Food Education - Nutrition - Eating Healthy Tips

Nutrition Education is a set of learning experiences designed to assist in healthy eating choices and other nutrition-related behavior. It includes any combination of educational strategies, accompanied by environmental supports, designed to facilitate voluntary adoption of food choices and other food and nutrition-related behaviors conducive to health and well-being. Nutrition education is delivered through multiple venues and involves activities at the individual, community, and policy levels. Nutrition Education also critically looks at issues such as food security, food literacy, and food sustainability.

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Food That's Healthy Almost 870 million people were chronically undernourished from 2010-2012. Vitamins.

91% of American kids have Poor Diets.

Children Suffering from Eating Unhealthy Food - Allergies - PH - Over Eating - Cholesterol

Want kids to learn well? Feed them well: Sam Kass (video and interactive text)

Malnutrition - Food Security - Feeding the Hungry - Protein - Energy - Brain Food

Food Coops - Farming - Food Nutrition Service (gov) - Nutrition Explained - Immune System - Addictions - ICMR-National Institute of Nutrition Dietary Guidelines for NIN (PDF) - Diets

Let Food Be Your Medicine and Let Medicine be Your Food

Personalized food is just as important as personalized medicine. So please remember, every human body is a little different, and everyone has different health needs. Most health tips are not personalized advice, or is it health information that is based on your health background and history. So all information is relative. You need to be aware that even healthy foods can have side effects. So you need to be totally aware and notice any changes in your body, because some changes may do more harm than good. It's a good idea to start out slow. You have to do your own research. You are the test subject. So it's your responsibility for the ethical and logical treatment of yourself. When living a healthy lifestyle, the rewards are many. But remember, nothing is totally free from risk. Such as life. The body needs healthy food and the mind needs healthy knowledge. Don't ever stop learning. It's not just what you put in your mouth, but it's what you put in your mind that becomes the most important factor. Healthy knowledge will bring a healthy body, as well as a healthy mind. Brain Food.

Nutrition for Precision Health is a study that says people respond differently to food, given differences in biology, lifestyle and gut microbes.

Human Postprandial Responses to food and the potential for precision nutrition.

Medically Tailored Meals are for certain people with health conditions that require specific diets such as heart disease, diabetes, and HIV. Programs that plan and prepare these meals can expand their reach and help those in need stay healthy. Tailoring each meal to meet a client's specific medical diagnosis works. In fact, it not only improves a client's health outcomes, but also improves medication adherence, and keeps clients out of the hospital and in their homes.

Food Pharmacy is an emerging program model designed to increase the access to and consumption of healthful foods, particularly fruits and vegetables. Existing research on the efficacy of the food pharmacy model shows that these programs have been effective in improving patient understanding of nutrition and removing barriers to healthy eating, and in turn may have a significant impact on diet-related health outcomes. The prevalence of obesity in the United States (U.S.) population is a staggering 42%, and rates of nutrition-related chronic disease are climbing across the globe. Food Pharmacy follows a comprehensive approach that includes proper plant based nutrition, regular exercise, stress reduction and adequate rest. Fresh Food Farmacy program provides qualifying patients with access to fresh, healthy, nutritious food, paired with education and clinical services, and more importantly empowers participants in the program to manage their medical conditions through food-related behavior and lifestyle changes. Food is Medicine Interventions.

Nutrigenomics and Nutrigenetics. Nutrients are able to interact with molecular mechanisms and modulate the physiological functions in the body. The Nutritional Genomics focuses on the interaction between bioactive food components and the genome, which includes Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics. Nutrigenetics describes that the genetic profile have impact on the response of body to bioactive food components by influencing their absorption, metabolism, and site of action.

Nutritional Science is the science that studies the physiological process of nutrition (primarily human nutrition), interpreting the nutrients and other substances in food in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism. Nutrition Science is the general term given to the study of food, nutrients, and other ingestible substances and their effects on the human body.

Prescription for fruits and vegetables is linked to better heart health and food security. Adults at risk for heart disease who participated in produce prescription programs for an average of six months increased their consumption of fruits and vegetables and had reduced blood pressure, body mass index and blood sugar levels.

Project Angel Heart delivers medically tailored meals for people living with severe illness. They give access to high-quality nutritious food that supports a persons health and well-being. “Food is Medicine.”

Omega-3 discovery moves us closer to 'precision nutrition' for better health. Researchers have obtained new insights into how African-American and Hispanic-American people’s genes influence their ability to use Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids for good health. The findings are an important step toward “precision nutrition” – where a diet tailored to exactly what our bodies need can help us live longer, healthier lives.

A step towards AI-based precision medicine. Artificial intelligence, AI, which finds patterns in complex biological data could eventually contribute to the development of individually tailored healthcare.

All of Us Research Initiative aims to use data from a million participants to understand how differences in our biology, lifestyle and environment can affect our health.

Food Sequencing is consuming specific types of food in a particular order, or the order in which different foods are consumed during a meal. Some experts advise eating vegetables, followed by proteins and healthy fats, then finishing your meal with carbohydrates. The order in which you eat your food can affect blood sugar. Recommended order of foods to eat in the following order is fairly common: raw or cooked vegetables, proteins and healthy fats, and lastly, carbohydrates. But some experts recommend patients focus on the ratios of food on their plates before worrying too much about what order they eat it in. Eat veggies first, then meat, and then starches.

You are what you eat, and you are also what you ate eats. If you eat meat or plants that consumed chemicals, then you will be eating chemicals too.

Clean Diet may include whole fruits, vegetables, lean proteins, whole grains, and healthy fats while limiting highly processed snacks and other packaged foods with added sugar and salt. It may also be associated with terms like plant-based, grass-fed, sugar-free, or gluten-free. Dietary Guidelines.

Fresh Food Health Benefits are, improves the health of your eyes, lowers the risk of heart diseases, fights against chronic inflammation, maintains blood pressure level, provides you fiber, minimizes the risk of cancer, keeps blood sugar level in control, keeps your brain active and young.

If you eat what your body loves, then your body will love you back. Prescribing healthy foods to patients could help prevent chronic medical conditions and cut health-care costs by billions of dollars. It's not just the food that you eat, but it's also the food that you don't eat but should eat. For most humans, eating is an activity of daily living.

Despite growing burden of diet-related disease, medical education does not equip students to provide high quality nutritional care to patients. Researchers call for improved nutrition education to be integrated into the medical curriculum.

Being very knowledgeable about food is some of the most important knowledge that you can have. Food is extremely crucial for life quality, second only to water. The human body is incredible complex machine, so don't ever take your body for granted. Everyone must fully understand the responsibilities of maintaining a strong and healthy body and mind. Live, Learn, Love and Progress.

Food is Information. If we look at our food in terms of the macronutrients of fat, protein, and carbohydrates and the micronutrients like minerals and vitamins, we begin to understand that the very foods that we choose to eat are changing the expression of our DNA.

Social media or better education sources can be used to increase fruit and vegetable intake in young people. Researchers have found that people following healthy eating accounts on social media for as little as two weeks ate more fruit and vegetables and less junk food.

Not eating enough of six key foods in combination is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease in adults. Consuming fruits, vegetables, legumes, nuts, fish and whole-fat dairy products is key to lowering the risk of CVD, including heart attacks and strokes. The study also found that a healthy diet can be achieved in various ways, such as including moderate amounts of whole grains or unprocessed meats. The World Health Organization estimates nearly 18 million people died from CVD in 2019, representing 32 per cent of all global deaths. Of these deaths, 85 per cent were due to heart attacks and strokes. Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology study - PURE.

Kids who Suffer Hunger in the First Years of their Life do Poorly in Schools. An estimated 13.1 million children live in homes with insufficient food, according to the most recent figures from the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Many of those children experience hunger during their first few years of life, or their parents are hungry and stressed out about food during those years – the most crucial time for a child's development. Skipping breakfast linked to lower GCSE grades. Brain Health.

Children who Eat Lunch Score 18 Percent Higher in Reading Tests. The powerful connection between nutrition and education has been revealed by new research from ESMT Berlin. Primary school children who attended a public free lunch program over an extended period were shown to have significantly better learning outcomes.

Children who eat more fruit and veggies have better mental health. New research finds that children who eat more fruit and veg have better mental health. The study is the first to investigate the association between fruit and vegetable intakes, breakfast and lunch choices, and mental wellbeing in UK school children. The research team studied data from almost 9,000 children in 50 schools. They found that the types of breakfast and lunch eaten by both primary and secondary school pupils were significantly associated with wellbeing.

Baby Boomers Will Become Sicker Seniors Than Earlier Generations.

Participants in school-based gardening and food programs benefit from lasting impacts on dietary behaviors. Thousands of students have successfully participated in the FRESHFARM FoodPrints program over the past 15 years, according to a new study in the Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior. To encourage fruit and vegetable consumption among youth, experiential food education programs such as gardening and cooking lessons have increased across both community and school settings. A recent research article revealed how this early learning positively influenced food decisions as children grew older.

You have to be fully aware of your bodies food and water needs, as well as, be aware of your bodies reactions to certain foods and liquids.

Eating only when hungry is good as long as you know that your brains hunger signals are correct and accurate. The same for water, only drink when thirsty, but thirst is not the only factor when it comes to your bodies water needs. It will take a lot of knowledge, information and experience to learn about your needs, and also to understand and control your wants. The goal is to always have maximum energy without wasting time and energy eating more food then you need. And if you learn how to cook and prepare food, then you will always have the ability enjoy eating the way you like. People are afraid of not eating enough, afraid of eating too much, and afraid of eating too many unhealthy things. Science should give us flavor and healthy foods in the exact amounts that we need. Less time wasted and less worries. Social eating is a human past time, it doesn't need to be human wasted time, or wasted resources. We can fix this. People are not that fussy.

Food Journal or Food Diary. Keeping track of what you eat is the #1 most effective method for controlling what you eat and when you eat, as well as reducing food mistakes and overeating. You should be aware of how the food tasted and what the temperature of the food was, and if you chewed the food well enough, and if you were rushed or stressed or doing something at the same time when you were eating. You should also write down how you felt each day and if you exercised.

Nutrition Clubs are social gatherings where members focus on good nutrition and regular exercise in order to achieve optimum health. Not focused on any particular food group or nutritional supplements, but more focused on educating each other about the human body and what the body needs to be healthy and full of energy.

Vegetables - Fruits - Grains - Nuts - Seeds - Legumes - Herbs and Spices

Brain Food - Super Foods - Vitamins - Minerals - Antioxidants (free radicals)

Food Chemistry - PH - Acidity - Alkalinity - Allergies

Microbes - Yeast - Fungi - Mushrooms

Allergies - Milk - Nuts and Seeds

Cooking Food - Meat - Carbohydrates

Cholesterol - Fiber - Gas - Digestion - Cooking

Human Energy - Fasting - Cleansing

You're A Firework (Scientifically Speaking) (youtube) - Thermodynamics (chemistry).

Vitality is life, life force, health, youth, or ability to live or exist. The word vitality is derived from the Latin word vita , which means life.

Vitality - Vital Signs - Vitamins

Photos of what People Eat around the World (images) - School Lunches in other Countries (images)

Better School Food - Cafeteria Inspections - School Food Trust - Food Photos

Food Science is the applied science devoted to the study of food. The Institute of Food Technologists defines food science as "the discipline in which the engineering, biological, and physical sciences are used to study the nature of foods, the causes of deterioration, the principles underlying food processing, and the improvement of foods for the consuming public". The textbook Food Science defines food science in simpler terms as "the application of basic sciences and engineering to study the physical, chemical, and biochemical nature of foods and the principles of food processing". Over Eating - Under Eating.

Types of Eaters

Carnivores eat other animals or meat.

Herbivores eat plants.

Omnivores consume a mixture of both plant and animal matter.

Vegetarians - Some vegans eat only plants, others mix it up.

Detritivores eat detritus or the remains of something that has been destroyed or broken up. Fungi digest organic matter outside of their bodies as opposed to animals that digest their food inside their bodies.

Frugivore is a fruit eater.

Carnism is the invisible belief system that conditions people to eat certain animals. Meat (dangers).

Most of the strongest animals on earth have a plant based diet, even cows, so you're better off cutting out the middle man.

Carnivore Diet is a fad diet in which only animal products. People following a carnivore diet consume animal-based products, such as beef, pork, poultry, and seafood. Some may eat dairy products and eggs. All fruits, legumes, vegetables, grains, nuts and seeds are strictly excluded. The carnivore diet is associated with pseudoscientific health claims. Such a diet can lead to deficiencies of vitamins and dietary fiber, and increase the risk of chronic diseases. Inuit Cuisine (wiki).

Energy from Food

Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. The substance is ingested by an organism and absorbed by the organism's cells to provide energy, maintain life and provide growth or reproduction.

Eating is the ingestion of food, typically to provide a heterotrophic organism with energy and to allow for growth. Animals and other heterotrophs must eat in order to survive. Heterotrophs is an organism that depends on complex organic substances for nutrition.

Adenosine Triphosphate ATP (brain energy) - Internal Energy (life force) - Human Energy - Farming

North Americans use an average of 10 calories of fossil fuel to produce one calorie of food energy.

Food Energy is chemical energy that animals and humans derive from their food, and molecular oxygen through the process of cellular respiration. Cellular respiration involves either the process of joining oxygen from air with the molecules of food using aerobic respiration, or the process of reorganizing the atoms within the molecules using anaerobic respiration.

Glycogen (energy storage) - Battery - Fat - Over Eating - Fasting - Malnutrition

Metabolism - Carbohydrates - Glucose - Ph - Mitochondria

Energy Expenditure or total daily energy expenditure is the amount of energy burned by the human body. Resting metabolic rate generally composes 60 to 75 percent of TDEE. Because adipose tissue does not use much energy to maintain, fat free mass is a better predictor of metabolic rate. A taller person will typically have less fat mass than a shorter person at the same weight and therefore burn more energy. Men also carry more skeletal muscle tissue on average than women, and other sex differences in organ size account for sex differences in metabolic rate. Obese individuals burn more energy than lean individuals due to increase in the amount of calories needed to maintain adipose tissue and other organs that grow in size in response to obesity. At rest, the largest fractions of energy are burned by the skeletal muscles, brain, and liver; around 20 percent each. Increasing skeletal muscle tissue can increase metabolic rate. Thermic effect of food is the amount of energy burned digesting food, around 10 percent of TDEE. Proteins are the component of food requiring the most energy to digest. Losing or gaining weight affects the energy expenditure. Reduced energy expenditure after weight loss can be a major challenge for people seeking to avoid weight regain after weight loss. It is controversial whether losing weight causes a decrease in energy expenditure greater than expected by the loss of adipose tissue and fat-free mass during weight loss. This excess reduction is termed adaptive thermogenesis and it is estimated that it might compose 50 to 100 kcal/day in people actively losing weight. Some studies have reported that it disappears after a short period of weight stability, while others report longer-lasting effects. Fasting.

Non-Exercise Activity Thermogenesis is the energy expended for everything we do that is not sleeping, eating or sports-like exercise. It ranges from the energy expended walking to work, typing, performing yard work, undertaking agricultural tasks and fidgeting. Brain Energy Needs.

Kilojoules is the Australian measure of how much energy people get from consuming a food or drink. Energy in food and drinks is measured by the number of kJ (kilojoules) it provides. kJ are similar to Calories: 1 kJ = 0.2 Calories (Cals) 1 Calorie = 4.2 kJs. Kilojoules in food: Fats and alcohol are high in kilojoules. Protein and carbohydrates provide moderate amounts of kilojoules. Dietary fibre is low in kilojoules. Water provides no kilojoules (energy). Foods such as fruits, vegetables and legumes are less energy-dense foods (lower in kilojoules). kcal, kilocalorie (1,000 calories), a unit of energy.

Anaerobic Glycolysis is the transformation of glucose to lactate when limited amounts of oxygen (O2) are available. Anaerobic glycolysis is only an effective means of energy production during short, intense exercise, providing energy for a period ranging from 10 seconds to 2 minutes. The anaerobic glycolysis (lactic acid) system is dominant from about 10–30 seconds during a maximal effort. It replenishes very quickly over this period and produces 2 ATP molecules per glucose molecule or about 5% of glucose's energy potential (38 ATP molecules). The speed at which ATP is produced is about 100 times that of oxidative phosphorylation.

Energy Levels Affect Emotions.

Energy Density of Food is the amount of energy per mass or volume of food. The energy density of a food can be determined from the label by dividing the energy per serving, usually in kilojoules or food calories, by the serving size, usually in grams, milliliters or fluid ounces. Energy Density is thus expressed in cal/g, kcal/g, J/g, kJ/g, cal/mL, kcal/mL, J/mL, or kJ/mL. The "calorie" commonly used in nutritional contexts is the kilogram-calorie (abbreviated "Cal" and sometimes called the "dietary calorie", "food calorie" or "Calorie" with a capital "C"). This is equivalent to a thousand gram-calories (abbreviated "cal") or one kilocalorie (kcal). Because food energy is commonly measured in Calories, the energy density of food is commonly called "caloric density". Energy density measures the energy released when the food is metabolized by a healthy organism when it ingests the food (see food energy for calculation) and the food is metabolized with oxygen, into waste products such as carbon dioxide and water. Besides alcohol the only sources of food energy are carbohydrates, fats and proteins, which make up ninety percent of the dry weight of food. Therefore, water content is the most important factor in energy density. Carbohydrates provide four calories per gram (17 kJ/g), and proteins offer slightly less at 16kJ/g whereas fat provides nine calories per gram (38 kJ/g), 2 1⁄4 times as much energy. Fats contain more carbon-carbon and carbon-hydrogen bonds than carbohydrates or proteins and are therefore richer in energy. Foods that derive most of their energy from fat have a much higher energy density than those that derive most of their energy from carbohydrates or proteins, even if the water content is the same. Nutrients with a lower absorption, such as fiber or sugar alcohols, lower the energy density of foods as well. A moderate energy density would be 1.6 to 3 calories per gram (7–13 kJ/g); salmon, lean meat, and bread would fall in this category. High-energy foods would have more than three calories per gram and include crackers, cheese, dark chocolate, and peanut.

Calorie is the approximate amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius at a pressure of one atmosphere. Calorie Density.

Calories needed by Women in their lifetime (image) - Calories needed by Men in their lifetime (image)

Human Food Energy Requirements - - Waste Energy

Energy Transfer is energy exchange from one system to another, is said to occur when an amount of energy crosses the boundary between them, thus increasing the energy content of one system while decreasing the energy content of the other system by the same amount. Oxygen (VO2 Max).

Cellular Respiration (metabolic reactions) - Cells and Longevity

Lipid is a loosely defined term for substances of biological origin that are soluble in nonpolar solvents. It comprises a group of naturally occurring molecules that include Fats, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E, and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, phospholipids, and others. The main biological functions of lipids include storing energy, signaling, and acting as structural components of cell membranes. Lipids have applications in the cosmetic and food industries as well as in nanotechnology. Scientists may broadly define lipids as hydrophobic or amphiphilic small molecules; the amphiphilic nature of some lipids allows them to form structures such as vesicles, multilamellar/unilamellar liposomes, or membranes in an aqueous environment. Biological lipids originate entirely or in part from two distinct types of biochemical subunits or "building-blocks": ketoacyl and isoprene groups. Using this approach, lipids may be divided into eight categories: fatty acids, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, saccharolipids, and polyketides (derived from condensation of ketoacyl subunits); and sterol lipids and prenol lipids (derived from condensation of isoprene subunits). Although the term lipid is sometimes used as a synonym for fats, fats are a subgroup of lipids called triglycerides. Lipids also encompass molecules such as fatty acids and their derivatives (including tri-, di-, monoglycerides, and phospholipids), as well as other sterol-containing metabolites such as cholesterol. Although humans and other mammals use various biosynthetic pathways both to break down and to synthesize lipids, some essential lipids cannot be made this way and must be obtained from the diet.

Lipokine is a lipid-controlling hormone which modulates lipid metabolism by a "chaperone effect". The lipokine palmitoleic acid (C16:1n7-palmitoleate) travels to the muscles and liver, where it improves cell sensitivity to insulin and blocks fat accumulation in the liver. In addition, researchers observed that palmitoleate suppresses inflammation, which is considered by many to be a primary factor leading to metabolic disease. Palmitoleic acid also serves as a biomarker for metabolic status. More specifically, a low concentration in the free acid component of the serum indicates a risk of metabolic disease, and that de novo lipogenesis should be stimulated. Additionally, administering palmitoleic acid to a subject (via nutraceutical or other means), positively impacts lipid metabolism.

Oxidative Phosphorylation is the metabolic pathway in which cells use enzymes to oxidize nutrients, thereby releasing energy which is used to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP). In most eukaryotes, this takes place inside mitochondria. Almost all aerobic organisms carry out oxidative phosphorylation. This pathway is probably so pervasive because it is a highly efficient way of releasing energy, compared to alternative fermentation processes such as anaerobic glycolysis. Oxidative Stress.

Phosphocreatine also known as creatine phosphate (CP) or PCr (Pcr), is a phosphorylated creatine molecule that serves as a rapidly mobilizable reserve of high-energy phosphates in skeletal muscle and the brain to recycle adenosine triphosphate, the energy currency of the cell.

Creatine is a nitrogenous organic acid that occurs naturally in vertebrates. Its main role is to facilitate recycling of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the energy currency of the cell, primarily in muscle and brain tissue. This is achieved by recycling adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to ATP via donation of phosphate groups. Creatine also acts as a pH buffer in tissues.

Citric Acid Cycle Diagram Citric Acid Cycle is a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to release stored energy through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and carbon dioxide. In addition, the cycle provides precursors of certain amino acids, as well as the reducing agent NADH, that are used in numerous other reactions. Its central importance to many biochemical pathways suggests that it was one of the earliest established components of cellular metabolism and may have originated abiogenically. Even though it is branded as a 'cycle', it is not necessary for metabolites to follow only one specific route; at least three segments of the citric acid cycle have been recognized. The name of this metabolic pathway is derived from the citric acid (a type of tricarboxylic acid, often called citrate, as the ionized form predominates at biological pH) that is consumed and then regenerated by this sequence of reactions to complete the cycle. The cycle consumes acetate (in the form of acetyl-CoA) and water, reduces NAD+ to NADH, and produces carbon dioxide as a waste byproduct. The NADH generated by the citric acid cycle is fed into the oxidative phosphorylation (electron transport) pathway. The net result of these two closely linked pathways is the oxidation of nutrients to produce usable chemical energy in the form of ATP. In eukaryotic cells, the citric acid cycle occurs in the matrix of the mitochondrion. In prokaryotic cells, such as bacteria, which lack mitochondria, the citric acid cycle reaction sequence is performed in the cytosol with the proton gradient for ATP production being across the cell's surface (plasma membrane) rather than the inner membrane of the mitochondrion. The overall yield of energy-containing compounds from the TCA cycle is three NADH, one FAD(2H), and one GTP. The citric acid cycle is also known as the Krebs Cycle is actually a part of the much larger process called cellular respiration, the process where your body harvests energy from the food you eat. Yes, the citric acid cycle has the same citric acid found in oranges and other citrus fruits!

Ketone Bodies are three water-soluble molecules (acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and their spontaneous breakdown product, acetone) containing the ketone group that are produced by the liver from fatty acids during periods of low food intake (fasting), carbohydrate restrictive diets, starvation, prolonged intense exercise, alcoholism or in untreated (or inadequately treated) type 1 diabetes mellitus. These ketone bodies are readily picked up by the extra-hepatic tissues (tissues outside the liver) and converted into acetyl-CoA which then enters the citric acid cycle and is oxidized in the mitochondria for energy. In the brain, ketone bodies are also used to make acetyl-CoA into long-chain fatty acids. Ketone bodies are produced by the liver under the circumstances listed above (i.e. fasting, starving, low carbohydrate diets, prolonged exercise and untreated type 1 diabetes mellitus) as a result of intense gluconeogenesis, which is the production of glucose from non-carbohydrate sources (not including fatty acids). They are therefore always released into the blood by the liver together with newly produced glucose after the liver glycogen stores have been depleted (these glycogen stores are depleted within the first 24 hours of fasting). Ketone (β-Hydroxybutyrate) found to reduce vascular aging.

Cholesterol is an organic molecule. It is a sterol (or modified steroid), a type of lipid molecule, and is biosynthesized by all animal cells, because it is an essential structural component of all animal cell membranes. In addition to its importance for animal cell structure, cholesterol also serves as a precursor for the biosynthesis of steroid hormones, bile acid and vitamin D. Cholesterol is the principal sterol synthesized by all animals. In vertebrates, hepatic cells typically produce the greatest amounts. It is absent among prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea), although there are some exceptions, such as Mycoplasma, which require cholesterol for growth.

For Optimal Performance, make nutrition a priority no matter how busy you are. Before and during endurance training, carbohydrates are your most important fuel source. Bread, rice, pasta, fruits, starchy vegetables (such as beans, corn, peas, and potatoes). Carbohydrates are classified as simple (fast) or complex (slow). Simple carbs (fruit, juice, honey) break down quickly and often are best right before or during training. Complex carbohydrates (starches and whole grains) take longer to break down, so incorporate them into your meals. A balance of simple and complex carbohydrates is best to help you stay focused and fueled. Both protein and fat take longer than carbs to break down, which is why they aren’t considered primary fuel sources for exercise. Protein is important for muscle repair and recovery. The recommended (minimum) daily amount (RDA) of protein is 0.8g/kg body weight. There is no benefit to eating extra protein. After hard workouts, you need a balanced mix of protein and carbs. For most people, 20–25g of protein and 60g of carbohydrate is sufficient. Approximately 20–25% of your daily intake should be from fat. And try not to skip meals. Those who skip meals are more likely to have trouble losing weight, have a higher percentage of body fat, and are more likely to reach for energy drinks or supplements to re-energize when their body craves energy from food.

Gastronomy is the study of the relationship between food and culture, art of preparing and serving rich or delicate and appetizing food, a style of cooking of particular region, and the science of good eating. One who is well versed in gastronomy is called a gastronome, while a gastronomist is one who unites theory and practice in the study of gastronomy.

Digestive System - Body Mind Connection

Diet is just another word for eating healthy and eating the right foods in the right amounts at the right times. It's knowing that good flavor does not always mean healthy. It's knowing how to chew your food enough. It's knowing not to eat too fast. It's knowing Not to Overeat and it's knowing when you have eaten enough

Grocery Shopping Tips (youtube) - Box Food Stores

Documentary Films on Health (movies)

You need to understand that changes to your body happen gradual over time. So they are almost unnoticeable. When I started eating healthier I noticed that when I ate unhealthy food I felt its grossness swimming through my bloodstream. But if I ate unhealthy food a couple of days in a row, I became unaware of the feeling. So my body created a new normal, which it was not. I also noticed that when I stopped taking vitamins everyday, my body became sluggish. But after a week or two, my body created a new normal. We need to define what normal is so that we will make changes when needed. We also have to avoid eating the exact same foods everyday. Each person needs to do their own personal research, and also needs to break routines in order to examine the changes, whether they are good or bad. With food you have to break routine sometimes. Unless you're absolutely positive that you are doing the right thing. It's good to experiment with other foods. Mostly because there are some foods that you can't eat all the time, or eat every single day. Something's start off beneficial, but they can also have accumulative negative effects. So they are only good once in while. But you have to do the research yourself. And to be a good researcher you have to keep updating your knowledge base. Especially now that we are learning more, and learning faster, then another time in human history.

Studies have shown that dietary improvement cumulatively prevents millions of premature deaths and results in fewer cases of type 2 diabetes, fewer cases of cardiovascular disease and fewer cancer cases, just to name a few of the benefits.

"Convenience is not supposed to hurt us or kill us, or is convenience supposed to pollute the earth and poison our planet."

Processed Foods - Food Processing - Food Industry - Food Production News

"When eating well, we should consider both the health of our bodies and the health of our planet."

"If you get good gas for your car but you eat unhealthy food, who will die first? Who has the most potential energy?

Eating Bad Food Everyday is like never throwing out the garbage. And as the garbage accumulates and builds up, you will find it harder to move around. And with all that garbage, you will have more disease and more problems. And the worst part is that the garbage builds up so slowly over time that you might not even notice before it's to late. Processed Food.


How much protein do you need? On the average, men and women need about 56 and 46 grams of protein a day.

What's My Protein Number? - Health Calculator - Proteins - Benefits of Protein (webmd)

Foods Highest in Protein - Protein-Rich Foods: nuts, eggs, seeds, beans, poultry, yogurt, cheese, even chocolate. Good Protein Sources

Without enough protein your wounds will be slow to heal because protein helps with collagen formation. Your immune system will be weaker: you may get more frequent infections than usual. Your may lose muscle mass — especially if you're older, since the amount of protein you need after age 70 increases. Your bones may also be weaker (collagen is also essential for strong bones). Hair loss is another symptom of protein deficiency, though it may also indicate iron deficiency. Your nails may become more brittle and your skin drier, especially if you're older. When you're not eating enough protein, you may find that you're hungrier and experience more food cravings. Fatigue and weakness are also signs of a lack of protein, and possibly a lack of calories overall. Certain amino acids are important in stabilizing your mood, so you may experience mood changes. In children, protein deficiency can hinder normal growth. You may not sleep as well if your diet doesn't contain enough tryptophan, an essential amino acid provided by certain proteins.

Protein Powder from Less Naked Mass is the ideal between meal or before bed supplement to maintain a high protein and calorie diet. Only five ingredients: Naked Whey, Naked Casein, Organic Maltodextrin (made from gluten free organic tapioca), Organic Coconut Sugar, and Organic Raw Cacao. Naked Mass contains no artificial sweeteners, flavors, or colors and is GMO Free, Growth Hormone Free, Soy Free and Gluten Free.

Plant Protein (veggies) - Carnivore

Protein Combining is a dietary strategy for protein nutrition by using complementary sources to optimize biological value and increase the protein quality. It was originally applied to livestock feed for animal nutrition. Food Chemistry.

Protein Complementation

Phytochemicals are chemical compounds produced by plants, generally to help them thrive or thwart competitors, predators, or pathogens. The name comes from the Greek word phyton, meaning plant. Some phytochemicals have been used as poisons and others as traditional medicine.

Nutrition - Nutrients

Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism. It includes food intake, absorption, assimilation, biosynthesis, catabolism and excretion. The organic process of nourishing or being nourished. Malnourished.

Human Nutrition refers to the provision of essential nutrients necessary to support human life and health. Generally, people can survive up to 40 days without food, a period largely depending on the amount of water consumed, stored body fat, muscle mass and genetic factors. Poor nutrition is a chronic problem often linked to poverty, poor nutrition understanding and practices, and deficient sanitation and food security. Malnutrition and its consequences are immense contributors to deaths and disabilities worldwide. Promoting Good Nutrition helps children grow, promotes human development and eradication of poverty.

Nutrition Psychology is the psychological study of how cognitive choices, such as meal decisions, influence nutrition, psychological health, and overall health. Calculate Food Needs - Measure Nutritional Values.

Nutrient is a component in foods that an organism uses to survive and grow. Macronutrients provide the bulk energy an organism's metabolic system needs to function while micronutrients provide the necessary cofactors for metabolism to be carried out. Both types of nutrients can be acquired from the environment. Micronutrients are used to build and repair tissues and to regulate body processes while macronutrients are converted to, and used for, energy. Methods of nutrient intake are different for plants and animals. Plants take in nutrients directly from the soil through their roots and from the atmosphere through their leaves. Animals and protists have specialized digestive systems that work to break down macronutrients for energy and utilize micronutrients for both metabolism and anabolism (constructive synthesis) in the body. Organic nutrients consist of carbohydrates, fats, proteins (or their building blocks, amino acids), and vitamins. Inorganic chemical compounds such as dietary minerals, water or H2O, and oxygen may also be considered nutrients. A nutrient is considered essential if it must be obtained from an external source either because the organism cannot synthesize it or because insufficient quantities are produced. Nutrients needed in very small amounts are called micronutrients while those needed in large quantities are called macronutrients. The effects of nutrients are dose-dependent; shortages are called deficiencies.

Vitamins - Minerals - Personalized Nutrition - Cooking Effects on Food Nutrients

Nutrient Density identifies the proportion of nutrients in foods, with terms such as nutrient rich and micronutrient dense referring to similar properties. Several different national and international standards have been developed and are in use (see Nutritional rating systems). Food Chemistry.

Micro-Nutrient are nutrients required by organisms throughout life in small quantities to orchestrate a range of physiological functions. For people, they include dietary trace minerals in amounts generally less than 100 milligrams per day, as opposed to macrominerals, which are required in larger quantities. The micro-minerals or trace elements include at least iron, cobalt, chromium, copper, iodine, manganese, selenium, zinc and molybdenum. Micronutrients also include vitamins, which are organic compounds required as nutrients in trace amounts. Micronutrient is a chemical element or substance required in trace amounts for the normal growth and development of living organisms. are essential elements required by organisms in varying quantities throughout life to orchestrate a range of physiological functions to maintain health. Micronutrient requirements differ between organisms; for example, humans and other animals require numerous vitamins and dietary minerals, whereas plants require specific minerals. For human nutrition, micronutrient requirements are in amounts generally less than 100 milligrams per day, whereas macronutrients are required in gram quantities daily. The minerals for humans and other animals include 13 elements that originate from Earth's soil and are not synthesized by living organisms, such as calcium and iron. Micronutrient requirements for animals also include vitamins, which are organic compounds required in microgram or milligram amounts. Since plants are the primary origin of nutrients for humans and animals, some micronutrients may be in low levels and deficiencies can occur when dietary intake is insufficient, as occurs in malnutrition, implying the need for initiatives to deter inadequate micronutrient supply in plant foods. A multiple micronutrient powder of at least iron, zinc, and vitamin A was added to the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines in 2019. Micronutrients support metabolism. Dietary minerals are generally trace elements, salts, or ions such as copper and iron. Some of these minerals are essential to human metabolism. Vitamins are organic compounds essential to the body. They usually act as coenzymes or cofactors for various proteins in the body. List of Micronutrients (PDF).

Macronutrients are defined in several ways. The chemical elements humans consume in the largest quantities are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and sulphur, summarized as CHNOPS. The chemical compounds that humans consume in the largest quantities and provide bulk energy are classified as carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. Water must be also consumed in large quantities. Calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, and chloride ions, along with phosphorus and sulfur, are listed with macronutrients because they are required in large quantities compared to micronutrients, i.e., vitamins and other minerals, the latter often described as trace or ultratrace minerals. Macronutrients provide energy: Carbohydrates are compounds made up of types of sugar. Carbohydrates are classified according to their number of sugar units: monosaccharides (such as glucose and fructose), disaccharides (such as sucrose and lactose), oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides (such as starch, glycogen, and cellulose). Proteins are organic compounds that consist of amino acids joined by peptide bonds. Since the body cannot manufacture some of the amino acids (termed essential amino acids), the diet must supply them. Through digestion, proteins are broken down by proteases back into free amino acids. Fats consist of a glycerin molecule with three fatty acids attached. Fatty acid molecules contain a -COOH group attached to unbranched hydrocarbon chains connected by single bonds alone (saturated fatty acids) or by both double and single bonds (unsaturated fatty acids). Fats are needed for construction and maintenance of cell membranes, to maintain a stable body temperature, and to sustain the health of skin and hair. Because the body does not manufacture certain fatty acids (termed essential fatty acids), they must be obtained through one's diet. Fat has a food energy content of 38 kilojoules per gram (9 kilocalories per gram) and proteins and carbohydrates 17 kJ/g (4 kcal/g).

Essential Nutrient is a nutrient required for normal physiological function that cannot be synthesized in the body – either at all or in sufficient quantities – and thus must be obtained from a dietary source. Apart from water, which is universally required for the maintenance of homeostasis in mammals, essential nutrients are indispensable for various cellular metabolic processes and; for the maintenance and function of tissues and organs. In the case of humans, there are nine amino acids, two fatty acids, thirteen vitamins and fifteen minerals that are considered essential nutrients. In addition, there are several molecules that are considered conditionally essential nutrients since they are indispensable in certain developmental and pathological states.

Anti-Nutrient are natural or synthetic compounds that interfere with the absorption of nutrients. Nutrition studies focus on those antinutrients commonly found in food sources and beverages. Antinutrients.

Non-Essential Nutrients are substances within foods that can have a significant impact on health. Insoluble dietary fiber is not absorbed in the human digestive tract, but is important in maintaining the bulk of a bowel movement to avoid constipation.  Soluble fiber can be metabolized by bacteria residing in the large intestine. Soluble fiber is marketed as serving a prebiotic function with claims for promoting "healthy" intestinal bacteria. Bacterial metabolism of soluble fiber also produces short-chain fatty acids like butyric acid, which may be absorbed into intestinal cells as a source of food energy.

Phytic Acid impairs the absorption of iron, zinc and calcium and may promote mineral deficiencies. Brown Rice.

Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems. It may involve calories, protein, carbohydrates, vitamins or minerals. Not enough nutrients is called under-nutrition or undernourishment while too much is called overnutrition. Malnutrition is often used specifically to refer to undernutrition where there is not enough calories, protein, or micronutrients. If under-nutrition occurs during pregnancy, or before two years of age, it may result in permanent problems with physical and mental development. Extreme undernourishment, known as starvation, may have symptoms that include: a short height, thin body, very poor energy levels, cognition, and swollen legs and abdomen. People also often get infections and are frequently cold. The symptoms of micronutrient deficiencies depend on the micronutrient that is lacking. Stunted Growth.

Food Security - Vitamin Deficiencies - Poor Nutrition Dangers and Warnings

Overnutrition is a form of malnutrition in which the intake of nutrients is oversupplied. The amount of nutrients exceeds the amount required for normal growth, development, and metabolism. Refeeding Syndrome.

How droughts and lack of water can have negative effects of food crops.

Plant Quality Declines as CO2 Levels Rise. It’s been understood for some time that many of our most important foods have been getting less nutritious. Measurements of fruits and vegetables show that their minerals, vitamin and protein content has measurably dropped over the past 50 to 70 years. Researchers have generally assumed the reason is fairly straightforward: We’ve been breeding and choosing crops for higher yields, rather than nutrition, and higher-yielding crops—whether broccoli, tomatoes, or wheat—tend to be less nutrient-packed. In 2004, a landmark study of fruits and vegetables found that everything from protein to calcium, iron and vitamin C had declined significantly across most garden crops since 1950. The researchers concluded this could mostly be explained by the varieties we were choosing to grow. Rising CO2 revs up photosynthesis, the process that helps plants transform sunlight to food. This makes plants grow, but it also leads them to pack in more carbohydrates like glucose at the expense of other nutrients that we depend on, like protein, iron and zinc.

Estimated Effects of Future Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations on Protein Intake and the Risk of Protein Deficiency by Country and Region.

Effect of increased concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide on the global threat of zinc deficiency: A modeling study. (PDF)

Scientists find that rice grown under elevated carbon conditions loses substantial amounts of protein, zinc, iron and B vitamins, depending on the variety. Carbon dioxide (CO2) levels this century will alter the protein, micronutrients, and vitamin content of rice grains with potential health consequences for the poorest rice-dependent countries.

Genetically Boosting the Nutritional Value of Corn Could Benefit Millions (climate change-resistant strains)

Biofortification - Vitamins and Minerals.

Microbes Compete for Nutrients, affect Metabolism, Development in mice.

Food Chemistry

Nutriology Clinical Nutrition is nutrition of patients in health care. Clinical in this sense refers to the management of patients, including not only outpatients at clinics, but also (and mainly) inpatients in hospitals. It incorporates primarily the scientific fields of nutrition and dietetics. It aims to keep a healthy energy balance in patients, as well as providing sufficient amounts other nutrients such as protein, vitamins, minerals. Food Security.

Does an Empty Stomach help Concentration and Memory? (PDF) - Fasting.

Breathing Exercises helps improve Brain Function, and Exercise too.

Music and Concentration

Stronger legs linked to stronger brains in older women

Exercise Benefits

People over age 50 who are sexually active have better memory and cognitive skills than people who are less sexually active. Cognitive Neuroscience in Space effects on the brain in a weightless environment. Movement and other brain functions are affected under zero gravity or microgravity conditions. Terrestrial research has shown that human cognitive and perceptual motor performances deteriorate under stress may affect neurocognitive performance. Various psychomotor functions degrade during space flight including central postural functions, the speed and accuracy of aimed movements, internal timekeeping, attentional processes, sensing of limb position and the central management of concurrent tasks. Other factors that might affect neurocognitive performance in space are illness, injury, toxic exposure, decompression accidents, medication side effects and excessive exposure to radiation. Different tools have been developed to assess and counteract these deficits and problems, including computerized tests and physical exercise devices.

Brain Maintenance 101

Some of the Dangers from Eating Unhealthy Foods are increased risk of Kidney Disease, Dehydration, Nausea, increased risk of Cancer, increased risk of Heart Disease, Strokes, Seizures, Mood Changes, Diabetes, Anorexia, High Blood Pressure, Bad Breath, Cognitive Abilities, Poor Endurance, increased Bone Loss, Digestive Problems, Gout and Nutritional Deficiencies to name a few.

Processed Food - Junk Food - Additives

Heart Disease - Diabetes - Salt

Microbes - Good Bacteria - Eco Mii
Lettuce be Happy. A longitudinal study on the relationship between fruit and vegetable consumption and well-being.

Does Eating Fruit and Vegetables also Reduce the Longitudinal Risk of Depression and Anxiety?

Your body and brain depends on you making the right food decisions, so please make yourself very aware of the importance of eating the right foods with balance. Know the difference between being hungry and not having enough to eat. Avoiding foods that are not good for you is not easy. Discipline in this area means that you have respect for your body and that you are knowledgeable about which foods are good and which foods are bad. Taste is never an indication on determining if a food is good for you or if a food is bad for you. Learning how to cook healthy foods is one of the most rewarding skills to have.

Health Literacy - Health Calculators - Health Education

All foods can be prepared in a way that would please everyone’s tastes and needs. Eating a verity of regular foods in smaller portions is a good idea. A bad diet can be just as dangerous and damaging as malnutrition. You should never eliminate entire food groups unless you have allergies or a medical condition. So please learn what foods are good for you and in what quantities.

Nutrition and Diet Resources

Nutrition Consulting

Nutritionist is a person who advises on matters of food and nutrition impacts on health. Different professional terms are used in different countries, employment settings and contexts — some examples include: nutrition scientist, public health nutritionist, dietitian-nutritionist, clinical nutritionist, and sports nutritionist. Personalized Nutrition.

Health Coaching is the use of evidence-based skillful conversation, clinical interventions and strategies to actively and safely engage client/patients in health behavior change. Health coaches are certified or credentialed to safely guide clients and patients who may have chronic conditions or those at moderate to high risk for chronic conditions.

Dietitian is an expert in dietetics; that is, human nutrition and the regulation of diet. A dietitian alters their patient's nutrition based upon their medical condition and individual needs. Dietitians are regulated healthcare professionals licensed to assess, diagnose, and treat nutritional problems. A registered dietitian (RD) or registered dietitian nutritionist (RDN), is a dietitian who meets all of a set of special academic and professional requirements.

Coaching for the Brain - Mind Consulting

Doctor Eric Berg is the Knowledge Doc who likes to share valuable health information and education on natural health alternatives.

Smart Plate TopView: Your Personal Nutritionist The world’s first Intelligent Nutrition Platform that instantly analyzes everything you eat.

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (wiki)

Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior (SNEB)

Fiber - Microbes

Eat a Well-Balanced Diet and Limit Sugar and Salt

Grocery-Store based Nutrition Education Improves Eating Habits. Hypertension affects over 60 million adults in the United States and less than half have their condition under control. A new study found that grocery store-based nutrition counseling was effective in changing dietary habits of patients being treated for hypertension. Participants received individual counseling at one of three local grocery stores from two registered dietitians trained to provide lifestyle modification information based on the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet. Three counseling sessions, provided free to the patients, occurred over 12 weeks. The first visit was 60 minutes long followed by two 30-45-minute sessions. Following each session, a recap of the visit and patient's progress towards goals were provided to the primary care provider to be included in the patient's records. Diet quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index-2010, a measure of overall diet quality compared to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Patients completed a food frequency questionnaire, documenting food and beverages consumed at least once during the previous three months, prior to beginning the study and at the end of the study. Blood pressure measurements were also taken. Following the education, patients' eating habits significantly improved in regard to total fruit, whole fruit, greens and beans, whole grains, fatty acids, refined grains, and empty calories. Sodium, saturated fat, discretionary solid fat, and total fat intake decreased significantly as well. Intake of added sugar also decreased although not to the same extent as the other categories. Blood pressure measurements also decreased during the study, but due to the small number of participants the differences were not statistically significant. Additionally, patients reported a high level of compliance in taking their hypertension medication as prescribed during the study. "Providing education at the grocery store offers a convenient location on a schedule with more flexibility than a primary care office and reinforces dietary changes in the environment where food decisions are made," said Dr. Watowicz. "This strategy should be researched with other health conditions."

Nutrition is very important so be very aware of how you feel after eating certain foods, Like feeling sleepy, having intestinal cramps, felling irritable, unable to focus, unable to sleep, changes in skin appearance, physical performance and so on. But remember some negative effects happen so gradual over time that you don't notice the damage until it's to late.


Healthy Diet is one that helps to maintain good health or improve overall health. A healthy diet provides the body with essential nutrition: fluid, adequate essential amino acids from protein, essential fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, and adequate calories. The requirements for a healthy diet can be met from a variety of plant-based and animal-based foods. A healthy diet supports energy needs and provides for human nutrition without exposure to toxicity or excessive weight gain from consuming excessive amounts. Where lack of calories is not an issue, a properly balanced diet (in addition to exercise) is also thought to be important for lowering health risks, such as obesity, heart disease, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and cancer. Various nutrition guides are published by medical and governmental institutions to educate the public on what they should be eating to promote health. Nutrition facts labels are also mandatory in some countries to allow consumers to choose between foods based on the components relevant to health. The idea of dietary therapy (using dietary choices to maintain health and improve poor health) is quite old and thus has both modern scientific forms (medical nutrition therapy) and prescientific forms (such as dietary therapy in traditional Chinese medicine).

Diet as in nutrition is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism. The word diet often implies the use of specific intake of nutrition for health or weight-management reasons (with the two often being related). Although humans are omnivores, each culture and each person holds some food preferences or some food taboos. This may be due to personal tastes or ethical reasons. Individual dietary choices may be more or less healthy. Complete nutrition requires ingestion and absorption of vitamins, minerals, and food energy in the form of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. Dietary habits and choices play a significant role in the quality of life, health and longevity. What Diet Means? A Bad Diet is an Addiction.

DASH Diet is a dietary pattern promoted by the U.S.-based National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services) to prevent and control hypertension. The DASH diet is rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and low-fat dairy foods; includes meat, fish, poultry, nuts, and beans; and is limited in sugar-sweetened foods and beverages, red meat, and added fats. In addition to its effect on blood pressure, it is designed to be a well-balanced approach to eating for the general public. DASH is recommended by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) as one of its ideal eating plans for all Americans.

Mediterranean Diet is a diet inspired by the eating habits of Greece, Southern Italy, and Spain in the 1940s and 1950s. The principal aspects of this diet include proportionally high consumption of olive oil, legumes, unrefined cereals, fruits, and vegetables, moderate to high consumption of fish, moderate consumption of dairy products (mostly as cheese and yogurt), moderate wine consumption, and low consumption of non-fish meat products. There is some evidence that the Mediterranean diet lowers the risk of heart disease and early death. Olive oil may be the main health-promoting component of the diet. There is preliminary evidence that regular consumption of olive oil may lower all-cause mortality and the risk of cancer, cardiovascular disease, neuro-degeneration, and several chronic diseases. Mediterranean Diet and its Benefits on Health and Mental Health: A Literature Review. The Mediterranean diet is currently considered one of the most healthy dietary models worldwide. It is generally based on the daily intake of fruit and vegetables, whole grains, legumes, nuts, fish, white meats, and olive oil.

Ketogenic Diet is a high-fat, adequate-protein, low-carbohydrate diet that in medicine is used primarily to treat difficult-to-control (refractory) Epilepsy in children. The diet forces the body to burn fats rather than carbohydrates. Normally, the carbohydrates contained in food are converted into glucose, which is then transported around the body and is particularly important in fueling brain function. However, if little carbohydrate remains in the diet, the liver converts fat into fatty acids and ketone bodies. The ketone bodies pass into the brain and replace glucose as an energy source. An elevated level of ketone bodies in the blood, a state known as ketosis, leads to a reduction in the frequency of epileptic seizures. Around half of children and young people with epilepsy who have tried some form of this diet saw the number of seizures drop by at least half, and the effect persists even after discontinuing the diet. Some evidence indicates that adults with epilepsy may benefit from the diet, and that a less strict regimen, such as a modified Atkins diet, is similarly effective. Potential side effects may include constipation, high cholesterol, growth slowing, acidosis, and kidney stones. Keto diet works best in small doses. A ketogenic diet, which provides 99 percent of calories from fat and only 1 percent from carbohydrates, produces health benefits in the short term, but negative effects after about a week, researchers found in a study of mice. A keto diet tricks the body into burning fat. When the body's glucose level is reduced due to the diet's low carbohydrate content, the body acts as if it is in a starvation state, although it is not, and begins burning fats instead of carbohydrates. This process in turn yields chemicals called ketone bodies as an alternative source of fuel. When the body burns ketone bodies, tissue-protective gamma delta T-cells expand throughout the body. This reduces diabetes risk and inflammation, and improves the body's metabolism.

Western pattern diet is a modern dietary pattern that is generally characterized by high intakes of pre-packaged foods, refined grains, red meat, processed meat, high-sugar drinks, candy and sweets, fried foods, industrially produced animal products, butter and other high-fat dairy products, eggs, potatoes, corn (and high-fructose corn syrup), and low intakes of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, pasture-raised animal products, fish, nuts, and seeds. Obesity - Diabetes - Inflammation - Cancer.

3-Hour Rule: Every 3 hours during the day eat three balanced meals and three smaller healthy snacks throughout the day. Every three hours, have something to sustain your blood-sugar levels and your brain to make sure you are performing at a high level. If you indulged in something you regret, instead of dwelling on it, focus on your goals. In three hours, when you eat again, reset and restart your mindset. ‘Am I hungry or am I hurting?’ If I think I’m hurting, then I take steps to heal the pain without food. List activities that will help distract you from your cravings. Every three hours, reset and reassess. Awareness - Focus - Discipline

Sandra Aamodt: Why dieting doesn't usually work (video and interactive transcript).


Biomarkers of Aging are biomarkers that could predict functional capacity at some later age better than will chronological age. Stated another way, biomarkers of aging would give the true "biological age", which may be different from the chronological age.

Living Longer (Growing Old Healthier - Longevity)

An ideal diet is one that promotes Optimal Health and Longevity.

Biological Clock Aging is a type of DNA clock based on measuring natural DNA methylation levels to estimate the biological age of a tissue, cell type or organ. A pre-eminent example for an epigenetic clock is Horvath's clock, which is based on 353 epigenetic markers on the human genome.

Vitals (signs - markers) - Ageing (elderly - caregiving)

Metabolic Age refers to a number calculated by comparing your Basal Metabolic Rate to the Basal Metabolic Rate average of your chronological age group. This measurement is one among many which can be used to assess health, and people should avoid putting too much weight on it as it is a purely theoretical construct with no clinical studies; a more complete assessment of physical health can be obtained from a doctor, who may also have suggestions to improve health.

Brain Health - Intelligence and Food

Impact of Health on Intelligence can affect intelligence in various ways, and conversely, intelligence can affect health. Health effects on intelligence have been described as being among the most important factors in the origins of human group differences in IQ test scores and other measures of cognitive ability. Several factors can lead to significant cognitive impairment, particularly if they occur during pregnancy and childhood when the brain is growing and the blood–brain barrier of the child is less effective. Such impairment may sometimes be permanent, sometimes be partially or wholly compensated for by later growth. Developed nations have implemented several health policies regarding nutrients and toxins known to influence cognitive function. These include laws requiring fortification of certain food products and laws establishing safe levels of pollutants (e.g. lead, mercury, and organochlorides). Comprehensive policy recommendations targeting reduction of cognitive impairment in children have been proposed. Improvements in nutrition due to public policy changes, often involving specific micronutrients, have been implicated in IQ increases in many nations (as part of the overall Flynn effect), such as efforts fighting iodine deficiency in the U.S..

Knowledge is one of the best brain foods that you need to consume everyday.

Mindful Eating - Mindful Learning - Avoiding Toxins - Vitamins

Neuroprotection is the ability for a therapy to prevent neuronal cell death by intervening in and inhibiting the pathogenetic cascade that results in cell dysfunction and eventual death. Vitamins C, E and K are known to protect neurons from oxidative damage in stroke and in other neurodegenerative conditions. B vitamins are critically important in maintaining the normal functions of the brain. Caffeine and Polyphenols currently have great neuroprotective properties. The widely studied caffeine has antagonistic activity against adenosine receptors in the central nervous system and elsewhere in the body resulting in psychoactive effects. Neuro-Reneration.

Neuroprotection refers to the relative preservation of neuronal structure and/or function. Antioxidants are the primary treatment used to control oxidative stress levels. Antioxidants work to eliminate reactive oxygen species, which are the prime cause of neurodegradation. The effectiveness of antioxidants in preventing further neurodegradation is not only disease dependent but can also depend on gender, ethnicity, and age.

Terpenoids Exert Neuroprotective Effects by Restoring Blood–Brain Barrier Permeability. The blood–brain barrier is the primary metabolic interface between the peripheral blood supply and neural tissues or their fluid spaces.

New research shows 'profound' link between dietary choices and brain health. A healthy, balanced diet was linked to superior brain health, cognitive function and mental wellbeing. A balanced diet was associated with better mental health, superior cognitive functions and even higher amounts of grey matter in the brain -- linked to intelligence -- compared with those with a less varied diet.

Food for thought: Study links key nutrients with slower brain aging. A new study suggests better nutrition might help prevent cognitive decline. Nutrient biomarkers identified via blood tests revealed a combination of fatty acids, antioxidants and carotenoids, and two forms of Vitamin E and choline -- very similar to the Mediterranean diet -- in the systems of those who showed slower than expected brain aging in MRI scans and cognitive assessments.

In June 2012 I started eating a new breakfast meal. One slice of toast with a few added ingredients, and one strong cup of coffee. After a few days I noticed that I was experiencing increased cognitive abilities. It's now easier to remember and easier to focus and easier to learn. And I don't feel groggy or a little off. And with more neural pathways open, thinking and problem solving becomes easier too. So the benefits seem promising. My recipe is organic hummus with 3 things mixed in, I then spread it on toast and then add 1 once of salmon on top of my whole grain slice of toast every morning. In my hummus I mix a little of Lion's Mane Mushroom Extract Powder, along with a little Amazing Grass Green Super food powder and some Organic Chia Seeds. The lion's mane mushroom powder makes remembering names much easier for some reason. This has been my breakfast every morning for several years, and I love it. But of course, always check with Doctors and experts to see if Omegas are healthy for your particular body needs. Not everyone benefits from nutrients in the exact same way. You may have a particular chemistry and certain health issues and other factors. In order to fully benefit from brain enhancing foods you would also need to stop ingesting foods and chemicals that diminish brain functions, like fluoride, alcohol and drugs, certain vaccines, pesticides, just to name a few. You also need exercise, and you also need to keep educating yourself. Do you have allergies or some sort of sensitivity? Also be careful of fatty acids in pill form that come with essential EPA, DNA GLA and ALA Fatty Acids, or made from fish oil, flaxseed oil and borage seed oil. Do your research. Now in 2024, I still have toast with hummus with some extra ingredients, but not everyday, I mix it up with other foods, so my routine is flexible. And even now after all those years, I'm still learning things about healthy eating. 

My Vitamins and Supplements - Exercise - Sleep

Omega-3 Fatty Acid are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with a double bond (C=C) at the third carbon atom from the end of the carbon chain that are important for normal metabolism. Good Fats and Bad Fats.

Foods that have Omega-3's: Walnuts, Salmon, Flaxseeds, Beans, Spinach, Kale, Seaweed, Enhanced Eggs and Tofu. iwi life vegan-omega-3-supplement.

Researchers develop model for how the brain acquires essential omega-3 fatty acids. Findings may aid design of targeted drug delivery into the brain and central nervous system. Researchers have developed a zebrafish model that provides new insight into how the brain acquires essential omega-3 fatty acids, including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and linolenic acid (ALA), with the potential to improve understanding of lipid transport across the blood-brain barrier and of disruptions in this process that can lead to birth defects or neurological conditions. Omega-3 fatty acids are considered essential because the body cannot make them and must obtain them through foods, such as fish, nuts and seeds. DHA levels are especially high in the brain and important for a healthy nervous system. Infants obtain DHA from breastmilk or formula, and deficiencies of this fatty acid have been linked to problems with learning and memory. To get to the brain, omega-3 fatty acids must pass through the blood-brain barrier via the lipid transporter Mfsd2a, which is essential for normal brain development. Despite its importance, scientists did not know precisely how Mfsd2a transports DHA and other omega-3 fatty acids.

Fish-Rich Diets in pregnancy may boost babies' brain development. Women could enhance the development of their unborn child's eyesight and brain function by regularly eating fatty fish during pregnancy.

Saturated fat may interfere with creating memories in aged brain. Study finds DHA protects brain cells from fat-related inflammation. A new study in cell cultures found the omega-3 fatty acid DHA may help protect the brain from an unhealthy diet's effects by curbing fat-induced inflammation at the cellular source.

Technique boosts omega 3 fatty acid levels in brain 100 fold. Researchers report that adding a lysophospholipid form of EPA (LPC-EPA) to the diet can increase levels of EPA in the brain 100-fold in mice.

Omega-3 fatty acids appear promising for maintaining lung health. Omega-3 fatty acids, which are abundant in fish and fish oil supplements, appear promising for maintaining lung health, according to new evidence from a large, multi-faceted study in healthy adults. The study provides the strongest evidence to date of this association and underscores the importance of including omega-3 fatty acids in the diet, especially given that many Americans do not meet current guidelines.

Monounsaturated Fat are fatty acids that have one double bond in the fatty acid chain with all of the remainder carbon atoms being single-bonded. By contrast, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have more than one double bond. Monounsaturated fats are healthy fats found in olive oil, avocados and certain nuts.

Krill Oil is an extract prepared from a species of Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba. Two of the most important components in krill oil are omega-3 fatty acids similar to those in fish oil, and phospholipid-derived fatty acids (PLFA), mainly phosphatidylcholine (alternatively referred to as marine lecithin). Marine Phytoplankton.

Fish Oil–Derived Fatty Acids in Pregnancy and Wheeze and Asthma in Offspring

Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood - Learning Disabilities

Omega-3 Lowers Childhood Aggression in Short Term, Penn Research Shows

Nutrition has been Linked to Cognitive Performance Nutrition has benefits for brain network organization, new research finds. (monounsaturated fatty acids – a class of nutrients found in olive oils, nuts and avocados)

Fatty Acids also help expel heavy metals from the body. Cleansing

Omega-3 fatty acids in keeping the blood-brain barrier closed, which protects the central nervous system from blood-borne bacteria, toxins and other pathogens, according to new research.

Omega-6 Fatty Acid are a family of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory polyunsaturated fatty acids that have in common a final carbon-carbon double bond in the n-6 position, that is, the sixth bond, counting from the methyl end. Should eat lower amounts. High omega-6 levels can protect against premature death. Linoleic acid is the most common polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid.

Omega-9 Fatty Acid are a family of unsaturated fatty acids which have in common a final carbon–carbon double bond in the omega−9 position; that is, the ninth bond from the methyl end of the fatty acid. Unlike omega-3 fatty acids and omega-6 fatty acid, omega−9 fatty acids are not classed as essential fatty acids (EFA). This is both because they can be created by the human body from unsaturated fat, and are therefore not essential in the diet, and because the lack of an omega−6 double bond keeps them from participating in the reactions that form the eicosanoids.

Medium-Chain Triglycerides are triglycerides whose fatty acids have an aliphatic tail of 6–12 carbon atoms. The fatty acids found in MCTs are called medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs). Like all triglycerides, MCTs are composed of a glycerol backbone and three fatty acids. In the case of MCTs, 2 or 3 of the fatty acid chains attached to glycerol are of medium length. Rich sources for commercial extraction of beneficial MCTs include palm kernel oil and coconut oil.

Ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group. Usually, esters are derived from a carboxylic acid and an alcohol. Glycerides, which are fatty acid esters of glycerol, are important esters in biology, being one of the main classes of lipids, and making up the bulk of animal fats and vegetable oils. Esters with low molecular weight are commonly used as fragrances and found in essential oils and pheromones. Phosphoesters form the backbone of DNA molecules. Nitrate esters, such as nitroglycerin, are known for their explosive properties, while polyesters are important plastics, with monomers linked by ester moieties.

Inflammation - Ph

Mediterranean Diet May Have Lasting Effects on Brain Health. A new study shows that older people who followed a Mediterranean diet retained more brain volume over a three-year period than those who did not follow the diet as closely.

Lignan are a large group of chemical compounds found in plants. Some examples of lignans are pinoresinol, podophyllotoxin, and steganacin.

Lutein is a xanthophyll and one of 600 known naturally occurring carotenoids. Lutein is synthesized only by plants and like other xanthophylls is found in high quantities in green leafy vegetables such as Kale. In green plants, xanthophylls act to modulate light energy and serve as non-photochemical quenching agents to deal with triplet chlorophyll (an excited form of chlorophyll), which is overproduced at very high light levels, during photosynthesis. See xanthophyll cycle for this topic. Lutein is present in plants as fatty-acid esters, with one or two fatty acids bound to the two hydroxyl-groups.

Flavones - Luteolin

Alpha-Linolenic Acid is an n−3 fatty acid. It is one of two essential fatty acids (the other being linoleic acid), so called because they are necessary for health and cannot be produced within the human body. They must be acquired through diet. ALA is an omega-3 fatty acid found in chia seeds, flaxseed, hemp seeds, nuts (notably walnuts), and many common vegetable oils.

Bacopa Monnieri is a perennial, creeping herb native to the wetlands of southern and Eastern India, Australia, Europe, Africa, Asia, and North and South America. Bacopa is a medicinal herb used in Ayurveda, where it is also known as "Brahmi", after Brahmā, the creator God of the Hindu pantheon.

Curcumin Improves Memory and Mood - Mind Diet

Curcumin is a substance found in Turmeric that gives curry its yellow color. In past studies, curcumin has previously been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties in lab studies. Turmeric, a native plant in Asia, has been used as a herbal remedy for arthritis, cancer, heart disease and other medical conditions.

Vitamins - Minerals - Longevity - Myelin - Nerve Cells - Nervous System - Brain Maintenance

Other Brain Boosting Products
- Nutiva Organic Shelled Hempseeds (amazon) - Salvia Hispanica (Chia Seeds)

Lingzhi Mushroom is a polypore mushroom belonging to the genus Ganoderma. Its red-varnished, kidney-shaped cap gives it a distinct appearance. When fresh, the lingzhi is soft, cork-like, and flat. It lacks gills on its underside, and instead releases its spores via fine pores. Depending on the age of the mushroom, the pores on its underside may be white or brown. Lingzhi mushroom is used in traditional Chinese medicine. In nature, it grows at the base and stumps of deciduous trees, especially that of the maple. Only two or three out of 10,000 such aged trees will have lingzhi growth, and therefore its wild form is extremely rare. Today, lingzhi is effectively cultivated on hardwood logs or sawdust/woodchips.

Hericium Erinaceus is also called Lion's Mane Mushroom, is an edible and medicinal mushroom belonging to the tooth fungus group. Yamabushitake is shown to to inhibit the growth of human cancer cells and protect against Neuro-Degeneration. Alzheimer's.

Memory impairment in mice reduced by soy derivate that can enter the brain intact. Researchers have found that a soy-derived protein fragment that reaches the brain after being ingested reduces memory degradation in mice with an induced cognitive impairment, providing a new lead for the development of functional foods that help prevent mental decline. Derived by breaking apart the proteins in soybeans, the memory-effecting molecule is classified as a dipeptide because it contains just two of the protein building blocks known as amino acids.

Multiple health benefits of b-type procyanidin-rich foods like chocolate and apples consumed in right amounts. Researchers shed light on how an optimal intake of electrophilic compounds like procyanidins is linked to hormesis of hemodynamic and metabolic responses. Procyanidins are a class of polyphenols (plant metabolites) that are abundantly found in nature. The B-type procyanidins are one of the most commonly consumed catechin oligomers in the human diet. Previous studies have shown both the long-term and single-dose advantages of B-type procyanidins on human metabolism, circulation, and the nervous system. Now researchers review the hormetic effects of B-type procyanidins exerted on the primary target organ, the gut, via activation of the central nervous system. B-type procyanidins, made of catechin oligomers, are a class of polyphenols found abundantly in foods like cocoa, apples, grape seeds, and red wine. Several studies have established the benefits of these micronutrients in reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases and strokes. B-type procyanidins are also successful in controlling hypertension, dyslipidemia, and glucose intolerance. Studies attest to the physiological benefits of their intake on the central nervous system (CNS), namely an improvement in cognitive functions. These physiological changes follow a pattern of hormesis -- a phenomenon in which peak benefits of a substance are achieved at mid-range doses, becoming progressively lesser at lower and higher doses.

Bodybuilding supplement may help stave off Alzheimer's. Researchers recently discovered that a muscle-building supplement called beta-hydroxy beta-methylbutyrate, also called HMB, may help protect memory, reduce plaques and ultimately help prevent the progression of Alzheimer's disease.

Drug reverses age-related mental decline within days, mouse study shows. Just a few doses of an experimental drug can reverse age-related declines in memory and mental flexibility in mice, according to a new study. The drug, called ISRIB, has already been shown in laboratory studies to restore memory function months after traumatic brain injury (TBI), reverse cognitive impairments in Down Syndrome, prevent noise-related hearing loss, fight certain types of prostate cancer, and even enhance cognition in healthy animals. ISRIB, discovered in 2013 in Walter's lab, works by rebooting cells' protein production machinery after it gets throttled by one of these stress responses -- a cellular quality control mechanism called the integrated stress response (ISR; ISRIB stands for ISR InhiBitor). The ISR normally detects problems with protein production in a cell -- a potential sign of viral infection or cancer-promoting gene mutations -- and responds by putting the brakes on cell's protein-synthesis machinery. This safety mechanism is critical for weeding out misbehaving cells, but if stuck in the on position in a tissue like the brain, it can lead to serious problems, as cells lose the ability to perform their normal activities, Walter and colleagues have found.


Green Tea is a type of tea that is made from Camellia sinensis leaves that have not undergone the same withering and oxidation process used to make oolong and black tea. Green tea originated in China, but its production has spread to many countries in Asia.

Matcha Green Tea Powder with lemon. (amazon)

Tea is an aromatic beverage commonly prepared by pouring hot or boiling water over cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis, an evergreen shrub (bush) native to East Asia. After water, it is the most widely consumed drink in the world. There are many different types of tea; some, like Darjeeling and Chinese greens, have a cooling, slightly bitter, and astringent flavour, while others have vastly different profiles that include sweet, nutty, floral or grassy notes. Tea has a stimulating effect in humans primarily due to its caffeine content.

Catechin is a flavan-3-ol, a type of natural phenol and antioxidant. It is a plant secondary metabolite. It belongs to the group of flavan-3-ols (or simply flavanols), part of the chemical family of Flavonoids, which act as chemical messengers, physiological regulators, and cell cycle inhibitors.

Herbal Tea and fruit teas are beverages made from the infusion or decoction of herbs, spices, fruits, or other plant material in hot water. They do not usually contain caffeine.

Infusion is the process of extracting chemical compounds or flavors from plant material in a solvent such as water, oil or alcohol, by allowing the material to remain suspended in the solvent over time (a process often called steeping). An infusion is also the name for the resultant liquid. The process of infusion is distinct from decoction, which involves boiling the plant material, or percolation, in which the water passes through the material (as in a coffeemaker).

Darjeeling Tea is a tea from the Darjeeling district in West Bengal, India. It is available in black, green, white and oolong. When properly brewed, it yields a thin-bodied, light-coloured infusion with a floral aroma. The flavour can include a tinge of astringent tannic characteristics and a musky spiciness sometimes described as "muscatel"

Sideritis is a genus of flowering plants well known for their use as herbal medicine, commonly as an herbal tea. They are abundant in Mediterranean regions, the Balkans, the Iberian Peninsula and Macaronesia, but can also be found in Central Europe and temperate Asia. (also known as ironwort, mountain tea and shepherd's tea).

Adding Boiling water to tea can burn the leaves, which will alter the taste. Wait about a minute after boiling water before adding it to tea.

The Right Way to Make Tea - Stop Eating it Wrong, Episode 27 (youtube)

Cold-brewed teas taste sweet and smooth. This is because cold water extracts a different chemical balance from the tea than hot water. Chemically speaking, this means there are fewer catechins and less caffeine. In terms of flavor, a reduction in catechins and caffeine drops out the bitterness. Refrigerate for 4-10 hours. Longer brew time extracts stronger flavor and more caffeine. White teas will brew the quickest, followed by green teas and twisted/flat oolongs, allow most time for rolled oolongs, pu-erhs, herbal infusions and black teas.


Coffee Knowledge - How to Make and Prepare Coffee - Upgraded Coffee - Kit

How to Make Bulletproof Coffee (youtube)

Mitochondiral Energy Support W/BioPQQ (amazon)

Mycotoxin is a toxic secondary metabolite produced by organisms of the fungus kingdom.

Ochratoxin are a group of mycotoxins produced by some Aspergillus species.

Aflatoxin B1 is a potent carcinogen, and is up to twice as carcinogenic as an equitoxic dose of X-rays.

Ochratoxin A is one of the most-abundant food-contaminating mycotoxins. It is also a frequent contaminant of water-damaged houses and of heating ducts. Human exposure can occur through consumption of contaminated food products, particularly contaminated grain and pork products, as well as coffee, wine grapes, and dried grapes. The toxin has been found in the tissues and organs of animals, including human blood and breast milk. Ochratoxin A, like most toxic substances, has large species- and sex-specific toxicological differences.

Choline is the precursor molecule for the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is involved in many functions including memory and muscle control.

Tannin is an astringent, polyphenolic biomolecule that binds to and precipitates proteins and various other organic compounds including amino acids and alkaloids.

Hormesis is the term that describes any process in a cell or organism that exhibits a biphasic response to exposure to increasing amounts of a substance or condition.

Mycotoxins in Foods 

Beer and Coffee Benefits Comparison Info-Graph (image)

Coffee Acidity refers to a flavor note, not to the actual acid content; coffee is relatively low in acid. Its pH averages around 5.0 - 5.1, which is more neutral than beer or any fruit juice and similar to carbonated water (which contains carbonic acid as a result of the dissolved carbon dioxide). If a vinegar/water solution were made within an equivalent pH, its acidity could not be detected by taste.  The average American consumes about 200 mg of caffeine a day. Caffeine in Coffee amounts by manufacturer Increased alertness can begin in as few as 10 minutes but it takes about 30 to 60 minutes for caffeine to reach its peak level in the blood. The body typically eliminates half of the drug in three to five hours, and the remainder can linger for eight to 14 hours. Women generally metabolize caffeine faster than men. Smokers process it twice as quickly as nonsmokers do. Caffeine overuse can trigger a fast heart rate, insomnia, anxiety and restlessness, among other side effects.


Cacao is a small evergreen tree in the family Malvaceae, native to the deep tropical regions of Central and South America. Its seeds, Cocoa Beans, are used to make cocoa mass, cocoa powder, confectionery, ganache and chocolate.

Healthworks Raw Certified Organic Cacao Powder, 1 lb (amazon) - Raw

Cacao is the raw unprocessed version of cocoa. Cacao has many more benefits that regular cocoa does not have.

Cocoa Barometer - Conseil Cafe Cacao

World Cocoa Foundation - Green America

Chocolate Bloom is a whitish coating that can appear on the surface of chocolate. This effect is one of the main concerns in the production of chocolate. There are two types of bloom: fat bloom, arising from changes in the Fat in the chocolate; and sugar bloom, formed by the action of moisture on the Sugar ingredients. The crystals of fat and sugar bloom limit the shelf life of many chocolates. Chocolate that has "bloomed" is still safe to eat (as it is a non-perishable food due to its sugar content), but may have an unappetizing appearance and surface texture. In general, Chocolate bloom can be 'repaired' by melting the chocolate down, stirring it, then pouring it into a mould and allowing it to cool, bringing the sugar or fat back into the solution.

90% of the world's cocoa beans are harvested on small, family-run farms with less than two hectares of land and an average yield of just 600-800 kg per year. ... Because cocoa farms are sensitive to this type of climate, they can only flourish in a narrow band of countries between 20 degrees north and south of the equator. It is estimated that more than two-thirds of cocoa farmers live below the poverty line in some African cocoa growing countries. Outdated agricultural practices that lead to low productivity, monoculture, fluctuation of prices on the global market and lack of access to infrastructure are among the factors that impede these families from breaking the cycle of poverty. Supply Chain Traceability.

Flavonoids are a class of plant and fungus secondary metabolites.

Dentate Gyrus (Hippocampus)

Coconut - MCT

Coconut Oil is an edible oil extracted from the kernel or meat of mature coconuts harvested from the coconut palm (Cocos nucifera). Because of its high saturated fat content, it is slow to oxidize and, thus, resistant to rancidification, lasting up to six months at 24 °C (75 °F) without spoiling.

Organic Coconut Oil (amazon) - Anthocyanin (flavones)

Medium-Chain Triglycerides are triglycerides with two or three fatty acids having an aliphatic tail of 6–12 carbon atoms, i.e. medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs). Rich food sources for commercial extraction of MCTs include palm kernel oil and coconut oil. MCTs can help in the process of excess calorie burning, thus weight loss. MCTs are also seen as promoting fat oxidation and reduced food intake. MCTs have been recommended by some endurance athletes and the bodybuilding community.

Butter from Grass Fed Cows (amazon)


Vitamins - Minerals - Antioxidants - Supplements (amazon)

Nootropics (smart drugs?) - Aromas - Rosemary


Ginseng is the root of plants in the genus Panax, Although ginseng has been used in traditional medicine over centuries, modern clinical research is inconclusive about its biological effects, mostly because the research is biased. Preliminary clinical research indicates possible effects on memory, fatigue, menopause symptoms, and insulin response in people with mild diabetes.

Cinnamon is a spice obtained from the inner bark of several tree species from the genus Cinnamomum. Cinnamon is used in both sweet and savoury foods. The term "cinnamon" also refers to its mid-brown colour.

Ceylon Real Organic Cinnamon Sticks (amazon)

Holy Basil is an aromatic perennial plant in the family Lamiaceae. It is native to the Indian subcontinent and widespread as a cultivated plant throughout the Southeast Asian tropics. Tulasi is cultivated for religious and traditional medicine purposes, and for its essential oil. It is widely used as a herbal tea, commonly used in Ayurveda, and has a place within the Vaishnava tradition of Hinduism, in which devotees perform worship involving holy basil plants or leaves.

Jiaogulan is a dioecious, herbaceous climbing vine of the family Cucurbitaceae (cucumber or gourd family) widely distributed in South and East Asia as well as New Guinea. Jiaogulan is best known as an herbal medicine reputed to have powerful antioxidant and adaptogenic effects purported to increase longevity. Pharmacological research has indicated a number of therapeutic qualities of jiaogulan, such as lowering cholesterol and high blood pressure, and strengthening immunity.

Astragalus is a large genus of about 4,200 species of herbs and small shrubs, belonging to the legume family Fabaceae and the subfamily Faboideae. It is the largest genus of plants in terms of described species. The genus is native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Common names include milkvetch (most species), locoweed (in North America, some species) and goat's-thorn (A. gummifer, A. tragacanthus). Some pale-flowered vetches are similar in appearance, but vetches are more vine-like.

Herbs - Spices

Garden Sage is a perennial, evergreen subshrub, with woody stems, grayish leaves, and blue to purplish flowers. It is a member of the mint family Lamiaceae and native to the Mediterranean region, though it has naturalized in many places throughout the world. It has a long history of medicinal and culinary use, and in modern times as an ornamental garden plant. The common name "sage" is also used for a number of related and unrelated species.


Health and Medicinal Benefits of Raw Garlic are that it's a Powerful immune system enhancer. Increases White blood cell production. Reduces high cholesterol. Allicin. Antibacterial. Antiviral. Antifungal, effective remedy for yeast infections and Candida. Clears Boils and infected sores. Improves Appetite. Digestive aid, add it to meat and other heavy meals. Increases libido. Expels Intestinal Parasites and worms. Raw Garlic (2 Cloves a Day)

Ancient Potion: Garlic, onions and cow bile. Mixed with wine and aged in a copper vessel.

Potion is a magical medicine, drug in liquid form.

Why does my garlic clove sprout? As garlic ages, it develops a spicier, sharper taste; it also starts to sprout. This is not spoilage—garlic isn't spoiled until it turns soft, or develops dark spots on the cloves. Basically, using sprouted garlic or not comes down to taste and personal preference. Haters of sprouted garlic say it tastes bitter.

Meat - Eating Animals in Moderation

Quarter Pound Hamburger from Animal to Plate Processed Meat, especially Red Meats, Sausage, Bacon, Deli Meats and Hot Dogs, have been linked to a a higher risk of Pancreatic Cancer, and an elevated risk of Colorectal Cancer and a significantly higher risk of developing Type 2 Diabetes and Heart Disease. As well as the degradation of the planet. Meat does more harm then good, and you don't need it. Milk.

Advanced Glycation End-Product are proteins or lipids that become glycated as a result of exposure to sugars. They can be a factor in aging and in the development or worsening of many degenerative diseases, such as diabetes, atherosclerosis, chronic kidney disease, and Alzheimer's disease. Factory Farms.

Over Eating - Carnivores - Cooking Dangers

How Deli Meat is Made (youtube) - Dried Meat

Processed Meat is considered to be any meat which has been modified in order either to improve its taste or to extend its shelf life. Methods of meat processing include salting, curing, fermentation, and smoking. Processed meat is usually composed of pork or beef, but also poultry, while it can also contain offal or meat by-products such as blood. Processed meat products include bacon, ham, sausages, salami, corned beef, jerky, canned meat and meat-based sauces. Meat processing includes all the processes that change fresh meat with the exception of simple mechanical processes such as cutting, grinding or mixing. Meat processing began as soon as people realized that cooking and salting prolongs the life of fresh meat. It is not known when this took place; however, the process of salting and sun-drying was recorded in Ancient Egypt, while using ice and snow is credited to early Romans, and canning was developed by Nicolas Appert who in 1810 received a prize for his invention from the French government.

Image on right is what it takes to make a Quarter Pound Hamburger from Animal to Plate.

Evaluating the environmental impacts of dietary recommendations. Dietary choices drive both health and environmental outcomes. Nation-specific recommended diet across 37 middle- and high-income nations. Those who ate more white meat in moderation had a slightly lower risk of overall and Cancer death. Lower-Carbon Diets aren't just Good for the Planet, they're also Healthier.

Does earth have more chickens then people? Animals get their protein from eating plants so just cut out the middle man and don't eat meat. We grow more food for animals then for humans, at a staggering cost to our health and too the planet, which is insane. 65 Billion animals are slaughtered every year world wide.

Food Addiction - Food Additives - Food Labels - Food Safety

Personal Responsibility in Food Consumption Act also known as the Cheeseburger Bill, sought to protect producers and retailers of foods—such as McDonald's Corporation—from an increasing number of suits and class action suits by obese consumers. To date these suits have been turned down by the courts, sometimes in strong terms. The Act was passed by the U.S. House of Representatives in March 2005, and did receive a Senate vote. The Act states that food-producing or retailing corporations cannot be legally held responsible for obesity, heart disease, or other health-related issues caused by consumption of their food, save for situations where actual food quality or handling was held responsible for such issues.

Some big corporations create their own market demand. If your business does more harm than good, it becomes a negative feedback loop of waste and abuse, like it is with the pork or pig industry. Convincing people that they need to eat pork without educating them about better alternatives, or without informing them of the damage that this meat eating diet does, is criminal. If we can warn people about the dangers of cigarettes and sugar, we can also warn people about eating too much meat. Your meat should only come from small farms, this way you know who you are supporting and you know that a small farm is sustainable and not toxic to the environment. It seems that murder is legal as long as you have the money.

Ag-gag is a term used to describe a class of anti-whistleblower laws that apply within the agriculture industry.

Animal Enterprise Terrorism Act prohibits any person from engaging in certain conduct, like journalism, "for the purpose of damaging or interfering with the operations of an animal enterprise." The statute covers any act that either "damages or causes the loss of any real or personal property" or "places a person in reasonable fear" of injury.

Smithfield Foods is a meat-processing company based in Smithfield, Virginia, in the United States, and a wholly owned subsidiary of WH Group of China.

Lab Grown Meat (meat substitutes)

The Right Way to Kill a Fish (youtube) - Slow suffocation in the open air. It’s easy for fishers, but it causes fish tons of stress, and floods their bodies with chemicals like cortisol, adrenaline, and lactic acid. Those chemicals make the fish taste bad, smell “fishy,” and rot quickly. But there's a better way: a four-step Japanese method called ikejime. It involves sharp knives. And a brain spike. Ikejime is a method of slaughtering fish to maintain the quality of its meat. Fish also stays fresher longer. Exsanguination is the loss of blood to a degree sufficient to cause death. Exsanguination is used as a method of slaughter. Before the fatal incision is made, the animal may be rendered insensible to pain by various methods, including captive bolt, electricity or chemical. Without prior sedation, stunning or anesthetic, this method of slaughter causes a high degree of anxiety.

PH - Potential of Hydrogen

PH Scale Human Blood is maintained between pH 7.35 and 7.45 by acid–base homeostasis mechanisms. Levels above 7.45 are referred to as alkalosis and levels below 7.35 as acidosis. Both are potentially serious. The human body thrives with a higher level of Alkalinity than Acidity. Bohr Effect when Breathing.

Normal Urine pH is Slightly Acidic, with usual values of 6.0 to 7.5, but the normal range is 4.5 to 8.0. Urine becomes increasingly acidic as the amount of sodium and excess acid retained by the body increases. Alkaline urine, usually containing bicarbonate-carbonic acid buffer, is normally excreted when there is an excess of base or alkali in the body.

Acidity is a solution containing an acid and having an excess of hydrogen atoms or having a pH of less than 7. Being sour to the taste.

Alkalinity is having PH values above and more than 7.

Acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).

pH or potential of hydrogen, is a numeric scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution. It is approximately the negative of the base 10 logarithm of the molar concentration, measured in units of moles per liter, of hydrogen ions. Ph is the measure of voltage in a solution. Any solution is like a small battery. It can generate voltage depending on Hydrogen ion (H+) concentration. Acidic solution has more Hydrogen ion concentration than alkaline solution. pH probes measure pH by measuring the voltage or potential difference of the solution in which it is dipped. Cells in the Human body are designed to run on 7.35 Ph to 7.45 Ph or -20mv to -25mv. (Negative millivolts is an electron donor). It is the negative of the logarithm to base 10 of the activity of the hydrogen ion. Solutions with a pH less than 7 are acidic and solutions with a pH greater than 7 are basic. Pure water is neutral, at pH 7, being neither an acid nor a base. Contrary to popular belief, the pH value can be less than 0 or greater than 14 for very strong acids and bases respectively. pH measurements are important in agronomy, medicine, biology, chemistry, agriculture, forestry, food science, environmental science, oceanography, civil engineering, chemical engineering, nutrition, water treatment and water purification, as well as many other applications. The pH scale is traceable to a set of standard solutions whose pH is established by international agreement. Primary pH standard values are determined using a concentration cell with transference, by measuring the potential difference between a hydrogen electrode and a standard electrode such as the silver chloride electrode. The pH of aqueous solutions can be measured with a glass electrode and a pH meter, or an indicator. Basicity is the number of hydrogen atoms replaceable by a base in a particular acid.

When you’re born, your body is pH balanced. Then your body is busy creating new cells to replace dying cells, and to do this, nutrients are used as fuel. What’s left is an acid waste product that builds up inside your body over the years. When your pH levels are out of balance and you become acidic, your vital organs such as your lungs, liver and pancreas are exposed to premature aging, the lining of your arteries deteriorates… vital cartilage in your joints is damaged… your skin prematurely wrinkles… your muscle mass wears down… your immune system is weakened… and your calcium levels become depleted. And if your body becomes too acidic, the result can be deadly. To maintain the proper chemical balance, you should consume 80 percent alkaline-forming foods and only 20 percent acid-forming foods.

Acid–Base Homeostasis is the homeostatic regulation of the pH of the body's extracellular fluid (ECF). The proper balance between the acids and bases (i.e. the pH) in the ECF is crucial for the normal physiology of the body, and cellular metabolism. The pH of the intracellular fluid and the extracellular fluid need to be maintained at a constant level. Many extracellular proteins such as the plasma proteins and membrane proteins of the body's cells are very sensitive for their three dimensional structures to the extracellular pH. Stringent mechanisms therefore exist to maintain the pH within very narrow limits. Outside the acceptable range of pH, proteins are denatured (i.e. their 3-D structure is disrupted), causing enzymes and ion channels (among others) to malfunction. In humans and many other animals, acid–base homeostasis is maintained by multiple mechanisms involved in three lines of defence: The first line of defence are the various chemical buffers which minimize pH changes that would otherwise occur in their absence. They do not correct pH deviations, but only serve to reduce the extent of the change that would otherwise occur. These buffers include the bicarbonate buffer system, the phosphate buffer system, and the protein buffer system. The second line of defense of the pH of the ECF consists of controlling of the carbonic acid concentration in the ECF. This is achieved by changes in the rate and depth of breathing (i.e. by hyperventilation or hypoventilation), which blows off or retains carbon dioxide (and thus carbonic acid) in the blood plasma. The third line of defence is the renal system, which can add or remove bicarbonate ions to or from the ECF. The bicarbonate is derived from metabolic carbon dioxide which is enzymatically converted to carbonic acid in the renal tubular cells. The carbonic acid spontaneously dissociates into hydrogen ions and bicarbonate ions. When the pH in the ECF tends to fall (i.e. become more acidic) the hydrogen ions are excreted into the urine, while the bicarbonate ions are secreted into the blood plasma, causing the plasma pH to rise (correcting the initial fall). The converse happens if the pH in the ECF tends to rise: the bicarbonate ions are then excreted into the urine and the hydrogen ions into the blood plasma. Physiological corrective measures make up the second and third lines of defence. This is because they operate by making changes to the buffers, each of which consists of two components: a weak acid and its conjugate base. It is the ratio concentration of the weak acid to its conjugate base that determines the pH of the solution. Thus, by manipulating firstly the concentration of the weak acid, and secondly that of its conjugate base, the pH of the extracellular fluid (ECF) can be adjusted very accurately to the correct value. The bicarbonate buffer, consisting of a mixture of carbonic acid (H2CO3) and a bicarbonate (HCO−3) salt in solution, is the most abundant buffer in the extracellular fluid, and it is also the buffer whose acid to base ratio can be changed very easily and rapidly. An acid–base imbalance is known as acidaemia when the acidity is high, or alkalaemia when the acidity is low.

Acid–Base Imbalance is an abnormality of the human body's normal balance of acids and bases that causes the plasma pH to deviate out of the normal range (7.35 to 7.45). In the fetus, the normal range differs based on which umbilical vessel is sampled (umbilical vein pH is normally 7.25 to 7.45; umbilical artery pH is normally 7.18 to 7.38). It can exist in varying levels of severity, some life-threatening.

Respiratory Alkalosis is a medical condition in which increased respiration elevates the blood pH beyond the normal range (7.35-7.45) with a concurrent reduction in arterial levels of carbon dioxide. This condition is one of the four basic categories of disruption of acid-base homeostasis, which is the part of biologic homeostasis concerning the proper balance between chemical acids and bases, also called body pH. The body is very sensitive to its extracellular pH level, so strong mechanisms exist to maintain it. Outside the acceptable range of pH, proteins are denatured and digested, enzymes lose their ability to function, and death may occur. The principles of general acid–base equilibrium apply in the physiology of living systems.

Carbonic Anhydrase is a family of enzymes that catalyze the rapid interconversion of carbon dioxide and water to bicarbonate and protons (or vice versa), a reversible reaction that occurs relatively slowly in the absence of a catalyst. One of the functions of the enzyme in animals is to interconvert carbon dioxide and bicarbonate to maintain acid-base balance in blood and other tissues, and to help transport carbon dioxide out of tissues.

Measuring your Bodies PH Level. PH can be measured using a simple at-home test that checks the acidity of your urine, first-morning urine is the one to measure. Blood is normally slightly basic, with a normal pH range of about 7.35 to 7.45. Usually the body maintains the pH of blood close to 7.40. PH Test Tape Dispenser Hydrion Papers Strips made for Saliva or Urine Testing - Range is in .2 Intervals and from 5.5 to 8.0 - Check Body for Alkaline or Acid Environment - Approx. 100 Tests! (amazon).

Litmus Test is to test whether a solution is acidic or basic. Wet litmus paper can also be used to test for water-soluble gases that affect acidity or alkalinity; the gas dissolves in the water and the resulting solution colors the litmus paper. For instance, ammonia gas, which is alkaline, turn the red litmus paper blue. Blue litmus paper turns red under acidic conditions and red litmus paper turns blue under basic or alkaline conditions, with the color change occurring over the pH range 4.5–8.3 at 25 °C (77 °F). Neutral litmus paper is purple. Litmus can also be prepared as an aqueous solution that functions similarly. Under acidic conditions, the solution is red, and under basic conditions, the solution is blue. Chemical reactions other than acid-base can also cause a color change to litmus paper. For instance, chlorine gas turns blue litmus paper white – the litmus dye is bleached, because of presence of hypochlorite ions. This reaction is irreversible, so the litmus is not acting as an indicator in this situation.

Litmus is a water-soluble mixture of different dyes extracted from lichens. It is often absorbed onto filter paper to produce one of the oldest forms of pH indicator, used to test materials for acidity.

PH Indicator is a halochromic chemical compound added in small amounts to a solution so the pH (acidity or basicity) of the solution can be determined visually. Hence, a pH indicator is a chemical detector for hydronium ions (H3O+) or hydrogen ions (H+) in the Arrhenius model. Normally, the indicator causes the color of the solution to change depending on the pH. Indicators can also show change in other physical properties; for example, olfactory indicators show change in their odor. The pH value of a neutral solution is 7.0. Solutions with a pH value below 7.0 are considered acidic and solutions with pH value above 7.0 are basic (alkaline). As most naturally occurring organic compounds are weak protolytes, carboxylic acids and amines, pH indicators find many applications in biology and analytical chemistry. Moreover, pH indicators form one of the three main types of indicator compounds used in chemical analysis. For the quantitative analysis of metal cations, the use of complexometric indicators is preferred, whereas the third compound class, the redox indicators, are used in titrations involving a redox reaction as the basis of the analysis.

Imagine peeing into a toilet and the toilet has the ability to measure your electrolytes, your PH levels and hormone levels.

Alkaline-Forming Foods

Chlorophyll not only nourishes our body, but it’s instrumental in the constant production of red blood cells—cell regeneration—and it rids our body of excess dietary and environmental toxins. Whole foods vegan diet is more alkaline producing and that diets of processed foods and meat and dairy are more acid-producing, which can lead to chronic disease. Chlorophyll-rich foods like dark green leafy vegetables are the first foods of choice to keep our bodies alkaline. Some whole grains are more alkaline than others, as well, and these include amaranth, buckwheat, millet, quinoa, and wild rice. Alkaline-forming fruits include grapefruit, lemons, limes, mangos, papayas, cranberries, plums, prunes, and sour cherries. Why citrus fruits are considered alkaline instead of acidic is because they have an alkaline effect on the body once they are digested and metabolized. Some nutritious alkaline-forming foods include…Vegetables—Alfalfa, artichokes, asparagus, beans, bell peppers, cabbage, carrots, celery, chives, cauliflower, collards, cucumbers, eggplant, garlic, leafy greens, lettuce, mushrooms, okra, ripe olives, onions, pumpkins, spinach and squash. Fruits—Apples, avocados, berries, cantaloupe, cherries, grapes, peaches, pineapples, tomatoes, watermelon and citrus fruits such as grapefruit, lemons, limes and oranges. Grains and Legumes—Buckwheat, millet, spelt, lentils, lima beans, soybeans and white beans. Nuts and Seeds—Almonds, chestnuts, fennel seeds, flax seeds, pumpkin seeds, sesame seeds, soy nuts and sunflower seeds. Protein—Chicken breast, cottage cheese, eggs, fermented tofu and yogurt. Spices and Seasonings—Herbs, chili pepper, cinnamon, curry, ginger, mustard and sea salt. Beverages—Pure, fresh water, banchi tea, dandelion tea, fresh fruit juice, ginseng tea, green tea, herbal tea and vegetable juices. Skin.

Hay Diet separating food into three groups: alkaline, acidic, and neutral. Acid foods are not combined with the alkaline ones. Acidic foods are protein rich, such as meat, fish, dairy, etc. Alkaline foods are carbohydrate rich, such as rice, grains and potatoes. It is also known as the food combining diet.

Alkaline Diet is avoiding meat, poultry, cheese, and grains in order to make the urine more alkaline or have a higher pH. Alkaline Diets - Acid Alkaline Diet. Alkaline Foods are fruits, nuts, legumes and vegetables.

10 Health Benefits of Drinking Lemon Water Every Morning (youtube)

Normal Drinking Water generally has a neutral pH of 7; Alkaline Water typically has a pH of 8 or 9. Results show that alkaline water is more beneficial by being able to effectively neutralize the acid in your body compared to other waters. Alkaline water can also help boost energy and metabolism. Minerals contained in alkaline water are calcium, magnesium, potassium and silica. Alkaline water also has a higher percentage of oxygen. This allows your blood to flow through your body to neutralize excess acid build-up.

Alkalinity is the capacity of water to resist changes in pH that would make the water more acidic. (It should not be confused with basicity which is an absolute measurement on the pH scale.) Alkalinity is the strength of a buffer solution composed of weak acids and their conjugate bases. It is measured by titrating the solution with a monoprotic acid such as HCl until its pH changes abruptly, or it reaches a known endpoint where that happens. Alkalinity is expressed in units of meq/L (milliequivalents per liter), which corresponds to the amount of monoprotic acid added as a titrant in millimoles per liter.

Alkali is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element. An alkali also can be defined as a base that dissolves in water. A solution of a soluble base has a pH greater than 7.0. The adjective alkaline is commonly, and alkalescent less often, used in English as a synonym for basic, especially for bases soluble in water. This broad use of the term is likely to have come about because alkalis were the first bases known to obey the Arrhenius definition of a base, and they are still among the most common bases. Any of various water-soluble compounds capable of turning litmus blue and reacting with an acid to form a salt and water.

Food Chemistry - Chemistry (biology) - Soil Salt - Soil Acidification.

Always do your research first when changing your diet or experimenting with new foods or amounts.

Acid Forming Foods

Foods that are acid-forming in the body that you want to avoid: white rice, white pasta, white flour, and white sugar, as well as meat, poultry, fish, butter, margarine, cheese, milk, and whey. When we eat those acid-forming foods, our bodies use calcium and other minerals from our muscle and other tissues in an effort to restore our pH level to alkaline. Our kidneys work overtime excreting this calcium and other minerals through the urine. In time, this can eventually lead to loss of muscle mass—or muscle wasting—and depletion of bone mineral content. Also, as part of this process, kidney stones can develop from the high amounts of calcium salt acids deposited in the kidneys as they excrete calcium from the body.

Western Pattern Diet is characterized by higher intakes of red and processed meat, butter, high-fat dairy products, eggs, refined grains, white potatoes, french fries, and high-sugar drinks. It is contrasted with a healthy diet found in the same populations, which has higher levels of fruits, vegetables, whole-grain foods, poultry and fish.

The Standard American Diet (SAD diet) includes a high percentage of acid-forming foods. These create electrolyte deficiencies. When this happens your bile becomes too acidic. Your body can't digest foods efficiently. This diet consists of about 80% processed foods (acid-forming) and only 20% natural foods (alkaline-forming). The goal is to gradually reverse these percentages. This is accomplished by changing your diet. 

Avoid eating to much acid-forming foods such as beef, poultry, pork, shellfish, dressings, cereals, pasta, oils, dairy products and sugar-laden desserts that can negatively impact your health and overload your organs of elimination—such as your lungs, kidneys and skin. Plus, by adding a quality alkaline-balancing supplement to your wholesome diet regimen, you’ll ensure that your body’s excess acid is converted or eliminated. And you may avoid illness, allergies, viruses and diseases that manifest themselves when your body is overworked trying to restore its sensitive pH level. (Dr. Michael Cutler on 08/29/2010).

Acidosis is a process causing increased acidity in the blood and other body tissues (i.e., an increased hydrogen ion concentration). If not further qualified, it usually refers to acidity of the blood plasma. The term acidemia describes the state of low blood pH, while acidosis is used to describe the processes leading to these states. Nevertheless, the terms are sometimes used interchangeably. The distinction may be relevant where a patient has factors causing both acidosis and alkalosis, wherein the relative severity of both determines whether the result is a high, low, or normal pH. Acidosis is said to occur when arterial pH falls below 7.35 (except in the fetus – see below), while its counterpart (alkalosis) occurs at a pH over 7.45. Arterial blood gas analysis and other tests are required to separate the main causes. The rate of cellular metabolic activity affects and, at the same time, is affected by the pH of the body fluids. In mammals, the normal pH of arterial blood lies between 7.35 and 7.50 depending on the species (e.g., healthy human-arterial blood pH varies between 7.35 and 7.45). Blood pH values compatible with life in mammals are limited to a pH range between 6.8 and 7.8. Changes in the pH of arterial blood (and therefore the extracellular fluid) outside this range result in irreversible cell damage.

Metabolic Acidosis is a condition that occurs when the body produces excessive quantities of acid or when the kidneys are not removing enough acid from the body. If unchecked, metabolic acidosis leads to acidemia, i.e., blood pH is low (less than 7.35) due to increased production of hydrogen ions by the body or the inability of the body to form bicarbonate (HCO3−) in the kidney. Its causes are diverse, and its consequences can be serious, including coma and death. Together with respiratory acidosis, it is one of the two general causes of acidemia. Terminology : Acidosis refers to a process that causes a low pH in blood and tissues. Acidemia refers specifically to a low pH in the blood.

Acetic Acid is a colourless liquid organic compound. Vinegar is roughly 3–9% acetic acid by volume, making acetic acid the main component of vinegar apart from water. Acid Ash Hypothesis is a medical hypothesis which suggests that excessively acidic diets may result in a number of identifiable health effects.

Citric Acid is a weak organic tricarboxylic acid having the chemical formula C6H8O7. It occurs naturally in citrus fruits. In biochemistry, it is an intermediate in the citric acid cycle, which occurs in the metabolism of all aerobic organisms. More than a million tons of citric acid are manufactured every year. It is used widely as an acidifier, as a flavoring and chelating agent. A citrate is a derivative of citric acid; that is, the salts, esters, and the polyatomic anion found in solution. Citric Acid Cycle.

Antacid is a substance which neutralizes stomach acidity and is used to relieve heartburn, indigestion or an upset stomach.

Uric Acid is a product of the metabolic breakdown of purine nucleotides, and it is a normal component of Urine. High blood concentrations of uric acid can lead to gout and are associated with other medical conditions including diabetes and the formation of ammonium acid urate kidney stones. Uric acid is produced from the natural breakdown of your body's cells and from the foods you eat. Most of the uric acid is filtered out by the kidneys and passes out of the body in urine. High levels of uric acid in the blood can cause solid crystals to form within joints. This causes a painful condition called gout.

Butyric Acid is a carboxylic acid with the structural formula CH3CH2CH2-COOH. Salts and esters of butyric acid are known as butyrates or butanoates. Butyric acid is found in milk, especially goat, sheep and buffalo milk, butter, parmesan cheese, and as a product of anaerobic fermentation (including in the colon and as body odor). Butyric acid is present in, and is the main distinctive smell of, human vomit. It has an unpleasant smell and acrid taste, with a sweetish aftertaste similar to ether. Mammals with good scent detection abilities, such as dogs, can detect it at 10 parts per billion, whereas humans can only detect it in concentrations above 10 parts per million.

Ursolic Acid is a pentacyclic triterpenoid identified in the epicuticular waxes of apples as early as 1920 and widely found in the peels of fruits, as well as in herbs and spices like rosemary and thyme.

Saccharic Acid glucaric acid, is a chemical compound with the formula C6H10O8. It is derived by oxidizing a sugar such as glucose with nitric acid.

Gout is a form of inflammatory arthritis characterized by recurrent attacks of a red, tender, hot, and swollen joint. Pain typically comes on rapidly in less than twelve hours. The joint at the base of the big toe is affected in about half of cases. It may also result in tophi, kidney stones, or urate nephropathy. Gout is due to elevated levels of uric acid in the blood.

Hyperuricemia is an abnormally high level of uric acid in the blood. In the pH conditions of body fluid, uric acid exists largely as urate, the ion form. The amount of urate in the body depends on the balance between the amount of purines eaten in food, the amount of urate synthesised within the body (e.g., through cell turnover), and the amount of urate that is excreted in urine or through the gastrointestinal tract. In humans, the upper end of the normal range is 360 µmol/L (6 mg/dL) for women and 400 µmol/L (6.8 mg/dL) for men. Many factors contribute to hyperuricemia, including genetics, insulin resistance, hypertension, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, renal insufficiency, obesity, diet, use of diuretics (e.g. thiazides, loop diuretics), and consumption of excess alcoholic beverages. Of these, alcohol consumption is the most important.

Purine are found in high concentration in meat and meat products, especially internal organs such as liver and kidney. In general, plant-based diets are low in purines. Examples of high-purine sources include: sweetbreads, anchovies, sardines, liver, beef kidneys, brains, meat extracts (e.g., Oxo, Bovril), herring, mackerel, scallops, game meats, beer (from the yeast) and gravy. A moderate amount of purine is also contained in beef, pork, poultry, fish and seafood, asparagus, cauliflower, spinach, mushrooms, green peas, lentils, dried peas, beans, oatmeal, wheat bran, wheat germ, and haws. When purines are formed, they inhibit the enzymes required for more purine formation. This self-inhibition occurs as they also activate the enzymes needed for pyrimidine formation. Pyrimidine simultaneously self-inhibits and activates purine in similar manner. Because of this, there is nearly an equal amount of both substances in the cell at all times.

Hydrochloric Acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula H2O:HCl. Hydrochloric acid has a distinctive pungent smell. It is mainly produced as a precursor to vinyl chloride for PVC. It is classified as strongly acidic and can attack the skin over a wide composition range, since the hydrogen chloride practically dissociates completely in solution. Hydrochloric acid is the simplest chlorine-based acid system containing water. It consists of hydrogen chloride and water, and a variety of other chemical species, including hydronium and chloride ions. It is an important chemical reagent and industrial chemical, used primarily in the production of polyvinyl chloride for plastic. In households, diluted hydrochloric acid is often used as a descaling agent. In the food industry, hydrochloric acid used as a food additive and in the production of gelatin. Hydrochloric acid is also used in leather processing.


Cholesterol is an organic molecule. It is a sterol (or modified steroid), a type of lipid molecule, and is biosynthesized by all animal cells, because it is an essential structural component of all animal cell membranes; essential to maintain both membrane structural integrity and fluidity. Cholesterol enables animal cells to dispense with a cell wall (to protect membrane integrity and cell viability), thereby allowing animal cells to change shape rapidly and animals to move (unlike bacteria and plant cells, which are restricted by their cell walls). In addition to its importance for animal cell structure, cholesterol also serves as a precursor for the biosynthesis of steroid hormones, bile acid, and vitamin D. Cholesterol is the principal sterol synthesized by all animals. In vertebrates, hepatic cells typically produce the greatest amounts. It is absent among prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea), although there are some exceptions, such as Mycoplasma, which require cholesterol for growth.

Not all Cholesterol is Bad - Diets

Sterol are a subgroup of the steroids and an important class of organic molecules. They occur naturally in plants, animals, and fungi, with the most familiar type of animal sterol being cholesterol. Cholesterol is vital to animal cell membrane structure and function as a precursor to fat-soluble vitamins and steroid hormones.

Low-Density Lipoprotein or LDL helps to transfer lipids and fats around the body in the extracellular fluid, thereby facilitating fats to be available and taken up by the cells body wide via receptor-mediated endocytosis. Lipoproteins are complex particles composed of multiple proteins, typically 80-100 proteins/particle (organized by a single apolipoprotein B for LDL and the larger particles). A single LDL particle is about 220-275 angstroms in diameter typically transporting 3,000 to 6,000 fat molecules/particle, varying in size according to the number and mix of fat molecules contained within. The lipids carried include all fat molecules with cholesterol, phospholipids, and triglycerides dominant; amounts of each varying considerably. Lipoproteins can be sampled from blood for evaluation of atherosclerosis driving factors. LDL particles pose a risk for cardiovascular disease when they invade the endothelium and become oxidized, since the oxidized forms are more easily retained by the proteoglycans. A complex set of biochemical reactions regulates the oxidation of LDL particles, chiefly stimulated by presence of necrotic cell debris and free radicals in the endothelium. Increasing concentrations of LDL particles are strongly associated with increasing rates of accumulation of atherosclerosis within the walls of arteries over time, eventually resulting in sudden plaque ruptures, decades later, and triggering clots within the artery opening; these debris & clots narrowing or closing off the opening locally (more commonly microscopic branches distal to plaque rupture locations), i.e. cardiovascular disease, stroke, and other vascular disease complications. LDL particles (though far different from cholesterol per se) are sometimes referred to as bad cholesterol because they can transport their content of lipid molecules into artery walls, attract macrophages, and thus drive atherosclerosis. In contrast, HDL particles are often called good cholesterol or healthy cholesterol because they can remove lipid molecules from macrophages in the wall of arteries. A hereditary form of high LDL is familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). High LDL is termed hyperlipoproteinemia type II (after the dated Fredrickson classification).

High-Density Lipoprotein or HDL are complex particles composed of multiple proteins which transport all fat molecules (lipids) around the body within the water outside cells. They are typically composed of 80-100 proteins per particle (organized by one, two or three ApoA; more as the particles enlarge picking up and carrying more fat molecules) and transporting up to hundreds of fat molecules per particle. HDL particles have long been divided into 5 subgroups, by density/size (an inverse relationship), which also correlates with function and incidence of cardiovascular events. Unlike the larger lipoprotein particles which deliver fat molecules to cells, HDL particles remove fat molecules from cells which need to export fat molecules. The fats carried include cholesterol, phospholipids, and triglycerides; amounts of each are quite variable. Increasing concentrations of HDL particles are strongly associated with decreasing accumulation of atherosclerosis within the walls of arteries. This is important because atherosclerosis eventually results in sudden plaque ruptures, cardiovascular disease, stroke and other vascular diseases. HDL particles are sometimes referred to as "good cholesterol" because they can transport fat molecules out of artery walls, reduce macrophage accumulation, and thus help prevent or even regress atherosclerosis. However, studies have shown that HDL-lacking mice still have the ability to transport cholesterol to bile, suggesting that there are alternative mechanisms for cholesterol removal. Density relative to extracellular water, are one of the five major groups of lipoproteins.

Statin Nation: The Great Cholesterol Cover-up (youtube)

The Cholesterol Question (44:12 mins, 2014)


ApoA-1 Milano is a naturally occurring mutated variant of the apolipoprotein A1 Protein found in human HDL, the lipoprotein particle that carries cholesterol from tissues to the liver and is associated with protection against cardiovascular disease. ApoA1 Milano was first identified by Dr. Cesare Sirtori in Milan, who also demonstrated that its presence significantly reduced cardiovascular disease, even though it caused a reduction in HDL levels and an increase in triglyceride levels.

More than half of American Indian youth may have abnormal or high cholesterol. Study highlights importance of cholesterol screenings and education. More than 70% of American Indian young adults aged 20-39 and 50% of American Indian teens have cholesterol levels or elevated fat in the blood that put them at risk for cardiovascular disease, a new study suggests. In some cases, these levels -- specifically high low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, often thought of as 'bad cholesterol,' -- were linked to plaque buildup and cardiovascular events, such as heart attack and stroke.

Milk - Dairy - Cheese

Raw Cow’s Milk has been a staple food for humans from about 7000 BC. That is over 9000 years ago! Humans have survived and thrived drinking whole raw milk. The USDA, of course, would have you believe otherwise. Whole raw cow’s milk provides all 20 amino acid proteins and a majority of the vitamins and minerals needed for vibrant human health, including vitamins A and D and calcium. It also provides many beneficial enzymes and anti-microbial substances to aid the immune and digestive systems. And milk provides all this nutrition straight from the cow, no processing needed. Raw milk provides 10 different saturated fatty acids needed for maintaining body health. These fats support stable cell membranes and are necessary for the production of key hormones. Saturated fats are the preferred energy source for the heart, and saturated fats serve as a vehicle for essential fatty acids like EPA and DHA. Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA), an important fatty acid, is abundant in milk from pastured cows. Some of CLA's many benefits include its ability to raise metabolic rates, remove abdominal fat, boost muscle growth, reduce resistance to insulin, and strengthen the immune system. But of course, milk and cheese is food that the body doesn't need, unless you're a baby, then your better off breast feeding.

Raw Milk Cheeses - Lactase Persistence (wiki) - Food Preserving - Food Safety

A2 Milk comes from cows having two copies of the A2 gene for beta casein. Cow’s milk is about 87 percent water. The remaining 13 percent is the complex mixture of lactose, fat, minerals, and protein known as milk solids. The primary component of the protein in milk solids is casein, which is involved in the coagulation of milk. Two most common variants of the beta-casein gene are A1 and A2. Even though they differ by just one amino acid, the small difference can result in the variants having different properties. A2 is often referred to as the “original” protein, because that was the only type produced by early domesticated cows. (Humans and goats also produce only A2.) But then, around 10,000 years ago, a natural mutation occurred in some dairy cows in Europe, after which they produced A1 beta casein. In today’s dairy herds, any given cow will have two copies of the A2 gene, or two copies of the A1 gene, or be an A1A2 hybrid. (Genetics 101: Every animal receives one copy of the gene from its sire, or father, and one copy from its dam, or mother.) The A1 mutation “occurred primarily in the large breeds such as Holsteins, which produce considerably more milk than other breeds. These heavy-producing breeds were quickly adopted by dairies in Europe and the U.S. and, as a result, just about all the regular milk sold today in U.S. stores and in much of Europe contains only the A1 protein, while others produce both the A1 and A2 proteins. A2 Milk is said to be easier to digest and that A1 milk is linked to a range of illnesses and conditions, from diarrhea, nausea, mucus buildup, and bloating to eczema, type 1 diabetes, coronary heart disease, autism, and schizophrenia. A2 Milk is cow's milk that mostly lacks a form of β-casein proteins called A1 and instead has mostly the A2 form. Milk like this was brought to market by The a2 Milk Company and is sold mostly in Australia, New Zealand, China, United States and the United Kingdom.

Casein proteins are commonly found in mammalian milk, comprising c. 80% of the proteins in cow's milk and between 20% and 45% of the proteins in human milk. Casein has a wide variety of uses, from being a major component of cheese, to use as a food additive. The most common form of casein is sodium caseinate. As a food source, casein supplies amino acids, carbohydrates, and two essential elements, calcium and phosphorus. Cancer.

Calorie for Calorie, Dietary Fat Restriction Results in More Body Fat Loss than Carbohydrate Restriction in people with obesity.

Dairy is NOT a health food (when to stop eating dairy food)

Dairy Product are a type of food produced from or containing the milk of mammals, primarily cattle, water buffaloes, goats, sheep, camels, and humans. Dairy products include food items such as yogurt, cheese, and butter. A facility that produces dairy products is known as a dairy, or dairy factory. Dairy products are consumed worldwide, with the exception of much of East and Southeast Asia and also some parts of central Africa.

Cheese is a dairy product derived from milk that is produced in a wide range of flavors, textures, and forms by coagulation of the milk protein casein. It comprises proteins and fat from milk, usually the milk of cows, buffalo, goats, or sheep. During production, the milk is usually acidified, and adding the enzyme rennet causes coagulation. The solids are separated and pressed into final form. Some cheeses have molds on the rind, the outer layer, or throughout. Most cheeses melt at cooking temperature. - Meat.

There are over 9 million diary cows in America, have you herd?

Dairy farms with 10,000 cows, which are more and more common in the United States, don't exist in Canada. There's more stability in farming communities. Canada, the price of milk that dairy farmers sell isn't based on supply and demand. Rather, a group of people from industry and the government get together and decide what's fair. They set the price high enough to cover a good farmer's costs, plus a little profit. It's designed "to provide fair returns for efficient producers." In principle, any competent dairy farmer in Canada should make money every year. But farmers also aren't allowed to expand production to take advantage of those guaranteed prices. "Each producer has a share of the market, called a quota," Farmers can buy and sell their shares, but they can't sell more than their quota. If cows on  a farm suddenly start giving more milk, that farmer either has to buy another farmer's quota or sell some cows. It's called supply management, and part of it also involves keeping out imports of cheap milk from the United States. The system also covers a few other farm products, such as poultry.


Soon after Eggs pop out of the chicken, American producers put them straight to a machine that shampoos them with soap and hot water. The steamy shower leaves the shells squeaky clean. But it also compromises them, by washing away a barely visible sheen that naturally envelops each egg. The coating is like a little safety vest for the egg, keeping water and oxygen in and bad bacteria out. In some European countries, egg-laying hens are vaccinated against salmonella. In the U.S., vaccination is not required. "Once you start refrigeration, you have to have it through the whole value chain, from farm to store. Another perk of consistent refrigeration is shelf life: It jumps from about 21 days to almost 50 days. In a lot of countries, constant refrigeration just isn't possible because it's simply too costly But in a lot of places, "a dirty egg with poop on it is no big deal. You brush it off when you get home."

Eggs 101: Egg Processing (youtube)

How Birds Get Oxygen Inside Their Eggs (youtube) - Porous

Iowa’s 60 Million Laying Hens Aren’t Being Monitored by Food-Safety Inspectors. In 2010, 550 million eggs were recalled after thousands of people were sickened with salmonella in an outbreak tied to farms in Iowa. According to the FDA, eggs contaminated with salmonella sicken 79,000 people and kill 30 annually. Food Safety.

Eggs that are labeled “Free-Range” are wildly misleading to the consumer. Free Range Chicken means that farm animals roam free in wide open spaces. But some people misuse this term by just opening a door for a couple of hours a day.

Hard-Boiled Eggs can be stored in the refrigerator for up to one week. Hard-boiled eggs, peeled or unpeeled, are still safe to eat up to one week after they were cooked.

Crushed eggshells are an effective and inexpensive way to enrich your soil and give your plants a calcium boost. They also deter pests like snails. Rinse your saved eggshells thoroughly and then spread them evenly on a baking sheet, broken-side down, and bake them for 20-30 minutes at 200 degrees. Once they're dry and cool, you can grind them up using a mallet or a food processor. Sprinkle the shells around the base of your plants. Store any leftover crushed shells in an airtight container for later use.


Allergic to Certain Foods and Chemicals. Federal Health Officials say that Allergies are two to five times higher than they were just 30 years ago.

Allergy - First Aid - Food Chemistry - Gas (fiber)

Treatments for Allergies include avoiding known allergens and the use of medications such as steroids and antihistamines. In severe reactions injectable adrenaline (epinephrine) is recommended. Allergen immunotherapy, which gradually exposes people to larger and larger amounts of allergen, is useful for some types of allergies such as hay fever and reactions to insect bites. Its use in food allergies is unclear. Allergies are common. In the developed world, about 20% of people are affected by allergic rhinitis, about 6% of people have at least one food allergy, and about 20% have atopic dermatitis at some point in time. Depending on the country about 1–18% of people have asthma. Anaphylaxis occurs in between 0.05–2% of people. Rates of many allergic diseases appear to be increasing. The word "allergy" was first used by Clemens von Pirquet in 1906.

Food Allergy and Sensitivity is an abnormal immune response to food. The signs and symptoms may range from mild to severe. They may include itchiness, swelling of the tongue, vomiting, diarrhea, hives, trouble breathing, or low blood pressure. This typically occurs within minutes to several hours of exposure. When the symptoms are severe, it is known as anaphylaxis. Food intolerance and food poisoning are separate conditions. Common foods involved include cow's milk, peanuts, eggs, shellfish, tree nuts, wheat, rice, and fruit. The common allergies in a region vary depending on the country. Risk factors include a family history of allergies, vitamin D deficiency, obesity, and high levels of cleanliness. Allergies occur when immunoglobulin E (IgE), part of the body's immune system, binds to food molecules. A protein in the food is usually the problem. This triggers the release of inflammatory chemicals such as histamine. Diagnosis is usually based on a medical history, elimination diet, skin prick test, blood tests for food-specific IgE antibodies, or oral food challenge. Early exposure to potential allergens may be protective. Management primarily involves avoiding the food in question and having a plan if exposure occurs. This plan may include giving adrenaline (epinephrine) and wearing medical alert jewelry. The benefits of allergen immunotherapy for food allergies is unclear, thus is not recommended as of 2015. Some types of food allergies among children resolve with age, including that to milk, eggs, and soy; while others such as to nuts and shellfish typically do not. In the developed world, about 4% to 8% of people have at least one food allergy. They are more common in children than adults and appear to be increasing in frequency. Male children appear to be more commonly affected than females. Some allergies more commonly develop early in life, while others typically develop in later life. In developed countries, a large proportion of people believe they have food allergies when they actually do not have them.

Food Sensitivity Test - Food Allergy - CDC Food Allergies - DIY Science.

Histamine is a compound which is released by cells in response to injury and in allergic and inflammatory reactions, causing contraction of smooth muscle and dilation of capillaries. Histamine is an organic nitrogenous compound involved in local immune responses, as well as regulating physiological function in the gut and acting as a neurotransmitter for the brain, spinal cord, and uterus. Histamine is involved in the inflammatory response and has a central role as a mediator of itching. As part of an immune response to foreign pathogens, histamine is produced by basophils and by mast cells found in nearby connective tissues. Histamine increases the permeability of the capillaries to white blood cells and some proteins, to allow them to engage pathogens in the infected tissues. It consists of an imidazole ring attached to an ethylamine chain; under physiological conditions, the amino group of the side-chain is protonated. Histamine-Rich Foods: Alcohol and other fermented beverages. Fermented foods and dairy products, such as yogurt and sauerkraut. Dried fruits. Avocados. Eggplant. Spinach. Processed or smoked meats. shellfish. Natural Antihistamines: Stinging nettle or freeze-dried nettles. Quercetin is an antioxidant found naturally in onions, apples, and other produce. Bromelain is a compound most commonly found in pineapples. Butterbur is a marsh plant that’s part of the daisy family, found throughout Europe and in regions of Asia and North America. Ginger is a histamine blocker or antihistamine but is also great for the immune system.

Studies show children who live on farms have low rates of allergies. Dr. Mark Holbreich, an allergist in Indianapolis and a fellow of The American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, calls it "the farm effect."

Hygiene Hypothesis - Breast Feeding

There are other theories about why allergies are rising. Taking Antibiotics early in life may be a factor. Tightly constructed homes with little ventilation may foster allergies. And today people stay inside for longer periods of time, not exposing themselves to The Great Outdoors. Dogs can also help boost the Immune System. A Finnish study finds Babies who grow up with pets, especially dogs, are less likely to develop colds and other Respiratory Infections by the time they're toddlers.

Mysophobia Fear of Germs - Germ Theory of Disease

What's the difference between a Germ Cell and Bacteria?

Kids Health Germs 

International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (wiki)

Auckland NZ

Epinephrine Autoinjector (wiki) - Epi-Pen

Parental sucking of their infant’s pacifier may reduce the risk of allergy development

Digestive System

Immuno-Stimulant - Microbes - Viruses and Colds - Immune System

Mothers pass on allergies to offspring. Maternal antibodies primed to react to specific allergens can cross the placenta, passing on transiently allergic reactions to offspring, according to new preclinical research. The finding hints at why infants exhibit allergies so early in life and suggests possible targets for intervention.

Eating fast food 3 times a week or more elevates the risk of asthma and eczema, while eating fruit with the same frequency provides a protective effect, says a study. Data was collected on more than 319,000 teenagers (13-14 years of age) from 107 centers in 51 countries, and more than 181,000 children (6-7 year-olds) from 64 centers in 31 countries.
The Respiratory Journal Thorax Reports

Chest Congestion after Eating. Most chest congestion after eating is the result of inflammation that causes swelling in the airways or lungs. Common causes of chest congestion after eating are pollen-food allergy syndrome, chronic tonsillitis and a food allergy. Any food can trigger symptoms, though the most severe reaction is apparently caused by hot food, spicy foods and alcohol. When you eat a food you’re allergic to, your immune system mistakes the proteins in that food as harmful and begins to defend the body. Antibodies are created to ward off the food proteins. The production of antibodies causes mast cells to create high levels of histamine. Histamine is a chemical in the body that helps protect it against infection. Too much histamine causes inflammation in soft tissue, such as the lungs. A common symptom of a food allergy is chest congestion, shortness of breath, wheezing, coughing and chest tightness. Food allergies are also known to cause excessive phlegm and certain types of food such as dairy products cause a thickening of mucous. Postnasal drip also commonly causes excess mucus at the back of your nose and throat many times after eating. Gustatory rhinitis in which people sneeze, have a watery nose, or get congested after eating.

Eating Disorders

Eating Disorder is a mental disorder defined by abnormal eating habits that negatively affect a person's physical or mental health. They include binge eating disorder where people eat a large amount in a short period of time, anorexia nervosa where people eat very little and thus have a low body weight, bulimia nervosa where people eat a lot and then try to rid themselves of the food, pica where people eat non-food items. Rumination disorder where people regurgitate food, vomit, throw up or puke on purpose. It is an avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder where people have a lack of interest in food, and a group of other specified feeding or eating disorders. Anxiety disorders, depression, and substance abuse are common among people with eating disorders. These disorders do not include obesity.

Rumination - Anxiety - Body Image

Fasting is not the same thing as having an eating disorder.

Anorexia Nervosa or anorexia, is an eating disorder characterized by low weight, food restriction, body image disturbance, fear of gaining weight, and an overpowering desire to be thin.

Anorexia is an eating disorder that causes people to weigh less than is considered healthy for their age and height, usually by excessive weight loss. People with this disorder may have an intense fear of weight gain, even when they are underweight. Anorexia is characterized by a distorted body image, with an unwarranted fear of being overweight. Symptoms include trying to maintain a below-normal weight through starvation or too much exercise. Medical treatment may be needed to restore normal weight. Talk therapy can help with self-esteem and behavior changes. Anorexia.

Pro-Ana refers to the promotion of behaviors related to the eating disorder anorexia nervosa. It is often referred to simply as ana. The lesser-used term pro-mia refers likewise to bulimia nervosa and is sometimes used interchangeably with pro-ana.

Bulimia Nervosa s an eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by purging. Binge eating refers to eating a large amount of food in a short amount of time. Purging refers to the attempts to get rid of the food consumed. This may be done by vomiting or taking laxatives. Other efforts to lose weight may include the use of diuretics, stimulants, water fasting, or excessive exercise. Most people with bulimia are at a normal weight. The forcing of vomiting may result in thickened skin on the knuckles and breakdown of the teeth. Bulimia is frequently associated with other mental disorders such as depression, anxiety, and problems with drugs or alcohol. There is also a higher risk of suicide and self-harm.

Over Eating can also cause problems.

Starvation is a severe deficiency in caloric energy intake, below the level needed to maintain an organism's life. It is the most extreme form of malnutrition. In humans, prolonged starvation can cause permanent organ damage and eventually, death. The term inanition refers to the symptoms and effects of starvation. Starvation may also be used as a means of torture or execution.

Food Security - Starving (people who need food) - Malnutrition - What If You Stopped Eating? (youtube)

Emaciated is someone who is abnormally thin or weak, especially because of illness or from a lack of food. Very thin especially from disease, hunger or cold. Cause to grow thin or weak. Grow weak and thin or waste away physically.

Muscle Atrophy (sitting too much) - Starving (people who need food) - Malnutrition - Food Security

Kwashiorkor is a form of severe protein malnutrition characterized by edema, and an enlarged liver with fatty infiltrates. Sufficient calorie intake, but with insufficient protein consumption, distinguishes it from marasmus. Kwashiorkor cases occur in areas of famine or poor food supply. Cases in the developed world are rare.

Hunger Strike is a method of non-violent resistance or pressure in which participants fast as an act of political protest, or to provoke feelings of guilt in others, usually with the objective to achieve a specific goal, such as a policy change. Most hunger strikers will take liquids but not solid food.

Force-Feeding is the practice of feeding a human or other animal against their will. The term "gavage" refers to supplying a nutritional substance by means of a small plastic feeding tube passed through the nose (nasogastric) or mouth (orogastric) into the stomach. In hospitals, some psychiatric patients can be restrained so sedatives can be injected into them; this happens if patients have been non-compliant with their instructions.

Food Neophobia is the fear of eating new or unfamiliar foods. It differs from selective eating disorder. Food neophobia is particularly common in toddlers and young children. It is often related to an individual’s level of sensation-seeking, meaning a person's willingness to try new things and take risks. Not only do people with high food neophobia resist trying new food, they also rate new foods that they do try as lower than neophilics.

Selective Eating Disorder is a type of eating disorder, as well as feeding disorder, where the consumption of certain foods is limited based on the food's appearance, smell, taste, texture, brand, presentation, or a past negative experience with the food. Selective Eating (PDF) - Food Chemistry

Avoidant restrictive food intake disorder is a type of eating disorder, as well as feeding disorder, where the consumption of certain foods is limited based on the food's appearance, smell, taste, texture, brand, presentation, or a past negative experience with the food.

Orthorexia nervosa is a proposed eating disorder characterized by an excessive preoccupation with eating healthy food.

Ruminant are mammals that are able to acquire nutrients from plant-based food by fermenting it in a specialized stomach prior to digestion, principally through microbial actions. The process, which takes place in the front part of the digestion system and therefore is called foregut fermentation, typically requires the fermented ingesta (known as cud) to be regurgitated and chewed again. The process of rechewing the cud to further break down plant matter and stimulate digestion is called rumination. The word "ruminant" comes from the Latin ruminare, which means "to chew over again".

Study identifies multi-organ response to seven days without food. New findings reveal that the body undergoes significant, systematic changes across multiple organs during prolonged periods of fasting. The results demonstrate evidence of health benefits beyond weight loss, but also show that any potentially health-altering changes appear to occur only after three days without food.

Fasting - Not Eating Food for a Period of Time

Fasting is not eating for a period of time. Fasting is the metabolic state achieved after complete digestion and absorption of a meal is achieved. Metabolic changes in the fasting state begin after absorption of a meal, usually 3–5 hours after eating. A fast can also last from 12 to 24 hours, but some types of fasting can continue for days at a time. Fasting is a type of abstinence that uses self-control to  reduce some or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time. No in between snacks, don't eat too often and space out your meals. Moderation.

Fasting is not the same thing as an eating disorder where you starve yourself.

Intermittent Fasting is eating every 3 to 4 hours in order to keep your blood sugar consistent and for your stomach to optimally digest. Eating every 2-3 hours maintains body processes and metabolism remains intact. Fasting for 10–16 hours can cause the body to turn its fat stores into energy, which releases ketones into the bloodstream. This should encourage weight loss.

5:2 Diet is a form of intermittent fasting diet which stipulates calorie restriction for two non-consecutive days a week and unconstrained eating the other five days.

Longevity & Why I now eat One Meal a Day (youtube)

Should you fast once a year? Should you fast once a month? Should you fast once in a while? Routines - Cleansing

Does Fasting release more DMT?

Calorie Restriction is a dietary regimen that reduces calorie intake without incurring malnutrition or a reduction in essential nutrients.

Narrow Diet Window is eating with in a certain timeframe such as 8 hours. If your first meal of the day is at 7:00 am then your last meal of the day will be at 3 pm.

Dry Fasting is involves restricting water intake and not just food. Dry fasting may be dangerous because it can result in dehydration, nausea, headache, muscle pain, seizures and other symptoms. When your electrolytes, such as sodium and potassium are out of balance, your body can have trouble sending electrical signals from cell to cell. Regular fasting allows for some liquids to be taken.

Time-restricted feeding improves health in mice with defective circadian clocks. A study is reporting that limiting the times when the animals eat can correct obesity and other metabolic problems that are normally seen in these mice, even when they're fed an unhealthy diet. The results suggest a previously unknown link between disruption of the clock and eating behavior.

How the timing of dinner and genetics affect individuals’ blood sugar control. Eating dinner close to bedtime, when melatonin levels are high, disturbs blood sugar control, especially in individuals with a genetic variant in the melatonin receptor MTNR1B, which has been linked to an elevated risk of type 2 diabetes. The high melatonin levels and food intake associated with late eating impairs blood sugar control in carriers of the MTNR1B genetic risk variant through a defect in insulin secretion. Metformin.

How intermittent fasting affects female hormones. New evidence comes from study of pre- and post-menopausal obese women on the 'warrior diet'.

Intermittent fasting inhibits the development and progression of the most common type of childhood leukemia. Fasting both inhibits the initiation and reverses the progression of two subtypes of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, or ALL -- B-cell ALL and T-cell ALL. The same method did not work with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the type that is more common in adults. Compared to mice that ate normally, the rodents on alternate-day fasting had dramatic reductions in the percentage of cancerous cells in the bone marrow and the spleen as well as reduced numbers of white blood cells. Mice in the ALL model group that ate normally died within 59 days, while 75 percent of the fasted mice survived more than 120 days without signs of leukemia." Fasting is known to reduce the level of leptin, a cell signaling molecule created by fat tissue.

Leptin is a hormone made by adipose cells that helps to regulate energy balance by inhibiting hunger. Leptin is opposed by the actions of the hormone ghrelin, the "hunger hormone". Both hormones act on receptors in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus to regulate appetite to achieve energy homeostasis. In obesity, a decreased sensitivity to leptin occurs, resulting in an inability to detect satiety despite high energy stores.

Brain tells liver to start recycling after fasting. The brain releases the hormone corticosterone after short fasting that boosts autophagy.

Autophagy is the natural, regulated mechanism of the cell that disassembles unnecessary or dysfunctional components. Autophagy allows the orderly degradation and recycling of cellular components. In macroautophagy, targeted cytoplasmic constituents are isolated from the rest of the cell within a double-membraned vesicle known as an autophagosome. The autophagosome eventually fuses with lysosomes and the contents are degraded and recycled. Three forms of autophagy are commonly described: macroautophagy, microautophagy, and chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA). In disease, autophagy has been seen as an adaptive response to stress, which promotes survival, whereas in other cases it appears to promote cell death and morbidity. In the extreme case of starvation, the breakdown of cellular components promotes cellular survival by maintaining cellular energy levels.

Ketosis is a metabolic state in which some of the body's energy supply comes from ketone bodies in the blood, in contrast to a state of glycolysis in which blood Glucose provides energy. Generally, ketosis occurs when the body is metabolizing fat at a high rate and converting fatty acids into ketones.

A Pilot Study of Intermittent Calorie Restriction in Multiple Sclerosis.

DAF-2 gene encodes for the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) receptor in the worm Caenorhabditis elegans. DAF-2 is part of the first metabolic pathway discovered to regulate the rate of aging. DAF-2 is also known to regulate reproductive development, resistance to oxidative stress, thermotolerance, resistance to hypoxia, and resistance to bacterial pathogens. Mutations in DAF-2 have been shown by Cynthia Kenyon to double the lifespan of the worms.

Fasting boosts stem cells' regenerative capacity. A drug treatment that mimics fasting can also provide the same benefit, study finds. Fasting induces cells to switch from their usual metabolism, which burns carbohydrates such as sugars, to metabolizing fatty acids. This switch occurs through the activation of transcription factors called PPARs, which turn on many genes that are involved in metabolizing fatty acids. The researchers found that if they turned off this pathway, fasting could no longer boost regeneration. They now plan to study how this metabolic switch provokes stem cells to enhance their regenerative abilities.

Eating late increases hunger, decreases calories burned, and changes fat tissue. Obesity afflicts approximately 42 percent of the U.S. adult population and contributes to the onset of chronic diseases, including diabetes, cancer, and other conditions. While popular healthy diet mantras advise against midnight snacking, few studies have comprehensively investigated the simultaneous effects of late eating on the three main players in body weight regulation and thus obesity risk: regulation of calorie intake, the number of calories you burn, and molecular changes in fat tissue. A new study provides experimental evidence that late eating causes decreased energy expenditure, increased hunger, and changes in fat tissue that combined may increase obesity risk.

Fasting Crash. How to reduce fatigue when fasting. Fasting needs to be done properly. You will deplete glucose stores in your muscles and brain and that will cause a noticeable drop in energy. Make sure you drink plenty of water. In the first 12 hours very little of your body is living off of your last meal and stored sugars. After 12 hours fat consumption starts ramping up until one is deeply in ketosis. Typically this process lasts for about three days. Finally one is burning fat a the highest rates possible. Ketosis is a normal metabolic process. When the body does not have enough glucose for energy, it burns stored fats instead; this results in a build-up of acids called ketones within the body. Some people encourage ketosis by following a diet called the ketogenic or low-carb diet.

Sirtuin has been implicated in influencing a wide range of cellular processes like aging, transcription, apoptosis, inflammation and stress resistance, as well as energy efficiency and alertness during low-calorie situations. Sirtuins can also control circadian clocks and mitochondrial biogenesis. Sirtuins are a class of proteins that possess either mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase, or deacylase activity, including deacetylase, desuccinylase, demalonylase, demyristoylase and depalmitoylase activity. The name Sir2 comes from the yeast gene 'silent mating-type information regulation 2', the gene responsible for cellular regulation in yeast.

Ramadan is observed by Muslims worldwide as a month of fasting, prayer, reflection and community. Fasting from dawn to sunset is fard (obligatory) for all adult Muslims who are not acutely or chronically ill, travelling, elderly, breastfeeding, diabetic, or menstruating. The predawn meal is referred to as suhur, and the nightly feast that breaks the fast is called iftar. Although fatwas have been issued declaring that Muslims who live in regions with a midnight sun or polar night should follow the timetable of Mecca, it is common practice to follow the timetable of the closest country in which night can be distinguished from day. Sawm is the practice of abstaining, usually from food, drink, smoking, and sexual activity. During the holy month of Ramadan, Sawm is observed between dawn and nightfall when the adhan of the Maghrib prayer is sounded. Ramadan is the ninth month of the Muslim lunar calendar and fasting is a requirement for Muslims as it is the fourth of the five pillars of Islam.

Why visceral fat can be resistant to weight loss. Our data show both visceral and subcutaneous fat undergo dramatic changes during intermittent fasting. During fasting, fat tissue provides energy to the rest of the body by releasing fatty acid molecules. the researchers found visceral fat became resistant to this release of fatty acids during fasting. There were also signs that visceral and subcutaneous fat increased their ability to store energy as fat, likely to rapidly rebuild the fat store before the next fasting period. This suggests the visceral fat can adapt to repeated fasting bouts and protect its energy store. The research team examined more than 8500 proteins located in fat deposits, creating a catalogue of changes that occurred during intermittent fasting, using a technique called proteomics. Proteomics -- the study of all proteins -- a relatively new area of study that takes its name from genomics (the study of all genes), monitors how proteins react under certain conditions, which in this case is intermittent fasting.

Generation of boys who experience famine around the time they started producing reproductive cells or sperm, their grandchildren lived longer lives. Boys who experienced plentiful food experienced more diseases.

Being hungry affects your thinking. Stomach hunger–or physical hunger–involves a complex interaction between the digestive system, endocrine system and the brain. When the body needs refueling, we start feeling tired and weak, while finding it harder to concentrate and work. The stomach, which is located just below the ribcage, starts to ache and rumble. This is true stomach hunger. When we begin eating in response, we really enjoy the food and start feeling better, because a bodily need is being met.

Starvation Response in animals and humans is a set of adaptive biochemical and physiological changes, triggered by lack of food or extreme weight loss, in which the body seeks to conserve energy by reducing the amount of food energy it consumes. Equivalent or closely related terms include famine response, starvation mode, famine mode, starvation resistance, starvation tolerance, adapted starvation, adaptive thermogenesis, fat adaptation, and metabolic adaptation.

Refeeding Syndrome is a syndrome consisting of metabolic disturbances that occur as a result of reinstitution of nutrition to patients who are starved, severely malnourished or metabolically stressed due to severe illness. When too much food and/or liquid nutrition supplement is consumed during the initial four to seven days of refeeding this triggers synthesis of glycogen, fat and protein in cells, to the detriment of serum concentrations of potassium, magnesium and phosphorus. Cardiac, pulmonary and neurological symptoms can be signs of refeeding syndrome. The low serum minerals, if severe enough, can be fatal. A person who has been starved should only have broth because they could choke on solid food.

“Eat breakfast like a king, eat lunch like a prince, and eat dinner like a pauper”. (eat your biggest meal early in the day).

Long Life Knowledge - Metabolism

Almond Mom is a person who has an obsession with healthful eating, which may lead to under eating or not eating enough.

Electron Transfer - Proton Pump - Food Energy.

Inedia is the claimed ability for a person to live without consuming food, and in some cases water. It is described as a deadly pseudoscience by scientists and medical professionals, and several adherents of these practices have died from starvation or dehydration. It is an established fact that humans require food and water and nutrients to survive. Breatharians claim that food (and sometimes water) is not necessary for survival, and that humans can be sustained solely by prana, the vital life force in Hinduism. According to Ayurveda, sunlight is one of the main sources of prana, and some practitioners believe that it is possible for a person to survive on sunlight alone. The terms breatharianism or inedia may also refer to this philosophy when it is practiced as a lifestyle in place of a usual diet.

Cleansing - Detoxifying

Detoxification is a type of alternative medicine treatment which aims to rid the body of unspecified "toxins" – accumulated substances that proponents claim have undesirable short-term or long-term effects on individual health. Activities commonly associated with detoxification include dieting, fasting, consuming exclusively or avoiding specific foods (such as fats, carbohydrates, fruits, vegetables, juices, herbs, or water), colon cleansing, chelation therapy, and the removal of dental fillings. "Get it out of your system."

Weekend Cleanse - Colonic Irrigations - Colonic Hydrotherapy

Colon Cleansing encompasses a number of alternative medical therapies claimed to remove nonspecific toxins from the colon and intestinal tract. Colon cleansing may be branded colon hydrotherapy, a colonic or colonic irrigation. During the 2000s internet marketing and infomercials of oral supplements supposedly for colon cleansing increased.

Enema is a fluid injected into the lower bowel by way of the rectum to relieve constipation or for bowel cleansing before a medical examination or procedure. In standard medicine an enema may also be employed as a lower gastrointestinal series (also called a barium enema), to check diarrhea, as a vehicle for the administration of food, water or medicine, as a stimulant to the general system, as a local application and, more rarely, as a means of reducing temperature, as treatment for encopresis, and as a form of rehydration therapy (proctoclysis) in patients for whom intravenous therapy is not applicable. Also known as clyster. Enemas are used as part of some alternative health therapies and are also used to administer drugs for recreational or religious reasons.

Fiber - Constipation - Fasting

Chelation Therapy is a medical procedure that involves the administration of chelating agents to remove heavy metals from the body. Chelation therapy has a long history of use in clinical toxicology and remains in use for some very specific medical treatments, although it is administered under very careful medical supervision due to various inherent risks. Chelation therapy must be administered with care as it has a number of possible side effects, including death. In response to increasing use of chelation therapy as alternative medicine and in circumstances in which the therapy should not be used in conventional medicine, various health organizations have confirmed that medical evidence does not support the effectiveness of chelation therapy for any purpose other than the treatment of heavy metal poisoning. Over-the-counter chelation products are not approved for sale in the United States.

Toxins - Soil Cleansing (remediation)

Chelation is a type of bonding of ions and molecules to metal ions. It involves the formation or presence of two or more separate coordinate bonds between a polydentate (multiple bonded) ligand and a single central metal atom. These ligands are called chelants, chelators, chelating agents, or sequestering agents.

Metal-Binding Proteins are proteins or protein domains that chelate a metal ion. Binding of metal ions via chelation is usually achieved via histidines or cysteines. In some cases this is a necessary part of their folding and maintenance of a tertiary structure. Alternatively, a metal-binding protein may maintain its structure without the metal (apo form) and bind it as a ligand (e.g. as part of metal homeostasis). In other cases a coordinated metal cofactor is used in the active site of an enzyme to assist catalysis.

10 Tips to Flush the Toxins out - Clean Program - Dtox weightless

Cruciferous Vegetables are vegetables of the family Brassicaceae (also called Cruciferae) with many genera, species, and cultivars being raised for food production such as cauliflower, cabbage, garden cress, bok choy, broccoli, brussels sprouts and similar green leaf vegetables. The family takes its alternate name (Cruciferae, New Latin for "cross-bearing") from the shape of their flowers, whose four petals resemble a cross.

Cilantro and Chlorella can help Remove Heavy Metals from the Body.

Mucoid Plaque allegedly harmful mucus-like material and food residue that coats the gastrointestinal tract of most people. (2 table Spoons of Honey and Apple Cider Vinegar with 8 ounces of water).

Deworming is the giving of an anthelmintic drug (a wormer, dewormer, or drench) to a human or animal to rid them of helminths parasites, such as roundworm, flukes and tapeworm. Purge dewormers for use in livestock can be formulated as a feed supplement that is eaten, a paste or gel that is deposited at the back of the animal's mouth, a liquid drench given orally, an injectable, or as a pour-on which can be applied to the animal's topline. In dogs and cats, purge dewormers come in many forms including a granular form to be added to food, pill form, chew tablets, and liquid suspensions.

Hookworm Infection is an infection by a parasitic bloodsucking roundworm. Hookworm infections include ancylostomiasis and necatoriasis. These worms live in the small intestine which may be that of a bird or mammal such as a dog, cat, or human. Hookworm infection in pregnancy can cause poor growth, premature birth and a low birth weight of the baby. Hookworms in children can cause intellectual and growth problems.

Diatomaceous Earth Benefits

Sodium Chlorite is a chemical compound used in the manufacturing of paper and as a Disinfectant. Sodium chlorite, food grade can be used in drinking water and food. (NaClO2).

MMS - Miracle Mineral Supplement - CDS - Citric Acid - Pure Water

Chlorine Dioxide is a chemical compound with the formula ClO2. This yellowish-green gas crystallizes as bright orange crystals at −59 °C. As one of several oxides of chlorine, it is a potent and useful oxidizing agent used in water treatment and in bleaching.

Oxidizing Agent is a substance that has the ability to oxidize other substances, in other words to cause them to lose electrons. Common oxidizing agents are oxygen, hydrogen peroxide and the halogens.

A Surprising Way to Cleanse a Fatty Liver (youtube) - When someone develops a fatty liver, there are no symptoms at all, only you will start to develop a gut and eventually the person starts getting fatigue, weak nausea, abdominal pain, right shoulder pain and many more. After years of inflammation from getting a fatty liver, then there’s cirrhosis (scar tissue) that builds up on the liver that can cause to lose the function of the liver and loses the ability to detoxify. It can also lead to building up excessive amounts of cortisol (stress hormone), excessive amounts of estrogen that can manifest many different things because a functional liver is really important in the detoxification and regulation of these two hormones. The other problem when you have less function of the liver is you get less bile production which leads to cannot break down toxic waste and fats, and cannot absorbed vitamin A,D, E, K, Omega 3 fatty acids and more.

Microbial Balance - Gut Bacteria

Gut Flora is the complex community of microorganisms that live in the digestive tracts of humans and other animals, including insects. The gut metagenome is the aggregate of all the genomes of gut microbiota. The gut is one niche that human microbiota inhabit. In humans, the gut microbiota has the largest numbers of bacteria and the greatest number of species compared to other areas of the body. In humans the gut flora is established at one to two years after birth, and by that time the intestinal epithelium and the intestinal mucosal barrier that it secretes have co-developed in a way that is tolerant to, and even supportive of, the gut flora and that also provides a barrier to pathogenic organisms. The weight of microbes in the human body is around 2 kilo's or 4.4 Lbs. (also called gut microbiota, or gastrointestinal microbiota or Intestinal Flora, which is the symbiotic bacteria occurring naturally in the intestine).

The Second Brain - Body Mind - Fecal Implants - Parasites - Mushrooms (fungi, fungus) - Fermented Foods - Yeast - Probiotics

Digestive Tract - The food we put into our bodies affects the kinds of bacteria that live and thrive there.

Human Microbiota is the aggregate of microorganisms that resides on or within any of a number of human tissues and biofluids, including the skin, mammary glands, placenta, seminal fluid, uterus, ovarian follicles, lung, saliva, oral mucosa, conjunctiva, biliary and gastrointestinal tracts. They include bacteria, archaea, fungi, protists and viruses. Though micro-animals can also live on the human body, they are typically excluded from this definition. The human microbiome refers specifically to the collective genomes of resident microorganisms. Humans are colonized by many microorganisms; the traditional estimate is that the average human body is inhabited by ten times as many non-human cells as human cells, but more recent estimates have lowered that ratio to 3:1 or even to approximately the same number. Some microorganisms that colonize humans are commensal, meaning they co-exist without harming humans; others have a mutualistic relationship with their human hosts. Conversely, some non-pathogenic microorganisms can harm human hosts via the metabolites they produce, like trimethylamine, which the human body converts to trimethylamine N-oxide via FMO3-mediated oxidation. Certain microorganisms perform tasks that are known to be useful to the human host but the role of most of them is not well understood. Those that are expected to be present, and that under normal circumstances do not cause disease, are sometimes deemed normal flora or normal microbiota. The Human Microbiome Project took on the project of sequencing the genome of the human microbiota, focusing particularly on the microbiota that normally inhabit the skin, mouth, nose, digestive tract, and vagina. It reached a milestone in 2012 when it published its initial results.

How we study the Microbes living in your gut: Dan Knights (video and text) - Bacteroides and Prevotella dominate the modern human gut. About a hundred trillion microbes living inside you.

Follow Your Gut: Microbiomes and Aging with Rob Knight - Research on Aging (youtube)

Fiber discovery could shape better gut health. Changing the structure of a dietary fiber commonly found in a range of food products has been found to promote healthy gut bacteria and reduce gas formation, a finding that could help people with intolerances to fiber and irritable bowel conditions. Psyllium fibre comes from the seeds of Plantago ovata plants, known by many common names such as blond plantain. These seeds produce a jelly-like material called mucilage, which comes in a variety of shapes and forms and these feature long-chain sugars, called polysaccharides. It is these polysaccharides that lead to the production of beneficial short-chain fatty acids that positively contribute to gut health and systemic metabolism. This study shows that different physical states of fibre impact the way dietary fibre breaks down and that microbes 'colonise fibre' during fermentation.

Microbes are Micro-Organisms.

Carbon beads help restore healthy gut microbiome and reduce liver disease progression. Innovative carbon beads reduce bad bacteria and inflammation in animal models, which are linked to liver cirrhosis and other serious health issues. The study, published in Gut, found that the carbon beads, licensed to UCL-spinout Yaqrit, were effective in restoring gut health and had a positive impact on liver, kidney and brain function in rats and mice. They were also found to be safe for human use.

Microbiota is an ecological community of commensal, symbiotic and pathogenic microorganisms found in and on all multicellular organisms studied to date from plants to animals. A microbiota includes bacteria, archaea, protists, fungi and viruses. Microbiota have been found to be crucial for immunologic, hormonal and metabolic homeostasis of their host. The synonymous term microbiome describes either the collective genomes of the microorganisms that reside in an environmental niche or the microorganisms themselves. The microbiome and host emerged during evolution as a synergistic unit from epigenetics and genomic characteristics, sometimes collectively referred to as a holobiont.

Human Microbiome Project was a United States National Institutes of Health (NIH) initiative with the goal of identifying and characterizing the microorganisms which are found in association with both healthy and diseased humans (the human microbiome). Launched in 2008, it was a five-year project, best characterized as a feasibility study, and had a total budget of $115 million. The ultimate goal of this and similar NIH-sponsored microbiome projects was to test how changes in the human microbiome are associated with human health or disease. This topic is currently not well understood. Personalized Medicine.

Human Microbiome is the aggregate of microorganisms that resides on or within any of a number of human tissues and biofluids, including the skin, mammary glands, placenta, seminal fluid, uterus, ovarian follicles, lung, saliva, oral mucosa, conjunctiva, and gastrointestinal tracts. (weighs around 2 kilos). They include bacteria, archaea, protists, fungi and viruses. Though micro-animals also live on the human body, they are typically excluded from this definition. The human microbiome refers specifically to the collective Genomes of resident microorganisms.

Food Allergies - Food Cravings - Fats - Fermented Foods

New therapy targets Gut Bacteria to prevent and reverse Food Allergies.

Close social relationships correlate with human gut microbiota composition. Social relationships shape human health and mortality via behavioral, psychosocial, and physiological mechanisms, including inflammatory and immune responses. Researchers found that people who lived together — no matter their relationship — tended to have the same microbe strains in their mouths, and the longer they lived together, the more they shared.

How Your Social Life Affects Your Gut - Gut bacteria linked to personality.

Diverse gut bacteria communities block the growth of harmful pathogens by consuming nutrients that the pathogen needs.

Study shows engineered gut bacteria can treat hypertension. Newly published research proves that it's possible to treat high blood pressure by using specially engineered Lactobacillus paracasei to produce a protein called ACE2 in the gut, reducing gut angiotensin II and, in turn, lowering blood pressure. The study, done in lab rats that are predisposed to hypertension and unable to naturally produce ACE2, opens new doors in the pursuit of harnessing our body's own microbiome to regulate blood pressure.

How the immune system can alter our behavior. Simply the smell of seafood can make those with an allergy to it violently ill -- and therefore more likely to avoid it. The same avoidance behavior is exhibited by people who develop food poisoning after eating a certain meal. Scientists have long known that the immune system played a key role in our reactions to allergens and pathogens in the environment, but it was unclear whether it played any role in prompting these types of behaviors towards allergic triggers.

New gut-brain circuits found for sugar and fat cravings. Results reveal a 'one-two punch' to the brain's reward system, possibly impeding dieting efforts. A new study has unraveled the internal neural wiring of separate fat and sugar craving pathways. However, combining these pathways overly triggers a desire to eat more than usual. The team used cutting-edge technology to directly manipulate fat or sugar neurons in the vagus nerve system and demonstrated that both types of neurons cause a dopamine release in the brain's reward center in mice. Human brains may be subtly programmed to seek out high-fat, high-sugar combinations, regardless of conscious efforts to resist. The communication between our gut and brain happens below the level of consciousness.

The gut microbiome's supersized role in shaping molecules in our blood. Scientists have shown which blood metabolites are associated with the gut microbiome, genetics, or the interplay between both. Their findings have promising implications for guiding targeted therapies designed to alter the composition of the blood metabolome to improve human health.

Teams of Microbes are at work in our Bodies. Here's how to figure out what they're doing.

Gut Microbes from healthy infants block milk allergy development in mice.

Restoring Microbes in Infants Born by Cesarean Section. Exposing babies delivered by C-section to fluids from the mother’s birth canal enriched the babies’ microbes to levels more typical of babies born vaginally. Larger studies with further follow-up will be needed to determine the long-term health consequences of the microbial transfer procedure.

Antibiotics after birth affects gut microbes of babies. Treating babies with antibiotics in the first week of life is linked with a decrease in healthy bacteria necessary amongst others to digest milk and an increase in antimicrobial resistance, research suggests. Experts say that clinicians should consider using antibiotics in a way that causes least harm to the newborns microbiome - the community of microbes that live in our body.

Gut bacteria influence brain development. Researchers discover biomarkers that indicate early brain injury in extreme premature infants. The research team found that the overgrowth of the gastrointestinal tract with the bacterium Klebsiella is associated with an increased presence of certain immune cells and the development of neurological damage in premature babies.

Childhood diet has lifelong impact. Eating too much fat and sugar as a child can alter your microbiome for life, even if you later learn to eat healthier, a new study in mice suggests.

Microbial compound in the gut leads to anxious behaviors in mice. A new study shows how a particular molecule metabolite, produced by gut bacteria, affects brain function and promotes anxiety-like behaviors in mice. This study focused on a bacterial metabolite (a by-product of microbes) called 4-ethylphenyl sulfate or 4EPS. Initially produced by microbes in the intestines, 4EPS is then absorbed into the bloodstream and circulates throughout the body in both humans and mice.

Good bacteria to tackle depression. Intestinal flora plays an important role in health -- including mental health. Researchers have shown that probiotics can support the effect of antidepressants and help to alleviate depression. Parasites.

Microbes in animals guts influence what they choose to eat, making substances that prompt cravings for different kinds of foods.

Decoding a direct dialog between the gut microbiota and the brain. Gut microbiota by-products circulate in the bloodstream, regulating host physiological processes including immunity, metabolism and brain functions. Scientists have discovered that hypothalamic neurons in an animal model directly detect variations in bacterial activity and adapt appetite and body temperature accordingly. These findings demonstrate that a direct dialog occurs between the gut microbiota and the brain, a discovery that could lead to new therapeutic approaches for tackling metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity. The scientists focused on the NOD2 (nucleotide oligomerization domain) receptor which is found inside of mostly immune cells. This receptor detects the presence of muropeptides, which are the building blocks of the bacterial cell wall. Moreover, it has previously been established that variants of the gene coding for the NOD2 receptor are associated with digestive disorders, including Crohn's disease, as well as neurological diseases and mood disorders. However, these data were insufficient to demonstrate a direct relationship between neuronal activity in the brain and bacterial activity in the gut. This was revealed by the consortium of scientists in the new study. In this study, the scientists have demonstrated the astonishing fact that neurons perceive bacterial muropeptides directly, while this task was thought to be primarily assigned to immune cells. "It is extraordinary to discover that bacterial fragments act directly on a brain center as strategic as the hypothalamus, which is known to manage vital functions such as body temperature, reproduction, hunger and thirst," comments Pierre-Marie Lledo, CNRS scientist and Head of the Institut Pasteur's Perception and Memory Unit. The impact of muropeptides on hypothalamic neurons and metabolism raises questions on their potential role in other brain functions, and may help us understand the link between certain brain diseases and genetic variants of NOD2. This discovery paves the way for new interdisciplinary projects at the frontier between neurosciences, immunology and microbiology, and ultimately, for new therapeutic approaches to brain diseases and metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity.

How our microbiome talks to us. Molecular Rosetta Stone revealed. Researchers have uncovered thousands of previously unknown bile acids, a type of molecule used by our gut microbiome to communicate with the rest of the body. Bile acids are a key component of the language of the gut microbiome, and finding this many new types radically expands our vocabulary for understanding what our gut microbes do and how they do it.

Microbial Population Biology is the application of the principles of population biology to microorganisms.

Human Food Project - Human Microbiome Project - Human Microbiome Project

National Microbiome Initiative - Microbes - Microbe World

Industrial societies losing healthy gut microbes. Fiber is good for us, but a new study finds that humans are losing the microbes that turn fiber into food for a healthy digestive tract. Our eating habits in industrialized societies are far removed from those of ancient humans. This is impacting our intestinal flora, it seems, as newly discovered cellulose degrading bacteria are being lost from the human gut microbiome, especially in industrial societies. Cellulosomes are engineered by bacteria to attach to cellulose fibers and peel them apart, like the individual threads in a piece of rope. The cellulosomal enzymes then break down the individual threads of fiber into shorter chains, which become soluble. They can be digested, not only by Ruminococcus, but also by many other members of the gut microbiome.

Nanomaterial influences gut microbiome and immune system interactions. The nanomaterial graphene oxide -- which is used in everything from electronics to sensors for biomolecules -- can indirectly affect the immune system via the gut microbiome, as shown in a new study on zebrafish.

Meta Hit - Extreme Microbiome

American Gut - Microbial Pathogenesis - The Superorganism Revolution

Study shows how serotonin and a popular anti-depressant affect the gut's microbiota.

Importance of Infant Diet in establishing a Healthy Gut. A child has until the age of two-and-a-half to establish healthy gut bacteria -- with little change after this point. The study also reinforced the important role breastfeeding plays in providing good gut bacteria to babies during the early stages of their life. Bifidobacterium is regarded as beneficial and is one of the main bacteria used in probiotics.

The composition of the gut microbiota throughout life, with an emphasis on early life. The intestinal microbiota has become a relevant aspect of human health. Microbial colonization runs in parallel with immune system maturation and plays a role in intestinal physiology and regulation. Increasing evidence on early microbial contact suggest that human intestinal microbiota is seeded before birth. Maternal microbiota forms the first microbial inoculum, and from birth, the microbial diversity increases and converges toward an adult-like microbiota by the end of the first 3–5 years of life. Perinatal factors such as mode of delivery, diet, genetics, and intestinal mucin glycosylation all contribute to influence microbial colonization. Once established, the composition of the gut microbiota is relatively stable throughout adult life, but can be altered as a result of bacterial infections, antibiotic treatment, lifestyle, surgical, and a long-term change in diet. Shifts in this complex microbial system have been reported to increase the risk of disease. Therefore, an adequate establishment of microbiota and its maintenance throughout life would reduce the risk of disease in early and late life. This review discusses recent studies on the early colonization and factors influencing this process which impact on health.

Beneficial bacteria can be restored to C-section babies at birth. Babies born by Cesarean section don't have the same healthy bacteria as those born vaginally, but a new study finds that these natural bacteria can be restored. The human microbiota consists of trillions of bacteria, viruses, fungi and other microorganisms -- some beneficial, some harmful -- that live in and on our bodies. Women naturally provide these pioneer colonizers to their babies' sterile bodies during labor and birth, helping their immune system to develop. But antibiotics and C-sections disturb this passing of microbes and are related to increased risks of obesity, asthma and metabolic diseases.

Novel communication between intestinal microbes and developing immune cells in the thymus. Regulation of thymic immune development by intestinal microbes in early life. Research shows that effective "crosstalk" or communication between early microbes and mucosal immune cells is essential to the formation of healthy microbial communities and promotion of a well-functioning immune system. The cells of the immune system that participate in mucosal immunity develop in an organ called the thymus located under the breastbone above the heart. Until now, it has been unclear if intestinal microbes influence the development of these cells in the thymus in early life.

Your gut is similar to your skin, except your gut is turned inside out. Your skin protects you, but your skin also needs to breath, which sometimes it lets bad things in, and your gut will sometimes let bad things out.

All Disease Begins in The Gut.” Hippocrates nearly 2500 years ago understood how some diseases begin in the gut.

Gut Microbiome differs among Ethnicities.

Gut Health Project. Did you know that the average adult between 5 and 20 pounds of toxic waste (POOP) trapped in their digestive system……just sitting there, rotting away inside their small/large intestines and colon! Fiber. Ulcer (wiki).

Why do some Microbes live in your Gut while others Don't? Trillions of tiny microbes and bacteria live in your gut, each with their own set of genes. These gut microbes can have both beneficial and harmful effects on your health, from protecting you against inflammation to causing life-threatening infections. To keep out pathogens yet encourage the growth of beneficial microbes, scientists have been trying to find ways to target specific microbial genes.

Novel Enzyme discovered in Intestinal Bacteria. Formation of harmful hydrogen sulfide in the human gut by Bilophila bacteria. A crucial factor is that the enzyme is extremely oxygen-sensitive. This means that it can react only under strictly anoxic conditions, that is, in a strictly oxygen-free environment.

The Human Microbiome in Evolution. The trillions of microbes living in the gut—the gut microbiota—play an important role in human biology and disease. While much has been done to explore its diversity, a full understanding of our microbiomes demands an evolutionary perspective. In this review, we compare microbiomes from human populations, placing them in the context of microbes from humanity’s near and distant animal relatives. We discuss potential mechanisms to generate host-specific microbiome configurations and the consequences of disrupting those configurations. Finally, we propose that this broader phylogenetic perspective is useful for understanding the mechanisms underlying human–microbiome interactions.

Microbial Communities influence animal Sex and Reproduction. In our reproductive tracts and in, on, and surrounding egg and sperm cells, lives a whole community of micro-organisms including bacteria, fungi and viruses. These microbiomes may influence our sexual health and fertility far more than we thought. Men with large amounts of certain bacteria in their semen are more likely to be infertile. Female bedbugs ramp up their immunological defences ahead of mating, as males will pierce their abdomen with their genitalia during mating. The resulting infections from bacteria transmitted via the genitalia can be fatal.

Lifestyle is a threat to Gut Bacteria. The evolution of dietary and hygienic habits in Western countries is associated with a decrease in the bacteria that help in digestion. These very bacteria were also found in the Iceman, who lived 5300 years ago, and are still present in non-Westernized populations in various parts of the world. The depletion of the microbiome may be associated with the increased prevalence, in Western countries, of complex conditions like allergies, autoimmune and gastrointestinal diseases, obesity. The intestinal microbiome is a delicate ecosystem made up of billions and billions of microorganisms, bacteria in particular, that support our immune system, protect us from viruses and pathogens, and help us absorb nutrients and produce energy.

A Human Gut Microbial Gene catalog established by Metagenomic Sequencing. To understand the impact of gut microbes on human health and well-being it is crucial to assess their genetic potential. Here we describe the Illumina-based metagenomic sequencing, assembly and characterization of 3.3 million nonredundant microbial genes, derived from 576.7 Gb sequence, from faecal samples of 124 European individuals. The gene set, ~150 times larger than the human gene complement, contains an overwhelming majority of the prevalent microbial genes of the cohort and likely includes a large proportion of the prevalent human intestinal microbial genes. The genes are largely shared among individuals of the cohort. Over 99% of the genes are bacterial, suggesting that the entire cohort harbours between 1000 and 1150 prevalent bacterial species and each individual at least 160 such species, which are also largely shared. We define and describe the minimal gut metagenome and the minimal gut bacterial genome in terms of functions encoded by the gene set.

A comprehensive Catalogue of the Bacteria and Fungi found on Surfaces inside the International Space Station. The most prominent bacteria were Staphylococcus (26% of total isolates), Pantoea (23%) and Bacillus (11%). They included organisms that are considered opportunistic pathogens on Earth, such as Staphylococcus aureus (10% of total isolates identified), which is commonly found on the skin and in the nasal passage, and Enterobacter, which is associated with the human gastrointestinal tract. On Earth, they are predominant in gyms, offices, and hospitals, which suggests that the ISS is similar to other built environments where the microbiome is shaped by human occupation. ISS.

More than 100 Electricity-Generating Bacteria in the Human Microbiome both pathogenic and probiotic. They were unsuspected because they employ a different and simpler extracellular electron transfer system, which may prove useful in creating bacterial batteries. Their electrogenic ability may be important in infectivity, or in how they ferment cheese and yogurt. Listeria bacteria transport electrons through their cell wall into the environment as tiny currents, assisted by ubiquitous flavin molecules.

Microbes harvest Electrons by pulling in electrons straight from an electrode source. Certain microbes can get their energy from electrical charges. Rhodopseudomonas palustris TIE-1 builds a conduit to accept electrons across its outer membrane. The bacteria relies on an iron-containing helper molecule called a deca-heme cytochrome c. By processing this protein, TIE-1 can form an essential bridge to its electron source.

Scientists identify more than 140,000 virus species in the human gut.

Preserving Microbial Diversity. Since World War II, there have been dramatic increases in metabolic, immune, and cognitive diseases, including obesity, diabetes, asthma, allergies, inflammatory bowel disease, and autism. The microbiota (and its collective genomes, the microbiome) encompasses bacteria, archaea, viruses, fungi, and other microeukaryotic colonizers that live in or on our bodies. They influence essential host processes, including nutrition, immunity, hormone activity, gut permeability, and neurochemistry. The microbiome, our “other genome,” is largely passed from generation to generation, in early life, from mothers to their children. The germline and somatic genomes, microbiome, and external environment are all essential features of population variation that are useful for predicting host disease and health outcomes. Microbes acquired in early life play crucial roles in guiding the development of immune, metabolic, and neural systems in animal models and may also be important in human development, as indicated by epidemiological evidence. Animal studies have shown causation in the relationship between associations of microbiome perturbations in early life and later development of diseases such as obesity, juvenile diabetes, and asthma. Biobank.

How resident microbes restructure body chemistry. A comparison of normal and germ-free mice revealed that as much as 70 percent of a mouse's gut chemistry is determined by its gut microbiome. Even in distant organs, such as the uterus or the brain, approximately 20 percent of molecules were different in the mice with gut microbes.

3D printed pill samples gut microbiome to aid diagnosis and treatment. The ability to profile bacterial species throughout the GI tract could have important implications for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and conditions that are affected by the microbiome. The pill is more sophisticated than just a sponge. It is manufactured in a 3D printer with microfluidic channels that can sample different stages of the GI tract. The surface of the pill is covered with a pH sensitive coating, so that it does not absorb any samples until it enters the small intestine (bypassing the stomach) where the coating dissolves. A semi-permeable membrane separates two chambers in the pill -- one containing helical channels that take up the bacteria and the other containing a calcium salt-filled chamber. The salt chamber helps create an osmotic flow across the membrane which pulls the bacteria into the helical channels. A small magnet in the pill enables one to hold it at certain locations in the gut for more spatially targeted sampling using a magnet outside the body. A fluorescent dye in the salt chamber helps locate the pill after it exits the GI tract. More than 1,000 species of bacteria can inhabit the gut. The vast majority of these bacteria have a beneficial, supportive role in digestion and protection against disease. When the natural balance of the microbiome is skewed, a condition called "dysbiosis" occurs, which can be associated with inflammation, susceptibility to infections, and even the exacerbation of other diseases such as cancer. Research is increasingly unveiling specific microbiome metabolites that have beneficial or protective effects for the host against disease.

Microbiome can interfere with a drug's intended path through the body, Gut microbes eat our medication.

Swallowing this colonoscopy-like bacteria grabber could reveal secrets about your health. Your gut bacteria could say a lot about you, such as why you're diabetic or how you respond to certain drugs. But scientists can see only so much of the gastrointestinal tract to study the role of gut bacteria in your health. Researchers built a way to swallow a tool that acts like a colonoscopy, except that instead of looking at the colon with a camera, the technology takes samples of bacteria.

Auto-Brewery Syndrome is a rare medical condition in which intoxicating quantities of ethanol are produced through endogenous fermentation within the digestive system. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a type of yeast, has been identified as a pathogen for this condition. Recent research has also shown that Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteria can similarly ferment carbohydrates to alcohol in the gut which can accelerate Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. It can occur in patients of short bowel syndrome after surgical resection because of fermentation of malabsorbed carbohydrates. Claims of endogenous fermentation of this type have been used as a defense against drunk driving charges. This disease can have profound effects on everyday life. As well as the recurring side effects of excessive belching, dizziness, dry mouth, hangovers, disorientation, irritable bowel syndrome, and chronic fatigue syndrome, it can lead to other health problems such as depression, anxiety and poor productivity in employment. The random state of intoxication can lead to personal difficulties, and the relative obscurity of the condition can also make it hard to seek treatment. A variant occurs in persons with liver abnormalities that prevent them from excreting or breaking down alcohol normally. Patients with this condition can develop symptoms of auto-brewery syndrome even when the gut yeast produces a quantity of alcohol that is too small to intoxicate a healthy individual. Some people can feel drunk without drinking alcohol.

Human Virome

Human Virome is the total collection of viruses in and on the human body. Viruses in the human body may infect both human cells and other microbes such as bacteria (as with bacteriophages). Some viruses cause disease, while others may be asymptomatic. Certain viruses are also integrated into the human genome as proviruses or endogenous viral elements. Viruses evolve rapidly and hence the human virome changes constantly. Every human being has a unique virome with a unique balance of species. Lifestyle, age, geographic location, and even the season of the year can affect an individual's exposure to viruses, and one's susceptibility to any disease that might be caused by those viruses is also affected by pre-existing immunity and both viral and human genetics. The human virome is far from being completely explored and new viruses are discovered frequently. Unlike the roughly 40 trillion bacteria in a typical human microbiome, an estimate of the number of viral particles in a healthy adult human is not yet available, although virions generally outnumber individual bacteria 10:1 in nature. Studying the virome is thought to provide an understanding of microbes in general and how they affect human health and disease.

Scientists Say 380 Trillion Viruses Live Inside of Us as a community collectively known as the human virome, exploiting blind spots in the immune system.

Human Pathogen is a pathogen (microbe or microorganism such as a virus, bacterium, prion, or fungus) that causes disease in humans.

Microbes turn back the clock as research discovers their potential to reverse aging in the brain.


Probiotics are Microorganisms that are believed to provide health benefits when consumed. The term probiotic is currently used to name ingested microorganisms associated with benefits for humans and animals.

Prebiotics are substances that induce the growth or activity of microorganisms (e.g., bacteria and fungi) that contribute to the well-being of their host. The most common example is in the gastrointestinal tract, where prebiotics can alter the composition of organisms in the gut microbiome.

Probiotics 100 Years (PDF)

Probiotic App is a Clinical Guide to Probiotic Products available in the US is designed to translate scientific evidence available for probiotic supplements into practical, clinically relevant information, enabling clinicians to easily select the appropriate product, dose, and format/formulation for a specific indication. Probiotics and Depression

Synbiotics refers to food ingredients or dietary supplements combining probiotics and prebiotics in a form of synergism, hence synbiotics.

Probiotic use can result in a significant accumulation of Bacteria in the small intestine that can result in disorienting brain fogginess as well as rapid, significant belly bloating. High levels of D-Lactic Acid being produced by the bacteria lactobacillus' fermentation of sugars in their food. D-lactic acid is known to be temporarily toxic to brain cells, interfering with cognition, thinking and sense of time. Probiotics should be treated as a drug, not as a food supplement, so be advised and use caution against its excessive and indiscriminate use.

Postbiotic refers to the waste left behind after your body digests both prebiotics and probiotics. Healthy postbiotics include nutrients such as vitamins B and K, amino acids, and substances called antimicrobial peptides that help to slow down the growth of harmful bacteria. Postbiotics are also known as metabiotics, biogenics, or simply metabolites, which are soluble factors or metabolic products or byproducts, secreted by live bacteria, or released after bacterial lysis providing physiological benefits to the host. This term is sometimes also used with regards to paraprobiotics - immobilised probiotics, which when ingested, may have the ability to exert positive biological responses and restore intestinal homeostasis in a similar manner to probiotics. Paraprobiotics are currently being referred to as modified, inactivated, non-viable, para- or ghost probiotics. Probiotics are widely used and accepted in many countries in clinical practice.

Stanford study indicates that more than 99 percent of the microbes inside us are unknown to science. A survey of DNA fragments circulating in the blood suggests the microbes living within us are vastly more diverse than previously known. In fact, 99 percent of that DNA has never been seen before.

Link Between Bacterial Imbalances and Breast Cancer.

Enterotype is a classification of living organisms based on its bacteriological ecosystem in the gut microbiome.

About Yogurt - Reversing Depression Symptoms in Mice Using Probiotics Found in Yogurt.

Yogurt is a food produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. The bacteria used to make yogurt are known as "yogurt cultures". Fermentation of lactose by these bacteria produces lactic acid, which acts on milk protein to give yogurt its texture and characteristic tang. Cow's milk is commonly available worldwide, and, as such, is the milk most commonly used to make yogurt. Milk from water buffalo, goats, ewes, mares, camels, and yaks is also used to produce yogurt where available locally. Milk used may be homogenized or not (milk distributed in many parts of the world is homogenized); both types may be used, with substantially different results. Yogurt is produced using a culture of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus bacteria. In addition, other lactobacilli and bifidobacteria are also sometimes added during or after culturing yogurt. Some countries require yogurt to contain a certain amount of colony-forming units of bacteria.

Microbes Effect Behavior

Microbes can Effect your Behavior, especially eating habits. Vagus Nerve, Second Brain. There are around 500 to 1,000 different types of Microbes in the Gut.

Gut Microbes may talk to the Brain through Cortisol - Stomach and Brain Connections

Gut bacteria that “talk” to human cells may lead to new treatments

Parasites - Body Mind Connections - Antimicrobial - Food Safety - Food Chemistry

Autism symptoms improve after fecal transplant, small study finds Parents report fewer behavioral and gastrointestinal problems; gut microbiome changes. Fecal Transplants.

Anxiety might be alleviated by regulating gut bacteria. People who experience anxiety symptoms might be helped by taking steps to regulate the microorganisms in their gut using probiotic and non-probiotic food and supplements, suggests a review of studies.

World of Bacteria - the science behind Microorganisms | DW Documentary (youtube)

Gut health and gut bacteria are the most overlooked elements of hormonal balance (includes menopause, thyroid issues, estrogen excess).The microbiome is now considered an endocrine organ, some consider it even more powerful than the other endocrine glands – it controls the production and inhibit or support hormonal balance. You can’t get far in your healing if you don’t fix the gut microbiome. Kiran covers how bacteria impact these hormones: serotonin (and its role), dopamine (and its role), norephinephrine. Correlation of between the gut microbiome and depression. How the gut bacteria impact estrogens (hint: the gut produces all three estrogens), promotes the levels of estriol (aka E3, the protective estrogen) and helps with reducing symptoms of menopause and osteoporosis. Impact of the bacteria on the estrobolome which detoxifies us from the harmful estrogen – these estrogens are the main cause of breast cancers, breast lumps. We have all the bacteria we need, the issue is how much of each to create a balanced ecosystems – the Megasporebiotics help suppress harmful bacteria and regrowth of underrepresented positive bacteria. Spore bacteria also suppress the inflammation in the gut and closes the walls of the gut. Progesterone is also produced in the micro biome which then signals when and how much to produce. Menopause – the microbiome (and sporebiotics) can help produce estriol (E3) which alleviates menopause symptoms. One dose of broad spectrum antibiotics can decrease the gut bacteria by up to 90%! Megasporebiotics help with the re-growth of the positive bacteria (take Megasporebiotics if you must take antibiotics). How the spores help bring down the TPO Hashimoto’s antibodies – currently studied based on patient stories. Bottom line: The key to balanced hormones is a healthy gut with a wide range of bacterial microflora. How the Gut Microbiome affects the Brain and Mind (youtube) - Autism.

How the Gut influences Neurologic Disease and Multiple Sclerosis. The connection between the gut and the brain and the complex interplay that allows the byproducts of microorganisms living in the gut.

Intestinal Bacteria can affect your blood sugar and lipid levels. Constipation.

Proteobacteria are a major phylum of Gram-negative bacteria. The name of the phylum has never been validly published as no type genus has been proposed, thus it must be styled in quotation marks as the name has no standing in nomenclature. They include a wide variety of pathogens, such as Escherichia, Salmonella, Vibrio, Helicobacter, Yersinia, and many other notable genera. Others are free-living (nonparasitic), and include many of the bacteria responsible for nitrogen fixation. Proteobacteria - Bifidobacterium Infantis.

Actinobacteria are a phylum of Gram-positive bacteria. They can be terrestrial or aquatic. They are of great economic importance to humans because agriculture and forests depend on their contributions to soil systems. In soil, they behave much like fungi, helping to decompose the organic matter of dead organisms so the molecules can be taken up anew by plants. In this role the colonies often grow extensive mycelia, like a fungus would, and the name of an important order of the phylum, Actinomycetales (the actinomycetes), reflects that they were long believed to be fungi. Some soil actinobacteria (such as Frankia) live symbiotically with the plants whose roots pervade the soil, fixing nitrogen for the plants in exchange for access to some of the plant's saccharides.

Bacteroides Fragilis is part of the normal flora of the human colon and is generally commensal, but can cause infection if displaced into the bloodstream or surrounding tissue following surgery, disease, or trauma. Pooping.

Dysbiosis is a term for a microbial imbalance or maladaptation on or inside the body, such as an impaired microbiota. For example, a part of the human microbiota, such as the skin flora, gut flora, or vaginal flora, can become deranged, with normally dominating species underrepresented and normally outcompeted or contained species increasing to fill the void. Dysbiosis is most commonly reported as a condition in the gastrointestinal tract, particularly during small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) or small intestinal fungal overgrowth (SIFO). It has been reported to be associated with illnesses, such as periodontal disease, inflammatory bowel disease, chronic fatigue syndrome, obesity, cancer, bacterial vaginosis, and colitis. Typical microbial colonies found on or in the body are normally benign or beneficial. These beneficial and appropriately sized microbial colonies carry out a series of helpful and necessary functions, such as aiding in digestion. They also help protect the body from the penetration of pathogenic microbes. These beneficial microbial colonies compete with each other for space and resources and outnumber human cells by a factor 10:1.

Clostridium Difficile (bacteria) also known as C. difficile, C. diff, or sometimes CDF/cdf, a species of Gram-positive spore-forming bacteria.

Gut Bacteria markers could be a 'smoking gun' for liver disease. Chemical compounds produced by the bacteria in our gut could be used to spot the early stages of liver disease.


Clostridia are a highly polyphyletic class of Firmicutes, including Clostridium and other similar genera. They are distinguished from the Bacilli by lacking aerobic respiration. They are obligate anaerobes and oxygen is toxic to them. Species of the genus Clostridium are often but not always Gram-positive (see Halanaerobium hydrogenoformans) and have the ability to form spores. Studies show they are not a monophyletic group, and their relationships are not entirely certain. Currently, most are placed in a single order called Clostridiales, but this is not a natural group and is likely to be redefined in the future.

Archaea constitute a domain and kingdom of single-celled microorganisms. These microbes (archaea; singular archaeon) are prokaryotes, meaning that they have no cell nucleus or any other membrane-bound organelles in their Cells.

Researchers discover the microbiome's role in attacking cancerous tumors. Researchers have discovered which gut bacteria help our immune system battle cancerous tumors and how they do it. The discovery may provide a new understanding of why immunotherapy, a treatment for cancer that helps amplify the body's immune response, works in some cases, but not others. Researchers find a peptide that 'wakes up' the gut against harmful bacteria.

Bio-Mimicry (biology)

Yeast strain makes fatigue-fighting ornithine. Japanese sake is the new pick-me-up. Researchers have found that that a mutant strain of sake yeast produces high levels of the amino acid ornithine. Ornithine has been found to reduce fatigue and improve sleep quality, and the non-genetically modified mutant yeast strain discovered in this study could be easily applied to brewing sake, a traditional Japanese alcoholic beverage, as well as wine and beer.

Every person has about 100 trillion bacterial cells. They outnumber human cells 10 to 1 and account for 99.9 percent of the unique genes in the body. There is 10 times more bacteria in your body than actual body cells. And 90% of the cells that make us up aren’t human but mostly Fungi and bacteria. Bacteria carry their own microbial DNA.

Mushrooms - Fungi

Fungus is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. These organisms are classified as a kingdom, Fungi, which is separate from the other eukaryotic life kingdoms of plants and animals. A characteristic that places fungi in a different kingdom from plants, bacteria, and some protists is chitin in their cell walls. Similar to animals, fungi are heterotrophs; they acquire their food by absorbing dissolved molecules, typically by secreting digestive enzymes into their environment. Fungi do not photosynthesize. Growth is their means of mobility, except for spores (a few of which are flagellated), which may travel through the air or water. Fungi are the principal decomposers in ecological systems that helps to replenish fertile soils so that plants can continue to grow and regrow. Without fungus, the earth would not have rich soil and would eventually be suffocated from all the dead matter piling up because it was never broken down by fungus. You have to learn how to accurately identify 40 or 50 mushrooms and the five lookalikes for each type of mushroom if you don't want to get poisoned. Fantastic

Mycorrhizal Network - Mushrooms - Human Microbes - Algae - Lichen

Mushrooms have high amounts of the ergothioneine and glutathione, both important antioxidants.

Medicinal Fungi are those fungi which produce medically significant metabolites or can be induced to produce such metabolites using biotechnology. The range of medically active compounds that have been identified include antibiotics, anti-cancer drugs, cholesterol inhibitors, psychotropic drugs, immunosuppressants and even fungicides. Although initial discoveries centred on simple moulds of the type that cause spoilage of food, later work identified useful compounds across a wide range of fungi.

Mushrooms May Reduce Risk of Cognitive Decline or Mild Cognitive Impairment. Two standard portions of mushrooms weekly three quarters of a cup of cooked mushrooms with an average weight of around 150 grams. Golden, oyster, shiitake and white button mushrooms, as well as dried and canned mushrooms, other mushrooms not referenced would also have beneficial effects. A compound called ergothioneine (ET) is a unique antioxidant and anti-inflammatory which humans are unable to synthesise on their own. But it can be obtained from dietary sources, one of the main ones being mushrooms. Other compounds contained within mushrooms may also be advantageous for decreasing the risk of cognitive decline. Certain hericenones, erinacines, scabronines and dictyophorines may promote the synthesis of nerve growth factors. Bioactive compounds in mushrooms may also protect the brain from neurodegeneration by inhibiting production of beta amyloid and phosphorylated tau, and acetylcholinesterase.

Sacred 7 Organic Mushroom Extract Powder made with Whole Mushrooms, Reishi, Maitake, Cordyceps, Shiitake, Lion's Mane, Turkey Tail, Chaga - 226g - Supplement - Add to Coffee/Tea/Smoothies. (amazon) Shiitake Enterprise (PDF).

Ergothioneine is a naturally occurring amino acid and is a thiourea derivative of histidine, containing a sulfur atom on the imidazole ring. This compound is made in relatively few organisms, notably Actinobacteria, Cyanobacteria, and certain fungi. In humans, ergothioneine is acquired exclusively through the diet and accumulates in erythrocytes, bone marrow, liver, kidney, seminal fluid and eyes.

Glutathione is an important antioxidant in plants, animals, fungi, and some bacteria and archaea. Glutathione is capable of preventing damage to important cellular components caused by reactive oxygen species such as free radicals, peroxides, lipid peroxides, and heavy metals.

Rob Knight: Microbes (video)

Jonathan Eisen (video)

Catalyst - 'Gut Reaction' Part 2 (2014) (youtube)

Meet the microscopic life in your home — and on your face (video and interactive text)

Therapeutic Potential of Culinary-Medicinal Mushrooms for the management of neurodegenerative diseases: diversity, metabolite, and mechanism.

Viki Sabaratnam is the scientist in charge of the mushroom research center.

"You are a family in yourself, a family of cells and molecules, love that family equally, as you should do for all families."

Microbial Cloud - History of Bacteria

Prior Dietary Practices and Connections to a Human Gut Microbial. Metacommunity Alter Responses to Diet Interventions.

Hacking the genome of fungi for smart foods of the future. Scientists are exploring how tuning the genomes of mushrooms and molds can transform these food sources into gourmet, nutrient-packed meals made with minimal processing and a light environmental footprint. Advances in genetic engineering are allowing us to harness microorganisms to produce cruelty-free products that are healthy for consumers and healthier for the environment.

Effects of the gut microbiota on obesity and glucose homeostasis.

How a Fungus can Cripple the Immune System. Research team clarifies the mechanism of gliotoxin, a mycotoxin from the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus.

Bacteria in Frog Skin may help fight Fungal Infections in Humans. The bacterium Pseudomonas cichorii was isolated from the skin of frog species Craugastor crassidigitus.

635 million-year-old fungi-like microfossil that bailed us out of an ice age discovered.

WHO releases list of threatening fungi, most deadly fungi on the planet are practically invisible to the human eye.

Spore is a unit of sexual or asexual reproduction that may be adapted for dispersal and for survival, often for extended periods of time, in unfavourable conditions. Spores form part of the life cycles of many plants, algae, fungi and protozoa. Bacterial spores are not part of a sexual cycle but are resistant structures used for survival under unfavourable conditions. Myxozoan spores release amoebulae into their hosts for parasitic infection, but also reproduce within the hosts through the pairing of two nuclei within the plasmodium, which develops from the amoebula. Spores are usually haploid and unicellular and are produced by meiosis in the sporangium of a diploid sporophyte. Under favourable conditions the spore can develop into a new organism using mitotic division, producing a multicellular gametophyte, which eventually goes on to produce gametes. Two gametes fuse to form a zygote which develops into a new sporophyte. This cycle is known as alternation of generations. The spores of seed plants, however, are produced internally and the megaspores, formed within the ovules and the microspores are involved in the formation of more complex structures that form the dispersal units, the seeds and pollen grains. Mold.

COVID-19-associated Fungal Infections - Fungicides

Fungal Infection or mycosis, is a skin disease caused by a fungus. There are millions of species of fungi. They live in the dirt, on plants, on household surfaces, and on your skin. Sometimes, they can lead to skin problems like rashes or bumps. Fungal infection, also known as mycosis, is disease caused by fungi. Different types are traditionally divided according to the part of the body affected; superficial, subcutaneous, and systemic. Superficial fungal infections include common tinea of the skin, such as tinea of the body, groin, hands, feet and beard, and yeast infections such as pityriasis versicolor. Subcutaneous types include eumycetoma and chromoblastomycosis, which generally affect tissues in and beneath the skin. Systemic fungal infections are more serious and include cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis, pneumocystis pneumonia, aspergillosis and mucormycosis. Signs and symptoms range widely. There is usually a rash with superficial infection. Fungal infection within the skin or under the skin may present with a lump and skin changes. Pneumonia-like symptoms or meningitis may occur with a deeper or systemic infection. Humans can and do get fungal infections like athlete’s foot, and fungal diseases are one of the leading causes of death for immunocompromised people with HIV.

Valley Fever or coccidioidomycosis is derived from a fungus that lives in the US south-west’s soil. The disease comes from Coccidioides, a fungus endemic to the soil of the US south-west. People and animals can get sick when they breathe in dust that contains the Valley fever fungus. The disease is on the rise as climate crisis dries out the landscape.

Candida auris fungus is spreading quickly in the U.S., and it's potentially deadly to unhealthy people. Candida auris (C. auris), an emerging fungus considered an urgent antimicrobial resistance threat, spread at an alarming rate in U.S. healthcare facilities in 2020-2021. Equally concerning was a tripling in 2021 of the number of cases that were resistant to echinocandins, the antifungal medicine most recommended for treatment of C. auris infections. In general, C. auris is not a threat to healthy people. CDC’s Antimicrobial Resistance Laboratory Networks.

Warmer climate may drive fungi to be more dangerous to our health. Pathogen's mutations ramp up as heat rises, causing concern for new infectivity. A new study finds that raised temperatures cause a pathogenic fungus known as Cryptococcus deneoformans to turn its adaptive responses into overdrive. Heat increases its number of genetic changes, some of which might presumably lead to higher heat resistance, and others perhaps toward greater disease-causing potential. Pathogenic fungi (Candida, Aspergillus, Cryptococcus and others) are notorious killers of immune-compromised people. But for the most part, healthy people have not had to worry about them, and the vast majority of the planet's potentially pathogenic fungi don't do well in the heat of our bodies.

Fungi used in food production could lead to new probiotics. According to a new study, 2 fungi used to produce food products have potential probiotic effects on gut inflammation. Many fungus strains have been used and selected by the food industry for their capacities to ferment, produce flavors or produce heterologous molecules. According to a new study, 2 fungi used to produce food products have potential probiotic effects on gut inflammation.


Yeast are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom. The first yeast originated hundreds of millions of years ago, and 1,500 species are currently identified. They are estimated to constitute 1% of all described fungal species. Yeasts are unicellular organisms which evolved from multicellular ancestors, with some species having the ability to develop multicellular characteristics by forming strings of connected budding cells known as pseudohyphae or false hyphae. Yeast sizes vary greatly, depending on species and environment, typically measuring 3–4 µm in diameter, although some yeasts can grow to 40 µm in size. Most yeasts reproduce asexually by mitosis, and many do so by the asymmetric division process known as budding. Yeasts, with their single-celled growth habit, can be contrasted with molds, which grow hyphae. Fungal species that can take both forms (depending on temperature or other conditions) are called dimorphic fungi ("dimorphic" means "having two forms"). By fermentation, the yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae converts carbohydrates to carbon dioxide and alcohols – for thousands of years the carbon dioxide has been used in baking and the alcohol in alcoholic beverages. It is also a centrally important model organism in modern cell biology research, and is one of the most thoroughly researched eukaryotic microorganisms. Researchers have used it to gather information about the biology of the eukaryotic cell and ultimately human biology. Other species of yeasts, such as Candida albicans, are opportunistic pathogens and can cause infections in humans. Yeasts have recently been used to generate electricity in microbial fuel cells, and produce ethanol for the biofuel industry. Yeasts do not form a single taxonomic or phylogenetic grouping. The term "yeast" is often taken as a synonym for Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but the phylogenetic diversity of yeasts is shown by their placement in two separate phyla: the Ascomycota and the Basidiomycota. The budding yeasts ("true yeasts") are classified in the order Saccharomycetales, within the phylum Ascomycota.

Yeast species used in food industry can cause disease in humans, study finds. Strains of Candida krusei and Pichia kudriavzevii.

Leaven is substance used to produce fermentation in dough or a liquid. Leavening Agent is any one of a number of substances used in doughs and batters that cause a foaming action (gas bubbles) that lightens and softens the mixture. An alternative or supplement to leavening agents is mechanical action by which air is incorporated. Leavening agents can be biological or synthetic chemical compounds. The gas produced is often carbon dioxide, or occasionally hydrogen.

Leavening Agent is any one of a number of substances used in doughs and batters that cause a foaming action (gas bubbles) that lightens and softens. An alternative or supplement to leavening agents is a mechanical action by which air is incorporated. Leavening agents can be biological or synthetic chemical compounds. The gas produced is often carbon dioxide, or occasionally hydrogen. When a dough or batter is mixed, the starch in the flour and the water in the dough form a matrix (often supported further by proteins like gluten or polysaccharides, such as pentosans or xanthan gum). Then the starch gelatinizes and sets, leaving gas bubbles that remain.

Candida Auris is a species of fungus first described in 2009, which grows as yeast. It is one of the few species of the genus Candida which cause candidiasis in humans. Often, Candidiasis is acquired in hospitals by patients with weakened immune systems. C. auris can cause invasive candidiasis in which the bloodstream (fungemia), the central nervous system, and internal organs are infected.

Candida Albicans is an opportunistic pathogenic yeast that is a common member of the human gut flora. It can also survive outside the human body. It is detected in the gastrointestinal tract and mouth in 40–60% of healthy adults. It is usually a commensal organism, but it can become pathogenic in immunocompromised individuals under a variety of conditions. It is one of the few species of the genus Candida that cause the human infection candidiasis, which results from an overgrowth of the fungus. The genome of C. albicans is almost 16Mb for the haploid size (28Mb for the diploid stage) and consists of 8 sets of chromosome pairs called chr1A, chr2A, chr3A, chr4A, chr5A, chr6A, chr7A and chrRA. The second set (C. albicans is diploid) has similar names but with a B at the end. Chr1B, chr2B, ... and chrRB. The whole genome contains 6,198 open reading frames (ORFs). One of the most important features of the C. albicans genome is the high heterozygosity. At the base of this heterozygosity lies the occurrence of numeric and structural chromosomal rearrangements and changes as means of generating genetic diversity by chromosome length polymorphisms (contraction/expansion of repeats), reciprocal translocations, chromosome deletions, Nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms and trisomy of individual chromosomes. These karyotypic alterations lead to changes in the phenotype, which is an adaptation strategy of this fungus. These mechanisms are further being explored with the availability of the complete analysis of the C. albicans genome. An unusual feature of the genus Candida is that in many of its species (including C. albicans and C. tropicalis, but not, for instance, C. glabrata) the CUG codon, which normally specifies leucine, specifies serine in these species. This is an unusual example of a departure from the standard genetic code, and most such departures are in start codons or, for eukaryotes, mitochondrial genetic codes. This alteration may, in some environments, help these Candida species by inducing a permanent stress response, a more generalized form of the heat shock response. However, this different codon usage makes it more difficult to study C. albicans protein-protein interactions in the model organism S. cerevisiae. To overcome this problem a C. albicans specific two-hybrid system was developed.

Candidiasis is a fungal infection due to any type of Candida (a type of yeast). When it affects the mouth, it is commonly called thrush. Some species of Candida can cause infection in people; the most common is Candida albicans. Candida normally lives on skin and inside the body, such as the mouth, throat, gut, and vagina, without causing problems. Signs and symptoms include white patches on the tongue or other areas of the mouth and throat. candidiasis is the fourth- (to third-) most frequent hospital acquired infection worldwide it leads to immense financial implications. Approximately 60,000 cases of systemic candidiasis each year in the USA alone lead up to a cost to be between $2–4 billion. The total costs for candidiasis are among the highest compared to other fungal infections due to the high prevalence. The immense costs are partly explained by a longer stay in the intensive care unit or hospital in general. An extended stay for up to 21 more days compared to non-infected patients is not uncommon.

Bread Mold avoids infection by Mutating its own DNA. Whilst most organisms try to stop their DNA from mutating, scientists from the UK and China have discovered that a common fungus found on bread actively mutates its own DNA as a way of fighting virus-like infections. All organisms mutate all of the time. You were born with between ten and a hundred new mutations, for example. Many do little harm but, if they hit one of your genes, mutations are much more likely to be harmful than beneficial. If harmful enough they contribute to genetic diseases. Whilst mutations can enable species to adapt, most mutations are harmful, and so evolutionary biologists have postulated that natural selection will always act to reduce the mutation rate. Neurospora distinguishes jumping genes from its own DNA by detecting two or more copies of the same bit of DNA. The fungus then attacks the jumping genes by mutating them in a process called Repeat-Induced Point mutation (RIP).

Humanized Yeast - Researchers from Delft University of Technology have placed human muscle genes inside the DNA of yeast cells, creating "humanized yeast." The genes are responsible for breaking down sugar and making the building blocks of muscle cells and are critical for human survival.

Pure Yeast Cultures eliminates one major source of variation in the brewing process. More regular attenuations are achieved, together with steadier yeast counts at racking, and flavour variations between brews are minimized. Cultured yeasts or pure yeasts are yeast strains cultured and optimized for certain uses. They only consist of one strain of yeast and do not contain mold, bacteria or other yeasts. Cultured yeasts are supposed to change a food positively.

Gypsy Brewing or contract brewing is a business model for bridging the gap from home brewing to commercial brewing. The way it works is that you brew your beer at someone else's venue using their equipment and pay them a fixed fee to do it. Gypsy brewing involves brewing at different facilities every year, often on a nonstandard schedule.


Israeli scientists resurrect yeast from ancient beer jugs to recreate 5,000-year-old brew. A team of scientists in Israel has created ancient alcohol from ancient yeast.

Biomolecular Archaeology Project for Cuisine, Fermented Beverages, and Health at the University of Pennsylvania Museum in Philadelphia.

First archaeobotanical indications for beer making in Early and Middle Bronze Age Greece.

Modern Beer Yeast emerged from mix of European grape wine, Asian rice wine yeast.

Beer sensitivity can cause symptoms similar to those from allergic reactions. They include hives, nausea or vomiting, diarrhea, sneezing, wheezing and abdominal pain. Most common reactions to beer are specific to types of grains, modified grain proteins, hops, yeast, molds or barleys. Beer Knowledge - Beer Photos.

Sniffing out fruity thiols in hoppy beers. Hoppy beers such as pale ales are becoming increasingly popular. One reason is their pleasant fruity aroma that partially stems from compounds called thiols. Brewers have been looking for an accurate way to track thiols in beer, but current methods typically are not sensitive enough or require use of potentially harmful substances. Now, researchers present an automated, solvent-less process to assess thiols at very low concentrations.

Thiol is any one of series of compounds, hydrosulphides of alcohol radicals, in composition resembling the alcohols, but containing sulphur in place of oxygen, and hence called also the sulphur alcohols. In general, they are colorless liquids having a strong, repulsive, garlic odor. Thiol is any organosulfur compound of the form R-SH, where R represents an alkyl or other organic substituent. The –SH functional group itself is referred to as either a thiol group or a sulfhydryl group, or a sulfanyl group. Thiols are the sulfur analogue of alcohols (that is, sulfur takes the place of oxygen in the hydroxyl group of an alcohol), and the word is a blend of "thio-" with "alcohol", where the first word deriving from Greek ?e??? (theion) meaning "sulfur". Many thiols have strong odors resembling that of garlic or rotten eggs. Thiols are used as odorants to assist in the detection of natural gas (which in pure form is odorless), and the "smell of natural gas" is due to the smell of the thiol used as the odorant. Thiols are sometimes referred to as mercaptans. The term "mercaptan" /m?r'kæptæn/ was introduced in 1832 by William Christopher Zeise and is derived from the Latin mercurio captans (capturing mercury) because the thiolate group (RS-) bonds very strongly with mercury compounds.

Carbonation is the chemical reaction of carbon dioxide to give carbonates, bicarbonates, and carbonic acid. In chemistry, the term is sometimes used in place of carboxylation, which refers to the formation of carboxylic acids.

Beer Head or collar is the frothy foam on top of beer which is produced by bubbles of gas, predominantly carbon dioxide, rising to the surface. The carbon dioxide that forms the bubbles in the head is produced during fermentation. The carbonation can occur before or after bottling the beer. The elements that produce the head are wort protein, yeast and hop residue. If the beer continues fermenting in the bottle, then it naturally carbonates and the head is formed upon opening and/or pouring the beer. If the beer is pasteurized or filtered then the beer must be force carbonated using pressurized gas. The density and longevity of the head will be determined by the type of malt and adjunct from which the beer was fermented. Different mash schedules and cereal sources influence head retention. In general, wheat tends to produce larger and longer-lasting heads than barley. Closely related to the beer head is "lacing" or "lace", a white foamy residue left on the inside of the glass as the head recedes or as the beer is drunk. Just as the composition of the beer (proteins, hops, yeast residue, filtration) affects a beer's head, the amount of lacing is also closely controlled by the specific composition of the beer, and beer connoisseurs can tell much by the lacing, though strictly speaking beer quality is not readily apparent by the head or the lacing. Beer glassware is often designed to accentuate or accommodate the head. Many other properties of the glass can also influence a beer head, such as a roughened surface at the base of glass known as a widget, providing for nucleation of carbon dioxide deep in the beverage rather than at the surface, resulting in a slower release of gas to the atmosphere. The creamy head on beers such as Guinness is created by a widget in cans or bottles using nitrogen, or by the process of drawing keg beer from a keg using nitrogen or mixed gas (carbon dioxide and nitrogen). The use of nitrogen, which was pioneered by Guinness, creates a firm head with small bubbles while reducing the excessively acidic taste often produced by using carbon dioxide alone. One mechanism of destabilization of a beer foam is due to gravitational drainage. The water or liquid between the bubbles will drain and cause the liquid and gas phases to separate. This allows for the bubbles to become close enough to merge. This can be slowed down by increasing the viscosity of the liquid. Another mechanism of destabilization is ostwald ripening. Gas will diffuse from smaller bubbles to larger bubbles due to the high pressure associated with smaller bubbles. This can be explained by Laplace pressure. This can be slowed by a low solubility of the gas. An example of this is adding Nitrogen to the beer. A large effect can be seen with only a 20ppm addition of nitrogen gas. Beer froth has been scientifically demonstrated to decay exponentially. This research was awarded the 2002 Ig Nobel Prize in Physics. Better Beer Foam Tips: Get your carbonation right. Choose malts with high protein levels (e.g. crystal malts, dark malts). Avoid low-protein adjuncts (e.g. corn, rice, sugar). Wheat malts and flaked barley will increase head retention. Bittering hops help with head formation. Sanitize and rinse your equipment well. Digestive Tract Air - The Bends.

'BeerBots' could speed up the brewing process. The team shows that these self-propelled, magnetic packages of yeast can make the fermentation phase go faster and cut out the need to filter the beverage.


Dietary Fiber or roughage is the portion of plant-derived food that cannot be completely broken down by human digestive enzymes. Dietary fibers are diverse in chemical composition, and can be grouped generally by their solubility, viscosity, and fermentability, which affect how fibers are processed in the body. Dietary fiber has two main components: soluble fiber and insoluble fiber, which are components of plant foods, such as legumes, whole grains and cereals, vegetables, fruits, and nuts or seeds. A diet high in regular fiber consumption is generally associated with supporting health and lowering the risk of several diseases.

Dietary Fiber - High Fiber Foods

High-Fiber Diet keeps gut Microbes from Rating the Colon’s Lining, protects against infection, animal study shows. Painstaking experiments in germ-free mice show importance of eating natural fiber to protect the digestive tract’s vital mucus barrier.

Hemorrhoids are vascular structures in the anal canal. In their normal state, they are cushions that help with stool control. They become a disease when swollen or inflamed; the unqualified term "hemorrhoid" is often used to mean the disease.

Poop - Bowel Movements

Inulin are a group of naturally occurring polysaccharides produced by many types of plants, industrially most often extracted from chicory. The inulins belong to a class of dietary fibers known as fructans. Inulin is used by some plants as a means of storing energy and is typically found in roots or rhizomes. Most plants that synthesize and store inulin do not store other forms of carbohydrate such as starch. In the United States in 2018, the Food and Drug Administration approved inulin as a dietary fiber ingredient used to improve the nutritional value of manufactured food products. Using inulin to measure kidney function is the "gold standard" for comparison with other means of estimating creatinine clearance. Inulin is a very long carbohydrate chain, which means it takes a bit longer to pass through our system and get broken down by microbes. Research shows that it encourages growth of bifidobacteria, lactobacteria [two strains of bacteria commonly associated with health benefits]. Galacto-oligosaccharides are another form of fiber found in milk, and are broken down in the colon.

Not all dietary fiber is created equal. Cereal fiber but not fruit or vegetable fibers are linked with lower inflammation. The results showed that total fiber, and more specifically cereal fiber but not fruit or vegetable fiber, was consistently associated with lower inflammation and lower CVD incidence. Until now there had been limited data on the link between fiber and inflammation among older adults, who have higher levels of inflammation compared with younger adults.

Feeling Gassy - Burping - Farting

Belching is the release of gas from the digestive tract or the esophagus or stomach through the mouth. Belching or burping or eructation is the voluntary or involuntary, sometimes noisy release of air from the stomach or esophagus through the mouth. Burping 3 or 4 times after eating a meal is normal and is usually caused by swallowing air when eating. Gas, flatus, burping, and bloating are all normal conditions. Gas is made in the stomach and intestines as your body breaks down food into energy.

Burp is a reflex that expels gas noisily from the stomach through the mouth. Expel gas from the stomach.

Bloating is any abnormal general swelling or fullness, or increase in diameter of the abdominal area. As a symptom, the patient feels a full and tight abdomen, which may cause abdominal pain and is sometimes accompanied by increased stomach growling, or more seriously, the total lack of it. Rarely, bloating may be painful or cause shortness of breath. Pains that are due to bloating will feel sharp and cause the stomach to cramp. These pains may occur anywhere in the body and can change locations quickly. They are so painful that they are sometimes mistaken for heart pains when they develop on the upper left side of the chest. Pains on the right side are often confused with problems in the appendix or the gallbladder. One symptom of gas that is not normally associated with it is the hiccup. Hiccups are harmless and will diminish on their own; they also help to release gas that is in the digestive tract before it moves down to the intestines and causes bloating. Important but uncommon causes of abdominal bloating include ascites and tumors, Food enzymes can be found in some products like pineapples that will help break down the sugars found in grains, vegetables and dairy products. They can be taken before food is consumed or added to the food that causes the gas and bloating. Over Eating - Food Allergies.

Abdominal Distension occurs when substances, such as air or gas or fluid, accumulate in the abdomen causing its expansion. It is typically a symptom of an underlying disease or dysfunction in the body, rather than an illness in its own right. People suffering from this condition often describe it as "feeling bloated". Sufferers often experience a sensation of fullness, abdominal pressure and possibly nausea, pain or cramping. In the most extreme cases, upward pressure on the diaphragm and lungs can also cause shortness of breath. Through a variety of causes (see below), bloating is most commonly due to buildup of gas in the stomach, small intestine or colon. The pressure sensation is often relieved, or at least lessened, by burping (belching) or farting (flatulence). Medications that settle gas in the stomach and intestines are also commonly used to treat the discomfort and lessen the abdominal distension.

Indigestion is a condition of impaired digestion. Symptoms may include upper abdominal fullness, heartburn, nausea, belching, or upper abdominal pain. People may also experience feeling full earlier than expected when eating. Dyspepsia is a common problem. (Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) or Gastritis).

Gastritis is inflammation of the lining of the stomach. It may occur as a short episode or may be of a long duration. There may be no symptoms but, when symptoms are present, the most common is upper abdominal pain.

Gastroenteritis is inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract that involves the stomach and small intestine. Symptoms may include diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Fever, lack of energy, and dehydration may also occur. This typically lasts less than two weeks. It is not related to influenza though it has been called the "stomach flu".

Forcing Yourself to Burp: Assume the position. You can also learn techniques for forcing a burp, or what you might call a burp on demand. Force air into your throat. Expand your throat and jaws and then suck air in your mouth. Try to exhale with your throat closed. Swallow air. Burp the air out.

Pneumatosis is abnormal accumulation of air or other gas in the body.

Pneumomediastinum is a condition in which air is present in the mediastinum. This condition can result from physical trauma or other situations that lead to air escaping from the lungs, airways or bowel into the chest cavity. Pneumomediastinum is a rare situation and occurs when air leaks into the mediastinum. In other rare cases, so much air builds up in the middle of the chest that it pushes on the heart and the great blood vessels, so they cannot work properly. All of these complications require urgent attention because they can be life threatening. Most pneumomediastinums are treated conservatively because the tissues in the mediastinum will slowly resorb the air in the cavity. Breathing high flow oxygen will increase the absorption of the air. If the air is under pressure and compressing the heart, a needle may be inserted into the cavity, releasing the air. Surgery may be needed to repair the hole in the trachea, esophagus or bowel. If there is lung collapse, it is imperative the affected individual lies on the side of the collapse. Although painful, this allows full inflation of the unaffected lung. Pneumopericardium is a medical condition where air enters the pericardial cavity. This condition has been recognized in preterm neonates, in which it is associated with severe lung pathology, after vigorous resuscitation, or in the presence of assisted ventilation. This is a serious complication, which if untreated may lead to cardiac tamponade and death. Pneumomediastinum, which is the presence of air in the mediastinum, may mimic and also coexist with pneumopericardium. It can be congenital, or introduced by a wound.

Mediastinum is the central compartment of the thoracic cavity surrounded by loose connective tissue, as an undelineated region that contains a group of structures within the thorax. The mediastinum contains the heart and its vessels, the esophagus, the trachea, the phrenic and cardiac nerves, the thoracic duct, the thymus and the lymph nodes of the central chest.

Halitosis is a symptom in which a noticeably unpleasant odor is present on the exhaled breath. Concern about halitosis is estimated to be the third most frequent reason for people to seek dental care, following tooth decay and gum disease; and about 20% of the general population are reported to suffer from it to some degree.

Hiccup is an involuntary contraction (myoclonic jerk) of the diaphragm that may repeat several times per minute. In medicine, it is known as synchronous diaphragmatic flutter (SDF), or singultus, Latin for the act of catching one's breath while sobbing. The hiccup is an involuntary action involving a reflex arc. Once triggered, the reflex causes a strong contraction of the diaphragm followed about 0.25 second later by closure of the vocal cords, which results in the classic "hic" sound. Hiccups may occur individually, or they may occur in bouts. The rhythm of the hiccup, or the time between hiccups, tends to be relatively constant. A bout of hiccups, in general, resolves itself without intervention, although many home remedies are often used to attempt to shorten the duration. Medical treatment is occasionally necessary in cases of chronic hiccups.

Farting is a word in the English language most commonly used in reference to flatulence. The word fart is often considered unsuitable in formal situations as it may be considered vulgar or offensive. Fart Jokes.

Flatulence is defined in the medical literature as "flatus expelled through the anus" or the "quality or state of being flatulent", which is defined in turn as "marked by or affected with gases generated in the intestine or stomach; likely to cause digestive flatulence". Everyone releases fart gas that is equivalent to around 1-4 liters a day.

Stinky Farts: Some farts stink for a reason. Stinky Farts sometimes let you know that something is not right with your diet or something is wrong in your body. Breaking Wind can say a lot about your health and wellness, it may mean you’re eating plenty of fiber, and have a good amount of bacteria in your intestines. Stinky Farts are the result of hydrogen sulfide, which is the gas created when your body breaks down foods with sulfur in them. Sulfur is found in a variety of super healthy foods, like broccoli, beans, and cauliflower. Extremely stinky farts could reveal a health concern worthy of paying attention to. For instance, if you eat dairy and immediately feel the urge to pass gas, this may be a sign that your body is experiencing an intolerance to lactose. These types of farts can also be a sign of a chronic problem, such as irritable bowel syndrome, celiac disease, or an infection like gastroenteritis. If your farts don’t have any smell, they’re healthy and normal, and merely mean air has accumulated in the body and is now exiting. Actually, 99 percent of fart is made up of odorless gases. The remaining 1 percent is typically sulfurous. Farting a lot is typically normal, since the average person usually passes gas about 20 times a day. But should you experience persistent farting that’s followed by discomfort, bloating or an extreme smell, you may have a food allergy. Other reasons for smelly farts may be an Infection, eating too fast, gluten sensitivity, lactose intolerant, medication, Giardiasis, irritable bowel syndrome and hormonal shifts. Why do I like the smell of my own farts?

Farting is a normal and natural occurrence. It's the by-product of a digestive system at work. In fact, farting is healthy and good for your body. Your body produces gas as part of breaking down and processing food. Trying to hold a fart in leads to a build up of pressure and major discomfort. A build up of intestinal gas can trigger abdominal distension, with some gas reabsorbed into the circulation and exhaled in your breath. Holding on too long means the build up of intestinal gas will eventually escape via an uncontrollable fart.

Why is it when you fart in front of other people it's not bad thing or disgusting, but when someone else farts next to you you're totally grossed out and disgusted? Fart Hypocrite or Fart Biased?

Immune System - Microbes

Fermentation Starter is a preparation to assist the beginning of the fermentation process in preparation of various foods and fermented drinks. A starter culture is a microbiological culture which actually performs fermentation. These starters usually consist of a cultivation medium, such as grains, seeds, or nutrient liquids that have been well colonized by the microorganisms used for the fermentation. Fermentation (preserving food).

Genetically Modified yeast may help design the perfect beer and bread for your personal digestion needs.

Yeast are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom. The first yeast originated hundreds of millions of years ago, and 1,500 species are currently identified. They are estimated to constitute 1% of all described fungal species. Yeasts are unicellular organisms which evolved from multicellular ancestors, with some species having the ability to develop multicellular characteristics by forming strings of connected budding cells known as pseudohyphae or false hyphae. Yeast sizes vary greatly, depending on species and environment, typically measuring 3–4 µm in diameter, although some yeasts can grow to 40 µm in size. Most yeasts reproduce asexually by mitosis, and many do so by the asymmetric division process known as budding. Yeasts, with their single-celled growth habit, can be contrasted with molds, which grow hyphae. Fungal species that can take both forms (depending on temperature or other conditions) are called dimorphic fungi ("dimorphic" means "having two forms"). Flavor.

The Sourdough Project. There are millions of kinds of bacteria and fungi on Earth. We have found several thousand species in human belly buttons alone. Yet if you mix flour and water, the community of organisms that colonize the resulting concoction is almost always composed of a small handful of organisms that are able to leaven bread, yielding a sourdough starter. How this happens is one of civilizations great mysteries, a mystery at the heart of the bread making (and, for that matter, traditional beer brewing). Yet, while bakers understand how to make starters, the underlying biology of the species in these starters remains mysterious. Starters can produce similar effects on bread (and similar flavors), despite being composed of different species, a key different ingredient. Conversely, starters composed of the same species sometimes yield different flavors. Then there is the issue of what happens to starters over time. The organisms in starters are hypothesized, by some, to stay the same over time—an old growth forest of miniatures—even if their living conditions change. Few ecosystems are so (apparently) stable. Then again, starters can change through time, sometimes suddenly. Starters are, if anything, predictably mysterious. But not for long. We aim to understand the biology underlying the differences among starters and the changes (or lack of change) in starters through time.

Digestive System - Intestines

Mouth Human Mouth is the first portion of the alimentary canal that receives food and produces saliva. The oral mucosa is the mucous membrane epithelium lining the inside of the mouth. In addition to its primary role as the beginning of the digestive system, in humans the mouth also plays a significant role in communication. While primary aspects of the voice are produced in the throat, the tongue, lips, and jaw are also needed to produce the range of sounds included in human language. The mouth consists of two regions, the vestibule and the oral cavity proper. The mouth, normally moist, is lined with a mucous membrane, and contains the teeth. The lips mark the transition from mucous membrane to skin, which covers most of the body. Oral Cavity includes the lips, the inside lining of the lips and cheeks (buccal mucosa), the teeth, the gums, the front two-thirds of the tongue, the floor of the mouth below the tongue, and the bony roof of the mouth (hard palate). Mouth to anus is around 9 meters long. Bio-Reactor - Bio-Battery.

Salivary Gland in mammals are exocrine glands, glands with ducts, that produce saliva, which is composed of several components including amylase, a digestive enzyme that breaks down starch into maltose and glucose. In humans and some other mammals the secretion is alpha-amylase, also known as ptyalin. Dry Mouth.

Saliva is an extracellular fluid produced and secreted by salivary glands in the mouth. In humans, saliva is 98% water plus electrolytes, mucus, white blood cells, epithelial cells (from which DNA can be extracted), enzymes (such as amylase and lipase), antimicrobial agents such as secretory IgA, and lysozymes. The enzymes found in saliva are essential in beginning the process of digestion of dietary starches and fats. These enzymes also play a role in breaking down food particles entrapped within dental crevices, thus protecting teeth from bacterial decay. Saliva also performs a lubricating function, wetting food and permitting the initiation of swallowing, and protecting the oral mucosa from drying out. Various animal species have special uses for saliva that go beyond predigestion. Some swifts use their gummy saliva to build nests. Aerodramus nests form the basis of bird's nest soup. Cobras, vipers, and certain other members of the venom clade hunt with venomous saliva injected by fangs. Some caterpillars produce silk fiber from silk proteins stored in modified salivary glands. Saliva is also referred to as spit.

Salivation plays a vital role in digestion, as digestion of food begins in the mouth. The salivary submandibular, parotid, sublingual, and submucosal glands produce saliva which is necessary for the moistening of food products, breakdown of carbohydrates by salivary amylase (formerly known as ptyalin), antimicrobial, and other protective mechanisms. This initial phase of digestion and lubrication is essential for the passage of food from the oropharynx to the esophagus and stomach. Drooling

Lip Smacking is common when you're hungry and you know food is coming. Saliva is produced in your mouth because you see or smell food that you want to eat. Pavlos Dog.

Drooling is the flow of saliva outside the mouth. Drooling can be caused by excess production of saliva, inability to retain saliva within the mouth (incontinence of saliva), or problems with swallowing Dysphagia is difficulty in swallowing. Odynophagia is pain when swallowing.

Chewing your Food (slow, not fast)

Digest is to break down food in the alimentary canal into substances that can be absorbed and used by the body. A substance or mixture obtained by digestion.

Human Gastrointestinal Tract is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces and urine. The mouth, oesophagus, stomach, and intestines are part of the human alimentary canal.

Food takes 3 to 4 hours to leave the stomach and 36 to 40 hours to fully digest and leave the body.

Stomach is a muscular, hollow, dilated part of the gastrointestinal tract that functions as an important organ in the digestive system.

Small Intestine is the part of the gastrointestinal tract between the stomach and the large intestine, and is where most of the end absorption of food takes place.

Our gut is our second brain. The enteric nervous system relies on the same type of neurons and neurotransmitters that are found in the central nervous system. Body and Mind Connections - Vagus Nerve.

Large Intestine is the last part of the gastrointestinal tract and of the digestive system in vertebrates. Water is absorbed here and the remaining waste material is stored as feces before being removed by defecation. (also known as the large bowel or colon).

Intestine is the part of the alimentary canal between the stomach and the anus.

Alimentary Canal is a tubular passage of mucous membrane and muscle extending about 8.3 meters from mouth to anus; functions in digestion and elimination.

Human Digestive System consists of the gastrointestinal tract plus the accessory organs of digestion (the tongue, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder). In this system, the process of digestion has many stages, the first of which starts in the mouth. Digestion involves the breakdown of food into smaller and smaller components, until they can be absorbed and assimilated into the body.

Digestive Tract (image)

Intestinal Villus are small, finger-like projections that extend into the lumen of the small intestine. Each villus is approximately 0.5–1.6 mm in length (in humans), and has many microvilli projecting from the enterocytes of its epithelium which collectively form the striated or brush border. Each of these microvilli are much smaller than a single villus. The intestinal villi are much smaller than any of the circular folds in the intestine. Villi increase the internal surface area of the intestinal walls making available a greater surface area for absorption. An increased absorptive area is useful because digested nutrients (including monosaccharide and amino acids) pass into the semipermeable villi through diffusion, which is effective only at short distances. In other words, increased surface area (in contact with the fluid in the lumen) decreases the average distance travelled by nutrient molecules, so effectiveness of diffusion increases. The villi are connected to the blood vessels so the circulating blood then carries these nutrients away.

Peristalsis is a series of wave-like muscle contractions that move food through the digestive tract. It starts in the esophagus where strong wave-like motions of the smooth muscle move balls of swallowed food to the stomach. Constipation.

Absorption of Nutrients. Digested food is now able to pass into the blood vessels in the wall of the intestine through either diffusion or active transport. The small intestine is the site where most of the nutrients from ingested food are absorbed. The inner wall, or mucosa, of the small intestine is lined with simple columnar epithelial tissue. Structurally, the mucosa is covered in wrinkles or folds called plicae circulares, which are considered permanent features in the wall of the organ. They are distinct from rugae which are considered non-permanent or temporary allowing for distention and contraction. From the plicae circulares project microscopic finger-like pieces of tissue called villi (Latin for "shaggy hair"). The individual epithelial cells also have finger-like projections known as microvilli. The functions of the plicae circulares, the villi, and the microvilli are to increase the amount of surface area available for the absorption of nutrients, and to limit the loss of said nutrients to intestinal fauna.

Fats and Oils help unlock full nutritional benefits of veggies. Added fat in the form of soybean oil promotes the absorption of eight different micronutrients that promote human health.

Vitamins - Minerals - Microbes - Food Chemistry

Assimilation in biology is the combination of two processes to supply cells with nutrients. The first is the process of absorbing vitamins, minerals, and other chemicals from food within the gastrointestinal tract. In humans this is done with a chemical breakdown (enzymes and acids) and physical breakdown (oral mastication and stomach churning). The second process of bioassimilation is the chemical alteration of substances in the bloodstream by the liver or cellular secretions. Although a few similar compounds can be absorbed in digestion bio assimilation, the bioavailability of many compounds is dictated by this second process since both the liver and cellular secretions can be very specific in their metabolic action (see chirality). This second process is where the absorbed food reaches the cells via the liver. Most foods are composed of largely indigestible components depending on the enzymes and effectiveness of an animal's digestive tract. The most well-known of these indigestible compounds is cellulose; the basic chemical polymer in the makeup of plant cell walls. Most animals, however, do not produce cellulase; the enzyme needed to digest cellulose. However some animal species have developed symbiotic relationships with cellulose-producing bacteria (see termites and metamonads.) This allows termites to use the energy-dense cellulose carbohydrate. Other such enzymes are known to significantly improve bio-assimilation of nutrients. Because of the use of bacterial derivatives enzymatic dietary supplements now contain such enzymes as amylase, glucoamylase, protease, invertase, peptidase, lipase, lactase, phytase, and cellulase. These enzymes improve the overall bioassimilation in the digestive tract but are still not proven to increase bloodstream bioavailability. Basically the enzymes and other breakdowns make the bigger substances of food smaller so they can go through the rest of their digestion more easily.

Biosynthesis is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms. In biosynthesis, simple compounds are modified, converted into other compounds, or joined together to form macromolecules. This process often consists of metabolic pathways. Some of these biosynthetic pathways are located within a single cellular organelle, while others involve enzymes that are located within multiple cellular organelles. Examples of these biosynthetic pathways include the production of lipid membrane components and nucleotides. The prerequisite elements for biosynthesis include: precursor compounds, chemical energy (e.g. ATP), and catalytic enzymes which may require coenzymes (e.g.NADH, NADPH). These elements create monomers, the building blocks for macromolecules. Some important biological macromolecules include: proteins, which are composed of amino acid monomers joined via peptide bonds, and DNA molecules, which are composed of nucleotides joined via phosphodiester bonds.

Mesentery is the double fold of peritoneum that attaches the intestines to the wall of the abdomen.

Peritoneum is the serous membrane that forms the lining of the abdominal cavity or coelom in amniotes and some invertebrates, such as annelids. It covers most of the intra-abdominal (or coelomic) organs, and is composed of a layer of mesothelium supported by a thin layer of connective tissue. The peritoneum supports the abdominal organs and serves as a conduit for their blood vessels, lymph vessels, and nerves.

Pelvis is the structure of the vertebrate skeleton supporting the lower limbs in humans and the hind limbs or corresponding parts in other vertebrates.

Abdomen is the region of the body of a vertebrate between the thorax and the pelvis.

abdominal cavity Abdominal Cavity is a large body cavity in humans and many other animals that contains many organs. It is a part of the abdominopelvic cavity. It is located below the thoracic cavity, and above the pelvic cavity. Its dome-shaped roof is the thoracic diaphragm, a thin sheet of muscle under the lungs, and its floor is the pelvic inlet , opening into the pelvis.

Thorax is the middle region of the body of an arthropod between the head and the abdomen. The part of the human torso between the neck and the diaphragm or the corresponding part in other vertebrates.

Thoracic Diaphragm is a sheet of internal skeletal muscle that extends across the bottom of the thoracic cavity. The diaphragm separates the thoracic cavity, containing the heart and lungs, from the abdominal cavity and performs an important function in respiration: as the diaphragm contracts, the volume of the thoracic cavity increases and air is drawn into the lungs.

Pneumomediastinum is air in the mediastinum, which is the space in the middle of the chest around the heart and between the lungs. Air Embolism or a gas embolism occurs when one or more gas bubbles enter a vein or artery.

The Bends - Beer Head - Fart Gas

Liver is a vital organ of vertebrates and some other animals. In humans, it is located in the upper right quadrant of the abdomen, below the diaphragm. The liver has a wide range of functions, including detoxification of various metabolites, protein synthesis, and the production of biochemicals necessary for digestion. It also plays a role in metabolism, regulation of glycogen storage, decomposition of red blood cells and hormone production. The liver is a gland. It is an accessory digestive gland and produces bile, an alkaline compound which aids in digestion via the emulsification of lipids. The gallbladder, a small pouch that sits just under the liver, stores bile produced by the liver. The liver's highly specialized tissue consisting of mostly hepatocytes regulates a wide variety of high-volume biochemical reactions, including the synthesis and breakdown of small and complex molecules, many of which are necessary for normal vital functions. Estimates regarding the organ's total number of functions vary, but textbooks generally cite it being around 500 functions. There is currently no way to compensate for the absence of liver function in the long term, although liver dialysis techniques can be used in the short term. Artificial livers are yet to be developed to promote long term replacement in the absence of the liver. As of now, liver transplantation is the only option for complete liver failure. Liver performs more than 300 vital functions, and many things can go wrong when not working correctly. Liver is our largest internal organ. Weighing three and a half-pounds and measuring six inches long. The reddish-brown mass in the upper right side of the abdominal cavity, beneath the diaphragm and atop the stomach. Flush with blood, holding about 13 percent of the body’s supply at any given time. Linked to its intimate association with blood. During fetal development, blood cells are born in the liver, and though that task later migrates to the bone marrow. The liver alone has two blood supplies, the hepatic artery conveying oxygen-rich blood from the heart, the hepatic portal vein dropping off blood drained from the intestines and spleen. That portal blood delivers semi-processed foodstuffs in need of hepatic massaging, conversion, detoxification, storage, secretion, elimination. “Everything you put in your mouth must go through the liver before it does anything useful elsewhere in the body." The arteries and veins that snake through the liver are stippled with holes, which means they drizzle blood right onto the hepatocytes. The liver cells in turn are covered with microvilli — fingerlike protrusions that “massively enlarge” the cell surface area in contact with blood Hepatocytes. The liver keeps track of the body’s moment-to-moment energy demands, releasing glucose as needed from its stash of stored glycogen, along with any vitamins, minerals, lipids, amino acids or other micronutrients that might be required. New research suggests the liver may take a proactive, as well as a reactive, role in the control of appetite and food choice. After exposure to a high-sugar drink, the liver seeks to dampen further sugar indulgence by releasing a signaling hormone called fibroblast growth factor 21, or FGF21. The liver also keeps track of time. It swells and shrinks each day depending on an animal’s normal circadian rhythms and feeding schedule protein creation and destruction occurs in the human liver, the timing matchs our diurnal pattern. Pee and Poo.

Hepatic Portal System is the system of veins comprising the hepatic portal vein and its tributaries. Large veins that are considered part of the portal venous system are the: Hepatic portal vein, Splenic vein, Superior mesenteric vein, Inferior mesenteric vein. Portal venous system is responsible for directing blood from parts of the gastrointestinal tract to the liver. Substances absorbed in the small intestine travel first to the liver for processing before continuing to the heart. Not all of the gastrointestinal tract is part of this system. The system extends from about the lower portion of the esophagus to the upper part of the anal canal. It also includes venous drainage from the spleen, pancreas and visceral fat. The evolutionary purpose of first-pass metabolism, whereby substances absorbed from food in the gut pass through the liver before entering the systemic circulation, is to use the liver as a shield (a first line of defense) between (a) the food, its toxins (whatever they may be), and its metabolic intermediates/metabolites (such as ammonia) and (b) the rest of the body's tissues, including the brain. The necessity of such a system is demonstrated by what happens when the system breaks down, as seen when advanced hepatic fibrosis in cirrhosis leads to hepatic encephalopathy in the brain owing to the blood being loaded with ammonia and other substances not conducive to brain function. Blood flow to the liver is unique in that it receives both oxygenated and (partially) deoxygenated blood. As a result, the partial gas pressure of oxygen (pO2) and perfusion pressure of portal blood are lower than in other organs of the body. Blood passes from branches of the portal vein through cavities between "plates" of hepatocytes called sinusoids. Blood also flows from branches of the hepatic artery and mixes in the sinusoids to supply the hepatocytes with oxygen. This mixture percolates through the sinusoids and collects in a central vein which drains into the hepatic vein. The hepatic vein subsequently drains into the inferior vena cava. The hepatic artery provides 30 to 40% of the oxygen to the liver, while only accounting for 25% of the total liver blood flow. The rest comes from the partially deoxygenated blood from the portal vein. The liver consumes about 20% of the total body oxygen when at rest. That is why the total liver blood flow is quite high, at about 1 litre a minute and up to two litres a minute. That is on average one fourth of the average cardiac output at rest.

Hepatocyte is a cell of the main parenchymal tissue of the liver. Hepatocytes make up 70-85% of the liver's mass. These cells are involved in: Protein synthesis. Protein storage. Transformation of carbohydrates. Synthesis of cholesterol, bile salts and phospholipids. Detoxification, modification, and excretion of exogenous and endogenous substances. Initiation of formation and secretion of bile.

Pancreas is a glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates. In humans, it is located in the abdominal cavity behind the stomach. It is an endocrine gland producing several important hormones, including insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide which circulate in the blood. The pancreas is also a digestive organ, secreting pancreatic juice containing bicarbonate to neutralize acidity of chyme moving in from the stomach, as well as digestive enzymes that assist digestion and absorption of nutrients in the small intestine. These enzymes help to further break down the carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids in the chyme. The pancreas is also known as a mixed gland.

Protein-rich diet may help soothe inflamed gut. Mice fed tryptophan, commonly associated with turkey, develop immune cells that foster a tolerant gut. A million or more Americans are living with the abdominal pain and diarrhea of inflammatory bowel disease. Protein-Rich Foods.

Bowls (number two) - Fiber

Gut Microbiota Regulate Motor Deficits and Neuroinflammation in a Model of Parkinson’s Disease. - Inflammation.

Prostaglandin are a group of physiologically active lipid compounds having diverse hormone-like effects in animals. Prostaglandins have been found in almost every tissue in humans and other animals. They are derived enzymatically from fatty acids. Every prostaglandin contains 20 carbon atoms, including a 5-carbon ring. They are a subclass of eicosanoids and of the prostanoid class of fatty acid derivatives.

Leaky Gut Syndrome is a hypothetical, medically unrecognized condition.

70 Million Americans are Suffering from Digestive Diseases. Heartburn, acid reflux, GERD (gastro esophageal reflex disorder), IBS (irritable bowel syndrome), indigestion constipation, diarrhea, abdominal pain, ulcers: 14.7 million, etc..

Hormones - Chemistry - Biology

Immune System - Allergies

Eukaryote is any organism whose cells contain a nucleus and other organelles enclosed within membranes.

Beneficial microorganisms, as we've reported, can help us digest food, make vitamins, and protect us against harmful pathogens. For instance, the bacteria in yogurt have been shown to aid digestion, and making cabbage into sauerkraut by fermenting it "increases glucosinolate compounds believed to fight cancer.

Triclosan is an antimicrobial and antifungal agent found in many consumer products ranging from hand soaps to toys and even toothpaste, can rapidly disrupt bacterial communities found in the gut.

Gastroenterology is the branch of medicine focused on the digestive system and its disorders. Diseases affecting the gastrointestinal tract, which include the organs from mouth into anus, along the alimentary canal, are the focus of this speciality. Physicians practicing in this field are called gastroenterologists. They have usually completed about eight years of pre-medical and medical education, a year-long internship (if this is not a part of the residency), three years of an internal medicine residency, and two to three years in the gastroenterology fellowship. Gastroenterologists perform a number of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures including colonoscopy, endoscopy, endoscopic retrograde cholangiancreatography (ERCP), endoscopic ultrasound and liver biopsy. Some gastroenterology trainees will complete a "fourth-year" (although this is often their seventh year of graduate medical education) in transplant hepatology, advanced endoscopy, inflammatory bowel disease, motility or other topics. Hepatology, or hepatobiliary medicine, encompasses the study of the liver, pancreas, and biliary tree, while proctology encompasses the fields of anus and rectum diseases. They are traditionally considered sub-specialties of gastroenterology.

Parasitology is the study of parasites, their hosts, and the relationship between them. As a biological discipline, the scope of parasitology is not determined by the organism or environment in question, but by their way of life. This means it forms a synthesis of other disciplines, and draws on techniques from fields such as cell biology, bioinformatics, biochemistry, molecular biology, immunology, genetics, evolution and ecology.

Intestinal Parasite are parasites that can infect the gastro-intestinal tract of humans and other animals.

Anthelmintic are a group of antiparasitic drugs that expel parasitic worms (helminths) and other internal parasites from the body by either stunning or killing them and without causing significant damage to the host.

Mass Deworming is the process of treating large numbers of people, particularly children, for helminthiasis (for example soil-transmitted helminths (STH)) and schistosomiasis infections in areas with a high prevalence of these conditions.

Helminthiasis is any macroparasitic disease of humans and other animals in which a part of the body is infected with parasitic worms, known as helminths.

Helminths Parasitic Worm refer to the intestinal worms infecting humans that are transmitted through contaminated soil ("helminth" means parasitic worm).

Autoimmune - Inflammation

How the Intestine Heals Itself. Scientists find that normal intestinal cells 'de-differentiate' en masse into stem cells that generate the cells needed for a healthy intestinal lining. New study establishes de-differentiation as the predominant mode of stem cell recover in the intestine. Deep within the lining of the human intestine lies the source of the organ's ability to renew itself and recover from damage: intestinal stem cells or ISCs, lodged in pockets of tissue called crypts, generate the cells that continuously repopulate the intestinal lining. Even the stem cells themselves have a safety net: when they're damaged, healthy replacements appear in less than a week. The intestine is one of just three tissues in the body, along with the skin and blood, in which cells are constantly turning over -- dying and being replaced by freshly made cells. They share this quality because they are the tissues most intimately in contact with material from the environment, and therefore with potentially harmful substances. The constant turnover, it's thought, is a way to prevent toxic substances from having lasting effects on cells and their offspring.

How the intestine replaces and repairs itself. A new study suggests that stem cells are able to integrate cues from their surroundings and coordinate their behavior across tissue through networks of vasculature in their close vicinity. To act as a robust barrier against pathogens while also absorbing needed nutrients, the lining of the intestines must regenerate on a daily basis to remain equal to the task. The intestine's resident stem cells are responsible for meeting this need for constant repair and replenishment, but each stem cell faces decisions that depend on the overall conditions of the intestine and the needs of the moment. Bad decisions and poor coordination could result in intestinal diseases or cancer. The intestinal stem cells reside in so-called crypts, found at the base of densely packed indentations in the intestinal lining. The stem cells may renew and stay in the crypt, or differentiate into specialized cells, which then migrate out of the crypt to replenish the gut lining. One previously underappreciated protein, REELIN, emerged as a top candidate for mediating communications between lymphatics and stem cells. By manipulating the amount of REELIN in lab-grown intestinal organoid cultures in some experiments and genetically suppressing it in mice in others, the researchers found that REELIN directly governs the regenerative behavior of intestinal stem cells.

Researchers began investigating microgel particles as a way to capture and remove toxins from the intestine. The microgels consist of a polyethylene glycol matrix produced with microfluidic technology. This method offers the opportunity to incorporate toxin-binding molecules directly into the microgel matrix. Microgels present interesting materials for uptake and release of biomedically relevant molecules. Microfluidic liquid handling allows for precise allocation of compounds and functional groups during microgel synthesis. We present microgel precursor systems based on polyethylene glycol, which enable fast crosslinking dynamics and can be used to produce capsules and microgels. Microfluidic synthesis allows the creation of monodisperse microgels in the range of tens to hundreds of micrometers in diameter. We investigate the retention potential of microgel capsules and the uptake kinetics for full microgels toward biomolecules. We can equip these microgels during their microfluidic synthesis with glycan recognition motifs to which lectins bind selectively. We find cooperative binding modes, where at least two glycans bind one lectin, accounting for binding affinity as good as: Kd = 1.06 μM. The microgels present interesting materials for the uptake and binding of bacterial toxins in the body, for example, as alternative cures for C. difficile induced colitis.

Millions with Swallowing Problems could be helped through new wearable device. The researchers created a skin-mountable sensor sticker that attaches firmly to the neck area and is connected with small cables to a wireless transmitter unit. The skin-mountable sensor sticker measures and records muscle activity and movement associated with swallowing. The information is then sent wirelessly by a separate unit clipped on the wearer's shirt to software that stores it for later analysis by a doctor. Successful completion of a swallow requires the precise coordination of more than 30 pairs of muscles of the head and neck, six pairs of cranial nerves, and complex circuitry in the brainstem and several brain areas. Any disruption in these pathways can result in severe swallowing disorders. More than 9 million adults and more than 500,000 children experience severe swallowing disorders each year in the U.S.

Light shed on a new order in the abdomen, a new order by which all contents of the abdomen are organized or arranged - the mesentery is a single and continuous organ in and on which all abdominal digestive organs develop and then remain connected to throughout life. Mesentery, a fold of the peritoneum which attaches the stomach, small intestine, pancreas, spleen, and other organs to the posterior wall of the abdomen. Mesentery is an organ that attaches the intestines to the posterior abdominal wall in humans and is formed by the double fold of peritoneum. It helps in storing fat and allowing blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves to supply the intestines, among other functions.

Scientists map entire human gut at single cell resolution. Scientists have used entire human GI tracts from three organ donors to show how cell types differ across all regions of the intestines, to shed light on cellular functions, and to show gene expression differences between these cells and between individuals. Six to eight hours after harvest, the Magness lab receives intact intestinal tracts, each about 15 to 30 feet long. They remove the epithelial layer, which is one long connected piece of tissue despite being only one cell thick. Then the researchers use enzymes to break down the epithelium into individual cells. For this study, they repeated this for organs from three separate donors.

Health Documentaries - Water

Books about Nutrition from Amazon - Ayurveda (amazon) - Vegetarian Cookbook 300 Healthy Recipes (amazon) - 5-Factor World Diet (amazon) - Eat, Drink, and Be Healthy (amazon) - American Dietetic Association Complete Nutritional Guide (amazon) - SuperFoods Rx (amazon) - Food Rules (amazon) - More Healthy Home-style Cooking (amazon) - The Food Revolution (amazon) - The China Study (amazon) - The Gerson Therapy (amazon) - What I Eat (amazon)

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