more questions. A good answer can make problem solving easier.)
Accurate is being correct, precise or true in all
details, measurements, calculations, facts, or standards. Being
Articulate is to
express and pronounce and speak words in a message more clearly so that
the message is accurately understood.
Assume is to
pretend to know the answer, or to guess an answer to a question, or to
believe a future event will happen without verification, facts or proof.
Assume can also mean to take on certain responsibilities.
Approximate is to guess an outcome or to
guess the number of things without
having all the information that is needed to make an accurate calculation. An Estimate.
Average is an approximate
statistical middle scale of an evaluation that is between a high and low
of something without loss or gain, or something that is in between a
measurement of good or bad with a ratio that shows what something normally
is or usually is. (If you tried to do something 10 times, and you
succeeded 5 times and failed 5 times, then your average is 50 percent.)
Ability is being able
to do something that takes skill, practice and training.
Aptitude is the ability to do a certain
kind of work effectively at a needed skill level. Competence.
a change for the better. To improve, develop or progress. To move forward.
Affect is to change someone or something in
a positive or negative way. Causation. Affect is to influence and Effect
is something that was influenced.
Advantage is having an easier time with
something or receiving better treatment then someone else. Benefiting more
then another person as a result of some event or some action. Having more
options, more choices and more privileges.
Achievement is the action of accomplishing something.
Achieve is to gain with effort to
accomplish a goal.
Accomplish is to gain or achieve an
important goal using physical and mental effort in order to complete a set of
requirements or to succeed in doing something or to increase something, or advance or to develop
Acquire is to gain knowledge or skills
through experience and effort. To possess or to have or be in control of
is to join, combine or unite things. To increase the quantity, size or
scope of something. To determine the sum of an equation by combining numbers or the numbers of
Addition is the act of adding one thing
to another to measure quantity. Calculating the sum of two or more
Assemble is to create
something by putting things together. To gather together people in one
place for a common purpose. Collect.
Arrangement is an orderly grouping of things or persons considered
as a unit. An organized structure for arranging or classifying. Put into a
proper or systematic order.
Adjust is to alter, modify
or regulate so as to achieve accuracy or adapt to limits or different
Alter is cause to
change; make different; cause a transformation.
Apparatus is a type of equipment designed
to serve a specific function. Apparatus in anatomy is a group of body
parts that work together to perform a given function.
Again is to do something once more. Another
try or one more attempt.
one more. One of a number of things that can provide a different choice or
Attempt is to make an effort
to accomplish a task or to try to reach a goal. Aim is the action of directing or pointing
toward an intended goal or object. An anticipated outcome that is intended
or that guides your planned actions and directs you along a path in a
desired direction. Aim is to specifically design a product, event, or an
activity for a certain public.
Action is to be in motion or to cause
motion, work or activity. To act.
Act is something
that people do or cause to happen. Perform an action.
Perform on a stage or theater. Act can also mean to behave in a certain
manner or show a certain behavior or conduct, or pretend to have certain
qualities or state of mind.
Activism is a set of social activities
designed to inform people and bring awareness and attention to a problem
that is causing people harm or damaging something of value where people
Activist is a person who
publicly speaks out against something to reveal fraud, waste, corruption or abuse, and has knowledge, proof and
evidence of a crime.
the activity of contributing to the fulfillment of a need or furtherance
of an effort or purpose. Help.
is a choice between two or more possibilities. An option. One of a number
of things from which only one can be chosen.
Authentic is something factual and real
and not counterfeit or copied. An origin that can be verified.
Artificial is something created by humans
to be similar to something else that is naturally existing in reality. Not
better, just similar.
relating to a device or process in which data is represented by physical
quantities that change continuously. Data is represented by continuously
variable physical quantities. Humans perceive the world in analog.
Everything we see and hear is a continuous transmission of information to
our senses. This continuous stream is what defines analog data. Digital
information, on the other hand, estimates analog data using only ones and
zeros. A turntable (or record player) is an analog device, while a CD
player is digital. This is because a turntable reads bumps and grooves
from a record as a continuous signal, while a CD player only reads a
series of ones and zeros. Analog also means a
circuit or device having an output that is proportional to the input.
Relating to or using signals or information represented by a continuously
variable physical quantity such as spatial position or voltage. An analog
signal is any continuous signal for which the time varying feature
(variable) of the signal is a representation of some other time varying
quantity, i.e., analogous to another time varying signal. Analog
electronics are electronic systems with a continuously variable signal, in
contrast to digital electronics where signals usually take only two
levels. The term "analogue" describes the proportional relationship
between a signal and a voltage or current that represents the signal.
Analogous also means similar, comparable or equivalent in
some respects though otherwise dissimilar.
is the smallest component of matter that can have protons and neutrons at
its center with an electron or electrons circling the nucleus from such a
large distance that it makes the entire atom almost 99.9 percent space.
Atoms are the chemical properties of an element, which can be a gas,
liquid, solid or plasma. An atom is roughly one angstrom across or one ten
millionth of a millimeter (mm).
is a mixture of gases such as oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide that surrounds the earth
and is required for breathing. Wind is made up of molecules of different
elements of gases.
Atmosphere is the thin layer of air that surrounds our planet which is made up of
several layers of gases.
a vertical distance measurement of how high something is above the sea
level, in feet or meters. There are several types of aviation altitude:
Indicated altitude, which is the altitude shown on the altimeter. Absolute
altitude, which is altitude in terms of the distance above the ground
directly below. True altitude, which is the altitude in terms of elevation
above sea level Height, which is the altitude in terms of the distance
above a certain point. Pressure altitude, which is the air pressure in
terms of altitude in the International Standard Atmosphere. Density
altitude, which is the density of the air in terms of altitude in the
International Standard Atmosphere in the air.
Above is something at a higher in position
than other things. (Look up it's right above you).
Athletic is being
skilled and coordinated in a particular sport or physical activity.
Activities are things to do that
require movements or actions. Or, an organic process that takes place in
Award is a tangible symbol signifying
some benefit or value from some work or action performed.
is someone who uses imagination and skills to create something unique or
Appreciate is to be
thankful for and to be aware
of and to recognize someone or something for its value and importance. To
be grateful for something received. Appreciation is understanding the
meaning of, or the quality of, or the magnitude of something special. To
say thank you. Reciprocating kindness.
Authorize is to give permission to. To
allow someone to continue with an intended activity.
Access is being allowed or permitted to
enter into an area in order to obtain or retrieve information. Sometimes
using a key, or code or some kind of device or symbol.
Approve is to be in favor of or to be in
agreement with a particular action or thing.
Appropriate is something that is
designed for a particular person, place, occasion or condition.
Attractive is something that is pleasing to
the eye or the mind. Something that looks good to you. Something that you
like and see as being beautiful.
Adhering is cooperating with a plan without
Adhesive is a substance
that unites or bonds surfaces together, stick together like glue.
Alpha is the first letter of the Greek
alphabet (uppercase Α, lowercase α). In the system of Greek numerals,
it has a value of 1. Alpha is also a synonym that means the beginning or
first in a series, or a leader.
Alpha is also a code word representing the
letter A, used in radio communication.
Adventure is a risky activity that can also
be exciting and fun. A complex goal that takes careful planning, training
Anticipation is the
feeling that you get when you know that something is going to happen in
the future. A prediction in advance about a probable or likely event that
you are excited about or worried about happening. Expecting a surprise but
not totally sure what it will be like or exactly when or if.
Apparent is clearly revealed to the mind,
by the senses or by knowledge. Appearing as such but not necessarily so.
Attribute is a characteristic of something that can be perceived,
defined and measured. A distinct feature, part or element.
being connected in some way. Joined or linked together.
Addiction is a bad habit
that is hard to control. An abnormal strong craving and a dependence on
something that is psychologically or physically controlling. Takes time,
knowledge, awareness and discipline to overcome an addiction.
is to be bad, wrong, disrespectful or harmful to someone or something. To
be cruel, rude, offensive, improper or inhumane.
Adult is a person
usually over the age of 18 years old who has almost reached full physical
development. Someone who is nearly mature and possesses average knowledge about themselves and the world around them.
Arm is a limb that extends from the shoulder of the
Ankle is part of the leg connected above the
foot and below the knee.
Abdomen is the region of the body below
the chest and above the legs. The stomach between the thorax and the
Appendectomy is a surgical
removal of the appendix.
a pouch like structure of the colon, located at the junction of the small
and the large intestines. Long and thin and cylindrical.
Angle is the space between two lines
or planes that intersect. To incline or bend from a vertical position.
Animal is a living organism
that can develop, reproduce, and has the ability to act or function
Aqua is a color that has a shade of
blue tinged with green. Aqua also means something involving water.
Analogy is making a comparison between
things in order to show a
similarity in some respect.
Analyze is to look at carefully the
details of a subject in order to discover essential features or
Africa is the second largest continent made up
of 54 sovereign countries. Bordered to the west by the South Atlantic
and to the east by the Indian Ocean. (1.216 billion people in 2016).
Asia is the largest continent with
48-50 independent countries and 60% of the earth's population located
primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres; it is joined to Europe
on the west to form Eurasia; it is the site of some of the world's
a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent,
the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the largest
country in Oceania and the world's sixth-largest country by total area.
The neighboring countries are Papua New Guinea, Indonesia and East Timor
to the north; the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east; and New
Zealand to the south-east. Australia's capital is Canberra, and its
largest urban area is Sydney. For about 50,000 years before the first
British settlement in the late 18th century, Australia was inhabited by
indigenous Australians, who spoke languages classifiable into roughly 250
America is a country in the northern
hemisphere on the continent of North America. Commonly known as the United
States that is composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major
self-governing territories, and various possessions. The capital is
Washington, D.C., and the largest city by population is New York City.
Alaska is one of the U.S. states located in
the northwest extremity of North America. The Canadian administrative
divisions of British Columbia and Yukon border the state to the east, its
most extreme western part is Attu Island, and it has a maritime border
with Russia to the west across the Bering Strait.
is a U.S. state in the southwestern region of the United States. It is
also part of the Western and the Mountain states. It is the sixth largest
and the 14th most populous of the 50 states. Its capital and largest city
Alabama is a state in the southeastern
region of the United States. It is bordered by Tennessee to the north,
Georgia to the east, Florida and the Gulf of Mexico to the south, and
Mississippi to the west. Alabama is the 30th largest by area and the
24th-most populous of the U.S. states.
Arctic is the northern most part of Earth.
A polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth or North pole.
The Arctic consists of the Arctic Ocean, adjacent seas, and parts of
Alaska (United States), Northern Canada (Canada), Finland, Greenland
(Denmark), Iceland, Norway, Russia and Sweden. Land within the Arctic
region has seasonally varying snow and ice cover, with predominantly
treeless permafrost-containing tundra. Arctic seas contain seasonal sea
ice in many places.
Antarctic is the
southern most part of Earth. A polar region around the Earth's South Pole,
opposite the Arctic region around the North Pole. The Antarctic comprises
in the strict sense the continent of Antarctica and the island territories
located on the Antarctic Plate.
August is the eighth month
of a calendar year following July and preceding
is a edible fruit with red or yellow or green skin and sweet to tart crisp
whitish flesh interior. A ripened reproductive body of a seed
Aroma is a distinctive odor
that is pleasant to smell when detected by the olfactory system.
And is used to connect words, clauses or
sentences. In order to; used instead of "to", especially after try, come,
go. (Ham and Eggs - You and I).
is to guess or estimate an exact amount that you are not sure of. Close
to, almost to, or near to the area or vicinity. About can also mean on the
move in no particular direction or place.
is used with the present participle of another verb to form the
progressive tense. Verb: Second-person singular simple present
tense of be (Mary, where are you going?)
First-person plural simple
present tense of be (We are not coming.)
Second-person plural simple
present tense of be (Mary and John, are you listening?)
plural simple present tense of be (They are here somewhere.)
As is to the same degree. (She's twice as
strong as I was two years ago).
expresses position, direction or location, or point in time. (I will go to
sleep at 9:00 pm).
All is to a
complete degree or to the full or entire extent. Everything or everyone.
(We are all here)
Also is in addition to. As well. Besides
Antonyms are words that have an
opposite meaning from each other. (sad or glad). A word opposite in
meaning to another (e.g., bad and good).
Adjective is a word that expresses an attribute of something. The
word class that qualifies nouns. Describe or modify—that is, they limit or
restrict the meaning of—nouns and pronouns. They may name qualities of all
kinds: huge, red, angry, tremendous, unique, rare, etc. An adjective
usually comes right before a noun: "a red dress," "fifteen people."
Adverb is a word that modifies
something other than a noun. A word that modifies a verb, adjective,
another adverb, determiner, noun phrase, clause, or sentence. Adverbs
typically express manner, place, time, frequency, degree, level of
certainty, etc., answering questions such as how?, in what way?, when?,
where?, and to what extent?.
After is something
happening at a later time. Following in time or order.
A is the basic unit of electric current adopted under the Système
International d'Unités. (a typical household circuit carries 15 to 50
A is a any of several
fat-soluble vitamins essential for normal vision; prevents night blindness
or inflammation or dryness of the eyes.
The Letter A is
also a word that is used alongside a
noun (as a standalone word or a
prefix or suffix) to specify grammatical definiteness of the noun, and in
some languages extending to volume or numerical scope. The
articles in English
grammar are the and a/an, "an" is use before a
vowel sound, "a" otherwise. A pencil. A bird.
A.M. stands for ante meridiem which is the 12-hour clock time
period of a 24 hour day that is divided into two intervals of 12 hour.
A.M. starts at 12 AM midnight and goes for 12 hours until 12 PM noon time
when the sun is shining. Then PM goes for 12 hours until 12 AM. then the
cycle continues. The Earth takes 24 hours to rotate one full turn on its axis or a 360 degree spin.
Axis an imaginary line about which a body rotates on or around on a fixed point
that is the center.
A a B
b C c D d E e F f G g H h I i J
j K k L l M m
N n O o P p Q q R
S s T t U u V v W w X x Y y Z z
Word Class is a category of words of
similar form or function. A part of speech.
Part of Speech
is a category of words of lexical items which
have similar grammatical
properties. Words that are assigned to the same part of speech
generally display similar behavior in terms of syntax—they play similar
roles within the grammatical structure of sentences—and sometimes in terms
of morphology, in that they undergo inflection for similar properties.
Commonly listed English parts of speech are
verb, adjective, adverb,
pronoun, preposition, conjunction, interjection, and sometimes
article or determiner.
Grammatical Functions -
Nouns are words that name a person, place,
thing, or idea. (bed, democracy).
Proper nouns are specific names of people
and places, such as Martin Luther King Jr. and Indianapolis — are
Pronouns are words that
take the place of a noun or another pronoun. (I, you, me, he, she, it, we,
Possessive pronouns show
ownership: my/mine, your/yours, their/theirs, our/ours.
Adjectives are words that describe nouns
and pronouns. (red, more, second, several).
Verbs are words that name an action or
describe a state of being (run, seem).
Adverbs are words that describe verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs
(yesterday, below, happily, partly).
Conjunctions are words that connect words or groups of words and
show how they are related (and, or, for, but, after, although, because).
Prepositions are words that link a noun
or pronoun to another word in the sentence (by, about, behind, above, across, at, with)
Interjections are words that show strong emotion (Oh! Wow!).
Noun system of words for
communication: accent, dialect, expression, jargon, prose, sound, speech and style.
Punctuation is the name for marks used in
writing. They are to help understanding and correct reading. These are
some common punctuation marks used in English:
. period or full stop
, comma ? question mark ! exclamation mark ' apostrophe "
quotation mark/inverted comma : colon ; semicolon ... ellipsis
(omission or suppression of parts of words or sentences) eclipsis
- hyphen – n-dash — m-dash
Apostrophe (') is a
punctuation mark used to indicate the omission of one or more letters from a printed
word. Use an apostrophe + S ('s) to show that one person/thing owns or is
a member of something. Use an apostrophe after the “s” at the end of a
plural noun to show possession. If a plural noun doesn't end in “s,” add
an “'s” to create the possessive form.
is to travel in a foreign country far away from home or away from one's
usual surroundings. Anti-: Antiseptic is
a substance that destroys micro-organisms that carry disease without
harming body tissues. (an–tih-sep-tik).
Antidote is a remedy that stops or controls the effects of a
poison. (an-teh-doht) Dis-: Disagree is
to not to understand something in the same way that someone else does.
Il-: illegible means not readable.
Illiterate is a person cannot read or write.
illogical is being irrational and lacking reason or common sense.
illegal is something bad that is prohibited
by law or not accepted by rules, something that may cause you to be
arrested or sent to prison or receive a fine. Im-:
Imbalance is a lack of balance, not stable
or steady. In-: Individuality is being
an individual with a unique personality. Ir-:
Irretrievable is something impossible to recover or recoup or
overcome. Un-: Unhappy means being sad
or not happy. Common Vocabulary Prefixes are
Co-, De-, and In-. Co- means “with.” Variations include col-,
com-, and con-. (cofounder, commemorate, conclusion)
Suffix Meaning Examples
able/ible capable or worthy of, fit for; tending to, causing, given to, or liable to
commendable, edible, impressionable. d/ed indicates past tense of a
verb baffled, flummoxed, wasted. ence/ance quality or state; an action
or process clearance, reference, remembrance. ing indicates the
present-perfect tense of a verb (such verbs are called gerunds) admiring,
discussing, perplexing. ion act, result of an act, or state or
condition integration, obsession, possession. ment an action, process,
or act of a specified kind bereavement, merriment, movement. s/es
indicates the plural form of a noun analyses, arguments, results.
Examples of adding a prefix to a root:
De + hydrate = dehydrate (to remove the water or moisture from)
Examples of adding a suffix to a root:
zoo + ology = zoology (the study of animals) bronch + itis = bronchitis
(inflammation of the bronchial tubes)
Grafting roots to roots Cal (beauty) + graph (to write) forms
calligraphy (kah-lig-rih-fee), which means “elegant penmanship.” Carn
(meat) + vor (to eat) forms carnivore (kar-nih-vor), which is someone who
eats meat. Chron (time) + meter (measure) forms chronometer (krah-nahm-ih-ter)
— an instrument for measuring time.
Arranging words in your mind Any time you set out to study
words, get in the habit of mentally arranging them into the following
three categories: Words you know: You use and can define these words.
Words you’re familiar with: You generally use these words correctly
without knowing exactly what they mean. Words you don’t know: You may
have seen these words once or twice, or you may be encountering them for
the first time.
Decoding Medical Lingo
Modalities of therapy means “treatments.” Capillary hemangiomas
refers to strawberry birthmarks. Spontaneous involution means
“disappearing on its own.”
harmless and not malignant. (bih-nyn).
Malignant is a dangerous uncontrolled growth of a tumor that easily
spreads like an infection and is poisonous and harmful. Tumor is an abnormal mass of tissue that
can harm organs in the body and cause death by swelling or causing
inflammation. Metastasized is the spread
of cancer to other areas in the
body by metastasis, which is the development of secondary malignant
growths at a distance from a primary site of cancer. Melanoma
is a malignant skin tumor. (mel-eh-noh-ma).
Carcinogenic is something that is cancer-producing. (kar-sin-oh-jen-ik). Ulcer is an open sore, as in the stomach
lining. (ul-sur). Toxic is something
very poisonous and deadly. (tox-ik). Antibiotic
is a bacteria-killing substance. (an-ty-by-ah-tik). Diagnosis is a decision or opinion based on
an examination. (dy–ag-noh-sis). Prognosis
is a prediction of the probable course of a disease and the chances of
recovery. (prog-noh-sis). Remission is
the disappearance of disease symptoms. (ree-mih-shun). Hematoma is a collection of blood, usually
clotted, outside a blood vessel. (hee-meh-toh-ma). Coagulate is to thicken or clot, or to
cause to do so (as in blood) (koh-ag-yoo-layt). Plasma is the fluid portion of the blood. (plaz-ma). Aneurysm is a sac formed by an enlarged
weakened wall in arteries, veins, or the heart. (an-yoor-iz-em). Incision is a cut, as in surgery. (in-siz-zhun). Lacerated is when the skin is torn, as in a
wound. (las-er-ay-ted). Suture is
joining two edges together by stitching, or similar means; a stitch. (soo-chur). Comatose is when someone is unconscious or
in a coma. (koh-mah-tohs). Concussion is
a brain injury due to violent blow or impact. (kon-kuhs-shun). Migraine is an intense pain in the head or
a recurring headache. (my-grayn).