Longevity - Live Longer - Life Extension

The quality of your life life is more important to then how long you live. So don't spend your whole life trying to live longer without actually living your life. Plan to live long, but don't forget to live your life. And remember that you can't do everything. So trying to do it all might end up being nothing at all. So choose what you do with your life wisely and carefully. Seek Balance.

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Old and Loving it Life Expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of their birth, their current age and other demographic factors including sex.

Human Lifespan (wiki) - Animal Lifespans (image graph)

Life Expectancy Rates (Long Life Statistics by Country)

Longevity is the length of life, the average number of years remaining at a given age.

How many Years do you have left to Live - Longevity Meme

Causes of Death (how people die) - Death (what is death)

Cognitive Decline - Biomarkers of Aging - Resilience

Immortality is eternal life, the ability to live forever. But no one really wants to live forever.

Biological Immortality is a state in which the rate of mortality from senescence is stable or decreasing, thus decoupling it from chronological age. Various unicellular and multicellular species, including some vertebrates, achieve this state either throughout their existence or after living long enough. A biologically immortal living being can still die from means other than senescence, such as through injury or disease. Regenerative.

Videos about Longevity - Cynthia Kenyon (youtube) - Tony Wyss: Young Blood (video and text)
Dan Buettner: Live over 100 (youtube) - Live Long, Die Young (youtube)

Blue Zone is a concept used to identify a demographic and/or geographic area of the world where people live measurably longer lives. The concept grew out of demographic work done by Gianni Pes and Michel Poulain, who identified Sardinia's Nuoro province as the region with the highest concentration of male centenarians. As the two men zeroed in on the cluster of villages with the highest longevity, they drew concentric blue circles on the map and began referring to the area inside the circle as the Blue Zone. Blue Zones - Environment is key to Longevity.

longevity Life Extension is the study of slowing down or reversing the processes of aging to extend both the maximum and average lifespan.

Anti-Aging Medicine organization that promotes the field of anti-aging medicine and trains and certifies physicians in this specialty. Elixir of Life.

Longevity Escape Velocity is a hypothetical situation in which life expectancy is being extended longer than the time that is passing because technological advances would increase life expectancy more than the year that just went by. So the longer you live the more opportunities you will have to use life extension technologies. But you will still need to learn how to make the right life choices that would benefit you the most and help maintain your optimal health.

Personalized Nutrition - Exercise - Avoiding Toxins - Fasting

Aging (Growing Old - Senior Citizens - Caregiving) - Freezing the Body

Aging happens at different rates in different animals, without following any clear rules. It's not the heart rate that predicts lifespan or an animal's size, because some animals defy that pattern. And even more perplexing are animals that don't seem to age at all, like a tiny sea creature called a hydra.

Chronological Age is the age measured by the time in years and months that something or someone has existed.

Biological Age is how old your body seems and how fast your body has aged based on a number of factors such as lifestyle, diet, exercise and sleeping habits, which could effect how your chromosomes and cells have changed over time.

Measuring Biological Age using the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, the biological age of an organism can be read directly from its gene expression, the transcriptome. Until now, aging clocks such as Horvath's epigenetic clock have been based on the pattern of methylations, small chemical groups that attach to DNA and change with age. Using the transcriptome, the new clock takes into consideration the set of genes that are read from DNA (messenger RNA) to make proteins for the cell. Binarized transcriptomic aging clock age is based exclusively on approximately 1,000 different transcriptomes of C. elegans, for which the lifespan is precisely known. Model organisms such as the nematode provide a controllable view of the aging process, allowing biomarkers to be discovered and the effects of external influences such as UV radiation or nutrition on longevity to be studied.

Rejuvenation is a medical discipline focused on the practical reversal of the aging process to repair of the damage that is associated with aging or replacement of damaged tissue with new tissue. Stem Cells.

Cells and Aging

Epigenetic Clock is a type of DNA clock based on measuring natural DNA Methylation levels to estimate the biological age of a tissue, cell type or organ. DNA Clock can help to measure a persons lifespan by studying chemical changes to their DNA that takes place over a lifetime, which can help predict an individual's age and possibly predict how long they will live.

Programed Cell Death (cells) - Cell Aging - Telomeres (biological clock)

Apoptosis is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.

Naturally occurring p16Ink4a-positive cells shorten healthy lifespan.

Cellular Stress Response is the wide range of molecular changes that cells undergo in response to environmental stressors, including extremes of temperature, exposure to toxins, and mechanical damage. The various processes involved in cellular stress responses serve the adaptive purpose of protecting a cell against unfavorable environmental conditions, both through short term mechanisms that minimize acute damage to the cell's overall integrity, and through longer term mechanisms which provide the cell a measure of resiliency against similar adverse conditions.

Internal Clock within Live Human Cells (nyu)

Death Resistant Cells is removing dysfunctional cells.

Cellular Senescence or replicative senescence is one phenomenon by which normal cells cease to divide. Mechanistically, replicative senescence is triggered by a DNA damage response which results from the shortening of telomeres during each cellular division process. Cells can also be induced to senesce independent of the number of cellular divisions via DNA damage in response to elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS), activation of oncogenes and cell-cell fusion. The number of senescent cells in tissues rises substantially during normal aging. Although senescent cells can no longer replicate, they remain metabolically active and commonly adopt an immunogenic phenotype consisting of a pro-inflammatory secretome, the up-regulation of immune ligands, a pro-survival response, promiscuous gene expression (pGE) and stain positive for senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. Senescence-associated beta-galactosidase, along with p16Ink4A, is regarded to be a biomarker of cellular senescence. This results in false positives for maturing tissue macrophages and senescence-associated beta-galactosidase as well as for T-cells. Diabetes (DAF-2).

Resurrection Plant - Stem Cells

Old Human Cells Rejuvenated in breakthrough discovery on Ageing. A class of genes called splicing factors are progressively switched off as we age. found that splicing factors can be switched back on with reversatrol analogue chemicals, making senescent cells not only look physically younger, but start to behave more like young cells and start dividing. Chemicals based on a substance naturally found in red wine, dark chocolate, red grapes and blueberries.

Turning off a newly identified enzyme could reverse a natural aging process in cells. An enzyme called PDK1, in incubated senescent skin fibroblasts and three-dimensional skin equivalent tissue models. They found that blocking PDK1 led to the inhibition of two downstream signaling molecules, which in turn restored the cells’ ability to enter back into the cell cycle. Notably, the cells retained their capacity to regenerate wounded skin without proliferating in a way that could lead to malignant transformation.

Splicing Factor is a protein involved in the removal of introns from strings of messenger RNA, so that the exons can bind together; the process takes place in particles known as spliceosomes.

Exon is any part of a gene that will encode a part of the final mature RNA produced by that gene after introns have been removed by RNA splicing.

RNA Splicing is the editing of the nascent precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) transcript into a mature messenger RNA (mRNA).

Intron is any nucleotide sequence within a gene that is removed by RNA splicing during maturation of the final RNA product.

Nucleic Acid Sequence is a succession of letters that indicate the order of nucleotides within a DNA (using GACT) or RNA (GACU) molecule.

Post-Transcriptional Modification is the process in eukaryotic cells where primary transcript RNA is converted into mature RNA.

Platelet Rich Plasma is blood plasma that has been enriched with platelets. As a concentrated source of autologous platelets, PRP contains several different growth factors and other cytokines that can stimulate Healing of soft tissue. Platelet-rich plasma therapy is an old therapy and used extensively in specialities of dermatology, orthopedics and dentistry. Platelet rich plasma therapy utilizes growth factors present in alpha granules of platelets in an autologous manner. Main indications in dermatology for PRP are androgenetic alopecia, wound healing, face rejuvenation etc. For preparation of PRP, various protocols are used and no standard protocol exists but main principles essentially involve concentrating platlets in a concentration of 3–5 times the physiological value and then injecting this concentrated plasma in the tissue where healing or effect is desired. As of 2016, no large-scale randomized controlled trials have confirmed the efficacy of PRP as a treatment for musculoskeletal or nerve injuries, the accelerated healing of bone grafts, or the reduction of androgenic hair loss. Energy Metabolism - Ambrosia.

Parabiosis is a class of techniques in which two living organisms are joined together surgically and develop single, shared physiological systems, such as a shared circulatory system. Getting a Blood Transfusion from a younger person can be dangerous.

Transplanting Marrow from Young Lab Mice to old mice Preserves Memory and Learning Skills.

Autophagy is the natural, regulated, destructive mechanism of the cell that disassembles unnecessary or dysfunctional components. Allows the orderly degradation and recycling of cellular components. In macroautophagy, targeted cytoplasmic constituents are isolated from the rest of the cell within a double-membraned vesicle known as an autophagosome. The autophagosome eventually fuses with lysosomes and the contents are degraded and recycled. Two additional forms of autophagy are also commonly described: microautophagy and chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA). In disease, autophagy has been seen as an adaptive response to stress, which promotes survival, whereas in other cases it appears to promote cell death and morbidity. In the extreme case of starvation, the breakdown of cellular components promotes cellular survival by maintaining cellular energy levels.

Immune System Cells

Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide or NAD is a coenzyme found in all living cells. The compound is a dinucleotide, because it consists of two nucleotides joined through their phosphate groups. One nucleotide contains an adenine base and the other nicotinamide. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide exists in two forms, an oxidized and reduced form abbreviated as NAD+ and NADH respectively. In metabolism, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide is involved in redox reactions, carrying electrons from one reaction to another. The coenzyme is, therefore, found in two forms in cells: NAD+ is an oxidizing agent – it accepts electrons from other molecules and becomes reduced. This reaction forms NADH, which can then be used as a reducing agent to donate electrons. These electron transfer reactions are the main function of NAD. However, it is also used in other cellular processes, the most notable one being a substrate of enzymes that add or remove chemical groups from proteins, in posttranslational modifications. Because of the importance of these functions, the enzymes involved in NAD metabolism are targets for drug discovery. In organisms, NAD can be synthesized from simple building-blocks (de novo) from the amino acids tryptophan or aspartic acid. In an alternative fashion, more complex components of the coenzymes are taken up from food as the vitamin called niacin. Similar compounds are released by reactions that break down the structure of NAD. These preformed components then pass through a salvage pathway that recycles them back into the active form. Some NAD is also converted into nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate or NADP; the chemistry of this related coenzyme is similar to that of NAD, but it has different roles in metabolism. Although NAD+ is written with a superscript plus sign because of the formal charge on a particular nitrogen atom, at physiological pH for the most part it is actually a singly charged anion (charge of minus 1), while NADH is a doubly charged anion.

Nicotinamide Mononucleotide or NMN is a derivative of vitamin B3, also known as niacin. Found in peanuts, mushrooms (portobello, grilled), avocados, green peas (fresh), and certain fish and animal meats.

Anti-aging compound improves muscle glucose metabolism in people. In the first clinical trial of nicotinamide mononucleotide, researchers have found that the compound previously demonstrated to counteract aspects of aging and improve metabolic health in mice also has clinically relevant effects in people.

Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate abbreviated NADP+ or, in older notation, TPN (triphosphopyridine nucleotide), is a cofactor used in anabolic reactions, such as lipid and nucleic acid synthesis, which require NADPH as a reducing agent. NADPH is the reduced form of NADP+. NADP+ differs from NAD+ in the presence of an additional phosphate group on the 2' position of the ribose ring that carries the adenine moiety.

Nicotinamide Riboside is a pyridine-nucleoside form of vitamin B3 that functions as a precursor to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide or NAD+.

Metformin marketed under the tradename Glucophage among others, is the first-line medication for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. This is particularly true in people who are overweight. It is also used in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome. Limited evidence suggests metformin may prevent the cardiovascular disease and cancer complications of diabetes. It is not associated with weight gain. It is taken by mouth.

RNA Polymerase III transcribes DNA to synthesize ribosomal 5S rRNA, tRNA and other small RNAs."housekeeping" genes primarily tied to the regulation of cell growth and the cell cycle.

Sirtuin 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SIRT1 gene that contribute to cellular regulation (reaction to stressors, longevity).

Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 also called somatomedin C, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IGF1 gene. IGF-1 has also been referred to as a "sulfation factor" and its effects were termed "nonsuppressible insulin-like activity" (NSILA) in the 1970s. IGF-1 is a hormone similar in molecular structure to insulin. It plays an important role in childhood growth and continues to have anabolic effects in adults. A synthetic analog of IGF-1, mecasermin, is used for the treatment of growth failure. IGF-1 consists of 70 amino acids in a single chain with three intramolecular disulfide bridges. IGF-1 has a molecular weight of 7,649 Dalton.

Anti-Aging Strategies Based on Cellular Reprogramming.

New cause of cell aging discovered. The research team discovered that the aging, senescent cells stopped producing a class of chemicals called nucleotides, which are the building blocks of DNA. When they took young cells and forced them to stop producing nucleotides, they became senescent, or aged.

Reprogramming refers to erasure and remodeling of epigenetic marks, such as DNA methylation, during mammalian development. After fertilization some cells of the newly formed embryo migrate to the germinal ridge and will eventually become the germ cells (sperm and oocytes). Due to the phenomenon of genomic imprinting, maternal and paternal genomes are differentially marked and must be properly reprogrammed every time they pass through the germline. Therefore, during the process of gametogenesis the primordial germ cells must have their original biparental DNA methylation patterns erased and re-established based on the sex of the transmitting parent. After fertilization the paternal and maternal genomes are once again demethylated and remethylated (except for differentially methylated regions associated with imprinted genes). This reprogramming is likely required for totipotency of the newly formed embryo and erasure of acquired epigenetic changes. In vitro manipulation of pre-implantation embryos has been shown to disrupt methylation patterns at imprinted loci and plays a crucial role in cloned animals. Reprogramming can also be induced artificially through the introduction of exogenous factors, usually transcription factors. In this context, it often refers to the creation of induced pluripotent stem cells from mature cells such as adult fibroblasts. This allows the production of stem cells for biomedical research, such as research into stem cell therapies, without the use of embryos. It is carried out by the transfection of stem-cell associated genes into mature cells using viral vectors such as retroviruses.

DNA Methylation is a process by which methyl groups are added to DNA segments. Methylation changes the activity of a DNA segment without changing the sequence. This is known as an epigenetic modification. When located in a gene promoter, DNA methylation typically acts to repress gene transcription. DNA methylation is essential for normal development and is associated with a number of key processes including genomic imprinting, X-chromosome inactivation, repression of repetitive elements, aging and carcinogenesis. Biological Clocks.

Gametogenesis is a biological process by which diploid or haploid precursor cells undergo cell division and differentiation to form mature haploid gametes. Depending on the biological life cycle of the organism, gametogenesis occurs by meiotic division of diploid gametocytes into various gametes, or by mitotic division of haploid gametogenous cells. For example, plants produce gametes through mitosis in gametophytes. The gametophytes grow from haploid spores after sporic meiosis. The existence of a multicellular, haploid phase in the life cycle between meiosis and gametogenesis is also referred to as alternation of generations.

Germ Cell is any biological cell that gives rise to the gametes of an organism that reproduces sexually. In many animals, the germ cells originate in the primitive streak and migrate via the gut of an embryo to the developing gonads. There, they undergo meiosis, followed by cellular differentiation into mature gametes, either eggs or sperm. Unlike animals, plants do not have germ cells designated in early development. Instead, germ cells can arise from somatic cells in the adult (such as the floral meristem of flowering plants).

Genomic Imprinting is the epigenetic phenomenon by which certain genes are expressed in a parent-of-origin-specific manner. If the allele inherited from the father is imprinted, it is thereby silenced, and only the allele from the mother is expressed. If the allele from the mother is imprinted, then only the allele from the father is expressed. Forms of genomic imprinting have been demonstrated in fungi, plants and animals. As of 2014, there are about 150 imprinted genes known in the mouse and about half that in humans. Genomic imprinting is an inheritance process independent of the classical Mendelian inheritance. It is an epigenetic process that involves DNA methylation and histone methylation without altering the genetic sequence. These epigenetic marks are established ("imprinted") in the germline (sperm or egg cells) of the parents and are maintained through mitotic cell divisions in the somatic cells of an organism. Appropriate imprinting of certain genes is important for normal development. Human diseases involving genomic imprinting include Angelman syndrome and Prader–Willi syndrome.

Transcription Factor is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence. In turn, this helps to regulate the expression of genes near that sequence. This is essential in embryogenesis. Transcription factors work alone or with other proteins in a complex, by promoting (as an activator), or blocking (as a repressor) the recruitment of RNA polymerase (the enzyme that performs the transcription of genetic information from DNA to RNA) to specific genes. A defining feature of transcription factors is that they contain at least one DNA-binding domain (DBD), which attaches to a specific sequence of DNA adjacent to the genes that they regulate. Other proteins such as coactivators, chromatin remodelers, histone acetyltransferases, histone deacetylases, kinases, and methylases, while also essential to gene regulation, lack DNA-binding domains, and, therefore, are not transcription factors.

Niacin B3 is an organic compound with the formula C6H5NO2 and, depending on the definition used, one of the 20 to 80 essential human nutrients. Pharmaceutical and supplemental niacin are primarily used to treat hypercholesterolemia (high cholesterol) and pellagra (niacin deficiency). Insufficient niacin in the diet can cause nausea, skin and mouth lesions, anemia, headaches, and tiredness. The lack of niacin may also be observed in pandemic deficiency disease, which is caused by a lack of five crucial vitamins (niacin, vitamin C, thiamin, vitamin D, and vitamin A) and is usually found in areas of widespread poverty and malnutrition. Niacin is provided in the diet from a variety of whole and processed foods, with highest contents in fortified packaged foods and meat from various animal sources.

Nicotinamide Riboside is a pyridine-nucleoside form of vitamin B3 that functions as a precursor to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide or NAD+. According to the peer-reviewed literature, NR was discovered as a human vitamin precursor of NAD+ in 2004 and as a sirtuin-activating compound in 2007 by Charles Brenner.

Vampire Facelift or Platelet-rich fibrin matrix method is a process in cosmetic surgery. It is a way of extracting platelets from the patient's own blood and using them as a dermal filler – that is, as a substance injected under the skin of the face to fill out wrinkles so as to provide a more youthful appearance.

AMP-Activated Protein Kinase is an enzyme (EC that plays a role in cellular energy homeostasis. It belongs to a highly conserved eukaryotic protein family and its orthologues are SNF1 and SnRK1 in yeast and plants, respectively. It consists of three proteins (subunits) that together make a functional enzyme, conserved from yeast to humans. It is expressed in a number of tissues, including the liver, brain, and skeletal muscle. The net effect of AMPK activation is stimulation of hepatic fatty acid oxidation, ketogenesis, stimulation of skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation and glucose uptake, inhibition of cholesterol synthesis, lipogenesis, and triglyceride synthesis, inhibition of adipocyte lipolysis and lipogenesis, and modulation of insulin secretion by pancreatic beta-cells. It should not be confused with cyclic AMP-activated protein kinase (protein kinase A).

Oct-4 octamer-binding transcription factor 4) also known as POU5F1 (POU domain, class 5, transcription factor 1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the POU5F1 gene. Oct-4 is a homeodomain transcription factor of the POU family. This protein is critically involved in the self-renewal of undifferentiated embryonic stem cells. As such, it is frequently used as a marker for undifferentiated cells. Oct-4 expression must be closely regulated; too much or too little will cause differentiation of the cells. The octamer (made of eight units) in this family of transcription factors is the DNA nucleotide sequence "ATTTGCAT", the etymology for the naming of the octamer transcription factor.

Longevity Hormone Boosts Memory and Protects against Brain Aging in mice. A life-extending protein hormone that a minority of people naturally produce at high levels associations between elevated klotho levels and better cognition.

Klotho in biology is a transmembrane protein that, in addition to other effects, provides some control over the sensitivity of the organism to insulin and appears to be involved in aging. is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the KL gene. This gene encodes a type-I membrane protein that is related to β-glucuronidases. Reduced production of this protein has been observed in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF), and this may be one of the factors underlying the degenerative processes (e.g., arteriosclerosis, osteoporosis, and skin atrophy) seen in CRF. Also, mutations within this protein have been associated with ageing, bone loss and alcohol consumption. Transgenic mice that overexpress Klotho live longer than wild-type mice.

FGF21 Protein is a protein that in mammals is encoded by the FGF21 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family and specifically a member of the "endocrine" subfamily which includes FGF23 and FGF15/19.

Scientists reliably Predict People's Age by Measuring Proteins in Blood.

UCLA Biologists Slow Aging, Extend Lifespan of Fruit Flies.

DNM1L is a GTPase that regulates mitochondrial fission. In humans, dynamin-1-like protein, which is typically referred to as dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), is encoded by the DNM1L gene Drp1, which is a member of the dynamin superfamily of proteins, consists of a GTPase and GTPase effector domain that are separated from each other by a helical segment of amino acids. There are 3 mouse and 6 human isoforms of Drp1, including a brain-specific variant.

Telomere is a region of repetitive nucleotide sequences at each end of a chromosome, which protects the end of the chromosome from deterioration or from fusion with neighboring chromosomes. Its name is derived from the Greek nouns telos (τέλος) "end" and merοs (μέρος, root: μερ-) "part". For vertebrates, the sequence of nucleotides in telomeres is TTAGGG, with the complementary DNA strand being AATCCC, with a single-stranded TTAGGG overhang. This sequence of TTAGGG is repeated approximately 2,500 times in humans. In humans, average telomere length declines from about 11 kilobases at birth to less than 4 kilobases in old age, with average rate of decline being greater in men than in women.

New insight into how telomeres protect cells from premature senescence. Telomeres are the caps that protect the ends of our chromosomes. An RNA molecule called TERRA helps to ensure that very short (or broken) telomeres get fixed again.

Telomeric repeat-containing RNAs (TERRA) is a long non-coding RNA that forms integral part of telomeric heterochromatin along with the telomeric binding proteins. It plays a key role in maintaining the telomeric structure and plays an important role during the processes like cell differentiation and development. TERRAs are transcribed from the telomeric end of the DNA and almost all the DNA ends have been shown to transcribe the molecule. TERRA consists of both telomeric and subtelomeric regions. The transcription is initiated in subtelomeric regions and proceeds in the centromere to telomere direction. TERRA is ubiquitously expressed in most all of the tissues by almost all of the mammals studied. TERRA is also expressed in yeasts. Several studies have shown that TERRA is primarily transcribed by RNA polymerase II, though RNA polymerase I and RNA polymerase III could also play some part in biogenesis.

Potential role of 'junk DNA' sequence in aging, cancer. Researchers have recently identified a DNA region known as VNTR2-1 that appears to drive the activity of the telomerase gene, which has been shown to prevent aging in certain types of cells. Knowing how the telomerase gene is regulated and activated and why it is only active in certain cell types could someday be the key to understanding how humans age and how to stop the spread of cancer. Almost 50% of our genome consists of repetitive DNA that does not code for protein.

Programed Cell Death - Junk DNA

Pollution - Poor Diet - Lack of Exercise

Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein that adds a species-dependent telomere repeat sequence to the 3' end of telomeres. A telomere is a region of repetitive sequences at each end of eukaryotic chromosomes in most eukaryotes. Telomeres protect the end of the chromosome from DNA damage or from fusion with neighbouring chromosomes. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster lacks telomerase, but instead uses retrotransposons to maintain telomeres. Telomerase is a reverse transcriptase enzyme that carries its own RNA molecule (e.g., with the sequence "CCCAAUCCC" in vertebrates) which is used as a template when it elongates telomeres. Telomerase, active in normal stem cells and most cancer cells, is normally absent from, or at very low levels in, most somatic cells. Exercise and Meditation helps to protect telomere tips.

Enzyme Telomerase research has recently uncovered a crucial step in the telomerase enzyme catalytic cycle. This catalytic cycle determines the ability of the human telomerase enzyme to synthesize DNA. Telomerase has a built-in braking system to ensure precise synthesis of correct telomeric DNA repeats. This safe-guarding brake, however, also limits the overall activity of the telomerase enzyme. Finding a way to properly release the brakes on the telomerase enzyme has the potential to restore the lost telomere length of adult stem cells and to even reverse cellular aging itself.

Tetrahymena is a genus of free-living ciliates that can also switch from commensalistic to pathogenic modes of survival. They are common in freshwater ponds (pond scum). Tetrahymena species used as model organisms in biomedical research are T. thermophila and T. pyriformis. Tetrahymena cells never got old and died. Their telomeres weren't shortening as time marched on. Sometimes they even got longer.

Every time the cell divides and the DNA is copied, some of that DNA from the ends gets worn down and shortened, some of that telomere DNA. And when that tip gets too short, it falls off, and that worn down telomere sends a signal to the cells. "The DNA is no longer being protected." So it sends a signal. Time to die. Cell Death.

Hayflick Limit is the number of times a normal human cell population will divide until cell division stops. Empirical evidence shows that the telomeres associated with each cell's DNA will get slightly shorter with each new cell division until they shorten to a critical length.


Mitochondrion is a double membrane-bound organelle found in all eukaryotic organisms, although some cells in some organisms may lack them (e.g. red blood cells). A number of organisms have reduced or transformed their mitochondria into other structures. To date, only one eukaryote, Monocercomonoides, is known to have completely lost its mitochondria.

Researchers have reversed wrinkled skin and hair loss, hallmarks of aging, in a mouse model. When a mutation leading to mitochondrial dysfunction is induced, the mouse develops wrinkled skin and extensive, visible hair loss in a matter of weeks. When the mitochondrial function is restored by turning off the gene responsible for mitochondrial dysfunction, the mouse returns to smooth skin and thick fur, indistinguishable from a healthy mouse of the same age.

Mitochondrial Disease are a group of disorders caused by dysfunctional mitochondria, the organelles that generate energy for the cell. Mitochondria are found in every cell of the human body except red blood cells, and convert the energy of food molecules into the ATP that powers most cell functions. Mitochondrial diseases are sometimes (about 15% of the time) caused by mutations in the mitochondrial DNA that affect mitochondrial function. Other mitochondrial diseases are caused by mutations in genes of the nuclear DNA, whose gene products are imported into the mitochondria (mitochondrial proteins) as well as acquired mitochondrial conditions. Mitochondrial diseases take on unique characteristics both because of the way the diseases are often inherited and because mitochondria are so critical to cell function. The subclass of these diseases that have neuromuscular disease symptoms are often called a mitochondrial myopathy.

Mitochondrial DNA is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Mitochondrial DNA is only a small portion of the DNA in a eukaryotic cell; most of the DNA can be found in the cell nucleus and, in plants and algae, also in plastids such as chloroplasts. In humans, the 16,569 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA encode for only 37 genes. Human mitochondrial DNA was the first significant part of the human genome to be sequenced. In most species, including humans, mtDNA is inherited solely from the mother. Since animal mtDNA evolves faster than nuclear genetic markers, it represents a mainstay of phylogenetics and evolutionary biology. It also permits an examination of the relatedness of populations, and so has become important in anthropology and biogeography.

Bacterial Rhodopsins are a family of bacterial opsins. They are retinal-binding proteins that provide light-dependent ion transport and sensory functions to a family of halophilic and other bacteria. They are integral membrane proteins with seven transmembrane helices, the last of which contains the attachment point for retinal (a conserved lysine). The proteins from halobacteria include bacteriorhodopsin and archaerhodopsin, which are light-driven proton pumps; halorhodopsin, a light-driven chloride pump; and sensory rhodopsin, which mediates both photoattractant (in the red) and photophobic (in the ultra-violet) responses. Proteins from other bacteria include proteorhodopsin.

Turritopsis Dohrnii is a species of small, biologically immortal jellyfish found in the Mediterranean Sea and in the waters of Japan. It is one of the known cases of animals capable of reverting completely to a sexually immature, colonial stage after having reached sexual maturity as a solitary individual.

Brain Cells Found to Control Aging. Scientists have found that stem cells in the brain's hypothalamus govern how fast aging occurs in the body.

Scientists Decipher Mechanisms Underlying the Biology of Aging. Cells periodically switch between "on" and "off" in their chromatin state during aging. Aged cells lose this switching capability, resulting in cell death. As cells age, damage in their DNA accumulates over time, leading to decay in normal functioning and eventually resulting in death. A natural biochemical process known as "chromatin silencing" helps protect DNA from damage. The silencing process converts specific regions of DNA from a loose, open state into a closed one, thus shielding DNA regions. Among the molecules that promote silencing is a family of proteins -- broadly conserved from bacteria to humans -- known as sirtuins.

Chromatin is a complex of macromolecules found in cells, consisting of DNA, protein, and RNA. The primary functions of chromatin are 1) to package DNA into a more compact, denser shape, 2) to reinforce the DNA macromolecule to allow mitosis, 3) to prevent DNA damage, and 4) to control gene expression and DNA replication. The primary protein components of chromatin are histones that compact the DNA. Chromatin is only found in eukaryotic cells (cells with defined nuclei). Prokaryotic cells have a different organization of their DNA (the prokaryotic chromosome equivalent is called genophore and is localized within the nucleoid region).

Researchers have identified 16 Genetic Markers associated with a decreased lifespan, including 14 new to science.

New Player in Human Aging. Scientists pinpoint neural activity's role in human longevity. Researchers discover that the activity of the nervous system might influence human longevity. Neural excitation linked to shorter life, while suppression of overactivity appears to extend life span. Protein REST, previously shown to protect aging brains from dementia and other diseases, emerges as a key player in molecular cascade related to aging. Findings suggest future avenues for intervention in diseases ranging from Alzheimer's to bipolar disorder.

Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) is a variation in a single nucleotide that occurs at a specific position in the genome, where each variation is present to some appreciable degree within a population (e.g. > 1%).

Key aspects of human cell ageing reversed by new compounds AP39, AP123 and RT01 that have been designed by the Exeter team to selectively deliver minute quantities of the gas hydrogen sulfide to the mitochondria in cells and help the old or damaged cells to generate the 'energy' needed for survival and to reduce senescence. Our compounds provide mitochondria in cells with an alternative fuel to help them function properly.

Molecular 'switch' reverses chronic inflammation and aging. Scientists have identified a molecular 'switch' that controls the immune machinery responsible for chronic inflammation in the body. The finding could lead to new ways to halt or even reverse many age-related conditions, from from Alzheimer's and Parkinson's to diabetes and cancer. In the study, a team show that a bulky collection of immune proteins called the NLRP3 inflammasome -- responsible for sensing potential threats to the body and launching an inflammation response -- can be essentially switched off by removing a small bit of molecular matter in a process called deacetylation. Overactivation of the NLRP3 inflammasome has been linked to a variety of chronic conditions, including multiple sclerosis, cancer, diabetes and dementia.

Eosinophil Cell Therapy Promotes Rejuvenation. Researchers investigated the possibility to reverse age-related impairments by restoring the immune cell balance in visceral adipose tissue.

Eosinophil is a white blood cell containing granules that are readily stained by eosin. Acidophils are a variety of white blood cells and one of the immune system components responsible for combating multicellular parasites and certain infections in vertebrates. Along with mast cells and basophils, they also control mechanisms associated with allergy and asthma. They are granulocytes that develop during hematopoiesis in the bone marrow before migrating into blood, after which they are terminally differentiated and do not multiply.

Worms live longer lives if they produce excess levels of a protein p62, which recognizes toxic cell proteins that are tagged for destruction. The discovery could help uncover treatments for age-related conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease, which are often caused by accumulation of misfolded proteins.

Old human cells rejuvenated with stem cell technology. The proteins, known as Yamanaka factors, are commonly used to transform an adult cell into what are known as induced pluripotent stem cells, or iPS cells. Induced pluripotent stem cells can become nearly any type of cell in the body, regardless of the cell from which they originated. They've become important in regenerative medicine and drug discovery. The study found that inducing old human cells in a lab dish to briefly express these proteins rewinds many of the molecular hallmarks of aging and renders the treated cells nearly indistinguishable from their younger counterparts.

Diluting blood plasma rejuvenates tissue, reverses aging in mice. A new study reveals that replacing half of the blood plasma with a mixture of saline and albumin reverses signs of aging and rejuvenates muscle, brain and liver tissue in old mice. In humans, the composition of blood plasma can be altered in a clinical procedure called therapeutic plasma exchange, or plasmapheresis, which is currently FDA-approved in the U.S. for treating a variety of autoimmune diseases.

Pathways that extend lifespan by 500% identified. Discovery of cellular mechanisms could open door to more effective anti-aging therapies. The new research uses a double mutant in which the insulin signaling (IIS) and TOR pathways have been genetically altered. Because alteration of the IIS pathways yields a 100 percent increase in lifespan and alteration of the TOR pathway yields a 30 percent increase, the double mutant would be expected to live 130 percent longer. But instead, its lifespan was amplified by 500 percent.

Age-related impairments reversed in animal model. Researchers demonstrate in an animal model that age-related frailty and immune decline can be halted and even partially reversed using a novel cell-based therapeutic approach. Visceral adipose tissue, known as belly fat, crucially contributes to the development of chronic low-grade inflammation. Certain immune cells in the belly fat play and an essential role in regulating chronic low-grade inflammation and downstream aging processes. a certain kind of immune cells, known as eosinophils, which are predominantly found in the blood circulation, are also present in belly fat of both humans and mice. Although classically known to provide protection from parasite infection and to promote allergic airway disease, eosinophils located in belly fat are responsible to maintain local immune homeostasis. With increasing age the frequency of eosinophils in belly fat declines, while the number of pro-inflammatory macrophages increases. Owing to this immune cell dysbalance, belly fat turns into a source of pro-inflammatory mediators accumulating systemically in old age. Elderly people are more prone to infectious diseases as the function of their immune system continuously declines with progression of age.

Eating Healthier - Over Eating Decreases Life Span

How Eating Less can Slow the Aging Process. When Ribosomes, the cell’s protein makers slow down, the aging process slows too. The decreased speed lowers production but gives ribosomes extra time to repair themselves.

Live Long, Die Young (youtube) - Eat Less and Live More.

Scientifically Designed Fasting Diet Lowers Risks for Major Diseases, three cycles of a low-calorie, “fasting-mimicking” diet for five days each month.

Cancer and Nutrition - Personalized Nutrition

Fasting-Mimicking Diet may Reverse Diabetes Periodic cycles of Fasting reprogram pancreatic cells and restore insulin production, USC researchers find. Low Insulin Growth Factor may increase longevity.

Link between Biological Clock and Aging revealed - Over Eating

A Fasting-Mimicking diet may Reduce Disease risk factors and Reverse Diabetes (youtube)

Some stress in early life extends lifespan, research in roundworms shows.

Moderate Consumption of Fats and Carbohydrates Best for Health

ProLon is a 5-day Fasting Mimicking Diet program for people seeking healthy aging, managing body weight, and maintaining healthy levels of cholesterol, blood pressure, glucose, C-reactive protein (CRP), and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1).

Valter Longo is an Italian-American biogerontologist and cell biologist known for his studies on the role of starvation and nutrient response genes on cellular protection aging and diseases and for proposing that longevity is regulated by similar genes and mechanisms in many eukaryotes. He is currently a professor at the USC Davis School of Gerontology with a joint appointment in the department of Biological Sciences as well as serving as the director of the USC Longevity Institute.

Secret to Longevity may lie in the Microbiome and the Gut. Experiments in fruit flies show increased lifespan thanks to a combination of probiotics and an herbal supplement Triphala, which is an Ayurvedic herbal rasayana formula consisting of equal parts of three myrobalans, taken without seed: n traditional Ayurvedic medicine, triphala is believed to be useful for: immune system stimulation, improvement of digestion, relief of constipation, gastrointestinal tract cleansing, relief of gas (carminative), treatment of diabetes, treatment of eye disease.

Calorie Restricted Diet - Fasting intermittently is a natural way to get rid of senescence cells.

Fisetin is a plant flavonol from the flavonoid group of polyphenols. It can be found in many plants, where it serves as a colouring agent. It is also found in many fruits and vegetables, such as strawberries, apples, persimmons, onions and cucumbers. Its chemical formula was first described by Austrian chemist Josef Herzig in 1891. The biological activity of fisetin has been studied in many laboratory assays; like other polyphenols it has many activities. Fisetin, like other polyphenols such as resveratrol, is a sirtuin-activating compound and has been shown in laboratory studies to extend the life of yeast, worms, flies and mice. Like the other compounds, it has also been shown to be reactive in many different assays of biological activities, raising the possibility that any drug generated from fisetin would have too many side effects to be useful. Fisetin can be found in a wide variety of plants. It is found in Eudicotyledons, such as trees and shrubs in the family Fabaceae, such as the acacias Acacia greggii and Acacia berlandieri, the parrot tree (Butea frondosa), the honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos), members of the family Anacardiaceae such as the Quebracho colorado and species of the genus Rhus, which contains the sumacs.

Sirtuin-Activating Compound are chemical compounds having an effect on sirtuins, a group of enzymes that use NAD+ to remove acetyl groups from proteins. They are caloric restriction mimetic compounds that may be helpful in treating various aging-related diseases.

Sirtuin are a class of proteins that possess either mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase, or deacylase activity, including deacetylase, desuccinylase, demalonylase, demyristoylase and depalmitoylase activity. The name Sir2 comes from the yeast gene 'silent mating-type information regulation 2', the gene responsible for cellular regulation in yeast. From in vitro studies, sirtuins are implicated in influencing cellular processes like aging, transcription, apoptosis, inflammation and stress resistance, as well as energy efficiency and alertness during low-calorie situations. As of 2018, there was no clinical evidence that sirtuins affect human aging.

Resveratrol is a type of natural phenol, and a phytoalexin produced by several plants in response to injury or, when the plant is under attack by pathogens such as bacteria or fungi. Sources of resveratrol in food include the skin of grapes, blueberries, raspberries, mulberries. Although it is used as a dietary supplement, there is no good evidence that consuming resveratrol affects life expectancy or human health.

Pterostilbene is a stilbenoid chemically related to resveratrol. In plants, it serves a defensive phytoalexin role.

New Genetic Variations Linked to Educational Attainment: Genetic overlap between Cognitive Ability and Longevity


Diets high in protein, particularly plant protein, linked to lower risk of death. Diets high in protein, particularly protein from plants such as legumes (peas, beans and lentils), whole grains and nuts, have been linked to lower risks of developing diabetes, heart disease and stroke, while regular consumption of red meat and high intake of animal proteins have been linked to several health problems.

Three years younger in just eight weeks. A groundbreaking clinical trial shows we can reduce biological age, as measured by the Horvath 2013 DNAmAge clock, by more than three years in only eight weeks with diet and lifestyle through balancing DNA methylation. The 8-week treatment program included diet, sleep, exercise and relaxation guidance, and supplemental probiotics and phytonutrients, resulting in a statistically significant reduction of biological age -- over three years younger, compared to controls.

Amazon indigenous group's lifestyle may hold a key to slowing down aging. Tsimane people are unique for their healthy brains that age more slowly. The Tsimane indigenous people of the Bolivian Amazon experience less brain atrophy than their American and European peers. The decrease in their brain volumes with age is 70% slower than in Western populations.

Life Extension Foundations

Methuselah Foundation is a non-profit organization dedicated to extending the healthy human lifespan by advancing tissue engineering and regenerative medicine therapies. It was co-founded in 2003 by Aubrey de Grey and David Gobel, and is based in Springfield, Virginia, United States. According to its website, Methuselah has given more than $4 million to support research and development in regenerative medicine.

Methuselah Foundation
SENS Research Foundation researches and treats age-related disease.
Gerontology Research Group
Alcor Life Extension Foundation

Institute for Aging Research
National Institute on Aging: Healthy Aging: Lessons from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.
National Institutes of Health
Raad Fest cutting-edge methods to reverse aging are presented for all interest levels, from beginner to expert.

The Albert Einstein College of Medicine ("Einstein")
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services
Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary field that develops methods and software tools for understanding biological data.

Parabiosis meaning "living beside", is a technical term in various contexts in fields of study related to ecology and physiology. It accordingly has been defined independently in at least three disciplines, namely experimental or medical physiology, the ecology of inactive physiological states, and the ecology of certain classes of social species that share nests. Young Blood - Platelet.

Elixir of Life, also known as elixir of immortality, and sometimes equated with the philosopher's stone, is a mythical potion that supposedly grants the drinker eternal life and/or eternal youth. This elixir was also said to cure all diseases. Alchemists in various ages and cultures sought the means of formulating the elixir. Elixir of Life is a potion that supposedly grants the drinker eternal life and/or eternal youth. This elixir was also said to cure all diseases. Alchemists in various ages and cultures sought the means of formulating the elixir. The concept originated in ancient India or China where the concept preceded that in Europe by millennia.

Eternal Youth is the concept of human physical immortality free of ageing. The youth referred to is usually meant to be in contrast to the depredations of aging, rather than a specific age of the human lifespan. Achieving eternal youth so far remains beyond the capabilities of scientific technology. However, much research is being conducted in the sciences of genetics which may allow manipulation of the aging process in the future. Eternal youth is common in mythology, and is a popular theme in fiction.

Fountain of Youth is a mythical spring that restores the youth of anyone who drinks or bathes in its waters.

Ambrosia (classical mythology) the food and drink of the gods; mortals who ate it became immortal.

Longevity Meme

Long life only comes to those people who make an effort to do all the right things, like eating healthy, exercising, avoiding toxic substances, and also continually educating themselves. Long life does not come to those who believe that they can just take a pill and live over 100 years in good physical and mental health. That is a lie. Longevity pills will not protect you from diseases like heart disease or cancers. You have to do all the right things. There's no pill that will stop you from being stupid. You have to learn how not to be stupid. Longevity pills will mostly benefit the people who are doing the necessary work and maintenance that comes with the responsibilities for living a long and beautiful life. But even then, there is still no guarantees for a long life, just better odds. And I will do my best to increase those odds as much as I possibly can, for myself and for others.

Higher IQ in Childhood is Linked to a Longer Life (learning to be intelligent does have its advantages)

Book readers reading around 3.5 hours a week live an average of two years longer than people who don't read at all. But only if you read the right books at the right times in your life.

Related Subject Pages - Ageing (caregiving) - Growing Old - Senior Citizen Stories (Still Going Strong) - Nutrition - Vitamins - Brain Food - Exercise - Learning - Traveling - Hobbies - Meditation - Relationships - Population Growth.

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