Teeth - Dentist
Teeth Health are extremely important, especially
for Heart Health and Brain Health.
Teeth Care Instructions
are hard bonelike structures in the
that function to
mechanically break down items of food
by cutting and
crushing them in preparation for swallowing and
. Humans have
four types of teeth: incisors, canines, premolars, and molars, each with a
specific function. The incisors cut the food, the canines tear the food
and the molars and premolars crush the food
. The roots of teeth are
embedded in the maxilla (upper jaw) or the mandible (lower jaw) and are
covered by gums. Teeth are made of multiple tissues of varying density and
hardness. Teeth are among the most distinctive (and long-lasting) features
of mammal species. Humans, like other mammals, are diphyodont, meaning
that they develop two sets of teeth. The first set (called the "baby",
"milk", "primary", or "deciduous" set) normally starts to appear at about
six months of age, although some babies are born with one or more visible
teeth, known as natal teeth. Normal tooth eruption at about six months is
known as teething and can be painful. Fluoride
Humans usually have 20 primary (deciduous, "baby
" or "milk") teeth, and 32 permanent (adult
teeth. Teeth are classified as incisors, canines, premolars (also called
bicuspids), and molars. Incisors are primarily used for biting pieces from
foods such as raw carrots or apples and peeled but uncut bananas, while
molars are used primarily for grinding foods after they are already in
bite size pieces inside the mouth.
are the front teeth present in most mammals.
are transitional teeth located between the canine and molar teeth.
are large, flat teeth at the back of the
is one of the three molars per quadrant of the human
dentition. It is the most posterior of the three. The age at which wisdom
teeth come through (erupt) is variable, but this generally occurs between
late teens and early twenties. Most adults have four wisdom teeth, one in
each of the four quadrants, but it is possible to have none, fewer, or
more, in which case the extras are called supernumerary teeth. Wisdom
teeth may get stuck (impacted) against other teeth if there is not enough
space for them to come through normally. Impacted wisdom teeth are still
sometimes removed for orthodontic treatment, believing that they move the
other teeth and cause crowding, though this is not held anymore as true.
Impacted wisdom teeth may suffer from tooth decay if oral hygiene becomes
more difficult. Wisdom teeth which are partially erupted through the gum
may also cause inflammation and infection in the surrounding gum tissues,
termed pericoronitis. Some more conservative treatments, such as
operculectomies, may be fitting for some cases, yet impacted wisdom teeth
are commonly extracted as treatment for these problems, many times before
these problems even occur. Some oppose this prophylactic removal of
disease-free impacted wisdom teeth, including among them the National
Institute for Health and Care Excellence in the UK.
is the hardest and most highly
mineralized substance of the body. It is one of the four major tissues
which make up the tooth, along with dentin, cementum, and dental pulp. It
is normally visible and must be supported by underlying dentin. 96% of
enamel consists of mineral, with water and organic material comprising the rest.
Baby Teeth in order of Appearance
Dental Pulp Stem Cells
present in the dental pulp, the soft living tissue within teeth.
, so they have the potential to differentiate into a
variety of cell types. Other sources of dental stem cells are the
and the developed
in teeth is the part in the center of a tooth made up of living
connective tissue and cells called
. The dental pulp is a part of the dentin–pulp complex (endodontium).
The vitality of the dentin-pulp complex, both during health and after
injury, depends on pulp cell activity and the signaling processes that
regulate the cell’s behavior.
Human Tooth Development
is the complex process by which teeth form
from embryonic cells, grow, and erupt into the mouth. For human teeth to
have a healthy oral environment, all parts of the tooth must develop
during appropriate stages of fetal development. Primary (baby) teeth start
to form between the sixth and eighth week of prenatal development, and
permanent teeth begin to form in the twentieth week. If teeth do not start
to develop at or near these times, they will not develop at all, resulting
in hypodontia or anodontia. A significant amount of research has focused
on determining the processes that initiate tooth development. It is widely
accepted that there is a factor within the tissues of the first pharyngeal
arch that is necessary for the development of teeth.
pertains to the development of teeth and their arrangement
in the mouth. In particular, it is the characteristic arrangement, kind,
and number of teeth in a given species at a given age. That is, the
number, type, and morpho-physiology (that is, the relationship between the
shape and form of the tooth in question and its inferred function) of the
teeth of an animal. Animals whose teeth are all of the same type, such as
most non-mammalian vertebrates, are said to have homodont dentition,
whereas those whose teeth differ morphologically are said to have
heterodont dentition. The dentition of animals with two successions of
teeth (deciduous, permanent) is referred to as diphyodont, while the
dentition of animals with only one set of teeth throughout life is
monophyodont. The dentition of animals in which the teeth are continuously
discarded and replaced throughout life is termed polyphyodont. The
dentition of animals in which the teeth are set in sockets in the jawbones
is termed thecodont.
How to brush your teeth
- How to Brush Teeth
is an oral hygiene
instrument used to clean the teeth, gums, and tongue. It consists of a
head of tightly clustered bristles mounted on a handle which facilitates
the cleaning of hard to reach areas of the mouth. Toothbrushes are
available with different bristle textures, sizes, and forms. Most dentists
recommend using a soft toothbrush since hard bristled toothbrushes can
damage tooth enamel and irritate the gums.
Soft Bristle Tooth Brush
? Pros and Cons
Bristl Phototherapy Rechargeable Electric Toothbrush
Brush your Teeth 2 Times a Day for 2 Minutes each time
Oral Care Tips
Teeth Care Tips
How to Floss
- Video 3
Floss Holder Tool
Toothpaste alone does not prevent dental erosion or hypersensitivity
An analysis of nine toothpastes found that none of them protects enamel or
prevents erosive wear. Specialists stress that
and treatment by a dentist are key
to avoid the problems originated by dentin exposure.
is a branch of medicine that
is involved in the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of
diseases, disorders and conditions of the oral cavity, commonly in the
dentition but also the oral mucosa, and of adjacent and related structures
and tissues, particularly in the maxillofacial (jaw and facial) area.
Although primarily associated with teeth among the general public, the
field of dentistry or dental medicine is not limited to teeth but includes
other aspects of the craniofacial complex including the temperomandibular
and other supporting structures.
American Dental Association
Free Dental Clinics
answers for your clinical questions.
is a field of anatomy dedicated to the study of human tooth structures.
The development, appearance, and classification of teeth fall within its
purview. (The function of teeth as they contact one another falls
elsewhere, under dental occlusion.) Tooth formation begins before birth,
and teeth's eventual morphology is dictated during this time. Dental
anatomy is also a taxonomical science: it is concerned with the naming of
teeth and the structures of which they are made, this information serving
a practical purpose in dental treatment.
American Dental Research
is the dental specialty
concerned with the study and treatment of the dental pulp.
is a specialty that deals
primarily with the diagnosis, prevention and correction of malpositioned
teeth and the jaws.
are the two arches (crescent arrangements) of teeth, one on each
jaw, that together constitute the dentition.
is a misalignment or incorrect relation between the teeth
of the two dental arches when they approach each other as the jaws close.
is a branch of
dentistry that specializes in treating malocclusion by
guiding the growth of
the facial bones
and correcting the oral environment. This treatment
creates more space for the teeth and tongue. The main focus of this
approach is to correct a patients oral and head posture.
have material properties that differ along three
mutually-orthogonal twofold axes of rotational symmetry. They are a subset
of anisotropic materials, because their properties change when measured
from different directions.
is the specialty of
dentistry that studies supporting structures of teeth, as well as diseases
and conditions that affect them. The supporting tissues are known as the
periodontium, which includes the gingiva (gums), alveolar bone, cementum,
and the periodontal ligament. A person who practices this specialty is
known as a periodontist.
consist of the mucosal tissue that lies over the mandible and maxilla
inside the mouth. Gum health and disease can have an effect on general
also known as gum disease
and pyorrhea, is a set of inflammatory diseases affecting the tissues
surrounding the teeth. Periodontitis involves progressive loss of the
alveolar bone around the teeth, and if left untreated, can lead to the
loosening and subsequent loss of teeth.
is a non-destructive disease that occurs around the teeth.
An untreated dental abscess can invade the tissues of the head and
chest. It can infect and clot the veins of the neck, and spread between
the skull’s many sinuses. If it reaches the brain, it can result in a
brain abscess or meningitis.
is a localized collection of pus associated with a
tooth. The most common type of dental abscess is a periapical abscess, and
the second most common is a periodontal abscess. In a periapical abscess,
usually the origin is a bacterial infection that has accumulated in the
soft, often dead, pulp of the tooth. This can be caused by tooth decay,
broken teeth or extensive periodontal disease (or combinations of these
factors). A failed root canal treatment may also create a similar abscess.
High Levels of Oral Disease among elite Athletes affecting performance
Nearly half (49.1%) of the athletes were found to have untreated tooth
decay, 77% had gingivitis, an early indicator of gum disease, and 39%
self-reported having bleeding gums while cleaning their teeth, a sign of
gum inflammation. Only 1.1% of the participants had ‘excellent’
periodontal health. More than a third (32%) reported that these conditions
had impacted negatively on their sporting performance, along with their
ability to eat (34.6%), relax and sleep (15.1%) and smiling and
is the study of the microorganisms or
of the oral cavity and their interactions between oral microorganisms or
with the host. The environment present in the human mouth allows the
growth of characteristic microorganisms found there. It provides a source
of water and nutrients, as well as a moderate temperature. Resident
microbes of the mouth adhere to the teeth and gums to resist mechanical
flushing from the mouth to stomach where acid-sensitive microbes are
destroyed by hydrochloric acid.
Swallowing Fluoride provides no (or very little) benefit
Fluoride may damage the brain
. Substantial evidence of developmental
may lower IQ
. Fluoride may cause non-IQ neurotoxic effects. Fluoride
affects the pineal gland
. Fluoride affects thyroid function. Fluoride
causes arthritic symptoms. Fluoride damages bone. Fluoride may increase
hip fractures in the elderly. Fluoride may cause bone cancer
(osteosarcoma). Fluoride may cause
Topical Fluoride is much safer
. Some individuals are highly sensitive to low levels of fluoride. Other
subsets of population are more vulnerable to fluoride’s toxicity. Review
panels hand-picked to deliver a pro-fluoridation result. Tooth decay was
coming down before fluoridation started. Tooth decay
does not go up when
fluoridation is stopped. So Fluoridation in the
water is unethical
. Informed consent
is standard practice for all medication, and one of the key reasons why
most of Western Europe has ruled against fluoridation
. With water
fluoridation we are allowing governments to do to whole communities
(forcing people to take a medicine irrespective of their consent) what
individual doctors cannot do to individual patients. Put another way: Does
a voter have the right to require that their neighbor ingest a certain
medication (even if it is against that neighbor’s will). The
be controlled. Once fluoride is put in the water it is impossible to
control the dose each individual receives because people drink different
amounts of water. In the U.S., about 70% of public water supplies are
. This equates to approximately 185 million people, which is
over half the number of people drinking artificially fluoridated water
worldwide. Some countries have areas with high natural fluoride levels in
the water. These include India, China and parts of Africa. In these
countries measures are being taken to remove the fluoride because of the
health problems that fluoride can cause. In Europe, only Ireland (73%),
Poland (1%), Serbia (3%), Spain (11%), and the U.K. (11%) fluoridate any
of their water. Most developed countries, including Japan and 97% of the
western European population, do not consume fluoridated water.
is a chemical element that is very poisonous.
is the reduced form of fluorine.
The Biophysics of
Fluoride by Neurosurgeon Dr. Jack Kruse
Maternal Fluoride Consumption During Pregnancy Lower Children's
Simple Test could prevent Fluoride-Related Disease
. Method uses
synthetic biology to detect dangerous levels of fluoride in drinking
water. Synthetic biologists developed a simple, inexpensive new test that
can detect dangerous levels of fluoride in drinking water.
Drugs in Water
- Side Effects
is a highly
concentrated form of fluoride which is applied to the tooth's surface, by
a dentist, dental hygienist or other health care professional, as a type
of topical fluoride therapy.
is a medication that is applied to a particular place on or
in the body, as opposed to systemically, or forced on people by
contaminating the water.
is a liquid which is held in
the mouth passively or swilled around the mouth by contraction of the
perioral muscles and/or movement of the head, and may be gargled, where
the head is tilted back and the liquid bubbled at the back of the mouth.
is the process of exhaling a slow and steady small amount of air from the lungs in
order to bubbled a liquid in the mouth. It usually requires that the head
be tilted back, allowing a mouthful of liquid to sit in the upper throat.
The head can be tilted by tilting either the neck or the back, depending
on what is comfortable for the gargler. Vibration caused by the muscles in
the throat and back of the mouth cause the liquid to bubble and percolate
through the throat and mouth cavity. A study in Japan has shown that
gargling water a few times a day will lower the chance of upper
respiratory infections such as colds, though some medical authorities are skeptical.
common ingredient found in Toothpastes and Handwashes
antibiotics less effective in treating conditions like urinary tract
infections (UTIs), which, if left untreated, can become life-threatening.
According to the study, led by researchers at the Washington University in
exposure may inadvertently drive bacteria into a
state in which they are able to tolerate normally lethal concentrations of
antibiotics, including those that are commonly used to treat UTIs.
is an antibacterial and antifungal agent present in some
consumer products, including toothpaste, soaps, detergents, toys, and
surgical cleaning treatments. It is similar in its uses and mechanism of
action to triclocarban. Its efficacy as an antimicrobial agent, the risk
of antimicrobial resistance
and its possible role in disrupted hormonal development remains
controversial. Additional research seeks to understand its potential
effects on organisms and environmental health. Triclosan is an ingredient
added to many consumer products intended to reduce or prevent bacterial
contamination. It is added to some antibacterial soaps and body washes,
toothpastes, and some cosmetics
is a breakdown of teeth
due to activities of bacteria
. The cavities may be a number of different
colors from yellow to black. Symptoms may include pain and difficulty with
eating. Complications may include inflammation
of the tissue around the
tooth, tooth loss, and infection or abscess formation. The cause of caries
is bacterial breakdown of the hard tissues of the teeth (enamel, dentin
and cementum). This occurs due to acid
made from food debris or
the tooth surface. Simple sugars in food are these bacteria's primary
energy source and thus a diet high in simple sugar is a risk factor. If
mineral breakdown is greater than build up from sources such as saliva,
caries results. Risk factors include conditions that result in less saliva
such as: diabetes mellitus, Sjogren's syndrome and some medications.
that decrease saliva production include antihistamines and
antidepressants. Caries is also associated with poverty, poor cleaning of
the mouth, and receding gums resulting in exposure of the roots of the
teeth. Prevention of dental caries includes regular cleaning of the teeth,
a diet low in sugar, and small amounts of topical fluoride
. Brushing the teeth
twice per day and flossing between the teeth once a day is recommended by
many. Fluoride may be from water, salt or toothpaste among other sources.
Treating a mother's dental caries may decrease the risk in her children by
decreasing the numbers of certain bacteria. Screening can result in
earlier detection. Depending on the extent of destruction, various
treatments can be used to restore the tooth to proper function or the
tooth may be removed. There is no known method to grow back large amounts
of tooth. The availability of treatment is often poor in the developing
world. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) or ibuprofen may be taken for pain.
Worldwide, approximately 2.3 billion people (32% of the population) have
dental caries in their permanent teeth. The World Health Organization
estimates that nearly all adults have dental caries at some point in time.
In baby teeth it affects about 620 million people or 9% of the population.
They have become more common in both children and adults in recent years.
The disease is most common in the developed world due to greater simple
sugar consumption and less common in the developing world. Caries is Latin
Dental Caries Detection
Caries Management System
is a facultatively
anaerobic, gram-positive coccus (round bacterium) commonly found in the
human oral cavity and is a significant contributor to tooth decay.
Detection and Assessment System
is a standardized system, based on
best available evidence for detecting early and later stage caries
severity, should lead to the acquisition of better quality information
which could then be used to inform decisions about appropriate diagnosis,
prognosis, and clinical management of dental caries at both the individual
and public health levels.
Avoid Root Canals
How To Heal Tooth
Decay And Reverse Cavities Using This Easy Remedy
SUDANTA: POWER of Ancient HERBS on Your Brush
Ayurveda-powered, non-fluoride SUDANTA toothpaste for the first time GLOBALLY.
Remineralizing Tooth Gel
Homemade Remineralizing Toothpaste
4 tablespoons coconut oil.
2 tablespoons baking soda.
1 tablespoon xylitol powder.
20 drops cinnamon or clove essential oil.
20 drops peppermint essential oil.
30 drops trace minerals.
Peptide-Based Biogenic Dental Product may Cure Cavities
proteins and remineralization guided by peptides to rebuild tooth enamel
and treat dental cavities.
Small molecule inhibitor prevents or impedes tooth cavities in a
. The inhibitor blocks a key
enzyme in the oral
bacterium Streptococcus mutans, making it unable to stick to a tooth
are converted by the body into
not only prevents cavities,
but also actually stops tooth decay.
stimulate teeth to fix decay. When a tooth is damaged, the body produces a
thin layer of dentine to seal tooth pulp and prevent infection. But this
isn’t effective to repair large cavities. Man-made cement fillings patch
the decayed tooth, but the tooth’s normal mineral level is never
completely restored. Eventually, dentists have to remove old fillings and
replace them with larger ones. And after several treatments, the decayed
teeth may need to be pulled, he said placed biodegradable collagen sponges
laced with a low dose of Tideglusib over holes drilled into the teeth of
mice. Over six weeks, as the sponge degraded, it was replaced by new
dentine, leading to complete, natural repair.
potent, selective and irreversible small molecule non-ATP-competitive GSK3
inhibitor that has been investigated as a potential treatment for
and paralysis supranuclear palsy in Phase IIa and IIb clinical trials.
is a traditional folk remedy
where oil is "swished" (kavala graha) or "held" (snigda gandoosha) in the
mouth. Practitioners of oil pulling claim it is capable of improving oral
and systemic health, including a benefit in conditions such as headaches,
migraines, diabetes mellitus, asthma, and acne, as well as whitening
teeth. Its promoters claim it works by "pulling out" toxins, which are
known as ama in Ayurvedic medicine, and thereby reducing inflammation.
is an α-amino acid that is used
in the biosynthesis of proteins. Arginine is classified as a semiessential
or conditionally essential amino acid, depending on the developmental
stage and health status of the individual. Preterm infants are unable to
synthesize or create arginine internally, making the amino acid
nutritionally essential for them. Most healthy people do not need to
supplement with arginine because their body produces sufficient amounts.
Precursor for the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) Non-L-arginine derived NO
can be generated by the nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway that is
monitored through saliva testing. Reduces healing time of injuries
(particularly bone). Quickens repair time of damaged tissue. Helps
decrease blood pressure in clinical hypertensive subjects NO-mediated
decrease in blood pressure is influenced by both the L-arginine-dependent
nitric oxide synthase pathway and non-L-arginine or alternative pathway
through nitrate-rich foods such as beets and spinach. Arginine is a potent
agonist of the mTOR protein kinase that regulates growth and metabolism at
both the cellular and organismal level. Arginine helps to activate mTORC1
by promoting its localization to the lysosome by binding to the CASTOR
is bad for teeth. It's the principal storage form of phosphorus in many plant
tissues, especially bran and seeds. It can be found in cereals and grains.
(known as inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6), inositol polyphosphate, or
phytate when in salt form), discovered in 1903, a saturated cyclic acid.
Whole Grain Organic Bread
Regeneration of Teeth
is a stem cell based regenerative medicine
procedure in the field of tissue engineering and stem cell biology to
replace damaged or lost teeth by regrowing them from autologous stem
cells. As a source of the new bioengineered teeth, somatic stem cells are
collected and reprogrammed to induced pluripotent stem cells which can be
placed in the dental lamina directly or placed in a reabsorbable
biopolymer in the shape of the new tooth.
Bone Structure Regeneration after low induction magnetic field treatment
in teeth chosen for extraction
. The use of slow
contributed to bone structure regeneration and to preserve
teeth with recorded endo-perio syndrome. Endodontic treatment of replanted
teeth, aided with magnetostimulation has stopped the osteolisis process.
Natural Tooth Repair Method could Revolutionize Dental Treatments
Activating Tooth Regeneration in Mice
. Oral & Craniofacial Sciences
now show that Wnt activity is absent in a rudimentary form of the dental
lamina (RSDL) in mice. This structure forms in the mouse but then
disappears, stopping the generation of
another set of teeth.
Fillings for Teeth
Composite or Amalgam
? The debate over
whether dental amalgam (the "silver" in dental fillings) should be used.
Supporters claim that it is safe, effective and long-lasting while critics
argue that claims have been made since the 1840s that amalgam is unsafe
because it may cause mercury poisoning and other toxicity.
Dental Fillings could last twice as Long
. A compound used to make car
bumpers strong and protect wood decks could
prevent return visits to
the dentist's office.
is a fixed dental restoration (a fixed dental prosthesis) used
to replace a missing tooth (or several teeth) by joining an artificial
tooth permanently to adjacent teeth or dental implants. Types of bridges
may vary, depending upon how they are fabricated and the way they anchor
to the adjacent teeth. Conventionally, bridges are made using the indirect
method of restoration. However, bridges can be fabricated directly in the
mouth using such materials as composite resin. A bridge is fabricated by
reducing the teeth on either side of the missing tooth or teeth by a
preparation pattern determined by the location of the teeth and by the
material from which the bridge is fabricated. In other words, the abutment
teeth—including portions which are otherwise perfectly healthy—are
"reduced" in size using a high-speed rotary tool to accommodate the
material to be used to restore the size and shape of the original teeth in
a correct alignment and contact with the opposing teeth. The dimensions of
the bridge are defined by Ante's Law: "The root surface area of the
abutment teeth has to equal or surpass that of the teeth being replaced
with pontics". The materials used for the bridges include gold, porcelain
fused to metal, or in the correct situation porcelain alone. The amount
and type of reduction done to the abutment teeth varies slightly with the
different materials used. The recipient of such a bridge must be careful
to clean well under this prosthesis. When restoring an edentulous space
with a fixed partial denture that will crown the teeth adjacent to the
space and bridge the gap with a pontic, or "dummy tooth", the restoration
is referred to as a bridge. Besides all of the preceding information that
concerns single-unit crowns, bridges possess a few additional
considerations when it comes to case selection and treatment planning,
tooth preparation and restoration fabrication.
is used to cover a tooth to help
restore it to its normal shape and size. A crown can make your tooth
stronger and improve its appearance. A crown can help strengthen a tooth
with a large filling when there isn’t enough tooth remaining to hold the
filling. Crowns can also be used to attach bridges, protect a weak tooth
from breaking or restore one that’s already broken. A crown is a good way
to cover teeth that are discolored or badly shaped. It’s also used to
cover a dental implant.
is a surgical component that interfaces with the bone of the jaw or skull
to support a dental prosthesis such as a crown, bridge, denture, facial
prosthesis or to act as an orthodontic anchor. The basis for modern dental
implants is a biologic process called osseointegration, in which materials
such as titanium form an intimate bond to bone. The implant fixture is
first placed so that it is likely to osseointegrate, then a dental
prosthetic is added. A variable amount of healing time is required for
osseointegration before either the dental prosthetic (a tooth, bridge or
denture) is attached to the implant or an abutment is placed which will
hold a dental prosthetic.
offer an aesthetic alternative to metal class I or II
are devices used in orthodontics that align and straighten teeth and help
to position them with regard to a person's bite, while also working to
improve dental health. They are often used to correct underbites, as well
as malocclusions, overbites, open bites, deep bites, cross bites, crooked
teeth, and various other flaws of the teeth and jaw. Braces can be either
cosmetic or structural. Dental braces are often used in conjunction with
other orthodontic appliances to help widen the palate or jaws and to
otherwise assist in shaping the teeth and jaws.
Time-Lapse Video of Braces Straightening
Teeth over time
is an instrument in
dentistry commonly used in the dental armamentarium. It is usually long,
thin, and blunted at the end. The primary purpose of a periodontal probe
is to measure pocket depths around a tooth in order to establish the state
of health of the periodontium. There are markings inscribed onto the head
of the instrument for accuracy and readability.
Dental X-Rays Radiography
Radiographs are commonly called x-rays. Dentists use radiographs for many
reasons: to find hidden dental structures, malignant or benign masses,
bone loss, and cavities. A radiographic image is formed by a controlled
burst of X-ray radiation which penetrates oral structures at different
levels, depending on varying anatomical densities, before striking the
film or sensor. Teeth appear lighter because less radiation penetrates
them to reach the film. Dental caries, infections and other changes in the
bone density, and the periodontal ligament, appear darker because X-rays
readily penetrate these less dense structures. Dental restorations
(fillings, crowns) may appear lighter or darker, depending on the density
of the material. The dosage of X-ray radiation received by a dental
patient is typically small (around 0.150 mSv for a full mouth series,
according to the American Dental Association website), equivalent to a few
days' worth of background environmental radiation exposure, or similar to
the dose received during a cross-country airplane flight (concentrated
into one short burst aimed at a small area). Incidental exposure is
further reduced by the use of a lead shield, lead apron, sometimes with a
lead thyroid collar. Technician exposure is reduced by stepping out of the
room, or behind adequate shielding material, when the X-ray source is
Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
specializes in treating many diseases, injuries and defects in the head,
neck, face, jaws and the hard and soft tissues of the oral (mouth) and
maxillofacial (jaws and face) region.
Association of Oral Surgeons
is excessive teeth grinding or
. It is an oral parafunctional
activity; i.e., it is unrelated to normal function such as eating or
talking. Bruxism is a common problem; reports of prevalence range from
8–31% in the general population. Several symptoms are commonly associated
with bruxism, including hypersensitive teeth, aching jaw muscles,
headaches, tooth wear, damage to dental restorations (e.g. crowns and
fillings) and damage to teeth. However it may cause minimal symptoms, and
therefore people may not be aware of the condition.
Tooth Pain Relief
is any member of
the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from
drugs act in various ways on the peripheral and central nervous systems.
They are distinct from anesthetics, which temporarily affect, and in some
instances completely eliminate, sensation. Analgesics include paracetamol
(known in North America as acetaminophen or simply APAP), the nonsteroidal
drugs (NSAIDs) such as the salicylates, and
such as morphine and oxycodone. When choosing analgesics, the severity and
response to other medication determines the choice of agent; the World
Health Organization (WHO) pain ladder specifies mild analgesics as its
first step. Analgesic choice is also determined by the
type of pain
neuropathic pain, traditional analgesics are less effective, and there is
often benefit from classes of drugs that are not normally considered
analgesics, such as tricyclic antidepressants and anticonvulsants.
is a state of
temporary induced loss of sensation or awareness. It may include analgesia
(relief from or prevention of
), paralysis (muscle relaxation),
amnesia (loss of memory
), or unconsciousness. A patient under the effects
of anesthetic drugs is referred to as being anesthetized. Anesthesia
enables the painless performance of medical procedures that would cause
severe or intolerable pain to an unanesthetized patient. Three broad
categories of anaesthesia exist: General anesthesia suppresses central
nervous system activity and results in unconsciousness and total lack of
sensation. Sedation suppresses the
central nervous system
to a lesser
degree, inhibiting both anxiety and creation of long-term memories without
resulting in unconsciousness. Regional anesthesia and local anesthesia,
which block transmission of nerve impulses between a targeted part of the
body and the central nervous system, causing loss of sensation in the
targeted body part. A patient under regional or local anesthesia remains
conscious, unless general anaesthesia or sedation is administered at the
same time. Two broad classes exist: Peripheral blockade inhibits sensory
perception in an isolated part of the body, such as numbing a tooth for
dental work or administering a nerve block to inhibit sensation in an
entire limb. Central, or neuraxial, blockade administers the anesthetic in
the region of the central nervous system itself, suppressing incoming
sensation from outside the area of the block. Examples include epidural
anaesthesia and spinal anaesthesia.
is a medication that causes reversible absence of
other senses are often affected, as well. Also, when it is used on
specific nerve pathways (local anesthetic nerve block), paralysis (loss of
muscle power) also can be achieved. Clinical LAs belong to one of two
classes: aminoamide and aminoester local anesthetics. Synthetic LAs are
structurally related to cocaine. They differ from cocaine mainly in that
they have a very low abuse potential and do not produce hypertension or
(with few exceptions) vasoconstriction. They are used in various
techniques of local anesthesia such as: Topical anesthesia (surface).
Topical administration of cream, gel, ointment, liquid, or spray of
anaesthetic dissolved in DMSO or other solvents/carriers for deeper
absorption. Infiltration. Brachial plexus block. Epidural (extradural)
block. Spinal anesthesia (subarachnoid block). Iontophoresis.
is an anesthetic
technique where a mild dose of general anesthesia is applied to induce
anxiolysis (anxiety relief), hypnosis
, and anterograde amnesia (inability
to form new memories). The patient is not unconscious, but sedated. During
surgery or other medical procedures, the patient is under what is known as
a "twilight state", where the patient is relaxed and "sleepy", able to
follow simple directions by the doctor, and is responsive. Generally,
twilight anesthesia causes the patient to forget the surgery and the time
right after. It is used for a variety of surgical procedures and for
various reasons. Just like regular anesthesia, twilight anesthesia is
designed to help a patient feel more comfortable and to minimize pain
associated with the procedure being performed and to allow the medical
practitioner to practice without interruptions.
is a local anesthetic drug of
the amino ester group. It is used primarily to reduce the
intramuscular injection of penicillin, and it is also used in dentistry.
Owing to the ubiquity of the trade name Novocain, in some regions,
procaine is referred to generically as novocaine. It acts mainly as a
sodium channel blocker. Today it is used therapeutically in some countries
due to its sympatholytic, anti-inflammatory, perfusion-enhancing, and
Bio Safe Dentistry
Hypnosis Pain Killer
Hypnosis and Dentistry
the use of pharmacological agents to calm and relax
a patient prior to and
during a dental appointment. The pharmacological agents usually belong to
a class of drugs called sedatives, which exert their action by depressing
the central nervous system, specifically those areas concerned with
conscious awareness. There are different degrees of
central nervous system
depression, each corresponding to a level of relaxation which ranges from
minimal, moderate, to deep sedation. In general, minimal sedation refers
to a patient who has reduced anxiety
but readily responds to verbal or
physical stimulation. With moderate sedation the patient is even more
relaxed, and will respond to purposeful stimulation. In deep sedation, the
patient may not exhibit any signs of consciousness and therefore be
unresponsive to stimulation. Sedation by
methods may be
obtained by two general routes. The enteral route involves absorption of
medication across enteric membranes which line the alimentary canal from
the oral cavity, through the digestive tract
, ending in the rectum. This
route includes medications that are either swallowed, absorbed through the
mucosa of the oral cavity, or inserted rectally. The parenteral route
involves the administration of sedative drugs other than absorption across
enteric membranes (outside of the alimentary canal). These methods include
intravenous, inhalation, intramuscular, and submucosal administration,
Fraud by Dentists
Complaints against Dentists
should be filed by anyone who believes
that a licensee Dentist has engaged in illegal activities which are
related to his/her professional responsibilities.
The corrupting force in dentistry is profitability
. When a dentist puts profit before a
patient’s needs, optimum care becomes all about funneling people towards
extensive care such as Implants and Extreme Makeovers. Less profitable
services will be neglected and the profitable ones promoted heavily.
Dentist over-treats a
tooth or your entire mouth.Supervised Neglect.
Under-serves your needs, don’t receive enough care, you’ll
gradually run into more problems.
Dental Malpractice Lawyer
How to Avoid Bad Dentists
National Board Dental Examination
Heath Care Fraud
Funny Video Clips about DentistsLittle Shop of
Horrors - Dentist Song
Little Shop of
Horrors - Dentist Scene - w/ Bill Murray (Good Quality)
Kids got a god damn Revolver
Commission on Dental Accreditation
. A “formal” complaint is defined as
a complaint filed in written (or electronic) form and signed by the
complainant. This complaint should outline the specific policy, procedure
or standard in question and rationale for the complaint including specific
documentation or examples. Complainants who submit complaints verbally
will receive direction to submit a formal complaint to the Commission in
written, signed form following guidelines in the Evaluation and
Operational Policies and Procedures manual.
Tongue Warning Signs
What Your Tongue Can Tell You About Your
For clues about problems in your mouth, stick out your
tongue and look in the mirror. A healthy tongue should be pink and covered
with small nodules (papillae). Any deviation from your tongue's normal
appearance, or any pain, may be cause for concern.
– a yeast
infection that develops inside the mouth. It appears as white patches that
are often the consistency of cottage cheese. Leukoplakia
– a condition in
which the cells in the mouth grow excessively, which leads to white
patches on the tongue and inside the mouth.
Oral lichen planus
– a network
of raised white lines on your tongue that look similar to lace.
– “Folic acid and vitamin B-12 deficiencies may cause your
tongue to take on a reddish appearance.
– This condition
causes a map-like pattern of reddish spots to develop on the surface of
– an infection that causes the tongue to have a
strawberry-like (red and bumpy) appearance.
– a condition
that can also cause the tongue to have a strawberry-like appearance.
is a muscular organ in the mouth of most vertebrates that manipulates food
for mastication and is used in the act of swallowing. It has importance in
the digestive system
and is the
primary organ of taste
in the gustatory system. The tongue's upper surface (dorsum) is covered by
taste buds housed in numerous lingual papillae. It is sensitive and kept
moist by saliva and is richly supplied with nerves and blood vessels. The
tongue also serves as a natural means of cleaning the teeth. A major
function of the tongue is the
enabling of speech
humans and vocalization in other animals. The human tongue is divided into
two parts, an oral part at the front and a pharyngeal part at the back.
The left and right sides are also separated along most of its length by a
vertical section of fibrous tissue (the lingual septum) that results in a
groove, the median sulcus, on the tongue's surface. There are two groups
of muscles of the tongue. The four intrinsic muscles alter the shape of
the tongue and are not attached to bone. The four paired extrinsic muscles
change the position of the tongue and are anchored to bone.