Heredity - Traits - Genes

The human mind and the body has incredible abilities that most people are not aware of.

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Ninety Nine Percent of the information that we inherit in our DNA is good. But some of the things that we inherit are not so good, and can even be bad. The good news is, if we are aware of our vulnerabilities, then we can adapt and make the necessary changes that will keep the bad genes from activating and turning on. And maybe we can even correct our bad genes so that we don't pass on these defects that are in our DNA onto future generations. But the most important thing that we need to do is to pass on human knowledge, because good genes will not protect us from our own ignorance. So don't worry that you could never overcome a trait or traits, or worry about something that is heredity, innate, genetic or genomic, or worry about an instinct, or a characteristic. These things are not life sentences. Just because you are susceptible, predisposed, vulnerable or have certain Inclinations, this does not mean that you do not have choices, options or abilities. Learn about your choices and options and learn about the human bodies natural abilities that can help tap the powers of the mind and help tap the powers of the human body. You have more control then you think.

Human Nature - Instinct - Inheriting a dumbed down education

Heredity is the genetic information passing of traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction. This is the process by which an offspring cell or organism acquires or becomes predisposed to the characteristics of its parent cell or organism. Through heredity, variations exhibited by individuals can accumulate and cause some species to evolve through the natural selection of specific phenotype traits. The study of heredity in biology is called genetics, which includes the field of epigenetics.

Inherited is the genetic information that the body receives from the parents at the moment of conception or birth.

Inherit - Beneficiary - Genealogy (bloodline) - Phenotype - DNA Digital Storage

Trait is a characteristic of an organism that can be the result of genes and/or influenced by the environment. Traits can be physical like hair color or the shape and size of a plant leaf or a distinguishing feature of your personal nature. Traits can also be behaviors such as nest building behavior in birds. Gene Regulation.

Mendelian Traits in Humans is a child receiving a dominant allele from either parent will have the dominant form of the phenotypic trait or characteristic. Only those that received the recessive allele from both parents, known as zygosity, will have the recessive phenotype. Those that receive a dominant allele from one parent and a recessive allele from the other parent will have the dominant form of the trait. Purely Mendelian traits are a tiny minority of all traits, since most phenotypic traits exhibit incomplete dominance, codominance, and contributions from many genes.

Why older fathers pass on more genetic mutations to their offspring. The male reproductive system serves as a hotspot for the emergence of new genes. Perhaps that explains why more new mutations are inherited from fathers than from mothers. It doesn't, however, clarify why older fathers pass on more mutations than younger ones do. Researchers in Li Zhao's lab studied mutations that occur during the production of sperm from germline cells, known as spermatogenesis. They found that mutations are common in the testes of both young and old fruit flies, but more abundant in older flies from the outset. Moreover, many of these mutations seem to be removed in younger fruit flies during spermatogenesis by the body's genomic repair mechanisms -- but they fail to be fixed in the testes of older flies.

Father's diet could shape the health of his offspring. Research explored how the measured amounts of mixtures of protein, fat and carbs in the father's diet, could influence specific features of his sons and daughters health and behavior. A mice study suggests a father's diet may shape the anxiety of his sons and the metabolic health of his daughters before they are even conceived.

Revealing the evolutionary origin of genomic imprinting. Some of our genes can be expressed or silenced depending on whether we inherited them from our mother or our father. The mechanism behind this phenomenon, known as genomic imprinting, is determined by DNA modifications during egg and sperm production.

What Twin Studies tell us about the Heritability of Brain Development, Morphology, and Function. The development of brain structure and function shows large inter-individual variation. The extent to which this variation is due to genetic or environmental influences has been investigated in twin studies using structural and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Twins - Genetic Variation.

A faster “code breaker” to analyze human DNA. Each person's genome is different, so one benefit of our approach is helping scientists see how an individual's genome can make them susceptible to different diseases in different ways.

Genetic Association is when one or more genotypes within a population co-occur with a phenotypic trait more often than would be expected by chance occurrence.

Antecedents is someone from whom you are descended, but usually more remote than a grandparent. A preceding occurrence or cause or event. Anything that precedes something similar in time. Ancestors - Knowledge Preservation.

Meta-analysis reveals how crowds may change gene expression in some insects. Scientists investigate how genes in some insects can influence one another to change their expression depending on environmental conditions. A grasshopper hatched in a crowded environment may look and behave differently than a grasshopper hatched in isolation -- even if they have the same genes. The mechanism of this density-dependent phenomenon, called Polyphenism, is well-documented in both aphids and locusts, but how genes regulate these traits has remained shrouded until now. Researchers from Hiroshima University analyzed datasets collected from prior studies to better understand how genes can influence one another to change their expression depending on environmental conditions. Phenotypic plasticity refers to some of the changes in an organism's behavior, morphology and physiology in response to a unique environment.

Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms or SNPs or pronounced “snips”, are the most common type of genetic variation among people. Each SNP represents a difference in a single DNA building block, called a nucleotide. In genetics and bioinformatics, a single-nucleotide polymorphism or snips is a germline substitution of a single nucleotide at a specific position in the genome that is present in a sufficiently large fraction of considered population (generally regarded as 1% or more). Medically Tailored Meals (Nutrigenomics).


Mitochondrial DNA is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate or ATP. Mitochondrial DNA is only a small portion of the DNA in a eukaryotic cell; most of the DNA can be found in the cell nucleus and, in plants and algae, also in plastids such as chloroplasts. (mtDNA or mDNA). In humans, the 16,569 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA encode for only 37 genes. Human mitochondrial DNA was the first significant part of the human genome to be sequenced. In most species, including humans, mtDNA is inherited solely from the mother. Since animal mtDNA evolves faster than nuclear genetic markers, it represents a mainstay of phylogenetics and evolutionary biology. It also permits an examination of the relatedness of populations, and so has become important in anthropology and biogeography. A car runs on gasoline, your cells run on ATP. There are more mitochondria in muscle cells than there are in skin cells. Cells that are more active and/or move more will require a greater energy produced via cellular respiration. Therefore, cells that are more active usually contain more mitochondria than cells that are not as active. Your heart muscle cells contain far more mitochondria than any other organ in body, about 5,000 mitochondria per cell.

Proton Pump - Cell Ions

Jared Rutter (U. Utah, HHMI) 1: Mitochondria: The Mysterious Cellular Parasite (youtube).

Electromagnetic Radiation - Biophysics - VO2 Max

Mitochondrial DNA or mtDNA Testing traces a person's matrilineal or mother-​line ancestry using the DNA in his or her mitochondria. Testing mtDNA allows for investigation into your maternal line and can help identify living relatives whose mtDNA is similar to yours, as well as ancient migration routes your maternal ancestors may have taken. While men receive mitochondrial DNA from their mother, they do not pass it on to their children.

Tiny thermometer measures how mitochondria heat up the cell by unleashing proton energy. Mitochondria, the cell's power stations, release quick bursts of heat by unleashing the power stored in an internal proton battery. That's what fat cells do when they're in need of heat when the body's temperature goes down. researchers developed a tiny, fast-read thermometer probe to internally measure temperature inside of living cells.

Mitochondria efficiently adapt to changing metabolic conditions. The protein complexes MICOS and ATP synthase can communicate with each other. Researchers have uncovered an important mechanism that ensures efficient metabolic adaptation of mitochondria.

Spider-like' mitochondrial structure initiates cell-wide stress response. Scientists discovered the unique molecular structure, which could have implications in age-related diseases like neurodegeneration.

Mitochondrial biogenesis is the process by which cells increase mitochondrial numbers.

Study unveils a role of mitochondria in dietary fat processing. Researchers discover a new mechanism controlling the uptake of lipids from digested food. The maintenance of a balanced lipid homeostasis is critical for our health. While consumption of excessive amounts of fatty foods contributes to metabolic diseases such as obesity and atherosclerosis, fat is an indispensable component of our diet. Digested lipids supply the body with essential building blocks and facilitate the absorption of important vitamins.

Electron Transport Chain (youtube) - The Electron Transport Chain & complexes I-IV that pump protons out of the Mitochondria by the transfer of the electrons carried on NADH & FADH2 to maintain the concentration gradient of the protons "high in the intermembrane space & low in the matrix of the Mitochondria" this video is made by HarvardX on edX.

Epigenetic Memory of a cell defines the set of modifications to the cell's deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) that do not alter the DNA sequence, and have been inherited from the cell from which it descends. Such modifications can alter Gene Expression and therefore the properties and behaviour of the cell. Sperm Epigenetics and Influence of Environmental Factors.

Inclusive Fitness is one of two metrics of evolutionary success. Personal fitness is the number of offspring that an individual begets (regardless of who rescues/rears/supports them). Inclusive fitness is the number of offspring equivalents that an individual rears, rescues or otherwise supports through its behavior (regardless of who begets them).

Grandmother Hypothesis is a hypothesis to explain the existence of menopause in human life history by identifying the adaptive value of extended kin networking. It builds on the previously postulated "mother hypothesis" which states that as mothers age, the costs of reproducing become greater, and energy devoted to those activities would be better spent helping her offspring in their reproductive efforts. It suggests that by redirecting their energy onto those of their offspring, grandmothers can better ensure the survival of their genes through younger generations. By providing sustenance and support to their kin, grandmothers not only ensure that their genetic interests are met, but they also enhance their social networks which could translate into better immediate resource acquisition. This effect could extend past kin into larger community networks and benefit wider group fitness.

Genetic Recombination is the production of offspring with combinations of traits that differ from those found in either parent. In eukaryotes, genetic recombination during meiosis can lead to a novel set of genetic information that can be passed on from the parents to the offspring. Most recombination is naturally occurring. During meiosis in eukaryotes, genetic recombination involves the pairing of homologous chromosomes. This may be followed by information transfer between the chromosomes. The information transfer may occur without physical exchange (a section of genetic material is copied from one chromosome to another, without the donating chromosome being changed) (see SDSA pathway in Figure); or by the breaking and rejoining of DNA strands, which forms new molecules of DNA (see DHJ pathway in Figure). Recombination may also occur during mitosis in eukaryotes where it ordinarily involves the two sister chromosomes formed after chromosomal replication. In this case, new combinations of alleles are not produced since the sister chromosomes are usually identical. In meiosis and mitosis, recombination occurs between similar molecules of DNA (homologs). In meiosis, non-sister homologous chromosomes pair with each other so that recombination characteristically occurs between non-sister homologues. In both meiotic and mitotic cells, recombination between homologous chromosomes is a common mechanism used in DNA repair. Genetic recombination and recombinational DNA repair also occurs in bacteria and archaea, which use asexual reproduction. Recombination can be artificially induced in laboratory (in vitro) settings, producing recombinant DNA for purposes including vaccine development. V(D)J recombination in organisms with an adaptive immune system is a type of site-specific genetic recombination that helps immune cells rapidly diversify to recognize and adapt to new pathogens. We are all the Same.

Recombinant DNA molecules are DNA molecules formed by laboratory methods of genetic recombination (such as molecular cloning) to bring together genetic material from multiple sources, creating sequences that would not otherwise be found in the genome. Recombinant DNA in a living organism was first achieved in 1973 by Herbert Boyer, of the University of California at San Francisco, and Stanley Cohen, at Stanford University, who used E. coli restriction enzymes to insert foreign DNA into plasmids.

Horizontal Gene Transfer is the movement of genetic material between unicellular and/or multicellular organisms other than by the ("vertical") transmission of DNA from parent to offspring (reproduction). HGT is an important factor in the evolution of many organisms

New research shows gene exchange between viruses and hosts drives evolution. The first comprehensive analysis of viral horizontal gene transfer illustrates the extent to which viruses pick up genes from their hosts to hone their infection process, while at the same time hosts also co-opt useful viral genes.

Genetic Variability is either the presence of, or the generation of, genetic differences. It is defined as "the formation of individuals differing in genotype, or the presence of genotypically different individuals, in contrast to environmentally induced differences which, as a rule, cause only temporary, nonheritable changes of the phenotype". Genetic variability in a population is important for biodiversity.

Heteroplasmy is the presence of more than one type of organellar genome (mitochondrial DNA or plastid DNA) within a cell or individual. It is an important factor in considering the severity of mitochondrial diseases. Because most eukaryotic cells contain many hundreds of mitochondria with hundreds of copies of mitochondrial DNA, it is common for mutations to affect only some mitochondria, leaving most unaffected. Although detrimental scenarios are well-studied, heteroplasmy can also be beneficial. For example, centenarians show a higher than average degree of heteroplasmy. Microheteroplasmy is present in most individuals. This refers to hundreds of independent mutations in one organism, with each mutation found in about 1–2% of all mitochondrial genomes.

Researchers find genetic links between traits are often overstated. Genetic correlation estimates typically assume that mating is random. But in the real world, partners tend to pair up because of many shared interests and social structures. As a result, some genetic correlations in previous work that have been attributed to shared biology may instead represent incorrect statistical assumptions. For example, previous estimates of genetic overlap between body mass index (BMI) and educational attainment are likely to reflect this type of population structure, induced by "cross-trait assortative mating," or how individuals of one trait tend to partner with individuals of another trait. Many estimates of how strongly traits and diseases share genetic signals may be inflated. Through the use of powerful genome sequencing technology, scientists in recent years have sought to understand the genetic associations between traits and disease risk, hoping that discoveries of shared genetics could point to clues for tackling diseases. However, UCLA researchers said their new study, published Nov. 17 in Science, provides caution against relying too heavily on genetic correlation estimates. They say that such estimates are confounded by non-biological factors more than has been previously appreciated.

DNA building blocks regulate inflammation. Shortage of DNA building blocks in the cell releases mitochondrial DNA. Mitochondria are the energy suppliers of our body cells. These tiny cell components have their own genetic material, which triggers an inflammatory response when released into the interior of the cell. The reasons for the release are not yet known, but some cardiac and neurodegenerative diseases as well as the ageing process are linked to the mitochondrial genome. Researchers have investigated the reasons for the release of mitochondrial genetic material and found a direct link to cellular metabolism: when the cell's DNA building blocks are in short supply, mitochondria release their genetic material and trigger inflammation. The researchers hope to find new therapeutic approaches by influencing this metabolic pathway.

DNA Tests - Genetic Testing

DNA Test or Genetic Testing can help determine bloodlines or geneology, and can also help with the genetic diagnosis of vulnerabilities to inherited diseases. In agriculture, a form of genetic testing known as progeny testing can be used to evaluate the quality of breeding stock. In population ecology, genetic testing can be used to track genetic strengths and vulnerabilities of species populations. In humans, genetic testing can be used to determine a child's parentage (genetic mother and father) or in general a person's ancestry or biological relationship between people. In addition to studying chromosomes to the level of individual genes, genetic testing in a broader sense includes biochemical tests for the possible presence of genetic diseases, or mutant forms of genes associated with increased risk of developing genetic disorders. Genetic testing identifies changes in chromosomes, genes, or proteins. The variety of genetic tests has expanded throughout the years. In the past, the main genetic tests searched for abnormal chromosome numbers and mutations that lead to rare, inherited disorders. Today, tests involve analyzing multiple genes to determine the risk of developing specific diseases or disorders, with the more common diseases consisting of heart disease and cancer. The results of a genetic test can confirm or rule out a suspected genetic condition or help determine a person's chance of developing or passing on a genetic disorder. Several hundred genetic tests are currently in use, and more are being developed. Because genetic mutations can directly affect the structure of the proteins they code for, testing for specific genetic diseases can also be accomplished by looking at those proteins or their metabolites, or looking at stained or fluorescent chromosomes under a microscope. DNA testing is used to identify changes in DNA sequence or chromosome structure. Genetic testing can also include measuring the results of genetic changes, such as RNA analysis as an output of gene expression, or through biochemical analysis to measure specific protein output. In a medical setting, genetic testing can be used to diagnose or rule out suspected genetic disorders, predict risks for specific conditions, or gain information that can be used to customize medical treatments based on an individual's genetic makeup. Genetic testing can also be used to determine biological relatives, such as a child's parentage (genetic mother and father) through DNA paternity testing, or be used to broadly predict an individual's ancestry. Genetic testing of plants and animals can be used for similar reasons as in humans (e.g. to assess relatedness/ancestry or predict/diagnose genetic disorders), to gain information used for selective breeding, or for efforts to boost genetic diversity in endangered populations.

Genetic Genealogy is the use of DNA testing in combination with traditional Genealogy and traditional genealogical and historical records to infer relationships between individuals. Genetic genealogy involves the use of genealogical DNA testing to determine the level and type of the genetic relationship between individuals.

Genealogical DNA Test is a DNA-based test which looks at specific locations of a person's genome, in order to find or verify ancestral genealogical relationships or (with lower reliability) to estimate the ethnic mixture of an individual as part of genetic genealogy. Since different testing companies use different ethnic reference groups and different matching algorithms, ethnicity estimates for an individual will vary between tests, sometimes dramatically. Three principal types of genealogical DNA tests are available, with each looking at a different part of the genome and being useful for different types of genealogical research: autosomal (atDNA), mitochondrial (mtDNA), and Y-DNA.

Autosomal DNA Tests trace a person's autosomal chromosomes, which contain the segments of DNA the person shares with everyone to whom they're related (maternally and paternally, both directly and indirectly). Autosomal DNA tests can confirm ethnicity percentages and close relationships with a high level of accuracy. Autosome is chromosome that is not a sex chromosome.

Y Chromosome DNA Tests is a genealogical DNA test which is used to explore a man's patrilineal or direct father's-line Ancestry. The Y chromosome, like the patrilineal surname, passes down virtually unchanged from father to son. Every now and then occasional mistakes in the copying process occur, and these mutations can be used to estimate the time frame in which the two individuals share a most recent common ancestor or MRCA. If their test results are a perfect or nearly perfect match, they are related within a genealogical time frame. Each person can then look at the other's father-line information, typically the names of each patrilineal ancestor and his spouse, together with the dates and places of their marriage and of both spouses' births and deaths. The two matched persons may find a common ancestor or MRCA, as well as whatever information the other already has about their joint patriline or father's line prior to the MRCA. Y-DNA tests are typically co-ordinated in a surname DNA project. And each receives the other's contact information if the other chose to allow this. Women who wish to determine their direct paternal DNA ancestry can ask their father, brother, paternal uncle, paternal grandfather, or a cousin who shares the same surname lineage (the same Y-DNA) to take a test for them. (also known as A Y chromosome DNA test (Y-DNA test). Y-chromosome testing that uncovers a male's Y-chromosome haplogroup, the ancient group of people from whom one's patrilineage descends. Because only one's male-line direct ancestors are traced by Y-DNA testing, no females (nor their male ancestors) from whom a male descends are encapsulated in the results.

Genetic Counseling - Genetic Disorders - Gene Therapy - Personalized Diet - Personalized Medicine.

Most of the Y Chromosome are handed down from Father to Son without changes. Likewise, in humans, the tiny bit of DNA contained in an unusual package of genetic material known as mitochondrial DNA is passed down from mother to child without any recombination. Y Chromosome DNA Test.

Haplotype is a group of alleles in an organism that are inherited together from a single parent.

Haplogroup is a genetic population group of people who share a common ancestor on the patriline or the matriline. Haplogroups are assigned letters of the alphabet, and refinements consist of additional number and letter combinations. Haplogroup is a group of similar haplotypes that share a common ancestor with a single-nucleotide polymorphism mutation. More specifically, a haplogroup is a combination of alleles at different chromosomal regions that are closely linked and that tend to be inherited together. As a haplogroup consists of similar haplotypes, it is usually possible to predict a haplogroup from haplotypes. Haplogroups pertain to a single line of descent. As such, membership of a haplogroup, by any individual, relies on a relatively small proportion of the genetic material possessed by that individual.

Polymerase Chain Reaction is a method widely used in molecular biology to make many copies of a specific DNA segment. Using PCR, a single copy (or more) of a DNA sequence is exponentially amplified to generate thousands to millions of more copies of that particular DNA segment. PCR is now a common and often indispensable technique used in medical laboratory and clinical laboratory research for a broad variety of applications including biomedical research and criminal forensics.

Single-molecule DNA sequencing advances could enable faster, more cost-effective genetic screening.

DNA Profiling (profiling flaws) - Dominant GenesHumanities (human historical studies).

GED Match: Tools for DNA and Genealogy Research provides DNA and genealogical analysis tools for amateur and professional researchers and genealogists. Most tools are free, but we do provide some premium tools for users who wish to help support us with contributions. You will need to upload DNA and / or genealogical (GEDCOM) data to make use of the tools here.

New Nijmegen method reveals hidden genetic variations. Many hidden genetic variations can be detected with Chameleolyser, a new method. The information is already yielding new patient diagnoses and may also lead to the discovery of as yet unknown disease genes. Medical science has been using exome sequencing to map the genes of individual patients with rare diseases for about 15 years. With this technique, the DNA of a person's approximately 20,000 human genes are cut into small pieces so the DNA letters can be read off. This creates a huge amount of tiny DNA fragments, which are then reassembled into whole genes like a jigsaw puzzle. The result is an overview of that single person's 20,000 genes.

Fastest DNA sequencing technique helps undiagnosed patients find answers in mere hours. A research effort set the first Guinness World Record for the fastest DNA sequencing technique, which was used to sequence a human genome in just 5 hours and 2 minutes. A new ultra-rapid genome sequencing approach developed by Stanford Medicine scientists and their collaborators was used to diagnose rare genetic diseases in an average of eight hours -- a feat that's nearly unheard of in standard clinical care. Crispr.

DNA Testing Resources

Heir Search - DNA Center - Ancestry Genealogy DNA Test Reviews - DNA Testing

My Heritage has 85 million users worldwide, 2.1 billion family tree profiles.

Living DNA is twice the detail of other ancestry tests. We give you your DNA mix across 80 world regions, including 21 in Britain and Ireland.

AncestryDNA: Genetic Testing - DNA Ancestry Test Kit. Send in your saliva sample in a prepaid envelope, and get your results in 6-8 weeks. (amazon). Note: Results have little information.

DNA Ancestry Project - Genetic Testing (23 and me)

Popular DNA Ancestry Tests don't always find what people expect. That's due to how DNA rearranges itself when egg meets sperm, and also the quirks of genetic databases.

DNA Paternity Testing is the use of DNA profiling to determine whether two individuals are biologically parent and child. A paternity test establishes genetic proof whether a man is the biological father of an individual, and a maternity test establishes whether a woman is the biological mother of an individual. Tests can also determine the likelihood of someone being a biological grandparent to a grandchild. Though genetic testing is the most reliable standard, older methods also exist, including ABO blood group typing, analysis of various other proteins and enzymes, or using human leukocyte antigen antigens. The current techniques for paternity testing are using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Paternity testing can now also be performed while the woman is still pregnant from a blood draw. (also known as genetic fingerprinting).

Vitagene DNA test kits for your genetics, lifestyle, and goals.

Myriad Genetics technologies permit doctors and patients to understand the genetic basis of human disease and the role that genes play in the onset, progression and treatment of disease.

Artificial Intelligence applied to the Genome identifies an unknown Human Ancestor. By combining deep learning algorithms and statistical methods, investigators have identified, in the genome of Asian individuals, the footprint of a new hominid who cross bred with its ancestors tens of thousands of years ago.

Transcriptomics Technologies are the techniques used to study an organism’s transcriptome, the sum of all of its RNA transcripts. The information content of an organism is recorded in the DNA of its genome and expressed through transcription. Here, mRNA serves as a transient intermediary molecule in the information network, whilst non-coding RNAs perform additional diverse functions. A transcriptome captures a snapshot in time of the total transcripts present in a cell. Transcriptomics technologies provide a broad account of which cellular processes are active and which are dormant.

The Human Gene Database is a searchable, integrative database that provides comprehensive, user-friendly information on all annotated and predicted human genes. It automatically integrates gene-centric data from ~150 web sources, including genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, genetic, clinical and functional information.

Genetic Risks

Genetic Predisposition is a genetic characteristic which influences the possible phenotypic development of an individual organism within a species or population under the influence of environmental conditions. In medicine, genetic susceptibility to a disease refers to a genetic predisposition to a health problem, which may eventually be triggered by particular environmental or lifestyle factors, such as tobacco smoking or diet. Genetic testing is able to identify individuals who are genetically predisposed to certain diseases. Predisposed is made susceptible. Mutations.

Susceptible is a member of a population who is at risk of becoming infected by a disease. Vulnerabilities.

Autosomal Dominant is a gene from only one parent that can be inherited. Autosomal dominant disease is an abnormal gene from only one parent. Autosomal dominant disorder is a mutated dominant gene located on one of the nonsex chromosomes (autosomes).

Autosomal DNA is a term used in genetic genealogy to describe DNA which is inherited from the autosomal chromosomes. An autosome is any of the numbered chromosomes, as opposed to the sex chromosomes. Humans have 22 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes (the X chromosome and the Y chromosome). Autosomes are numbered roughly in relation to their sizes. That is, Chromosome 1 has approximately 2,800 genes, while chromosome 22 has approximately 750 genes. There is no established abbreviation for autosomal DNA: atDNA (more common) and auDNA are used.

Autosome is a chromosome that is not an allosome (a sex chromosome). An autosome is a pair of chromosomes in a diploid cell in which each chromosome has the same form. Allosomes, on the other hand, have different form and thereby determine sex. The DNA in autosomes is collectively known as atDNA or auDNA.

Dominance in genetics is a relationship between alleles of one gene, in which the effect on phenotype of one allele masks the contribution of a second allele at the same locus. The first allele is dominant and the second allele is recessive. For genes on an autosome (any chromosome other than a sex chromosome), the alleles and their associated traits are autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive. Dominance is a key concept in Mendelian inheritance and classical genetics. Often the dominant allele codes for a functional protein whereas the recessive allele does not.

Molecular Marker is a molecule contained within a sample taken from an organism (biological markers) or other matter. It can be used to reveal certain characteristics about the respective source. DNA, for example, is a molecular marker containing information about genetic disorders, genealogy and the evolutionary history of life. Specific regions of the DNA (genetic markers) is are used for diagnosing the autosomal recessive genetic disorder cystic fibrosis, taxonomic affinity (phylogenetics) and identity (DNA Barcoding). Further, life forms are known to shed unique chemicals, including DNA, into the environment as evidence of their presence in a particular location. Other biological markers, like proteins, are used in diagnostic tests for complex neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease. Non-biological molecular markers are also used, for example, in environmental studies.

Danger avoidance can be genetically encoded for four generations. Researchers have discovered that learned behaviors can be inherited for multiple generations in C. elegans, transmitted from parent to progeny via eggs and sperm cells.

Allele is a variant form of a given gene. Sometimes, different alleles can result in different observable phenotypic traits, such as different pigmentation.

DUF1220 is a protein domain that shows a striking human lineage-specific (HLS) increase in copy number and may be important to human brain evolution. The DUF1220 domain name has recently been changed to the Olduvai domain based on data obtained since initial discovery of the domain. DUF1220 copy number variation has more recently been investigated in autism and schizophrenia, as both disorders are associated with deletions and duplications of 1q21 yet the causative loci within such regions have not previously been identified. Glutamate Receptor.

Genetic Counseling is the process by which the patients or relatives at risk of an inherited disorder are advised of the consequences and nature of the disorder, the probability of developing or transmitting it, and the options open to them in management and family planning. This complex process can be separated into diagnostic (the actual estimation of risk) and supportive aspects. The process of advising individuals and families affected by or at risk of genetic disorders is to help them understand and adapt to the medical, psychological and familial implications of genetic contributions to disease. The process integrates: Interpretation of family and medical histories to assess the chance of disease occurrence or recurrence. Education about inheritance, testing, management, prevention, resources. Counseling to promote informed choices and adaptation to the risk or condition.

DNA Test Results should be interpreted with professional guidance. Anything short of sequencing is going to be short on accuracy. Genes account for just 5 to 20 percent of the whole picture. Environment and Food vs. Traits and Heredity.

Promethease is a computer program developed by the SNPedia team which allows users to compare personal genomics results against the SNPedia database, generating a report with information about a person's attributes, such as propensity to diseases, based on the presence of specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms. 

Dr. Patricks Genetic Tool. Gene variants called SNPs (pronounced “snips”) can affect the way our bodies absorb, metabolize, and utilize nutrients, and determine how effectively we eliminate xenobiotics and even potential carcinogens. By understanding the mechanisms by which these genes work and analyzing data generated from genome-wide association studies (known as GWAS) and Mendelian randomization, scientists can now understand what impact SNPs may have on disease risk and longevity in relationship with certain gene-environmental contexts. Once researchers understand how specific genotypes can affect how our genes function, this enables development of the most favorable nutritional and lifestyle strategies specific to a person’s genotype. This comprehensive genetic report consolidates up-to-date research on most of the common SNPs that research suggests may have actionable nutritional and lifestyle interventions based on scientific evidence. In order for us to produce your customized report, you must have been tested previously by a DNA testing service like 23andMe.

Genetic Disorder is an inherited medical condition caused by a DNA Abnormality. It's a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome, especially a condition that is present from birth (congenital). Most genetic disorders are quite rare and affect one person in every several thousands or millions. Genetic disorders may be hereditary, passed down from the parents' genes. In other genetic disorders, defects may be caused by new mutations or changes to the DNA. In such cases, the defect will only be passed down if it occurs in the germ line. The same disease, such as some forms of cancer, may be caused by an inherited genetic condition in some people, by new mutations in other people, and mainly by environmental causes in other people. Whether, when and to what extent a person with the genetic defect or abnormality will actually suffer from the disease is almost always affected by the environmental factors and events in the person's development. Some types of recessive gene disorders confer an advantage in certain environments when only one copy of the gene is present.

List of Genetic Disorders (wiki) - Special Needs

Deep Genomics genetic therapies. CRISPR.

Trait Prediction: dna land - Genomic Prediction

Polygenic Score is a number based on variation in multiple genetic loci and their associated weights (see regression analysis). It serves as the best prediction for the trait that can be made when taking into account variation in multiple genetic variants.

Locus in genetics is a fixed position on a chromosome, like the position of a gene or a marker (genetic marker). Each chromosome carries many genes; human's estimated 'haploid' protein coding genes are 19,000–20,000, on the 23 different chromosomes. A variant of the similar DNA sequence located at a given locus is called an allele. The ordered list of loci known for a particular genome is called a gene map. Gene mapping is the process of determining the locus for a particular biological trait. Diploid and polyploid cells whose chromosomes have the same allele of a given gene at some locus are called homozygous with respect to that gene, while those that have different alleles of a given gene at a locus are called heterozygous with respect to that gene.

Correlation between Relatives given Complete Genotypes: from Identity by Descent to Identity by Function. The phenotypic covariance between two individuals given their diploid genotypes is expressed in terms of functional identity states. The IBF (Identity by Function) parameters define a genetic architecture for a trait without reference to specific alleles or population. Given full genome sequences, we treat a gene-scale functional region, rather than a SNP, as a QTL, modeling patterns of dominance for multiple alleles. Applications demonstrated by simulation include phenotype and effect prediction and association, and estimation of heritability and classical variance components. A simulation case study of the Missing Heritability problem illustrates a decomposition of heritability under the IBF framework into Explained and Unexplained components.

Gene Expression

Gene Expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product. These products are often proteins, but in non-protein coding genes such as transfer RNA (tRNA) or small nuclear RNA (snRNA) genes, the product is a functional RNA. The process of gene expression is used by all known life—eukaryotes (including multicellular organisms), prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea), and utilized by viruses—to generate the macromolecular machinery for life. Environments and behaviors can impact gene expression. Intrinsic and extrinsic.

Expressing is to indicate through a symbol, formula, etc. To articulate or to communicate.

Manifest is to reveal its presence or make an appearance. Clearly revealed to the mind or the senses or judgment.

Researchers identify 6,500 Genes that are Expressed Differently in Men and Women.

Regulation of Gene Expression includes a wide range of mechanisms that are used by cells to increase or decrease the production of specific gene products (protein or RNA). Sophisticated programs of gene expression are widely observed in biology, for example to trigger developmental pathways, respond to environmental stimuli, or adapt to new food sources. Virtually any step of gene expression can be modulated, from transcriptional initiation, to RNA processing, and to the post-translational modification of a protein. Often, one gene regulator controls another, and so on, in a gene regulatory network. Gene regulation is essential for viruses, prokaryotes and eukaryotes as it increases the versatility and adaptability of an organism by allowing the cell to express protein when needed. Although as early as 1951, Barbara McClintock showed interaction between two genetic loci, Activator (Ac) and Dissociator (Ds), in the color formation of maize seeds, the first discovery of a gene regulation system is widely considered to be the identification in 1961 of the lac operon, discovered by François Jacob and Jacques Monod, in which some enzymes involved in lactose metabolism are expressed by E. coli only in the presence of lactose and absence of glucose. In multicellular organisms, gene regulation drives cellular differentiation and morphogenesis in the embryo, leading to the creation of different cell types that possess different gene expression profiles from the same genome sequence. Although this does not explain how gene regulation originated, evolutionary biologists include it as a partial explanation of how evolution works at a molecular level, and it is central to the science of evolutionary developmental biology ("evo-devo").

Gene Expression Profiling is the measurement of the activity (the expression) of thousands of genes at once, to create a global picture of cellular function. These profiles can, for example, distinguish between cells that are actively dividing, or show how the cells react to a particular treatment. Many experiments of this sort measure an entire genome simultaneously, that is, every gene present in a particular cell. Several transcriptomics technologies can be used to generate the necessary data to analyse. DNA Micro-Arrays measure the relative activity of previously identified target genes. Sequence based techniques, like RNA-Seq, provide information on the sequences of genes in addition to their expression level.

Spatiotemporal Gene Expression is the activation of Genes within specific tissues of an organism at specific times during development. Gene activation patterns vary widely in complexity. Some are straightforward and static, such as the pattern of tubulin, which is expressed in all cells at all times in life. Some, on the other hand, are extraordinarily intricate and difficult to predict and model, with expression fluctuating wildly from minute to minute or from cell to cell. Spatiotemporal variation plays a key role in generating the diversity of cell types found in developed organisms; since the identity of a cell is specified by the collection of genes actively expressed within that cell, if gene expression was uniform spatially and temporally, there could be at most one kind of cell. Cells and Longevity.

Mutations - Epigenetics - Phenotype - Trait Theory - DNA Methylation

Transcription in biology is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase. Both DNA and RNA are nucleic acids, which use base pairs of nucleotides as a complementary language. During transcription, a DNA sequence is read by an RNA polymerase, which produces a complementary, antiparallel RNA strand called a primary transcript. Transcription proceeds in the following general steps: RNA polymerase, together with one or more general transcription factors, binds to promoter DNA. RNA polymerase creates a transcription bubble, which separates the two strands of the DNA helix. This is done by breaking the hydrogen bonds between complementary DNA nucleotides. RNA polymerase adds RNA nucleotides (which are complementary to the nucleotides of one DNA strand). RNA sugar-phosphate backbone forms with assistance from RNA polymerase to form an RNA strand. Hydrogen bonds of the RNA–DNA helix break, freeing the newly synthesized RNA strand. If the cell has a nucleus, the RNA may be further processed. This may include polyadenylation, capping, and splicing. The RNA may remain in the nucleus or exit to the cytoplasm through the nuclear pore complex. The stretch of DNA transcribed into an RNA molecule is called a transcription unit and encodes at least one gene. If the gene encodes a protein, the transcription produces messenger RNA (mRNA); the mRNA, in turn, serves as a template for the protein's synthesis through translation. Alternatively, the transcribed gene may encode for either non-coding RNA (such as microRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), or other enzymatic RNA molecules called ribozymes. Overall, RNA helps synthesize, regulate, and process proteins; it therefore plays a fundamental role in performing functions within a cell. In virology, the term may also be used when referring to mRNA synthesis from an RNA molecule (i.e., RNA replication). For instance, the genome of a negative-sense single-stranded RNA (ssRNA -) virus may be template for a positive-sense single-stranded RNA (ssRNA +). This is because the positive-sense strand contains the information needed to translate the viral proteins for viral replication afterwards. This process is catalyzed by a viral RNA replicase. Mitochondrial DNA.

New mechanism for terminating transcription of DNA into RNA in bacteria. A bacterial protein helps to stop transcription -- the process of making RNA copies of DNA to carry out the functions of the cell -- by causing the cellular machinery that transcribes the DNA to pause at the appropriate spots in the genome. For a cell to access the genetic information stored in DNA, it first must be transcribed into RNA by an enzyme called RNA polymerase, which is an enzyme that synthesizes RNA from a DNA template. The mechanisms for termination in bacteria traditionally have been classified as either "factor-dependent," which relies on a protein called Rho, or intrinsic termination, which was thought to be "factor-independent." Intrinsic termination relies on an RNA hairpin structure that forms in the RNA molecule being produced, which causes the RNA to be released from the transcription machinery. NusG and NusA are both proteins classified as transcription factor that help regulate gene expression and are part of the complex of proteins that read and transcribe DNA during elongation. NusA interacts with the RNA molecule being produced and NusG can bind to the DNA to pause elongation. Based on previous research, NusA is thought to play a role in intrinsic termination by aiding in the formation of the RNA hairpin, but the role of NusG in termination had not been established. NusA is an essential protein that binds to RNA polymerase and also to the nascent RNA and influences transcription by inducing pausing and facilitating the process of transcription termination/antitermination. This leads to delayed entry of Rho at the rut site that inhibits the latter's RNA release process. To further explore the role of these two proteins in intrinsic termination, the research team produced strains of bacteria that lacked NusA, lacked NusG, and lacked both NusA and NusG. They then used a technique that they invented called "Term-Seq," in which they can preserve and identify the ends of all the RNA molecules produced in their bacterial strains. The RNA ends from the mutant strains could then be compared to RNA molecules from bacteria with normally functioning NusA and NusG.

Gene Silencing is the regulation of gene expression in a cell to prevent the expression of a certain gene. Gene silencing can occur during either transcription or translation and is often used in research. In particular, methods used to silence genes are being increasingly used to produce therapeutics to combat cancer and diseases, such as infectious diseases and neurodegenerative disorders. Gene silencing is often considered the same as gene knockdown. When genes are silenced, their expression is reduced. In contrast, when genes are knocked out, they are completely erased from the organism's genome and, thus, have no expression. Gene silencing is considered a gene knockdown mechanism since the methods used to silence genes, such as RNAi, CRISPR, or siRNA, generally reduce the expression of a gene by at least 70% but do not completely eliminate it. Methods using gene silencing are often considered better than gene knockouts since they allow researchers to study essential genes that are required for the animal models to survive and cannot be removed. In addition, they provide a more complete view on the development of diseases since diseases are generally associated with genes that have a reduced expression. Silent Mutation.

Down-Regulation is the process by which a cell decreases the quantity of a cellular component, such as RNA or protein, in response to an external stimulus. An example of downregulation is the cellular decrease in the expression of a specific receptor in response to its increased activation by a molecule, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, which reduces the cell's sensitivity to the molecule. This is an example of a locally acting (negative feedback) mechanism. Up-Regulation example is the response of liver cells exposed to such xenobiotic molecules as dioxin. In this situation, the cells increase their production of cytochrome P450 enzymes, which in turn increases degradation of these molecules.

Regulation of Gene Expression includes a wide range of mechanisms that are used by cells to increase or decrease the production of specific gene products (protein or RNA). Sophisticated programs of gene expression are widely observed in biology, for example to trigger developmental pathways, respond to environmental stimuli, or adapt to new food sources. Virtually any step of gene expression can be modulated, from transcriptional initiation, to RNA processing, and to the post-translational modification of a protein. Often, one gene regulator controls another, and so on, in a gene regulatory network. Gene regulation is essential for viruses, prokaryotes and eukaryotes as it increases the versatility and adaptability of an organism by allowing the cell to express protein when needed. Although as early as 1951, Barbara McClintock showed interaction between two genetic loci, Activator (Ac) and Dissociator (Ds), in the color formation of maize seeds, the first discovery of a gene regulation system is widely considered to be the identification in 1961 of the lac operon, discovered by François Jacob and Jacques Monod, in which some enzymes involved in lactose metabolism are expressed by E. coli only in the presence of lactose and absence of glucose. In multicellular organisms, gene regulation drives cellular differentiation and morphogenesis in the embryo, leading to the creation of different cell types that possess different gene expression profiles from the same genome sequence. Although this does not explain how gene regulation originated, evolutionary biologists include it as a partial explanation of how evolution works at a molecular level, and it is central to the science of evolutionary developmental biology ("evo-devo").

Heterochromatin is a tightly packed form of DNA, which comes in multiple varieties. These varieties lie on a continuum between the two extremes of constitutive and facultative heterochromatin. Both play a role in the expression of genes.

Genetic Load is the difference between the fitness of an average genotype in a population and the fitness of some reference genotype, which may be either the best present in a population, or may be the theoretically optimal genotype. The average individual taken from a population with a low genetic load will generally, when grown in the same conditions, have more surviving offspring. Genetic load can also be seen as reduced fitness at the population level compared to what the population would have if all individuals had the reference high-fitness genotype. High genetic load may put a population in danger of extinction.

Alternative Splicing is a regulated process during gene expression that results in a single gene coding for multiple proteins. In this process, particular exons of a gene may be included within or excluded from the final, processed messenger RNA (mRNA) produced from that gene. Consequently, the proteins translated from alternatively spliced mRNAs will contain differences in their amino acid sequence and, often, in their biological functions (see Figure). Notably, alternative splicing allows the human genome to direct the synthesis of many more proteins than would be expected from its 20,000 protein-coding genes.

Recombinase are genetic recombination enzymes. DNA recombinases are widely used in multicellular organisms to manipulate the structure of genomes, and to control gene expression. These enzymes, derived from bacteria and fungi, catalyze directionally sensitive DNA exchange reactions between short (30–40 nucleotides) target site sequences that are specific to each recombinase. These reactions enable four basic functional modules, excision/insertion, inversion, translocation and cassette exchange, which have been used individually or combined in a wide range of configurations to control gene expression.

Some people are healthy despite carrying a mutation for one of the eight severe diseases.

Analysis of 589,306 genomes identifies individuals resilient to severe Mendelian childhood diseases.

Why do identical cells act differently? Researchers have taken an important step toward explaining why genetically identical cells can produce varying amounts of the same protein associated with the same gene. Researchers demonstrated that most of the fluctuations in gene expression between identical cells occur in the first step of protein production, called transcription. Nearly every cell in a person's body contains the same DNA, the master set of genetic instructions for making the complex proteins that do most of the biological work. DNA segments called genes encode specific proteins. But the amount of protein produced by a given gene -- referred to as gene expression -- can vary not only between people, but also among identical cells in the same person. That fluctuation in gene expression between identical cells is called cellular noise.

Cellular Noise is random variability in quantities arising in cellular biology. For example, cells which are genetically identical, even within the same tissue, are often observed to have different expression levels of proteins, different sizes and structures. These apparently random differences can have important biological and medical consequences. Cellular noise was originally, and is still often, examined in the context of gene expression levels – either the concentration or copy number of the products of genes within and between cells. As gene expression levels are responsible for many fundamental properties in cellular biology, including cells' physical appearance, behaviour in response to stimuli, and ability to process information and control internal processes, the presence of noise in gene expression has profound implications for many processes in cellular biology.

Gene Drive (gene editing)

Hox Gene is a subset of homeotic genes, are a group of related genes that control the body plan of an embryo along the head-tail axis. After the embryonic segments have formed, the Hox proteins determine the type of appendages (e.g. legs, antennae, and wings in fruit flies) or the different types of vertebrae (in humans) that will form on a segment. Hox proteins thus confer segmental identity, but do not form the actual segments themselves. The term "Hox" is a contraction of homeobox, of which Hox genes are a subset, in the field of genetics. An analogy for the Hox genes can be made to the role of a play director that calls which scene the actors should carry out next. If the play director calls the scenes in the wrong order, the overall play will be presented in the wrong order. Similarly, mutations in the Hox genes can result in body parts and limbs in the wrong place along the body. Like a play director, the Hox genes do not act in the play or participate in limb formation themselves. The protein product of each Hox gene is a transcription factor. Each Hox gene contains a well-conserved DNA sequence known as the homeobox. Hox genes are thus a subset of the homeobox transcription factor genes. In many animals, the organization of the Hox genes in the chromosome is the same as the order of their expression along the anterior-posterior axis of the developing animal, and are thus said to display colinearity.

Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism is a variation in a single nucleotide that occurs at a specific position in the genome, where each variation is present to some appreciable degree within a population (e.g. > 1%). For example, at a specific base position in the human genome, the C nucleotide may appear in most individuals, but in a minority of individuals, the position is occupied by an A. This means that there is a SNP at this specific position, and the two possible nucleotide variations – C or A – are said to be alleles for this position. SNPs underlie differences in our susceptibility to a wide range of diseases (e.g. – sickle-cell anemia, β-thalassemia and cystic fibrosis result from SNPs). The severity of illness and the way the body responds to treatments are also manifestations of genetic variations. For example, a single-base mutation in the APOE (apolipoprotein E) gene is associated with a lower risk for Alzheimer's disease. A single-nucleotide variant (SNV) is a variation in a single nucleotide without any limitations of frequency and may arise in somatic cells. A somatic single-nucleotide variation (e.g., caused by cancer) may also be called a single-nucleotide alteration.

DNA Condensation refers to the process of compacting DNA molecules in vitro or in vivo. Mechanistic details of DNA packing are essential for its functioning in the process of gene regulation in living systems. Condensed DNA often has surprising properties, which one would not predict from classical concepts of dilute solutions. Therefore, DNA condensation in vitro serves as a model system for many processes of physics, biochemistry and biology. In addition, DNA condensation has many potential applications in medicine and biotechnology. DNA diameter is about 2 nm, while the length of a stretched single molecule may be up to several dozens of centimetres depending on the organism. Many features of the DNA double helix contribute to its large stiffness, including the mechanical properties of the sugar-phosphate backbone, electrostatic repulsion between phosphates (DNA bears on average one elementary negative charge per each 0.17 nm of the double helix), stacking interactions between the bases of each individual strand, and strand-strand interactions. DNA is one of the stiffest natural polymers, yet it is also one of the longest molecules. This means that at large distances DNA can be considered as a flexible rope, and on a short scale as a stiff rod. Like a garden hose, unpacked DNA would randomly occupy a much larger volume than when it is orderly packed. Mathematically, for a non-interacting flexible chain randomly diffusing in 3D, the end-to-end distance would scale as a square root of the polymer length. For real polymers such as DNA, this gives only a very rough estimate; what is important, is that the space available for the DNA in vivo is much smaller than the space that it would occupy in the case of a free diffusion in the solution. To cope with volume constraints, DNA can pack itself in the appropriate solution conditions with the help of ions and other molecules. Usually, DNA condensation is defined as "the collapse of extended DNA chains into compact, orderly particles containing only one or a few molecules". This definition applies to many situations in vitro and is also close to the definition of DNA condensation in bacteria as "adoption of relatively concentrated, compact state occupying a fraction of the volume available". In eukaryotes, the DNA size and the number of other participating players are much larger, and a DNA molecule forms millions of ordered nucleoprotein particles, the nucleosomes, which is just the first of many levels of DNA packing.

Finding the Proteins that Unpack DNA. Specialized proteins unpack DNA inside the nucleus of a cell, making the usually dense DNA more accessible for gene expression and other functions. These tightly packed nucleosomes make it hard for other proteins to bind. A variety of proteins need to access DNA to copy its information into the RNA that will eventually be used to make proteins, but DNA is tightly wrapped around proteins called histones that are then packed into bead-like structures called nucleosomes. These tightly packed nucleosomes make it hard for other proteins to bind. Nucleosome-displacing factors are a special kind of transcription factor, proteins that bind to short, specific sequences of DNA called binding sites to control gene expression. They are also known as pioneer factors in animal cells. The researchers identified both new and previously known nucleosome-displacing factors. These factors, particularly those that strongly deplete nucleosomes, tend to be highly abundant in the nucleus and bind very tightly to DNA.

Researchers discover how cells know their future and forget their past. All cells in the body contain the same genetic material. The difference between cells therefore depends solely on which genes are expressed or 'turned on'. Now, researchers have gained new insights into how genes are turned on and off and how the cells ''forget their past'' while developing into a specific cell in the body. This new knowledge will be crucial for stem cell therapy and potentially treating people with cancer.

Machine learning interprets gene regulation clearly.

Why I Study the Most Dangerous Animal on Earth — Mosquitoes: Fredros Okumu 2017 (video and text)

Some genes come to life in the brain after death. Researchers analyzed gene expression in fresh brain tissue and found that gene expression in some cells actually increased after death. Glial cells enlarging after death isn't too surprising given that they are inflammatory and their job is to clean things up after brain injuries like oxygen deprivation or stroke.

Chimera is a single organism composed of cells with more than one distinct genotype. In animals, this means an individual derived from two or more zygotes, which can include possessing blood cells of different blood types, subtle variations in form (phenotype) and, if the zygotes were of differing sexes, then even the possession of both female and male sex organs (this is just one of many different phenomena that may result in intersexuality). Animal chimeras are produced by the merger of multiple fertilized eggs. In plant chimeras, however, the distinct types of tissue may originate from the same zygote, and the difference is often due to mutation during ordinary cell division. Normally, genetic chimerism is not visible on casual inspection; however, it has been detected in the course of proving parentage. Another way that chimerism can occur in animals is by organ transplantation, giving one individual tissues that developed from a different genome. For example, transplantation of bone marrow often determines the recipient's ensuing blood type.

Instincts - Automatic Responses

Instinct is an inherent motivation to do a particular action. A behavior that is performed without being based upon prior experience, or without having to learn something first. The driver of our instincts is mostly in the brainstem region at the very base of your brain, just above the spinal chord. The prefrontal cortex plays a role in regulating our instincts. Thirst, hunger and self preservation are considered instincts, but these instincts can be controlled or regulated to some degree.

is an inborn pattern of behavior often responsive to specific stimuli.

Instinctive is unthinking that is prompted by an instinct or habit.

Unconscious - Autonomous - Reflexes - Amygdala - Body effects the Mind - Senses - Intelligence - Will Power

Innate is a behavior not established by conditioning or learning. Innate is being talented through inherited qualities that are present at birth and acquired during fetal development, but not necessarily hereditary.

Without instructions in our DNA, life could not exist.

Primitive Reflexes are reflex actions originating in the central nervous system that are exhibited by normal infants, but not neurologically intact adults, in response to particular stimuli. These reflexes are absent due to the development of the frontal lobes as a child transitions normally into child development. These primitive reflexes are also called infantile, infant or newborn reflexes.

Precocial are those animals in which the young are relatively mature and mobile from the moment of birth or hatching. Humans are Altricial, and are totally dependent on parents for food and nurturing.

Life needs prewritten instructions that makes developmental processes happen automatically. Without prewritten instructions life would not exist. Imagine if cells had to learn how to divide, we would not be here. As far as we know, Humans are the only life form with a manual option that can make choices. This gives life an extra advantage to survive, but that is only if we make good choices.

Fear of spiders and snakes is deeply embedded in us - Fear

Genes or instincts can influence our behaviors, but only when we have given up control and have become totally unaware of ourselves and our surroundings. There are many things that influence behavior, like experiences, environment, education, perception, chemicals in the brain and certain health issues of the body. But the bottom line is, you can be in total control of your behavior, as long as you have fully educated yourself. That is the true power of the human mind. Mindfulness.

"The reptilian brain is not holding you back, it's the lack of knowledge that is holding you back."

The human brain is hard wired in some areas, but changeable in other areas. We do have hereditary programs imprinted in our genes that influences our behaviors, but behaviors can also be modified and changed. We are a learning species. The problem is that we are a dysfunctional learning species because we have not improved our education enough in order to make people aware of our learning abilities and what is needed for learning. Stanford.

Human Senses - Self-Control - Awareness - Placebo Effect

Project 10 10 10 Pill or Perception (youtube)

Are You Good Or Bad? (youtube)

"When someone says that a particular disease runs in their family, what they are saying is that they have not yet solved the problem of their vulnerability."

Humans need instincts, because it gives a person the ability to do things without having to learn them first, especially things that are important for survival. Thankfully you didn't have to learn how to breathe. But as we become more knowledgeable as we get older, we realize that instincts are not always an accurate interpretation of reality. We have more control and foresight, which gives us even greater surviving skills then instincts could ever give us. Instincts are like your mother, she's knows what's important, but for some reason, you want more freedom. Which is not bad, as long as you keep learning. Restrictions or warnings should never replace learning.

Reptilian Brain - Primal Brain

Basal Ganglia are referred to as the reptilian or primal brain, as this structure is in control of our innate and automatic self-preserving behavior patterns, which ensure our survival and that of our species. The primal brain or hindbrain and medulla, is responsible for survival, drive, and instinct. When your primal brain is engaged (sympathetic response), your modern brain is not working much. When the primal brain turns off and the modern brain kicks into gear (parasympathetic response), rationality returns, bringing back clearer thinking. Basal Ganglia are a group of subcortical nuclei, of varied origin, in the brains of vertebrates. In humans, and some primates, that are situated at the base of the forebrain and top of the midbrain. Basal ganglia are strongly interconnected with the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and brainstem, as well as several other brain areas. The basal ganglia are associated with a variety of functions, including control of voluntary motor movements, procedural learning, habit learning, conditional learning, eye movements, cognition, and emotion. The basal ganglia are of major importance for normal brain function and behavior. Their dysfunction results in a wide range of neurological conditions including disorders of behavior control and movement, as well as cognitive deficits that are similar to those that result from damage to the prefrontal cortex. Extracellular dopamine in the basal ganglia has been linked to motivational states in rodents, with high levels being linked to satiated state, medium levels with seeking, and low with aversion. The limbic basal ganglia circuits are influenced heavily by extracellular dopamine. Increased dopamine results in inhibition of the Ventral pallidum, entopeduncular nucleus, and substantia nigra pars reticulata, resulting in disinhibition of the thalamus. Two models have been proposed for the basal ganglia, one being that actions are generated by a "critic" in the ventral striatum and estimates value, and the actions are carried out by an "actor" in the dorsal striatum. Another model proposes the basal ganglia acts as a selection mechanism, where actions are generated in the cortex and are selected based on context by the basal ganglia. The basal ganglia has been proposed to gate what enters and what doesn't enter working memory.

Filters - High Order Brain Regions - "I don’t know what I was thinking!"

Hindbrain is the lower part of the brainstem, comprising the cerebellum, pons, and medulla oblongata. The hindbrain coordinates functions that are fundamental to survival, including respiratory rhythm, motor activity, sleep, and wakefulness.

Medulla Oblongata is the lowest part of the brain and the lowest portion of the brainstem. The medulla oblongata is connected by the pons to the midbrain and is continuous posteriorly with the spinal cord, with which it merges at the opening (foramen magnum) at the base of the skull. It is a cone-shaped neuronal mass responsible for autonomic (involuntary) functions, ranging from vomiting to sneezing. The medulla contains the cardiac, respiratory, vomiting and vasomotor centers, and therefore deals with the autonomic functions of breathing, heart rate and blood pressure as well as the sleep wake cycle.

Pons is part of the brainstem that in humans and other bipeds lies inferior to the midbrain, superior to the medulla oblongata and anterior to the cerebellum. This region of the brainstem includes neural pathways and tracts that conduct signals from the brain down to the cerebellum and medulla, and tracts that carry the sensory signals up into the thalamus. Functions of the four cranial nerves include regulation of respiration, control of involuntary actions, sensory roles in hearing, equilibrium, and taste, and in facial sensations such as touch and pain, as well as motor roles in eye movement, facial expressions, chewing, swallowing, and the secretion of saliva and tears. The pons contains nuclei that relay signals from the forebrain to the cerebellum, along with nuclei that deal primarily with sleep, respiration, swallowing, bladder control, hearing, equilibrium, taste, eye movement, facial expressions, facial sensation, and posture. Within the pons is the pneumotaxic center consisting of the subparabrachial and the medial parabrachial nuclei. This center regulates the change from inhalation to exhalation. The pons is implicated in sleep paralysis, and may also play a role in generating dreams.

Cerebellum is Latin for little brain, which is a major feature of the hindbrain of all vertebrates. the cerebellum plays an important role in motor control. It may also be involved in some cognitive functions such as attention and language as well as emotional control such as regulating fear and pleasure responses, but its movement-related functions are the most solidly established. The human cerebellum does not initiate movement, but contributes to coordination, precision, and accurate timing: it receives input from sensory systems of the spinal cord and from other parts of the brain, and integrates these inputs to fine-tune motor activity. Cerebellar damage produces disorders in fine movement, equilibrium, posture, and motor learning in humans. In addition to its direct role in motor control, the cerebellum is necessary for several types of motor learning, most notably learning to adjust to changes in sensorimotor relationships. The strongest clues to the function of the cerebellum have come from examining the consequences of damage to it. Animals and humans with cerebellar dysfunction show, above all, problems with motor control, on the same side of the body as the damaged part of the cerebellum. They continue to be able to generate motor activity but lose precision, producing erratic, uncoordinated, or incorrectly timed movements. A standard test of cerebellar function is to reach with the tip of the finger for a target at arm's length: A healthy person will move the fingertip in a rapid straight trajectory, whereas a person with cerebellar damage will reach slowly and erratically, with many mid-course corrections. Deficits in non-motor functions are more difficult to detect. Thus, the general conclusion reached decades ago is that the basic function of the cerebellum is to calibrate the detailed form of a movement, not to initiate movements or to decide which movements to execute. There is considerable evidence that the cerebellum plays an essential role in some types of motor learning. Although a full understanding of cerebellar function has remained elusive, at least four principles have been identified as important: (1) feedforward processing, (2) divergence and convergence, (3) modularity, and (4) plasticity. Feedforward processing: The cerebellum differs from most other parts of the brain (especially the cerebral cortex) in that the signal processing is almost entirely feedforward—that is, signals move unidirectionally through the system from input to output, with very little recurrent internal transmission. The small amount of recurrence that does exist consists of mutual inhibition; there are no mutually excitatory circuits. This feedforward mode of operation means that the cerebellum, in contrast to the cerebral cortex, cannot generate self-sustaining patterns of neural activity. Signals enter the circuit, are processed by each stage in sequential order, and then leave. As Eccles, Ito, and Szentágothai wrote, "This elimination in the design of all possibility of reverberatory chains of neuronal excitation is undoubtedly a great advantage in the performance of the cerebellum as a computer, because what the rest of the nervous system requires from the cerebellum is presumably not some output expressing the operation of complex reverberatory circuits in the cerebellum but rather a quick and clear response to the input of any particular set of information." Divergence and convergence: In the human cerebellum, information from 200 million mossy fiber inputs is expanded to 40 billion granule cells, whose parallel fiber outputs then converge onto 15 million Purkinje cells. Because of the way that they are lined up longitudinally, the 1000 or so Purkinje cells belonging to a microzone may receive input from as many as 100 million parallel fibers, and focus their own output down to a group of less than 50 deep nuclear cells. Thus, the cerebellar network receives a modest number of inputs, processes them very extensively through its rigorously structured internal network, and sends out the results via a very limited number of output cells. Modularity: The cerebellar system is functionally divided into more or less independent modules, which probably number in the hundreds to thousands. All modules have a similar internal structure, but different inputs and outputs. A module (a multizonal microcompartment in the terminology of Apps and Garwicz) consists of a small cluster of neurons in the inferior olivary nucleus, a set of long narrow strips of Purkinje cells in the cerebellar cortex (microzones), and a small cluster of neurons in one of the deep cerebellar nuclei. Different modules share input from mossy fibers and parallel fibers, but in other respects they appear to function independently—the output of one module does not appear to significantly influence the activity of other modules. Plasticity: The synapses between parallel fibers and Purkinje cells, and the synapses between mossy fibers and deep nuclear cells, are both susceptible to modification of their strength. In a single cerebellar module, input from as many as a billion parallel fibers converges onto a group of less than 50 deep nuclear cells, and the influence of each parallel fiber on those nuclear cells is adjustable. This arrangement gives tremendous flexibility for fine-tuning the relationship between the cerebellar inputs and outputs.

Triune Brain is a model of the evolution of the vertebrate forebrain and behavior, that consists of the reptilian complex (or lizard brain), the paleomammalian complex (limbic system), and the neomammalian complex (neocortex), viewed each as independently conscious, and as structures sequentially added to the forebrain in the course of evolution. Lizards and humans share similar brain parts, which they inherited from fish. These parts handle basic body functions like breathing, balance, and coordination, and simple survival urges like feeding, mating, and defense. Together, these parts--the brain stem, cerebellum, and basal ganglia--are casually referred to as your lizard brain.

Reptilian Brain or Primal Brain notable behavior patterns include defense of self, family, and personal property, physical communication, and socially approved actions, such as handshakes, head nods, and bowing. The reptilian brain, composed of the basal ganglia (striatum) and brainstem, is involved with primitive drives related to thirst, hunger, sexuality, and territoriality, as well as habits and procedural memory (like putting your keys in the same place every day without thinking about it or riding a bike). The paleomammalian (old mammal) brain, including the hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate cortex, is the center of our motivation, emotions, and memory, including behavior such as parenting. The neomammalian (new mammal) brain, consisting of the neocortex, enables language, abstraction, reasoning, and planning. Automatic routines which, over time, we have learned do without thinking about them.

Action Selection is a way of characterizing the most basic problem of intelligent systems: What to do next? One problem for understanding action selection is determining the level of abstraction used for specifying an "act". At the most basic level of abstraction, an atomic act could be anything from contracting a muscle cell to provoking anger. Typically for any one action-selection mechanism, the set of possible actions is predefined and fixed. Most researchers working in this field place high demands on their agents: The acting agent typically must select its action in dynamic and unpredictable environments. The agents typically act in real time; therefore they must make decisions in a timely fashion. The agents are normally created to perform several different tasks. These tasks may conflict for resource allocation (e.g. can the agent put out a fire and deliver a cup of coffee at the same time?). The environment the agents operate in may include humans, who may make things more difficult for the agent (either intentionally or by attempting to assist.). The agents themselves are often intended to model animals or humans, and animal/human behaviour is quite complicated. For these reasons action selection is not trivial and attracts a good deal of research.

Limbic Brain wraps around the reptilian brain. It kind of connects parts of the brain that deal with high and low functions. Neocortex is the outermost layer of the brain and is linked with high-level cognitive abilities. It enables our complex and logical thinking. It gives us the power of abstract thoughts, language, imagination, and higher-order thinking like thinking about thinking. The neocortex is what separates us from animals.

The desire to procreate is a very strong primal instinct. We are hard-wired to seek out mates and ensure the survival of our species. Sex is inevitably a powerful trigger. No wonder the prospect of sex makes people behave stupidly, and at times, act downright like animals.

Human Nature

Your True Nature is to be good. Everyone is born good by default. So why do some people lose their true nature? People are not born bad. Bad things happen to people that influences them to do bad things. When people are exposed to bad experiences and have bad information, then most of the time people will end up doing bad things. And when people receive good information and also have access to a good education, and also get the right kind of help and support, then most every person on the planet will do good things. People will still make mistakes, like everyone does, but when people are more educated they will make fewer mistakes and also learn from their mistakes more often. People will also be more aware of themselves and understand the differences between good, bad, right and wrong, and all because they were given the opportunities to learn these differences. Humans are not war mongers. Humans are not violent or self destructive. But a few humans have become bad for various reasons. It's always the 1% of humans who are doing the most of the damage and doing most of the killing. But 1% of 7.7 billion is 77 million ignorant people doing horrific things, and with only 10 million in prison, we have too many criminals walking around, and we have too many criminals with authority. So why can't the other 7.7 billion people get those other 77 million ignorant people to stop being scumbags? Because these scumbags are spread out all over the world, and they are not always visible or easy to contain. Good people have a responsibility to stop bad people. Because letting bad people do bad things is not good, it goes against our human nature, which every person on the planet is responsible for. We know now that just being good and having goodness is not enough. And having a good heart does not always solve our problems. We know that people are naturally good, but people are not naturally smart. People have to learn how to be smart, and people also have to learn how to be good.

Coexistence - Foundation - Baseline - Human Values - Free Will - Intuition - Ego - Freedom is not Free - Civility can be Learned - Toxins can effect Human Nature - Parasites

Universalism in religion is a universal human quality.

God Gene is a hypothesis that proposes a specific gene, called vesicular monoamine transporter 2 or VMAT2, predisposes humans towards spiritual or mystic experiences.

Primordial is something that has existed from the beginning. In an earliest or original stage or state. Of a cell, it is the earliest stage of development.

Don't confuse human behavior with human nature, or confuse instincts with reasoning. There are no laws of human nature except for our natural instinct to be good. Our true human nature is made up of characteristic qualities that we are naturally born with, like when you see a baby laughing and smiling. Most every human has the urge to learn, the desire to be happy, the urge to eat, the need to sleep, the desire to help others, the desire to live, the desire to love, the desire to progress. Human behaviors mostly come from the things that we learn from life and what we learn from our environment. Behaviors like hate, greed, and ignorance, are not normal behaviors, but they can sometimes override our true human nature. No human is born with bad behaviors. Humans learn bad behaviors, which means that humans can also learn good behaviors, which they do. And just being ignorant does not make you a bad person. Human nature needs fostering and cultivation. We are 99.9% the same.

Intrinsic is belonging naturally; Something built-in, inherent and essential. An intrinsic property is a property that an object or a thing has of itself, independently of other things, including its context. An extrinsic or relational property is a property that depends on a thing's relationship with other things.

Second Nature is when you practice something long enough, you become so proficient that it seems almost instinctual, almost like something that you would do naturally without thinking or awareness. First Nature is what we would do without reflection, instruction, or conscious thought.

Automatic - Subconscious - Innate - Default Mode

Ingrained is ideas or principles that are deeply rooted or firmly fixed or held and thoroughly work in. Produce or try to produce a vivid impression of something.

Noble Savage is a literary stock character who embodies the concept of the indigene, outsider, wild human, an "other" who has not been "corrupted" by civilization, and therefore symbolizes humanity's innate goodness. Besides appearing in many works of fiction and philosophy, the stereotype was also heavily employed in early anthropological works.

Genetic Memory is a memory present at birth that exists in the absence of sensory experience, and is incorporated into the genome over long spans of time. It is based on the idea that common experiences of a species become incorporated into its genetic code, not by a Lamarckian process that encodes specific memories but by a much vaguer tendency to encode a readiness to respond in certain ways to certain stimuli. Language, in the modern view, is considered to be only a partial product of genetic memory. The fact that humans can have languages is a property of the nervous system that is present at birth, and thus phylogenetic in character. However, perception of the particular set of phonemes specific to a native language only develops during ontogeny. There is no genetic predisposition towards the phonemic makeup of any single language. Children in a particular country are not genetically predisposed to speak the languages of that country, adding further weight to the assertion that genetic memory is not Lamarckian. However, there is scientific evidence of a gene for perfect pitch which is more common in Asian countries where pitch is critical to the meaning of a spoken word. Digital Inheritance - DNA Data-Storage.

Eyes wide shut: How newborn mammals dream the world they're entering. As a newborn mammal opens its eyes for the first time, it can already make visual sense of the world around it. But how does this happen before they have experienced sight?

Adaptive Memory is the study of memory systems that have evolved to help retain survival and fitness related information, i.e., that are geared toward helping an organism enhance its reproductive fitness and chances of surviving. One key element of adaptive memory research is the notion that memory evolved to help survival by better retaining information that is fitness-relevant. One of the foundations of this method of studying memory is the relatively little adaptive value of a memory system that evolved merely to remember past events. Memory systems, it is argued, must use the past in some service of the present or the planning of the future. Another assumption under this model is that the evolved memory mechanisms are likely to be domain-specific, or sensitive to certain types of information.

It's In My Blood is a saying that is that is used for describing an ability, skill or quality that seems to be natural to you because certain family members also expressed these same qualities or skills, which may not always be true because skills are mostly learned qualities and are not always inherited.

What does a human need in order to be a good person? What does it take for a person to do good things? It's human nature to be good, but human nature needs nurturing and fostering. To be a good person you should have a good home, good schools, good friendships, a good community, freedom and fairness, and opportunities to explore, to learn, to create, and to live. When a person is missing good things in their life, that sometimes leaves spaces for bad things to happen. It takes less energy to be a good person, so it's just natural to seek the path of least resistance, and being good has many more benefits than being a bad. Hating takes more energy and it also wastes more energy. But a bad person may not know that they are being wasteful. This is why good schools and good education opportunities are extremely necessary. When you understand what good is and understand what bad is, then you can understand what life is, and understand what life is not. Life is not horrible, so why are some people horrible. Something happened to them. You can say life is hard so it makes people hard. But you would also have to say that life is enjoyable in many ways, and an enjoyable life makes enjoyable people. Of course this is easier said than done, and there's a lot of variables where things can go wrong. But it makes perfect sense to do what is good because the benefits far outweigh the suffering that is cause by not doing what is needed in order to give people the chances to be good. Good feels good for a reason.

My Faith in Humanity has been Restored is to say that you had your doubts about humanity and peoples ability to do the right thing, but know you're convinced after witnessing an incredible example of human love and compassion. Having faith in humanity is having faith that the majority of people have the best interests of the human race at heart.

Everything is an Assembly. Everything has parts. And there are rules that determine the actions that these parts will take when they are in certain environments. Everything, including atoms, has inherited attributes that determine its actions. These instructions are most likely by design. The more rules you understand, and the more rules you know how to use effectively, the more potential you will have.

Instincts are extremely important. You do not want things to be misinterpreted. And humans have still not yet figured out how extremely important communication is. If you don't have the instructions on how the message or information should be interpreted, then you will not have any real or effective communication.

There are possible observation errors being made when we try to self analyze, as well as, when we try to accurately analyze other people. Each behavior is different depending on the person, so things are relative.

There is human nature and the human condition, but it is only a small percentage of what you are as a person. The only human nature that I can see is that humans are born to love and born to learn, beyond that, it's all about the environment that you were raised in, and the experiences that you had, and how you reacted to those experiences, and what knowledge that you have gained throughout your life. So you are mostly a product of your environment, and you are a product of the things that you have learned in your own unique way. You are what you know, or what you think or believe that you know.

Humans are Not Violent by Nature. People become violent for several reasons as stated above. We also become more aggressive when we experience chemical changes in our body, usually from hormones. We also become more vulnerable to anger when we don't eat healthy, or when we don't sleep enough, or when we are overly exposed to large amounts of stress or trauma. We can also be conditioned to except violence. This types of conditioning comes from the media, movies, books, and also from certain sports and activities. Violence is something you learn. That means that violence can be unlearned. But we don't want to encourage meekness, because just like most animals, we have to know how to defend ourselves in order to survive. And defending ourselves can sometimes become violent, but this does not mean that we become violent people, it just means that we were forced to act violently temporally. No shame, we live, learn, love and progress.

Personalities - Upbringing

Most people mean well, it's just that sometimes people don't know what they mean. This is because most people are not fully aware of how other people see them or how other people understand them. Most people either make the mistake of assuming that they know what other people think of them, or they sometimes just pretend to know, and don't bother learning to see if they are right or wrong.

“A dim premonition tells us that we cannot be whole without this negative side, that we have a body which, like all bodies, casts a shadow, and that if we deny this body we cease to be three-dimensional and become flat and without substance. Yet this body is a beast with a beast’s soul, an organism that gives unquestioning obedience to instinct. To unite oneself with this shadow is to say yes to instinct, to that formidable dynamism lurking in the background.” Carl Jung, Two Essays on Analytical Psychology.

When a person acts like a scumbag and does something horrible, that's not human nature, that's the disease of ignorance manifesting itself, which influences a person to do something wrong and bad. A person may commit murder or other viscous crimes, but this does not make them a murder or a criminal, because we know this is ignorance manifesting itself. The good news is, we have a cure for ignorance, it's called creating a high quality education that is available to everyone and improving the media so that the TV and newspapers actually informs people and educates them, without distractions and misleading propaganda.

Manifesting is when signs or actions become clearly visible and obvious to the eye or mind, and are displayed, shown or demonstrated in some form.

If you don't know any better, then how do you know better? Most people know better to a certain degree. But when people don't know enough to understand where better begins and ends, then they will not know enough to understand where bad and wrong begins and ends. More knowledge equals more understanding, but only as long as the knowledge you gain is the knowledge that will help create a better understanding of yourself and the world around you.

To understand human nature you would have to use a baby as an example, because babies have not yet learned, and they have not yet been totally influenced by their environment, even though a women's womb is an environment that could have many influences on a baby's behavior. So let's just say that we have an average baby with an average mother. Babies laugh, so you can say that humans are born to be happy. Babies cry, so you can say that humans are born to experience pain and discomfort for safety reasons, but not so much related to sadness, because sadness is something that you learn. Babies love, so you can say that humans are Born to Love. So all humans are Born Good. So it is the environment, and the things that humans learn, that make them either a bad person or a good person. Humans are incredible because we are designed to adapt, but this adaptation has vulnerabilities, especially when people are forced to adapt to someone else's ignorant form of reality.

Transcendentalism is the belief in inherent goodness of both people and nature that people are at their best when truly "self-reliant" and independent. It is society and its institutions that ultimately corrupted the purity of the individual.

Intellectualism allows that “one will do what is right or best just as soon as one truly understands what is right or best”; The use, development, and exercise of the intellect; the practice of being an intellectual; and the Life of the Mind.

You can look at kittens or puppies and see that some behaviors are genetic. Humans are domesticated animals. But if you abuse an animal, then the good qualities that an animal is born with become diminished, and are sometimes replaced with bad behaviors. Adaptations are essential for survival, but when adaptations become distorted in our behaviors because of abuse or from the lack of a quality education, then we lose our human qualities.

Default in computer science refers to the preexisting value of a user-configurable setting that is assigned to a software application, computer program or device. Such settings are also called presets or factory presets, especially for electronic devices. Default values are standard values that are universal to all instances of the device or model and intended to make the device as accessible as possible "out of the box" without necessitating a lengthy configuration process prior to use. The user only has to modify the default settings according to their personal preferences. In many devices, the user has the option to restore these default settings for one or all options. Such an assignment makes the choice of that setting or value more likely, this is called the default effect. Human Operating System.

"I still believe that people are really good at heart" - Anne Frank.

"I don't judge a country by its government, I judge a country by its people, and every country on earth has good people."

If we preserve human rights, and create fair laws that are followed by everyone, and work with mother nature, we will see the best of human nature.

Spirituality is the belief in a supernatural realm, personal growth, a quest for an ultimate/sacred meaning, religious experience, or an encounter with one's own "inner dimension."

Anthropomorphism is the assigning of human traits, emotions, and intentions to non-human entities and is considered to be an innate tendency of human psychology. Personification is the related attribution of human form and characteristics to abstract concepts such as nations, emotions and natural forces like seasons and the weather. Artificial Intelligence.

We know know that psychological nativism is false because of brain plasticity, so certain skills or abilities are "not native" or hard-wired into the brain at birth.

Empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience, emphasizes the role of empirical evidence in the formation of ideas, over the notion of innate ideas or traditions.

Trait Theory is an approach to the study of human personality. Trait theorists are primarily interested in the measurement of traits, which can be defined as habitual patterns of behavior, thought, and emotion. According to this perspective, traits are relatively stable over time, differ across individuals (e.g. some people are outgoing whereas others are shy), and influence behavior. Traits are in contrast to states which are more transitory dispositions. In some theories and systems, traits are something a person either has or does not have, but in many others traits are dimensions such as extraversion vs. introversion, with each person rating somewhere along this spectrum. Phenotypic Trait.

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