is a device that converts the wind's
. Wind turbines are manufactured in a wide range of vertical and horizontal axis types. The
smallest turbines are used for applications such as
auxiliary power for boats or caravans or to power traffic warning signs.
Slightly larger turbines can be used for making contributions to a
domestic power supply while selling unused power back to the utility
supplier via the electrical grid
. Arrays of large turbines, known as
, are becoming an increasingly important source of intermittent
renewable energy and are used by many countries as part of a strategy to
reduce their reliance on fossil fuels. Wind Turbine Info-Graph
Wind Energy was producing energy for 6 million homes at the end of 2008,
Now it's up to 13 million as of 2012, providing about 3 percent of Americas energy needs.
, the United States, wind power accounts for about 4 percent of
overall electricity production (181.79
) but supplies significant amounts
in various states and regions.
In May 2015, the Pacific Northwest’s Bonneville Power Administration
generated more than 40 percent of its electricity
for its 13
million residents from wind energy alone.
In Texas, record wind output in March met about 40 percent of
the demand for most of the state’s electric grid. In 2015,
Wind Power in the United States
is generating nearly 75,000 megawatts
is the intended full-load sustained output of a facility such as a power plant.
Windmills Still in Use Today | National Geographic
Engineering Mistake That Made Wind Turbines Inefficient | Massive
Info-Graph on right provided by Land Art Generator
Renewable Energy Statistics
Wind Turbine has a
1.7-megawatt General Electric turbine, which rises 432 feet above the
ground from the tip of a blade.
Takes 43 truckloads to pour close to
400 cubic yards of concrete. The concrete base is 9 feet deep and nearly
60 feet across.
When wind speeds are more than 45 mph, the blades will
lock for safety.
More than 50,000 wind turbines in place
across the U.S.
, wind power now accounts for 8 percent of the
nation's energy-generating capacity — and experts predict that figure
could rise to 20 percent by 2030.
December 2016, the
30-megawatt Block Island Wind Farm off of Rhode Island
operation with five turbines.
Roscoe Wind Farm
in Roscoe, Texas, owned and operated by
E.ON Climate & Renewables is one of the world's largest capacity wind
farms with 634 wind turbines and a total installed capacity of 781.5 MW.
At the time of its completion in 2009, it was the largest wind farm in the
world, surpassing the nearby 735.5 MW Horse Hollow Wind Energy Center. In
2012, it was overtaken by California's 1,020 MW Alta Wind Energy Center.
Fact Sheet Map by State
Denmark’s array of onshore and offshore wind farms met 116
percent of its national electricity demand on July 9, 2015
according to the energy tracking website
. The next morning, after demand had peaked, the
figure rose to 140 percent. Germany, Norway, and Sweden took the
power surplus off Denmark’s hands, storing excess electricity in
hydropower systems for later use. It’s a new record for Denmark,
where wind farms met 39 percent of the country’s electricity
needs in 2014, putting the nation of 5 million in the company of
Scotland, Germany, and other countries that are producing more
than a quarter of their power from renewable sources.
World's Largest Offshore Wind Farm
Opens in English Channel.
100 turbines covering an area of 13.5 square miles, producing
300 megawatts, which is equivalent to the annual electricity
consumption of more than 200,000 British households.
Walney Extension is the Largest Offshore Wind Farm in the World
the coast of northwestern England stands 87 turbines that average 640 feet
above mean sea level, each producing 8.25 megawatts on average, which
totals 659 megawatts of power, enough
to power almost 600,000 homes
in the UK. The wind farm covers an area
of water measuring 55.9 square miles, or 35,830 acres.
World Wind Energy Association
Global Wind Energy Council
Types of Wind Turbines
Floating Wind Turbine
is an offshore wind turbine mounted on a
floating structure that allows the turbine to generate electricity in
water depths where bottom-mounted towers are not feasible. Locating wind
farms out at sea can reduce visual pollution while providing better
accommodation for fishing and shipping lanes. In addition, the wind is
typically more consistent and stronger over the sea, due to the absence of
topographic features that disrupt wind flow. Floating wind parks are wind
farms that site several floating wind turbines closely together to take
advantage of common infrastructure such as power transmission facilities.
Floating Wind & Current Hybrid Power
Vertical Axis Wind Turbine
are a type of wind turbine
where the main rotor shaft is set transverse to the wind (but not
necessarily vertically) while the main components are located at the base
of the turbine. This arrangement allows the generator and gearbox to be
located close to the ground, facilitating service and repair. VAWTs do not
need to be pointed into the wind, which removes the need for wind-sensing
and orientation mechanisms. Major drawbacks for the early designs (Savonius,
Darrieus and giromill) included the significant torque variation or
"ripple" during each revolution, and the large bending moments on the
blades. Later designs addressed the torque ripple issue by sweeping the
Savonius Vertical Axis Wind Turbine
are a type of
vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT), used for converting the force of the
wind into torque on a rotating shaft. The turbine consists of a number of
aerofoils, usually—but not always—vertically mounted on a rotating shaft
or framework, either ground stationed or tethered in airborne systems.
Vertical-axis wind turbine
is a coupling that transfers torque
from one shaft, but using a magnetic field rather than a physical
mechanical connection. Magnetic shaft couplings are most often used for
liquid pumps and propeller systems, since a static, physical barrier can
be placed between the two shafts to separate the fluid from the motor
operating in air. Magnetic shaft couplings preclude the use of shaft
seals, which eventually wear out and fail from the sliding of two surfaces
against each another. Magnetic couplings are also used for ease of
maintenance on systems that typically require precision alignment, when
physical shaft couplings are used, since they allow a greater off axis
error between the motor and driven shaft.
operate electrically but
transmit torque mechanically. This is why they used to be referred to as
electro-mechanical clutches. Over the years, EM became known as
electromagnetic versus electro-mechanical, referring more about their
actuation method versus physical operation. Since the clutches started
becoming popular over 60 years ago, the variety of applications and clutch
designs has increased dramatically, but the basic operation remains the
same today. Single-face clutches make up approximately 90% of all
electromagnetic clutch sales. Electromagnetic clutches are most suitable
for remote operation since no mechanical linkages are required to control
their engagement, providing fast, smooth operation. However, because the
activation energy dissipates as heat in the electromagnetic actuator when
the clutch is engaged, there is a risk of overheating. Consequently, the
maximum operating temperature of the clutch is limited by the temperature
rating of the insulation of the electromagnet. This is a major limitation.
Another disadvantage is higher initial cost.
. Harvesting the energy from typhoons.
Airborne Wind Turbine
is a design concept for a wind turbine with a rotor supported in the air
without a tower, thus benefiting from more mechanical and aerodynamic
options, the higher velocity and persistence of wind at high altitudes,
while avoiding the expense of tower construction, or the need for slip
rings or yaw mechanism. An electrical generator may be on the ground or
airborne. Challenges include safely suspending and maintaining turbines
hundreds of meters off the ground in high winds and storms, transferring
the harvested and/or generated power back to earth, and interference with
aviation. Airborne wind turbines may operate in low or high altitudes;
they are part of a wider class of Airborne Wind Energy Systems (AWES)
addressed by high-altitude wind power and crosswind kite power. When the
generator is on the ground, then the tethered aircraft need not carry the
generator mass or have a conductive tether. When the generator is aloft,
then a conductive tether would be used to transmit energy to the ground or
used aloft or beamed to receivers using microwave or laser. Kites and
'helicopters' come down when there is insufficient wind; kytoons and
blimps may resolve the matter with other disadvantages. Also, bad weather
such as lightning or thunderstorms, could temporarily suspend use of the
machines, probably requiring them to be brought back down to the ground
and covered. Some schemes require a long power cable and, if the turbine
is high enough, a prohibited airspace zone. As of July 2015, no commercial
airborne wind turbines are in regular operation.
is a modification on the wind turbine created by
Professor Ohya from the Kyushu University as an attempt to be more
efficient in production of electricity and less invasive to both humans
and nature. While still in progress, the wind lens has a few changes in
design which have led to impacts on how wind energy can be used and
harnessed while changing how it impacts the world around us.
Dual-Rotor Wind Turbine
or "coax rotors" are a pair of helicopter
rotors mounted one above the other on concentric shafts, with the same
axis of rotation, but turning in opposite directions (contra-rotation).
This configuration is a feature of helicopters produced by the Russian
Kamov helicopter design bureau.
Small Wind Turbines
Trinity Portable Wind Turbine
Wind Turbine for Home
Bladeless Wind Turbines
also known as a light mill, consists of
an airtight glass bulb, containing a partial vacuum. Inside are a set of
vanes which are mounted on a spindle. The vanes rotate when exposed to
light, with faster rotation for more intense light, providing a
quantitative measurement of electromagnetic radiation intensity. The
reason for the rotation was a cause of much scientific debate in the ten
years following the invention of the device, but in 1879 the currently
accepted explanation for the rotation was published. Today the device is
mainly used in physics education as a demonstration of a heat engine run
by light energy.
Wind Energy Resources
Wind Power Research Analysis
Hybrid Hydro Wind System
is the smallest and farthest
south and west of the Canary Islands.
Vibro Wind Panels jetsongreen.com
Down Draft Tower
Small Wind Certification
Airborne Wind Energy
Airborne Wind Energy System
Air Born Wind Turbine
Hosting Powered by Renewable Energy
Websites Powered by Renewable Energy
Birds and Windmills
Researchers estimate that 140,000 to 328,000 birds
are killed every year in collisions with the turbines' spinning rotor
blades and support towers. The risk to birds is highest at night, when the
blades and towers are cloaked in darkness. Stopping or slowing their wind
turbines temporarily when large numbers of birds are flying through the
area, using automated bird migration forecasts and real-time tracking maps
The Windmills of
Your Mind - Noel Harrison
Round like a circle in a spiral, like a wheel
within a wheel
Never ending or beginning on an ever spinning reel
Like a snowball down a mountain, or a carnival balloon
Like a carousel
that's turning running rings around the moon
Like a clock whose hands
are sweeping past the minutes of its face
And the world is like an
apple whirling silently in space
Like the circles that you find in the
windmills of your mind!
Like a tunnel that you follow to a tunnel of
Down a hollow to a cavern where the sun has never shone
a door that keeps revolving in a half forgotten dream
Or the ripples
from a pebble someone tosses in a stream
Like a clock whose hands are
sweeping past the minutes of its face
And the world is like an apple
whirling silently in space
Like the circles that you find in the
windmills of your mind!
Keys that jingle in your pocket, words that
jangle in your head
Why did summer go so quickly, was it something that
Lovers walking along a shore and leave their footprints in
Is the sound of distant drumming just the fingers of your
Pictures hanging in a hallway and the fragment of a song
remembered names and faces, but to whom do they belong?
When you knew
that it was over you were suddenly aware
That the autumn leaves were
turning to the color of her hair!
Like a circle in a spiral, like a
wheel within a wheel
Never ending or beginning on an ever spinning reel
As the images unwind, like the circles that you find
In the windmills of your mind