Pee - Poo - Bowel Movements
Number One or Number Two
process by which metabolic wastes
and other non-useful materials are eliminated from an organism.
Pee - Urine
is a liquid by-product of
in the bodies of many animals, including humans. It is expelled from the
kidneys and flows through the ureters to the urinary bladder, from which
it is soon excreted from the body through the urethra during urination.
is the release of urine from the urinary bladder through the
urethra to the outside of the body. It is the urinary system's form of
excretion.Most people urinate between six
and eight times a day
. But if you're drinking plenty, it's not
abnormal to go as many as 10 times a day or in 24 hours. The normal range
for 24-hour urine volume is 800 to 2000 milliliters per day (with a normal
fluid intake of about 2 liters per day). 2000 milliliters or 0.528344 US
Gallons or 67.628 fl oz.
is the low output of urine. In humans, it is clinically classified as an
output more than 80 ml/day but less than 400ml/day. The decreased output
of urine may be a sign of dehydration, kidney failure, hypovolemic shock,
HHNS hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Nonketotic Syndrome, multiple organ
dysfunction syndrome, urinary obstruction/urinary retention, DKA, pre-eclampsia,
and urinary tract infections, among other conditions. Beyond oliguria is
anuria, which represents an absence of urine, clinically classified as
below 80 or 100 ml/day. Inflammation
is a duct through which urine
is discharged in most mammals and which serves as the male genital duct.
is a tube that
for the removal of urine from the body. In males, the
urethra travels through the penis and also carries
. In human
females and other primates, the urethra connects to the urinary meatus
above the vagina, whereas in non-primates, the female's urethra empties
into the urogenital sinus.
is a compound
tubuloalveolar exocrine gland
male reproductive system
in most mammals. It differs considerably among species anatomically,
chemically, and physiologically. The function of the prostate is to
secrete a slightly alkaline fluid, milky or white in appearance, that in
humans usually constitutes roughly 30% of the volume of semen along with
spermatozoa and seminal vesicle fluid. Semen is made alkaline overall with
the secretions from other contributing glands, including, at least,
seminal vesicle fluid
. The alkalinity of semen helps neutralize the
acidity of the vaginal tract, prolonging the lifespan of sperm. The
prostatic fluid is expelled in the first part of ejaculate, together with
most of the sperm. In comparison with the few spermatozoa expelled
together with mainly seminal vesicular fluid, those in prostatic fluid
have better motility, longer survival, and better protection of genetic
material. The prostate also contains some smooth muscles that help expel
semen during ejaculation. Prostate Gland
a firm partly muscular chestnut sized gland in males at the neck of the
urethra; produces a viscid secretion that is the fluid part of semen.
condition usually defined as excessive or abnormally large production or
passage of urine (greater than 2.5 or 3 L over 24 hours in adults).
I Go to to Go. I Got to take a Leak. I Have to
take a Number 1.Frequent
is the need to urinate more often than usual. It is often,
though not necessarily, associated with urinary incontinence and polyuria
(large total volume of urine). However, in other cases, urinary frequency
involves only normal volumes of urine overall. A frequent need to urinate
at night is called
Frequent urination is strongly associated with frequent incidents of
is a condition where there is a frequent feeling of needing to
urinate to a degree that it negatively affects a person's life. The
frequent need to urinate may occur during the day, at night, or both. If
there is loss of bladder control then it is known as urge incontinence
is a sudden, compelling urge to urinate. It is often, though
not necessarily, associated with urinary incontinence, polyuria, nocturia,
and interstitial cystitis. It tends to increase with age. When
uncontrollable, it causes urge incontinence.
is any uncontrolled leakage of urine. It is a
common and distressing problem, which may have a large impact on quality
of life. It has been identified as an important issue in geriatric health
care. The term enuresis is often used to refer to urinary incontinence
primarily in children, such as nocturnal enuresis (bed wetting). Pelvic
surgery, pregnancy, childbirth, and menopause are major risk factors.
Urinary incontinence is often a result of an underlying medical condition
but is under-reported to medical practitioners. There are four main types
of incontinence: Urge incontinence due to an overactive bladder
incontinence due to poor closure of the bladder. Overflow incontinence due
to either poor bladder contraction or blockage of the urethra. Functional
incontinence due to medications or health problems making it difficult to
reach the bathroom. Treatments include pelvic floor muscle training,
bladder training, surgery, and electrical stimulation. Behavioral therapy
generally works better than medication for stress and urge incontinence.
The benefit of medications is small and long term safety is unclear.
Urinary incontinence is more common in older women.
is any substance that promotes
, that is, the increased
production of urine. This includes forced diuresis.
measures the body's
are various tests of urine for diagnostic purposes. The
most common is a Urinalysis
or UA, one of
the most common methods of
The word is a portmanteau of the words urine and analysis. Other tests are
urine culture (a microbiological culture of urine) and urine electrolyte
levels. The target parameters that can be measured or quantified in
urinalysis include naked-eye (gross) examination for color and smell plus
analysis for many substances and cells, as well as other properties, such
as specific gravity. A part of a urinalysis can be performed by using
urine test strips, in which the test results can be read as color changes.
Another method is light microscopy of urine samples.
Urine Test reveals quality of your diet
. Metabolites are considered to
be an objective indicator of diet quality -- and are produced as different
foods are digested by the body. The findings revealed an association
between 46 metabolites
in urine, and
types of foods or nutrients in the diet. For instance, certain metabolites
correlated with alcohol intake, while others were linked to intake of
citrus fruit, fructose (fruit sugar), glucose and vitamin C. The team also
found metabolites in urine associated with dietary intake of red meats,
other meats such as chicken, and nutrients such as calcium. Certain
were also linked with health
conditions -- for instance compounds found in urine such as formate and
sodium (an indicator of salt intake) are linked with obesity and high
blood pressure. an individual's urine 'fingerprint', could enable people
to receive healthy eating advice tailored to their individual biological
make-up. This is known as "precision nutrition," and could provide health
professionals with more specific information on the quality of a person's
diet. Diet is a key contributor to human health and disease, though it is
notoriously difficult to measure accurately because it relies on an
individual's ability to recall what and how much they ate.
With Nanoparticles, a simple Urine Test could diagnose Bacterial Pneumonia
The results could also indicate whether antibiotics have successfully
treated the infection. Pneumonia
respiratory disease that kills about 50,000 people in the United States
every year, can be caused by many different microbes, including bacteria
and viruses. The team developed nanoparticles
coated with peptides (short proteins) that can be chopped up by certain
proteases, such as those expressed by cancer cells. When these particles
are injected into the body, they accumulate in tumors, if any are present,
and proteases there chop the peptides from the nanoparticles. These
peptides are eliminated as waste and can be detected by a simple urine
test. The researchers also developed a second nanoparticle-based sensor
that can monitor the host's immune response to infection. These
nanoparticles are covered in peptides that are cleaved by a type of
protease called elastase, which is produced by immune cells called
neutrophils. The sensors can help you distinguish between whether there's
an infection and inflammation, versus inflammation and no infection.
refers to various
applications of human urine for medicinal or cosmetic purposes, including
drinking of one's own urine and massaging one's skin, or gums, with one's
own urine. There is no scientific evidence to support its use.
consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and the
urethra. Each kidney consists of millions of functional units called
nephrons. The purpose of the Renal System
is to eliminate wastes from the body, regulate blood volume and blood
pressure, control levels of electrolytes and metabolites, and regulate
. The kidneys have an
extensive blood supply via the renal arteries which leave the kidneys via
the renal vein. Following filtration of blood and further processing,
wastes (in the form of urine) exit the kidney via the ureters, tubes made
of smooth muscle fibers that propel urine towards the urinary bladder,
where it is stored and subsequently expelled from the body by urination
(voiding). The female and male urinary system are very similar, differing
only in the length of the urethra. Urine is formed in the kidneys through
a filtration of blood. The urine is then passed through the ureters to the
bladder, where it is stored. During urination, the urine is passed from
the bladder through the urethra to the outside of the body.
800–2,000 milliliters (mL) of urine are normally
produced every day in a healthy human
. This amount varies according
to fluid intake and kidney function.
Human Body Systems
found on the left and right sides of the body in
vertebrates. They filter the blood
in order to make urine, to release and
, and to remove
waste. They also control the ion concentrations and
of the blood. Each
kidney feeds urine into the
by means of a tube known as the
ureter. The kidneys regulate the balance of ions known as electrolytes in
the blood, along with maintaining acid base homeostasis. They also move
waste products out of the blood and into the urine, such as
nitrogen-containing urea and ammonium. Kidneys also regulate fluid balance
and blood pressure. They are also responsible for the reabsorption of
water, glucose, and amino acids. The kidneys also produce hormones
including calcitriol and erythropoietin. The kidneys also make an
important enzyme, renin, which affects blood pressure through negative
feedback. Located at the rear of the abdominal cavity in the
retroperitoneal space, the kidneys receive blood from the paired renal
arteries, and drain into the paired renal veins.
is a condition in which urine flows retrograde,
or backward, from the bladder into the ureters/kidneys. Urine normally
travels in one direction (forward, or anterograde) from the kidneys to the
bladder via the ureters, with a 1-way valve at the vesicoureteral
(ureteral-bladder) junction preventing backflow. The valve is formed by
oblique tunneling of the distal ureter through the wall of the bladder,
creating a short length of ureter (1–2 cm) that can be compressed as the
bladder fills. Reflux occurs if the ureter enters the bladder without
sufficient tunneling, i.e., too "end-on".
is an infection
that affects part of the urinary tract. When it affects the lower urinary
tract it is known as a bladder infection (cystitis) and when it affects
the upper urinary tract it is known as kidney infection (pyelonephritis).
Symptoms from a lower urinary tract include pain with urination, frequent
urination, and feeling the need to urinate despite having an empty
bladder. Symptoms of a kidney infection include fever and flank pain
usually in addition to the symptoms of a lower UTI. Rarely the urine may
appear bloody. In the very old and the very young, symptoms may be vague
or non-specific. The most common cause of infection is Escherichia coli,
though other bacteria or fungi may rarely be the cause. Risk factors
include female anatomy, sexual intercourse, diabetes, obesity, and family
history. Although sexual intercourse is a risk factor, UTIs are not
classified as sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Kidney infection, if
it occurs, usually follows a bladder infection but may also result from a
blood-borne infection. Diagnosis in young healthy women can be based on
symptoms alone. In those with vague symptoms, diagnosis can be difficult
because bacteria may be present without there being an infection. In
complicated cases or if treatment fails, a urine culture may be useful.
New AI can detect urinary tract infections
using a technique called
Non-negative Matrix Factorisation to find hidden clues of possible UTI
is a currently unexplained epidemic of
chronic kidney disease
of unknown origin (CKDu
prevalent in the Pacific Ocean coastal low lands of the Mesoamerican
region, including southern Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua,
Honduras and Costa Rica. In rural areas of Nicaragua the disease is
colloquially called creatinina. This CKD epidemic in Central America spans
along a nearly 1000 kilometer stretch of the Pacific coast. In El Salvador
and Nicaragua alone, the reported number of men dying from this painful
disease has risen five-fold in the last 20 years, although some
researchers believe hidden cases have always been there and this increment
in official data could be partially due to the recent increase in reports
and improved case search, pushed by the growing social and political
interest in the disease. In El Salvador, the disease has become the second
leading cause of death among adult men, and according to a recent
editorial, it has been estimated that this largely unknown epidemic has
caused the premature death of at least 20,000 men in the region. Science
Magazine reports: "In El Salvador alone, PAHO's latest figures say CKD of
all causes kills at least 2,500 people in the country each year". The
people affected by the epidemic are mainly young and middle-aged male
laborers in the agricultural sector, particularly sugarcane workers. The
disease has also been found to be prevalent in other occupations with a
high risk of heat stress, implying strenuous work (miners, construction,
port and transportation workers) in the high temperatures of the
coastlands. The epidemic appears to affect particular Pacific coastal
regions of Nicaragua, El Salvador, Costa Rica,and Guatemala. Liver
located in the
upper right quadrant of the abdomen, has a wide range of functions,
of various metabolites, protein synthesis, and
the production of biochemicals necessary for
Drug reverses signs of Liver Disease in people living with HIV
Researchers report that the injectable hormone
reduces liver fat and prevents liver fibrosis (scarring)
in people living with HIV.
Fatty Liver Disease
is a condition in which
fat builds up in your liver. Alcoholic
is a chronic, progressive liver disease
characterized by thickening and scarring (fibrosis) of the liver as well
as possible death (necrosis) of the liver tissue, brought on by excessive,
prolonged alcohol use
Natural compound cruciferous in vegetables helps fight fatty liver disease
Cabbage, kale, cauliflower and Brussels sprouts.
dark green to yellowish brown fluid, produced by the liver
vertebrates, that aids the digestion of lipids in the small intestine.
Liver fibrosis 'off switch' discovered in mice
. Researchers identified
several genetic switches, or transcription factors, that determine whether
or not liver cells produce collagen -- providing a new therapeutic target
for liver fibrosis.
formation of excess fibrous connective tissue in an organ or tissue in a
reparative or reactive process. This can be a reactive, benign, or
pathological state. In response to injury, this is called
, and if fibrosis arises from a
single cell line, this is called a fibroma. Physiologically, fibrosis acts
to deposit connective tissue, which can interfere with or totally
inhibit the normal architecture and function of
the underlying organ or tissue
. Fibrosis can be used to describe
the pathological state of excess deposition of fibrous tissue, as well as
the process of connective tissue deposition in healing. Defined by the
pathological accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, fibrosis
results in scarring and thickening of the affected tissue, it is in
essence an exaggerated wound healing response which interferes with normal
(body) - Women
- Lab Tests
Poop and Pee Chart
is visually examining a
patient's urine for pus, blood, or other symptoms of disease.
is the branch of medicine that
focuses on surgical and medical diseases of the male and female urinary
tract system and the male reproductive organs.
Maple Syrup Urine Disease
is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder
affecting branched-chain amino acids. It is one type of organic acidemia.
The condition gets its name from the distinctive sweet odor of affected
infants' urine, particularly prior to diagnosis, and during times of acute
Bubbles in Urine
that disappear within
seconds are not usually significant but if the bubbles last that is almost
always a sign of protein being inappropriately allowed to leak through the
kidney filtering mechanism and end up in your urine. That can be either
from kidney disease or an infection which can generate protein from
damaged tissue like the urinary tract and bladder. Your medications may
also indicate an increased risk for production of bubbly or foamy urine.
Foamy urine may occur due to dehydration or a fast flow of urine. Foamy
urine may be a sign of kidney damage. Urine can foam up briefly every once
in a while. This is usually due to the speed of urine flow. Foamy urine is
more likely to be a sign of disease if it happens often or it gets worse
(knowledge and Quality)
is a type of phobia in which the sufferer is unable to
urinate in the real or imaginary presence of others, such as in a public
restroom. The analogous condition that affects bowel movement is called
Feces - Shit Happens - What Poo Says About You
are the feces (solid or
semisolid metabolic waste) of the human digestive system
bacteria. They vary significantly in appearance (i.e. size, color,
texture), according to the state of the digestive system, diet and general
health. Normally human feces are semisolid, with a mucus coating. Small
pieces of harder, less moist feces can sometimes be seen impacted on the
distal (leading) end. This is a normal occurrence when a prior
is incomplete, and feces are returned from the rectum to the
intestine, where water is absorbed. In the medical literature, the term
" is more commonly used than "feces
". Human feces together with
human urine are collectively referred to as human waste or
. Containing human feces, and
preventing spreading of pathogens from human feces via the fecal–oral
route, are the main goals of sanitation. -
involves the collection and analysis of fecal matter to diagnose
the presence or absence of a medical condition.Human Microbes
What someone might say if they need to go to a
: I Got to take a
Dump. Take a Crap. Take a Shit. Take a Number Two. Take care of some
paperwork. Have a bowel movement. Drop a deuce. Pinch off a loaf. Make an
offering to the porcelain throne. I have a turtle head poking out.
is the final act of
digestion, by which organisms eliminate solid, semisolid, and/or liquid
waste material from the digestive tract via the anus.
is the elimination of fecal
waste through the anus. Defecate
is to have a bowel movement.
is the final section of the large intestine, terminating at the anus.
Anus is the opening at the end of the
alimentary canal through which solid waste matter leaves the body.
: After you poop, the first
wipe should be the lightest. The first wipe is to make sure there is
nothing dangling. If the first wipe is too hard you might end up spreading
poop around and make a mess. What you see on the first piece of toilet
paper after the first wipe will determine how hard or soft the second wipe
will be. Always end with a hole tap, but not too hard, your finger could
breakthrough the toilet paper very easy. If you are not sure if you got it
all, you may have to wipe again after an hour or so.
SKID MARKS: How To
Wipe Your Butt (According to a Doctor)
(youtube)Skid Marks in your Underwear.
Reasons why you might have skid marks in your underwear.
You are not
or correctly (use a flushable moist Baby wipe if needed).
You're not showering after
Your poop is soft and sticky. (not enough
). Your butt has a lot of hair.
You sweat a lot. Underwear is too tight. You sit too long on your
toilet. You have hemorrhoids. Fecal or Poop inconsistencies. You
are not completely emptying your bowel.
Wiping Your Butt
Bum Wiping Techniques
Clean Anus Bowel Movement
One of the main reason adults would have
their undies is because they do not wipe properly
but this is compounded
by the fact that you have soft sticky poop. Solid feces usually exit our
anus with little or no residue for us to wipe unlike soft sticky poop
which cause us to wipe several times and we just cannot seem to get rid of
the mess . To get rid of our soft poop we need to add more soluble and
insoluble fiber to our diet . Fiber helps to increase the bacteria in your
colon and add bulk to your stool which improves the quality of your poop.
Men need an average of 31 to 38 grams of fiber daily and women 21 to 25
grams of fiber daily which we can get from fruits vegetables , oats ,whole
wheat . If you cannot get this amount from your food you can add fiber
supplements such as psyllium and methylcellulose. Fecal inconsistencies
this is the inability to control your bowel movement in most adults it is
temporarily caused by Diarrhea, Constipation, Gas and bloating. While in
other it can be a long term problem caused by a number of issues such as
anxiety , nervousness, damage to their rectum , dementia, IBS and a list
of other underlying diseases . If you are not sure if the cause you should
see your doctor. For the persons aware of their problem the best solution
is to wear sanitary napkins. Wear dark color underwear to hide the stains.
Trying controlling your bowel to come in the morning so you can shower
after using the toilet. This can be done by drinking a large glass of warm
lemon water on an empty stomach in the morning a cup of coffee can also do
the job. Constipation can prevent you from fully emptying your bowel thus
leaving pieces of poop in your rectum. Which can slip out as you start to
sweat and move around. Increase your water intake and also your fiber to
avoid this problem.
Synonyms for Shitting your Pants
wet fart that has some poop matter mixed in that sometimes makes a mess.
Forcing a fart can
is the inability to control or the lack of control of
, causing involuntary loss of stool (feces) to leak
unexpectedly from the rectum, including flatus (gas), liquid stool
elements and mucus, or solid feces. Common causes of fecal incontinence
include diarrhea, constipation, and muscle or nerve damage in some forms
, which is a lack of control over defecation, leading to
involuntary loss of bowel contents.
Best Toilet Positions
is the hygienic practice
that a person performs on the anal area of himself or herself after
defecation. The anus and buttocks may be either washed with liquids or
wiped with toilet paper or other solid materials. In many Muslim, Hindu
and Sikh cultures, as well as Southeast Asia, water is usually used for
anal cleansing using a jet, as with a bidet, or splashed and washed with
the hand. Some people follow this up with toilet paper afterwards for
How Often should I Change my Underwear?
It's definitely relevant. Change your underwear after intense physical
activity and before going out for social events, and right after shower.
You should change your underwear on a daily basis, unless you are pooping
clean and you're not sweating too much. You might get 2 or 3 days.
How often should I replace my underwear?
Consider fully replacing your underwear once a year if you are a hard
worker. Stained underwear should be thrown out. Underwear should be
replaced every year for health reasons to reduce the risk of urinary
tract and other infections. A 3 week supply is around 20 pairs of
underwear. You need at least 14 pairs if you launder your clothes once a
week. A pair for each day of the week and backups for exercise or travel.
are substances that loosen
stools and increase bowel movements. They are used to treat and prevent
, which refers to bowel movements that are infrequent or
hard to pass.
is a solid dosage form that is inserted into the rectum
(rectal suppository), vagina (vaginal suppository) or urethra (urethral
suppository), where it dissolves or melts and exerts local or systemic
effects. Suppositories are used to deliver both systemically and
locally acting medications.
- Cleansing the Inside
should I Pee and Poo?
refers to bowel movements that are infrequent or hard to
. The stool is often hard and dry. Other symptoms may include
abdominal pain, bloating, and feeling as if one has not completely passed
the bowel movement. Complications from constipation may include
hemorrhoids, anal fissure or fecal impaction. The normal frequency of
bowel movements in adults is between three per day and three per week
(I poop once a day in the morning before my shower, and some days I poop
twice). Babies often have three to four bowel movements per day while young
children typically have two to three per day. I poop once everyday in the
morning after coffee
and sometimes twice in one day.
- Digestive Tract
is the condition of having at
least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day. It often lasts for a
few days and can result in dehydration due to fluid loss. Signs of
often begin with loss of the normal stretchiness of the skin
and irritable behaviour. This can progress to decreased urination, loss of
skin color, a fast heart rate, and a decrease in responsiveness as it
becomes more severe. Loose but non-watery stools in babies who are
breastfed, however, may be normal. Viruses
is an infection caused by any of the amoebas of the
Entamoeba group. Symptoms are most common during infection by Entamoeba
histolytica. Amoebiasis can be present with no, mild, or severe symptoms.
Symptoms may include abdominal pain, diarrhoea, or bloody diarrhea.
Complications can include inflammation of the colon with tissue death or
perforation, which may result in peritonitis. People affected may develop
anemia due to loss of blood.
is a type of gastroenteritis that results in
diarrhea with blood. Other symptoms may include fever, abdominal pain, and
a feeling of incomplete defecation. It is caused by a number of types of
infection such as bacteria, viruses
, parasitic worms, or protozoa. The
mechanism is an inflammatory disorder of the intestine, especially of the
Kills 700,000 children a year.
is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium
Vibrio cholerae. Symptoms may range from none, to mild, to severe. The
classic symptom is large amounts of watery diarrhea that lasts a few days.
Vomiting and muscle cramps may also occur. Diarrhea can be so severe that
it leads within hours to severe
electrolyte imbalance. This may result in sunken eyes, cold skin,
decreased skin elasticity, and wrinkling of the hands and feet.
Dehydration can cause the skin to turn bluish. Symptoms start two hours to
five days after exposure. Prevention methods against cholera include
sanitation and access to clean water.
Cholera affects an estimated 3–5 million people worldwide and causes
28,800–130,000 deaths a year.
There were 1,207,596 suspected cases of
cholera in Yemen between April 2017 and April 2018. The total estimated
number of cholera cases worldwide ranges from 1.4 million to 4 million.
Some people who have a strong
bowel movement the minute you feed them, and
it's a normal response from them. Others
have a bowel movement every day or every
other day or so, it varies.
was an Irish-born cook believed to have infected 53
people, three of whom died, with typhoid fever, and the first person in
the United States identified as an asymptomatic carrier of the disease.
Because she persisted in working as a cook, by which she exposed others to
the disease, she was twice forcibly quarantined by authorities, and died
after a total of nearly three decades in isolation. Mary Mallon (September
23, 1869 – November 11, 1938).
is a bacterial infection due to a specific type of
Salmonella that causes symptoms. Spreads through the fecal-oral route.
describes a particular route of transmission of a
disease wherein pathogens in fecal particles pass from one person to the
mouth of another person. Main causes of fecal–oral disease transmission
include lack of adequate sanitation (leading to open defecation), and poor
hygiene practices. If soil or water
are polluted with fecal material, humans can be infected with
waterborne diseases or soil-transmitted diseases. Fecal contamination of
food is another form of fecal-oral transmission.
properly after changing a baby's diaper or after
performing anal hygiene can prevent foodborne illness from spreading. The
common factors in the fecal-oral route can be summarized as five Fs:
fingers, flies, fields, fluids, and food. Diseases caused by fecal-oral
transmission include diarrhea, typhoid, cholera, polio and hepatitis.
Bladder and Bowel Foundation
is any disturbance of muscular coordination, resulting in
uncoordinated and abrupt movements.
(FMT), also known as a Stool
, is the process of transplantation of fecal bacteria
from a healthy individual into a recipient. FMT involves restoration of
the colonic microflora
introducing healthy bacterial flora through infusion of stool, e.g. by
colonoscopy, enema, orogastric tube or by mouth in the form of a capsule
containing freeze-dried material, obtained from a healthy donor. The
effectiveness of FMT has been established in clinical trials for the
treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), whose effects can
range from diarrhea to pseudomembranous colitis. Due to an epidemic of CDI
in North America and Europe, FMT has gained increasing prominence, with
some experts calling for it to become first-line therapy for CDI. In 2013
a randomized, controlled trial of FMT from healthy donors showed it to be
highly effective in treating recurrent C. difficile in adults, and more
effective than vancomycin alone. FMT has been used experimentally to treat
other gastrointestinal diseases, including colitis, constipation,
irritable bowel syndrome, and neurological conditions such as multiple
sclerosis and Parkinson's. In the United States, the Food and Drug
Administration (FDA) has regulated human feces as an experimental drug
since 2013. Transplants can be 90% effective.
Fecal transplants could one day be used to restore cognitive decline among
. A new study shows how fecal transplants from older to
younger mice altered their gut microbiome, which in turn impacted their
spatial learning and memory.
Fecal transplantation can restore the gut microbiota of C-section babies
Personalized Donor Selection
. Durable coexistence of donor and
recipient strains after fecal
is the opening of intercellular tight
junctions (increased intestinal permeability) can allow passage of
, microbial products,
and foreign antigens into the mucosa and the body proper. This can result
in activation of the immune system
secretion of inflammatory mediators.
Inflammatory Bowel Disease
is a group of inflammatory conditions of
the colon and small intestine
Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are the principal types of
inflammatory bowel disease. It is important to note that not only does
Crohn's disease affect the small intestine and large intestine, it can
also affect the mouth, esophagus, stomach and the anus whereas ulcerative
colitis primarily affects the colon and the rectum.
Irritable Bowel Syndrome
is a group of symptoms—including abdominal
pain and changes in the pattern of bowel movements without any evidence of
How a gut infection may produce chronic symptoms
. A bout of intestinal
distress like traveler's diarrhea leads to irritable bowel syndrome.
Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth
. SIBO is defined as excessive
bacteria in the small intestine. Patients with SIBO vary in presentation,
from being only mildly symptomatic to suffering from chronic diarrhea,
weight loss, and malabsorption.
is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that may
affect any part of the gastrointestinal
from mouth to anus. Signs and symptoms often include abdominal
pain, diarrhea (which may be bloody if inflammation is severe), fever, and
weight loss. Other complications may occur outside the gastrointestinal
tract and include anemia, skin rashes, arthritis, inflammation of the eye,
and tiredness. The skin rashes may be due to infections as well as
pyoderma gangrenosum or erythema nodosum. Bowel obstruction may occur as a
complication of chronic inflammation, and those with the disease are at
greater risk of bowel cancer.
also called piles, are
vascular structures in the anal canal. In their normal state, they are
cushions that help with stool control. They become a disease when swollen
or inflamed; the unqualified term "hemorrhoid" is often used to mean the
disease. The signs and symptoms of hemorrhoids depend on the type present.
Internal hemorrhoids usually present with painless, bright red rectal
bleeding when defecating. External hemorrhoids often result in pain and
swelling in the area of the anus. If bleeding occurs it is usually darker.
Symptoms frequently get better after a few days. A skin tag may remain
after the healing of an external hemorrhoid.
is the irritation of the
skin at the exit of the rectum, known as the anus, causing the desire to
scratch. The intensity of anal itching increases from moisture, pressure,
and rubbing caused by clothing and sitting. At worst, anal itching causes
intolerable discomfort that often is accompanied by burning and soreness.
It is estimated that up to 5% of the population of the United States
experiences this type of discomfort daily.
is an opening at the opposite end
of an animal's digestive tract from the mouth. Its function is to control
the expulsion of feces, unwanted semi-solid matter produced during
, which, depending on the type of animal, may include: matter
which the animal cannot digest, such as bones; food material after all the
nutrients have been extracted, for example cellulose or lignin; ingested
matter which would be toxic if it remained in the digestive tract; and
dead or excess gut bacteria and other endosymbionts.
is the branch of medicine
dealing with the pathology of and surgery upon the colon, rectum and anus.
is the endoscopic
examination of the large bowel and the distal part of the small bowel with
a CCD camera or a fiber optic camera on a flexible tube passed through the
anus. It can provide a visual diagnosis (e.g. ulceration, polyps) and
grants the opportunity for biopsy or removal of suspected colorectal
cancer lesions. Colonoscopy can remove polyps as small as one millimetre
or less. Once polyps are removed, they can be studied with the aid of a
microscope to determine if they are precancerous or not. It can take up to
15 years for a polyp to turn cancerous.
is a field in
medicine, dealing with disorders of the rectum, anus, and colon. The field
is also known as proctology, but the latter term is now used infrequently
within medicine, and is most often employed to identify practices relating
to the anus and rectum in particular.
Fecal Immunochemical Test
is designed to detect the protein
hemoglobin, which is found in red blood cells. People who test positive
with the FIT need to get a colonoscopy to determine whether they have
cancer or pre-cancerous lesions. But those who test negative only need to
keep getting the FIT each year to make sure they don’t develop
Functional Gastrointestinal Disorder
include a number of separate idiopathic disorders which affect different
parts of the gastrointestinal tract
and involve visceral hypersensitivity and impaired gastrointestinal
motility. Heightened mast cell activation is a common factor among all
FGIDs that contributes to visceral hypersensitivity as well as epithelial,
neuromuscular, and motility dysfunction.
Meta-genomic analysis of toilet waste
from long distance flights; a step towards global surveillance of
infectious diseases and antimicrobial resistance.
The Surprisingly Charming Science of your Gut
(video and text)
Electrical Power of Poo
- Waste Energy