Vitamins - Minerals - Supplements - Energy Bars
The word "Vitamin
" means 'Vital to Life
and a vital
that an organism requires in
(or related set of compounds) is called a vitamin when the organism cannot
the compound in sufficient quantities, and it must be obtained
through the diet; thus, the term "vitamin" is conditional upon the
circumstances and the particular organism. For example, ascorbic acid (one
form of vitamin C) is a vitamin for humans, but not for most other animal
organisms. Supplementation is important for the treatment of certain
, but there could also be other factors involved when
determining the cause of a particular health problem, so please do your
research and get the advice of health professionals. Personalized Vitamins
is something urgently needed
and absolutely necessary. Something
performing an essential function
in the living body. Something manifesting or characteristic of life. Full
of spirit. Bio-Markers
Vitamin and Mineral Deficiencies
2.5 Million Kids Suffer Every Year from Vitamin Deficiencies
The World Bank estimates that
is a $50 billion drain on global GDP. Lucky Iron Fish
are fish-shaped cast iron ingots used to
provide dietary supplementation of iron to individuals living affected by
. The ingots are placed in a pot of boiling water
to leach elemental iron into the water and food.
required for life. Iron-containing proteins
participate in transport,
storage and use of oxygen
. Iron proteins
are involved in electron transfer
Iron deficiency anemia
occurs when your body doesn't have enough iron
to produce hemoglobin
. Hemoglobin is the part of red blood cells that
gives blood its red color and enables the red blood cells to carry
oxygenated blood throughout your body.
is the state in which a body has not enough (or not
qualitatively enough) iron to supply its eventual needs. Iron is present
in all cells in the human body and has several vital functions, such as
to the tissues from the
lungs as a key component of the
acting as a transport medium for
within the cells in the form of cytochromes, and
facilitating oxygen enzyme reactions in various tissues. Too little iron
can interfere with these vital functions and lead to morbidity and death.
Total body iron averages approximately 3.8 g in men and 2.3 g in women. In
blood plasma, iron is carried tightly bound to the protein transferrin.
There are several mechanisms that control human iron metabolism and
safeguard against iron deficiency. The main regulatory mechanism is
situated in the gastrointestinal tract. When loss of iron is not
sufficiently compensated by adequate intake of iron from the diet, a state
of iron deficiency develops over time. When this state is uncorrected, it
leads to iron deficiency anemia. Before anemia occurs, the medical
condition of iron deficiency without anemia is called latent iron
deficiency (LID) or Iron-deficient erythropoiesis (IDE). Untreated iron
deficiency can lead to iron deficiency anemia, a common type of anemia.
Anemia is a condition characterized by inadequate red blood cells
(erythrocytes) or hemoglobin. Iron deficiency anemia occurs when the body
lacks sufficient amounts of iron, resulting in reduced production of the
protein hemoglobin. Hemoglobin binds to oxygen, thus enabling red blood
cells to supply oxygenated blood throughout the body. Children,
pre-menopausal women (women of child-bearing age) and people with poor
diet are most susceptible to the disease. Most cases of iron deficiency
anemia are mild, but if not treated can cause problems like fast or
irregular heartbeat, complications during pregnancy, and delayed growth in
infants and children. Heavy Metals
infectious diseases, because it prevents the immune system from working
properly. Lack of iron increases the death rates of
and lowers the IQ
is a lack of one or more of the
micronutrients required for plant or animal health. In humans and other
animals they include both vitamin deficiencies and mineral deficiencies,
whereas in plants the term refers to deficiencies of essential trace
is a state arising from
abnormality in absorption of
across the gastrointestinal (GI) tract
. Impairment can be
of single or multiple nutrients depending on the abnormality. This may
lead to malnutrition and a variety of anaemias. Malabsorption syndrome
occurs when something prevents the bowel from absorbing important
nutrients and fluids, including proteins, fats, and vitamins.
can be caused by conditions such as celiac disease,
Crohn’s disease, lactose intolerance, and intestinal damage. Risk factors
include a family history of malabsorption or cystic fibrosis, excessive
alcohol consumption, and travel to the Caribbean or Southeast Asia.
Cooking Effects on Food Nutrients
We Need More Vitamins as we Get Older
Multivitamin, mineral supplement linked to less-severe, shorter-lasting
. Older adults who took a daily multivitamin and
mineral supplement with zinc and high amounts of vitamin C in a 12-week
study experienced sickness for shorter periods and with less severe
symptoms than counterparts in a control group receiving a placebo.
Personalized Diet - Vitamin Needs and Deficiency Testing
Have your Blood
analyzed to determine your
preferred food intake and the
that you need.
Then after 1 month you do another full set of
to see if the diet is maximizing your physical
as well as producing all the necessary
signify good health.
everyone will wear a device on their wrist that will measure
levels, vitamin levels, blood sugar levels,
, oxygen levels,
and so on. This way they will know
exactly what nutrition they need and when. And you will not have to wear
the device all the time because you will
learn from experience
food and water you actually need each day.
- Nutrition Consulting
- Calculate Nutrition Values
Vitamin and Nutrition Lab Tests
NASA to predict Vitamin Levels in Spaceflight Food
and predict the
degradation of vitamins in spaceflight food over time.Epigenetics
- Preventive Medicine
Cancer and Diet
Vitagene DNA Ancestry Test Kit
used to help you create a fitness plan that's scientifically designed to
work for you with customized meals and workouts that are optimized for
your unique genetic makeup — just send in a cheek swab, and you're ready
will ultimately prove that
Nutrition is a Science
. We will be able to determine what
are poison and prove what are the exact
amounts of the right foods that each individual person requires
for maximum health and energy.
One X - The First Nutritional Biosensor
for monitoring your skin antioxidants level.
(scan food to
determine details of that food).
Custom Energy Bars -
Make your own Energy Bars
Custom Nutrition Bars
Individual Vitamins or Single Vitamin Supplements are better than
. Tailored Vitamins are Better than Multivitamins
because it's a better strategy to take just the vitamins a person needs
based on their age and diet. But remember that it's easy to overdose on
certain nutrients that can be toxic in large amounts.
When taking Vitamin Supplements
you need to know the quality of the product
. You need to know
the amount of each vitamin and mineral that you need. You need
to know the best time to take them.
You need to know when not to
combine them with other vitamins, minerals, foods or
. You need to understand absorption rate and the
difference between fat-soluble and water-soluble nutrients. You need to
know when to take a break from vitamins and for how long.
Why Vitamins and Minerals Go Hand in Hand
I use to
take only certain multi-vitamins that have a
, or serving size, for taking several tablets a day. Then
I only take one tablet a day even if they recommend 2 or more
tablets a day. This way I’m only taking a low dosage of high
quality vitamins. The vitamins will also last longer, which
lowers the cost too. Some vitamins actually make me breakout. So
I found these two Vitamins that work the best with no ill side
effects when you take less the the recommended dosage. But now I
take individual vitamins that are more tailor to my specific needs.
I use to take
one tablet daily of
GNC MEGA MEN Multivitamins
Now I take MegaFood Multi Vitamin for Men.Nutrition
Get the Very First Caffeinated Bracelet
Do Multi-Vitamins make you Hungry
Does taking Vitamin Supplements increase Appetite
does for me, but why?
Here is one guess: Vitamin deficiencies that may cause loss of
appetite. The following vitamin deficiencies may cause loss of
appetite, along with numerous other symptoms.
Vitamin B12 - Vitamin A - Vitamin B1
(thiamine) - Vitamin B6 - Biotin (rare
and most commonly seen in infants).
You need to pay close attention to how you feel everyday
because if something that you're eating is giving you problems, you have
to know when to stop eating that particular food, or stop taking that
particular medicine or supplement. Do you notice any changes that may be
an indicator that something is wrong physically or mentally? But knowing
what exactly is making you feel discomfort is not that easy. You can stop
one thing at a time if you can, but you may have to stop several things at
once, which makes it harder to figure out the culprit, but it's not impossible.
art or science of strengthening defenses
with the addition of an
ingredient for the purpose of enrichment.
is the act of that significantly increases the value of
something by making it more fuller or more meaningful or more
is breeding crops to increase their Nutritional Value.
- Vertical Farming
is the idea of breeding crops
to increase their nutritional value
. This can be done either through conventional
selective breeding, or through genetic engineering. Biofortification
differs from ordinary fortification because it focuses on making plant
foods more nutritious as the plants are growing, rather than having
nutrients added to the foods when they are being processed. This is an
improvement on ordinary fortification when it comes to providing nutrients
for the rural poor, who rarely have access to commercially fortified
foods. As such, biofortification is seen as an upcoming strategy for
dealing with deficiencies of micronutrients in the developing world. In
the case of iron, WHO estimated that biofortification could help curing
the 2 billion people suffering from iron deficiency-induced anemia.
Characterization of Selenium-Enriched Wheat by Agronomic Bio-Fortification
is the process of adding micronutrients (essential
trace elements and vitamins) to food. Sometimes it's a purely commercial
choice to provide extra nutrients in a food, while other times it is a
public health policy which aims to reduce the number of people with
dietary deficiencies within a population. Staple foods of a region can
lack particular nutrients due to the soil of the region or from inherent
inadequacy of a normal diet. Addition of micronutrients to staples and
condiments can prevent large-scale deficiency diseases in these cases.
Decreasing Nutrients in Plants
The Secret behind Witchweed's devastating ability to Steal Nutrients from
. Hopes for developing a new method to control the parasitic
Striga weed commonly known as 'witchweed,' the parasitic plant
devastates crops in sub-Saharan Africa. Scientists
have discovered a unique protein in Striga that helps sustain its high
transpiration. Striga uses transpiration
to effectively steal water and
its hosts, so this protein could provide a new target for controlling Striga.
is a pharmaceutical-grade and standardized nutrient.
Nutraceuticals are products derived from food sources that are purported
to provide extra health benefits, pharmaceutical-grade nutritional
supplements, or nutraceuticals, is a food containing health-giving
additives and having medicinal benefit.
are fortified or enriched during processing and then
marketed as providing some benefit to consumers. Sometimes, additional
complementary nutrients are added, such as vitamin D to milk. Functional
food is a food given an additional function (often one related to
health-promotion or disease prevention) by adding new ingredients or more
of existing ingredients. The term may also apply to traits purposely bred
into existing edible plants, such as purple or gold potatoes having
enriched anthocyanin or carotenoid contents, respectively. Functional
foods may be "designed to have physiological benefits and/or reduce the
risk of chronic disease beyond basic nutritional functions, and may be
similar in appearance to conventional food and consumed as part of a
is a global partnership that unites organizations
engaged in research for a food secure future. CGIAR research is
dedicated to reducing rural poverty, increasing food security, improving
human health and nutrition, and ensuring sustainable management of natural resources.
When and How Much
Dietary Reference Intake
Vitamins and Herbs
is a chemical element
as an essential nutrient by organisms, other than carbon, hydrogen,
nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur present in common organic molecules. The
are classed as minerals in the four groups of essential
nutrients (the others are vitamins, essential fatty acids, and essential
amino acids). The five major minerals
the human body are calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and magnesium.
All of the remaining elements in a human body are called "trace elements".
The trace elements
that have a specific
biochemical function in the human body are sulfur, iron, chlorine, cobalt,
copper, zinc, manganese, molybdenum, iodine and selenium.Minerals in Food
is intended to
provide nutrients that may otherwise not be consumed in sufficient
quantities. Supplements as generally understood include vitamins,
minerals, fiber, fatty acids, or amino acids, among other substances. U.S.
authorities define dietary supplements as foods, while elsewhere they may
be classified as drugs or other products.
is a chemical element
required as an essential nutrient by organisms, other than carbon,
hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur present in common organic molecules.
The remaining elements are classed as minerals in the four groups of
essential nutrients (the others are vitamins, essential fatty acids, and
essential amino acids).
Water-Soluble - Fat-Soluble - Dissolving Abilities
is something that is able to be dissolved.
is something incapable of
being dissolved. Insoluble can also mean that something is without hope of
is a liquid substance capable of
dissolving other substances.
is a substance that dissolves a solute, resulting in a solution. A solvent
is usually a liquid but can also be a solid, a gas, or a supercritical
property of a solid, liquid
or gaseous chemical substance called solute to
dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent. The solubility of a
substance fundamentally depends on the physical and chemical properties of
the solute and solvent as well as on temperature, pressure and presence of
other chemicals (including changes to the pH
) of the solution. The extent
of the solubility of a substance in a specific solvent is measured as the
saturation concentration, where adding more solute does not increase the
concentration of the solution and begins to precipitate the excess amount
of solute. Insolubility
is the inability to dissolve in a solid, liquid or
gaseous solvent. Most often, the solvent is a liquid, which can be a pure
substance or a mixture. One may also speak of solid solution, but rarely
of solution in a gas (see vapor–liquid equilibrium instead).
in the body
. The kidneys remove excess amounts of these vitamins so they
can be excreted in the urine. Still, this doesn’t mean that you can take
vitamins B and C in unlimited quantities.
in the lymph, transported in the
blood, and can be stored in the liver and fatty tissues
for use as needed.
are the ones you really need to be careful about.
Because fat-soluble vitamins can be stored in the body, these
build up to toxic levels when consumed in excessive amounts
vitamins are A, D, E, and K.
refers to the ability of a
chemical compound to dissolve in fats
, oils, lipids, and non-polar
is to break up and become incorporated into a liquid so as to form a
solution. To cause something to fade away or become soft, weaker or liquid
and stop functioning or cohering as a unit.
Diffuse is to spread out and not be
concentrated in one place. Dosage.
is to make a liquid thinner or weaker by adding water or another solvent
Dilution equation is the process of decreasing the concentration of a
solute in a solution, usually simply by mixing with more solvent like
adding more water to a solution. To dilute a solution means to add more
solvent without the addition of more solute. The resulting solution is
thoroughly mixed so as to ensure that all parts of the solution are identical.
Absorb is to become one with
something. Take up mentally or take in something metaphorically. To devote
oneself fully to a activity that consumes all of one's attention or time.
To assimilate or take
is the process of absorbing nutrients into the body after
digestion. A process in which one
substance permeates, penetrates or pass through another
liquid or solid.
means “beneath the
,” which is a way to take several vitamins and supplements where you
simply place the tablet beneath the tongue and it dissolves and enters the bloodstream directly.
is the dissolved matter in a
solution; the component of a solution that changes its state.
is a homogeneous mixture of
two or more substances
Solution Problem Solving
Vitamins can actually enhance the absorption
of other nutrients.
Vitamin C, for example, can enhance iron absorption from supplements and plant foods.
Synthetic Vitamins or Natural Vitamins?
contain the isolate vitamin (used solely in synthetic vitamins), but they
also contain a host of naturally occurring
that assist in the
absorption and bioavailability of the vitamin, including proteins, carbs,
fats, bioflavonoids, enzymes, other vitamins and minerals, etc. These
cofactors must be present for a vitamin or mineral to be used by the body.
For example, to make naturally occurring vitamins, such as vitamin C, a
manufacturer could use amla berries, one of the best sources for vitamin C
found in nature
. A full-spectrum extract is made by removing the
non-nutritive fiber. Then the berries are filtered with water, ground up,
and dried at low temperatures to concentrate the nutrients and their
cofactors. No high heat, freezing, or chemical techniques are used in this
natural process. This process would be repeated for other vegetables,
fruits, oils, and yeasts to make a full spectrum natural multivitamin.
There is a new standard for natural supplements under development
known as the Naturally
(NOS). Products that meet this standard will have a
label of approval from NOS proving they are naturally occurring, organic,
fairly traded, and free of genetically engineered ingredients, synthetics,
or isolated nutrients are usually made
in an industrial
process. 90% of Vitamins are Synthetic. Synthetic nutrients do not include
whole food supplements, which are made from concentrated, dehydrated whole
foods. The production process of synthetic nutrients is very different to
the way plants and animals create them. So despite having a similar
structure, your body may react differently to synthetic nutrients. It's
unclear how well synthetic nutrients are absorbed and used in the body.
Some may be more easily absorbed, not others. This is because when you eat
real food, you're not consuming single nutrients, but rather a whole range
of vitamins, minerals, co-factors and
that allow for optimal use
by the body. Without these additional compounds, synthetic nutrients are
unlikely to be used by the body in the same way as their natural
counterparts. For example, studies show that natural vitamin E is absorbed
twice as efficiently as synthetic vitamin E.
So should you take a
synthetic vitamin or a natural vitamin? That is up to you. Try them both
at different times and do some research. Your body should let you know
which one is good and which manufacture is good.
cultured whole-food vitamins & minerals and cultured organic
herbal blends. Supplements are created from plants, herbs, fruits,
vegetables, oils, and mushrooms. We strive to use organic and sustainable
ingredients. We also believe in a holistic approach, meaning we focus on
the best way to capture the beneficial nourishing qualities of a food.
Vitamin Benefits - Vitamin Deficiency Symptoms
Vitamin Benefits helps
formation and maintenance of teeth
, bones, soft tissue, white blood
cells, the immune system
and mucus membranes. Beta-carotene also acts as
, protecting cells from free radical damage.
Vitamin Deficiency symptoms
, but not necessarily the cause, are Dry
. Dry Eyes.
problems are some of the most well-known issues
Night Blindness. Infertility and Trouble Conceiving. Delayed Growth.
Throat and Chest Infections. Poor Wound Healing
. Acne and Breakouts.
helps prevent complications in the
, brain, muscles, heart,
stomach, and intestines. It is also involved in the flow of
out of muscle and nerve cells.
Vitamin Deficiency symptoms
, but not necessarily the cause, are
loss of Appetite. Fatigue.
gradually or suddenly. Irritability. Irritability is the feeling of
agitation and frustration. Reduced Reflexes.
and Legs. Muscle Weakness. Blurry Vision. Nausea and Vomiting.
benefits includes maintaining energy
, protecting healthy skin and hair, promoting development and
growth of reproductive organs, increased blood flow, prevent diseases,
promoting healthy development of fetuses, protect the digestive tract,
offers a powerful punch of antioxidants.
Vitamin Deficiency symptoms
, but not necessarily the cause, are
dryness and cracking of the skin around the nose and mouth. Red, dry
tongue – called magenta tongue. Skin rash. Anaemia. Weakness and fatigue.
Vision problems - red, sore or watering eyes, blurred vision and
sensitivity to light.B3
, helps lowers LDL Cholesterol. Increases HDL Cholesterol.
Lowers Triglycerides. May Help Prevent Heart Disease. May Help Treat
. Boosts Brain Function. Improves
Function. May Reduce
Symptoms of Arthritis. B3
Vitamin Deficiency symptoms
, but not necessarily the cause, are
thick, scaly pigmented rash on skin exposed to sunlight. Swollen mouth
and bright red tongue. Vomiting and diarrhea. Headache. Apathy. Fatigue.
Depression. Memory loss
can benefit arthritis, athletic performance, ADHD,
problems, alcoholism, allergies, hair loss, asthma, heart problems,
carpal tunnel syndrome, lung disorders, nerve damage, colitis, eyes.
pantothenic-acid helps to create red blood cells. Create stress-related
and sex hormones. Maintain a healthy digestive tract. Process other
vitamins, particularly B2 (riboflavin). Synthesize cholesterol.
Vitamin Deficiency symptoms
, but not necessarily the cause, may
include symptoms such as fatigue,
, depression, irritability,
vomiting, stomach pains, burning feet, and upper respiratory infections.
Vitamin helps support a healthier
, detoxifying the liver,
enhancing the health of blood vessels, improving cognitive function,
relieving mood swings, curing anemia, supporting eye health, relieving
the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis. A coenzyme in many enzymatic
reactions in metabolism. (pyridoxine
). B6 Deficiency symptoms
but not necessarily the cause, are Skin Rashes. Cracked and Sore Lips. Sore, Glossy Tongue. Mood Changes. Weakened
Immune Function. Tiredness and Low Energy. Tingling
and Pain in Hands
and Feet. Seizures.B7
can help strengthen hair and nails, improve the health of your skin.
Supports your metabolism. Lowers cholesterol. B7 Deficiency symptoms
but not necessarily the cause, are red rashes on the
, especially the
face. Dry or scaly skin. Dry eyes. Brittle hair. Hair loss. Fatigue.
Insomnia or difficulty sleeping. Loss of appetite.
helps reduce Risk Of Heart Disease. Promotes Health And Function Of
. Fosters Positive Mood And Can Prevent Depression. Has
. Promotes Health
and Fetal Development.
Reduces The Risk Of Cancer
Development. Folate Promotes Liver Health. Help
Manage Kidney Disease and Its Effects On The Body. Folate
Vitamin Deficiency symptoms
, but not necessarily the cause, are
extreme tiredness (fatigue). Lack of energy (lethargy) Breathlessness.
Feeling faint. Headaches. Pale skin. Noticeable heartbeats (palpitations).
Less common symptoms of folate deficiency are fast heartbeat
(tachycardia). Fast breathing (tachypnoea). Exfoliative dermatitis, a
condition which makes the skin
red and scaly. Heart murmur. Painful
swallowing. A sore tongue (glossitis) and mouth ulcers. Petechiae. Angular
stomatitis (fissures in the corners of the mouth).B12
supports your metabolism by helping it
convert fats, carbohydrates, and proteins into
. Nerve and
mental function. Cardiovascular health Benefits helps keep the body's
nerve and blood cells healthy and helps make DNA, the genetic material
in all cells. Vitamin B12 also helps prevent a type of anemia called
megaloblastic anemia that makes people tired and weak. Two steps are
required for the body to absorb vitamin B12 from food.
, but not necessarily the cause, are weakness, tiredness, or lightheadedness. Heart palpitations and shortness of breath. Pale skin. A smooth tongue. Constipation, diarrhea, loss of
appetite, or gas. Nerve problems like numbness or tingling, muscle
weakness, and problems walking. Vision loss. B vitamins tend to boost
energy, so take them in the morning
night, they can lead to restlessness and insomnia.
Vitamin may include protection
against immune system deficiencies, cardiovascular disease, prenatal
health problems, eye disease, and even skin wrinkling. A strong
that may reduce the
. May also help
battle High Blood Pressure. Fights Heart Disease Risk Factors, Potentially
Lowering Heart Disease Risk. Could Reduce Blood Uric Acid Levels and Help
Prevent Gout Attacks. Vitamin C Deficiency Signs
but not necessarily the cause, are Rough, Bumpy Skin.
Corkscrew-Shaped Body Hair. Bright Red Hair Follicles. Spoon-Shaped
Fingernails With Red Spots or Lines. Dry, Damaged Skin. Easy Bruising.
Slowly Healing Wounds. Painful, Swollen Joints. Symptoms include fatigue,
, and connective tissue defects (eg, gingivitis, petechiae,
rash, internal bleeding
, impaired wound healing).
Vitamin helps facilitate normal immune system function.
Regulating the absorption of calcium and phosphorus. Normal growth and
development of bones and teeth. D3 Deficiency symptoms
, but not
necessarily the cause, are getting sick or Infected Often. Fatigue and Tiredness. Bone and Back Pain.
Depression. Impaired Wound Healing. Bone Loss. Hair Loss. Muscle Pain.
More Vitamin D may improve memory but too much may slow reaction time
Vitamin supplements may prevent
coronary heart disease, support immune function, prevent inflammation,
promote eye health, and lower the risk of cancer. Vitamin E helps support
the immune system, cell function, and skin health. It's an antioxidant,
making it effective at combating the effects of free radicals produced by
the metabolism of food and toxins in the environment. Vitamin E may be
beneficial at reducing UV damage to skin. Vitamin
E Deficiency Symptoms
, but not necessarily the cause, are
disorientation and vision problems.
Low levels of vitamin E
can lead to: Muscle weakness: Vitamin E is
essential to the central nervous system. It is among the body's main
antioxidants, and a deficiency results in oxidative stress , which can
lead to muscle weakness.
is a rare inherited disorder of fat metabolism
that results in poor absorption of dietary fat and vitamin E. The vitamin
E deficiency associated with this disease causes problems such as poor
transmission of nerve impulses and muscle.
Vitamin has benefits blood clotting
and bone health. Vitamin K also seems to play an important role in
preventing heart disease. Vitamin K activates a protein that helps prevent
calcium from depositing in your arteries. Vitamin K1
, also called
, is mostly found in plant foods like leafy green vegetables.
It makes up about 75–90% of all vitamin K consumed by humans. Vitamin K2
is found in fermented foods
and animal products, and is also produced by
. It has several subtypes called
(MKs) that are
named by the length of their side chain. They range from MK-4 to MK-13. Because
of differences in absorption
and transport to tissues throughout the body,
vitamin K1 and K2 could have profoundly different effects on your health.
Vitamin K1 found in plants is poorly absorbed by the body. One study
estimated that less than 10% of the K1 found in plants is actually
absorbed. Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin
. Fat-soluble vitamins are
much better absorbed when eaten with dietary fat. Additionally, vitamin
K2’s long side chain allows it to circulate in the blood longer than K1.
Where vitamin K1 may stay in the blood for several hours, some forms of K2
can remain in the blood for days. Some researchers believe that the longer
circulation time of vitamin K2 allows it to be better used in tissues
located throughout the body. Vitamin K1 is primarily transported to and
used by the liver. Vitamin
K Deficiency Symptoms
, but not necessarily the cause, are easy
bruising. Oozing from nose or gums. Excessive
punctures, and injection or surgical sites. Heavy menstrual periods.
Bleeding from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Blood in the urine and/or
stool. Symptoms of deficiency include excessive bleeding that won’t stop
easily, though this could also be caused by other things and should be
evaluated by a physician. It typically only occurs in people with severe
, and sometimes in people taking the
(wiki). Warfarin thins your blood, so it's important to eat
about the same amount of vitamin K every day. Vitamin K normally helps
your blood clot
wounds don't bleed too much. Warfarin works against vitamin K, making your
blood clot more slowly.
or menaquinone is one of three types of vitamin K, the other two
being vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) and K3 (menadione). K2 is both a tissue
and bacterial product (derived from vitamin K1 in both cases) and is
usually found in animal products or fermented foods.
trace mineral, is present in certain vegetables and seafood and is
essential for normal thyroid functioning. It's often added to salt to
prevent iodine deficiency.
health benefits includes supporting healthy metabolism, maintaining energy
level, supporting hair and skin health, supporting fetus development,
providing stronger immunity and hypothyroidism prevention.
Iodine Deficiency Symptoms
, but not necessarily the cause, are
swelling in the neck. Unexpected Weight Gain. Unexpected weight gain is
another sign of an
deficiency. Fatigue and Weakness. Hair loss. Dry, Flaky Skin. Feeling
Colder Than Usual. Changes in Heart Rate. Trouble Learning and
Even though the information of vitamin benefits and deficiency problems
are true and have been documented, it does not prove or guarantee that the
benefits will happen to you, because food and medicine is mostly relevant
to a particular person
. If you experience
deficiency problems, you must know that there may be
involved and that
may be causing
you to experience abnormal health functions or causing a life
threatening illness. You have to do your own research and not be totally
on information that may be relative
accurately know how relevant something is to you, you have to be
examined and tested
, and you also need to learn as
much as you possibly can.
Knowledge is the Best Medicine
Vitamins - Minerals
Everyone should be aware of what Vitamins and Minerals are needed for Optimum Health and Energy Level.
Caplet or Capsule
Your energy level comes from multiple sources and knowing these sources and how
they react with one another is very crucial. The three major
sources are eating healthy, good sound sleep and exercising.
Other sources that can effect your energy levels are
environment, allergies, medication and chemical imbalances to
name a few. The word "
" means ' vital to life' and it comes from the Latin
word vita (life) and the biochemical term amine
(nitrogen-containing) though not all vitamins contain nitrogen.
Vitamins are organic compounds that assist enzymes in converting
food into energy, support your immune system and provide
structures for your bones, skin and other tissues. With a few
exceptions the body cannot manufacture or synthesize vitamins.
They must be supplied in the diet or in dietary supplements. And
eating lots of foods does not necessarily mean that you will get
all your necessary vitamins and
. Also sometimes vitamins can increase your
, which can affect your appetite, but not everyone
has the same affect from vitamins. In order to fully optimize
your vitamin and mineral needs you need to have
blood and urine
for your bodies exact vitamin and mineral
usage. This is because everyone has different needs and also has
different reactions to certain vitamins and minerals. Some
people might need more of certain vitamins and minerals and some
might need less of certain vitamins and minerals. Some vitamins
and minerals might even be no good for you depending on your
body’s sensitivity or allergic reaction. So Doctors must
increase their training and knowledge about Nutrition
and also know how to do a complete
in order to analyze a persons correct nutritional
needs and also to see if there is any food allergies or adverse
effects from certain vitamins, minerals, herbs or drugs.
which vitamins that should be taken together
for maximum effect. Know which
should not be taken together
. Food Chemistry
Organic Molecules in Biochemistry, Vitamins and Cofactors
Vitamin Benefits Chart
(image) - Vitamin and
Blood Type Diet
are distinct diets for each blood type that
is unsupported by scientific
is a body fluid in humans and other animals that
necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells
and transports metabolic waste products away from those same
gives doctors a way to see what’s going on inside
your body without X-rays or injections. Instead, it turns sound waves into
images. Your doctor can use it to check for issues with blood flow, such
as clots in your veins or blockages in your arteries.
Antioxidants - Free Radicals
that inhibits the oxidation of other molecules.
is a chemical reaction that can
produce free radicals, leading to chain reactions that may damage cells.
Antioxidants such as thiols or ascorbic acid (vitamin C
) terminate these
chain reactions. The term "antioxidant" is mainly used for two different
groups of substances: industrial chemicals which are added to products to
prevent oxidation, and natural chemicals found in foods and body tissue
which are said to have beneficial health effects. Antioxidants such
as vitamin C could help reduce harmful effects from
are atoms or groups of
with an odd unpaired
number of electrons
can be formed when oxygen
interacts with certain molecules. Once formed these highly reactive
radicals can start a
, like dominoes. Unpaired electrons can cause damage to
as these highly reactive atoms travel through
the body seeking to pair up with other electrons. When we oxidize our food
to produce energy
there's a number
of free radicals that are produced that are side products of that action
and many of these are quite toxic. Free radicals may be formed through natural
human physiological processes as well as from the environment. They may be
the result of diet, stress, smoking, alcohol, exercise,
drugs or exposure to sunlight and
. While there are many
types of free radicals that can be formed, the most common in aerobic
(oxygen breathing) organisms are oxygen free radicals, often referred to as
Reactive Oxygen Species
(ROS), which include superoxides, hydroxyl
anions, hydrogen peroxide and singlet oxygen.
is essentially an imbalance between the production of free radicals and
the ability of the body to counteract or detoxify their harmful effects
through neutralization by antioxidants. Oxidative stress reflects an
imbalance between the systemic manifestation of
reactive oxygen species
and a biological system's ability to readily
detoxify the reactive intermediates or to repair the resulting damage.
Disturbances in the normal redox state of cells can cause toxic effects
through the production of peroxides and free radicals that damage all
components of the cell, including proteins, lipids, and DNA. Oxidative
stress from oxidative metabolism causes base damage, as well as strand
breaks in DNA. Base damage is mostly indirect and caused by reactive
oxygen species (ROS) generated, e.g. O2− (superoxide radical), OH
(hydroxyl radical) and H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide). Further, some reactive
oxidative species act as cellular messengers in redox signaling. Thus,
oxidative stress can cause disruptions in normal mechanisms of cellular
signaling. In humans, oxidative stress is thought to be involved in the
development of ADHD, cancer, Parkinson's disease, Lafora disease,
Alzheimer's disease, atherosclerosis, heart failure, myocardial
infarction, fragile X syndrome, sickle-cell disease, lichen planus,
vitiligo, autism, infection, chronic fatigue syndrome, and depression and
seems to be characteristic of individuals with Asperger syndrome. However,
reactive oxygen species can be beneficial, as they are used by the immune
system as a way to attack and kill pathogens. Short-term oxidative stress
may also be important in prevention of aging by induction of a process
named mitohormesis. Oxygen
is a compound that contains the superoxide anion with the
chemical formula O−2. The systematic name of the anion is dioxide(1−). The
reactive oxygen anion superoxide is particularly important as the product
of the one-electron reduction of dioxygen O2, which occurs widely in
nature. Whereas molecular oxygen (dioxygen) is a diradical containing two
unpaired electrons, the addition of a second electron fills one of its two
degenerate molecular orbitals, leaving a charged ionic species with single
unpaired electron and a net negative charge of −1. Both dioxygen and the
superoxide anion are free radicals that exhibit paramagnetism.
is a radical compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH2. A
member of the amino group
it may be regarded as an ammonia (NH3) molecule which has had one of its
hydrogen atoms removed. NH2 as a functional group is common in nature, as
it forms part of many compounds, e.g. the phenethylamines. The free
radical is present in solutions of ammonia because, like water, ammonia
undergoes molecular autoionisation to form its
and base conjugates.
are chemical compounds produced by plants, generally to help them thrive
or thwart competitors, predators, resist fungi, bacteria or pathogens and
plant virus infections, and also consumption by insects and other animals.
are antioxidant and
anti-inflammatory activities. Phytonutrients may also enhance immunity and
intercellular communication, repair DNA damage from exposure to toxins,
detoxify carcinogens and alter estrogen metabolism.
Omega Fatty Acids
is any substance that promotes
diuresis, that is, the increased production of Urine
and standardized nutrient.
Can combined Exercise and Nutritional intervention improve Muscle Mass and Function?
Smart Antioxidant-Containing Polymer responds to Body Chemistry,
. Oxidants found within living organisms are byproducts of
metabolism and are essential to wound-healing and immunity. However, when
their concentrations become too high, inflammation and tissue damage can
occur. Engineers have now developed and tested a new drug-delivery system
that senses high oxidant levels and responds by administering just the
right amount of antioxidant to restore this delicate balance.
are a class of
chemical compounds consisting of a hydroxyl group (—OH) bonded directly to
an aromatic hydrocarbon group. The simplest of the class is phenol, which
is also called carbolic acid C6H5OH. Phenolic compounds are classified as
simple phenols or polyphenols based on the number of phenol units in the
are a large family of naturally occurring organic compounds characterized
by multiples of phenol units. They are abundant in plants and structurally
diverse. Polyphenols include
, tannic acid, and ellagitannin, some of which have been
used historically as dyes and for tanning garments. Polyphenols are a
structural class of mainly natural, but also synthetic or semisynthetic,
organic chemicals characterized by the presence of large multiples of
phenol structural units. The number and characteristics of these phenol
structures underlie the unique physical, chemical, and biological
(metabolic, toxic, therapeutic, etc.) properties of particular members of
the class. Examples include tannic acid. The historically important
chemical class of tannins is a subset of the polyphenols. The name derives
from the Ancient Greek word πολύς (polus, meaning "many, much") and the
word phenol which refers to a chemical structure formed by attaching to an
aromatic benzenoid (phenyl) ring, an hydroxyl (-OH) group akin to that
found in alcohols (hence the -ol suffix). The term polyphenol appears to
have been in use since 1894. Both natural phenols and the larger
polyphenols play important roles in the ecology of most plants. Their
effects in plant tissues can be divided into the following categories:
Release and suppression of growth hormones such as auxin. UV screens to
protect against ionizing radiation and to provide coloration (plant
pigments). Deterrence of herbivores (sensory properties). Prevention of
microbial infections (phytoalexins). Signaling molecules in ripening and
other growth processes. The most abundant polyphenols are the condensed
tannins, found in virtually all families of plants. Larger polyphenols are
often concentrated in leaf tissue, the epidermis, bark layers, flowers and
fruits but also play important roles in the decomposition of forest
litter, and nutrient cycles in forest ecology.
Generally foods contain complex mixtures of polyphenols.
important food sources are commodities widely consumed in large quantities
such as fruit and vegetables, green tea, black tea, red wine, coffee,
chocolate, olives, and extra virgin olive oil. Herbs and spices, nuts and
algae are also potentially significant for supplying certain polyphenols.
Some polyphenols are specific to particular food (flavanones in citrus
fruit, isoflavones in soya, phloridzin in apples); whereas others, such as
quercetin, are found in all plant products such as fruit, vegetables,
cereals, leguminous plants, tea, and wine. Some polyphenols are considered
that interfere with the absorption of essential nutrients, especially iron
and other metal ions, but also by binding to digestive enzymes and other
proteins, particularly in ruminants. Phenolic and carotenoid compounds
with antioxidant properties
in vegetables have been found to be retained
significantly better through steaming than through frying. Polyphenols in
wine, beer and various nonalcoholic juice beverages can be removed using
finings, substances that are usually added at or near the completion of
the processing of brewing. Many polyphenolic extracts, such as from grape
skin, grape seeds, olive pulp or maritime pine bark, are sold as
ingredients in functional foods, dietary supplements, and cosmetics
without proof of effect or legal health claims. Some polyphenol
ingredients have self-affirmed GRAS status in the United States. There are
no recommended Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) levels established for
polyphenols. The diverse structures and uncertain metabolic fate of
phenolic compounds following digestion prevent understanding about their
potential health effects. Specifically, because the presumed antioxidant
role of polyphenols in vivo cannot be established, the US Food and Drug
Administration (FDA) issued labeling guidance to manufacturers that
polyphenols cannot be mentioned as antioxidant nutrients unless
physiological evidence exists to verify such a qualification and a DRI
value has been established. Further, because purported health claims for
specific polyphenol-enriched foods remain unproven, health statements
about polyphenols on product labels are prohibited by the FDA. Compared
with the effects of polyphenols in vitro, the possible functions in vivo
remain unknown due to 1) the absence of validated in vivo biomarkers; 2)
long-term studies failing to demonstrate effects with a mechanism of
action, sensitivity and specificity or efficacy; and 3) invalid
applications of high, unphysiological test concentrations in the in vitro
studies, which are subsequently irrelevant for the design of in vivo
experiments. Traditional medicine. Herbal teas contain soluble polyphenols
which impart astringent effects thought to have medicinal properties. In
the Ayurveda system of folk medicine, the pomegranate and its
polyphenol-rich peel are assumed to be useful for therapy. With respect to
food and beverages, the cause of astringency is not fully understood, but
it is measured chemically as the ability of a substance to precipitate
Wine polyphenols could fend off bacteria that cause cavities and gum
. Health benefits of polyphenols have been attributed to the
fact that these compounds are antioxidants, meaning they likely protect
the body from harm caused by free radicals. However, recent work
indicates polyphenols might also promote health by actively interacting
with bacteria in the gut. That makes sense because plants and fruits
produce polyphenols to ward off infection by harmful bacteria and other
pathogens. two wine polyphenols in isolation -- caffeic and p-coumaric
acids -- were generally better than the total wine extracts at cutting
back on the bacteria's ability to stick to the cells. When combined with
the Streptococcus dentisani, which is believed to be an oral
probiotic, the polyphenols were even better at fending off the pathogenic
bacteria. The researchers also showed that metabolites formed when
digestion of the polyphenols begins in the mouth might be responsible for
some of these effects.
diatomic anion with chemical formula OH
It consists of an oxygen and hydrogen atom held together by a covalent
bond, and carries a negative electric charge. It is an important but
usually minor constituent of water. It functions as a base, a ligand, a
nucleophile and a catalyst. The hydroxide ion forms salts, some of which
dissociate in aqueous solution, liberating solvated hydroxide ions. Sodium
hydroxide is a multi-million-ton per annum commodity chemical. A hydroxide
attached to a strongly electropositive center may itself ionize,
liberating a hydrogen cation (H+), making the parent compound an acid. The
corresponding electrically neutral compound •HO
is the hydroxyl radical. The corresponding covalently-bound group –OH of
atoms is the hydroxyl group. Hydroxide ion and hydroxyl group are
nucleophiles and can act as a catalyst in organic chemistry. Many
inorganic substances which bear the word "hydroxide" in their names are
not ionic compounds of the hydroxide ion, but covalent compounds which contain hydroxyl groups.
are carbohydrate-binding proteins, macromolecules that are highly specific
for sugar moieties. Lectins perform recognition on the cellular and
molecular level and play numerous roles in biological recognition
phenomena involving cells, carbohydrates, and proteins. Lectins also
mediate attachment and binding of bacteria and viruses to their intended
targets. Lectins are ubiquitous in nature and are found in many foods.
Some foods such as beans and grains need to be cooked or fermented to
reduce lectin content, but the lectins consumed in a typical balanced diet
are not harmful. Some lectins are beneficial, such as CLEC11A which
promotes bone growth, while others may be powerful toxins such as ricin.
Lectins may be disabled by specific mono- and oligosaccharides, which bind
to ingested lectins from grains, legume, nightshade plants and dairy;
binding can prevent their attachment to the carbohydrates within the cell
membrane. The selectivity of lectins means that they are very useful for
analyzing blood type, and they are also used in some genetically
engineered crops to transfer traits, such as resistance to pests and
resistance to herbicides. Lectins serve many different biological
functions in animals, from the regulation of cell adhesion to glycoprotein
synthesis and the control of protein levels in the blood. They also may
bind soluble extracellular and intercellular glycoproteins. Some lectins
are found on the surface of mammalian liver cells that specifically
recognize galactose residues. It is believed that these cell-surface
receptors are responsible for the removal of certain glycoproteins from
the circulatory system. Another lectin is a receptor that recognizes
hydrolytic enzymes containing mannose-6-phosphate, and targets these
proteins for delivery to the lysosomes. I-cell disease is one type of
defect in this particular system. Lectins also are known to play important
roles in the immune system. Within the innate immune system lectins such
as the MBL, the mannose-binding lectin, help mediate the first-line
defense against invading microorganisms. Other lectins within the immune
system are thought to play a role in self-nonself discrimination and they
likely modulate inflammatory and autoreactive processes. Intelectins
(X-type lectins) were shown to bind microbial glycans and may function in
the innate immune system as well. Lectins are
ubiquitous in nature and all foods – plant and animal – contain some type
of the proteins
. Because some lectins can be harmful if poorly
cooked or consumed in great quantities, or when absorbed into the
bloodstream by individuals with ‘leaky gut syndrome’, reduced-lectin diets
have been proposed. Since lectins are present to some degree in all plant
and animal foods, a lectin-free diet is impossible. Individuals
eliminating any food groups need to be deliberate about consuming adequate
nutrients, and may also require dietary supplementation to maintain
List of Life-Supporting Minerals with illustrative Biological Functions
nerve function, osmotic pressure balance, and charge stability of cell.
: nerve function, osmotic pressure balance, and charge
stability of cell.
: plant photosynthesis, structure stabilizer. Micronutrients
are cofactors for enzymes. 300 enzymes require Magnesium (350 mg a day).
: activator of certain enzymes, plant photosynthesis Iron:
oxygen transport and storage, electron transport catalyst.
skeletal structure forming (teeth, bones), control signal trigger.
catalyst for oxygen reactions, possibly involved in oxygen transport.
is a mineral that is required by the body in small amounts. As it forms a
part of a compound in the body known as
(GTF). Chromium is essential for metabolic processes
that regulate blood sugar, and helps insulin transport glucose into cells,
where it can be used for energy.
cell division, a constituent of vitamin B12
hydrogen activation, catalytic protection from toxic superoxide.
respiratory chain electron transport catalyst, catalytic protection from
super acid catalyst, enzyme activator, blood pH control.
: nitrogen fixation in plants, oxygen atom transfer catalyst.
oxygen atom transfer catalyst.Iron
transport, storage and use of oxygen
is important for
reproduction, thyroid gland function, DNA production, and protecting the
body from damage caused by free radicals and from infection.
acts as a
Powerful Antioxidant. May Reduce the Risk of Certain Cancers. May Protect
Against Heart Disease. Helps Prevent Mental Decline. Is Important for
Thyroid Health. Boosts the Immune System. May Help Reduce Asthma Symptoms.
is an essential
. Antioxidants like selenium help reduce
by keeping free radical
numbers in check and helps defend the body from chronic diseases, such as
heart disease and cancer.
Selenium: the biological role and antioxidant activity
Selenium Side Effects,
but not necessarily
the cause, may be nausea, vomiting; lack of energy, feeling irritable or
very tired. hair loss, mild rash, brittle or painful fingernails, or white
streaks on the nails; tremors, feeling light-headed; muscle tenderness;
flushing (warmth, redness, or tingly feeling);metallic taste, bad breath,
strong body odor; Selenium Deficiency Symptoms
but not necessarily the cause, may experience fatigue, hair loss, weight
gain, joint and muscle pain. Signs that indicate problems like Kashin-Beck
disease or Keshen disease may also develop. Arsenic
and other vitamins, such as
B12 and folate, helps with a process that's important for DNA synthesis.
Helps to maintain a healthy nervous system. This nutrient is required to
make acetylcholine, an important neurotransmitter.
Choline Deficiency Symptoms
, but not necessarily the cause, may
result in fat and cholesterol buildup in your liver Inadequate
also lead to fatty liver or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The
most common symptoms of choline deficiency are fatty liver and/or
hemorrhagic kidney necrosis. Consuming choline rich foods usually relieve
a chemical element
whose concentration is very low, or a measured
detectable amount of an element that is low. The exact definition depends
on the field of science.
Energy Drink for Workouts
You need larger amounts of
or major minerals. They
include calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride and
sulfur. You only need small amounts of trace
. They include iron, manganese, copper, iodine, zinc,
cobalt, fluoride and selenium.
Heavy Metals can have a Toxic Buildup when Over Consumed
or metal poisoning is the
certain metals in certain forms and doses on life. Some metals are toxic
when they form poisonous soluble compounds. Certain metals have no
biological role, i.e. are not essential minerals
, or are toxic when in a
certain form. In the case of lead, any measurable amount may have negative
health effects. Often heavy metals are thought as synonymous, but lighter
metals may also be toxic in certain circumstances, such as beryllium and
lithium. Not all heavy metals are particularly toxic
, and some are
essential, such as iron. The definition may also include trace elements
when in abnormally high doses may be toxic. An option for treatment of
metal poisoning may be chelation therapy, which is a technique which
involves the administration of chelation agents to remove metals from the
. Toxic metals sometimes imitate the action of an essential element in
the body, interfering with the metabolic process resulting in illness.
Many metals, particularly heavy metals are toxic, but some heavy metals
are essential, and some, such as bismuth, have a low toxicity. Most often
the definition of toxic metals includes at least cadmium, manganese, lead,
mercury and the radioactive metals
. Metalloids (arsenic, polonium) may be
included in the definition. Radioactive metals have both radiological
toxicity and chemical toxicity. Metals in an oxidation state abnormal to
the body may also become toxic: chromium(III) is an essential trace
element, but chromium(VI) is a carcinogen. Toxicity is a function of
solubility. Insoluble compounds as well as the metallic forms often
exhibit negligible toxicity. The toxicity of any metal depends on its
ligands. In some cases, organometallic forms, such as methylmercury and
tetraethyl lead, can be extremely toxic. In other cases, organometallic
derivatives are less toxic such as the cobaltocenium cation.
Decontamination for toxic metals is different from organic toxins:
toxic metals are elements, they cannot be destroyed
. Toxic metals may be
made insoluble or collected, possibly by the aid of chelating agents, or
. Alternatively, they can be diluted into a
sufficiently large reservoir, such as the sea, because immediate toxicity
is a function of concentration rather than amount. Toxic metals can
in the body and in the food chain.
Therefore, a common characteristic of toxic metals is the chronic nature
of their toxicity. This is particularly notable with radioactive heavy
metals such as radium, which imitates calcium to the point of being
incorporated into human bone, although similar health implications are
found in lead or mercury poisoning. The exceptions to this are barium and aluminium, which can be removed efficiently by the kidneys.
Arsenic and Lead Are in Your Fruit Juice: What You Need to Know
finds concerning levels of heavy metals in almost half of tested juices.
Here’s how to protect yourself and your family, including juices marketed
for children. “In some cases, drinking just 4 ounces a day—or half a
cup—is enough to raise concern, ”test focused on cadmium, lead, mercury,
and inorganic arsenic risk for
, behavioral problems (such as attention deficit
hyperactivity disorder), type 2 diabetes, and cancer, among other health
issues. Twenty-four national, store, and private-label brands were
represented: 365 Everyday Value (Whole Foods), Apple & Eve, Big Win (Rite
Aid), Capri Sun, Clover Valley (Dollar General), Great Value (Walmart),
Gerber, Good2Grow, Gold Emblem (CVS), Goya, Honest Kids, Juicy Juice,
Looza, Market Pantry (Target), Minute Maid, Mott’s, Nature’s Own, Ocean
Spray, Old Orchard, R.W. Knudsen, Simply Balanced (Target), Trader Joe’s,
Tree Top, and Welch’s. Selenium
Aluminium phosphide poisoning
has no known biological role and its classification into toxic
metals is controversial. Acute aluminium phosphide poisoning (AAlPP) is a
large, though under-reported, problem in the Indian subcontinent.
Aluminium phosphide (AlP), which is readily available as a fumigant for
stored cereal grains, sold under various brand names such as QuickPhos and
Celphos, is highly toxic, especially when consumed from a freshly opened
container. Death results from profound shock, myocarditis and multi-organ
failure. Aluminium phosphide has a fatal dose of between 0.15 and 0.5
grams (0.0053 and 0.0176 oz). It has been reported to be the most common
cause of suicidal death in North India. The very high toxicity of
aluminium phosphide is attributed to the phosphine content and is not
related to aluminium. Calcium phosphide and zinc phosphide are similar
medical condition caused by elevated levels of arsenic in the body. The
dominant basis of arsenic poisoning is from ground water that naturally
contains high concentrations of arsenic. A 2007 study found that over 137
million people in more than 70 countries are probably affected by arsenic
poisoning from drinking water.
AS3MT Arsenite Methyltransferase
(Arsenic Antidote Hidden In
is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33. Arsenic occurs
in many minerals, usually in combination with sulfur and metals, but also
as a pure elemental crystal. Arsenic is a metalloid. It has various
allotropes, but only the gray form is important to industry.Beryllium
is illness resulting from the toxic effect of
in its elemental form or in various chemical compounds. The toxicity of
beryllium depends upon the duration, intensity and frequency of exposure
(features of dose), as well as the form of beryllium and the route of
exposure (i.e. inhalation, dermal, ingestion). According to the
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), beryllium and
beryllium compounds are Category 1 carcinogens; they are carcinogenic to
both animals and humans.Cadmium poisoning
is an extremely toxic metal commonly found in industrial
workplaces. Due to its low permissible exposure limit, overexposures may
occur even in situations where trace quantities of cadmium are found.
Cadmium is used extensively in electroplating, although the nature of the
operation does not generally lead to overexposures. Cadmium is also found
in some industrial paints and may represent a hazard when sprayed.
Operations involving removal of cadmium paints by scraping or blasting may
pose a significant hazard. Cadmium is also present in the manufacturing of
some types of batteries. Exposures to cadmium are addressed in specific
standards for the general industry, shipyard employment, construction
industry, and the agricultural industry.
, refers to the consequences
of an excess of copper in the body. Copperiedus can occur from eating acid
foods cooked in uncoated copper cookware, or from exposure to excess
copper in drinking water, as a side-effect of estrogen birth control
pills, or other environmental sources. It can also result from the genetic
condition Wilson's disease.
overload caused by a large excess of iron intake and usually
refers to an acute overload rather than a gradual one. The term has been
primarily associated with young children who consumed large quantities of
iron supplement pills, which resemble sweets and are widely used,
including by pregnant women
(approximately 3 grams is
lethal for a 2 year old). Targeted packaging restrictions in the US for
supplement containers with over 250 mg elemental iron have existed since
1978, and recommendations for unit packaging have reduced the several iron
poisoning fatalities per year to almost nil since 1998. No known cases of
iron poisoning have been identified that are associated with
is a medical condition
in humans and other vertebrates caused by increased levels of the heavy
metal lead in the body.
interferes with a variety of body processes
and is toxic to many organs and tissues including the heart, bones,
intestines, kidneys, and reproductive and nervous systems. It interferes
with the development of the nervous system and is therefore particularly
toxic to children, causing potentially permanent learning and behavior
disorders. Symptoms include abdominal pain, confusion, headache, anemia,
irritability, and in severe cases seizures, coma, and death. The brain is
the most sensitive. Symptoms may include memory problems, inability to
have children, and tingling in the hands and feet. It causes almost 10% of
intellectual disability of otherwise unknown cause and can result in
behavioral problems. Some of the effects are permanent. In severe cases
anemia, seizures, coma, or death may occur.
is used in some
medications, specifically to treat bipolar disorder. The level of
"sufficient" medication is thought by many physicians to be close to toxic
tolerance for kidney function. Therefore, the patient is often monitored
for this purpose.Manganism or manganese
is a toxic condition resulting from chronic exposure to
and first identified in 1837 by James Couper.
is a disease caused by
or its compounds. Mercury (chemical symbol Hg) is a
heavy metal occurring in several forms, all of which can produce toxic
effects in high enough doses. Its zero oxidation state Hg0 exists as vapor
or as liquid metal, its mercurous state Hg22+ exists as inorganic salts,
and its mercuric state Hg2+ may form either inorganic salts or
organomercury compounds; the three groups vary in effects. Toxic effects
include damage to the brain, kidney, and lungs. Mercury poisoning can
result in several diseases, including acrodynia (pink disease),
Hunter-Russell syndrome, and Minamata disease. Symptoms typically include
sensory impairment (vision, hearing, speech), disturbed sensation and a
lack of coordination. The type and degree of symptoms exhibited depend
upon the individual toxin, the dose, and the method and duration of
exposure. Silver poisoning
Argyria or argyrosis is a condition caused by inappropriate exposure to
chemical compounds of the element
, or to silver dust. The most
dramatic symptom of argyria is that the skin turns blue or bluish-grey. It
may take the form of generalized argyria or local argyria. Generalized
argyria affects large areas over much of the visible surface of the body.
Local argyria shows in limited regions of the body, such as patches of
skin, parts of the mucous membrane or the conjunctiva.
compounds are often highly toxic.Contact with skin is dangerous, and
adequate ventilation should be provided when melting this metal. Many
thallium(I) compounds are highly soluble in water and are readily absorbed
through the skin. Exposure to them should not exceed 0.1
mg per m2 of skin in an 8-hour time-weighted average (40-hour work week).
Thallium is a suspected human carcinogen.
refers to the toxic effects of
and its compounds.
Cases of poisoning from tin metal, its oxides, and its salts are "almost
unknown"; on the other hand certain organotin compounds are almost as
toxic as cyanide.Zinc toxicity
Even though Zinc
is an essential requirement for a healthy body, excess
zinc can be harmful, and cause zinc toxicity. Such toxicity levels have
been seen to occur at ingestion of greater than 225 mg of Zinc. Excessive
absorption of zinc can suppress copper and iron absorption. The free zinc
ion in solution is highly toxic to bacteria, plants, invertebrates, and
even vertebrate fish.
is any chemical compound that contains the element
chromium in the +6 oxidation state (thus hexavalent). Virtually all
chromium ore is processed via hexavalent chromium, specifically the salt
sodium dichromate. Hexavalent chromium compounds are
is an a-amino
that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins. Its side chain is
similar to that of glutamic acid, except the carboxylic acid group is
replaced by an amide. It is classified as a charge-neutral, polar amino
acid. Glutamine is an amino acid (a building block for proteins), found
naturally in the body. Glutamine is the most abundant free amino acid in
the body. Amino acids
are the building blocks of protein. Glutamine is produced in the muscles
and is distributed by the blood to the organs that need it. Glutamine
might help gut function
, and other essential
processes in the body, especially in times of stress. It is also
important for providing "fuel" (nitrogen and carbon) to many different
cells in the body. Glutamine is needed to make other chemicals in the body
such as other amino acids and glucose (sugar). After surgery or traumatic
injury, nitrogen is necessary to repair the wounds and keep the vital
organs functioning. About one third of this nitrogen comes from glutamine.
New research is now showing that L-glutamine
benefits the body in the following ways: Improves gastrointestinal health,
Helps leaky gut and ulcers, Boosts
, Improves IBS and diarrhea, Promotes muscle growth and
decreases muscle wasting
athletic performance and recovery from endurance exercise. L-glutamine is
synthesized by the body from glutamic acid or glutamate. If the body
is unable to produce enough it needs to get it directly from your diet.
L-glutamine can be found in animal proteins such as meats and dairy, along
with plant-based protein
such as beans, raw spinach, parsley and red cabbage. It’s worth noting,
though, that animal proteins are not as easily digestible as plant
proteins. The foods with the most L-glutamine benefits include: Bone
broth, Grass-fed beef, Spirulina, Chinese cabbage, Cottage cheese,
Asparagus, Broccoli rabe, Wild-caught fish (cod and salmon), Venison,
As we Age our Vitamins and Mineral needs changes as we get Older
are harder to absorb
by the body when you get older.
One in two persons aged 65 and above
has suboptimal levels of vitamin D in the blood and one in four older adults has suboptimal vitamin B12 levels.
Vitamin Deficiency in Later Life
body needs more of certain vitamins and minerals as you hit your 40s and
. Nutrients that become especially important as you age
include protein, vitamin D, calcium and vitamin B12. Summary: Older adults
generally need fewer calories. However, their nutrient needs are just as
high or higher than when they were younger. The Academy of Nutrition and
Dietetics says older adults should pay special attention to their intake
of calcium, vitamin D, vitamin B-12, potassium, and fiber.
nutrient, made by the body from sunshine, helps you take in calcium
and phosphorus, so it’s key for healthy bones and teeth. Older adults
don’t make it as well, so supplements can help make you less likely to
have bone loss and broken bones. Higher dosages of vitamin D (because
dietary consumption and sun exposure
decline with age) and vitamin B12
(which is not as well absorbed in older people). They also often
exclude iron, because many older adults do not need extra amounts and
high levels may be harmful. Personalized Vitamins
. Plays in making your
bones stronger, calcium is found in dairy products like milk and
yogurt. Women -- especially those who are likely to have osteoporosis --
may think about taking calcium supplements. But talk to your doctor
. This is important for keeping blood cells and
nerve cells healthy. Aging affects how well you take in and use B12
from foods, so if you’re over 50, it’s probably best to get your B12
from supplements and B12-fortified foods like cereals, as well as
foods that are rich in it, like meat, low-fat dairy, and fish. Vitamin
B12 Once you turn 40 (and definitely after turning 50), vitamin B12
should be on your radar. It's essential for normal blood and brain
function, Kirkpatrick says. And while children and younger adults are
likely to get the B12 they need from food—it's in meat and animal
products including chicken, fish, dairy, and eggs—B12 is more poorly
absorbed as the body ages, typically starting around 50 because that's
when stomach acid levels deplete.Folate
. This helps prevent anemia.
Spinach, beans, peas, oranges, fortified cereals, and enriched breads
can have it.B6
. This helps your metabolism and immune system. You
can get it in fortified cereals and soy products, as well as organ
meats and whole grains.Vitamin
. Oranges, right? (And red and green bell peppers, along with other
vegetables and fruits
.) It may help protect you from cataracts, help wound
healing, and possibly lower your odds of having certain kinds of
. Among other things, it helps keep your blood
pressure and blood sugar levels steady. It’s also good for your bones.
You can get it from nuts, spinach, and dairy products, and it’s used
to fortify some breakfast cereals. Experts aren’t sure how well it
works as a supplement.
. Gut health is also very
important for your immune system. Some studies show that probiotics --
living organisms like those found in yogurt -- help prevent some types
of diarrhea and ease symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome.
. Also called coQ10, this is made naturally in your body and
found in most body tissues. It may help your immune system work
. A hormone released
mostly at night, it’s believed to help you fall asleep.
. The American Heart Association recommends at least two
servings a week of salmon and other types of fish with
. In supplement form, though, no studies have shown that it
protects against heart disease. Omega-3s also may help with symptoms
of rheumatoid arthritis. Omega-3s. Technically not a vitamin, omega-3
fatty acids still deserve a place on this list because of their myriad
health benefits—and especially because they help
counteract some of the negative changes that come with aging, like
increased heart disease risk and cognitive decline. Research has shown
that omega-3s help lower blood pressure and LDL ("bad") cholesterol
levels, reduce the risk of heart disease, and play a role in keeping
memory and thinking sharp. In fact, a recent study found that people with
higher levels of omega-3 fatty acids in their blood had larger brains and
performed better on memory tests, planning activities, and abstract
thinking, compared with individuals with lower levels—which suggests that
omega-3 fatty acids play a role in maintaining brain health in addition to
the other known benefits. Though you can get omega-3s from foods
like fish, walnuts, flaxseeds, and leafy vegetables, taking a
supplement is a good way to make sure you're getting enough. Either way, aim for 500 mg if you're healthy, 800 to
1,000 mg if you have heart disease, and 2,000 to 4,000 mg if you have
high triglyceride levels. And be sure to ask your doctor about the
if you're taking anticoagulant drugs, which can have
serious side effects.Potassium
key role in keeping blood pressure in check, no matter your age. In
postmenopausal women, research has linked higher intake of potassium from
food to decreased risk of stroke—though "high" intake was considered
approximately 3.1 g, which is still lower than the recommended 4.7 g per
day. And the benefits were seen in those getting as little as 2 g per day.
Zinc eaten at levels found in Bio-Fortified Crops reduces 'wear and tear'
Vitamin D deficiency increases risk of chronic headache