Spatial intelligence

3D XYZ Coordinates Spatial Intelligence is the ability to draw accurate conclusions from observing a three-dimensional or 3D environment. It involves interpreting and making judgments about the shape, size, movement, and relationships between surrounding objects, as well as the ability to envision and manipulate 3D models of things that are not immediately visible. People use this form of reasoning in many everyday activities, ranging from organizing a room to driving a car. This type of intelligence stems from the right side of the brain, and injuries or strokes to this area may diminish it. Spatial Intelligence involves the potential to recognize and use patterns of wide space and more confined areas. Spatial Intelligence (youtube)

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3 Dimensional Space Awareness - Picture Smart - Visual Intelligence

Spatial Thinking is thinking that finds meaning in the shape, size, orientation, location, direction or trajectory, of objects, processes or phenomena, or the relative positions in space of multiple objects, processes or phenomena. Spatial thinkers process information with visual images. They recognize the shapes, sizes, patterns and positions of objects and ideas, and often have a deep understanding of how components relate and interact. Improving spatial cognition skills also improves verbal reasoning skills, as seen on MRI.

When people fail to see the whole picture they can easily make mistakes, as we can clearly see in the world today with all the problems that we are currently faced with. It's how you look at something and understand that something that can make all the difference. Senses - Intelligence.

Perspective - Field of View - Depth of Field - Navigation - Space-Time

Flicker RateMagic - Illusions - Hallucinations - Delusions

Mind Maps - Systems Thinking - Body Language - Body Smart - Body Image

Blind Mathematicians (PDF) - Sight Testing (eyesight measuring)

When the Brain fills in Missing Information.

Imagination - Visualization - Episodic Memory

Spatial Visualization Ability is the ability to mentally manipulate 2-dimensional, 3-dimensional and 4-dimensional figures. It is typically measured with simple cognitive tests and is predictive of user performance with some kinds of user interfaces.

Visual-Spatial Abilities are used for everyday use from navigation, understanding or fixing equipment, understanding or estimating distance and measurement, and performing on a job. Spatial abilities are also important for success in fields such as sports, technical aptitude, mathematics, natural sciences, engineering, economic forecasting, meteorology, chemistry and physics. Not only do spatial abilities involve understanding the outside world, but they also involve processing outside information and reasoning with it through representation in the mind.

Spatial Ability or visuo-spatial ability is the capacity to understand, reason and remember the spatial relations among objects or space.

Spatial–Temporal Reasoning is the ability of a person to conceptualize the three-dimensional relationships of objects in space and to mentally manipulate them as a series of transformations over a period of time. Spatial-temporal reasoning examples include using a map or compass, navigating and understanding time and space, merging in traffic while driving, and determining how many objects can fit in a box. Situation Awareness.

Temporal Logic is any system of rules and symbolism for representing, and reasoning about, propositions qualified in terms of time (for example, "I am always hungry", "I will eventually be hungry", or "I will be hungry until I eat something").

Thinking in 3D improves mathematical skills. Spatial reasoning ability in small children reflects how well they will perform in mathematics later.

Brain Cells for Spatial Reasoning

Grid Cell is a type of neuron in the brains entorhinal cortex of many species that allows them to understand their position in space. Grid Cells is a place-modulated neuron whose multiple firing locations define a periodic triangular array covering the entire available surface of an open two-dimensional environment. Grid cells are thought to form an essential part of the brain’s coordinate system for metric navigation.

Patterns - Frame of Reference - Navigation - Coordinates - Flight Instruments - Internal Compass - Body Position - Visualize - Framework.

Place Cell is a kind of pyramidal neuron in the hippocampus that becomes active when an animal enters a particular place in its environment, which is known as the place field. Place cells are thought to act collectively as a cognitive representation of a specific location in space, known as a cognitive map.

Spatial View Cells are neurons in primates' hippocampus; they respond when a certain part of the environment is in the animal's field of view. They are related to place cells and head direction cells. Spatial view cells differ from place cells, since they are not localized in space. They also differ from head direction cells since they don't represent a global orientation (like a compass), but the direction towards a specific object. Spatial view cells are the cells that respond in the hippocampus when a particular location is being recalled.

Head Direction Cells are neurons found in a number of brain regions that increase their firing rates above baseline levels only when the animal's head points in a specific direction. The head direction system functions as the brain's internal compass, classically formalized as a one-dimensional ring attractor network. In contrast to a globally consistent magnetic compass, the HD system does not have a universal reference frame. Ring attractors are a class of recurrent networks hypothesized to underlie the representation of heading direction.

Brain Cells for 3D Vision discovered. Scientists have discovered neurons in insect brains that compute 3D distance and direction. Understanding these could help vision in robots.

Cognitive Map is a type of mental representation which serves an individual to acquire, code, store, recall, and decode information about the relative locations and attributes of phenomena in their everyday or metaphorical spatial environment. Cognitive maps serve the construction and accumulation of spatial knowledge, allowing the "mind's eye" to visualize images in order to reduce cognitive load, enhance recall and learning of information. This type of spatial thinking can also be used as a metaphor for non-spatial tasks, where people performing non-spatial tasks involving memory and imaging use spatial knowledge to aid in processing the task. They include information about the spatial relations that objects have among each other in an environment and they help us in orienting and moving in a setting and in space. They are internal representation, they are not a fixed image, instead they are a schema, dynamic and flexible, with a degree of personal level. A spatial map needs to be acquired according to a frame of reference. Because it is independent from the observer's point of view, it is based on an allocentric reference system— with an object-to-object relation. It codes configurational information, using a world-centered coding system. Cognitive mapping is believed to largely be a function of the hippocampus. The hippocampus is connected to the rest of the brain in such a way that it is ideal for integrating both spatial and nonspatial information. Connections from the postrhinal cortex and the medial entorhinal cortex provide spatial information to the hippocampus. Connections from the perirhinal cortex and lateral entorhinal cortex provide nonspatial information. The integration of this information in the hippocampus makes the hippocampus a practical location for cognitive mapping, which necessarily involves combining information about an object's location and its other features. Visualize.

Body Relative Direction are geometrical orientations relative to a body such as a human person's body or a road sign. The most common ones are: left and right; forward and backward; up and down. They form three pairs of orthogonal axes.

Orientation, or angular position, or attitude of an object such as a line, plane or rigid body is part of the description of how it is placed in the space it is in. Namely, it is the imaginary rotation that is needed to move the object from a reference placement to its current placement.

How the grid cell system of the brain maps mental spaces. It has long been known that so-called place cells in the human hippocampus are responsible for coding one’s position in space. A related type of brain cell, called grid cells, encodes a variety of positions that are evenly distributed across space. This results in a kind of honeycomb pattern tiling the space. The cells exhibiting this pattern were discovered in the entorhinal cortex. How exactly the grid cell system works in the human brain, and in particular with which temporal dynamics, has until now been speculation. A much-discussed possibility is that the signals from these cells create maps of “cognitive spaces” in which humans mentally organize and store the complexities of their internal and external environments. A European–American team of scientists has now been able to demonstrate, with electrophysiological evidence, the existence of grid-like activity in the human brain.

Cognitive Geography is an emphasis on geography as well as perception of space and environment.

Spatial Memory is the part of memory responsible for recording information about one's environment and its spatial orientation. For example, a person's spatial memory is required in order to navigate around a familiar city, just as a rat's spatial memory is needed to learn the location of food at the end of a maze. Past experiences shape what we see more than what we are looking at now. London cab drivers are required to memorize about 25,000 street names in the city in order to get the job.

Spatial Cognition is the acquisition, organization, utilization, and revision of knowledge about spatial environments.

Spatial Contextual Awareness consociates contextual information such as an individual's or sensor's location, activity, the time of day, and proximity to other people or objects and devices. It is also defined as the relationship between and synthesis of information garnered from the spatial environment, a cognitive agent, and a cartographic map. The spatial environment is the physical space in which the orientation or wayfinding task is to be conducted; the cognitive agent is the person or entity charged with completing a task; and the map is the representation of the environment which is used as a tool to complete the task.

Conceptual Space is a geometric structure that represents a number of quality dimensions, which denote basic features by which concepts and objects can be compared, such as weight, color, taste, temperature, pitch, and the three ordinary spatial dimensions. In a conceptual space, points denote objects, and regions denote concepts. The theory of conceptual spaces is a theory about concept learning first proposed by Peter Gärdenfors. It is motivated by notions such as conceptual similarity and prototype theory. Mind Maps.

Mental Rotation is the ability to rotate mental representations of two-dimensional and three-dimensional objects as it is related to the visual representation of such rotation within the human mind.

Brain region that watches for walls identified. Transverse Occipital Sulcus is continuous with the posterior end of the occipital ramus of the intraparietal sulcus, and runs across the upper part of the lobe, a short distance behind the parietooccipital fissure. Parieto-Occipital Sulcus (wiki). Memory.

Coordinated brain activation supports spatial learning and decision-making. Internal 'replay' process in the brain allows animals to learn from past experiences to form memories of paths leading toward goals, and subsequently to recall these paths for planning future decisions. The hippocampus, a structure located in the middle of the brain, is critical to learning and memory and contains specialized "place" cells that relay information about location and orientation in space. These place cells show specific patterns of activity during navigation that can be "replayed" later in forward or reverse order, almost as if the brain were fast-forwarding or rewinding through routes the rats have taken.

How the brain senses body position and movement. Researchers use neural networks to study proprioception, the sense the brain uses to 'know' the body's movement and position. How does your brain know the position and movement of your different body parts? The sense is known as proprioception, and it is something like a "sixth sense," allowing us to move freely without constantly watching our limbs. Proprioception involves a complex network of sensors embedded in our muscles that relay information about limb position and movement back to our brain.

Chicks show vision and touch linked at birth. Study reveals that newly hatched chicks can instantly recognize objects with their vision, even if they've only ever experienced them by touch. Newly hatched chicks raised in darkness and allowed to touch either a smooth or bumpy cube for 24 hours instantly recognised the object with their vision upon first exposure to light. This suggests chicks can link touch and vision without any prior experience combining these senses, challenging the long-held belief that such integration requires learning. The discovery implies a pre-wired ability in the brain for cross-modal perception, potentially redefining our understanding of animal cognition and sensory processing.

New experiences enhance learning by resetting key brain circuit. How novelty triggers neural mechanisms that facilitate flexible strategy encoding. A study of spatial learning in mice shows that exposure to new experiences dampens established representations in the brain's hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, allowing the mice to learn new navigation strategies. Spatial learning depends on a key circuit between the ventral hippocampus (a structure located in the middle of the brain) and the medial prefrontal cortex (located just behind the forehead). Connectivity between these brain structures strengthens over the course of spatial learning. If the connectivity remains at maximum strength, however, it impairs later adaptation to new tasks and rules. The researchers hypothesized that exposure to a new experience may serve as an environmental trigger that dampens established hippocampal-prefrontal connectivity, enabling flexible spatial learning.

Puzzles - Retinal cells go with the flow to assess own motion through space.

Proxemics is the study of human use of space and the effects that population density has on behavior, communication, and social interaction. Proxemics is one among several subcategories in the study of nonverbal communication, including haptics (touch), kinesics (body movement), vocalics (paralanguage), and chronemics (structure of time).

Vector Space is a collection of objects called vectors, which may be added together and multiplied ("scaled") by numbers, called scalars. Scalars are often taken to be real numbers, but there are also vector spaces with scalar multiplication by complex numbers, rational numbers, or generally any field. The operations of vector addition and scalar multiplication must satisfy certain requirements, called axioms. Vector in mathematics and physics, is an element of a vector space. Dimensions - Navigation.

Vector is a variable quantity that can be resolved into components. A straight line segment whose length is magnitude and whose orientation in space is direction.

Degrees of Freedom is an independent physical parameter in the formal description of the state of a physical system. The set of all states of a system is known as the system's phase space, and the degrees of freedom of the system are the dimensions of the phase space. The location of a particle in three-dimensional space requires three position coordinates. Similarly, the direction and speed at which a particle moves can be described in terms of three velocity components, each in reference to the three dimensions of space. If the time evolution of the system is deterministic, where the state at one instant uniquely determines its past and future position and velocity as a function of time, such a system has six degrees of freedom. If the motion of the particle is constrained to a lower number of dimensions – for example, the particle must move along a wire or on a fixed surface – then the system has fewer than six degrees of freedom. On the other hand, a system with an extended object that can rotate or vibrate can have more than six degrees of freedom. In classical mechanics, the state of a point particle at any given time is often described with position and velocity coordinates in the Lagrangian formalism, or with position and momentum coordinates in the Hamiltonian formalism. In statistical mechanics, a degree of freedom is a single scalar number describing the microstate of a system. The specification of all microstates of a system is a point in the system's phase space. In the 3D ideal chain model in chemistry, two angles are necessary to describe the orientation of each monomer. It is often useful to specify quadratic degrees of freedom. These are degrees of freedom that contribute in a quadratic function to the energy of the system.

Field of View - Blind Spots

Peripheral Vision Field of View is the extent of the observable world that is seen at any given moment. In case of optical instruments or sensors it is a solid angle through which a detector is sensitive to electromagnetic radiation. When something is outside your center of focus, you will not be able to understand the threat it may have, and thus, not be able to react in time. Seeing the Whole Picture - Perspective.

Angle of View describes the angular extent of a given scene that is imaged by a camera. It is used interchangeably with the more general term field of view. Depth Perception.

Visual Field is the "spatial array of visual sensations available to observation in introspectionist psychological experiments"

Peripheral Vision is a part of vision that occurs outside the very center of gaze.

Blind Spot in relation to vision is an obscuration of the visual field. A particular blind spot known as the physiological blind spot, "blind point", or punctum caecum in medical literature, is the place in the visual field that corresponds to the lack of light-detecting photoreceptor cells on the optic disc of the retina where the optic nerve passes through the optic disc. Because there are no cells to detect light on the optic disc, the corresponding part of the field of vision is invisible. Some process in our brains interpolates the blind spot based on surrounding detail and information from the other eye, so we do not normally perceive the blind spot. Eyes in the Back of My Head.

Vehicle Blind Spot in a vehicle is an area around the vehicle that cannot be directly observed by the driver while at the controls, under existing circumstances. Blind spots exist in a wide range of vehicles: aircraft, cars, motorboats, sailboats, and trucks. Other types of transport have no blind spots at all, such as bicycles, horses, and motorcycles. Proper adjustment of mirrors and use of other technical solutions can eliminate or alleviate vehicle blind spots. A no zone is one of several areas around a large truck, where the truck driver cannot see. Collisions frequently occur in no zones. In transport, driver visibility is the maximum distance at which the driver of a vehicle can see and identify prominent objects around the vehicle. Visibility is primarily determined by weather conditions (see visibility) and by a vehicle's design. The parts of a vehicle that influence visibility include the windshield, the dashboard and the pillars. Good driver visibility is essential to safe road traffic. Blind spots may occur in the front of the driver when the A-pillar (also called the windshield pillar), side-view mirror, or interior rear-view mirror block a driver's view of the road. Behind the driver, cargo, headrests, and additional pillars may reduce visibility.

Homonymous Hemianopsia is a visual field loss on the left or right side of the vertical midline. It can affect one eye but usually affects both eyes. Homonymous hemianopsia (or homonymous hemianopia) is hemianopic visual field loss on the same side of both eyes. Homonymous hemianopsia occurs because the right half of the brain has visual pathways for the left hemifield of both eyes, and the left half of the brain has visual pathways for the right hemifield of both eyes. When one of these pathways is damaged, the corresponding visual field is lost.

Tunnel Vision is the loss of peripheral vision with retention of central vision, resulting in a constricted circular tunnel-like field of vision.

Researchers have found a significant improvement in the peripheral awareness of people who played computer games specially designed around using peripheral vision. This finding opens up the possibility that these types of games can be used to help improve players' performance in team sports - so they can spot team-mates quicker - or to help them to identify potential hazards at the side of their vision.

Hemispatial Neglect is a neuropsychological condition in which, after damage to one hemisphere of the brain is sustained, a deficit in attention to and awareness of one side of the field of vision is observed. It is defined by the inability of a person to process and perceive stimuli on one side of the body or environment, where that inability is not due to a lack of sensation. Hemispatial neglect is very commonly contralateral to the damaged hemisphere, but instances of ipsilesional neglect (on the same side as the lesion) have been reported.

Blindsight is the ability of people who are cortically blind due to lesions in their striate cortex, also known as primary visual cortex or V1, to respond to visual stimuli that they do not consciously see.

Predator and Prey Field of View Second Visual System in mouse Cerebral Cortex. Post-rhinal cortex appears to obtain visual data directly from an evolutionarily ancient sensory processing center at the base of the brain called the superior colliculus. Postrhinal cortex neurons continued to respond to moving stimuli even without input from V1."blindsight," in which people who become blind because of damage to V1 are still able to identify the positions of objects and navigate obstacles, even though they cannot consciously perceive them. Blindsight is an ability to perceive and respond to visual information without conscious awareness. People with blindsight are technically blind, meaning that they are unconscious of their surroundings and they can’t tell the light from the dark. Nevertheless, these people are able to use non-conscious knowledge to make decisions about their environment and act accordingly. Blindsight brings into question the actual process of “seeing.” If humans can see without conscious awareness, then what defines vision and how important is it for us to be aware of what we are looking at? Postrhinal Cortex is an area of the brain which borders above the entorhinal cortex. It is the cortical region dorsally adjacent and caudal to the posterior rhinal sulcus. It is implicated in the role of memory and spatial navigation.

Spatial View Cells are neurons in primates' hippocampus; they respond when a certain part of the environment is in the animal's field of view. Spatial view cells can be characterized by the following features: Respond to a region of visual space being looked at, relatively independently of where the monkey is located. Respond to a small number of visual cues generally within a 30° receptive field. Activated when doing spatial tasks which include active walking in a spatial environment. Fire relatively independent of the place where the monkey is located. Represent the place at which the monkey is looking. Generally stimulated by at least 3 cues present in optimal view. Fire uniformly all over different areas in space as long as monkey is looking at the same area. Ability to maintain their spatial properties for periods of up to several minutes in the dark. Responses depend on where the monkey is looking, by measuring eye position. Spatial representation is allocentric. Responses still occur in some cases even if view details are obscured with curtains. Brains Internal Compass.

Scenic Viewpoint is an elevated location where people can view scenery over a long distance, sometimes using binoculars or just for photographs. Scenic viewpoints may be created alongside mountain roads, often as simple turnouts where motorists can pull over onto pavement, gravel, or grass on the right-of-way.

Central Fixation means seeing best where you are looking. For people with good eyesight, when they regard an object, it appears to pulsate, or to move in various directions, from side to side, up and down, or obliquely. This apparent movement is due to the shifting of the eye, and is in a direction contrary to its movement. People with good eyesight may not be conscious of this illusion, and may have difficulty in demonstrating it, but most people can, in a longer or shorter time, become aware of it. Regaining this illusion is essential in the cure of imperfect sight. Perfect sight means perfect relaxation of the mind—and also means perfect memory and perfect imagination. When one is perfect—all is perfect. The opposite is also true. When the memory or the imagination is imperfect, the sight is imperfect. We see very largely with the mind, and only partly with the eyes. The Bates Method deals very much with improving the memory and imagination. Floaters.

Retina is the third and inner coat of the Eye which is a light-sensitive layer of tissue. The optics of the Eye create an image of the visual world on the retina (through the cornea and lens), which serves much the same function as the film in a camera. Light striking the retina initiates a cascade of chemical and electrical events that ultimately trigger nerve impulses. These are sent to various visual centres of the brain through the fibres of the optic nerve. Neural retina typically refers to three layers of neural cells (photo receptor cells, bipolar cells, and ganglion cells) within the retina, while the entire retina refers to these three layers plus a layer of pigmented epithelial cells.

Occipital Lobe - Human Brain Processing Power

Horizon is the apparent line that separates earth from sky, the line that divides all visible directions into two categories: those that intersect the Earth's surface, and those that do not.

Orienteering (navigation)

Mental Representation is a hypothetical internal cognitive symbol that represents external reality, or else a mental process that makes use of such a symbol: "a formal system for making explicit certain entities or types of information, together with a specification of how the system does this."

Point of View - Perspective

Vase or Two Faces Perspective is how you look at something and understand something, which is based on your current level of knowledge and experience, and sometimes depends on your current mood or your unique situation.

Perceive - Divergent Thinking - Creative Thinking - Subjective - Flawed Reasoning - Narrative Modes

World View - Two Sides to a Coin - Analogies - Seeing the Whole Picture - Focused

Perspective in relation to graphical is the appearance of things relative to one another as determined by their distance from the viewer. The approximate representation, on a flat surface such as paper, of an image as it is seen by the eye. The two most characteristic features of perspective are that objects are smaller as their distance from the observer increases; and that they are subject to foreshortening, meaning that an object's dimensions along the line of sight are shorter than its dimensions across the line of sight.

Viewpoint is a mental position from which things are viewed.

State of Mind - Relative - Biases - Group Decisions

Point of View is the spatial property of the position from which something is observed. Point of View in philosophy is a specific attitude or manner through which a person thinks about something. Many things may be judged from certain personal, traditional or moral points of view. Our knowledge about reality is often relative to a certain point of view.

Perspectivism is the epistemological principle that perception of and knowledge of something are always bound to the interpretive perspectives of those observing it. While perspectivism does not regard all perspectives and interpretations as being of equal truth or value, it holds that no one has access to an absolute view of the world cut off from perspective. Instead, all such viewing occurs from some point of view which in turn affects how things are perceived. Rather than attempt to determine truth by correspondence to things outside any perspective, perspectivism thus generally seeks to determine truth by comparing and evaluating perspectives among themselves. Perspectivism may be regarded as an early form of epistemological pluralism, though in some accounts includes treatment of value theory, moral psychology, and realist metaphysics.

Standpoint is a place from which something can be viewed. Ideology.

Vantage Point is a place from which something can be viewed. Vanishing Point.

Frame of Reference or Reference Frame consists of an abstract coordinate system and the set of physical Reference Points that uniquely fix (locate and orient) the coordinate system and standardize measurements. Rest Frame of a particle is the coordinate system frame of reference in which the particle is at rest.

Relative - Time and Space - Patterns

Reference is the most direct or specific meaning of a word or expression. The class of objects that an expression refers to. The relation between a word or phrase and the object or idea it refers to. Reference in computing is the code that identifies where a piece of information is stored. A short note recognizing a source of information or of a quoted passage. The act of referring or consulting. Reference can also mean an indicator that orients you generally. Reference Book.

Perspective in the context of vision and visual perception, is the way that objects appear to the eye based on their spatial attributes or dimensions, and the position of the eye relative to the objects. There are two main meanings of the term: Linear perspective and aerial perspective. Two Sides to a Coin.

See Things in a Different Light is to see things in a different way and from a different perspective, I like to see things from a different point of view so that you can understand something more clearly.

Seeing the Whole Picture - Empathy

New research sheds light on how human vision perceives scale. Researchers have discovered new insights into how the human brain makes perceptual judgments of the external world. The study explored the computational mechanisms used by the human brain to perceive the size of objects in the world around us. It is well known that to derive object size from retinal image size, our visual system needs to estimate the distance to the object. The retinal image contains many pictorial cues, such as linear perspective, which help the system derive the relative size of objects. However, to derive absolute size, the system needs to know about spatial scale. By taking account of defocus blur, like the blurry parts of an image outside the depth of focus of a camera, the visual system can achieve this. The maths behind this has been well worked out by others, but the study asked the question, does human vision exploit this maths?

Human eyes really do play 'tricks' on the mind, say experts. A new study has shown that the human visual system can 'trick' the brain into making inaccurate assumptions about the size of objects in the world around them.

Aerial Perspective refers to the effect the atmosphere has on the appearance of an object as it is viewed from a distance. As the distance between an object and a viewer increases, the contrast between the object and its background decreases, and the contrast of any markings or details within the object also decreases. The colours of the object also become less saturated and shift towards the background colour, which is usually blue, but under some conditions may be some other colour (for example, at sunrise or sunset distant colours may shift towards red). The major component affecting the appearance of objects during daylight is scattering of light, called skylight, into the line of sight of the viewer. Scattering occurs from molecules of the air and also from larger particles in the atmosphere such as water vapour and smoke (see haze). Scattering adds the sky light as a veiling luminance onto the light from the object, reducing its contrast with the background sky light. Skylight usually contains more light of short wavelength than other wavelengths (this is why the sky usually appears blue), which is why distant objects appear bluish (see Rayleigh scattering for detailed explanation). A minor component is scattering of light out of the line of sight of the viewer. Under daylight, this either augments the contrast loss (e.g., for white objects) or opposes it (for dark objects). At night there is effectively no skylight (unless the moon is very bright), so scattering out of the line of sight becomes the major component affecting the appearance of self-luminous objects. Such objects have their contrasts reduced with the dark background, and their colours are shifted towards red. The ability of a person with normal visual acuity to see fine details is determined by his or her contrast sensitivity. Contrast sensitivity is the reciprocal of the smallest contrast for which a person can see a sine-wave grating. A person's contrast sensitivity function is contrast sensitivity as a function of spatial frequency. Normally, peak contrast sensitivity is at about 4 cycles per degree of visual angle. At higher spatial frequencies, comprising finer and finer lines, contrast sensitivity decreases, until at about 40 cycles per degree even the brightest of bright lines and the darkest of dark lines cannot be seen. The high spatial frequencies in an image give it its fine details. Reducing the contrast of an image reduces the visibility of these high spatial frequencies because contrast sensitivity for them is already poor. This is how a reduction of contrast can reduce the clarity of an image—by removing its fine details. It is important to emphasize that reducing the contrast is not the same as blurring an image. Blurring is accomplished by reducing the contrast only of the high spatial frequencies. Aerial perspective reduces the contrast of all spatial frequencies.

Linear or Point Projection Perspective is one of two types of Graphical projection perspective in the graphic arts (the other type is Parallel projection). Linear perspective is an approximate representation, generally on a flat surface (such as paper), of an image as it is seen by the eye. The most characteristic features of Linear perspective are that objects appear smaller as their distance from the observer increases; and that they are subject to foreshortening, meaning that an object's dimensions along the line of sight appear shorter than its dimensions across the line of sight. Also all objects will recede to points in the distance, usually along the horizon line, but also above and below the horizon line depending on view used.

Parallel Projection is a projection of an object in three-dimensional space onto a fixed plane, known as the projection plane or image plane, where the rays, known as lines of sight or projection lines, are parallel to each other. It is a basic tool in descriptive geometry. The projection is called orthographic if the rays are perpendicular (orthogonal) to the image plane, and oblique or skew if they are not.

Mental Rotation is the ability to rotate mental representations of two-dimensional and three-dimensional objects as it is related to the visual representation of such rotation within the human mind. There is a relationship between areas of the brain associated with perception and mental rotation. There could also be a relationship between the cognitive rate of spatial processing, general intelligence and mental rotation.

Space Mapping uses relevant existing knowledge to speed up model generation and design optimization of a system. The knowledge is updated with new validation information from the system when available.

Visual Perception is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment using light in the visible spectrum reflected by the objects in the environment. The resulting perception is also known as visual perception, eyesight, sight, or vision (adjectival form: visual, optical, or ocular). The various physiological components involved in vision are referred to collectively as the visual system, and are the focus of much research in linguistics, psychology, cognitive science, neuroscience, and molecular biology, collectively referred to as vision science. Depth Perception.

Masking Visual Appearance of objects is given by the way in which they reflect and transmit light. The color of objects is determined by the parts of the spectrum of (incident white) light that are reflected or transmitted without being absorbed. Additional appearance attributes are based on the directional distribution of reflected (BRDF) or transmitted light (BTDF) described by attributes like glossy, shiny versus dull, matte, clear, turbid, distinct, etc..

Canonical Perspective is our preferred way of viewing an object, which is looking down at the object at an angle. People like to draw objects based on this point of view.

New Research Could Help Humans See What Nature Hides. Three main background properties that affect the ability to see objects: the luminance or brightness, the contrast (the variation in luminance) and the similarity of the background to the orientation and shape of the object.

Rod and Frame Test is a psychophysical method of testing perception. It relies on the use of a rod and frame apparatus which uses a rotating rod set inside an individually rotatable drum, allowing an experimenter to vary the participant's frame of reference and thus test for their perception of vertical.

Contrast is the difference in color and light between parts of an image.

Pattern Recognition (ai) - Awareness

Painting Room Effects Visual Masking occurs when the perception of one stimulus, called a target, is affected by the presence of another stimulus, called a mask. With respect to time, there are three different types of masking – forward, backward, and simultaneous. These correspond to trials where the mask precedes the target, follows the disappearance of the target, or appears at the same time as the target, respectively. In the spatial domain, there are two different types of masking: pattern masking and metacontrast. Pattern masking occurs when the target and mask are presented within the same retinal location, and metacontrast occurs when the mask does not overlap with the target location.

Visual Literacy is the ability to interpret, negotiate, and make meaning from information presented in the form of an image, extending the meaning of literacy, which commonly signifies interpretation of a written or printed text. Visual literacy is based on the idea that pictures can be “read” and that meaning can be achieved through a process of reading.

Mind Maps - Visual Variable Tools (art)

Sight and Eye Problems - Visible Light - Colors - Depth Illusions

Subitizing is the rapid, accurate, and confident judgments of numbers performed for small numbers of items.

Binding Problem - Emergence

Conflate is to add together different elements.

Visual Thinking is the phenomenon of thinking through visual processing. Visual thinking has been described as seeing words as a series of pictures.

Music Visualization - Art - Perception (perspective)

Spatial Analysis includes any of the formal techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties.

Spatial Temporal Reasoning is an area of artificial intelligence which draws from the fields of computer science, cognitive science, and cognitive psychology. The theoretic goal—on the cognitive side—involves representing and reasoning spatial-temporal knowledge in mind. The applied goal—on the computing side—involves developing high-level control systems of robots for navigating and understanding time and space. Grid.

Entorhinal Cortex - Memory - Navigation - Coordinates

There is two hippocampi, one in each side of the brain. It belongs to the limbic system and plays important roles in the consolidation of information from short-term memory to long-term memory and spatial navigation. 

Visual Acuity commonly refers to the clarity of vision. Visual acuity is dependent on optical and neural factors, i.e., (i) the sharpness of the retinal focus within the Eye, (ii) the health and functioning of the retina, and (iii) the sensitivity of the interpretative faculty of the brain.

Behavioral Optometry is used to improve vision skills such as eye movement control and eye coordination. It involves a series of procedures carried out in both home and office settings, usually under professional supervision by an orthoptist.

Visual Integration
is a term referring to the integration occurring in the brain to give us a final percept, presumably in the prefrontal cortex. Information from the dorsal (parietal or medial temporal) stream dealing with localization or movement is integrated with information from the ventral (inferotemporal) stream dealing with colour or form, so that, for example, we can see a red car moving towards us.

Imagining (x-rays)

Topological - Reading Dimensions - Scale

Visual Space is the perceptual space housing the visual world being experienced by an aware observer; it is the subjective counterpart of the space of physical objects before an observer's eyes.

Geographic Coordinate System - Topography - Geography

Attentional Blink is a phenomenon that reflects the temporal costs in allocating selective attention. A second target is often not perceived when presented in close succession of a first target. The AB is typically measured by using rapid serial visual presentation tasks, where participants often fail to detect a second salient target if it is presented between 200-500 ms after the first one. The AB has also been observed using two backward-masked targets and auditory stimuli. The term attentional blink was first used in 1992, although the phenomenon was probably known before.

Distracted - Saccade - Gawking - Gaze Detection - Eye Tracking

Geometry - Geometric Shapes - Three-Dimensional Space - Dimensions (geometry)

Think Outside the Box - Ideas

Image Differencing is an image processing technique used to determine changes between images. The difference between two images is calculated by finding the difference between each pixel in each image, and generating an image based on the result. For this technique to work, the two images must first be aligned so that corresponding points coincide, and their photometric values must be made compatible, either by careful calibration, or by post-processing (using color mapping). The complexity of the pre-processing needed before differencing varies with the type of image. Images.


TV Sizes and Viewing Distance: How far to sit from a 50 inch TV. Less then 60 degrees. Viewing Distance for a 43" to 50" Screen Size is around 8 feet away. Viewing Distance for a 55" to 60" Screen Size is around 10 feet away.

How Field Of View Affects Your Perception Of Speed. This perception trick is used by filmmakers, who might choose to use a wide-angle lens to make an object approaching the camera appear to move faster. Conversely, when shooting a moving object from behind or in front, a wide-angle lens would be more appropriate. Narrow lenses tend to compress visual depth, while wider lenses expand it. What this means: if you were to film the same object approaching the camera directly, with both a 250mm telephoto lens, and a 14mm wide-angle lens , the object would grow in perceived size much more quickly and drastically with the wide angle. This accentuation of distance on the Z-axis is great for fly-bys, close-ups of the moving subject, and again, any shots of the front or rear of the moving subject.

Scientist shave long known that things appear faster when a person has an expanded field of vision. This allows more things to be seen in the periphery which makes things seem to zoom past quicker. A restricted field of view — when zoomed in — makes things appear slower. However when the full field of vision is available, things appear to move quicker. Professor of psychology Akiyoshi Kitaoka proved this by recording from the front of a train and zoomed in on the tracks ahead. The bizarre phenomenon tricks the brain into thinking the train is travelling slower when the footage is zoomed in. It is due in-part to the fact fewer objects can be seen in the periphery which gives less reference for how fast things are passing by.

Speed perception affected by field of view: Energy-based versus rhythm-based processing. Greater field of view decreased preferred speed. Virtual road markings also decreased preferred speed. Delineator posts and road center lines were used for rhythm-based processing. Initially rich motion-flow cues decreased speed in subsequent conditions. Motion-flow feedback may effectively instill spontaneous speed adaptation in drivers.

4K Resolution is good for electron microscope images and medical images, but it's over kill and non-relevant for everyday video watching. - You Don't See in 4K (youtube) - Shooting 4k or HD - Pros and Cons (youtube).

Foveated Imaging is a digital image processing technique in which the image resolution, or amount of detail, varies across the image according to one or more "fixation points." A fixation point indicates the highest resolution region of the image and corresponds to the center of the eye's retina, the fovea.

Angular Resolution describes the ability of any image-forming device such as an optical or radio telescope, a microscope, a camera, or an eye, to distinguish small details of an object, thereby making it a major determinant of image resolution.

Airy Disk are descriptions of the best focused spot of light that a perfect lens with a circular aperture can make, limited by the diffraction of light. The Airy disk is of importance in physics, optics, and astronomy.

Correspondence Problem refers to the problem of ascertaining which parts of one image correspond to which parts of another image, where differences are due to movement of the camera, the elapse of time, and/or movement of objects in the photos.

What Do You See

Rorschach inkblot Test Photo Rorschach Test is a psychological test in which subjects' perceptions of inkblots are recorded and then analyzed using psychological interpretation, complex algorithms, or both. Some psychologists use this test to examine a person's personality characteristics and emotional functioning. It has been employed to detect underlying thought disorder, especially in cases where patients are reluctant to describe their thinking processes openly.

Pareidolia is a psychological phenomenon involving a stimulus of an image or a sound wherein the mind perceives a familiar pattern of something where none exists. Common examples are perceived images of animals, faces, or objects in cloud formations, the man in the moon, the moon rabbit, and hidden messages within recorded music played in reverse or at higher- or lower-than-normal speeds.

Conspiracies - Delusions - Paranoia - Mass Hysteria

Apophenia is the human tendency to perceive meaningful patterns within random data.

Black Dots Test - How many dots do you see? (image)

Group Decision Making - Disagreements

Vision Scientists discover why people literally don't see eye to eye. Study finds visual localization and acuity varies from person to person. our ability to pinpoint the exact location and size of things varies from one person to the next, and even within our own individual field of vision.

Duck or Rabbit Duck or RabbitI can see the duck, I can see the rabbit, I can see the differences between the duck and the rabbit. I can also determine whether there is any important information or relevance to what I see. So filling in the details will be based on priorities, and not just based on beliefs. This test can help you to pay attention to what you see and carefully analyze images so that you are not fooled into seeing something that is not there.

Subliminal Stimuli - Tricks that test your Problem Solving Skills (youtube)

Can You Trust Your Eyes? (youtube) - Observation Errors

Do you See what I See, a star, a star, dancing in the night. Do You Hear What I Hear? (youtube) - Song was written in October 1962.

Depth Perception

Depth Perception is the visual ability to perceive the world in three dimensions or 3D, and the distance of an object. Depth sensation is the corresponding term for animals, since although it is known that animals can sense the distance of an object (because of their ability to move accurately, or to respond consistently, according to that distance), it is not known whether they perceive it in the same subjective way that humans do. Depth perception arises from a variety of depth cues. These are typically classified into binocular cues that are based on the receipt of sensory information in three dimensions from both eyes and monocular cues that can be represented in just two dimensions and observed with just one eye. Binocular cues include stereopsis, eye convergence, disparity, and yielding depth from binocular vision through exploitation of parallax. Monocular cues include size: distant objects subtend smaller visual angles than near objects, grain, size, and motion parallax.

Parallax is a displacement or difference in the apparent position of an object viewed along two different lines of sight, and is measured by the angle or semi-angle of inclination between those two lines. As the eyes of humans and other animals are in different positions on the head, they present different views simultaneously. This is the basis of stereopsis, the process by which the brain exploits the parallax due to the different views from the eye to gain depth perception and estimate distances to objects.

Visual Angle is the angle a viewed object subtends at the eye, usually stated in degrees of arc. It also is called the object's angular size. The diagram on the right shows an observer's eye looking at a frontal extent (the vertical arrow) that has a linear size S, located in the distance D from point O. For present purposes, point O can represent the eye's nodal points at about the center of the lens, and also represent the center of the eye's entrance pupil that is only a few millimeters in front of the lens.

Stereopsis is a term that is most often used to refer to the perception of depth and 3-dimensional structure obtained on the basis of visual information deriving from two eyes by individuals with normally developed binocular vision. Because the eyes of humans, and many animals, are located at different lateral positions on the head, binocular vision results in two slightly different images projected to the retinas of the eyes. The differences are mainly in the relative horizontal position of objects in the two images. These positional differences are referred to as horizontal disparities or, more generally, binocular disparities. Disparities are processed in the visual cortex of the brain to yield depth perception. While binocular disparities are naturally present when viewing a real 3-dimensional scene with two eyes, they can also be simulated by artificially presenting two different images separately to each eye using a method called stereoscopy. The perception of depth in such cases is also referred to as "stereoscopic depth". The perception of depth and 3-dimensional structure is, however, possible with information visible from one eye alone, such as differences in object size and motion parallax (differences in the image of an object over time with observer movement), though the impression of depth in these cases is often not as vivid as that obtained from binocular disparities. Therefore, the term stereopsis (or stereoscopic depth) can also refer specifically to the unique impression of depth associated with binocular vision; what is colloquially referred to as seeing "in 3D". It has been suggested that the impression of "real" separation in depth is linked to the precision with which depth is derived, and that a conscious awareness of this precision – perceived as an impression of interactability and realness – may help guide the planning of motor action. Virtual Reality.

Stereoscopy is a technique for creating or enhancing the illusion of depth in an image by means of stereopsis for binocular vision. The word stereoscopy derives from Greek στερεός (stereos), meaning 'firm, solid', and σκοπέω (skopeō), meaning 'to look, to see'. Any stereoscopic image is called a stereogram. Originally, stereogram referred to a pair of stereo images which could be viewed using a stereoscope. Most stereoscopic methods present two offset images separately to the left and right eye of the viewer. These two-dimensional images are then combined in the brain to give the perception of 3D depth. This technique is distinguished from 3D displays that display an image in three full dimensions, allowing the observer to increase information about the 3-dimensional objects being displayed by head and eye movements.

Stereoscope is a device for viewing a stereoscopic pair of separate images, depicting left-eye and right-eye views of the same scene, as a single three-dimensional image. A typical stereoscope provides each eye with a lens that makes the image seen through it appear larger and more distant and usually also shifts its apparent horizontal position, so that for a person with normal binocular depth perception the edges of the two images seemingly fuse into one "stereo window". In current practice, the images are prepared so that the scene appears to be beyond this virtual window, through which objects are sometimes allowed to protrude, but this was not always the custom. A divider or other view-limiting feature is usually provided to prevent each eye from being distracted by also seeing the image intended for the other eye. Most people can, with practice and some effort, view stereoscopic image pairs in 3D without the aid of a stereoscope, but the physiological depth cues resulting from the unnatural combination of eye convergence and focus required will be unlike those experienced when actually viewing the scene in reality, making an accurate simulation of the natural viewing experience impossible and tending to cause eye strain and fatigue. Although more recent devices such as Realist-format 3D slide viewers and the View-Master are also stereoscopes, the word is now most commonly associated with viewers designed for the standard-format stereo cards that enjoyed several waves of popularity from the 1850s to the 1930s as a home entertainment medium. Devices such as polarized, anaglyph and shutter glasses which are used to view two actually superimposed or intermingled images, rather than two physically separate images, are not categorized as stereoscopes.

Binocular Disparity refers to the difference in image location of an object seen by the left and right eyes, resulting from the eyes’ horizontal separation (parallax). The brain uses binocular disparity to extract depth information from the two-dimensional retinal images in stereopsis. In computer vision, binocular disparity refers to the difference in coordinates of similar features within two stereo images. A similar disparity can be used in rangefinding by a coincidence rangefinder to determine distance and/or altitude to a target. In astronomy, the disparity between different locations on the Earth can be used to determine various celestial parallax, and Earth's orbit can be used for stellar parallax.

Binoculars are two telescopes mounted side-by-side and aligned to point in the same direction, allowing the viewer to use both eyes (binocular vision) when viewing distant objects. Most are sized to be held using both hands, although sizes vary widely from opera glasses to large pedestal mounted military models. Unlike a (monocular) telescope, binoculars give users a three-dimensional (3D) image: for nearer objects the two views, presented to each of the viewer's eyes from slightly different viewpoints, produce a merged view with an impression of depth.

Binocular Vision is a type of vision in which an animal has two eyes capable of facing the same direction to perceive a single three-dimensional image of its surroundings. Neurological researcher Manfred Fahle has stated six specific advantages of having two eyes rather than just one.

Monocular Vision is vision in which both eyes are used separately. By using the eyes in this way the field of view is increased, while depth perception is limited. The eyes of an horse with monocular vision are usually positioned on opposite sides of the animal's head, giving it the ability to see two objects at once. The word monocular comes from the Greek root, mono for single, and the Latin root, oculus for eye.

The moon looks ridiculously huge at certain points, because there’s something on the horizon and our eyes are comparatively processing the perspective. Our vision range and perception can sometime create a telescoping effect within our viewscape when certain angles and perspectives work in tandem with how our brain perceives to make it that way. In the moons case, it’s the angle of the earths horizon, the fullness of the moon and brightness, and sometimes nearby mountains and hills to give us that ‘big moon’.

Diffraction refers to various phenomena which occur when a wave encounters an obstacle or a slit. It is defined as the bending of light around the corners of an obstacle or aperture into the region of geometrical shadow of the obstacle.

Emission Theory is the proposal that visual perception is accomplished by rays of light emitted by the eyes.

Intromission Theory is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment using light in the visible spectrum reflected by the objects in the environment.

Depth Illusions

Lenticular Printing is a technology in which lenticular lenses are used for 3D displays that produce printed images with an illusion of depth, or the ability to change or move as the image is viewed from different angles. Examples of lenticular printing include flip and animation effects such as winking eyes, and modern advertising graphics that change their message depending on the viewing angle. Colloquial terms for lenticular prints include "flickers", "winkies", "wiggle pictures" and "tilt cards". Also the trademarks Vari-Vue and Magic Motion are often used for lenticular pictures, without regard to the actual manufacturer.

Autostereogram is a single-image stereogram designed to create the visual illusion of a three-dimensional scene from a two-dimensional image. In order to perceive 3D shapes in these autostereograms, one must overcome the normally automatic coordination between accommodation (focus) and horizontal vergence (angle of one's eyes). The illusion is one of depth perception and involves stereopsis: depth perception arising from the different perspective each eye has of a three-dimensional scene, called binocular parallax). The simplest type of autostereogram consists of horizontally repeating patterns (often separate images) and is known as a wallpaper autostereogram. When viewed with proper convergence, the repeating patterns appear to float above or below the background. The well-known Magic Eye books feature another type of autostereogram called a random dot autostereogram. One such autostereogram is illustrated above right. In this type of autostereogram, every pixel in the image is computed from a pattern strip and a depth map. A hidden 3D scene emerges when the image is viewed with the correct convergence. Autostereograms are similar to normal stereograms except they are viewed without a stereoscope. A stereoscope presents 2D images of the same object from slightly different angles to the left eye and the right eye, allowing us to reconstruct the original object via binocular disparity. When viewed with the proper vergence, an autostereogram does the same, the binocular disparity existing in adjacent parts of the repeating 2D patterns. There are two ways an autostereogram can be viewed: wall-eyed and cross-eyed. Most autostereograms (including those in this article) are designed to be viewed in only one way, which is usually wall-eyed. Wall-eyed viewing requires that the two eyes adopt a relatively parallel angle, while cross-eyed viewing requires a relatively convergent angle. An image designed for wall-eyed viewing if viewed correctly will appear to pop out of the background, while if viewed cross-eyed it will instead appear as a cut-out behind the background and may be difficult to bring entirely into focus. How to view a Stereogram - Viewing Stereogram Methods - Hidden 3D Images.

Illusions - Deceptions

Illusion is a mental representation that you believe is true but in reality is false. Something considered to be magical by naive observers. The act of deception by creating illusory ideas.

Illusion of Control - Magic Trick - Virtual Reality - False Memories - Brain Washing

Optical illusion is an illusion caused by the visual system and characterized by visually perceived images that differ from objective reality. The information gathered by the eye is processed in the brain to give a percept that does not tally with a physical measurement of the stimulus source. There are three main types: literal optical illusions that create images that are different from the objects that make them, physiological illusions that are the effects of excessive stimulation of a specific type (brightness, colour, size, position, tilt, movement), and cognitive illusions, the result of unconscious inferences. Pathological visual illusions arise from a pathological exaggeration in physiological visual perception mechanisms causing the aforementioned types of illusions. List of Optical illusions (wiki)

Illusion of Proximity or the Principle of Proximity states that things that are close together appear to be more related than things that are spaced farther apart. Proximity is so powerful that it overrides similarity of color, shape, and other factors that might differentiate a group of objects.

Hallucinations - Perspective - Field of View - Delusions

Optical illusions explained in a fly's eyes. Why people perceive motion in some static images has mystified not only those who view these optical illusions but neuroscientists who have tried to explain the phenomenon. Now neuroscientists have found some answers in the eyes of flies.

Journal i-Perception - Fantasy - Dizzy

Delboeuf illusion is an optical illusion of relative size perception. Jastrow illusion.

White's illusion is a brightness illusion where certain stripes of a black and white grating is partially replaced by a gray rectangle.

Visual Tilt Effects is due to the effect of a spatial context or temporal context, the perceived orientation of a test line or grating pattern can appear tilted away from its physical orientation.

Ambiguous Cylinder Illusion (youtube)

Beau Lotto: Optical illusions show how we see (youtube) - Lotto Lab

10 BEST Optical Illusions That Will Blow Your Mind (youtube)

Perky Effect demonstrated how sensory input, or perceptions, can be mistaken for a mental image when perceptual processes and mental imagery interfere with each other. The research described the result when a subject's visual perception is altered by mental imagery.

Menu for Restaurant Design Tricks (Info-Graph)

The Dynamic Ebbinghaus (youtube)

Anamorphosis a distorted projection or drawing which appears normal when viewed from a particular point or with a suitable mirror or lens. Anamorphosis is a distorted projection requiring the viewer to occupy a specific vantage point, use special devices or both to view a recognizable image. Some of the media it is used in are painting, photography, sculpture and installation, toys, and film special effects.

Ames Room is a distorted room that creates an optical illusion. Likely influenced by the writings of Hermann Helmholtz, it was invented by American scientist Adelbert Ames, Jr. in 1946, and constructed in the following year. An Ames room is viewed with one eye through a peephole. Through the peephole the room appears to be an ordinary rectangular cuboid, with a back wall that is vertical and at right angles to an observer's line of sight, two vertical side walls parallel to each other, and a horizontal floor and ceiling. The true shape of the room, however, is that of an irregular hexahedron: depending on the design of the room, all surfaces can be regular or irregular quadrilaterals so that one corner of the room is farther from an observer than the other. One key aspect of preventing the observer from perceiving the true shape of the room is the peephole. It has at least three consequences: It forces the observer to be at the location where the image projected into his eye is of an ordinary room. From any other location, the observer would see the room's true shape. It forces the observer to use one eye to look into the room, preventing him from getting any information about the real shape the room from stereopsis, which requires two eyes. It prevents the observer from moving his eye to a different location, preventing him from getting any information about real shape of the room from motion parallax. Other sources of information about the true shape of the room are also removed by its designer. For example, by strategic lighting, the true far corner is as bright as the true near corner. For another example, patterns on the walls (such as windows) and floor (such as a black-and-white chequerboard of tiles) can be made consistent with its illusory geometry. The illusion is powerful enough to overcome other information about the true locations of objects in the room, such as familiar size. For example, although the observer knows that adults are all about the same size, an adult standing in the true near corner appears to be a giant, while another adult standing in the true far appears to be a dwarf. For another example, although the observer knows that an adult cannot change size, he sees an adult who walks back and forth between the true far and true near corners appear to grow and shrink. Studies have shown that the illusion can be created without using walls and a ceiling;[citation needed] it is sufficient to create an apparent horizon (which in reality will not be horizontal) against an appropriate background, and the eye relies on the apparent relative height of an object above that horizon.

Trapezoid a quadrilateral with only one pair of parallel sides. In Euclidean geometry, a convex quadrilateral with at least one pair of parallel sides is referred to as a trapezium in English outside North America, but as a trapezoid in American and Canadian English. The parallel sides are called the bases of the trapezoid and the other two sides are called the legs or the lateral sides (if they are not parallel; otherwise there are two pairs of bases). A scalene trapezoid is a trapezoid with no sides of equal measure, in contrast to the special cases below.

The Illusion Only Some Can See (youtube)

Forced Perspective is a technique which employs optical illusion to make an object appear farther away, closer, larger or smaller than it actually is. It manipulates human visual perception through the use of scaled objects and the correlation between them and the vantage point of the spectator or camera. It has uses in photography, filmmaking and architecture.

Carpentered Environment is an environment consisting of built structures in which rectangles are predominant. Some hypotheses about depth perception and optical illusions have suggested that people in carpentered environments interpret parallelograms (or parts of parallelograms) in two-dimensional drawings in ways that are consistent with perception of three-dimensional objects, such as doors, windows, and corners.

Iridescence is the phenomenon of certain surfaces that appear to gradually change colour as the angle of view or the angle of illumination changes.

Op Art is a style of visual art that uses optical illusions.

Pareidolia is a psychological phenomenon in which the mind responds to a stimulus (an image or a sound) by perceiving a familiar pattern where none exists.

Maya illusion is an illusion where things appear to be present but are not what they seem.

Flash Lag illusion is a visual illusion wherein a flash and a moving object that appear in the same location are perceived to be displaced from one another.

Multisensory Integration (senses)

Psychophysics investigates the relationship between physical stimuli and the sensations and perceptions they produce.

McGurk Effect is a perceptual phenomenon that demonstrates an interaction between hearing and vision in speech perception. The illusion occurs when the auditory component of one sound is paired with the visual component of another sound, leading to the perception of a third sound. The visual information a person gets from seeing a person speak changes the way they hear the sound. If a person is getting poor quality auditory information but good quality visual information, they may be more likely to experience the McGurk effect. Integration abilities for audio and visual information may also influence whether a person will experience the effect. People who are better at sensory integration have been shown to be more susceptible to the effect. Many people are affected differently by the McGurk effect based on many factors, including brain damage and other disorders.

Fear Center in the Brain protects against illusions. An inhibition of amygdalae makes people more susceptible to deception
If functionality of the brain's amygdala is impaired, illusory perceptions arise much faster and more pronounced.

Visual Effects (computer graphics)

Sound can give rise to visual illusions. The brain retroactively makes sense of rapid auditory and visual sensory stimulation.

Bloody Mary is a mirror illusion from staring into a mirror in a dimly-lit room for a prolonged period, which can cause one to hallucinate. Facial features may appear to "melt", distort, disappear, and rotate, while other hallucinatory elements, such as animal or strange faces, may appear. is believed to be a consequence of a "dissociative identity effect", which causes the brain's facial-recognition system to misfire in a currently unidentified way. explanations for the phenomenon include illusions attributed, at least partially, to the perceptual effects of Troxler's fading, and possibly self-hypnosis. The color of the mirror can also have an effect, where silver based mirrors portray a more masculine figure while glass based mirrors portray a feminine figure like most people see.

Troxler's Fading is an optical illusion affecting visual perception. When one fixates on a particular point for even a short period of time, an unchanging stimulus away from the fixation point will fade away and disappear. Recent research suggests that at least some portion of the perceptual phenomena associated with Troxler's fading occurs in the brain.

Optical Phenomena are any observable events that result from the interaction of light and matter. See also list of optical topics and optics. A mirage is an example of an optical phenomenon. Eye Problems.

Opposition Surge is the brightening of a rough surface, or an object with many particles, when illuminated from directly behind the observer

Earth's shadow is the shadow that the Earth itself casts on its atmosphere.

Glory is an optical phenomenon resembling an iconic saint's halo around the shadow of the observer's head, caused by sunlight or (more rarely) moonlight interacting with the tiny water droplets that comprise mist or clouds.

Brocken Spectre is the magnified and apparently enormous shadow of an observer cast upon clouds opposite the Sun's direction. The figure's head is often surrounded by the halo-like rings of coloured light forming a glory, which appears opposite the Sun's direction when uniformly-sized water droplets in clouds refract and backscatter sunlight. The phenomenon can appear on any misty mountainside or cloud bank, even when seen from an airplane, but the frequent fogs and low-altitude accessibility of the Brocken, a peak in the Harz Mountains in Germany, have created a local legend from which the phenomenon draws its name. The Brocken spectre was observed and described by Johann Silberschlag in 1780, and has since been recorded often in literature about the region.

Spectre is a ghostly appearing figure or a mental representation of some haunting experience. Something widely feared as a possible unpleasant or dangerous occurrence.

Illusions are in the eye, not just the mind. Numerous visual illusions are caused by limits in the way our eyes and visual neurons work -- rather than more complex psychological processes, new research shows. The model combines this "limited bandwidth" with information on how humans perceive patterns at different scales, together with an assumption that our vision performs best when we are looking at natural scenes. The model shows how neurons with such limited contrast bandwidth can combine their signals to allow us to see these enormous contrasts, but the information is 'compressed' -- resulting in visual illusions. Some neurons are sensitive to very tiny differences in grey levels at medium-sized scales, but are easily overwhelmed by high contrasts.

Mirage is a naturally occurring optical phenomenon in which light rays are bent to produce a displaced image of distant objects or the sky. The word comes to English via the French mirage, from the Latin mirari, meaning "to look at, to wonder at". This is the same root as for "mirror" and "to admire". In contrast to a hallucination, a mirage is a real optical phenomenon that can be captured on camera, since light rays are actually refracted to form the false image at the observer's location. What the image appears to represent, however, is determined by the interpretive faculties of the human mind. For example, inferior images on land are very easily mistaken for the reflections from a small body of water. Mirages can be categorized as "inferior" (meaning lower), "superior" (meaning higher) and "Fata Morgana", one kind of superior mirage consisting of a series of unusually elaborate, vertically stacked images, which form one rapidly changing mirage. Superior Mirage is one in which the mirage image appears to be located above the real object. A superior mirage occurs when the air below the line of sight is colder than the air above it. This unusual arrangement is called a temperature inversion, since warm air above cold air is the opposite of the normal temperature gradient of the atmosphere during the daytime. Passing through the temperature inversion, the light rays are bent down, and so the image appears above the true object, hence the name superior. Superior mirages tend to be more stable than inferior mirages, as cold air has no tendency to move up and warm air has no tendency to move down.

Fata Morgana is a complex form of superior mirage that is seen in a narrow band right above the horizon. The optical illusion is caused when rays of light bend as they pass through layers of light with different temperatures. Warm air sits above a layer of much colder air, an inversion of what usually occurs on the horizon. A Fata Morgana may be seen on land or at sea, in polar regions, or in deserts. It may involve almost any kind of distant object, including boats, islands, and the coastline. The optical phenomenon occurs because rays of light are bent when they pass through air layers of different temperatures in a steep thermal inversion where an atmospheric duct has formed. (A thermal inversion is an atmospheric condition where warmer air exists in a well-defined layer above a layer of significantly cooler air. This temperature inversion is the opposite of what is normally the case; air is usually warmer close to the surface, and cooler higher up.) In calm weather, a layer of significantly warmer air may rest over colder dense air, forming an atmospheric duct that acts like a refracting lens, producing a series of both inverted and erect images. A Fata Morgana requires a duct to be present; thermal inversion alone is not enough to produce this kind of mirage. While a thermal inversion often takes place without there being an atmospheric duct, an atmospheric duct cannot exist without there first being a thermal inversion.

Beyond the Senses

Afterimage is a non-specific term that refers to an image continuing to appear in one's vision after the exposure to the original image has ceased. An afterimage may be a normal phenomenon (physiological afterimage) or may be pathological (palinopsia). Illusory palinopsia may be a pathological exaggeration of physiological afterimages. The remainder of this article refers to physiological afterimages. A common physiological afterimage is the dim area that seems to float before one's eyes after briefly looking into a light source, such as a camera flash. Afterimages are a common symptom of visual snow.

Persistence of Vision refers to the optical illusion that occurs when visual perception of an object does not cease for some time after the rays of light proceeding from it have ceased to enter the eye.

Chronostasis is a type of temporal illusion in which the first impression following the introduction of a new event or task demand to the brain appears to be extended in time. For example, chronostasis temporarily occurs when fixating on a target stimulus, immediately following a saccade (i.e., quick eye movement). This elicits an overestimation in the temporal duration for which that target stimulus (i.e., postsaccadic stimulus) was perceived. This effect can extend apparent durations by up to 500 ms and is consistent with the idea that the visual system models events prior to perception.

Mercator Projection is a cylindrical map projection. The Size of Things.

A new kind of visual illusion uncovers how our brains connect the dots. 'Scintillating starburst' offers insights into visual processing. A new class of illusion, developed by a visual artist and a psychology researcher, underscores the highly constructive nature of visual perception.

It's not what you want to see. This is what I know from previous experiences. You also have to see as if it were the first time seeing, and this is how you would explain what you see is if you were seeing for the first time. You can only see what your mind allows you to see, that is why you must use the mind in a way that you're controlling what you see by looking at details and asking questions to explain those details.

Ideologically motivated cognition is not a complete sentence. Having information does not say anything until you specify the exact information that you are referring too, and, have also confirmed that everyone has understood this information accurately in the same way in order to influence the correct actions that would help solve this particular problem.

Disillusioned is experiencing disappointed in someone or something because you have discovered that something is not as good as you thought it was or originally believed, so in a sense you have lost your illusion. You're wiser, but not necessarily happy about the experience because life isn't always how you would like it to be. So now that you are a little more awake, what do you plan to do with this knowledge?

Magic - Tricks

Magic are staged tricks or illusions that seem real but are actually highly skilled techniques designed to Fool You, similar to media manipulation techniques, except magic is for entertainment purposes only, it's not used to manipulate your understanding of the world.

How Magicians Trick Your Brain: The Psychology Of Magic (youtube)

Magic Tricks (slight of hand - body smart)

The Magic: The Gathering World Championships.

Eric Chien 2018 Fism Grand Prix Act -Ribbon (youtube) - 10 Types of Magic (reddit video)

Hypnotizing Optical Illusion Rings | 8 Ring, Buugeng (youtube)

Psychological Theories of Magic treat magic as a personal phenomenon intended to meet individual needs, as opposed to a social phenomenon serving a collective purpose.

Voila means there it is or there you are or here or there something or someone is.

Magical Thinking is a term used in anthropology and psychology, denoting the fallacious attribution of causal relationships between actions and events, with subtle differences in meaning between the two fields. In anthropology, it denotes the attribution of causality between entities grouped with one another (coincidence) or similar to one another. In psychology, the entities between which a causal relation has to be posited are more strictly delineated; here it denotes the belief that one's thoughts by themselves can bring about effects in the world or that thinking something corresponds with doing it. In both cases, the belief can cause a person to experience fear, seemingly not rationally justifiable to an observer outside the belief system, of performing certain acts or having certain thoughts because of an assumed correlation between doing so and threatening calamities.

Wishful Thinking - Coincidence - God

Witchcraft the practice of magic, especially black magic or the practice of magical skills, spells, and abilities.

Circe is a goddess of magic or sometimes a nymph, witch, enchantress or sorceress in Greek mythology. Circe was renowned for her vast knowledge of potions and herbs.

Once you learn how the trick is done, it's not magic anymore. This is why learning and improving education is so extremely important.

"Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic" unless you know that something is not magic. Just because you're not clear how something is done, it doesn't make something magic. It's just your ignorance that someone is playing with. Technology can be seen as magic when someone is ignorant and doesn't understand how the technology works. In fact, many other things will seem like magic when you're ignorant about how things work. The magician knows what they are doing is not magic. The person who created the technology knows that it's not magic and that it's just simple processes that are used together to perform a particular function. The human body is not magical, but the body only seems magical to someone when they don't have the knowledge and information that is needed to understand the human body and all its amazing complexities and processes.

Some things can be seen as being theoretically impossible, until it's done. Then it's possible, as long as people can repeat it. Higher Dimensional Aliens.

When you see someone with advanced technology, this does not mean that they are intelligent. When you see UFO space ships, don't ignorantly assume that the people in the spacecraft must be intelligent life. That's like seeing a child with a smartphone and ignorantly assume that the child must be intelligent, when in fact, the child is addicted to the cellphone and has no self control or clear understanding of themselves and the world around them. You have some elitists flying around in advanced spacecraft and you wonder why the government doesn't care? The government doesn't care because the government knows that those in the craft are just their elitist friends, people they do work for, and the people they lie for.

Clarke's Three Laws - 1) When a distinguished but elderly scientist states that something is possible, he is almost certainly right. When he states that something is impossible, he is very probably wrong. 2) The only way of discovering the limits of the possible is to venture a little way past them into the impossible. 3) Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic. Variants of the third law shows that there can be many ignorant interpretations when reasoning is flawed. 1) Any sufficiently advanced extraterrestrial intelligence is indistinguishable from God. (Shermer's last law) 2) Any sufficiently advanced act of benevolence is indistinguishable from malevolence. (referring to artificial intelligence) 3) Any sufficiently advanced incompetence is indistinguishable from malice. (Grey's law).

Flicker Rate - Video Frames

Phi Phenomenon is the optical illusion of perceiving a series of still images, when viewed in rapid succession, as continuous motion.

Time Lapse - TV Effects on the Mind - Fast Editing - Eye Knowledge (sight) - Light Therapy - Light Photons

Flicker Rates influence Brainwaves (flicker rate can induce an alpha brain wave).

Humans perceive flicker artifacts at 500 Hz - How Many Frames can Humans See?

Flickering screens may help children with reading and writing difficulties, study suggests. Children with reading and writing difficulties who are presented with text on screens with flickering white noise both read better and remember what they have read better, according to a Swedish-Norwegian study. The children were exposed to different levels of white noise, with the results showing that the amount of noise is critical for reading and memory.

Continuous Flash Suppression is an adapted version of the original flash suppression method. In CFS, the first eye is presented with a static stimulus, such as a schematic face, while the second eye is presented with a series of rapidly changing stimuli. The result is the static stimulus becomes consciously repressed by the stimuli presented in the second eye. A variant of CFS to suppress a dynamic stimulus is also reported CFS not only successfully suppresses images, but it strengthens the depth and duration of suppression compared to previous methods, such as flash suppression and binocular rivalry. CFS has the highest magnitude of suppression and allows researchers to increase the suppression time of an image tenfold. Using this method, subjects may report an image presented in their visual field as being invisible for over three minutes. CFS has the longest suppression time compared to other methods. CFS opens the door to studying preconscious processing mechanisms involved in visual perception.

Flicker Screen is a visible fading between cycles displayed on video displays, especially the refresh interval on cathode ray tube (CRT) as well as Plasma based computer screens and/or TVs. Flicker occurs on CRTs when they are driven at a low refresh rate, allowing the brightness to drop for time intervals sufficiently long to be noticed by a human eye – see persistence of vision and flicker fusion threshold. For most devices, the screen's phosphors quickly lose their excitation between sweeps of the electron gun, and the afterglow is unable to fill such gaps – see phosphor persistence. A similar effect occurs in PDPs during their refresh cycles. Movies.

Refresh Rate is the number of times in a second that a display hardware updates its buffer. This is distinct from the measure of frame rate in that the refresh rate includes the repeated drawing of identical frames, while frame rate measures how often a video source can feed an entire frame of new data to a display. For example, most movie projectors advance from one frame to the next one 24 times each second. But each frame is illuminated two or three times before the next frame is projected using a shutter in front of its lamp. As a result, the movie projector runs at 24 frames per second, but has a 48 or 72 Hz refresh rate. On cathode ray tube (CRT) displays, increasing the refresh rate decreases flickering, thereby reducing eye strain. However, if a refresh rate is specified that is beyond what is recommended for the display, damage to the display can occur. For computer programs or telemetry, the term is also applied to how frequently a datum is updated with a new external value from another source (for example; a shared public spreadsheet or hardware feed).  (vertical refresh rate, or vertical scan rate for cathode ray tubes).

"You Won't Believe Your Eyes!" - Smarter Every Day 142 (youtube)

When you are watching television and believe you are looking at pictures, you are actually looking at the phosphorescent glow of three hundred thousand tiny dots. There is no picture there. These dots seem to be lit constantly, but in fact they are not. All the dots go off thirty times per second, creating what is called the flicker effect of television, which is similar to strobe or ordinary fluorescent light.

Flicker Fusion Threshold or flicker fusion rate, is a concept in the psychophysics of vision. It is defined as the frequency at which an intermittent light stimulus appears to be completely steady to the average human observer. Flicker fusion threshold is related to persistence of vision. Although flicker can be detected for many waveforms representing time-variant fluctuations of intensity, it is conventionally, and most easily, studied in terms of sinusoidal modulation of intensity. There are seven parameters that determine the ability to detect the flicker: the frequency of the modulation; the amplitude or depth of the modulation (i.e., what is the maximum percent decrease in the illumination intensity from its peak value); the average (or maximum—these can be inter-converted if modulation depth is known) illumination intensity; the wavelength (or wavelength range) of the illumination (this parameter and the illumination intensity can be combined into a single parameter for humans or other animals for which the sensitivities of rods and cones are known as a function of wavelength using the luminous flux function); the position on the retina at which the stimulation occurs (due to the different distribution of photoreceptor types at different positions); the degree of light or dark adaptation, i.e., the duration and intensity of previous exposure to background light, which affects both the intensity sensitivity and the time resolution of vision; physiological factors such as age and fatigue. Computer Screen Overuse.

Stroboscopic Effect is a visual phenomenon caused by aliasing that occurs when continuous motion is represented by a series of short or instantaneous samples. It occurs when the view of a moving object is represented by a series of short samples as distinct from a continuous view, and the moving object is in rotational or other cyclic motion at a rate close to the sampling rate. It also accounts for the "wagon-wheel effect", so-called because in video or film, spoked wheels on horse-drawn wagons sometimes appear to be turning backwards.

You blink about 15 to 20 times every single minute, 21,000 times (or more) a day. When you blink your eye actually rolls back in its socket and then returns to normal when you open your eye.

Birds have the largest eyes relative to their size in the animal kingdom, with visual acuity superior to that of other vertebrate groups. Birds of prey have a very high density of receptors and other adaptations that maximise visual acuity. The placement of their eyes gives them good binocular vision enabling accurate judgment of distances. Nocturnal species have tubular eyes, low numbers of colour detectors, but a high density of rod cells which function well in poor light. Terns, gulls and albatrosses are amongst the seabirds which have red or yellow oil droplets in the color receptors to improve distance vision especially in hazy conditions.

The Mechanics Of The Film Projector (youtube)

Frame Rate or frames per second FPS, is the frequency (rate) at which consecutive images called frames are displayed in an animated display.

Reflexive system of the human eye also produces a conscious visual experience that may be related to excessive light sensitivity

Time Dilation (time)

Clock Rate refers to the frequency at which a chip like a central processing unit (CPU), one core of a multi-core processor, is running and is used as an indicator of the processor's speed.

Chronometer Watch is a specific type of timepiece tested and certified to meet certain precision standards.

Time-Lapse is a technique whereby the frequency at which film frames are captured (the frame rate) is much lower than that used to view the sequence. When played at normal speed, time appears to be moving faster and thus lapsing. For example, an image of a scene may be captured once every second, then played back at 30 frames per second; the result is an apparent 30 times speed increase. Time-lapse photography can be considered the opposite of high speed photography or slow motion.

Motion Induced Blindness (youtube)

Motion-induced Blindness is a phenomenon of visual disappearance or perceptual illusions observed in the lab, in which stationary visual stimuli disappear as if erased in front of an observer's eyes when masked with a moving background.

Why the World Looks Stable While We Move. Tübingen Neuroscientists investigate the interaction of visual perception and head movements with functional magnetic resonance imaging.

Spinning Head Spins

Flashing Lights can cause Seizures. On December 16, 1997, hundreds of Japanese children were brought to hospital suffering from epilepsy-like seizures. They all had one thing in common: they had been watching an episode of the Pokemon TV Show when their symptoms began. Doctors determined that their symptoms were triggered by five seconds of intensely bright flashing lights on the popular TV program. But why did the lights affect a few hundred children while thousands of other viewers were unharmed? Brains may be protected from epileptic seizures by rapidly produced molecules called short RNAs, or microRNAs (miRs). MicroRNAs are a recently-discovered class of non-coding RNAs that can prevent genes from expressing particular proteins, high amounts of one micro-RNA called miR-211, which the researchers predicted was involved. The levels of this molecule could be gradually lowered by administering the antibiotic Doxycycline, enabling tests of its potency to avoid epilepsy. Regulation of PP2Cm expression by miRNA-204/211 and miRNA-22 in mouse and human cells.

Photosensitive Epilepsy is a form of epilepsy in which seizures are triggered by visual stimuli that form patterns in time or space, such as flashing lights; bold, regular patterns; or regular moving patterns. PSE affects approximately one in 4,000 people (5% of those with epilepsy).

Spatiotemporal Database is a database that manages both space and time information.

Duration is the amount of elapsed time between two events. Action Physics - Time.

Hermann von Helmholtz was a German physician and physicist who made significant contributions in several scientific fields.(August 31, 1821 – September 8, 1894).

Hermann Ebbinghaus was a German psychologist who pioneered the experimental study of memory, and is known for his discovery of the forgetting curve and the spacing effect. He was also the first person to describe the learning curve. (January 24, 1850 – February 26, 1909).

Ewald Hering was a German physiologist who did much research into color vision, binocular perception and eye movements. He proposed opponent color theory in 1892.  (5 August 1834 – 26 January 1918).


Computer Visual Performance Assessment - Xtreme Sight

Retinal Ganglion Cell is a type of neuron located near the inner surface (the ganglion cell layer) of the retina of the eye. It receives visual information from photoreceptors via two intermediate neuron types: bipolar cells and retina amacrine cells. Retina amacrine cells, particularly narrow field cells, are important for creating functional subunits within the ganglion cell layer and making it so that ganglion cells can observe a small dot moving a small distance. Retinal ganglion cells collectively transmit image-forming and non-image forming visual information from the retina in the form of action potential to several regions in the thalamus, hypothalamus, and mesencephalon, or midbrain.

Sports Vision Training - Natural Eye Vitamins

Nutraceutical products that range from isolated nutrients, dietary supplements and herbal products.

Certain foods do effect eyesight.
If your blood sugar levels change quickly, it can affect the shape of your eye's lens, causing blurry vision, which goes back to normal after your blood sugar stabilizes. Hyperopia.

Certain activities like reading also effect eyesight
. Our eyes have focusing muscles which work to change the power of the lenses in your eyes. Your eye muscles work hardest when you focus on things close to you. Since this isn't the muscles' natural position, they spasm and fatigue after a time. When this happens, you may notice that your distance vision is blurry. This is because the muscles have failed to relax and are still focusing close, even though you are looking far away. Although the symptom is blurry distance vision, the problem is too much close work. Try to keep things at a slightly greater distance from your eyes to keep your eyes as relaxed as possible. 

3D Exercise - Body Smart - Eyes - Blindness - Tunnel Vision

Factory Blindness Astigmatism is a type of refractive error in which the eye does not focus light evenly on the retina. This results in distorted or blurred vision at all distances. Other symptoms can include eyestrain, headaches, and trouble driving at night. If it occurs early in life it can result in amblyopia.

Hallucinations - I Can't Believe what I'm Seeing

Brain Eye Tricks Hallucination is a perception in the absence of external stimulus that has qualities of real perception. Hallucinations are vivid, substantial, and are perceived to be located in external objective space. They are distinguishable from these related phenomena: dreaming, which does not involve wakefulness; illusion, which involves distorted or misinterpreted real perception; imagery, which does not mimic real perception and is under voluntary control; and pseudohallucination, which does not mimic real perception, but is not under voluntary control. Hallucinations also differ from "delusional perceptions", in which a correctly sensed and interpreted stimulus (i.e., a real perception) is given some additional (and typically absurd) significance. Hallucinations can occur in any sensory modality—visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory, tactile, proprioceptive, equilibrioceptive, nociceptive, thermoceptive and chronoceptive. A mild form of hallucination is known as a disturbance, and can occur in most of the senses above. These may be things like seeing movement in peripheral vision, or hearing faint noises and/or voices. Auditory hallucinations are very common in schizophrenia. They may be benevolent (telling the subject good things about themselves) or malicious, cursing the subject etc. Auditory Hallucinations of the malicious type are frequently heard, for example people talking about the subject behind his/her back. Like auditory hallucinations, the source of the visual counterpart can also be behind the subject's back. Their visual counterpart is the feeling of being looked or stared at, usually with malicious intent. Frequently, auditory hallucinations and their visual counterpart are experienced by the subject together. Hypnagogic hallucinations and hypnopompic hallucinations are considered normal phenomena. Hypnagogic hallucinations can occur as one is falling asleep and hypnopompic hallucinations occur when one is waking up. Hallucinations can be associated with drug use (particularly deliriants), sleep deprivation, psychosis, neurological disorders, and delirium tremens. The word "hallucination" itself was introduced into the English language by the 17th century physician Sir Thomas Browne in 1646 from the derivation of the Latin word alucinari meaning to wander in the mind.

Hallucinations arise when the brain gives more weight to its expectations and beliefs about the world than to the sensory evidence it receives. Hallucinations occur when this internal fact-checking fails, our senses can’t always be trusted, how can we separate illusion from Reality.

Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder is a disorder characterized by a continual presence of sensory disturbances, most commonly visual, that are reminiscent of those generated by the use of hallucinogenic substances. Many of the characteristics of this disorder can be mistaken for anxiety or panic related disorders by physicians. Previous use of hallucinogens by the person is necessary, but not sufficient, for diagnosis of HPPD. For an individual to be diagnosed with HPPD, the symptoms cannot be due to another medical condition. HPPD is distinct from flashbacks by reason of its relative permanence; while flashbacks are transient, HPPD is persistent.

Flashback in relation to psychology is a psychological phenomenon in which an individual has a sudden, usually powerful, re-experiencing of a past experience or elements of a past experience. These experiences can be happy, sad, exciting, or any other emotion one can consider. The term is used particularly when the memory is recalled involuntarily, and/or when it is so intense that the person "relives" the experience, unable to fully recognize it as memory and not something that is happening in "real time".

Phenomenon is any thing which manifests itself. Phenomena are often, but not always, understood as "things that appear" or "experiences" for a sentient being, or in principle may be so.

Visual Release Hallucinations are a type of psychophysical visual disturbance and the experience of complex visual hallucinations in a person with partial or severe blindness. First described by Charles Bonnet in 1760, the term Charles Bonnet syndrome was first introduced into English-speaking psychiatry in 1982. A related type of hallucination that also occurs with lack of visual input is the closed-eye hallucination. Charles Bonnet syndrome is a disease in which visual hallucinations occur as a result of vision loss. CBS is not thought to be related to psychosis or dementia and people with CBS are aware that their hallucinations are not real. The hallucinations people with CBS experience can be described as simple or complex.

Palinopsia is the persistent recurrence of a visual image after the stimulus has been removed. Palinopsia is not a diagnosis, it is a diverse group of pathological visual symptoms with a wide variety of causes. Visual perseveration is synonymous with palinopsia. Hallucinatory palinopsia, usually due to seizures or posterior cortical lesions, describes afterimages that are formed, long-lasting, and high resolution. Illusory palinopsia, usually due to migraines, head trauma, prescription drugs, or hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (HPPD), describes afterimages that are affected by ambient light and motion and are unformed, indistinct, or low resolution.

Fusiform Gyrus is part of the temporal lobe and occipital lobe in Brodmann area 37. The fusiform gyrus is located between the lingual gyrus and parahippocampal gyrus above, and the inferior temporal gyrus below. Though the functionality of the fusiform gyrus is not fully understood, it has been linked with various neural pathways related to recognition. Additionally, it has been linked to various neurological phenomena such as synesthesia, dyslexia, and prosopagnosia.

What Hallucination Reveals about Our Minds | Oliver Sacks (youtube) - Parts are the brain have cells that are specified for seeing faces, and other parts of the brain have cells that are specified for certain objects. So when a part of the brain misfires at the wrong time, you could have a vision.

Presence Hallucination is when a person feels an invisible presence next to them, even though no-one is there. Amygdala.

Auditory Hallucinations is a type of hallucination where you might hear someone speaking to you or telling you to do certain things. The voice may be angry, neutral, or warm. Other examples of this type of hallucination include hearing sounds, like someone walking in the attic or repeated clicking or tapping noises.

Visual Hallucinations involve seeing things that aren’t there. The hallucinations may be of objects, visual patterns, people, or lights.

Olfactory Hallucinations involve your sense of smell. You might smell an unpleasant odor when waking up in the middle of the night or feel that your body smells bad when it doesn’t.

Gustatory Hallucinations involves your sense of taste. Tastes are often strange or unpleasant, such as a metallic taste.

Tactile Hallucinations involve the feeling of touch or movement in your body. For example, you might feel that bugs are crawling on your skin or that your internal organs are moving around. You might also feel the imagined touch of someone’s hands on your body.

Delusions - Mental Confusion

Delusion is an erroneous belief that is held in the face of evidence to the contrary. A mistaken or unfounded opinion or idea. The act of deluding yourself with deception by creating illusory ideas.

Disillusion is the disappointment resulting from the discovery that something is not as good as one believed it to be. To cause someone to realize that a belief or an ideal is false.

Insane Delusion is a legal term used to describe a person with a false conception of reality that is a against all reason and evidence to the contrary, or unsupported belief that no rational person would hold to be true or which no rational person would believe. In the context of a Will that is contested, a testator might be suffering from an insane delusion but otherwise possess the requisite capacity to make a will. A will made out of a state of insane delusion can be considered as void.

Delusional Disorder are delusions with no accompanying prominent hallucinations, thought disorder, mood disorder, or significant flattening of affect, which is a condition of reduced emotional reactivity in an individual. It manifests as a failure to express feelings (affect display) either verbally or non-verbally, especially when talking about issues that would normally be expected to engage the emotions. Expressive gestures are rare and there is little animation in facial expression or vocal inflection.

Delirium is an abrupt change in the brain that causes mental confusion and emotional disruption. It makes it difficult to think, remember, sleep, pay attention, and more. A person may see or hear things that other people don't and become confused and doesn't know where they are, has a loss of awareness of the surroundings, environment and context in which the person exists. One may be disoriented to time, place, or self. Disorganized thinking is usually noticed with speech that makes limited sense with apparent irrelevancies, and can involve poverty of speech, loose associations, perseveration, tangentiality, and other signs of a formal thought disorder. Delirium can be an organically caused decline from a previous baseline mental functioning that develops over a short period of time, typically hours to days. Delirium is a syndrome encompassing disturbances in attention, consciousness, and cognition. It may also involve other neurological deficits, such as psychomotor disturbances (e.g. hyperactive, hypoactive, or mixed), impaired sleep-wake cycle, emotional disturbances, and perceptual disturbances (e.g. hallucinations and delusions), although these features are not required for diagnosis. Delirium or acute organic brain syndrome is a recently appearing state of mental impairment, as a result of intoxication, drug overdose, infection, pain, and many other physical problems affecting mental status. Other signs may be an inability to stay focused on a topic or to switch topics. Getting stuck on an idea rather than responding to questions or conversation. Being easily distracted by unimportant things. Being withdrawn, with little or no activity or little response to the environment. Rambling or nonsense speech. Apathy and irritability or anger.

Thought Disorder is any disturbance in cognition that adversely affects language and thought content, and thereby communication. A content-thought disorder is typically characterised by the experience of multiple delusional fragments. The term, thought disorder, is often used to refer to a formal thought disorder. Content-thought disorder is a thought disturbance in which a person experiences multiple, fragmented delusions. Alzheimers.

People cognize and interpret information to fit what they already believe, but what if you interpret information by what you know and learned, and by what you have experienced? Everyone should have the ability to see things in at least two different ways. Seeing things from the top-down, and the bottom-up. We know that our minds can run on automatic, so we don't have to instruct our brains to think, because the brain is always thinking, whether will tell it to or not, we think even when we're sleeping. But we have the ability to control our thinking, but we have to exercise this ability everyday, if not, then Reality could get blurred and undefined. We also have our own personal perception, so what you see might not be what others see, so what do you see? Delusions (personality).

Fantasy - Fallacy - Illusion - Hallucination

"You can have logic and beliefs, as long as you have two logics and two beliefs, one confirming the other."

Focus - Attention - Problem Solving - Thinking Styles - Media Literacy - Memory - Awareness - Sub-Conscious.

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The Thinker Man